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1

Role of forensic pathologists in mass disasters.  

PubMed

The forensic pathologist has always had a central role in the identification of the dead in every day practice, in accidents, and in disasters involving hundreds or thousands of victims. This role has changed in recent years, as advances in forensic odontology, genetics and anthropology have improved the chances of identifying victims beyond recognition. According to the Interpol DVI Guide, fingerprints, dental examination and DNA are the primary identifiers, and this has given new emphasis to the role of the forensic pathologist as the leader of a multidisciplinary team of experts in a disaster situation, based on his or her qualifications and the experience gained from doing the same work in the everyday situation of an institute of forensic medicine. PMID:22160735

Schuliar, Yves; Knudsen, Peter Juel Thiis

2012-06-01

2

Forensic odontology, part 2. Major disasters.  

PubMed

We have only to look back over the last 12 months to realise that time and time again, an incident occurs where there are mass fatalities. These incidents have instant and long-lasting impact on families, communities and sometimes whole countries. The aim of this paper is to emphasise the need for an efficient and sensitive response to assist in the identification of victims of such incidents and the necessity for trained team responses. Many countries now have Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) teams that are multi-disciplinary, and plans and protocols in place in readiness. The paper can only hope to give a brief overview of the disaster situation for the reader: whole books have been written on this topic. The forensic odontologist has a major role in disaster incidents when there are accurate and available antemortem dental records. PMID:21436819

Hinchliffe, J

2011-03-26

3

The near real time Forensic Disaster Analysis of the central European flood in June 2013 - A graphical representation of the main results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Central European flood of June 2013 is one of the most severe flood events that have occurred in Central Europe in the past decades. All major German river basins were affected (Rhine, Danube, and Elbe as well as the smaller Weser catchment).In terms of spatial extent and event magnitude, it was the most severe event at least since 1950. Within the current research focus on near real time forensic disaster analysis, the Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM) assessed and analysed the multiple facets of the flood event from the beginning. The aim is to describe the on-going event, analyse the event sources, link the physical characteristics to the impact and consequences of the event and to understand the root causes that turn the physical event into a disaster (or prevent it from becoming disastrous). For the near real time component of this research, tools for rapid assessment and concise presentation of analysis results are essential. This contribution provides a graphical summary of the results of the CEDIM-FDA analyses on the June 2013 flood. It demonstrates the potential of visual representations for improving the communication and hence usability of findings in a rapid, intelligible and expressive way as a valuable supplement to usual event reporting. It is based on analyses of the hydrometeorological sources, the flood pathways (from satellite imagery, data extraction from social media), the resilience of the affected regions, and causal loss analysis. The prototypical representation of the FDA-results for the June 2013 flood provides an important step in the development of graphical event templates for the visualisation of forensic disaster analyses. These are intended to become a standard component of future CEDIM-FDA event activities.

Schröter, Kai; Elmer, Florian; Trieselmann, Werner; Kreibich, Heidi; Kunz, Michael; Khazai, Bijan; Dransch, Doris; Wenzel, Friedemann; Zschau, Jochen; Merz, Bruno; Mühr, Bernhard; Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Möhrle, Stella; Bessel, Tina; Fohringer, Joachim

2014-05-01

4

The role of forensic anthropology in Disaster Victim Identification (DVI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper briefly describes Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) and reviews the history of the use of forensic anthropology in the identification process. The potential contributions made by forensic anthropology are illustrated through the presentation of a case study. In February 2009 the state of Victoria in south-eastern Australia experienced the most devastating bushfires in its history, resulting in catastrophic loss

Soren Blau; Christopher A. Briggs

2011-01-01

5

Forensic odontology in the disaster victim identification process.  

PubMed

Disaster victim identification (DVI) is an intensive and demanding task involving specialists from various disciplines. The forensic dentist is one of the key persons who plays an important role in the DVI human identification process. In recent years, many disaster incidents have occurred that challenged the DVI team with various kinds of difficulties related to disaster management and unique situations in each disaster. New technologies have been developed to make the working process faster and more effective and the different DVI protocols have been evaluated and improved. The aim of this article is to collate all information regarding diagnostic tools and methodologies pertaining to forensic odontological DVI, both current and future. It can be concluded that lessons learned from previous disaster incidents have helped to optimize working protocols and to develop new tools that can be applied in future DVI operation. The working procedures have been greatly improved by newly developed technologies. PMID:23000806

Pittayapat, P; Jacobs, R; De Valck, E; Vandermeulen, D; Willems, G

2012-07-01

6

The role of forensic anthropology in Disaster Victim Identification (DVI).  

PubMed

This paper briefly describes Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) and reviews the history of the use of forensic anthropology in the identification process. The potential contributions made by forensic anthropology are illustrated through the presentation of a case study. In February 2009 the state of Victoria in south-eastern Australia experienced the most devastating bushfires in its history, resulting in catastrophic loss of life and public and private property. Within 48h of the disaster, forensic teams including pathologists, odontologists and anthropologists assembled at the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine in Melbourne to begin the task of identifying the deceased. This paper reviews the part played by forensic anthropologists in the identification process and outlines the important contribution anthropologists can make to DVI, especially at the scene, in the mortuary and in the reconciliation process. The anthropologist's experience with differentially preserved human remains meant they played an important role identifying and recovering heavily fragmentary human skeletal remains, differentiating human from non-human remains, establishing basic biological information such as the sex and age of the individuals and confirming or denying the possibility of re-associating body parts for release to families. PMID:20797826

Blau, Soren; Briggs, Christopher A

2011-02-25

7

Toward Models for Forensic Analysis  

E-print Network

is Forensic Analysis? Forensic analysis is the process of answering the questions: How did an event take place Approaches Solutions Intended for Non-Forensic Purposes Syslog Process Accounting IDS Alerts Ad Hoc SolutionsToward Models for Forensic Analysis Sean Peisert (UC San Diego) Matt Bishop (UC Davis) Sid Karin

Peisert, Sean

8

Making Forensic Attack Event/forensic Analysis as Simple  

E-print Network

? · forensic analysis is the process of answering the questions: · How did an event take place? · WhatMaking Forensic Attack Event/forensic Analysis as Simple as Possible and No Simpler Sean Peisert to focus on non-binary (e.g., post mortem analysis). 5Tuesday, July 22, 2008 #12;What is forensic Analysis

Peisert, Sean

9

Principles-Driven Forensic Analysis  

E-print Network

than assembly to the forensic process. A ?rst-order step forhacking, phreaking) Forensic analysis is the process offorensic mechanisms would have revealed nothing about the exploit, because no new processes

Peisert, Sean; Bishop, Matt; Karin, Sidney; Marzullo, Keith

2005-01-01

10

Forensic DNA analysis.  

PubMed

Before the routine use of DNA profiling, blood typing was an important forensic tool. However, blood typing was not very discriminating. For example, roughly 30% of the United States population has type A-positive blood. Therefore, if A-positive blood were found at a crime scene, it could have come from 30% of the population. DNA profiling has a much better ability for discrimination. Forensic laboratories no longer routinely determine blood type. If blood is found at a crime scene, DNA profiling is performed. From Jeffrey's discovery of DNA fingerprinting to the development of PCR of STRs to the formation of DNA databases, our knowledge of DNA and DNA profiling have expanded greatly. Also, the applications for which we use DNA profiling have increased. DNA profiling is not just used for criminal case work, but it has expanded to encompass paternity testing, disaster victim identification, monitoring bone marrow transplants, detecting fetal cells in a mother's blood, tracing human history, and a multitude of other areas. The future of DNA profiling looks expansive with the development of newer instrumentation and techniques. PMID:22693781

McDonald, Jessica; Lehman, Donald C

2012-01-01

11

Toward Models for Forensic Analysis  

E-print Network

1893) Forensic analysis is the process of understanding, re-forensic model to its conclusion are not yet known, but in the next section, we outline the processforensic analysts determine the appropriate trade-o?s. Conversely, a reversal of the translation process

Peisert, Sean; Bishop, Matt; Karin, Sidney; Marzullo, Keith

2007-01-01

12

NUCLEAR FORENSICS ANALYSIS CENTER FORENSIC ANALYSIS TO DATA INTERPRETATION  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Forensics Analysis Center (NFAC) is part of Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and is one of only two USG National Laboratories accredited to perform nuclear forensic analyses to the requirements of ISO 17025. SRNL NFAC is capable of analyzing nuclear and radiological samples from bulk material to ultra-trace samples. NFAC provides analytical support to the FBI's Radiological Evidence Examination Facility (REEF), which is located within SRNL. REEF gives the FBI the capability to perform traditional forensics on material that is radiological and/or is contaminated. SRNL is engaged in research and development efforts to improve the USG technical nuclear forensics capabilities. Research includes improving predictive signatures and developing a database containing comparative samples.

Nichols, T.

2011-02-07

13

A brief history of forensic odontology and disaster victim identification practices in Australia.  

PubMed

Today we consider forensic odontology to be a specialised and reliable method of identification of the deceased, particularly in multiple fatality incidents. While this reputation has been gained from the application of forensic odontology in both single identification and disaster situations over a number of years, the professional nature of the discipline and its practices have evolved only recently. This paper summarises some of early uses of forensic odontology internationally and in Australia and discusses the development of both forensic odontology and Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) practices in each of the states and territories of Australia. The earliest accounts of the use of forensic odontology in Australia date to the 1920's and 30's, and were characterised by inexperienced practitioners and little procedural formality. An organised and semi-formal service commenced in most states during the 1960's although its use by police forces was spasmodic. Today the service provided by qualified and experienced forensic odontologists is highly professional and regularly utilised by police and coronial services. The development of DVI Practices in Australia began following the crash of a Vickers Viscount aircraft into Botany Bay in 1961 and, as with practices internationally, have evolved into an equally professional and reliable specialist discipline of policing in which forensic odontology plays a significant part. PMID:22785099

Taylor, J

2009-12-01

14

The “Scandinavian Star” ferry disaster 1990 -a challenge to forensic odontology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary With 158 victims, the fire on board the “Scandinavian Star” was one of the world's worst ferry disasters. A team of identification experts, including dentists, were employed to secure evidence for identification and to remove the victims from the ferry. Four parallel teams, each with 2 dentists, examined and autopsied the victims at the Institute of Forensic Medicine, University

Tore Solheim; Magne Lorentsen; Per Kristian Sundnes; Gisle Bang; Lasse Bremnes

1992-01-01

15

The Tiled Bitmap Forensic Analysis Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tampering of a database can be detected through the use of cryptographically-strong hash func- tions. Subsequently-applied forensic analysis algorithms can help determine when, what, and perhaps ultimately who and why. This paper presents a novel forensic analysis algorithm, the Tiled Bitmap Algorithm, which is more efficient than prior forensic analysis algorithms. It introduces the notion of a candidate set (all

Kyriacos E. Pavlou; Richard T. Snodgrass

2010-01-01

16

Forensic Analyses on A Compound Disaster and Its Impacts Following the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 7.9 Mw Wenchuan Earthquake on May 12 in 2008 was one of the most devastating natural disasters in the 21st century and caused massive damages and vast disruptions in Western China. Our analysis takes a special look into the Wolong National Nature Reserve bear the epicenter, where long-term quantitative and qualitative data on socioeconomic and natural conditions have been collected from late 1990s to 2013. The Reserve is known internationally as the hometown of Giant Pandas and a tourism hotspot, where around 5000 ethnic minorities (e.g., Tibetan, Qiang) also reside. While the Reserve suffered lower level of immediate damages and mortalities relative to several nearby areas, the reconstruction and recovery process in the Reserve have been much slower, mainly due to recurrent flush floods, landslides, and debris flow that took place in every summer since 2008. The suddenly increased frequency and intensity of these secondary natural disasters has led to the formation of compound disaster in the Reserve. The reconstruction of the only road to outside will not be completed till at least 2016, and the livelihoods of the local communities are severely compromised, which has induced a resurrection of illegal logging and hunting in the Reserve. Taking advantage of our longitudinal survey data of~200 local households (on their income, expenditure, energy use, land use behaviors, and perceptions and attitudes toward disasters and polices) over a nine-year period before as well as one and several years after the earthquake and also our in-depth knowledge on the ecology and the institutional arrangements in the area, we conducted, in an interdisciplinary and comprehensive manner, a critical cause analysis to investigate the non-human and human drivers behind the predicament that the Reserve is facing currently. We identified a series of proximate and root causes at various spatial and temporal scales and institutional levels. The results were exchanged with various local stakeholders and their feedback was collected. Our case contribute to the expanding examples of forensic disaster investigations and prove that such studies can provide important insights into how fewer people may be adversely impacted and wiser investments and choices may be made when comparable events take place somewhere else.

Liu, Wei

2014-05-01

17

Toward Models for Forensic Analysis Sean Peisert  

E-print Network

) Forensic analysis is the process of understanding, re-creating, and analyzing arbitrary events that haveToward Models for Forensic Analysis Sean Peisert Matt Bishop Sidney Karin Keith Marzullo Abstract The existing solutions in the field of computer forensics are largely ad hoc. This paper discusses the need

Bishop, Matt

18

Forensic analysis of database tampering  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Mechanisms now exist that detect tampering of a database, through the use of cryptographically-strong hash functions. This paper addresses the next problem, that of determin- ing who, when, and what, by providing a systematic means of performing forensic analysis after such tampering,has been uncovered. We introduce a schematic representation termed a “corruption diagram” that aids in intrusion in- vestigation.

Kyriacos E. Pavlou; Richard T. Snodgrass

2008-01-01

19

Forensic analysis of database tampering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanisms now exist that detect tampering of a database, through the use of cryptographically-strong hash functions. This paper addresses the next problem, that of determin- ing who, when, and what, by providing a systematic means of performing forensic analysis after such tampering has been uncovered. We introduce a schematic representation termed a \\

Kyriacos Pavlou; Richard T. Snodgrass

2006-01-01

20

Project Title: Thematic Analysis of Forensic  

E-print Network

with role of forensic services and interview processes. · Familiarisation with original booklet publishedProject Title: Thematic Analysis of Forensic Service Whanau/family Booklet Bachelor of Arts Application Deadline: 1 February, 2012 Project Description: The Canterbury Regional Forensic Service (http

Hickman, Mark

21

Analysis for Key Technology of Computer Forensic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electronic evidence is a sort of new style evidence. To improve the probative value of electronic evidence, the paper analysis computer forensic process and key technology, provided the rule of computer forensic, data acquire method and the requirement of forensic device.

Jin Bo; Tao Mingming

22

Project Title: Thematic Analysis of Forensic  

E-print Network

with role of forensic services and interview processes. Familiarisation with original booklet publishedProject Title: Thematic Analysis of Forensic Service Whanau/family Booklet Bachelor of Arts Application Deadline: 13 February, Noon Project Description: The Canterbury Regional Forensic Service (http

Hickman, Mark

23

Forensic dental identification in mass disasters: the current status.  

PubMed

Dentists continue to play a valuable role in the identification of victims in a mass disaster. Individuals and multidisciplinary teams are available to assist authorities in the process. Training, experience and advances in technology continue to improve the efficiency of the identification process. PMID:25080762

Wood, James D

2014-06-01

24

Forensic Analysis of Database Tampering Kyriacos Pavlou  

E-print Network

Forensic Analysis of Database Tampering Kyriacos Pavlou Department of Computer Science University of a database, through the use of cryptographically-strong hash functions. This paper addresses the next problem, that of determin- ing who, when, and what, by providing a systematic means of performing forensic analysis after

Snodgrass, Richard T.

25

Forensic analysis of magnetic stripe skimmer devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

At SKL, the number of skimmer cases has increased since 2009. Hence it is important to have a good workflow for the forensic analysis. A successful multidisciplinary collaboration has been developed between DNA, fingerprints and IT forensics. Members of staff from these disciplines perform an initial examination deciding about which parts of the skimmers that are to be analysed for

C. Dufva; J. Bengtsson; M. Svensson; A. Nilsson

26

Remote Forensic Analysis of Process Control Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic analysis can help maintain the security of process control systems: identifying the root cause of a system compromise\\u000a or failure is useful for mitigating current and future threats. However, forensic analysis of control systems is complicated\\u000a by three factors. First, live analysis must not impact the performance and functionality of a control system. Second, the\\u000a analysis should be performed

Regis Friend Cassidy; Adrian Chavez; Jason Trent; Jorge Urrea

2007-01-01

27

Forensic Analysis of Xbox Consoles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsoft’s Xbox game console can be modified to run additional operating systems, enabling it to store gigabytes of non-game\\u000a related files and run various computer services. Little has been published, however, on procedures for determining whether\\u000a or not an Xbox console has been modified, for creating a forensic duplicate, and for conducting a forensic investigation.\\u000a Given the growing popularity of

Paul Burke; Philip Craiger

2007-01-01

28

Forensic odontology as a victim identification tool in mass disasters: A feasibility study in the Indian scenario  

PubMed Central

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the awareness of practicing dentists about the subject of forensic odontology and to assess their willingness to maintain and share patient records. Materials and Methods: A blind questionnaire survey was carried out among 100 randomly selected practicing dentists in district Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh. Results: Most of the dentists interviewed were familiar with the subject of forensic odontology and its relation to dentistry, despite forensic dentistry having been newly introduced since 2007 into the undergraduate dental curriculum in India. However, dental records are maintained by only a few dentists, and only a very small percentage of them reported to have shared records, which may have helped in the identification of victims in a mass disaster. Conclusion: The result of our survey concluded that more awareness needs to be developed among practicing dentists regarding maintaining and sharing patient records for forensic odontology to succeed as a victim identification tool. PMID:24695834

Sengupta, Shamindra; Sharma, Vandana; Gupta, Vineeta; Vij, Hitesh; Vij, Ruchieka; Prabhat, Kanika

2014-01-01

29

NCSU Forensic Science Symposium December 6, 2011  

E-print Network

:00 Welcome 9:15 The Future of Forensic Human DNA Analysis: From Disaster Response to Crime Scene Processing4th NCSU Forensic Science Symposium December 6, 2011 Convocation Room, College of Textiles, NCSU Dr. Rhonda Roby Associate Professor Department of Forensic and Investigative Genetics University

Langerhans, Brian

30

Information Gap Analysis: near real-time evaluation of disaster response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disasters, such as major storm events or earthquakes, trigger an immediate response by the disaster management system of the nation in question. The quality of this response is a large factor in its ability to limit the impacts on the local population. Improving the quality of disaster response therefore reduces disaster impacts. Studying past disasters is a valuable exercise to understand what went wrong, identify measures which could have mitigated these issues, and make recommendations to improve future disaster planning and response. While such ex post evaluations can lead to improvements in the disaster management system, there are limitations. The main limitation that has influenced this research is that ex post evaluations do not have the ability to inform the disaster response being assessed for the obvious reason that they are carried out long after the response phase is over. The result is that lessons learned can only be applied to future disasters. In the field of humanitarian relief, this limitation has led to the development of real time evaluations. The key aspect of real time humanitarian evaluations is that they are completed while the operation is still underway. This results in findings being delivered at a time when they can still make a difference to the humanitarian response. Applying such an approach to the immediate disaster response phase requires an even shorter time-frame, as well as a shift in focus from international actors to the nation in question's government. As such, a pilot study was started and methodology developed, to analyze disaster response in near real-time. The analysis uses the information provided by the disaster management system within the first 0 - 5 days of the response. The data is collected from publicly available sources such as ReliefWeb and sorted under various categories which represent each aspect of disaster response. This process was carried out for 12 disasters. The quantity and timeliness of information produced under each category was then compared to establish best practices. Thus, the information produced by a disaster management system following a major disaster can be compared to these best practices within days of the disaster. The resulting "information gap analysis" can help identify areas of the response that may need to be improved and raise questions as to why critical information is lacking or delayed. This information gap analysis therefore complements ex post evaluations and can help lead to improvements in the immediate response and subsequently reduce disaster impacts on the population. The methodology has already been applied in the Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology's (CEDIM) Forensic Disaster Analysis (FDA) activities following tropical cyclone Phailin in India, and the Bohol Earthquake and Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines.

Girard, Trevor

2014-05-01

31

The role of the forensic odontologist in disaster victim identification: lessons for management.  

PubMed

Forensic odontologists are involved in all phases of disaster victim identification (DVI). The failure of DVI management to embed odontology teams within all phases of the investigation and to include them in management decisions throughout the operation may lead to delays in the reconciliation process and could possibly compromise the integrity of the DVI investigation. In the case study presented, trained and experienced teams of forensic odontologists were not utilised to full capacity in all phases of the investigation. The complexity of the initial scene investigation was not identified resulting in the incomplete recovery of all remains. The scene had to be re-examined on three subsequent occasions. The post-mortem examination of the remains had to be deferred until all subsequent material had been collected. The collection of all ante-mortem dental records was not undertaken, resulting in transcription information that was incomplete and compromised. As a result, the reconciliation (formal identification) of the deceased became problematic because of the compounded errors in all phases of this DVI investigation and the resulting odontological report of identification could have jeopardized the integrity of the entire DVI process. Following a review of this case and the recognition of possible areas of omission in the management of the investigation a strategy to address these problems is proposed. PMID:20950970

Hill, Anthony J; Hewson, Ian; Lain, Russell

2011-02-25

32

Forensic Analysis of Database Tampering Kyriacos E. Pavlou  

E-print Network

Forensic Analysis of Database Tampering Kyriacos E. Pavlou and Richard T. Snodgrass University- able databases, even by insiders. One approach is tamper detection via cryptographic hashing ultimately who did the tampering, via forensic analysis. We present four successively more sophisticated

Snodgrass, Richard T.

33

Disaster SitRep -A Vertical Search Engine and Information Analysis Tool in Disaster Management Domain  

E-print Network

Disaster SitRep - A Vertical Search Engine and Information Analysis Tool in Disaster Management at the right time. Needs for heterogeneous information integration in disaster management domain: People have and multimedia data like images and videos. However, information management and processing in disaster management

Chen, Shu-Ching

34

Biosensors in forensic analysis. A review.  

PubMed

Forensic analysis is an important branch of modern Analytical Chemistry with many legal and socially relevant implications. Biosensors can play an important role as efficient tools in this field considering their well known advantages of sensitivity, selectivity, easy functioning, affordability and capability of miniaturization and automation. This article reviews the latest advances in the use of biosensors for forensic analysis. The different methodologies for the transduction of the produced biological events are considered and the applications to forensic toxicological analysis, classified by the nature of the target analytes, as well as those related with chemical and biological weapons critically commented. The article provides several Tables where the more relevant analytical characteristics of the selected reported methods are gathered. PMID:24746348

Yáñez-Sedeño, P; Agüí, L; Villalonga, R; Pingarrón, J M

2014-05-01

35

BLOCK SIZE FORENSIC ANALYSIS IN DIGITAL IMAGES Steven Tjoa  

E-print Network

to processing. An important first step to forensic analysis is the detection and estimation of block processing@ece.ualberta.ca. To even begin forensic analysis for digital images, we must first address the presence of block processingBLOCK SIZE FORENSIC ANALYSIS IN DIGITAL IMAGES Steven Tjoa , W. Sabrina Lin , H. Vicky Zhao , and K

Liu, K. J. Ray

36

Threats to Privacy in the Forensic Analysis of Database Systems  

E-print Network

Threats to Privacy in the Forensic Analysis of Database Systems Patrick Stahlberg, Gerome Miklau of data stored in database systems. This data can be recovered by forensic analysis, and it poses a threat to forensic analysis. Categories and Subject Descriptors H.2.4 [Systems]: Relational Databases; H.2

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

37

Molecular forensic science analysis of nuclear materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concerns over the proliferation and instances of nuclear material in the environment have increased interest in the expansion of nuclear forensics analysis and attribution programs. A new related field, molecular forensic science (MFS) has helped meet this expansion by applying common scientific analyses to nuclear forensics scenarios. In this work, MFS was applied to three scenarios related to nuclear forensics analysis. In the first, uranium dioxide was synthesized and aged at four sets of static environmental conditions and studied for changes in chemical speciation. The second highlighted the importance of bulk versus particle characterizations by analyzing a heterogeneous industrially prepared sample with similar techniques. In the third, mixed uranium/plutonium hot particles were collected from the McGuire Air Force Base BOMARC Site and analyzed for chemical speciation and elemental surface composition. This work has identified new signatures and has indicated unexpected chemical behavior under various conditions. These findings have lead to an expansion of basic actinide understanding, proof of MFS as a tool for nuclear forensic science, and new areas for expansion in these fields.

Reilly, Dallas David

38

Forensic Analysis of BIOS Chips  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data can be hidden in BIOS chips without hindering computer performance. This feature has been exploited by virus writers and computer game enthusiasts. Unused BIOS storage can also be used by criminals, terrorists and intelligence agents to conceal secrets. However, BIOS chips are largely ignored in digital forensic investigations. Few techniques exist for imaging BIOS chips and no tools are available specifically for analyzing BIOS data.

Gershteyn, Pavel; Davis, Mark; Shenoi, Sujeet

39

(Environmental and disaster management risk analysis)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler attended workshops on Environmental and Disaster Management Risk Analysis in New Delhi and Jaipur, India. The objective of the workshops was to provide technical knowledge to Indians in the areas of environmental planning, industrial hazards, risk analysis, and disaster management. Conference participants identified the following top priorities to aid in the development of environmental and disaster management in India: (1) technology transfer in the area of atmospheric dispersion modelling, (2) increased training of scientific personnel to effectively deal with environmental problems, and (3) access to data bases on toxicological properties of chemicals.

Travis, C.C.

1990-01-03

40

DNA Profiling Technologies in Forensic Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

KEYWORDS Forensic analysis; DNA profiling; RFLP; STRs; SNPs ABSTRACT The remarkable advances in DNA technologies over the past two decades have had an enormous impact on human identification, medical diagnosis, population genetics, understanding of evolution of species, wildlife management, characterization and unfolding the mysteries of antiquity of archaic specimens. This article presents an overview of the current technologies in the

V. K. Kashyap; P. Chattopadhyay; R. Trivedi

2004-01-01

41

Memory Forensics: Review of Acquisition and Analysis Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document presents an overview of the most common memory forensics techniques used in the acquisition and analysis of a system's volatile memory. Memory forensics rose from obscurity in 2005 in response to a challenge issued by the Digital Forensics R...

G. Osbourne

2013-01-01

42

Forensic Analysis of Phone Call Networks  

E-print Network

In the context of preventing and fighting crime, the analysis of mobile phone traffic, among actors of a criminal network, is helpful in order to reconstruct illegal activities on the base of the relationships connecting those specific individuals. Thus, forensic analysts and investigators require new advanced tools and techniques which allow them to manage these data in a meaningful and efficient way. In this paper we present LogAnalysis, a tool we developed to provide visual data representation and filtering, statistical analysis features and the possibility of a temporal analysis of mobile phone activities. Its adoption may help in unveiling the structure of a criminal network and the roles and dynamics of communications among its components. By using LogAnalysis, forensic investigators could deeply understand hierarchies within criminal organizations, for example discovering central members that provide connections among different sub-groups, etc. Moreover, by analyzing the temporal evolution of the conta...

Catanese, Salvatore; Fiumara, Giacomo

2013-01-01

43

Attack Intention Analysis Model for Network Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In network forensics, attack intentions analyses play a major role to help and accelerate decision-making for apprehending\\u000a the real perpetrator. In fact, attack intention analysis is a prediction factor to help investigators to conclude a case with\\u000a high accuracy. However, current techniques in attack intention analysis only focus on recognizing an alert correlation for\\u000a certain evidence and predicting future attacks.

M. Rasmi; Aman Jantan

44

Statistical Tools for Forensic Analysis of Toolmarks  

SciTech Connect

Recovery and comparison of toolmarks, footprint impressions, and fractured surfaces connected to a crime scene are of great importance in forensic science. The purpose of this project is to provide statistical tools for the validation of the proposition that particular manufacturing processes produce marks on the work-product (or tool) that are substantially different from tool to tool. The approach to validation involves the collection of digital images of toolmarks produced by various tool manufacturing methods on produced work-products and the development of statistical methods for data reduction and analysis of the images. The developed statistical methods provide a means to objectively calculate a ''degree of association'' between matches of similarly produced toolmarks. The basis for statistical method development relies on ''discriminating criteria'' that examiners use to identify features and spatial relationships in their analysis of forensic samples. The developed data reduction algorithms utilize the same rules used by examiners for classification and association of toolmarks.

David Baldwin; Max Morris; Stan Bajic; Zhigang Zhou; James Kreiser

2004-04-22

45

An Analysis of the Digital Forensic Examination of Mobile Phones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital evidence is proving increasingly pivotal in criminal investigations whether it is an arrest for a minor offence or a more serious activity. As people rely on mobile phones and their many functions, the digital trail of evidence continues to grow. The forensic examination of mobile phones is a relatively new discipline and research activity into the forensic analysis of

P. Thomas; P. Owen; Duncan McPhee

2010-01-01

46

Development under extreme conditions: forensic bioinformatics in the wake of the World Trade Center disaster.  

PubMed

The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 resulted in death and devastation in three locations, and extraordinary efforts have been exerted to identify the remains of all victims. As mass fatalities go, this one has been unusual at a policy level because the goal has been not merely to identify remains for every decedent, but to identify every bit of remains found so that even small pieces of tissue can be returned to families for burial. While the human impact at the Pentagon and Shanksville, PA was horrific, the World Trade Center site presented a particularly complex challenge for forensic DNA matching and data handling. A complete and definitive list of all those killed is still elusive, and human remains were crushed and co-mingled by the falling towers. Software tools had never been considered for a problem of this scale and scope. New data handling systems had to be created under extreme software development conditions characterized by incomplete requirements specifications, chaotically changing priorities, truly impossible deadlines and rapidly rolling production releases. Partly because of the company's experience with mtDNA tools built for the Armed Forces DNA Identification Lab starting in 1997, the New York City Office of Chief Medical Examiner [OCME] contacted Gene Codes Corporation in late September as existing data-handling tools began to fail. We began work on the project in mid-October, 2001. Our approach to the problem included: Extreme Programming [XP] methodology for functional software development, On-site time and motion analysis at the OCME for user interface design, Evidentiary references between STR, SNP and mtDNA analysis results, and Separate data Quality Control [QC] and software Quality Assurance [QA] initiatives. A substantial software suite was developed called M-FISys, an acronym for Mass-Fatality Identification System. PMID:12603064

Cash, Howard D; Hoyle, Jonathan W; Sutton, Amy J

2003-01-01

47

A PATTERN CLASSIFICATION FRAMEWORK FOR THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF COMPONENT FORENSICS  

E-print Network

reproduction, forensic analysis can help to trace the origin and authenticity of digital data. This bootlegging others newly created. In the bootlegging example, some traces of the projector employed in the theater

Liu, K. J. Ray

48

The Forensic Analysis of Sediments Recovered from Footwear  

Microsoft Academic Search

The forensic analysis of sediments recovered from footwear has the potential to yield much useful information concerning the\\u000a movements of a person before, during and after a crime has taken place. Three experimental studies and a number of examples\\u000a of forensic casework provide insight into the complexity of the spatial distribution of geoforensic materials on the soles\\u000a of footwear and

Ruth M. Morgan; Jeanne Freudiger-Bonzon; Katharine H. Nichols; Thomas Jellis; Sarah Dunkerley; Przemyslaw Zelazowski; Peter A. Bull

49

The failure of DNA forensic testing: a case study of the 2009 Australian bushfire disaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within science and technology studies there is a vast literature on the manner in which public inquiries and official investigations manage the political fallout and the failures of socio-technical systems in the wake of a disaster. This paper uses a case study example of public and media inquiry into the 2009 bushfires in Victoria, Australia to demonstrate how the sole

Lyn Turney

2010-01-01

50

DNA fingerprinting in forensics: past, present, future  

PubMed Central

DNA fingerprinting, one of the great discoveries of the late 20th century, has revolutionized forensic investigations. This review briefly recapitulates 30 years of progress in forensic DNA analysis which helps to convict criminals, exonerate the wrongly accused, and identify victims of crime, disasters, and war. Current standard methods based on short tandem repeats (STRs) as well as lineage markers (Y chromosome, mitochondrial DNA) are covered and applications are illustrated by casework examples. Benefits and risks of expanding forensic DNA databases are discussed and we ask what the future holds for forensic DNA fingerprinting. PMID:24245688

2013-01-01

51

Hyperspectral imaging for non-contact analysis of forensic traces.  

PubMed

Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) integrates conventional imaging and spectroscopy, to obtain both spatial and spectral information from a specimen. This technique enables investigators to analyze the chemical composition of traces and simultaneously visualize their spatial distribution. HSI offers significant potential for the detection, visualization, identification and age estimation of forensic traces. The rapid, non-destructive and non-contact features of HSI mark its suitability as an analytical tool for forensic science. This paper provides an overview of the principles, instrumentation and analytical techniques involved in hyperspectral imaging. We describe recent advances in HSI technology motivating forensic science applications, e.g. the development of portable and fast image acquisition systems. Reported forensic science applications are reviewed. Challenges are addressed, such as the analysis of traces on backgrounds encountered in casework, concluded by a summary of possible future applications. PMID:23088824

Edelman, G J; Gaston, E; van Leeuwen, T G; Cullen, P J; Aalders, M C G

2012-11-30

52

Cancerous tissues in forensic genetic analysis.  

PubMed

Microsatellites or short tandem repeats (STRs) markers are important tools for mapping disease-causing genes by linkage, for performing investigations in forensic medicine, for population genetic studies and for studying genetic modifications in tumors. In forensic applications neoplastic tissues can be used as a source of genetic information for personal identification or paternity testing when no other specimen is available. Cancer tissues can show microsatellite instability (MSI) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) also for the STRs used in the forensic field. In this study, we screened 56 sporadic gastrointestinal carcinomas in order to provide further data for the evaluation of the incidence of allelic alterations for 15 STR loci and the suitability of using cancerous tissues in forensic applications. Sixty-six percent of the cancerous tissues were found to possess allelic alterations of the microsatellites analyzed with a high incidence of MSI-L (microsatellite instability low) when compared to the corresponding normal tissue. The most frequently altered loci were D18S51, VWA, and FGA. From a forensic perspective, great care must be taken in evaluating the DNA typing results obtained from cancerous tissue samples. PMID:18294056

Pelotti, Susi; Ceccardi, Stefania; Alù, Milena; Lugaresi, Federica; Trane, Rachele; Falconi, Mirella; Bini, Carla; Cicognani, Alberto

2007-01-01

53

Joint Bayesian analysis of forensic mixtures.  

PubMed

Evaluation of series of PCR experiments referring to the same evidence is not infrequent in a forensic casework. This situation is met when 'series of results in mixture' (EPGs produced by reiterating PCR experiments over the same DNA mixture extract) have to be interpreted or when 'potentially related traces' (mixtures that can have contributors in common) require a combined interpretation. In these cases, there can be uncertainty on the genotype assignment, since: (a) more than one genotype combination fall under the same peak profile; (b) PCR preferential amplification alters pre-PCR allelic proportions; (c) other, more unpredictable technical problems (dropouts/dropins, etc.) take place. The uncertainty in the genotype assignment is in most cases addressed by empirical methods (selection of just one particular profile; extraction of consensual or composite profiles) that disregard part of the evidence. Genotype assignment should conversely take advantage from a joint Bayesian analysis (JBA) of all STRs peak areas generated at each experiment. This is the typical case of Bayesian analysis in which adoption of object-oriented Bayesian networks (OOBNs) could be highly helpful. Starting from experimentally designed mixtures, we created typical examples of 'series of results in mixture' of 'potentially related traces'. JBA was some administered to the whole peak area evidence, by specifically tailored OOBNs models, which enabled genotype assignment reflecting all the available evidence. Examples of a residual ambiguity in the genotype assignment came to light at assumed genotypes with partially overlapping alleles (for example: AB+AC?ABC). In the 'series of results in mixture', this uncertainty was in part refractory to the joint evaluation. Ambiguity was conversely dissipated at the 'potentially related' trace example, where the ABC allelic scheme at the first trace was interpreted together with other unambiguous combinations (ABCD; AB) at the related trace. We emphasize the need to carry out extensive, blind sensitivity tests specifically addressing the residual ambiguity that arises from overlapping results mixed at various quantitative ratios. PMID:22948016

Pascali, Vince L; Merigioli, Sara

2012-12-01

54

Digital Forensics Analysis of Spectral Estimation Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steganography is the art and science of writing hidden messages in such a way that no one apart from the intended recipient knows of the existence of the message. In today’s world, it is widely used in order to secure the information. Since digital forensics aims to detect, recover and examine the digital evidence and steganography is a method for

Tolga Mataracioglu; Unal Tatar

2010-01-01

55

[Possibilities and limitations of forensic bloodstain pattern analysis].  

PubMed

Forensic bloodstain pattern analysis includes the detection, shape analysis, classification and interpretation of relevant traces of blood at a crime scene with the aim of reconstructing the sequences of the events that occurred. Mathematical calculation of impact and cast-off patterns are the center of the analytical reconstruction, when predicting the position of the source of blood stain at the moment of impact. Taking into consideration the limits of this method, it is possible to verify reconstructions of criminal acts and reconstruct a possible sequence of events that occurred. The present article is intended to give a brief introduction to various aspects of the forensic bloodstain pattern analysis as well as to point out the application possibilities and limitations of this forensic subdiscipline. PMID:25201096

Kunz, Sebastian Niko; Klawonn, Tina; Grove, Christina

2014-09-01

56

Forensic Analysis of Instant Messenger Applications on Android Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper focuses on conducting forensic data analysis of 2 widely used IMs applications on Android phones WhatsApp and Viber. The tests and analysis were performed with the aim of determining what data and information can be found on the devices internal memory for instant messengers eg chat messaging logs and history send & received image or video files etc. The experiments and results show that heavy amount of potential evidences and valuable data can be found on Android phones by forensic investigators.

Mahajan, Aditya; S. Dahiya, M.; P. Sanghvi, H.

2013-04-01

57

Crowd Disasters as Systemic Failures: Analysis of the Love Parade Disaster  

E-print Network

Each year, crowd disasters happen in different areas of the world. How and why do such disasters happen? Are the fatalities caused by relentless behavior of people or a psychological state of panic that makes the crowd 'go mad'? Or are they a tragic consequence of a breakdown of coordination? These and other questions are addressed, based on a qualitative analysis of publicly available videos and materials, which document the planning and organization of the Love Parade in Duisburg, Germany, and the crowd disaster on July 24, 2010. Our analysis reveals a number of misunderstandings that have widely spread. We also provide a new perspective on concepts such as 'intentional pushing', 'mass panic', 'stampede', and 'crowd crushs'. The focus of our analysis is on the contributing causal factors and their mutual interdependencies, not on legal issues or the judgment of personal or institutional responsibilities. Video recordings show that, in Duisburg, people stumbled and piled up due to a 'domino effect', resulting from a phenomenon called 'crowd turbulence' or 'crowd quake'. Crowd quakes are a typical reason for crowd disasters, to be distinguished from crowd disasters resulting from 'panic stampedes' or 'crowd crushes'. In Duisburg, crowd turbulence was the consequence of amplifying feedback and cascading effects, which are typical for systemic instabilities. Accordingly, things can go terribly wrong in spite of no bad intentions from anyone. Comparing the incident in Duisburg with others, we give recommendations to help prevent future crowd disasters. In particular, we introduce a new scale to assess the criticality of conditions in the crowd. This may allow preventative measures to be taken earlier on. Furthermore, we discuss the merits and limitations of citizen science for public investigation, considering that today, almost every event is recorded and reflected in the World Wide Web.

Dirk Helbing; Pratik Mukerji

2012-06-25

58

Compositional data analysis for elemental data in forensic science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discrimination of material based on elemental composition was achieved within a compositional data (CoDa) analysis framework in a form appropriate for use in forensic science. The methods were carried out on example data from New Zealand nephrite. We have achieved good separation of the in situ outcrops of nephrite from within a well-defined area. The most significant achievement of working

Gareth P. Campbell; James M. Curran; Gordon M. Miskelly; Sally Coulson; Gregory M. Yaxley; Eric C. Grunsky; Simon C. Cox

2009-01-01

59

Threats to Privacy in the Forensic Analysis of Database Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of any modern computer system leaves unintended traces of expired data and remnants of users' past activities. In this paper, we investigate the unintended persistence of data stored in database systems. This data can be recovered by forensic analysis, and it poses a threat to privacy. First, we show how data remnants are preserved in data- base table

Patrick Stahlberg; Gerome Miklau; Brian Neil Levine

2007-01-01

60

Towards Forensic Data Flow Analysis of Business Process Logs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents RECIF, a forensic technique for the analysis of business process logs to detect illegal data flows. RECIF uses propagation graphs to formally capture the data flow within a process execution. Abstracting away from the concrete traces, propagation graphs are analyzed with extensional data flow policies that denote what ? instead of how ? relevant industrial requirements, e.g.

Rafael Accorsi; Claus Wonnemann; Thomas Stocker

2011-01-01

61

Trail of bytes: efficient support for forensic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the most part, forensic analysis of computer systems requires that one first identify suspicious objects or events, and then examine them in enough detail to form a hypothesis as to their cause and effect. Sadly, while our ability to gather vast amounts of data has improved significantly over the past two decades, it is all too often the case

Srinivas Krishnan; Kevin Z. Snow; Fabian Monrose

2010-01-01

62

Forensic document analysis using scanning microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authentication and identification of the source of a printed document(s) can be important in forensic investigations involving a wide range of fraudulent materials, including counterfeit currency, travel and identity documents, business and personal checks, money orders, prescription labels, travelers checks, medical records, financial documents and threatening correspondence. The physical and chemical characterization of document materials - including paper, writing inks and printed media - is becoming increasingly relevant for law enforcement agencies, with the availability of a wide variety of sophisticated commercial printers and copiers which are capable of producing fraudulent documents of extremely high print quality, rendering these difficult to distinguish from genuine documents. This paper describes various applications and analytical methodologies using scanning electron miscoscopy/energy dispersive (x-ray) spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and related technologies for the characterization of fraudulent documents, and illustrates how their morphological and chemical profiles can be compared to (1) authenticate and (2) link forensic documents with a common source(s) in their production history.

Shaffer, Douglas K.

2009-05-01

63

MEASUREMENT SCIENCE AND STANDARDS IN FORENSIC HANDWRITING ANALYSIS (JUNE 4-5, 2013)  

E-print Network

1 MEASUREMENT SCIENCE AND STANDARDS IN FORENSIC HANDWRITING ANALYSIS (JUNE 4-5, 2013) SPEAKER BIOGRAPHIES Ted Burkes was initially trained in forensic document examination and worked at the Mississippi from 1998 to present. Mr. Burkes earned status as a Diplomate of the American Board of Forensic

Magee, Joseph W.

64

The contribution of forensic science to crime analysis and investigation: Forensic intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The debate in forensic science concentrates on issues such as standardisation, accreditation and de-contextualisation, in a legal and economical context, in order to ensure the scientific objectivity and efficiency that must guide the process of collecting, analysing, interpreting and reporting forensic evidence. At the same time, it is recognised that forensic case data is still poorly integrated into the investigation

Olivier Ribaux; Simon J. Walsh; Pierre Margot

2006-01-01

65

Helping formulate propositions in forensic DNA analysis.  

PubMed

The Bayesian paradigm is the preferred approach to evidence interpretation. It requires the evaluation of the probability of the evidence under at least two propositions. The value of the findings (i.e., our LR) will depend on these propositions and the case information, so it is crucial to identify which propositions are useful for the case at hand. Previously, a number of principles have been advanced and largely accepted for the evaluation of evidence. In the evaluation of traces involving DNA mixtures there may be more than two propositions possible. We apply these principles to some exemplar situations. We also show that in some cases, when there are no clear propositions or no defendant, a forensic scientist may be able to generate explanations to account for observations. In that case, the scientist plays a role of investigator, rather than evaluator. We believe that it is helpful for the scientist to distinguish those two roles. PMID:25002042

Buckleton, John; Bright, Jo-Anne; Taylor, Duncan; Evett, Ian; Hicks, Tacha; Jackson, Graham; Curran, James M

2014-07-01

66

Digital Evidence Retrieval and Forensic Analysis on Gambling Machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hardware forensic analysis involves the process of analyzing digital evidence derived from digital sources. The analysis is\\u000a done to facilitate and prove either the device is used to commit crime, whether it contains evidence of a crime or is the\\u000a target of a crime. Gambling machines serve as the main source by which illegal games are conducted. This paper presents

Pritheega Magalingam; Azizah Abdul Manaf; Rabiah Ahmad; Zuraimi Yahya

2009-01-01

67

A Cybercrime Forensic Method for Chinese Web Information Authorship Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing popularization of the Internet, Internet services used as illegal purposes have become a serious problem.\\u000a How to prevent these phenomena from happening has become a major concern for society. In this paper, a cybercrime forensic\\u000a method for Chinese illegal web information authorship analysis was described. Various writing-style features including linguistic\\u000a features and structural features were extracted. To

Jianbin Ma; Guifa Teng; Yuxin Zhang; Yueli Li; Ying Li

2009-01-01

68

Are these liquids explosive? Forensic analysis of confiscated indoor fireworks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complete forensic analysis of several confiscated liquids and gels putatively used as firework components was achieved by\\u000a combining Raman, FTIR spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy combined with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM–EDS).\\u000a The chemical composition of the liquids was consistent with their use as indoor fireworks. Alcohols (methanol and isopropyl\\u000a alcohol) were used to solubilise compounds producing coloured flames. Boric acid, recently

Kepa Castro; Silvia Fdez-Ortiz de Vallejuelo; Izaskun Astondoa; Félix M. Goñi; Juan Manuel Madariaga

2011-01-01

69

Towards an integrated e-mail forensic analysis framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to its simple and inherently vulnerable nature, e-mail communication is abused for numerous illegitimate purposes. E-mail spamming, phishing, drug trafficking, cyber bullying, racial vilification, child pornography, and sexual harassment are some common e-mail mediated cyber crimes. Presently, there is no adequate proactive mechanism for securing e-mail systems. In this context, forensic analysis plays a major role by examining suspected

Rachid Hadjidj; Mourad Debbabi; Hakim Lounis; Farkhund Iqbal; Adam Szporer; Djamel Benredjem

2009-01-01

70

[DNA amplification on chemically structured chips in forensic STR analysis].  

PubMed

The present study deals with low-volume amplification of short tandem repeats (STRs) for forensic DNA analysis. A chemically structured chip in microscopic slide format was used to amplify standard forensic casework samples in a 1-microL reaction volume primarily with the well-known and widely used PowerPlex kit and with other commercially available STR kits. Tests regarding sensitivity, mixture analysis, robustness, reproducibility, buffer composition and technical performance were carried out to check the usefulness of this amplification strategy. The results obtained show that low-volume amplification is a promising option in the forensic DNA typing toolbox. Restrictions to this method, which are strictly related to the kit and the respective buffer used, were found in low copy number (LCN) DNA typing, mixture analysis and technical performance. Problematic typing results included artefact alleles, increase in locus and heterozygote imbalance, allelic and locus dropout as well as increase of stutters, especially when amplifying less than 200-300 pg of DNA. In contrast, convincing advantages are a higher sensitivity, better amplification efficiency and the low cost factor of this method. PMID:19044139

Schmidt, Ulrike; Proff, Carsten; Schneider, Peter M; Matt, Katja; Sänger, Timo; Zacher, Thomas; Lutz-Bonengel, Sabine

2008-01-01

71

Forensic Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is incorporating a broader spectrum of chemical sciences. Existing forensic practices are being revisited as the purview of forensic chemistry extends outward from drug analysis and toxicology into such diverse areas as combustion chemistry, materials science, and pattern evidence.

Bell, Suzanne

2009-07-01

72

Forensic analysis of print using digital image analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this investigation is to establish whether it is possible to produce a practical forensic tool that can identify the production sources of printed text from different digital print engines. The identification of print using an automated machine system is important because although expert observers can be employed for this task, there are cases when they make mistakes or do not possess the required knowledge. Therefore the development of an automated print identification system is under consideration. It is envisaged that the system will be useful in solving criminal cases involving the analysis of fraudulent replication of official documents, threatening letters and the counterfeiting of consumer products. The methodology used in this investigation employed a digital image analysis system and specially developed software to measure the shape characteristics of text characters. The information about the shapes of the text characters can be stored in a database along with the corresponding data about the print engines that produced them. A database search engine can then be used to classify text characters of unknown origin. The paper will report on the methodology and techniques used in the investigation and the latest experimental results for the project.

Tchan, Jack

2003-06-01

73

Chemiluminescent detection of RFLP patterns in forensic DNA analysis.  

PubMed

DNA testing by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis is an extremely important technique used in forensic science laboratories. While RFLP testing is a highly informative method, it traditionally has had several disadvantages. It is time consuming and involves work with radioactive phosphorous. A detection method that is faster and safer than isotopic detection is presented. Various membranes, fixation methods and transfer procedures were evaluated for DNA retention and sensitivity using alkaline phosphatase conjugated oligonucleotide probes and a chemiluminescent substrate. Blood samples and evidentiary material from forensic casework were analyzed by both chemiluminescent and isotopic detection. Results of each method were compared for pattern appearance, band size, and composite profile frequency. The chemiluminescent system had very good sensitivity, detecting 3-25 ng K562 DNA. Most patterns developed by both methods appeared the same. The variation observed between band sizes and frequency estimates generated by each method was as expected for an inter-gel comparison. The chemiluminescent detection procedure described here is suitable for use in forensic casework. PMID:8754566

Johnson, E D; Kotowski, T M

1996-07-01

74

Satellite Image Analysis for Disaster and Crisis-Management Support  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes how multisource satellite data and efficient image analysis may successfully be used to conduct rapid-mapping tasks in the domain of disaster and crisis-management support. The German Aerospace Center (DLR) has set up a dedicated crosscutting service, which is the so-called \\

Stefan Voigt; Thomas Kemper; Torsten Riedlinger; Ralph Kiefl; Klaas Scholte; Harald Mehl

2007-01-01

75

Analysis of the alleged Kyshtym disaster  

SciTech Connect

The alleged Kyshtym disaster has been an intriguing intelligence puzzle for almost 25 years. Zhores Medvedev, a Soviet dissident, has written numerous journal articles as well as two books on the subject. He has argued that a vast contaminated area exists east of the city of Kyshtym in the southern Ural Mountains. Further, he has alleged that a nuclear waste disposal accident in 1957 to 1958 caused the contamination. The authors of this report are in partial disagreement with Medvedev's first allegation and in complete disagreement with his second. A contaminated area does exist east of Kyshtym, but Soviet carelessness coupled with general disregard for the citizenry and the environment are the prime causative factors, not a nuclear waste accident.

Soran, D.M.; Stillman, D.B.

1982-01-01

76

Defining a Process Model for Forensic Analysis of Digital Devices and Storage Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are three components of the overall digital forensic process defined by current industry standards; acquisition, preservation, and analysis. This paper explores defining a model for the analysis phase that will address legal and technical concerns surrounding the forensic analysis process

Michael W. Andrew

2007-01-01

77

Developing open geographic data model and analysis tools for disaster management: landslide case  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disaster Management aims to reduce catastrophic losses of disasters as landslide. Geographic information technologies support disaster management activities for effective and collaborative data management considering complex nature of disasters. Thus, this study aims to develop interoperable geographic data model and analysis tools to manage geographic data coming from different sources. For landslide disaster, 39 scenario-based activities were analyzed with required data according to user needs in a cycle of activities at mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery phases. Interoperable geographic data model for disaster management (ADYS), enabling up-to-date exchange of geographic data, was designed compliant with standards of ISO/TC211 Geographic Information/Geomatics, Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), and Turkey National GIS (TUCBS). Open source and free analysis toolbox was developed and tested in case study of the activities such as landslide hazard analysis and disaster warning system to support Provincial Disaster Management Centers of Turkey.

Aydinoglu, A. C.; Bilgin, M. S.

2014-10-01

78

PCR in forensic genetics.  

PubMed

Since the introduction in the mid-1980s of analyses of minisatellites for DNA analyses, a revolution has taken place in forensic genetics. The subsequent invention of the PCR made it possible to develop forensic genetics tools that allow both very informative routine investigations and still more and more advanced, special investigations in cases concerning crime, paternity, relationship, disaster victim identification etc. The present review gives an update on the use of DNA investigations in forensic genetics. PMID:19290877

Morling, Niels

2009-04-01

79

Digital Forensics Analysis of Spectral Estimation Methods  

E-print Network

Steganography is the art and science of writing hidden messages in such a way that no one apart from the intended recipient knows of the existence of the message. In today's world, it is widely used in order to secure the information. In this paper, the traditional spectral estimation methods are introduced. The performance analysis of each method is examined by comparing all of the spectral estimation methods. Finally, from utilizing those performance analyses, a brief pros and cons of the spectral estimation methods are given. Also we give a steganography demo by hiding information into a sound signal and manage to pull out the information (i.e, the true frequency of the information signal) from the sound by means of the spectral estimation methods.

Mataracioglu, Tolga

2011-01-01

80

Computer-aided fiber analysis for crime scene forensics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The forensic analysis of fibers is currently completely manual and therefore time consuming. The automation of analysis steps can significantly support forensic experts and reduce the time, required for the investigation. Moreover, a subjective expert belief is extended by objective machine estimation. This work proposes the pattern recognition pipeline containing the digital acquisition of a fiber media, the pre-processing for fiber segmentation, and the extraction of the distinctive characteristics of fibers. Currently, basic geometrical features like width, height, area of optically dominant fibers are investigated. In order to support the automatic classification of fibers, supervised machine learning algorithms are evaluated. The experimental setup includes a car seat and two pieces clothing of a different fabric. As preliminary work, acrylic as synthetic and sheep wool as natural fiber are chosen to be classified. While sitting on the seat, a test person leaves textile fibers. The test aims at automatic distinguishing of clothes through the fiber traces gained from the seat with the help of adhesive tape. The digitalization of fiber samples is provided by a contactless chromatic white light sensor. First test results showed, that two optically very different fibers can be properly assigned to their corresponding fiber type. The best classifier achieves an accuracy of 75 percent correctly classified samples for our suggested features.

Hildebrandt, Mario; Arndt, Christian; Makrushin, Andrey; Dittmann, Jana

2012-03-01

81

Use of Stable Isotopes in Forensic Analysis of Microorganisms  

SciTech Connect

The use of isotopic signatures for forensic analysis of biological materials is well-established, and the same general principles that apply to interpretation of stable isotope content of C, N, O, and H apply to the analysis of microorganisms. Heterotrophic microorganisms derive their isotopic content from their growth substrates, which are largely plant and animal products, and the water in their culture medium. Thus the isotope signatures of microbes are tied to their growth environment. The C, N, O, and H isotope ratios of spores have been demonstrated to constitute highly discriminating signatures for sample matching. They can rule out specific samples of media and/or water as possible production media, and can predict isotope ratio ranges of the culture media and water used to produce a given sample. These applications have been developed and tested through analyses of approximately 250 samples of Bacillus subtilis spores and over 500 samples of culture media, providing a strong statistical basis for data interpretation. A Bayesian statistical framework for integrating stable isotope data with other types of signatures derived from microorganisms has been able to characterize the culture medium used to produce spores of various Bacillus species, leveraging isotopic differences in different medium types and demonstrating the power of data integration for forensic investigations.

Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.; Hegg, Eric L.

2012-01-18

82

Objective analysis of toolmarks in forensics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the 1993 court case of Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc. the subjective nature of toolmark comparison has been questioned by attorneys and law enforcement agencies alike. This has led to an increased drive to establish objective comparison techniques with known error rates, much like those that DNA analysis is able to provide. This push has created research in which the 3-D surface profile of two different marks are characterized and the marks' cross-sections are run through a comparative statistical algorithm to acquire a value that is intended to indicate the likelihood of a match between the marks. The aforementioned algorithm has been developed and extensively tested through comparison of evenly striated marks made by screwdrivers. However, this algorithm has yet to be applied to quasi-striated marks such as those made by the shear edge of slip-joint pliers. The results of this algorithm's application to the surface of copper wire will be presented. Objective mark comparison also extends to comparison of toolmarks made by firearms. In an effort to create objective comparisons, microstamping of firing pins and breech faces has been introduced. This process involves placing unique alphanumeric identifiers surrounded by a radial code on the surface of firing pins, which transfer to the cartridge's primer upon firing. Three different guns equipped with microstamped firing pins were used to fire 3000 cartridges. These cartridges are evaluated based on the clarity of their alphanumeric transfers and the clarity of the radial code surrounding the alphanumerics.

Grieve, Taylor N.

83

Objective analysis of toolmarks in forensics  

SciTech Connect

Since the 1993 court case of Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc. the subjective nature of toolmark comparison has been questioned by attorneys and law enforcement agencies alike. This has led to an increased drive to establish objective comparison techniques with known error rates, much like those that DNA analysis is able to provide. This push has created research in which the 3-D surface profile of two different marks are characterized and the marks’ cross-sections are run through a comparative statistical algorithm to acquire a value that is intended to indicate the likelihood of a match between the marks. The aforementioned algorithm has been developed and extensively tested through comparison of evenly striated marks made by screwdrivers. However, this algorithm has yet to be applied to quasi-striated marks such as those made by the shear edge of slip-joint pliers. The results of this algorithm’s application to the surface of copper wire will be presented. Objective mark comparison also extends to comparison of toolmarks made by firearms. In an effort to create objective comparisons, microstamping of firing pins and breech faces has been introduced. This process involves placing unique alphanumeric identifiers surrounded by a radial code on the surface of firing pins, which transfer to the cartridge’s primer upon firing. Three different guns equipped with microstamped firing pins were used to fire 3000 cartridges. These cartridges are evaluated based on the clarity of their alphanumeric transfers and the clarity of the radial code surrounding the alphanumerics.

Grieve, Taylor N. [Ames Laboratory

2013-03-01

84

NON-INTRUSIVE FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF VISUAL SENSORS USING OUTPUT IMAGES Ashwin Swaminathan, Min Wu and K. J. Ray Liu  

E-print Network

, and develop a set of forensic signal process- ing algorithms for visual sensors based on color array sen- sorNON-INTRUSIVE FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF VISUAL SENSORS USING OUTPUT IMAGES Ashwin Swaminathan, Min Wu. ABSTRACT This paper considers the problem of non-intrusive forensic analysis of the individual components

Liu, K. J. Ray

85

Age estimation in forensic sciences: application of combined aspartic acid racemization and radiocarbon analysis.  

PubMed

Age determination of unknown human bodies is important in the setting of a crime investigation or a mass disaster because the age at death, birth date, and year of death as well as gender can guide investigators to the correct identity among a large number of possible matches. Traditional morphological methods used by anthropologists to determine age are often imprecise, whereas chemical analysis of tooth dentin, such as aspartic acid racemization, has shown reproducible and more precise results. In this study, we analyzed teeth from Swedish individuals using both aspartic acid racemization and radiocarbon methodologies. The rationale behind using radiocarbon analysis is that aboveground testing of nuclear weapons during the cold war (1955-1963) caused an extreme increase in global levels of carbon-14 ((14)C), which has been carefully recorded over time. Forty-four teeth from 41 individuals were analyzed using aspartic acid racemization analysis of tooth crown dentin or radiocarbon analysis of enamel, and 10 of these were split and subjected to both radiocarbon and racemization analysis. Combined analysis showed that the two methods correlated well (R(2) = 0.66, p < 0.05). Radiocarbon analysis showed an excellent precision with an overall absolute error of 1.0 +/- 0.6 years. Aspartic acid racemization also showed a good precision with an overall absolute error of 5.4 +/- 4.2 years. Whereas radiocarbon analysis gives an estimated year of birth, racemization analysis indicates the chronological age of the individual at the time of death. We show how these methods in combination can also assist in the estimation of date of death of an unidentified victim. This strategy can be of significant assistance in forensic casework involving dead victim identification. PMID:19965905

Alkass, Kanar; Buchholz, Bruce A; Ohtani, Susumu; Yamamoto, Toshiharu; Druid, Henrik; Spalding, Kirsty L

2010-05-01

86

Age estimation in forensic sciences: Application of combined aspartic acid racemization and radiocarbon analysis  

SciTech Connect

Age determination of unknown human bodies is important in the setting of a crime investigation or a mass disaster, since the age at death, birth date and year of death, as well as gender, can guide investigators to the correct identity among a large number of possible matches. Traditional morphological methods used by anthropologists to determine age are often imprecise, whereas chemical analysis of tooth dentin, such as aspartic acid racemization has shown reproducible and more precise results. In this paper we analyze teeth from Swedish individuals using both aspartic acid racemization and radiocarbon methodologies. The rationale behind using radiocarbon analysis is that above-ground testing of nuclear weapons during the cold war (1955-1963) caused an extreme increase in global levels of carbon-14 ({sup 14}C) which have been carefully recorded over time. Forty-four teeth from 41 individuals were analyzed using aspartic acid racemization analysis of tooth crown dentin or radiocarbon analysis of enamel and ten of these were split and subjected to both radiocarbon and racemization analysis. Combined analysis showed that the two methods correlated well (R2=0.66, p < 0.05). Radiocarbon analysis showed an excellent precision with an overall absolute error of 0.6 {+-} 04 years. Aspartic acid racemization also showed a good precision with an overall absolute error of 5.4 {+-} 4.2 years. Whereas radiocarbon analysis gives an estimated year of birth, racemization analysis indicates the chronological age of the individual at the time of death. We show how these methods in combination can also assist in the estimation of date of death of an unidentified victim. This strategy can be of significant assistance in forensic casework involving dead victim identification.

Alkass, K; Buchholz, B A; Ohtani, S; Yamamoto, T; Druid, H; Spalding, S L

2009-11-02

87

Radiocarbon analysis of human remains: a review of forensic applications.  

PubMed

Radiocarbon analysis of organic materials, with the comparison of values with those of the post-1950 modern bomb curve, has proven useful in forensic science to help evaluate the antiquity of evidence. Applications are particularly helpful in the study of human remains, especially with those displaying advanced decomposition of soft tissues. Radiocarbon analysis can reveal if the remains relate to the modern, post-1950 era and if so, also provide information needed to evaluate the death and birth date. Sample selection and interpretation of results must be guided by knowledge of the formation and remodeling of different human tissues, as well as contextual information and the approximate age at death of the individual represented. Dental enamel does not remodel and thus captures dietary radiocarbon values at the time of juvenile formation. Most other human tissues do remodel but at differing rates and therefore collectively offer key information relative to the estimation of the death date. PMID:25041129

Ubelaker, Douglas H

2014-11-01

88

Overview of potential forensic analysis of an android smartphone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the forensic examination of Android smartphones. The structure of the Android system was analyzed and a forensic guide was created. As an example this guide was used to examine a HTC Desire. The conclusion of this paper is the fact that all data stored on the smartphone can be examined. The main problem is that some of the used procedures lack forensic requirements.

Sack, Stefan; Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

2012-02-01

89

Analysis of The University of Montana Forensic Case 29.  

E-print Network

??The application of non-metric forensic anthropological techniques produces results that are sometimes not always scientifically valid. Using the commonly accepted techniques to produce a biological… (more)

Haak, Daniel James

2010-01-01

90

Crowd Disasters as Systemic Failures: Analysis of the Love Parade Disaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each year, crowd disasters happen in different areas of the world. How and why do such disasters happen? Are the fatalities caused by relentless behavior of people or a psychological state of panic that makes the crowd 'go mad'? Or are they a tragic consequence of a breakdown of coordination? These and other questions are addressed, based on a qualitative

Dirk Helbing; Pratik Mukerji

91

Forensic analysis of wooden safety matches -- a case study.  

PubMed

In this case, an individual was suspected of attempting to burn materials potentially relating to a murder case. A number of spent and unspent matches were seized at the scene by police for forensic examination. Coincidentally, a police raid at the suspect's house revealed a number of matchboxes, all of the same brand, containing matches that had a visual similarity to those recovered at the scene. Stable Isotope Profiling (SIP) was used to assess whether matches could either be distinguished or shown to be indistinguishable by 13C and 2H isotopic composition. These results were then compared to those from the X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of match heads and microscopy of the wood. SIP showed the scene matches and seized matches to be different, which was confirmed by XRD and microscopy analyses. PMID:17941328

Farmer, N L; Ruffell, A; Meier-Augenstein, W; Meneely, J; Kalin, R M

2007-09-01

92

Towards Automated Deduction in Blackmail Case Analysis with Forensic Lucid  

E-print Network

This work-in-progress focuses on the refinement of application of the intensional logic to cyberforensic analysis and its benefits are compared with the finite-state automata approach. This work extends the use of the scientific intensional programming paradigm onto modeling and implementation of a cyberforensics investigation process with the backtrace of event reconstruction, modeling the evidence as multidimensional hierarchical contexts, and proving or disproving the claims with it in the intensional manner of evaluation. This is a practical, context-aware improvement over the finite state automata (FSA) approach we have seen in the related works. As a base implementation language model we use in this approach is a new dialect of the Lucid programming language, that we call Forensic Lucid and in this paper we focus on defining hierarchical contexts based on the intensional logic for the evaluation of cyberforensic expressions.

Mokhov, Serguei A; Debbabi, Mourad

2009-01-01

93

Forensic Image Analysis of Familiar-based iPAQ  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the PDA forensic issues is the difficulty in maintaining image integrity as two consecutive acquisitions on most PDA platforms could produce different images. JFFS2 used in certain Linux PDA further complicate the forensic process as compression is implemented in this file system. Currently there is not specific tool that can analyse this file system. This paper analyse the

Cheong Kai Wee; Lih Wern Wong

2005-01-01

94

Favorite Demonstration: Forensic Analysis Demonstration via Hawaii Five-O  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The interdisciplinary nature of a forensics-based demonstration encourages science majors to move beyond their own narrow fields of study. The demonstration described in this column emphasizes the interconnectedness of biology, chemistry, and geology. Forensic-based demonstrations such as this can also be used to introduce the protocols governing the application of discipline specific information to other fields of study.

Shmaefsky, Brian R.

2006-09-01

95

Rapid Disaster Analysis based on Remote Sensing: A Case Study about the Tohoku Tsunami Disaster 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we present first results of RAPIDMAP, a project funded by European Union in a framework aiming to foster the cooperation of European countries with Japan in R&D. The main objective of RAPIDMAP is to construct a Decision Support System (DSS) based on remote sensing data and WebGIS technologies, where users can easily access real-time information assisting with disaster analysis. In this paper, we present a case study of the Tohoku Tsunami Disaster 2011. We address two approaches namely change detection based on SAR data and co-registration of optical and SAR satellite images. With respect to SAR data, our efforts are subdivided into three parts: (1) initial coarse change detection for entire area, (2) flood area detection, and (3) linearfeature change detection. The investigations are based on pre- and post-event TerraSAR-X images. In (1), two pre- and post-event TerraSAR-X images are accurately co-registered and radiometrically calibrated. Data are fused in a false-color image that provides a quick and rough overview of potential changes, which is useful for initial decision making and identifying areas worthwhile to be analysed further in more depth. However, a bunch of inevitable false alarms appear within the scene caused by speckle, temporal decorrelation, co-registration inaccuracy and so on. In (2), the post-event TerraSAR-X data are used to extract the flood area by using thresholding and morphological approaches. The validated result indicates that using SAR data combining with suitable morphological approaches is a quick and effective way to detect flood area. Except for usage of SAR data, the false-color image composed of optical images are also used to detect flood area for further exploration in this part. In (3), Curvelet filtering is applied in the difference image of pre- and post-event TerraSAR-X images not only to suppress false alarms of irregular-features, but also to enhance the change signals of linear-features (e.g. buildings) in settlements. Afterwards, thresholding is exploited to extract the linear-feature changes. In rapid mapping of disasters various sensors are often employed, including optical and SAR, since they provide complementary information. Such data needs to be analyzed in an integrated fashion and the results from each dataset should be integrated in a GIS with a common coordinate reference system. Thus, if no orthoimages can be generated, the images should be co-registered employing matching of common features. We present results of co-registration between optical (FORMOSAT-2) and TerraSAR-X images based on different matching methods, and also techniques for detecting and eliminating matching errors.

Yang, C. H.; Soergel, U.; Lanaras, Ch.; Baltsavias, E.; Cho, K.; Remondino, F.; Wakabayashi, H.

2014-09-01

96

Virtopsy - the concept of a centralized database in forensic medicine for analysis and comparison of radiological and autopsy data.  

PubMed

Recent developments in clinical radiology have resulted in additional developments in the field of forensic radiology. After implementation of cross-sectional radiology and optical surface documentation in forensic medicine, difficulties in the validation and analysis of the acquired data was experienced. To address this problem and for the comparison of autopsy and radiological data a centralized database with internet technology for forensic cases was created. The main goals of the database are (1) creation of a digital and standardized documentation tool for forensic-radiological and pathological findings; (2) establishing a basis for validation of forensic cross-sectional radiology as a non-invasive examination method in forensic medicine that means comparing and evaluating the radiological and autopsy data and analyzing the accuracy of such data; and (3) providing a conduit for continuing research and education in forensic medicine. Considering the infrequent availability of CT or MRI for forensic institutions and the heterogeneous nature of case material in forensic medicine an evaluation of benefits and limitations of cross-sectional imaging concerning certain forensic features by a single institution may be of limited value. A centralized database permitting international forensic and cross disciplinary collaborations may provide important support for forensic-radiological casework and research. PMID:18313007

Aghayev, Emin; Staub, Lukas; Dirnhofer, Richard; Ambrose, Tony; Jackowski, Christian; Yen, Kathrin; Bolliger, Stephan; Christe, Andreas; Roeder, Christoph; Aebi, Max; Thali, Michael J

2008-04-01

97

A Process Model for Forensic Analysis of Symbian Smart Phones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The smartphone segment has been witnessed the fastest growth in the handset market.Traditional phones will be replaced by\\u000a smart phones. At the same time, smart phones may be used for fraud, forgery and defamation and other criminal activities.Symbian\\u000a smartphones forensics is relatively a new field of interest among scientific and law enforcement.There are various mobile\\u000a phones forensics process models now.

Xian Yu; Lie-Hui Jiang; Hui Shu; Qing Yin; Tie-Ming Liu

98

A meta-analysis of risk factors for depression in adults and children after natural disasters  

PubMed Central

Background A number of studies have shown a range of negative psychological symptoms (e.g. depression) after exposure to natural disasters. The aim of this study was to determine risk factors for depression in both children and adults who have survived natural disasters. Methods Four electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and PsychInfo) were used to search for observational studies (case–control, cross-sectional, and cohort studies) about depression following natural disasters. The literature search, study selection, and data extraction were conducted independently by two authors. Thirty-one articles were included in the study, of which twenty included adult participants and eleven included child participants. Summary estimates were obtained using random-effects models. Subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, and publication bias tests were performed on the data. Results The prevalence of depression after natural disasters ranged from 5.8% to 54.0% in adults and from 7.5% to 44.8% in children. We found a number of risk factors for depression after exposure to natural disasters. For adults, the significant predictors were being female ;not married;holding religious beliefs; having poor education; prior trauma; experiencing fear, injury, or bereavement during the disaster; or losing employment or property, suffering house damage as a result of the disaster. For children, the significant predictors were prior trauma; being trapped during the disaster; experiencing injury, fear, or bereavement during the disaster; witnessing injury/death during the disaster; or having poor social support. Conclusions The current analysis provides evidence of risk factors for depression in survivors of natural disasters. Further research is necessary to design interventions to improve the mental health of survivors of natural disasters. PMID:24941890

2014-01-01

99

"New turns from old STaRs": Enhancing the capabilities of forensic short tandem repeat analysis.  

PubMed

The field of research and development of forensic STR genotyping remains active, innovative, and focused on continuous improvements. A series of recent developments including the introduction of a sixth dye have brought expanded STR multiplex sizes while maintaining sensitivity to typical forensic DNA. New supplementary kits complimenting the core STRs have also helped improve analysis of challenging identification cases such as distant pairwise relationships in deficient pedigrees. This article gives an overview of several recent key developments in forensic STR analysis: availability of expanded core STR kits and supplementary STRs, short-amplicon mini-STRs offering practical options for highly degraded DNA, Y-STR enhancements made from the identification of rapidly mutating loci, and enhanced analysis of genetic ancestry by analyzing 32-STR profiles with a Bayesian forensic classifier originally developed for SNP population data. As well as providing scope for genotyping larger numbers of STRs optimized for forensic applications, the launch of compact next-generation sequencing systems provides considerable potential for genotyping the sizeable proportion of nucleotide variation existing in forensic STRs, which currently escapes detection with CE. PMID:24888494

Phillips, Christopher; Gelabert-Besada, Miguel; Fernandez-Formoso, Luis; García-Magariños, Manuel; Santos, Carla; Fondevila, Manuel; Ballard, David; Syndercombe Court, Denise; Carracedo, Angel; Victoria Lareu, Maria

2014-11-01

100

Stable Isotope Ratios and the Forensic Analysis of Microorganisms  

SciTech Connect

In the aftermath of the anthrax letters of 2001, researchers have been exploring various analytical signatures for the purpose of characterizing the production environment of microorganisms. One such signature is stable isotope ratios, which in heterotrophs are a function of nutrient and water sources. Here we discuss the use of stable isotope ratios in microbe forensics, using as a database the carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope ratios of 247 separate cultures of B. subtilis 6051 spores produced on a total of 32 different culture media. In the context of using stable isotope ratios as a signature for sample matching, we present an analysis of variation between individual samples, between cultures produced in tandem, and between cultures produced in the same medium but at different times. Additionally, we correlate the stable isotope ratios of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen for growth medium nutrients or water with those of spores and show examples of how these relationships can be used to exclude nutrient or water samples as possible growth substrates for specific cultures.

Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.; Jarman, Kristin H.

2007-06-01

101

The Gender Analysis Tools Applied in Natural Disasters Management: A Systematic Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Background: Although natural disasters have caused considerable damages around the world, and gender analysis can improve community disaster preparedness or mitigation, there is little research about the gendered analytical tools and methods in communities exposed to natural disasters and hazards. These tools evaluate gender vulnerability and capacity in pre-disaster and post-disaster phases of the disaster management cycle. Objectives: Identifying the analytical gender tools and the strengths and limitations of them as well as determining gender analysis studies which had emphasized on the importance of using gender analysis in disasters. Methods: The literature search was conducted in June 2013 using PubMed, Web of Sciences, ProQuest Research Library, World Health Organization Library, Gender and Disaster Network (GDN) archive. All articles, guidelines, fact sheets and other materials that provided an analytical framework for a gender analysis approach in disasters were included and the non-English documents as well as gender studies of non-disasters area were excluded. Analysis of the included studies was done separately by descriptive and thematic analyses. Results: A total of 207 documents were retrieved, of which only nine references were included. Of these, 45% were in form of checklist, 33% case study report, and the remaining 22% were article. All selected papers were published within the period 1994-2012. Conclusions: A focus on women’s vulnerability in the related research and the lack of valid and reliable gender analysis tools were considerable issues identified by the literature review. Although non-English literatures with English abstract were included in the study, the possible exclusion of non-English ones was found as the limitation of this study. PMID:24678441

Sohrabizadeh, Sanaz; Tourani, Sogand; Khankeh, Hamid Reza

2014-01-01

102

Analysis of media agenda setting during and after Hurricane Katrina: implications for emergency preparedness, disaster response, and disaster policy.  

PubMed

Media agenda setting refers to the deliberate coverage of topics or events with the goal of influencing public opinion and public policy. We conducted a quantitative content analysis of 4 prominent newspapers to examine how the media gathered and distributed news to shape public policy priorities during Hurricane Katrina. The media framed most Hurricane Katrina stories by emphasizing government response and less often addressing individuals' and communities' level of preparedness or responsibility. Hence, more articles covered response and recovery than mitigation and preparation. The newspapers studied focused significantly more on government response than on key public health roles in disaster management. We discuss specific implications for public health professionals, policymakers, and mass media so that, in the future, coordination can be enhanced among these entities before, during, and after disasters occur. PMID:18309133

Barnes, Michael D; Hanson, Carl L; Novilla, Len M B; Meacham, Aaron T; McIntyre, Emily; Erickson, Brittany C

2008-04-01

103

Legal Aspects of Obtaining Evidence for Analysis by Forensic Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Through the examination of trace evidence, many forensic techniques can establish a link between a suspect and the scene of a crime. Blood, saliva, semen, hairs, fibers, soils, glass, and fingerprints have all been used in this manner. All these methods r...

P. C. Gianelli

1973-01-01

104

A Mutli-Agent System for Firewall Forensics Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer Forensics applies law to fight against unlawful and illegitimate use of computers and networks. It employs investigation methods to solve computer crimes. Knowing that the firewall is the unique input and output in a network, it is considered as the ideal location for recording network activities. The firewall log files trace all incoming and outgoing events in a network.

Nacira Ghoualmi Hassina Bensefia

2011-01-01

105

A Mutli-Agent System for Firewall Forensics Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer Forensics applies law to fight against unlawful and illegitimate use of computers and networks. It employs investigation methods to solve computer crimes. Knowing that the firewall is the unique input and output in a network, it is considered as the ideal location for recording network activities. The firewall log files trace all incoming and outgoing events in a network.

Hassina Bensefia; Nacira Ghoualmi

106

Paint Analysis Using Visible Reflectance Spectroscopy: An Undergraduate Forensic Lab  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study of forensic science is found throughout undergraduate programs in growing numbers, both as stand-alone courses as well as specific examples within existing courses. Part of the driving force for this trend is the ability to apply common chemistry techniques to everyday situations, all couched in the context of a mystery that must be…

Hoffman, Erin M.; Beussman, Douglas J.

2007-01-01

107

Forensic elemental analysis of materials by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Materials analysis and characterization can provide important information as evidence in legal proceedings. Although the utility of trace elemental analyses for comparisons of glass, paint chips, bullet lead and metal fragments has been shown to offer a high degree of discrimination between different sources of these materials, the instrumentation required for the generation of good analytical data in forensic comparisons can be beyond the reach of many forensic laboratories. Scanning Electron Microscopy with an Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (SEM-EDS), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (LA-ICP-AES) and, more recently, LA-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) have been used in forensic laboratories for elemental analysis determinations. A newly developed Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument (Foster and Freeman Ltd., Evesham, U.K.) has been evaluated as a tool for the forensic elemental analysis of glass and compared in performance to other elemental methods in order to determine the utility of comparing casework sized glass samples. Developments in the instrumental design of this LIBS system, which is specifically designed to address the analytical requirements of the forensic laboratory, are presented. The utility of the LIBS system for the analysis of glass, paint, metals, gun shot residue and other matrices are also presented. The power of the LIBS-based elemental analysis to discriminate between different glass samples is also compared to the discrimination power of SEM-EDS, XRF and LA-ICP-MS. The relatively low cost (expected to be $ 60,000.), ease of operation and almost non-destructive nature of the LIBS analysis makes the technique a viable forensic elemental analysis tool.

Almirall, Jose R.; Umpierrez, Sayuri; Castro, Waleska; Gornushkin, Igor; Winefordner, James

2005-05-01

108

A Simple Cost-Effective Framework for iPhone Forensic Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Apple iPhone has made significant impact on the society both as a handheld computing device and as a cellular phone. Due to the unique hardware system as well as storage structure, iPhone has already attracted the forensic community in digital investigation of the device. Currently available commercial products and methodologies for iPhone forensics are somewhat expensive, complex and often require additional hardware for analysis. Some products are not robust and often fail to extract optimal evidence without modifying the iPhone firmware which makes the analysis questionable in legal platforms. In this paper, we present a simple and inexpensive framework (iFF) for iPhone forensic analysis. Through experimental results using real device, we have shown the effectiveness of this framework in extracting digital evidence from an iPhone.

Husain, Mohammad Iftekhar; Baggili, Ibrahim; Sridhar, Ramalingam

109

A critical analysis of the South African Disaster Management Act and Policy Framework.  

PubMed

The promulgation of the South African Disaster Management Act No. 57 of 2002 and the National Disaster Management Policy Framework of 2005 placed South Africa at the international forefront by integrating disaster risk reduction into all spheres of government through a decentralised approach. Yet, good policy and legislation do not necessarily translate into good practice. This paper provides a critical analysis of the Act and Policy Framework. Using qualitative research methods, it analyses the attitudes and perceptions of senior public officials on all levels of government, the private sector and academia. The study finds that one of the weakest aspects of the Act and Framework is the absence of clear guidance to local municipalities. The placement of the disaster risk management function on all tiers of government remains problematic, funding is inadequate and overall knowledge and capacities for disaster risk reduction are insufficient. PMID:25196341

van Niekerk, Dewald

2014-10-01

110

Validation of a framework for measuring hospital disaster resilience using factor analysis.  

PubMed

Hospital disaster resilience can be defined as "the ability of hospitals to resist, absorb, and respond to the shock of disasters while maintaining and surging essential health services, and then to recover to its original state or adapt to a new one." This article aims to provide a framework which can be used to comprehensively measure hospital disaster resilience. An evaluation framework for assessing hospital resilience was initially proposed through a systematic literature review and Modified-Delphi consultation. Eight key domains were identified: hospital safety, command, communication and cooperation system, disaster plan, resource stockpile, staff capability, disaster training and drills, emergency services and surge capability, and recovery and adaptation. The data for this study were collected from 41 tertiary hospitals in Shandong Province in China, using a specially designed questionnaire. Factor analysis was conducted to determine the underpinning structure of the framework. It identified a four-factor structure of hospital resilience, namely, emergency medical response capability (F1), disaster management mechanisms (F2), hospital infrastructural safety (F3), and disaster resources (F4). These factors displayed good internal consistency. The overall level of hospital disaster resilience (F) was calculated using the scoring model: F = 0.615F1 + 0.202F2 + 0.103F3 + 0.080F4. This validated framework provides a new way to operationalise the concept of hospital resilience, and it is also a foundation for the further development of the measurement instrument in future studies. PMID:24945190

Zhong, Shuang; Clark, Michele; Hou, Xiang-Yu; Zang, Yuli; FitzGerald, Gerard

2014-06-01

111

Analysis of genetic markers in forensic DNA samples using the polymerase chain reaction.  

PubMed

The ability to extract and type DNA from forensic evidentiary samples has revolutionized the field of forensic serology. Previously, genetic marker typing was limited to the analysis of blood group markers and soluble polymorphic protein markers. Because the number of suitable markers expressed in particular fluids and tissues is relatively small, and because mixtures of fluids cannot be separated for conventional genetic marker typing, a suspect frequently cannot be included or excluded as a fluid donor in a case. However, the development of methods to extract DNA from virtually all biological specimens has greatly expanded the potential for individual identification. Of particular importance was the ability to extract mixtures of sperm cells and epithelial cells found in sexual assault cases such that the DNA from the sperm cells could be typed independently of the DNA from the victim's epithelial cells. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was the first DNA-based method applied to problems of individual identification. This method, while powerful in its ability to differentiate individuals, is limited by the quantity and quality of DNA required for an unambiguous result and by the amount of time it takes to obtain a result. Despite these limitations, several laboratories are using RFLP analysis successfully for the detection of polymorphisms in forensic DNA case samples. While the field of forensic serology was being revolutionized by the prospect of DNA analysis, the field of molecular biology was being revolutionized by the invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which ultimately has had an impact on every area of biological science. The PCR DNA amplification technology is ideally suited for the analysis of forensic DNA samples in that it is sensitive and rapid and not as limited by the quality of DNA as the RFLP method. The focus of this article is the use of the PCR for typing genetic markers, and we will address specifically the special considerations that arise from applying DNA amplification and typing technology to forensic materials. PMID:1687345

Reynolds, R; Sensabaugh, G; Blake, E

1991-01-01

112

Characterization of background and pyrolysis products that may interfere with the forensic analysis of fire debris  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important aspect of an investigation of a suspected arson case involves the chemical analysis of the debris remaining after the fire. Forensic chemists apply the tools of analytical chemistry for the extraction, isolation and analysis of the target compounds that characterize ignitable liquid residues (ILR). Complex organic mixtures such as automobile gasoline, diesel fuel and other volatile mixtures that

José R Almirall; Kenneth G Furton

2004-01-01

113

Recent advances in the applications of forensic science to fire debris analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The forensic discipline of ignitable liquid and fire debris analysis is rapidly changing. Refinements in existing methods as well as development of new techniques are changing the routine methods of analysis. Optimization of existing extraction techniques and research into novel methods of extracting debris have improved the recovery of ignitable liquids from debris samples. The application of highly specialized instrumentation

J. Dolan

2003-01-01

114

Forensic analysis of social networking application on iOS devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increased use of social networking application on iPhone and iPad make these devices a goldmine for forensic investigators. Besides, QQ, Wechat, Sina Weibo and skype applications are very popular in China and didn't draw attention to researchers. These social networking applications are used not only on computers, but also mobile phones and tablets. This paper focuses on conducting forensic analysis on these four social networking applications on iPhone and iPad devices. The tests consisted of installing the social networking applications on each device, conducting common user activities through each application and correlation analysis with other activities. Advices to the forensic investigators are also given. It could help the investigators to describe the crime behavior and reconstruct the crime venue.

Zhang, Shuhui; Wang, Lianhai

2013-12-01

115

Lecture Notes On Forensic Law  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers lecture notes relating to an introductory survey course on forensic science. It is designed to provide a comprehensive understanding and analysis of technical and legal issues involving forensic techniques. The lectures, focus on traditional subjects relating to the services of crime laboratories,but also deals with allied subjects,including forensic psychiatry, forensic pathology, and social science.

O'Connor, Tom

2011-07-14

116

Scenario-based impact analysis of disaster risks exploring potential implications for disaster prevention strategies in spatial and urban planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The project deals with scenario techniques to assess, estimate, and communicate the potential consequences of natural disasters on risk governance arrangements. It aims to create a methodology which allows the development of disaster scenarios for different types of natural hazards. This enables relevant stakeholders to derive planning strategies to prevent harmful damage to the community through adequate adaptation. Some main questions in the project are: - How do changing boundary conditions in economic, social and ecological systems influence the significance and the benefit of existent risk analysis as a basis for spatial planning decisions? - Which factors represent or influence the forecast uncertainty of existent extrapolations within the scope of risk analysis? Which of these uncertainties have spatial relevance? (Which go beyond sectoral considerations of risk? Which refer to reservations concerning spatial development? Which influence a community as a whole?) - How can we quantify these uncertainties? Do they change according to altered hazards or vulnerabilities? - How does the explored risk vary, once quantified uncertainties are integrated into current extrapolations? What are the implications for spatial planning activities? - Which software application is suitable to visualize and communicate the scenario methodology? The work is mainly based on existing results of previous hazard analysis and vulnerability studies which have been carried out by the Center of Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM) for the federal state of Baden-Württemberg. Existing data concern the risk of damages on residential buildings, industrial and traffic infrastructure, social and economic vulnerability. We will link this data with various assumptions of potentially changing economic, social and built environments and visualize those using Geographical Information Systems (GIS). Although the scenario methodology is conceived as a multi-hazard oriented and transferable instrument, it may be helpful to demonstrate the methodology for one hazard (e.g. flooding hazards) and with special local conditions in Baden-Württemberg.

Lüke, J.; Wenzel, F.; Vogt, J.

2009-04-01

117

Virtopsy – The concept of a centralized database in forensic medicine for analysis and comparison of radiological and autopsy data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in clinical radiology have resulted in additional developments in the field of forensic radiology. After implementation of cross-sectional radiology and optical surface documentation in forensic medicine, difficulties in the validation and analysis of the acquired data was experienced. To address this problem and for the comparison of autopsy and radiological data a centralized database with internet technology for

Emin Aghayev; Lukas Staub; Richard Dirnhofer; Tony Ambrose; Christian Jackowski; Kathrin Yen; Stephan Bolliger; Andreas Christe; Christoph Roeder; Max Aebi; Michael J. Thali

2008-01-01

118

Comparative Analysis of the Variability of Facial Landmarks for Forensics Using CCTV Images  

E-print Network

Comparative Analysis of the Variability of Facial Landmarks for Forensics Using CCTV Images Ruben images acquired from CCTV images. This type of images presents a very low quality and a large range from CCTV cameras and other low quality sources, which make the task really difficult. Many different

Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

119

Escape from Psychiatrization: A Statistical Analysis of Referrals to a Forensic Unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors offer a pertinent review of statistical studies concerning the psychiatric disorders in jail populations and present their statistical analysis of a group of 272 mentally ill inmates seen for competency evaluation at the Milwaukee County Mental Health Forensic Unit during a period of three years. The mentally ill pseudo-offenders have been divided by type of offense and typology

George B. Palermo; Edward J. Gumz; Maurice B. Smith; Frank J. Liska

1992-01-01

120

Analysis and Implementation of NTFS File System Based on Computer Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

NTFS, which restores and manages the important data, is a common file system in Windows Operating System,. Tapping and analyzing the useful data of the NTFS file system has become an important means of current computer forensic. Through detailed analysis and research on the storage principles of the NTFS file system, the object-oriented method is put forward to design NTFS

Zhang Kai; Cheng En; Gao Qinquan

2010-01-01

121

Forensic Analysis of Illicit Drugs and Trace Explosives using Ambient Pressure  

E-print Network

Forensic Analysis of Illicit Drugs and Trace Explosives using Ambient Pressure Ionization Mass · Performance of Mass Spectrometers and MS/MS (chemical speciation and identification) ­ No need surfaces Typical enhancement of 10x but have seen up to 2000x enhancement Liquid: Nebulizer Assisted DESI

Perkins, Richard A.

122

Forensic Anthropology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this AHS Capstone project, the aim was to explore issues in the identification and interpretation of human bones: sex, age, stature, ancestry, pathology, and anomalies. The reconstruction of individuals and their lifestyles and role of forensic anthropology in mass fatalities were focus of this social behavioral analysis as well.

Christina Cary

2008-01-01

123

The dead do not dress: contribution of forensic anthropology experiments to burial practices analysis  

E-print Network

, etc.) Keywords: burial archaeology, forensic sciences, decomposition process, clothing, wrappingThe dead do not dress: contribution of forensic anthropology experiments to burial practices Forensic Unit Laboratory of Anatomy, Biomechanics and Organogenesis (LABO), Université Libre de Bruxelles

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

124

Analysis of mRNA from human heart tissue and putative applications in forensic molecular pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usefulness of post-mortem mRNA analysis and its potential applications in forensic casework is currently of interest, especially because of several factors affecting the quality of RNA samples that are not practically predictable. In fact, post-mortem RNA degradation is a complex process that has not been studied systematically. The purpose of this work is to establish whether RNA analysis from

Sara Partemi; Paola M. Berne; Montserrat Batlle; Antonio Berruezo; Luis Mont; Helena Riuró; José T. Ortiz; Eulalia Roig; Vincenzo L. Pascali; Ramon Brugada; Josep Brugada; Antonio Oliva

2010-01-01

125

Real-time forensic DNA analysis at a crime scene using a portable microchip analyzer  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated lab-on-a-chip system has been developed and successfully utilized for real-time forensic short tandem repeat (STR) analysis. The microdevice comprises a 160-nL polymerase chain reaction reactor with an on-chip heater and a temperature sensor for thermal cycling, microvalves for fluidic manipulation, a co-injector for sizing standard injection, and a 7-cm-long separation channel for capillary electrophoretic analysis. A 9-plex autosomal

Peng Liu; Stephanie H. I. Yeung; Karin A. Crenshaw; Cecelia A. Crouse; James R. Scherer; Richard A. Mathies

2008-01-01

126

Neutron activation analysis of dental metals with regard to forensic odontology (dental identification)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In cases of complicated identifications the neutron activation analysis of dental metals may inform more than usual descriptions\\u000a of the teeth including X-rays. Identifications would become more effective in the field of forensic stomatology by adding\\u000a “pilot” elements into the alloys of dental metals by the factories. The neutron activation analysis of dental metals from\\u000a Halsbrücke (GDR) are discussed and

K. Rötzscher; S. Mende; J. Flachowsky; M. Geisler; H.-J. Wehran

1973-01-01

127

Forensic trace DNA: a review.  

PubMed

DNA analysis is frequently used to acquire information from biological material to aid enquiries associated with criminal offences, disaster victim identification and missing persons investigations. As the relevance and value of DNA profiling to forensic investigations has increased, so too has the desire to generate this information from smaller amounts of DNA. Trace DNA samples may be defined as any sample which falls below recommended thresholds at any stage of the analysis, from sample detection through to profile interpretation, and can not be defined by a precise picogram amount. Here we review aspects associated with the collection, DNA extraction, amplification, profiling and interpretation of trace DNA samples. Contamination and transfer issues are also briefly discussed within the context of trace DNA analysis. Whilst several methodological changes have facilitated profiling from trace samples in recent years it is also clear that many opportunities exist for further improvements. PMID:21122102

van Oorschot, Roland Ah; Ballantyne, Kaye N; Mitchell, R John

2010-01-01

128

Forensic trace DNA: a review  

PubMed Central

DNA analysis is frequently used to acquire information from biological material to aid enquiries associated with criminal offences, disaster victim identification and missing persons investigations. As the relevance and value of DNA profiling to forensic investigations has increased, so too has the desire to generate this information from smaller amounts of DNA. Trace DNA samples may be defined as any sample which falls below recommended thresholds at any stage of the analysis, from sample detection through to profile interpretation, and can not be defined by a precise picogram amount. Here we review aspects associated with the collection, DNA extraction, amplification, profiling and interpretation of trace DNA samples. Contamination and transfer issues are also briefly discussed within the context of trace DNA analysis. Whilst several methodological changes have facilitated profiling from trace samples in recent years it is also clear that many opportunities exist for further improvements. PMID:21122102

2010-01-01

129

[The use of the expert BIO-RAD REMEDi HS Drug Profiling System in forensic chemical analysis].  

PubMed

Urgent toxicology expert BIO-RAD REMEDi HS Drug Profiling System can be used for forensic chemical analysis of biological fluids extracted from biological material and viscera as a tentative test. PMID:10224925

Volkov, A A

1999-01-01

130

Portable XRF and principal component analysis for bill characterization in forensic science.  

PubMed

Several modern techniques have been applied to prevent counterfeiting of money bills. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the potential of Portable X-ray Fluorescence (PXRF) technique and the multivariate analysis method of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for classification of bills in order to use it in forensic science. Bills of Dollar, Euro and Real (Brazilian currency) were measured directly at different colored regions, without any previous preparation. Spectra interpretation allowed the identification of Ca, Ti, Fe, Cu, Sr, Y, Zr and Pb. PCA analysis separated the bills in three groups and subgroups among Brazilian currency. In conclusion, the samples were classified according to its origin identifying the elements responsible for differentiation and basic pigment composition. PXRF allied to multivariate discriminate methods is a promising technique for rapid and no destructive identification of false bills in forensic science. PMID:24393811

Appoloni, C R; Melquiades, F L

2014-02-01

131

Forensic Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a review of articles appealing to forensic practitioners. Topics include: drugs and poisons, forensic biochemistry, and trace evidence. Lists noteworthy books published on forensic science topics since 1986. (MVL)

Brettell, T. A.; Saferstein, R.

1989-01-01

132

Visual attention and expertise for forensic signature analysis.  

PubMed

Eye tracking was used to measure visual attention of nine forensic document examiners (FDEs) and 12 control subjects on a blind signature comparison trial. Subjects evaluated 32 questioned signatures (16 genuine, eight disguised, and eight forged) which were compared, on screen, with four known signatures of the specimen provider while their eye movements, response times, and opinions were recorded. FDEs' opinions were significantly more accurate than controls, providing further evidence of FDE expertise. Both control and FDE subjects looked at signature features in a very similar way and the difference in the accuracy of their opinions can be accounted for by different cognitive processing of the visual information that they extract from the images. In a separate experiment the FDEs re-examined a reordered set of the same 32 questioned signatures. In this phase each signature was presented for only 100 msec to test if eye movements are relevant in forming opinions; performance significantly dropped, but not to chance levels indicating that the examination process comprises a combination of both global and local feature extraction strategies. PMID:17199627

Dyer, Adrian G; Found, Bryan; Rogers, Doug

2006-11-01

133

State of the art in risk analysis of workforce criticality influencing disaster preparedness for interdependent systems.  

PubMed

The objective of this article is to discuss a needed paradigm shift in disaster risk analysis to emphasize the role of the workforce in managing the recovery of interdependent infrastructure and economic systems. Much of the work that has been done on disaster risk analysis has focused primarily on preparedness and recovery strategies for disrupted infrastructure systems. The reliability of systems such as transportation, electric power, and telecommunications is crucial in sustaining business processes, supply chains, and regional livelihoods, as well as ensuring the availability of vital services in the aftermath of disasters. There has been a growing momentum in recognizing workforce criticality in the aftermath of disasters; nevertheless, significant gaps still remain in modeling, assessing, and managing workforce disruptions and their associated ripple effects to other interdependent systems. The workforce plays a pivotal role in ensuring that a disrupted region continues to function and subsequently recover from the adverse effects of disasters. With this in mind, this article presents a review of recent studies that have underscored the criticality of workforce sectors in formulating synergistic preparedness and recovery policies for interdependent infrastructure and regional economic systems. PMID:24593287

Santos, Joost R; Herrera, Lucia Castro; Yu, Krista Danielle S; Pagsuyoin, Sheree Ann T; Tan, Raymond R

2014-06-01

134

Blood species identification for forensic purposes using Raman spectroscopy combined with advanced statistical analysis.  

PubMed

Forensic analysis has become one of the most growing areas of analytical chemistry in recent years. The ability to determine the species of origin of a body fluid sample is a very important and crucial part of a forensic investigation. We introduce here a new technique which utilizes a modern analytical method based on the combination of Raman spectroscopy and advanced statistics to analyze the composition of blood traces from different species. Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy (NIR) was used to analyze multiple dry samples of human, canine, and feline blood for the ultimate application to forensic species identification. All of the spectra were combined into a single data matrix, and the number of principle components that described the system was determined using multiple statistical methods such as significant factor analysis (SFA), principle component analysis (PCA), and several cross-validation methods. Of the six principle components that were determined to be present, the first three, which contributed over 90% to the spectral data of the system, were used to form a three-dimensional scores plot that clearly showed significant separation between the three groups of species. Ellipsoids representing a 99% confidence interval surrounding each species group showed no overlap. This technique using Raman spectroscopy is nondestructive and quick and can potentially be performed at the scene of a crime. PMID:19670872

Virkler, Kelly; Lednev, Igor K

2009-09-15

135

Application of mass spectrometry to hair analysis for forensic toxicological investigations.  

PubMed

The increasing role of hair analysis in forensic toxicological investigations principally owes to recent improvements of mass spectrometric instrumentation. Research achievements during the last 6 years in this distinctive application area of analytical toxicology are reviewed. The earlier state of the art of hair analysis was comprehensively covered by a dedicated book (Kintz, 2007a. Analytical and practical aspects of drug testing in hair. Boca Raton: CRC Press and Taylor & Francis, 382 p) that represents key reference of the present overview. Whereas the traditional organization of analytical methods in forensic toxicology divided target substances into quite homogeneous groups of drugs, with similar structures and chemical properties, the current approach often takes advantage of the rapid expansion of multiclass and multiresidue analytical procedures; the latter is made possible by the fast operation and extreme sensitivity of modern mass spectrometers. This change in the strategy of toxicological analysis is reflected in the presentation of the recent literature material, which is mostly based on a fit-for-purpose logic. Thus, general screening of unknown substances is applied in diverse forensic contexts than drugs of abuse testing, and different instrumentation (triple quadrupoles, time-of-flight analyzers, linear and orbital traps) is utilized to optimally cope with the scope. Other key issues of modern toxicology, such as cost reduction and high sample throughput, are discussed with reference to procedural and instrumental alternatives. PMID:23165962

Vincenti, Marco; Salomone, Alberto; Gerace, Enrico; Pirro, Valentina

2013-01-01

136

Forensic soil DNA analysis using high-throughput sequencing: A comparison of four molecular markers.  

PubMed

Soil analysis, such as mineralogy, geophysics, texture and colour, are commonly used in forensic casework to link a suspect to a crime scene. However, DNA analysis can also be applied to characterise the vast diversity of organisms present in soils. DNA metabarcoding and high-throughput sequencing (HTS) now offer a means to improve discrimination between forensic soil samples by identifying individual taxa and exploring non-culturable microbial species. Here, we compare the small-scale reproducibility and resolution of four molecular markers targeting different taxa (bacterial 16S rRNA, eukaryotic18S rRNA, plant trnL intron and fungal internal transcribed spacer I (ITS1) rDNA) to distinguish two sample sites. We also assess the background DNA level associated with each marker and examine the effects of filtering Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) detected in extraction blank controls. From this study, we show that non-bacterial taxa in soil, particularly fungi, can provide the greatest resolution between the sites, whereas plant markers may be problematic for forensic discrimination. ITS and 18S markers exhibit reliable amplification, and both show high discriminatory power with low background DNA levels. The 16S rRNA marker showed comparable discriminatory power post filtering; however, presented the highest level of background DNA. The discriminatory power of all markers was increased by applying OTU filtering steps, with the greatest improvement observed by the removal of any sequences detected in extraction blanks. This study demonstrates the potential use of multiple DNA markers for forensic soil analysis using HTS, and identifies some of the standardisation and evaluation steps necessary before this technique can be applied in casework. PMID:25151602

Young, Jennifer M; Weyrich, Laura S; Cooper, Alan

2014-11-01

137

InnoDB Database Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whenever data is being processed, there are many places where parts of the data are temporarily stored; thus forensic analysis can reveal past activities, create a (partial) timeline and recover deleted data. While this fact is well known for computer forensics, multiple forensic tools exist to analyze data and the systematic analysis of database systems has only recently begun. This

Peter Fruhwirt; Marcus Huber; Martin Mulazzani; Edgar R. Weippl

2010-01-01

138

Disaster victim identification: new applications for postmortem computed tomography.  

PubMed

Mass fatalities can present the forensic anthropologist and forensic pathologist with a different set of challenges to those presented by a single fatality. To date radiography has played an important role in the disaster victim identification (DVI) process. The aim of this paper is to highlight the benefits of applying computed tomography (CT) technology to the DVI process. The paper begins by reviewing the extent to which sophisticated imaging techniques, specifically CT, have been increasingly used to assist in the analysis of deceased individuals. A small scale case study is then presented which describes aspects of the DVI process following a recent Australian aviation disaster involving two individuals. Having grided the scene of the disaster, a total of 41 bags of heavily disrupted human remains were collected. A postmortem examination was subsequently undertaken. Analysis of the CT images of all body parts (n = 162) made it possible not only to identify and side differentially preserved skeletal elements which were anatomically unrecognizable in the heavily disrupted body masses, but also to observe and record useful identifying features such as surgical implants. In this case the role of the forensic anthropologist and CT technology were paramount in facilitating a quick identification, and subsequently, an effective and timely reconciliation, of body parts. Although this case study is small scale, it illustrates the enormous potential for CT imaging to complement the existing DVI process. PMID:18547358

Blau, Soren; Robertson, Shelley; Johnstone, Marnie

2008-07-01

139

Monte Carlo analysis of thermochromatography as a fast separation method for nuclear forensics  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear forensic science has become increasingly important for global nuclear security, and enhancing the timeliness of forensic analysis has been established as an important objective in the field. New, faster techniques must be developed to meet this objective. Current approaches for the analysis of minor actinides, fission products, and fuel-specific materials require time-consuming chemical separation coupled with measurement through either nuclear counting or mass spectrometry. These very sensitive measurement techniques can be hindered by impurities or incomplete separation in even the most painstaking chemical separations. High-temperature gas-phase separation or thermochromatography has been used in the past for the rapid separations in the study of newly created elements and as a basis for chemical classification of that element. This work examines the potential for rapid separation of gaseous species to be applied in nuclear forensic investigations. Monte Carlo modeling has been used to evaluate the potential utility of the thermochromatographic separation method, albeit this assessment is necessarily limited due to the lack of available experimental data for validation.

Hall, Howard L [ORNL

2012-01-01

140

Assessment of high resolution melting analysis as a potential SNP genotyping technique in forensic casework.  

PubMed

High resolution melting (HRM) analysis is a simple, cost effective, closed tube SNP genotyping technique with high throughput potential. The effectiveness of HRM for forensic SNP genotyping was assessed with five commercially available HRM kits evaluated on the ViiA™ 7 Real Time PCR instrument. Four kits performed satisfactorily against forensically relevant criteria. One was further assessed to determine the sensitivity, reproducibility, and accuracy of HRM SNP genotyping. The manufacturer's protocol using 0.5 ng input DNA and 45 PCR cycles produced accurate and reproducible results for 17 of the 19 SNPs examined. Problematic SNPs had GC rich flanking regions which introduced additional melting domains into the melting curve (rs1800407) or included homozygotes that were difficult to distinguish reliably (rs16891982; a G to C SNP). A proof of concept multiplexing experiment revealed that multiplexing a small number of SNPs may be possible after further investigation. HRM enables genotyping of a number of SNPs in a large number of samples without extensive optimization. However, it requires more genomic DNA as template in comparison to SNaPshot®. Furthermore, suitably modifying pre-existing forensic intelligence SNP panels for HRM analysis may pose difficulties due to the properties of some SNPs. PMID:25142205

Venables, Samantha J; Mehta, Bhavik; Daniel, Runa; Walsh, Simon J; van Oorschot, Roland A H; McNevin, Dennis

2014-11-01

141

Comparative analysis of LWR and FBR spent fuels for nuclear forensics evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some interesting issues are attributed to nuclide compositions of spent fuels from thermal reactors as well as fast reactors such as a potential to reuse as recycled fuel, and a possible capability to be manage as a fuel for destructive devices. In addition, analysis on nuclear forensics which is related to spent fuel compositions becomes one of the interesting topics to evaluate the origin and the composition of spent fuels from the spent fuel foot-prints. Spent fuel compositions of different fuel types give some typical spent fuel foot prints and can be estimated the origin of source of those spent fuel compositions. Some technics or methods have been developing based on some science and technological capability including experimental and modeling or theoretical aspects of analyses. Some foot-print of nuclear forensics will identify the typical information of spent fuel compositions such as enrichment information, burnup or irradiation time, reactor types as well as the cooling time which is related to the age of spent fuels. This paper intends to evaluate the typical spent fuel compositions of light water (LWR) and fast breeder reactors (FBR) from the view point of some foot prints of nuclear forensics. An established depletion code of ORIGEN is adopted to analyze LWR spent fuel (SF) for several burnup constants and decay times. For analyzing some spent fuel compositions of FBR, some coupling codes such as SLAROM code, JOINT and CITATION codes including JFS-3-J-3.2R as nuclear data library have been adopted. Enriched U-235 fuel composition of oxide type is used for fresh fuel of LWR and a mixed oxide fuel (MOX) for FBR fresh fuel. Those MOX fuels of FBR come from the spent fuels of LWR. Some typical spent fuels from both LWR and FBR will be compared to distinguish some typical foot-prints of SF based on nuclear forensic analysis.

Permana, Sidik; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Su'ud, Zaki

2012-06-01

142

Parallel digital forensics infrastructure.  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the architecture and implementation of a Parallel Digital Forensics infrastructure. This infrastructure is necessary for supporting the design, implementation, and testing of new classes of parallel digital forensics tools. Digital Forensics has become extremely difficult with data sets of one terabyte and larger. The only way to overcome the processing time of these large sets is to identify and develop new parallel algorithms for performing the analysis. To support algorithm research, a flexible base infrastructure is required. A candidate architecture for this base infrastructure was designed, instantiated, and tested by this project, in collaboration with New Mexico Tech. Previous infrastructures were not designed and built specifically for the development and testing of parallel algorithms. With the size of forensics data sets only expected to increase significantly, this type of infrastructure support is necessary for continued research in parallel digital forensics. This report documents the implementation of the parallel digital forensics (PDF) infrastructure architecture and implementation.

Liebrock, Lorie M. (New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM); Duggan, David Patrick

2009-10-01

143

A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Stance in Disaster News Reports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines stance in cross-cultural media discourse by comparing disaster news reports on the Sichuan earthquake of May 2008 in a Chinese, an Australian Chinese, and an Australian newspaper. The stance taken in the news reports is examined using the Attitude sub-system of Martin and White's (2005) Appraisal framework. The analysis

Liu, Lian; Stevenson, Marie

2013-01-01

144

Forensic animal DNA analysis using economical two-step direct PCR.  

PubMed

Wildlife forensic DNA analysis by amplification of a mitochondrial locus followed by DNA sequencing is routine, yet suffers from being costly and time-consuming. To address these disadvantages we report on a low-cost two-step direct PCR assay to efficiently analyze 12 forensically relevant mammalian sample types without DNA extraction. A cytochrome oxidase I degenerate-universal primer pair was designed and validated for the developed assay. The 12 sample types, which included bone, horn, feces, and urine, were amplified successfully by the assay using a pre-direct PCR dilution protocol. The average amplification success rate was as high as 92.5 % (n = 350), with an average PCR product concentration of 220.71 ± 180.84 ng/?L. Differences in amplification success rate and PCR product quantity between sample types were observed; however, most samples provided high quality sequences, permitting a 100 % nucleotide similarity to their respective species via BLAST database queries. The combination of PBS and Phire(®) Hot Start II DNA polymerase gave comparable amplification success rate and amplicon quantity with the proprietary commercial kits (P > 0.05, n = 350) but at considerably lower cost. The stability of the assay was tested by successfully amplifying samples that had been stored for up to 12 months. Our data indicate that this low-cost two-step direct amplification assay has the potential to be a valuable tool for the forensic DNA community. PMID:24435950

Kitpipit, Thitika; Chotigeat, Wilaiwan; Linacre, Adrian; Thanakiatkrai, Phuvadol

2014-03-01

145

Forensic identification science evidence since Daubert: Part I--A quantitative analysis of the exclusion of forensic identification science evidence.  

PubMed

The U.S. Supreme Court decisions in Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals Inc. and Kumho Tire Co. Ltd. v. Carmichael transformed the way scientific expert evidence was reviewed in courts across the United States. To gauge the impact of these rulings on the admission of forensic identification evidence, the authors analyzed 548 judicial opinions from cases where admission of such evidence was challenged. Eighty-one cases (15%) involved exclusion or limitation of identification evidence, with 50 (65.7%) of these failing to meet the "reliability" threshold. This was largely because of a failure to demonstrate a sufficient scientific foundation for either the technique (27 cases) or the expert's conclusions (17 cases). The incidence of exclusion/limitation because of a lack of demonstrable reliability suggests that there is a continuing need for the forensic sciences to pursue research validating their underlying theories and techniques of identification to ensure their continued acceptance by the courts. PMID:21884119

Page, Mark; Taylor, Jane; Blenkin, Matt

2011-09-01

146

Disaster victim identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the event of any mass fatality incident, despite the cause, disaster victim identification must be undertaken; the humanitarian\\u000a and legal responsibility for this falls on the forensic community. Mass fatality incidents can be natural (e.g., tsunamis,\\u000a earthquakes, hurricanes), accidental (e.g., building collapse, ship sinking) or can occur as a result of a terrorist attack.\\u000a Terrorism alone has been responsible

Eleanor A. M. Graham

2006-01-01

147

City ecosystem resilience analysis in case of disasters  

E-print Network

One of the tasks of urban and hazard planning is to mitigate the damages and minimize the costs of the recovery process after catastrophic events. The rapidity and the efficiency of the recovery process are referred to as resilience. A mathematical definition of the resilience of an urban community has not yet identified. In this paper we propose and test a methodology for the assessment of urban resilience a catastrophic event. The idea is to merge the concepts of the engineering resilience and the ecosystem resilience. As first step we suggest a way to model an urban community inside the framework of complex network theory. Hence, to model the city as a whole, we identify hybrid networks, composed by human elements, i.e. the citizens, and physical networks, i.e. urban lifelines and infrastructures. As second step, we define and evaluate a class of efficiency indexes on the hybrid networks. By modelling the disasters of the physical components and the subsequent recovery process, and by measuring the efficie...

Asprone, D; Latora, V; Manfredi, G; Nicosia, V

2013-01-01

148

Digital forensics research: The next 10 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today’s Golden Age of computer forensics is quickly coming to an end. Without a clear strategy for enabling research efforts that build upon one another, forensic research will fall behind the market, tools will become increasingly obsolete, and law enforcement, military and other users of computer forensics products will be unable to rely on the results of forensic analysis. This

Simson L. Garfinkel

2010-01-01

149

The Central European Flood in June 2013: Experiences from a Near-Real Time Disaster Analysis in Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The central European flood in June 2013 once again revealed that complete flood protection is not possible. Inundations caused severe damage to buildings, infrastructure and agricultural lands. Official estimates of total damage in Germany amount to approx. 8bn € which is lower than the damage caused by the August 2002 flood - the most expensive natural hazard experienced so far in Germany. Repeated and long lasting precipitation in combination with extremely adverse preconditions induced a large scale flood event. In Germany, particularly the catchment areas of the Danube and Elbe were affected. The June 2013 flood has been the most severe flood event in terms of spatial extent and magnitude of flood peaks in Germany during the last 60 years. Large scale inundation occurred as a consequence of levee breaches near Deggendorf (Danube), Groß Rosenau and Fischbeck (Elbe). The flood has had a great impact on people, transportation and the economy. In many areas more than 50,000 thousand people were evacuated. Electrical grid and local water supply utilities failed during the floods. Furthermore, traffic was disrupted in the interregional transportation network including federal highways and long distance railways. CEDIM analysed and assessed the flood event within its current research activity on near real time forensic disaster analysis (CEDIM FDA: www.cedim.de). This contribution gives an overview about the CEDIM FDA analyses' results. It describes the key hydro-meteorological factors that triggered this extraordinary event and draws comparisons to major flood events in August 2002 and July 1954. Further, it shows the outcomes of a rapid initial impact assessment on the district level using social, economic and institutional indicators which are supplemented with information on the number of people evacuated and transportation disruptions and combined with the magnitude of the event.

Schröter, Kai; Khazai, Bijan; Mühr, Bernhard; Elmer, Florian; Bessel, Tina; Möhrle, Stella; Dittrich, André; Kreibich, Heidi; Fohringer, Joachim; Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Trieselmann, Werner; Kunz, Michael; Merz, Bruno

2014-05-01

150

Dynamic Electronic Forensics Based on Plug-in  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Considering the characteristics of judicial forensics as well as diversity types of network forensics, this paper proposed\\u000a a forensic framework based on XML and plug-in technology. The framework maintains scalability of forensic analysis and ensures\\u000a the stability of forensic process simultaneity. Specified host forensics and hacker intrusion forensics were implemented to\\u000a proof the validity of the framework.

Yong Li; Wenqi Wang

151

The potential of forensic analysis on human bones found in riverine environment.  

PubMed

Human remains found in aquatic contexts are frequently recovered incomplete and badly decomposed, and therefore present a challenge for medico-legal institutes as their possibilities of analysis for identification and investigation of cause and manner of death are limited. This article aims to demonstrate the potential of forensic examination and analyses (DNA, toxicology, diatoms and entomology) on a set of bones recovered from a river in Strasbourg and the possibility to trigger identification of the victim and circumstances of death despite the state of decomposition and incompleteness of remains. PMID:23562147

Delabarde, Tania; Keyser, Christine; Tracqui, Antoine; Charabidze, Damien; Ludes, Bertrand

2013-05-10

152

Discriminant Analysis of Raman Spectra for Body Fluid Identification for Forensic Purposes  

PubMed Central

Detection and identification of blood, semen and saliva stains, the most common body fluids encountered at a crime scene, are very important aspects of forensic science today. This study targets the development of a nondestructive, confirmatory method for body fluid identification based on Raman spectroscopy coupled with advanced statistical analysis. Dry traces of blood, semen and saliva obtained from multiple donors were probed using a confocal Raman microscope with a 785-nm excitation wavelength under controlled laboratory conditions. Results demonstrated the capability of Raman spectroscopy to identify an unknown substance to be semen, blood or saliva with high confidence. PMID:22319277

Sikirzhytski, Vitali; Virkler, Kelly; Lednev, Igor K.

2010-01-01

153

Use of non-human DNA analysis in forensic science: a mini review.  

PubMed

Analysis of non-human DNA in forensic science, first reported about two decades ago, is now commonplace. Results have been used as evidence in court in a variety of cases ranging from abduction and murder to patent infringement and dog attack. DNA from diverse species, including commonly encountered pets such as dogs and cats, to plants, viruses and bacteria has been used and the sheer potential offered by such analyses has been proven. In this review, using case examples throughout, we detail the considerable literature in this field. PMID:23929675

Iyengar, Arati; Hadi, Sibte

2014-01-01

154

Utility of haplogroup determination for forensic mtDNA analysis in the Japanese population.  

PubMed

Sequence analysis of the hypervariable regions (HVRs) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are routinely performed in forensic casework, however, there are still issues to be resolved, such as the existence of multiple errors in published databases or the limitations of individual discrimination in certain populations. Here, we analyzed the coding region of mtDNA in detail by examining 36 haplogroup (HG)-defining single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using amplified product-length polymorphisms (APLP) method in conjunction with sequence analysis of HVR1 and HVR2 to establish a methodology for forensically reliable and practical mtDNA testing. The mtDNAs from 217 unrelated Japanese were examined and could be classified into 27 haplogroups. By combining the data of the coding region with those of HVRs, genetic diversity was slightly increased from 0.9817 to 0.9888 for HVR1/HG and from 0.9967 to 0.9970 for HVR1/HVR2/HG, as compared to the results of HVRs only. Moreover, in most cases, reliability of the HVR data could be confirmed by haplogroup motif analysis. Our mtDNA profiling method can provide reliable data in a time and cost-saving way due to the rapid and economical nature of APLP analysis. PMID:17467322

Asari, Masaru; Umetsu, Kazuo; Adachi, Noboru; Azumi, Jun-ichi; Shimizu, Keiko; Shiono, Hiroshi

2007-09-01

155

Advanced Signal Analysis for Forensic Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar  

SciTech Connect

Ground penetrating radar (GPR) systems have traditionally been used to image subsurface objects. The main focus of this paper is to evaluate an advanced signal analysis technique. Instead of compiling spatial data for the analysis, this technique conducts object recognition procedures based on spectral statistics. The identification feature of an object type is formed from the training vectors by a singular-value decomposition procedure. To illustrate its capability, this procedure is applied to experimental data and compared to the performance of the neural-network approach.

Steven Koppenjan; Matthew Streeton; Hua Lee; Michael Lee; Sashi Ono

2004-06-01

156

THE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF APPLICATION OF TEETH IN FORENSIC ODONTOLOGY CENTER, TEHRAN, IRAN, 1980-2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This retrospective study investigated cases in Tehran Forensic Odontology Center, which have been solved by using teeth as the main proof. Methodology: Two hundred forty eight files in archives of Tehran forensic odonotology center during years 1980 to 2000 were reviewed and the data collected from each file. Results: It shows that only 12 cases (4.8%) used the forensic

Amir Deebaei; Hadi Fathi Moghaddam; Parivash Delkhosh

157

FORENSIC ODONTOLOGY IDENTIFICATION USING SMILE PHOTOGRAPH ANALYSIS - CASE REPORTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The identification of unknown human by smile photographs that show specific characteristics of each individual has found wide acceptance all over the world. Therefore this paper shows this situation reporting different cases which smile photograph analysis were crucial to determine the positive identification of unidentified human bodies. All the cases were subjected to personal identification by photographs of smile including

R. F. Silva; S. D. Pereira; F. B. Prado; E. Daruge

158

Some advances in Fourier transform infrared transflection analysis and potential applications in forensic chemistry.  

PubMed

The transflection technique offers significant potential for both qualitative and quantitative analysis in the mid-infrared region. The higher sensitivity for bands in the mid-infrared provides a distinct advantage over the lower absorbance values typically encountered in the near-infrared region. Other advantages, such as small sample size and little sample preparation, make this technique a good candidate for the analysis of forensic substances. Small amounts of illegal drugs such as cocaine can be reliably and nondestructively identified with little or no sample preparation. With the approach to transflection described in this paper, single grains can be quickly identified by simply placing the sample on a specially designed substrate and recording the Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum. Transflection was applied to the qualitative analysis of aqueous solutions and solid particles using relatively simple equipment in conjunction with a commercially available diffuse reflection accessory. Improvements in both equipment and technique are discussed. Extensions of the equipment into two new forms, with potential uses in proteomics and forensics, are introduced. PMID:19470206

Koçak, A; Lucania, J P; Berets, S L

2009-05-01

159

Forensic Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes the type of work carried out by forensic chemists and the minimum qualification needed for appointment. Indicates that there are eight Home Office regional forensic science laboratories in addition to the Central Research Establishment at Aldermaston. (CC)

Cobb, P. G. W.

1973-01-01

160

Near infrared hyperspectral imaging for forensic analysis of document forgery.  

PubMed

Hyperspectral images in the near infrared range (HSI-NIR) were evaluated as a nondestructive method to detect fraud in documents. Three different types of typical forgeries were simulated by (a) obliterating text, (b) adding text and (c) approaching the crossing lines problem. The simulated samples were imaged in the range of 928-2524 nm with spectral and spatial resolutions of 6.3 nm and 10 ?m, respectively. After data pre-processing, different chemometric techniques were evaluated for each type of forgery. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to elucidate the first two types of adulteration, (a) and (b). Moreover, Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS) was used in an attempt to improve the results of the type (a) obliteration and type (b) adding text problems. Finally, MCR-ALS and Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA), employed as a variable selection tool, were used to study the type (c) forgeries, i.e. crossing lines problem. Type (a) forgeries (obliterating text) were successfully identified in 43% of the samples using both the chemometric methods (PCA and MCR-ALS). Type (b) forgeries (adding text) were successfully identified in 82% of the samples using both the methods (PCA and MCR-ALS). Finally, type (c) forgeries (crossing lines) were successfully identified in 85% of the samples. The results demonstrate the potential of HSI-NIR associated with chemometric tools to support document forgery identification. PMID:25118338

Silva, Carolina S; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; Honorato, Ricardo S; Pasquini, Celio; Prats-Montalbán, José M; Ferrer, Alberto

2014-10-21

161

Recent advances in the applications of forensic science to fire debris analysis.  

PubMed

The forensic discipline of ignitable liquid and fire debris analysis is rapidly changing. Refinements in existing methods as well as development of new techniques are changing the routine methods of analysis. Optimization of existing extraction techniques and research into novel methods of extracting debris have improved the recovery of ignitable liquids from debris samples. The application of highly specialized instrumentation to problems of sensitivity and matrix interference has resulted in new ways of performing chemical analyses, allowing for improved limits of detection. Preliminary research in novel approaches to ignitable liquid comparisons is being evaluated, with the hopes of providing more detailed information to the field investigators. Research into a variety of areas related to fire debris analysis is ongoing, and will continue to improve the quality of ignitable liquid residue analysis. PMID:12736769

Dolan, J

2003-08-01

162

The analysis of forensic samples using laser micro-pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Laser micropyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is used for the analysis of paint, photocopier toner, and synthetic fiber materials to test the forensic potential of this emerging technology. It uses a laser microprobe to selectively target very small parts of the materials for GC-MS analysis. Whereas the paint and the toner samples were amenable to direct laser pyrolysis, the synthetic fibers proved transparent to the 1064 nm laser radiation. The difficulty with the fibers demonstrates that a specific laser wavelength may not be appropriate for all types of materials. Nevertheless, the fibers were able to be indirectly pyrolyzed by impregnation in a strongly absorbing graphite matrix. A vast array of hydrocarbon pyrolysates was detected from the different materials studied. Unique product distributions were detected from each sample and in sufficient detail to facilitate individual molecular characterization (i.e., molecular fingerprinting). The integrity of the laser data were confirmed by comparison to data obtained from the same samples by the more conventional pyroprobe pyrolysis GC-MS method. The high spatial resolution and selectivity of the laser method may be advantageous for specific forensic applications, however, further work may be required to improve the reproducibility of the data. PMID:11569542

Armitage, S; Saywell, S; Roux, C; Lennard, C; Greenwood, P

2001-09-01

163

The development of a tool for assessing the quality of closed circuit camera footage for use in forensic gait analysis.  

PubMed

Gait analysis from closed circuit camera footage is now commonly used as evidence in criminal trials. The biomechanical analysis of human gait is a well established science in both clinical and laboratory settings. However, closed circuit camera footage is rarely of the quality of that taken in the more controlled clinical and laboratory environments. The less than ideal quality of much of this footage for use in gait analysis is associated with a range of issues, the combination of which can often render the footage unsuitable for use in gait analysis. The aim of this piece of work was to develop a tool for assessing the suitability of closed circuit camera footage for the purpose of forensic gait analysis. A Delphi technique was employed with a small sample of expert forensic gait analysis practitioners, to identify key quality elements of CCTV footage used in legal proceedings. Five elements of the footage were identified and then subdivided into 15 contributing sub-elements, each of which was scored using a 5-point Likert scale. A Microsoft Excel worksheet was developed to calculate automatically an overall score from the fifteen sub-element scores. Five expert witnesses experienced in using CCTV footage for gait analysis then trialled the prototype tool on current case footage. A repeatability study was also undertaken using standardized CCTV footage. The results showed the tool to be a simple and repeatable means of assessing the suitability of closed circuit camera footage for use in forensic gait analysis. The inappropriate use of poor quality footage could lead to challenges to the practice of forensic gait analysis. All parties involved in criminal proceedings must therefore understand the fitness for purpose of any footage used. The development of this tool could offer a method of achieving this goal, and help to assure the continued role of forensic gait analysis as an aid to the identification process. PMID:24112345

Birch, Ivan; Vernon, Wesley; Walker, Jeremy; Saxelby, Jai

2013-10-01

164

Computer Forensics Insider Problem  

E-print Network

Tools: Coroner's Toolkit, Sebek, SATAN, others · Stallard: Automated Analysis for Digital Forensic application and kernel syslog data · TCP Wrapper, Tripwire · COPS, SATAN, nessus · Coroner's Toolkit, Sleuth

Peisert, Sean

165

Forensic analysis of explosives using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS)--discrimination of ammonium nitrate sources.  

PubMed

An evaluation was undertaken to determine if isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) could assist in the investigation of complex forensic cases by providing a level of discrimination not achievable utilising traditional forensic techniques. The focus of the research was on ammonium nitrate (AN), a common oxidiser used in improvised explosive mixtures. The potential value of IRMS to attribute Australian AN samples to the manufacturing source was demonstrated through the development of a preliminary AN classification scheme based on nitrogen isotopes. Although the discrimination utilising nitrogen isotopes alone was limited and only relevant to samples from the three Australian manufacturers during the evaluated time period, the classification scheme has potential as an investigative aid. Combining oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope values permitted the differentiation of AN prills from three different Australian manufacturers. Samples from five different overseas sources could be differentiated utilising a combination of the nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen isotope values. Limited differentiation between Australian and overseas prills was achieved for the samples analysed. The comparison of nitrogen isotope values from intact AN prill samples with those from post-blast AN prill residues highlighted that the nitrogen isotopic composition of the prills was not maintained post-blast; hence, limiting the technique to analysis of un-reacted explosive material. PMID:19606584

Benson, Sarah J; Lennard, Christopher J; Maynard, Philip; Hill, David M; Andrew, Anita S; Roux, Claude

2009-06-01

166

UC Davis Forensic Science Graduate Program Proposed curriculum changes to the MS Degree in Forensic Science  

E-print Network

chemistry/toxicology Microscopy and material analysis Forensic biology Pattern evidence Graduate level1 UC Davis Forensic Science Graduate Program Proposed curriculum changes to the MS Degree in Forensic Science (Graduate Council approved June 21, 2007) Background The Graduate Forensic Science M

Ullrich, Paul

167

Forensic Data Carving  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a File or data carving is a term used in the field of Cyber forensics. Cyber forensics is the process of acquisition, authentication,\\u000a analysis and documentation of evidence extracted from and\\/or contained in a computer system, computer network and digital\\u000a media. Extracting data (file) out of undifferentiated blocks (raw data) is called as carving. Identifying and recovering files\\u000a based on analysis

Digambar Povar; V. K. Bhadran

2010-01-01

168

646 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING, VOL. 14, NO. 5, MAY 2005 Forensic Analysis of Nonlinear Collusion Attacks  

E-print Network

646 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING, VOL. 14, NO. 5, MAY 2005 Forensic Analysis of Nonlinear Collusion Attacks for Multimedia Fingerprinting H. Vicky Zhao, Member, IEEE, Min Wu, Member, IEEE, Z. Jane Wang, Member, IEEE, and K. J. Ray Liu, Fellow, IEEE Abstract--Digital fingerprinting is a technology

Liu, K. J. Ray

169

Analysis of microsatellite polymorphism in red deer, roe deer, and fallow deer — possible employment in forensic applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA microsatellites play a major role in population genetics, linkage mapping, and parentage studies of mammals. In addition, they may be used for forensic purposes, if an individual identification of a specific animal is necessary. Therefore, we tested a variety of microsatellite polymorphism derived from reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) by PCR and sequencing analysis for use in red deer (Cervus elaphus),

Micaela Poetsch; Sabine Seefeldt; Marina Maschke; Eberhard Lignitz

2001-01-01

170

Fast nuclear staining of head hair roots as a screening method for successful STR analysis in forensics.  

PubMed

The success rate of STR profiling of hairs found at a crime scene is quite low and negative results of hair analysis are frequently reported. To increase the success rate of DNA analysis of hairs in forensics, nuclei in hair roots can be counted after staining the hair root with DAPI. Two staining methods were tested: a longer method with two 1h incubations in respectively a DAPI- and a wash-solution, and a fast, direct staining of the hair root on microscope slides. The two staining methods were not significantly different. The results of the STR analysis for both procedures showed that 20 nuclei are necessary to obtain at least partial STR profiles. When more than 50 nuclei were counted, full STR profiles were always obtained. In 96% of the cases where no nuclei were detected, no STR profile could be obtained. However, 4% of the DAPI-negative hair roots resulted in at least partial STR profiles. Therefore, each forensic case has to be evaluated separately in function of the importance of the evidential value of the found hair. The fast staining method was applied in 36 forensic cases on 279 hairs in total. A fast screening method using DAPI can be used to increase the success rate of hair analysis in forensics. PMID:25181452

Lepez, Trees; Vandewoestyne, Mado; Van Hoofstat, David; Deforce, Dieter

2014-11-01

171

Efficacy of forensic statement analysis in distinguishing truthful from deceptive eyewitness accounts of highly stressful events.  

PubMed

Laboratory-based detecting deception research suggests that truthful statements differ from those of deceptive statements. This nonlaboratory study tested whether forensic statement analysis (FSA) methods would distinguish genuine from false eyewitness accounts about exposure to a highly stressful event. A total of 35 military participants were assigned to truthful or deceptive eyewitness conditions. Genuine eyewitness reported truthfully about exposure to interrogation stress. Deceptive eyewitnesses studied transcripts of genuine eyewitnesses for 24 h and falsely claimed they had been interrogated. Cognitive Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and assessed by FSA raters blind to the status of participants. Genuine accounts contained more unique words, external and contextual referents, and a greater total word count than did deceptive statements. The type-token ratio was lower in genuine statements. The classification accuracy using FSA techniques was 82%. FSA methods may be effective in real-world circumstances and have relevance to professionals in law enforcement, security, and criminal justice. PMID:21854383

Morgan, Charles A; Colwell, Kevin; Hazlett, Gary A

2011-09-01

172

Forensic Analysis of Venezuelan Elections during the Ch?vez Presidency  

PubMed Central

Hugo Chávez dominated the Venezuelan electoral landscape since his first presidential victory in 1998 until his death in 2013. Nobody doubts that he always received considerable voter support in the numerous elections held during his mandate. However, the integrity of the electoral system has come into question since the 2004 Presidential Recall Referendum. From then on, different sectors of society have systematically alleged electoral irregularities or biases in favor of the incumbent party. We have carried out a thorough forensic analysis of the national-level Venezuelan electoral processes held during the 1998–2012 period to assess these complaints. The second-digit Benford's law and two statistical models of vote distributions, recently introduced in the literature, are reviewed and used in our case study. In addition, we discuss a new method to detect irregular variations in the electoral roll. The outputs obtained from these election forensic tools are examined taking into account the substantive context of the elections and referenda under study. Thus, we reach two main conclusions. Firstly, all the tools uncover anomalous statistical patterns, which are consistent with election fraud from 2004 onwards. Although our results are not a concluding proof of fraud, they signal the Recall Referendum as a turning point in the integrity of the Venezuelan elections. Secondly, our analysis calls into question the reliability of the electoral register since 2004. In particular, we found irregular variations in the electoral roll that were decisive in winning the 50% majority in the 2004 Referendum and in the 2012 Presidential Elections. PMID:24971462

Jimenez, Raul; Hidalgo, Manuel

2014-01-01

173

A Preliminary Approach to the Forensic Analysis of an Ultraportable ASUS Eee PC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subnotebooks, or ‘netbooks, are a relatively new consumer market but one that continues to grow significantly worldwide. The aim of this paper is to analyse one of the leading subnotebooks, the ‘ASUS Eee PC’ from a forensics perspective. Specifically, the work investigates current image creation methods for making image of Eee PCs Solid State Drive and it analyses forensically important artefacts.

Shiralkar, Trupti; Lavine, Michael; Turnbull, Benjamin

174

FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF WINDOW’S® VIRTUAL MEMORY INCORPORATING THE SYSTEM’S PAGEFILE COUNTERINTELLIGENCE THROUGH MALICIOUS CODE ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF WINDOW’S® VIRTUAL MEMORY INCORPORATING THE SYSTEM’S PAGEFILE Computer Forensics is concerned with the use of computer investigation and analysis techniques in order to collect evidence suitable for presentation in court. The examination of volatile memory is a relatively new but important area in computer forensics. More recently criminals are becoming more forensically aware and are now able to compromise computers without accessing the hard disk of the target computer. This means that traditional incident response practice of pulling the plug will destroy the only evidence of the crime. While some techniques are available for acquiring the contents of main memory, few exist which can analyze these data in a meaningful way. One reason for this is how memory is managed by the operating system. Data belonging to one process can be distributed arbitrarily across physical memory or the hard disk, making it very difficult to recover useful information. This report will focus on how these disparate sources of information can be combined to give a single, contiguous address space for each process. Using address translation a tool is developed to reconstruct the virtual address space of a process by combining a physical memory dump with the page-file on the hard disk. COUNTERINTELLIGENCE THROUGH MALICIOUS CODE ANALYSIS As computer network technology continues to grow so does the reliance on this technology for everyday business functionality. To appeal to customers and employees alike, businesses are seeking an increased online prescience, and to increase productivity the same businesses are computerizing their day-to-day operations. The combination of a publicly accessible interface to the businesses network, and the increase in the amount of intellectual property present on these networks presents serious risks. All of this intellectual property now faces constant attacks from a wide variety of malicious software that is intended to uncover company and government secrets. Every year billions of dollars are invested in preventing and recovering from the introduction of malicious code into a system. However, there is little research being done on leveraging these attacks for counterintelligence opportunities. With the ever-increasing number of vulnerable computers on the Internet the task of attributing these attacks to an organization or a single person is a daunting one. This thesis will demonstrate the idea of intentionally running a piece of malicious code in a secure environment in order to gain counterintelligence on an attacker.

Jared Stimson

2007-06-01

175

Sequestering of suffering: critical discourse analysis of natural disaster media coverage.  

PubMed

This article is a critical discourse analysis of the local print-news media coverage of the recovery process in two rural communities following a devastating forest fire. Two hundred and fifty fire-related articles from the North Thompson Star Journal (2003) were analyzed. Results revealed a neoliberal discursive framing of recovery, emphasizing the economic-material aspects of the process and a reliance on experts. A sequestering of suffering discourse promoted psychological functionalism and focused attention on a return to normalcy through the compartmentalization of distress. The dominant 'voice' was male, authoritative, and institutionalized. Implications for disaster recovery and potential health consequences are discussed. PMID:18420755

Cox, Robin S; Long, Bonita C; Jones, Megan I; Handler, Risa J

2008-05-01

176

Corporate involvement in disaster response and recovery : an analysis of the Gujarat Earthquake  

E-print Network

Disaster vulnerability is a serious issue in developing countries where globalization, development patterns, poverty and environmental degradation are placing more people at risk to natural disasters. Recent appeals for ...

Sayegh, Tracy, 1976-

2004-01-01

177

Biological Science Initative- Forensic Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides middle and high school teachers and students with concepts and techniques of forensic evidence analysis commonly employed in forensic laboratories. This site contains a series of laboratory exercises that can be downloaded for use in middle and high school settings. Experiments are designed to teach students basic principles and methods of forensic science and to motivate the teaching of science in the classroom. Experiments are designed to teach laboratory and data-collection techniques.

2011-06-09

178

Analysis on causes for inadequacy of supply of flood disaster insurance in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

China is a country frequently stricken by disasters and often suffers flood disasters with tremendous loss. Therefore, flood disaster insurance market enjoys actual and potential demands far beyond current supplying capacity of present insurance industry. Through tripartite gaming model joined by the government, the insurance company and the insurer, this Article, has analyzed herein causes for inadequacy of flood insurance

Zhou Jun Ping

2009-01-01

179

NISTIR 7100 PDA Forensic Tools  

E-print Network

NISTIR 7100 PDA Forensic Tools: AnOverviewandAnalysis RickAyers WayneJansen #12;ii NISTIR 7100 C O M P U T E R S E C U R I T Y PDA Forensic Tools: An Overview and Analysis Rick Ayers Wayne Jansen. Individuals can store and process personal and sensitive information independently of a desktop or notebook

180

Forensic Applications of Gas Chromatography-Differential Mobility Spectrometry, Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry, and Ion Mobility Spectrometry with Chemometric Analysis.  

E-print Network

?? Rapid, practical, and low-cost analytical methods are always desirable in forensic analysis. Using proper sample preparation techniques with the application of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry… (more)

Lu, Yao

2010-01-01

181

The contribution of DNA to the disaster victim identification (DVI) effort.  

PubMed

As part of the disaster victim identification (DVI) response to the 2009 Victorian bushfires disaster, a number of scientific disciplines contributed to the human identification process--forensic pathology, anthropology and odontology, as well as fingerprinting and DNA profiling. The DNA laboratory received 182 post-mortem (PM) samples from 120 DVI cases and 236 reference samples corresponding to 163 missing persons (and two non-DVI cases). DNA analysis yielded full DNA profiles for 102 DVI cases and 190 ante-mortem (AM) samples (relating to all 163 missing persons), respectively. Subsequent comparison of DNA profiles, through direct and kinship matching, resulted in the submission of 76 DNA reports to the DVI Reconciliation Centre which assisted in the identification of 67 deceased. This paper describes the contribution of DNA analysis towards the DVI response to the 2009 Victorian bushfires disaster. PMID:21106312

Hartman, D; Drummer, O; Eckhoff, C; Scheffer, J W; Stringer, P

2011-02-25

182

[Development of forensic thanatology through the prism of analysis of postmortem protocols collected at the Department of Forensic Medicine, Jagiellonian University].  

PubMed

When assessed based on the analysis of postmortem protocols, the successes of forensic thanatology appear to differ from those that might be assumed using as the foundation a review of publications and textbooks. The greatest achievements date back to as early as the 18th and 19th centuries, when the morphological changes observed in the majority of types of deaths resulting from disease-associated and traumatic causes were described. Within the past 130 years, however, or in other words, in the period when autopsy protocols were written that are today collected in the archives of the Krakow Department of Forensic Medicine, the causes and mechanisms of death became understood even when the said factors were associated with discrete postmortem changes only or no no such changes whatsoever were left. At the end of the 19th century and for a long time afterwards, a difficult problem was posed by sudden deaths, where the postmortem examinations demonstrated solely atherosclerosis and the cause of death was described as "heart palsy". As it turned out, a great portion of such deaths represented individuals with myocardial infarction; in spite of its evident macroscopic presentation, the diagnostic management of the disease was progressing very slowly. Myocardial infarction, known at least since 1912, was associated by forensic medicine with the phenomenon of sudden death only in the forties, and the ability to detect myocardial infarction in practice developed only in the fifties of the last century. The achievement of the present dissertation is the formulation of a theory ascribing such a long delay in macroscopic diagnostics of myocardial infarction to forensic medicine specialists being attached to and fond of employing the "in situ" autopsy technique, which was unfavorable from the viewpoint of heart examination, since the organ was not dissected free and removed from the body in the course of a postmortem examination. When autopsies started to concentrate on hearts dissected free from large vessels, within several years, the number of diagnosed myocardial infarctions increased several times, what gave rise to a theory of a myocardial infarction epidemics formulated in some centers. A proof supporting the theory postulated by the author is a sudden increase in the number of deaths resulting from pulmonary embolism observed in the same several-year period; this diagnosis was also not facilitated by the "in situ" autopsy technique. Another cause of death, which - although undoubtedly common - was for years interpreted as "heart palsy" was alcohol poisoning. Evolution of methods used in chemical examinations for the presence of alcohol, and especially the use of blood tests rather than gastric contents tests allowed in time for determining alcohol poisoning as the cause of death and demonstrated the true extent of the phenomenon. Here, a milestone was the introduction of the Widmark method, what in turn resulted in changes in the toxicology theory, such as for example the use of a new term of "lethal concentration" in addition to the formerly employed notion of a "lethal dose", which is useless in the case of alcohol. Of lesser importance with respect to the number of cases, but of much greater significance in view of its association with homicides were the achievements in diagnostic management of strangulation. Choking and strangulation, as well as hanging--in spite of the fact that their fundamental features were known as early as in the 19th century--were really understood and the ability to diagnose these phenomena was achieved only in the interwar period. Such a long delay resulted from the autopsy technique that did not include examination of the organs situated in the neck, as well as from difficulties in acquiring experience in examining the type of homicide that was very uncommon. On the other hand, for many years, the erroneous theory of the fluidity of blood in a corpse as an indicator of violent strangulation resulted in dubious opinions on strangling b

Konopka, Tomasz

2011-01-01

183

[Forensic radiology].  

PubMed

Forensic radiology includes both clinical and postmortem forensic radiology. Clinical forensic radiology deals with imaging of healthy people from a legal point of view, such as for determining age or to prove and document injuries in victims of crime. Postmortem forensic radiology deals with the application of modern radiological methods in order to optimise post-mortem diagnosis. X-ray examination has for decades been routinely used in postmortem diagnosis. Newer developments include the application of postmortem computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging; these are the methods with the greatest information potential but also with the greatest deviations from diagnostics in living persons. Application of radiological methods for securing evidence in criminal procedures is still in its infancy. Radiologists' technical understanding and forensic doctors' knowledge of postmortem changes in a corpse must be synergised. PMID:18815765

Stein, K M; Grünberg, K

2009-01-01

184

FORENSIC IDENTIFICATION REPORTING USING AUTOMATIC SPEAKER RECOGNITION SYSTEMS  

E-print Network

forensic areas as fingerprint, DNA or fiber analysis, suits the needs of both the court and the forensicFORENSIC IDENTIFICATION REPORTING USING AUTOMATIC SPEAKER RECOGNITION SYSTEMS J. Gonzalez to the bayesian approach for evidence analysis and forensic reporting. This approach, firmly established in other

Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

185

How does corruption influence perceptions of the risk of nuclear accidents?: cross-country analysis after the 2011 Fukushima disaster in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan’s 2011 natural disasters were accompanied by a devastating nuclear disaster in Fukushima. This paper used cross-country data obtained immediately after the Japanese disaster to explore how, and the extent to which, corruption affects the perception of citizens regarding the risk of nuclear accidents. Endogeneity bias was controlled for using instrumental variables. The cross-country analysis showed that citizens in less

Eiji Yamamura

2011-01-01

186

Challenges of DNA profiling in mass disaster investigations.  

PubMed

In cases of mass disaster, there is often a need for managing, analyzing, and comparing large numbers of biological samples and DNA profiles. This requires the use of laboratory information management systems for large-scale sample logging and tracking, coupled with bioinformatic tools for DNA database searching according to different matching algorithms, and for the evaluation of the significance of each match by likelihood ratio calculations. There are many different interrelated factors and circumstances involved in each specific mass disaster scenario that may challenge the final DNA identification goal, such as: the number of victims, the mechanisms of body destruction, the extent of body fragmentation, the rate of DNA degradation, the body accessibility for sample collection, or the type of DNA reference samples availability. In this paper, we examine the different steps of the DNA identification analysis (DNA sampling, DNA analysis and technology, DNA database searching, and concordance and kinship analysis) reviewing the "lessons learned" and the scientific progress made in some mass disaster cases described in the scientific literature. We will put special emphasis on the valuable scientific feedback that genetic forensic community has received from the collaborative efforts of several public and private USA forensic laboratories in assisting with the more critical areas of the World Trade Center (WTC) mass fatality of September 11, 2001. The main challenges in identifying the victims of the recent South Asian Tsunami disaster, which has produced the steepest death count rise in history, will also be considered. We also present data from two recent mass fatality cases that involved Spanish victims: the Madrid terrorist attack of March 11, 2004, and the Yakolev-42 aircraft accident in Trabzon, Turkey, of May 26, 2003. PMID:16100756

Alonso, Antonio; Martin, Pablo; Albarrán, Cristina; Garcia, Pilar; Fernandez de Simon, Lourdes; Jesús Iturralde, Maria; Fernández-Rodriguez, Amparo; Atienza, Inmaculada; Capilla, Javier; García-Hirschfeld, Julia; Martinez, Pilar; Vallejo, Gloria; García, Oscar; García, Emilio; Real, Pilar; Alvarez, David; León, Antonio; Sancho, Manuel

2005-08-01

187

Isotopic Analysis of the Explosive Urea Nitrate and Its Component Ions for Forensic Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urea nitrate (UN) is an explosive used in improvised explosive devices. UN (CH5N2O+NO3-) can be synthesized from readily available chemicals and was the main explosive used in the 1993 bombing of the World Trade Center. Isotopic analysis of this explosive has the potential to elucidate the isotopic ratios of the starting materials and geographic information on the location of synthesis. However, depending on the synthesis of the explosive, variable amounts of residual nitric acid may remain, yielding differing contributions of the components to the bulk UN ?15N values. Since ?15N nitrate values cannot be extrapolated from a single component and the bulk value, it is critical to separate the explosive into urea° and potassium nitrate. Therefore, we developed a method to isolate the components of UN for isotopic analysis through the neutralization of urea and separation via methanol washes. The urea in the explosive is neutralized with a 1.1:1 mole ratio of potassium hydroxide:urea in water resulting in urea° and potassium nitrate. The solution is then dried and the urea and potassium nitrate are separated using methanol. Urea and nitrate were isolated from samples of pre-blast UN and the completeness of the extraction was confirmed with a urease assay and a nitrate detection assay on the appropriate components. Isotopic analysis of the isolated urea and potassium nitrate were performed using an EA-IRMS, with the addition of sucrose to the potassium nitrate to aid combustion. For samples of relatively pure UN, the bulk UN ?15N value is stoichiometrically equivalent to the measured ?15N values of the isolated urea and nitrate in a 2:1 ratio. However, some explosive samples contained an excess of nitric acid due to poor preparation. As a result, the bulk UN ?15N values were biased towards the ?15N value of the nitrate. We are conducting experiments to compare the isotopic values of the initial starting reactants in the UN synthesis and the isotopic composition of the end products in order to test the forensic utility for linking the starting reactants to recovered UN. We are also investigating the extent of oxygen isotope exchange of nitrate and water during UN synthesis. This may provide constraints on the location of UN production, which will be useful in a forensic investigation.

Aranda, R.; Stern, L. A.; McCormick, M. C.; Mothershead, R. F.; Barrow, J. A.

2008-12-01

188

Forensic Web Watch Forensic Podiatry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A search for forensic podiatry sites on the Internet revealed thousands of ‘hits’, of which very few were of any educational merit. Following extensive sifting of these addresses, it was found that only a few of the associations for human identification included any information on forensic podiatry methods. The search was also made difficult by many websites failing to make

T Brown; G. N Rutty

2003-01-01

189

Using Paper-Based Diagnostics with High School Students To Model Forensic Investigation and Colorimetric Analysis  

E-print Network

Using Paper-Based Diagnostics with High School Students To Model Forensic Investigation Rozkiewicz, George M. Whitesides, and Kathryn A. Hollar Biology Department, Tyngsborough High School, Albuquerque, New Mexico, 87131 United States § Chemistry Department, Merrimack High School, Merrimack, New

190

The development and practice of forensic podiatry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic podiatry a small, but potentially useful specialty using clinical podiatric knowledge for the purpose of person identification. The practice of forensic podiatry began in the early 1970s in Canada and the UK, although supportive research commenced later in the 1990s. Techniques of forensic podiatry include identification from podiatry records, the human footprint, footwear, and the analysis of gait forms

Wesley Vernon

2006-01-01

191

A Preliminary Approach to the Forensic Analysis of an Ultraportable ASUS Eee PC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subnotebooks, or ‘netbooks, are a relatively new consumer market but one that continues to grow significantly worldwide. The\\u000a aim of this paper is to analyse one of the leading subnotebooks, the ‘ASUS Eee PC’ from a forensics perspective. Specifically,\\u000a the work investigates current image creation methods for making image of Eee PCs Solid State Drive and it analyses forensically\\u000a important

Trupti Shiralkar; Michael Lavine; Benjamin Turnbull

2009-01-01

192

mtGenome reference population databases and the future of forensic mtDNA analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) testing in the forensic context requires appropriate, high quality population databases for estimating the rarity of questioned haplotypes. Currently, however, available forensic mtDNA reference databases only include information from the mtDNA control region. While this information is obviously strengthening the foundation upon which current mtDNA identification efforts are based, these data do not adequately prepare the field

Jodi A. Irwin; Walther Parson; Michael D. Coble; Rebecca S. Just

2011-01-01

193

When is Digital Evidence Forensically Sound?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensically sound” is a term used extensively in the digital forensics community to qualify and, in some cases, to justify\\u000a the use of a particular forensic technology or methodology. Indeed, many practitioners use the term when describing the capabilities\\u000a of a particular piece of software or when describing a particular forensic analysis approach. Such a wide application of the\\u000a term

Rodney Mckemmish

2008-01-01

194

Online Acquisition of Digital Forensic Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Providing the ability to any law enforcement officer to remotely transfer an image from any suspect computer directly to a\\u000a forensic laboratory for analysis, can only help to greatly reduce the time wasted by forensic investigators in conducting\\u000a on-site collection of computer equipment. RAFT (Remote Acquisition Forensic Tool) is a system designed to facilitate forensic\\u000a investigators by remotely gathering digital

Mark Scanlon; Mohand-Tahar Kechadi

2009-01-01

195

Analysis of forensically used autosomal short tandem repeat markers in Polish and neighboring populations.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the homogeneity of Polish populations with respect to STRs chosen as core markers of the Polish Forensic National DNA Intelligence Database, and to provide reference allele frequencies and to explore the genetic interrelationship between Poland and neighboring countries. The allele frequency distribution of 10 STRs included in the SGMplus kit was analyzed among 2176 unrelated individuals from 6 regional Polish populations and among 4321 individuals from Germany (three samples), Austria, The Netherlands, Sweden, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Belarus, Ukraine and the Russian Federation (six samples). The statistical approach consisted of AMOVA, calculation of pairwise Rst values and analysis by multidimensional scaling. We found homogeneity of present day Poland and consistent differences between Polish and German populations which contrasted with relative similarities between Russian and German populations. These discrepancies between genetic and geographic distances were confirmed by analysis of an independent data set on Y chromosome STRs. Migrations of Goths, Viking influences, German settlements in the region of Volga river and/or forced population resettlements and other events related to World War II are the historic events which might have caused these finding. PMID:19083822

Soltyszewski, Ireneusz; Plocienniczak, Andrzej; Fabricius, Hans Ake; Kornienko, Igor; Vodolazhsky, Dmitrij; Parson, Walther; Hradil, Roman; Schmitter, Hermann; Ivanov, Pavel; Kuzniar, Piotr; Malyarchuk, Boris A; Grzybowski, Tomasz; Wo?niak, Marcin; Henke, Jurgen; Henke, Lotte; Olkhovets, Sergiv; Voitenko, Vladimir; Lagus, Vita; Ficek, Andrej; Minárik, Gabriel; de Knijff, Peter; Reba?a, Krzysztof; Wysocka, Joanna; Kapi?ska, Ewa; Cybulska, Lidia; Mikulich, Alexei I; Tsybovsky, Iosif S; Szczerkowska, Zofia; Krajewski, Pawe?; Ploski, Rafa?

2008-06-01

196

Adaptation and evaluation of the PrepFiler™ DNA extraction technology in an automated forensic DNA analysis process with emphasis on DNA yield, inhibitor removal and contamination security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the initial step of the forensic DNA analysis process, the DNA extraction efficiency and especially the removal of potential PCR inhibitors is crucial for subsequent steps, e.g. quantification by real-time PCR and amplification of short tandem repeats (STRs). The protocol of the PrepFiler™ Forensic DNA Extraction Kit was optimized for the application on a Tecan liquid handling workstation Freedom

Peter Zimmermann; Kai Vollack; Barbara Haak; Michelle Bretthauer; Andrea Jelinski; Marga Kugler; Jessica Loidl; Werner Pflug

2009-01-01

197

[Organization, availability and possibility of analysis of disaster data of climate related origin and its impacts on health].  

PubMed

The occurrence of disasters is often related to unforeseeable able natural processes. However, the analysis of major databases may highlight seasonal and long-term trends, as well as some spatial patterns where risks are concentrated. In this paper the process of acquiring and organizing climate-related disaster data collected by civil protection institutions and made available by the Brazilian Climate and Health Observatory is described. Preliminary analyses show the concentration of disasters caused by heavy rainfall events along the Brazilian coastline especially during the summer. Droughts have longer duration and extent, affecting large areas of the south and northeast regions of the country. These data can be used to analyze and monitor the impact of extreme climatic events on health, as well as identify the vulnerability and climate deteminants. PMID:25184573

Xavier, Diego Ricardo; Barcellos, Christovam; Barros, Heglaucio da Silva; Magalhães, Monica de Avelar Figueiredo Mafra; Matos, Vanderlei Pascoal de; Pedroso, Marcel de Moraes

2014-09-01

198

Potential utility of DNA sequence analysis of long-term-stored plant leaf fragments for forensic discrimination and identification.  

PubMed

This study examined the potential utility of DNA sequence analysis to discriminate and identify plant material in forensic investigations. DNA was extracted from plant leaf fragments of 11 species stored for 5 to 22 years after collection. The trnH-psbA intergenic spacer and 316 bp of the rbcL gene were successfully amplified and sequenced for all fragments except for the trnH-psbA spacer of one sample. All of the plant samples were discriminated in pairwise comparisons of the sequences. Using a combination of local and global genetic databases is likely to provide greater reliability in search results to identify forensic samples from sequence data. PMID:20702948

Kikkawa, Hitomi S; Sugita, Ritsuko; Matsuki, Rikyu; Suzuki, Shinichi

2010-01-01

199

UV-visible microscope spectrophotometric polarization and dichroism with increased discrimination power in forensic analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microanalysis of transfer (Trace) evidence is the application of a microscope and microscopical techniques for the collection, observation, documentation, examination, identification, and discrimination of micrometer sized particles or domains. Microscope spectrophotometry is the union of microscopy and spectroscopy for microanalysis. Analytical microspectroscopy is the science of studying the emission, reflection, transmission, and absorption of electromagnetic radiation to determine the structure or chemical composition of microscopic-size materials. Microscope spectrophotometry instrument designs have evolved from monochromatic illumination which transmitted through the microscope and sample and then is detected by a photometer detector (photomultiplier tube) to systems in which broad-band (white light) illumination falls incident upon a sample followed by a non-scanning grating spectrometer equipped with a solid-state multi-element detector. Most of these small modern spectrometers are configured with either silicon based charged-couple device detectors (200-950 nm) or InGaAs based diode array detectors (850-2300 nm) with computerized data acquisition and signal processing being common. A focus of this research was to evaluate the performance characteristics of various modern forensic (UV-Vis) microscope photometer systems as well as review early model instrumental designs. An important focus of this research was to efficiently measure ultraviolet-visible spectra of microscopically small specimens for classification, differentiation, and possibly individualization. The first stage of the project consisted of the preparation of microscope slides containing neutral density filter reference materials, molecular fluorescence reference materials, and dichroic reference materials. Upon completion of these standard slide preparations analysis began with measurements in order to evaluate figures of merit for comparison of the instruments investigated. The figures of merit investigated included: 1) wavelength accuracy, 2) wavelength precision, 3) wavelength resolution stability, 4) photometric accuracy, 5) photometric precision, 6) photometric linearity, 7) photometric noise, and 8) short-term baseline stability. In addition, intrinsic instrument polarization effects were investigated to determine the impact of these properties on spectral interpretation and data quality. Finally, a set of recommendations were developed which describe instrument performance characteristics for microscope and spectrometer features and functions, and specific instrument parameters that must be controlled in order to acquire high quality data from an ultraviolet-visible forensic microscope spectrophotometer system for increased discrimination power.

Purcell, Dale Kevin

200

Forensic analysis of Salvia divinorum using multivariate statistical procedures. Part II: association of adulterated samples to S. divinorum.  

PubMed

Salvia divinorum is a plant material that is of forensic interest due to the hallucinogenic nature of the active ingredient, salvinorin A. In this study, S. divinorum was extracted and spiked onto four different plant materials (S. divinorum, Salvia officinalis, Cannabis sativa, and Nicotiana tabacum) to simulate an adulterated sample that might be encountered in a forensic laboratory. The adulterated samples were extracted and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the resulting total ion chromatograms were subjected to a series of pretreatment procedures that were used to minimize non-chemical sources of variance in the data set. The data were then analyzed using principal components analysis (PCA) to investigate association of the adulterated extracts to unadulterated S. divinorum. While association was possible based on visual assessment of the PCA scores plot, additional procedures including Euclidean distance measurement, hierarchical cluster analysis, Student's t tests, Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, and Pearson product moment correlation were also applied to the PCA scores to provide a statistical evaluation of the association observed. The advantages and limitations of each statistical procedure in a forensic context were compared and are presented herein. PMID:22160202

Willard, Melissa A Bodnar; McGuffin, Victoria L; Smith, Ruth Waddell

2012-01-01

201

Forensic Toxicology Certificate  

E-print Network

Forensic Toxicology Certificate What is Forensic Toxicology? Forensic toxicology is a discipline of forensic science that is concerned with the study of toxic substances or poisons. Toxicology encompasses methods and procedures from many disciplines, including chemistry, biochemistry, epidemiology

Saldin, Dilano

202

Forensic Medicine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Summary of forensic medicine; Life reactions; Necrosis and necrotic phenomena; Causes of death and violent deaths; Mechanical injuries; Poisoning and tests for poisons; Mechanical suffocation; Injury and death from burns and scalds; Electrocutio...

1969-01-01

203

Forensic Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A course is described, which was given during an interim, with an enrollment of 41 students. The course involved an in-depth study of forensic science, involving students with the methodology of science. (DF)

Berry, Keith O.; Nigh, W. G.

1973-01-01

204

Computer analysis of ATR-FTIR spectra of paint samples for forensic purposes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method of subtraction and normalization of IR spectra (MSN-IR) was developed and successfully applied to extract mathematically the pure paint spectrum from the spectrum of paint coat on different bases, both acquired by the Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) technique. The method consists of several stages encompassing several normalization and subtraction processes. The similarity of the spectrum obtained with the reference spectrum was estimated by means of the normalized Manhattan distance. The utility and performance of the method proposed were tested by examination of five different paints sprayed on plastic (polyester) foil and on fabric materials (cotton). It was found that the numerical algorithm applied is able - in contrast to other mathematical approaches conventionally used for the same aim - to reconstruct a pure paint IR spectrum effectively without a loss of chemical information provided. The approach allows the physical separation of a paint from a base to be avoided, hence a time and work-load of analysis to be considerably reduced. The results obtained prove that the method can be considered as a useful tool which can be applied to forensic purposes.

Szafarska, Ma?gorzata; Wo?niakiewicz, Micha?; Pilch, Mariusz; Zi?ba-Palus, Janina; Ko?cielniak, Pawe?

2009-04-01

205

Raman spectroscopy and capillary electrophoresis applied to forensic colour inkjet printer inks analysis.  

PubMed

Forensic laboratories are increasingly engaged in the examination of fraudulent documents, and what is important, in many cases these are inkjet-printed documents. That is why systematic approaches to inkjet printer inks comparison and identification have been carried out by both non-destructive and destructive methods. In this study, micro-Raman spectroscopy and capillary electrophoresis (CE) were applied to the analysis of colour inkjet printer inks. Micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to study the chemical composition of colour inks in situ on a paper surface. It helps to characterize and differentiate inkjet inks, and can be used to create a spectra database of inks taken from different cartridge brands and cartridge numbers. Capillary electrophoresis in micellar electrophoretic capillary chromatography mode was applied to separate colour and colourless components of inks, enabling group identification of those components which occur in a sufficient concentration (giving intensive peaks). Finally, on the basis of the obtained results, differentiation of the analysed inks was performed. Twenty-three samples of inkjet printer inks were examined and the discriminating power (DP) values for both presented methods were established in the routine work of experts during the result interpretation step. DP was found to be 94.0% (Raman) and 95.6% (CE) when all the analysed ink samples were taken into account, and it was 96.7% (Raman) and 98.4% (CE), when only cartridges with different index numbers were considered. PMID:25062531

Król, Ma?gorzata; Karoly, Agnes; Ko?cielniak, Pawe?

2014-09-01

206

Scanning electron microscopic analysis of incinerated teeth: An aid to forensic identification  

PubMed Central

Background: Forensic dental identification of victims involved in fire accidents is often a complex and challenging endeavor. Knowledge of the charred human dentition and residues of restorative material can help in the recognition of bodies burned beyond recognition. Aim: To observe the effects of predetermined temperatures on healthy unrestored teeth and different restorative materials in restored teeth, by scanning electron microscope, for the purpose of identification. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 135 extracted teeth, which were divided into four groups. Group 1-healthy unrestored teeth, group 2-teeth restored with all ceramic crowns, group 3-teeth restored with class I composite resin and group 4-teeth restored with class I glass ionomer cement (GIC). Results: The scanning electron microscope is useful in the analysis of burned teeth, as it gives fine structural details, requires only a small sample and does not destroy the already fragile specimen. Conclusion: Scanning electron microscope can be a useful tool for the characterization and study of severely burnt teeth for victim identification. PMID:24959034

Pol, Chetan A; Gosavi, Suchitra R

2014-01-01

207

Analysis of 11 tetrameric STRs in wild boars for forensic purposes.  

PubMed

STR profiling of animal species has a wide range of applications, including forensic identification, wildlife preservation, veterinary public health protection and food safety. We tested the efficacy of a multiplex PCR-based assay including 11 porcine-specific tetrameric STRs in a population sample of wild boars (n=142) originating from Piedmont (North West Italy). Multiple deviations from Hardy-Weinberg expectations were observed, mostly due to a reduction in observed heterozygosity indicative of a high degree of inbreeding. A value of ? of 0.046 and an inbreeding coefficient of 0.089 were estimated. Combined power of discrimination and probability of exclusion values for the STR panel were 0.9999999999996 and 0.99989. In order to test the suitability of the method for meat traceability purposes, a domestic pig reference sample (n=412), consisting of commercial lines commonly used in the meat production process, was also typed. A Bayesian cluster analysis carried out using the observed genotypes, showed a percentage of correct subspecies assignment of individual samples of 0.974 for wild boars and 0.991 for pigs, thus demonstrating the usefulness of the multiplex STR-typing system for discrimination purposes. PMID:20685189

Caratti, Stefano; Rossi, Luca; Sona, Bruno; Origlia, Silvia; Viara, Silvana; Martano, Giuseppe; Torre, Carlo; Robino, Carlo

2010-10-01

208

Application of pericardial fluid to the analysis of morphine (heroin) and cocaine in forensic toxicology.  

PubMed

In this study opiates (morphine and codeine) and cocaine and its related metabolites (benzoylecgonine and cocaethylene) were analyzed in pericardial fluid by GC/MS. This is the first study reporting levels of drugs of abuse in this body fluid. The analytical method used has been previously validated and then applied to 54 drug-related deaths in the Barcelona area (Spain). Median levels were as follows: morphine 589ng/ml, range 19-8857 (n=49); codeine 26ng/ml, range 15-343 (n=35); cocaine 78ng/ml, range 10-220 (n=14), benzoylecgonine 742ng/ml, range 20-3386 (n=15), and cocaethylene 36ng/ml, range 9-100 (n=13). In addition, a comparative study of the concentration of opiates and cocaine in pericardial fluid by both semi-quantitative EMIT d.a.u. and GC/MS (used as reference) was performed. Fairly good correlations for opiates (r=0.905) and cocaine (r=0.859) were found; however, the consistently low results of EMIT in the analysis of cocaine comparing to GC/MS could be caused by matrix effect. In spite of that, it raises the possibility of using the immunoassay as a preliminary technique in forensic toxicology. PMID:16442766

Contreras, María Teresa; Hernández, Antonio F; González, Marisa; González, Susana; Ventura, Rosa; Pla, Antonio; Valverde, Juan Luis; Segura, Jordi; de la Torre, Rafael

2006-12-20

209

Coding region SNP analysis to enhance dog mtDNA discrimination power in forensic casework.  

PubMed

The high population frequencies of three control region haplotypes contribute to the low discrimination power of the dog mtDNA control region. It also diminishes the evidential power of a match with one of these haplotypes in forensic casework. A mitochondrial genome study of 214 Belgian dogs suggested 26 polymorphic coding region sites that successfully resolved dogs with the three most frequent control region haplotypes. In this study, three SNP assays were developed to determine the identity of the 26 informative sites. The control region of 132 newly sampled dogs was sequenced and added to the study of 214 dogs. The assays were applied to 58 dogs of the haplotypes of interest, which confirmed their suitability for enhancing dog mtDNA discrimination power. In the Belgian population study of 346 dogs, the set of 26 sites divided the dogs into 25 clusters of mtGenome sequences with substantially lower population frequency estimates than their control region sequences. In case of a match with one of the three control region haplotypes, using these three SNP assays in conjunction with control region sequencing would augment the exclusion probability of dog mtDNA analysis from 92.9% to 97.0%. PMID:25299153

Verscheure, Sophie; Backeljau, Thierry; Desmyter, Stijn

2015-01-01

210

A method for enhancement of background sounds in forensic  

E-print Network

· Test implementation · Example processing · Conclusion #12;Audio Forensics · Audio ForensicsA method for enhancement of background sounds in forensic audio recordings Robert C. Maher;Outline · Introduction ­ Audio forensic analysis ­ Adaptive interference cancelling ­ Sinusoidal modeling

Maher, Robert C.

211

Identification in forensic anthropology: Its relation to genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within forensic activity, whenever identification is a problem, it is generalized that DNA analysis is the solution. However, it is well known both by forensic pathologists and anthropologists that, apart form the immense potentiality of this technique, there are many situations where the classical forensic anthropology examination is still useful and irreplaceable. Through the presentation of two forensic routine cases

Eugénia Cunha; João Pinheiro; Duarte Nuno Vieira

2006-01-01

212

Forensic toxicology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Forensic toxicology has developed as a forensic science in recent years and is now widely used to assist in death investigations,\\u000a in civil and criminal matters involving drug use, in drugs of abuse testing in correctional settings and custodial medicine,\\u000a in road and work-place safety, in matters involving environmental pollution, as well as in sports doping. Drugs most commonly\\u000a targeted

Olaf H. Drummer

213

Probabilistic cost-benefit analysis of disaster risk management in a development context.  

PubMed

Limited studies have shown that disaster risk management (DRM) can be cost-efficient in a development context. Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is an evaluation tool to analyse economic efficiency. This research introduces quantitative, stochastic CBA frameworks and applies them in case studies of flood and drought risk reduction in India and Pakistan, while also incorporating projected climate change impacts. DRM interventions are shown to be economically efficient, with integrated approaches more cost-effective and robust than singular interventions. The paper highlights that CBA can be a useful tool if certain issues are considered properly, including: complexities in estimating risk; data dependency of results; negative effects of interventions; and distributional aspects. The design and process of CBA must take into account specific objectives, available information, resources, and the perceptions and needs of stakeholders as transparently as possible. Intervention design and uncertainties should be qualified through dialogue, indicating that process is as important as numerical results. PMID:23551288

Kull, Daniel; Mechler, Reinhard; Hochrainer-Stigler, Stefan

2013-07-01

214

Forensic Science Certificate  

E-print Network

. Is Forensic Science Right for Me? Students in forensic science have a strong interest in chemistry, biologyForensic Science Certificate What do Forensic Scientists Do? Forensic scientists apply scientific conclusions about a crime based on the evidence. Some forensic scientists work in laboratories, while others

Saldin, Dilano

215

Dentistry and mass disaster - a review.  

PubMed

Mass disaster situations may arise from natural or manmade circumstances like bioterrorism and dentists or dental responders have significant roles in human identification, following such occurrences. The various roles of dentists in mass disaster management, that include bio surveillance and notification, diagnosis and monitoring, triage, referrals of patients, immunizations, decontamination and infection control would be considered. The varying extents of use of forensic dental techniques and the resulting positive impacts made on human identification will also be included. The importance of preparation by way of special training for the dental personnel, mass disaster rehearsal, and use of modern day technology will be stressed on. PMID:25177658

Nathan, Mark David Edward; Sakthi, D Sri

2014-07-01

216

Forensic age estimation by spheno-occipital synchondrosis fusion degree: computed tomography analysis.  

PubMed

The analysis of ossification points plays a considerable role in forensic age estimation. Although traditional methods are still in use, researchers are working on different age estimation procedures especially within the development of radiologic methods. One of these methods is to define spheno-occipital synchondrosis fusion degree. Spheno-occipital synchondrosis, an important growth point on cranial base, provides noteworthy information about age estimation through its late stage ossification nature. This study aimed to investigate spheno-occipital synchondrosis fusion degree for age estimation in the Turkish population. In our study, 1-mm-sectioned computed tomography images of 638 (399 men and 139 women) subjects within the age of 10 to 25 years were retrospectively examined. It is stated in our study that spheno-occipital syncondrosis fusion begins superiorly and progresses inferiorly until it is completed. Spheno-occipital syncondrosis is known to be totally open at the mean (SD) age of 11.5 (1.5) years in men and 10.7 (0.8) years in women. In addition, fusion degree is known to be increased with age. Fusion starts approximately 2 years earlier in women than in men, and the process of fusion completes at the age of 17 years in both sexes. An analysis of fusion degree between sex groups showed significance at the age of 11 to 15 years, and Spearman rank correlations indicate a significant positive relationship between age and degree of spheno-occipital fusion (P < 0.001; men, ? = 0.714; women, ? = 0.698). Consequently, 5-staged analysis of spheno-occipital synchondrosis fusion degree in use with 1-mm computed tomography images will be helpful for age estimation between 11 and 17 years. PMID:25006899

Can, Ismail Ozgur; Ekizoglu, Oguzhan; Hocaoglu, Elif; Inci, Ercan; Sayin, Ibrahim; Kaya, Kamil Hakan

2014-07-01

217

iPhone 3GS Forensics: Logical analysis using Apple iTunes Backup Utility  

E-print Network

Abstract- The iPhone mobile is used worldwide due to its enhanced computing capabilities, increased storage capacity as well as its attractive touch interface. These characteristics made the iPhone a popular smart phone device. The increased use of the iPhone lead it to become a potential source of digital evidence in criminal investigations. Therefore, iPhone forensics turned into an essential practice for forensic and security practitioners today. This research aimed at investigating and examining the logical backup acquisition of the iPhone 3GS mobile device using the Apple iTunes backup utility. It was found that significant data of forensic value such as e-mail messages, text and multimedia messages, calendar events, browsing history, GPRS locations, contacts, call history and voicemail recording can be retrieved using this method of iPhone acquisition.

Mona Bader; Ibrahim Baggili

218

Examination of mobile phones in a university forensic lab environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this article is to show forensic investigation methods for mobile phones to students in a university forensic lab environment. Students have to learn the usefulness of forensic procedures to ensure evidence collection, evidence preservation, forensic analysis, and reporting. Open source tools as well as commercial forensic tools for forensic investigation of modern mobile (smart) phones are used. It is demonstrated how important data stored in the mobile device are investigated. Different scenarios of investigations are presented that are well-suited for forensics lab work in university.

Luttenberger, Silas; Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

2011-06-01

219

Forensic odontology, part 2. Major disasters  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have only to look back over the last 12 months to realise that time and time again, an incident occurs where there are mass fatalities. These incidents have instant and long-lasting impact on families, communities and sometimes whole countries. The aim of this paper is to emphasise the need for an efficient and sensitive response to assist in the

J. Hinchliffe

2011-01-01

220

Analysis of suspected wildlife crimes submitted for forensic examinations in Scotland.  

PubMed

This study describes the occurrence of suspected wildlife crimes submitted for forensic examination in Scotland in 2010. The study aims were to determine which types of crimes were committed, which species were targeted, and the outcome of investigations, in order to assess the contribution of forensic examinations in the prosecution of wildlife crimes. Information on suspected wildlife crimes submitted between January 1 and December 31, 2010 to the SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services Disease Surveillance Centers, Science and Advice for Scottish Agriculture, and to the University of Glasgow, was used. The location of suspected crimes, the species targeted, cause of death, and types of the 188 submitted wildlife crimes were summarized. More information regarding cases involving birds were submitted than cases involving mammals, and included 114 raptors, 14 waterfowl, and 22 "other bird species." Mammal cases (n = 38) included 12 badgers, 8 foxes, 7 deer, 4 hares, and 7 "other mammals." The cause of death was determined in 124 suspected crimes; malicious or accidental trauma was the most likely cause of death in 72, and 33 were poisoned. Forensic evidence supporting criminal activity was found in 53 cases, and poisoning was the most frequent crime recorded. At least five individuals were successfully prosecuted, representing 2.7 % of submissions. It was challenging to track cases from submission through to prosecution and laboratories conducting forensic investigations were often not informed of the outcome of prosecutions or court decisions. PMID:24935435

Millins, Caroline; Howie, Fiona; Everitt, Charles; Shand, Michael; Lamm, Catherine

2014-09-01

221

Analysis of forensically used autosomal short tandem repeat markers in Polish and neighboring populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the homogeneity of Polish populations with respect to STRs chosen as core markers of the Polish Forensic National DNA Intelligence Database, and to provide reference allele frequencies and to explore the genetic interrelationship between Poland and neighboring countries. The allele frequency distribution of 10 STRs included in the SGMplus kit was analyzed

Ireneusz Soltyszewski; Andrzej Plocienniczak; Hans Åke Fabricius; Igor Kornienko; Dmitrij Vodolazhsky; Walther Parson; Roman Hradil; Hermann Schmitter; Pavel Ivanov; Piotr Kuzniar; Boris A. Malyarchuk; Tomasz Grzybowski; Marcin Wo?niak; J?rgen Henke; Lotte Henke; Sergiv Olkhovets; Vladimir Voitenko; Vita Lagus; Andrej Ficek; Gabriel Minárik; Peter de Knijff; Krzysztof R?ba?a; Joanna Wysocka; Ewa Kapi?ska; Lidia Cybulska; Alexei I. Mikulich; Iosif S. Tsybovsky; Zofia Szczerkowska; Pawe? Krajewski; Rafa? Ploski

2008-01-01

222

Loneliness in a Maximum-Security Forensic Hospital: An Experience Sampling Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated correlates of loneliness in 25 incarcerated psychiatric patients in a maximum-security hospital to clarify relations between loneliness and other contextual and interpersonal variables. Forensic inpatients reported the greatest frequency of loneliness and negative emotional states when they were alone. Significant positive correlations were found between reported loneliness and subjective variables such as rejection, helplessness, worthlessness, and anxiety.

Donald C. Phelps; Bradley M. Waite; Marc Hillbrand

1998-01-01

223

Adaptive tracking of network behavioral signals for real time forensic analysis of service quality degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current shift from the static access based service model to the dynamic application based service model introduced major challenges for effective forensics of any quality degradation of the provided service. In addition, about 55 percent of the Tier 1 and Tier 2 providers are planning to offer managed security services to guarantee an attack free IP service. In this

Mohamed Battisha; Adel Elmaghraby; Hanafy Meleis; Satya Samineni

2008-01-01

224

Forensic analysis of the Firefox 3 Internet history and recovery of deleted SQLite records  

Microsoft Academic Search

Firefox 3 uses a new system, based on various SQLite databases, to store Internet history, bookmarks, form field data and cookies. This paper presents the main properties of these databases, what fields are of forensic interest and what information the available tools can extract. It shows that even if records in these databases are deleted, remnants may be found in

Murilo Tito Pereira

2009-01-01

225

Estimating human age in forensic samples by analysis of telomere repeats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the area of forensics it would be of great help, both for identifications and in crime scene investigations, to be able to do an age estimate on humans simply on the basis of for instance bloodstains. Telomeres, that constitute the ends of human chromosomes, shorten with every cell division. Thus, telomere length might be used as an indicator of

Andreas O. Karlsson; Anna Svensson; Annika Marklund; Gunilla Holmlund

2008-01-01

226

Forensic culture as epistemic culture: the sociology of forensic science.  

PubMed

This paper explores whether we can interpret the notion of 'forensic culture' as something akin to what Knorr-Cetina called an 'epistemic culture'. Can we speak of a 'forensic culture', and, if so, how is it similar to, or different from, other epistemic cultures that exist in what is conventionally called 'science'? This question has important policy implications given the National Academy Science's (NAS) recent identification of 'culture' as one of the problems at the root of what it identified as 'serious deficiencies' in U.S. forensic science and 'scientific culture' as an antidote to those problems. Finding the NAS's characterisation of 'scientific culture' overly general and naïve, this paper offers a preliminary exploration of what might be called a 'forensic culture'. Specifically, the paper explores the way in which few of the empirical findings accumulated by sociologists of science about research science seem to apply to forensic science. Instead, forensic science seems to have developed a distinct culture for which a sociological analysis will require new explanatory tools. Faithful sociological analysis of 'forensic culture' will be a necessary prerequisite for the kind of culture change prescribed by external reformist bodies like the NAS. PMID:23021588

Cole, Simon A

2013-03-01

227

Screening sensitivity analysis of a radionuclides atmospheric dispersion model applied to the Fukushima disaster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical models used to forecast the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides following nuclear accidents are subject to substantial uncertainties. Input data, such as meteorological forecasts or source term estimations, as well as poorly known model parameters contribute for a large part to this uncertainty. A sensitivity analysis with the method of Morris was carried out in the case of the Fukushima disaster as a first step towards the uncertainty analysis of the Polyphemus/Polair3D model. The main difficulties stemmed from the high dimension of the model's input and output. Simple perturbations whose magnitudes were devised from a thorough literature review were applied to 19 uncertain inputs. Several outputs related to atmospheric activity and ground deposition were aggregated, revealing different inputs rankings. Other inputs based on gamma dose rates measurements were used to question the possibility of calibrating the inputs uncertainties. Some inputs, such as the cloud layer thickness, were found to have little influence on most considered outputs and could therefore be safely discarded from further studies. On the contrary, wind perturbations and emission factors for iodine and caesium are predominant. The performance indicators derived from dose rates observations displayed strong sensitivities. This emphasises the share of the overall uncertainty due to input uncertainties and asserts the relevance of the simple perturbation scheme that was employed in this work.

Girard, Sylvain; Korsakissok, Irène; Mallet, Vivien

2014-10-01

228

Error rates in forensic DNA analysis: definition, numbers, impact and communication.  

PubMed

Forensic DNA casework is currently regarded as one of the most important types of forensic evidence, and important decisions in intelligence and justice are based on it. However, errors occasionally occur and may have very serious consequences. In other domains, error rates have been defined and published. The forensic domain is lagging behind concerning this transparency for various reasons. In this paper we provide definitions and observed frequencies for different types of errors at the Human Biological Traces Department of the Netherlands Forensic Institute (NFI) over the years 2008-2012. Furthermore, we assess their actual and potential impact and describe how the NFI deals with the communication of these numbers to the legal justice system. We conclude that the observed relative frequency of quality failures is comparable to studies from clinical laboratories and genetic testing centres. Furthermore, this frequency is constant over the five-year study period. The most common causes of failures related to the laboratory process were contamination and human error. Most human errors could be corrected, whereas gross contamination in crime samples often resulted in irreversible consequences. Hence this type of contamination is identified as the most significant source of error. Of the known contamination incidents, most were detected by the NFI quality control system before the report was issued to the authorities, and thus did not lead to flawed decisions like false convictions. However in a very limited number of cases crucial errors were detected after the report was issued, sometimes with severe consequences. Many of these errors were made in the post-analytical phase. The error rates reported in this paper are useful for quality improvement and benchmarking, and contribute to an open research culture that promotes public trust. However, they are irrelevant in the context of a particular case. Here case-specific probabilities of undetected errors are needed. These should be reported, separately from the match probability, when requested by the court or when there are internal or external indications for error. It should also be made clear that there are various other issues to consider, like DNA transfer. Forensic statistical models, in particular Bayesian networks, may be useful to take the various uncertainties into account and demonstrate their effects on the evidential value of the forensic DNA results. PMID:24905336

Kloosterman, Ate; Sjerps, Marjan; Quak, Astrid

2014-09-01

229

Forensic entomology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Necrophagous insects are important in the decomposition of cadavers. The close association between insects and corpses and the use of insects in medicocriminal investigations is the subject of forensic entomology. The present paper reviews the historical background of this discipline, important postmortem processes, and discusses the scientific basis underlying attempts to determine the time interval since death. Using medical techniques,

Jens Amendt; Roman Krettek; Richard Zehner

2004-01-01

230

Database forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the user or surface level, most Database Management System (DBMS) are similar. Most databases contain multiple tables, a standardized query language, primary key, foreign key, referential integrity, and metadata. With regard to physical file structures, concurrency mechanisms, security mechanisms, query optimization and datawarehouse techniques, databases may be radically different from each other. Most Forensic tools are too time consuming

Mario A. M. Guimaraes; Richard Austin; Huwida Said

2010-01-01

231

Hazard Analysis and Disaster Preparedness in the Fairbanks North Star Borough, Alaska using Hazard Simulations, GIS, and Network Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fairbanks North Star Borough (FNSB) lies in interior Alaska, an area that is dominated by semiarid, boreal forest climate. FNSB frequently witnesses flooding events, wild land fires, earthquakes, extreme winter storms and other natural and man-made hazards. Being a large 19,065 km2 area, with a population of approximately 97,000 residents, providing emergency services to residents in a timely manner is a challenge. With only four highways going in and out of the borough, and only two of those leading to another city, most residents do not have quick access to a main road. Should a major disaster occur and block one of the two highways, options for evacuating or getting supplies to the area quickly dwindle. We present the design of a Geographic Information System (GIS) and network analysis based decision support tool that we have created for planning and emergency response. This tool will be used by Emergency Service (Fire/EMS), Emergency Management, Hazardous Materials Team, and Law Enforcement Agencies within FNSB to prepare and respond to a variety of potential disasters. The GIS combines available road and address networks from different FNSB agencies with the 2010 census data. We used ESRI's ArcGIS and FEMA's HAZUS-MH software to run multiple disaster scenarios and create several evacuation and response plans. Network analysis resulted in determining response time and classifying the borough by response times to facilitate allocation of emergency resources. The resulting GIS database can be used by any responding agency in FNSB to determine possible evacuation routes, where to open evacuation centers, placement of resources, and emergency response times. We developed a specific emergency response plan for three common scenarios: (i) major wildfire threatening Fairbanks, (ii) a major earthquake, (iii) loss of power during flooding in a flood-prone area. We also combined the network analysis results with high resolution imagery and elevation data to determine 'one-way out' areas. These are areas that have only one road going in or out and if that road where to get shut down the residents would have no other way of evacuating.

Schaefer, K.; Prakash, A.; Witte, W.

2011-12-01

232

Client-side Skype forensics: an overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

IT security and computer forensics are important components in the information technology. In the present study, a client-side Skype forensics is performed. It is designed to explain which kind of user data are stored on a computer and which tools allow the extraction of those data for a forensic investigation. There are described both methods - a manual analysis and an analysis with (mainly) open source tools, respectively.

Meißner, Tina; Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

2013-03-01

233

[Fixation of cells for analysis by laser microdissection--comparative studies in forensic trace material].  

PubMed

This paper is focused on the preparation of samples for laser microdissection (LM) in forensic casework. In forensic genetics, it is essential to preserve and separate cellular traces during sample preparation, as they are usually gathered in very small amounts and are often contaminated with undesired cells. This is made possible by laser microdissection, a technique developed to cut cells or tissue of a certain type from a microscopical specimen by UV laser and catapult them directly into a PCR reactor. This method minimizes the risk of getting inconclusive, mixed DNA profiles due to contamination by foreign DNA and also supplies information about the cellular origin of a DNA profile. A method for optimized fixation and staining of spermatozoa for laser microdissection was established. Four different fixation methods combined with two staining methods were tested on two different microscope slides. Moreover, the effect of a blocker pen to contain the specimen on the slide was investigated. PMID:22924276

Fischer, Elisabeth J; Laberke, Patrick J; Kübler, Eric; Balitzki, Beate

2012-01-01

234

Forensic analysis of explosives using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS)--preliminary study on TATP and PETN.  

PubMed

The application of isotopic techniques to investigations requiring the provision of evidence to a Court is limited. The objective of this research was to investigate the application of light stable isotopes and isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) to solve complex forensic cases by providing a level of discrimination not achievable utilising traditional forensic techniques. Due to the current threat of organic peroxide explosives, such as triacetone triperoxide (TATP), research was undertaken to determine the potential of IRMS to differentiate samples of TATP that had been manufactured utilising different starting materials and/or manufacturing processes. In addition, due to the prevalence of pentaerythritoltetranitrate (PETN) in detonators, detonating cord, and boosters, the potential of the IRMS technique to differentiate PETN samples from different sources was also investigated. Carbon isotope values were measured in fourteen TATP samples, with three definite groups appearing in the initial sample set based on the carbon data alone. Four additional TATP samples (in a second set of samples) were distinguishable utilising the carbon and hydrogen isotopic compositions individually, and also in combination with the oxygen isotope values. The 3D plot of the carbon, oxygen and hydrogen data demonstrated the clear discrimination of the four samples of TATP. The carbon and nitrogen isotope values measured from fifteen PETN samples, allowed samples from different sources to be readily discriminated. This paper demonstrates the successful application of IRMS to the analysis of explosives of forensic interest to assist in discriminating samples from different sources. This research represents a preliminary evaluation of the IRMS technique for the measurement of stable isotope values in TATP and PETN samples, and supports the dedication of resources for a full evaluation of this application in order to achieve Court reportable IRMS results. PMID:19606585

Benson, Sarah J; Lennard, Christopher J; Maynard, Philip; Hill, David M; Andrew, Anita S; Roux, Claude

2009-06-01

235

Analysis of 11 tetrameric STRs in wild boars for forensic purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

STR profiling of animal species has a wide range of applications, including forensic identification, wildlife preservation, veterinary public health protection and food safety. We tested the efficacy of a multiplex PCR-based assay including 11 porcine-specific tetrameric STRs in a population sample of wild boars (n=142) originating from Piedmont (North West Italy). Multiple deviations from Hardy–Weinberg expectations were observed, mostly due

Stefano Caratti; Luca Rossi; Bruno Sona; Silvia Origlia; Silvana Viara; Giuseppe Martano; Carlo Torre; Carlo Robino

2010-01-01

236

Effects of subpopulation structure on probability calculations of DNA profiles from forensic PCR analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA typing for forensic identification is a two-step process. The first step involves determining the profiles of samples\\u000a collected at the crime scene and comparing them with the profiles obtained from suspects and the victims. In the case of a\\u000a match that includes the suspect as the potential source of the material collected at the crime scene, the last step

J. C. Gallo; E. Thomas; G. E. Novick; R. J. Herrera

1997-01-01

237

State-of-the-art of bone marrow analysis in forensic toxicology: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although blood is the reference medium in the field of forensic toxicology, alternative matrices are required in case of limited,\\u000a unavailable or unusable blood samples. The present review investigated the suitability of bone marrow (BM) as an alternative\\u000a matrix to characterize xenobiotic consumption and its influence on the occurrence of death. Basic data on BM physiology are\\u000a reported in order

Nathalie Cartiser; Fabien Bévalot; Laurent Fanton; Yvan Gaillard; Jérôme Guitton

2011-01-01

238

Wavelength dependence on the forensic analysis of glass by nanosecond 266 nm and 1064 nm laser induced breakdown spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy can be used for the chemical characterization of glass to provide evidence of an association between a fragment found at a crime scene to a source of glass of known origin. Two different laser irradiances, 266 nm and 1064 nm, were used to conduct qualitative and quantitative analysis of glass standards. Single-pulse and double-pulse configurations and lens-to-sample-distance settings were optimized to yield the best laser-glass coupling. Laser energy and acquisition timing delays were also optimized to result in the highest signal-to-noise ratio corresponding to the highest precision and accuracy. The crater morphology was examined and the mass removed was calculated for both the 266 nm and 1064 nm irradiations. The analytical figures of merit suggest that the 266 nm and 1064 nm wavelengths are capable of good performance for the forensic chemical characterization of glass. The results presented here suggest that the 266 nm laser produces a better laser-glass matrix coupling, resulting in a better stoichiometric representation of the glass sample. The 266 nm irradiance is therefore recommended for the forensic analysis and comparison of glass samples.

Cahoon, Erica M.; Almirall, Jose R.

2010-05-01

239

Virtual tool mark generation for efficient striation analysis in forensic science  

SciTech Connect

In 2009, a National Academy of Sciences report called for investigation into the scienti#12;c basis behind tool mark comparisons (National Academy of Sciences, 2009). Answering this call, Chumbley et al. (2010) attempted to prove or disprove the hypothesis that tool marks are unique to a single tool. They developed a statistical algorithm that could, in most cases, discern matching and non-matching tool marks made at di#11;erent angles by sequentially numbered screwdriver tips. Moreover, in the cases where the algorithm misinterpreted a pair of marks, an experienced forensics examiner could discern the correct outcome. While this research served to con#12;rm the basic assumptions behind tool mark analysis, it also suggested that statistical analysis software could help to reduce the examiner's workload. This led to a new tool mark analysis approach, introduced in this thesis, that relies on 3D scans of screwdriver tip and marked plate surfaces at the micrometer scale from an optical microscope. These scans are carefully cleaned to remove noise from the data acquisition process and assigned a coordinate system that mathematically de#12;nes angles and twists in a natural way. The marking process is then simulated by using a 3D graphics software package to impart rotations to the tip and take the projection of the tip's geometry in the direction of tool travel. The edge of this projection, retrieved from the 3D graphics software, becomes a virtual tool mark. Using this method, virtual marks are made at increments of 5#14; and compared to a scan of the evidence mark. The previously developed statistical package from Chumbley et al. (2010) performs the comparison, comparing the similarity of the geometry of both marks to the similarity that would occur due to random chance. The resulting statistical measure of the likelihood of the match informs the examiner of the angle of the best matching virtual mark, allowing the examiner to focus his/her mark analysis on a smaller range of angles. Preliminary results are quite promising. In a study with both sides of 6 screwdriver tips and 34 corresponding marks, the method distinguished known matches from known non-matches with zero false positive matches and only two matches mistaken for non-matches. For matches, it could predict the correct marking angle within #6;5-10#14;. Moreover, on a standard desktop computer, the virtual marking software is capable of cleaning 3D tip and plate scans in minutes and producing a virtual mark and comparing it to a real mark in seconds. These results support several of the professional conclusions of the tool mark analysis com- munity, including the idea that marks produced by the same tool only match if they are made at similar angles. The method also displays the potential to automate part of the comparison process, freeing the examiner to focus on other tasks, which is important in busy, backlogged crime labs. Finally, the method o#11;ers the unique chance to directly link an evidence mark to the tool that produced it while reducing potential damage to the evidence.

Ekstrand, Laura [Ames Laboratory

2012-11-16

240

FORENSIC SCIENCE About Forensic Science  

E-print Network

SATor760ACT -FroshEligibilityIndex(OutofState):3502SATor842ACT -TransferStudents:2.60orabove;FS11:justicestudies.sjsu.edu/degrees/b-s-forensic-science/ San José State University does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, sex,sexualorientation,maritalstatus,pregnancy,age,disability,disabledveteran'sorVietnam veteran

Su, Xiao

241

Forensic odontology: A prosthodontic view  

PubMed Central

The most common role of the forensic dentist is the identification of deceased individuals. Dental identifications have always played a key role in natural and manmade disaster situations, and in particular, the mass casualties normally associated with aviation disasters. Because of the lack of a comprehensive fingerprint database, dental identification continues to be crucial in the world. An all-acrylic resin appliance such as a full denture or an all-acrylic partial denture (or orthodontic appliance), prior to delivery, could be inscribed with the patient's full name on a substrate (paper, metal) and sealed inconspicuously into the surface of a denture by various processes. It has been noted by several authors that in many cases of air disaster where the limbs are completely burnt off, some denture materials survive, especially the posterior part of acrylic dentures and metal-based dentures. Thus, marked dental prostheses (full and partial dentures, mouthguards and removal orthodontic appliances) would lead to rapid identification in the event of accidents and disaster. PMID:23087581

Gosavi, Sulekha; Gosavi, Siddharth

2012-01-01

242

[Mitochondrial DNA typing--a new level for solving identification problems in forensic medical expert identification of unidentified remains of victims of terrorist acts in Moscow and the armed conflict in the Chechen Republic].  

PubMed

Two large-scale episodes described in this paper reflect the first in Russia use of molecular genetic matrilinear markers (analysis of polymorphism of sequences of amplified fragments of mitochondrial DNA hypervariable locuses) in solution of a complex identification problem: forensic medical identification of unidentified fragments of victims of explosions of houses in Moscow in September, 1999, and of soldiers dead in the war conflict in the Chechen Republic in 1994-1996. The results of this work and methodological experience gained in it essentially extend the potentialities of expert studies as regards forensic medical identification of victims of large scale disasters, terroristic acts, and war conflicts. PMID:11550512

Ivanov, P L; Frolova, S A; Orekhov, V A; Iankovski?, N K; Zemskova, E Iu

2001-01-01

243

An evidence based strategy for normalization of quantitative PCR data from miRNA expression analysis in forensic organ tissue identification.  

PubMed

Messenger-RNA (mRNA)-based analysis of organ tissues and their differentiation in complex crime stains has recently been introduced as a potential and powerful tool to forensic genetics. Given the notoriously low quality of many forensic samples it seems advisable, though, to substitute mRNA with micro-RNA (miRNA) which is much less susceptible to degradation. However, reliable miRNA detection and quantification using quantitative PCR requires a solid and forensically relevant normalization strategy. In our study we evaluated a panel of 15 carefully selected reference genes for their suitability as endogenous controls in miRNA qPCR normalization in forensically relevant settings. We analyzed assay performances and expression variances in 35 individual samples and mixtures thereof integrating highly standardized protocols with contemporary methodologies and included several well-established computational algorithms. Based on these empirical results, we recommend SNORD48, SNORD24, and RNU6-2 as endogenous references since these exhibit the most stable expression levels and the least expected variation among the evaluated candidate reference genes in the given set of forensically relevant organ tissues including skin. To account for the lack of consensus on how best to perform and interpret quantitative PCR experiments, our study's documentation is according to MIQE guidelines, defining the "minimum information for publication of quantitative real-time PCR experiments". PMID:25203915

Sauer, Eva; Babion, Iris; Madea, Burkhard; Courts, Cornelius

2014-11-01

244

RNA in forensic science  

Microsoft Academic Search

RNA analysis offers insight into diseases and mechanisms leading to death and could develop into a valuable tool for diagnosis of the cause of death in forensic pathology. Other possible applications include the determination of the age of wounds and injuries and of the post-mortem interval. The molecular identification of body fluids by analysis of cell-specific mRNA expression already represents

M. Bauer

2007-01-01

245

An analysis of Japan Disaster Medical Assistance Team (J-DMAT) deployments in comparison with those of J-DMAT's counterpart in the United States (US-DMAT).  

PubMed

Lessons learned from the Great Hanshin-Awaji earthquake of 1995 underscored the necessity of establishing Disaster Medical Assistance Teams (DMATs) in Japan, and in 2005, the Japanese government's Central Disaster Prevention Council revised its Basic Disaster Management Plan to include full deployment of DMATs in disaster areas. Defining a DMAT as a trained, mobile, self-contained medical team that can act in the acute phase of a disaster (48 to 72 hours after its occurrence) to provide medical treatment in the devastated area, the revised plan called for the training of DMAT personnel for rapid deployment to any area of the country hit by a disaster. This paper presents descriptive data on the number and types of missions carried out by Japan DMAT (J-DMAT) in its first 5 years, and clarifies how J-DMAT differs from its counterpart in the United States (US-DMAT). The DMAT that the present authors belong to has been deployed for 2 natural disasters and 1 man-made disaster, and the operations carried out during these deployments are analyzed. Reports on J-DMAT activities published from 2004 through 2009 by the Japanese Association for Disaster Medicine are also included in the analysis. After training courses for J-DMAT personnel started in fiscal 2004, J-DMATs were deployed for 8 disasters in a period of 4 years. Five of these were natural disasters, and 3 man-made. Of the 5 natural disasters, 3 were earthquakes, and of the 3 man-made disasters, 2 were derailment accidents. Unlike in the United States, where hurricanes and floods account for the greatest number of DMAT deployments, earthquakes cause the largest number of disasters in Japan. Because Japan is small in comparison with the US (Japan has about 1/25 the land area of the US), most J-DMATs head for devastated areas by car from their respective hospitals. This is one reason why J-DMATs are smaller and more agile than US-DMATs. Another difference is that J-DMATs' activities following earthquakes involve providing treatment in confined spaces, triage, and stabilization of injuries: these services are required in the acute phase of a disaster, but the critical period is over in a much shorter time than in the case of water-related disasters. In response the kind of man-made disasters that occur in Japan-mainly transportation accidents, and occasional cases of random street violence-J-DMATs need to be deployed as soon as possible to provide medical services at the scene at the critical stage of the disaster. This means that J-DMATs have to be compact. The fact that J-DMATs are smaller and more agile than US-DMATs is a result of the types of disaster that hit Japan and the relatively small size of the country. PMID:21206145

Fuse, Akira; Yokota, Hiroyuki

2010-12-01

246

Forensic DNA-typing technologies: a review.  

PubMed

Since the discovery of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) profiling in 1985, forensic genetics has experienced a continuous technical revolution, both in the type of DNA markers used and in the methodologies or its detection. Highly informative and robust DNA-typing systems have been developed that have proven to be very effective in the individualization of biological material of human origin. DNA analysis has become the standard method in forensic genetics used by laboratories for the majority of forensic genetic expertise and especially in criminal forensic casework (stain analysis and hairs) and identification. PMID:15570096

Carracedo, Angel; Sánchez-Diz, Paula

2005-01-01

247

Xbox Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsoft's Xbox game console is little more than a low-end personal computer; with a small amount of effort it can be modified to run additional operating systems, enabling it to store gigabytes worth of non-game-related files in addition to allowing it to run various computer services. Little has been published, however, on the proper forensic procedures to determine whether an

Paul K. Burke; Philip Craiger

2006-01-01

248

Forensic Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Technology is rapidly changing the speed and manner in which people interact with each other and with the world. As technology\\u000a helps criminals to operate more easily and quickly across borders, so law enforcement capability must continuously improve\\u000a to keep one step ahead. Computer forensics has become a specialized and accepted investigative technique with its own tools\\u000a and legal precedents

Xiang Li; Jennifer Seberry

2003-01-01

249

Molecular Forensics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Can we establish the origin of an infection by looking at DNA? In the 1990âÂÂs, suspicion that HIV in several individuals could be linked to a local dentist was investigated. We will take a closer look at sequence data from this dentist and other HIV positive individuals including patients who believed they were exposed to HIV during dental procedures. * examine viral DNA sequence data as forensic evidence

Sam Donovan (University of Pittsburgh;Biology)

2006-05-20

250

Information Dissemination Analysis of Different Media towards the Application for Disaster Pre-Warning  

PubMed Central

Knowing the information dissemination mechanisms of different media and having an efficient information dissemination plan for disaster pre-warning plays a very important role in reducing losses and ensuring the safety of human beings. In this paper we established models of information dissemination for six typical information media, including short message service (SMS), microblogs, news portals, cell phones, television, and oral communication. Then, the information dissemination capability of each medium concerning individuals of different ages, genders, and residential areas was simulated, and the dissemination characteristics were studied. Finally, radar graphs were used to illustrate comprehensive assessments of the six media; these graphs show directly the information dissemination characteristics of all media. The models and the results are essential for improving the efficiency of information dissemination for the purpose of disaster pre-warning and for formulating emergency plans which help to reduce the possibility of injuries, deaths and other losses in a disaster. PMID:24878739

Zhang, Nan; Huang, Hong; Su, Boni; Zhao, Jinlong; Zhang, Bo

2014-01-01

251

Information dissemination analysis of different media towards the application for disaster pre-warning.  

PubMed

Knowing the information dissemination mechanisms of different media and having an efficient information dissemination plan for disaster pre-warning plays a very important role in reducing losses and ensuring the safety of human beings. In this paper we established models of information dissemination for six typical information media, including short message service (SMS), microblogs, news portals, cell phones, television, and oral communication. Then, the information dissemination capability of each medium concerning individuals of different ages, genders, and residential areas was simulated, and the dissemination characteristics were studied. Finally, radar graphs were used to illustrate comprehensive assessments of the six media; these graphs show directly the information dissemination characteristics of all media. The models and the results are essential for improving the efficiency of information dissemination for the purpose of disaster pre-warning and for formulating emergency plans which help to reduce the possibility of injuries, deaths and other losses in a disaster. PMID:24878739

Zhang, Nan; Huang, Hong; Su, Boni; Zhao, Jinlong; Zhang, Bo

2014-01-01

252

Geospatial analysis of spaceborne remote sensing data for assessing disaster impacts and modeling surface runoff in the built-environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Every year, coastal disasters such as hurricanes and floods claim hundreds of lives and severely damage homes, businesses, and lifeline infrastructure. This research was motivated by the 2005 Hurricane Katrina disaster, which devastated the Mississippi and Louisiana Gulf Coast. The primary objective was to develop a geospatial decision-support system for extracting built-up surfaces and estimating disaster impacts using spaceborne remote sensing satellite imagery. Pre-Katrina 1-m Ikonos imagery of a 5km x 10km area of Gulfport, Mississippi, was used as source data to develop the built-up area and natural surfaces or BANS classification methodology. Autocorrelation of 0.6 or higher values related to spectral reflectance values of groundtruth pixels were used to select spectral bands and establish the BANS decision criteria of unique ranges of reflectance values. Surface classification results using GeoMedia Pro geospatial analysis for Gulfport sample areas, based on BANS criteria and manually drawn polygons, were within +/-7% of the groundtruth. The difference between the BANS results and the groundtruth was statistically not significant. BANS is a significant improvement over other supervised classification methods, which showed only 50% correctly classified pixels. The storm debris and erosion estimation or SDE methodology was developed from analysis of pre- and post-Katrina surface classification results of Gulfport samples. The SDE severity level criteria considered hurricane and flood damages and vulnerability of inhabited built-environment. A linear regression model, with +0.93 Pearson R-value, was developed for predicting SDE as a function of pre-disaster percent built-up area. SDE predictions for Gulfport sample areas, used for validation, were within +/-4% of calculated values. The damage cost model considered maintenance, rehabilitation and reconstruction costs related to infrastructure damage and community impacts of Hurricane Katrina. The developed models were implemented for a study area along I-10 considering the predominantly flood-induced damages in New Orleans. The BANS methodology was calibrated for 0.6-m QuickBird2 multispectral imagery of Karachi Port area in Pakistan. The results were accurate within +/-6% of the groundtruth. Due to its computational simplicity, the unit hydrograph method is recommended for geospatial visualization of surface runoff in the built-environment using BANS surface classification maps and elevations data. Key words. geospatial analysis, satellite imagery, built-environment, hurricane, disaster impacts, runoff.

Wodajo, Bikila Teklu

253

A person-centered analysis of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms following a natural disaster: predictors of latent class membership.  

PubMed

The present study applied latent class analysis to a sample of 810 participants residing in southern Mississippi at the time of Hurricane Katrina to determine if people would report distinct, meaningful PTSD symptom classes following a natural disaster. We found a four-class solution that distinguished persons on the basis of PTSD symptom severity/pervasiveness (Severe, Moderate, Mild, and Negligible Classes). Multinomial logistic regression models demonstrated that membership in the Severe and Moderate Classes was associated with potentially traumatic hurricane-specific experiences (e.g., being physically injured, seeing dead bodies), pre-hurricane traumatic events, co-occurring depression symptom severity and suicidal ideation, certain religious beliefs, and post-hurricane stressors (e.g., social support). Collectively, the findings suggest that more severe/pervasive typologies of natural disaster PTSD may be predicted by the frequency and severity of exposure to stressful/traumatic experiences (before, during, and after the disaster), co-occurring psychopathology, and specific internal beliefs. PMID:24334161

Rosellini, Anthony J; Coffey, Scott F; Tracy, Melissa; Galea, Sandro

2014-01-01

254

Challenge Paper: Validation of Forensic Techniques for Criminal Prosecution  

E-print Network

, and validatable? Is the analysis process following accepted forensic analysis requirements? When presented integrated with the process of designing and evaluating developed forensic techniques and the networks themselves. This derives from the work by Erbacher et al. [1] in which a proposed digital forensic process

Erbacher, Robert F.

255

Multimedia Forensics Is Not Computer Forensics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent popularity of research on topics of multimedia forensics justifies reflections on the definition of the field. This paper devises an ontology that structures forensic disciplines by their primary domain of evidence. In this sense, both multimedia forensics and computer forensics belong to the class of digital forensics, but they differ notably in the underlying observer model that defines the forensic investigator’s view on (parts of) reality, which itself is not fully cognizable. Important consequences on the reliability of probative facts emerge with regard to available counter-forensic techniques: while perfect concealment of traces is possible for computer forensics, this level of certainty cannot be expected for manipulations of sensor data. We cite concrete examples and refer to established techniques to support our arguments.

Böhme, Rainer; Freiling, Felix C.; Gloe, Thomas; Kirchner, Matthias

256

Visual Network Forensic Techniques and Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network forensics is the critical next step in the analysis of network attacks, intrusions, and misuses. It is the forensic process that will aid identification of what occurred and how. With the explosion in numbers and types of attacks it is critical that new techniques be developed to aid in the analysis of said attacks. For instance, with the recent

Robert F. Erbacher; Kim Christiansen; Amanda Sundberg

257

Investigating the implications of virtual forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer Forensic process consists of Preparation, Acquisition, Preservation, Examination and Analysis, and Reporting. With the booming of the virtualization technology and the popularity of virtual machines for end users to deal with daily works, the probability of using virtual machines for malicious purposes keeps increasing. In this paper we propose a methodology by using virtual forensics for malware analysis and

Harshit Sharma; Nitish Sabharwal

2012-01-01

258

NISTIR 7250 Cell Phone Forensic Tools  

E-print Network

NISTIR 7250 Cell Phone Forensic Tools: AnOverviewandAnalysis RickAyers WayneJansen NicolasCilleros RonanDaniellou #12;iii NISTIR 7250 Cell Phone Forensic Tools: An Overview and Analysis Rick Ayers Wayne applications, store and process personal and sensitive information independently of a desktop or notebook

259

NISTIR 7387 Cell Phone Forensic Tools  

E-print Network

NISTIR 7387 Cell Phone Forensic Tools: AnOverviewandAnalysisUpdate RickAyers WayneJansen LudovicMoenner AurelienDelaitre #12;iii NISTIR 7387 Cell Phone Forensic Tools: An Overview and Analysis and process personal and sensitive information independently of a desktop or notebook computer, and optionally

260

The Thin Blue Line-Forensic Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site draws on, and brings together, many scientific disciplines-identification of hairs and fibers, forensic psychology, DNA testing, photography, bloodstain pattern analysis, and computer forensics- that contribute to the integrated analysis of a crime and the physical evidence left at a crime scene.

2012-11-15

261

Collection and recording of radiological information for forensic purposes.  

PubMed

Forensic odontology is the application of dental expertise to legal issues. Commonly, it involves the comparison of dental records of a missing person with a deceased individual for the purposes of forensic personal identification, either in a single case, or as part of the response to an event involving multiple simultaneous fatalities (Disaster Victim Identification, or DVI). It may also involve studies to determine the age of an individual, which may be required as part of a forensic identification process, or for another legal purpose such as the determination of legal responsibility, or in connection with immigration. This report examines the types of radiological information currently used in such forensic studies, and discusses how this information may be accessed or recorded, as well as the techniques that are commonly applied to the radiological data to reach a satisfactory outcome for application in forensic casework. PMID:22376094

Forrest, Alexander S

2012-03-01

262

Microbial forensics: the next forensic challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathogens and toxins can be converted to bioweapons and used to commit bioterrorism and biocrime. Because of the potential and relative ease of an attack using a bioweapon, forensic science needs to be prepared to assist in the investigation to bring perpetrators to justice and to deter future attacks. A new subfield of forensics—microbial forensics—has been created, which is focused

Bruce Budowle; Randall Murch; Ranajit Chakraborty

2005-01-01

263

Tailoring Disaster Mental Health Services to Diverse Needs: An Analysis of 36 Crisis Counseling Projects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The federal Crisis Counseling Program (CCP) funds states' delivery of mental health services after disasters. These services are provided by social workers, other mental health professionals, and paraprofessionals from the local community. The present study examined whether CCP grant recipients that reported more tailoring of their interventions…

Rosen, Craig S.; Greene, Carolyn J.; Young, Helena E.; Norris, Fran H.

2010-01-01

264

Modeling the economic costs of disasters and recovery: analysis using a dynamic computable general equilibrium model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disaster damages have negative effects on the economy, whereas reconstruction investment has positive effects. The aim of this study is to model economic causes of disasters and recovery involving the positive effects of reconstruction activities. Computable general equilibrium (CGE) model is a promising approach because it can incorporate these two kinds of shocks into a unified framework and furthermore avoid the double-counting problem. In order to factor both shocks into the CGE model, direct loss is set as the amount of capital stock reduced on the supply side of the economy; a portion of investments restores the capital stock in an existing period; an investment-driven dynamic model is formulated according to available reconstruction data, and the rest of a given country's saving is set as an endogenous variable to balance the fixed investment. The 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake is selected as a case study to illustrate the model, and three scenarios are constructed: S0 (no disaster occurs), S1 (disaster occurs with reconstruction investment) and S2 (disaster occurs without reconstruction investment). S0 is taken as business as usual, and the differences between S1 and S0 and that between S2 and S0 can be interpreted as economic losses including reconstruction and excluding reconstruction, respectively. The study showed that output from S1 is found to be closer to real data than that from S2. Economic loss under S2 is roughly 1.5 times that under S1. The gap in the economic aggregate between S1 and S0 is reduced to 3% at the end of government-led reconstruction activity, a level that should take another four years to achieve under S2.

Xie, W.; Li, N.; Wu, J.-D.; Hao, X.-L.

2014-04-01

265

Post-disaster assessment of landslides in southern Taiwan after 2009 Typhoon Morakot using remote sensing and spatial analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 8 August 2009, the extreme rainfall of Typhoon Morakot triggered enormous landslides in mountainous regions of southern Taiwan, causing catastrophic infrastructure and property damages and human casualties. A comprehensive evaluation of the landslides is essential for the post-disaster reconstruction and should be helpful for future hazard mitigation. This paper presents a systematic approach to utilize multi-temporal satellite images and other geo-spatial data for the post-disaster assessment of landslides on a regional scale. Rigorous orthorectification and radiometric correction procedures were applied to the satellite images. Landslides were identified with NDVI filtering, change detection analysis and interactive post-analysis editing to produce an accurate landslide map. Spatial analysis was performed to obtain statistical characteristics of the identified landslides and their relationship with topographical factors. A total of 9333 landslides (22 590 ha) was detected from change detection analysis of satellite images. Most of the detected landslides are smaller than 10 ha. Less than 5% of them are larger than 10 ha but together they constitute more than 45% of the total landslide area. Spatial analysis of the detected landslides indicates that most of them have average elevations between 500 m to 2000 m and with average slope gradients between 20° and 40°. In addition, a particularly devastating landslide whose debris flow destroyed a riverside village was examined in depth for detailed investigation. The volume of this slide is estimated to be more than 2.6 million m3 with an average depth of 40 m.

Tsai, F.; Hwang, J.-H.; Chen, L.-C.; Lin, T.-H.

2010-10-01

266

Forensic Science: Best Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All about forensic science Forensic Science for High School Do you watch CSI? You should look at related Web site! How about this one? FORENSIC SCIENCE and have a look at what the Scout Report has to say: Court TV: Forensic Files And don\\'t forget about CSI CSI: The TV Show ...

M., Marcia

2007-03-08

267

Careers with Forensic Biology  

E-print Network

/Examiner Fingerprint Expert Toxicologist Biomedical Scientist Department of Forensic Medical Science (forensicCareers with Forensic Biology www.twitter.com/mmu_careers www.facebook.com/MMUCareersandEmployability Careers & Employability Service www.mmu.ac.uk/careers/guides #12;2 08/12 Careers with Forensic Biology

268

Forensic hash for multimedia information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital multimedia such as images and videos are prevalent on today's internet and cause significant social impact, which can be evidenced by the proliferation of social networking sites with user generated contents. Due to the ease of generating and modifying images and videos, it is critical to establish trustworthiness for online multimedia information. In this paper, we propose novel approaches to perform multimedia forensics using compact side information to reconstruct the processing history of a document. We refer to this as FASHION, standing for Forensic hASH for informatION assurance. Based on the Radon transform and scale space theory, the proposed forensic hash is compact and can effectively estimate the parameters of geometric transforms and detect local tampering that an image may have undergone. Forensic hash is designed to answer a broader range of questions regarding the processing history of multimedia data than the simple binary decision from traditional robust image hashing, and also offers more efficient and accurate forensic analysis than multimedia forensic techniques that do not use any side information.

Lu, Wenjun; Varna, Avinash L.; Wu, Min

2010-01-01

269

Understanding Impact and Implications of Data Standards on Post Disaster Risk Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the physical and humanitarian effects of a natural catastrophe are often bound to the locality of the event the financial impacts can have global effects. This is particularly prominent in the re/insurance community, where through a number of market mechanisms and re/insurance structures financial loss is mitigated amongst many companies across the globe. The level of risk a company wishes to retain, given an event, represents the level of risk decision makers deem acceptable. Catastrophe risk modelling tools aid the estimation of risk retention and transfer mechanisms, and increasingly the level of capital required to withstand a catastrophic event. These tools rely on appropriate representations hazard, exposure, vulnerability and insurance conditions that reflect the reality of risk. In addition, accurate estimation of loss potential in the aftermath of a catastrophic event equally relies on the data available to assess the scale of damages experienced and to provide views on the likely scale of loss. A coherent and focussed data and modelling strategy is required to ensure that the risk assessment made is as accurate as possible. A fundamental factor in determining the accuracy of catastrophe output, is the quality of data entered. It is of vital importance, therefore, to have an understanding of both the data used as well as the standard of this data, which will so powerfully impact upon the decision making process. This is perhaps best illustrated through the study of historical events, such as Hurricane Katrina and Ike. The extent of data variance in post disaster analysis clearly demonstrates issues of data discrepancies, vintage, resolution and uncertainty propagation, and reflects on the standard of the original data utilized for modelling purposes and decision making. Using experience gained from recent events, this paper will explore current data variabilities, and the impacts on effective loss estimation, both in relation to reinsurance structuring, but also in terms of effective post-event analysis. It will provide views on how data is currently applied in this context, and will make suggestions as to the most important areas for future data improvements.

Stevenson, Robert

2010-05-01

270

Toxicogenetics--cytochrome P450 microarray analysis in forensic cases focusing on morphine/codeine and diazepam.  

PubMed

Genetic polymorphisms in cytochrome P 450 (CYP) enzymes could lead to a phenotype with altered enzyme activity. In pharmacotherapy, genotype-based dose recommendations achieved great importance for several drugs. In our pilot study, we ask if these genetic tests should be applied to forensic problems as a matter of routine. Starting from 2004 through 2008, we screened routine cases for samples where the relation of parent compound to metabolite(s) (P/M ratio), particularly morphine to codeine ratios and diazepam to its metabolites, was noticeable or not consistent with the information provided by the defendants. We found 11 samples with conspicuous results. These were analyzed for polymorphisms of the CYP 2D6 and 2C19 genes using the Roche AmpliChip Cytochrome P450 Genotyping test. If not previously conducted, a general unknown analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was additionally carried out. For CYP 2D6, we found two cases with the genotype poor metabolizer (PM), three cases with heterozygote extensive metabolizer genotype classified as an intermediate metabolizer (IM) with probably reduced enzyme activities, but no ultrarapid metabolizer genotype. For CYP 2C19, two cases were characterized as IM phenotypes, with no PM found. Once we achieved no appropriate amounts of DNA, one case was excluded after GC/MS analysis. Only in one case could the polymorphism clearly explain the changes in drug metabolism. More frequently, a drug-drug interaction was thought to have a stronger impact. Additionally, our results suggest that IM genotypes may be more relevant than previously suspected. With respect to the small number of cases in which we thought a genotyping would be helpful, we conclude that the overall relevance of toxicogenetics in forensic problems is moderate. However, in some individual cases, a genotyping may provide new insight. PMID:22899355

Andresen, H; Augustin, C; Streichert, T

2013-03-01

271

Forensic Data Carving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

File or data carving is a term used in the field of Cyber forensics. Cyber forensics is the process of acquisition, authentication, analysis and documentation of evidence extracted from and/or contained in a computer system, computer network and digital media. Extracting data (file) out of undifferentiated blocks (raw data) is called as carving. Identifying and recovering files based on analysis of file formats is known as file carving. In Cyber Forensics, carving is a helpful technique in finding hidden or deleted files from digital media. A file can be hidden in areas like lost clusters, unallocated clusters and slack space of the disk or digital media. To use this method of extraction, a file should have a standard file signature called a file header (start of the file). A search is performed to locate the file header and continued until the file footer (end of the file) is reached. The data between these two points will be extracted and analyzed to validate the file. The extraction algorithm uses different methods of carving depending on the file formats.

Povar, Digambar; Bhadran, V. K.

272

The contribution of DNA to the disaster victim identification (DVI) effort  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the disaster victim identification (DVI) response to the 2009 Victorian bushfires disaster, a number of scientific disciplines contributed to the human identification process – forensic pathology, anthropology and odontology, as well as fingerprinting and DNA profiling. The DNA laboratory received 182 post-mortem (PM) samples from 120 DVI cases and 236 reference samples corresponding to 163 missing persons

D. Hartman; O. Drummer; C. Eckhoff; J. W. Scheffer; P. Stringer

2011-01-01

273

Maintaining dental records: Are we ready for forensic needs?  

PubMed Central

Context: Dental remains are usually the last to get destroyed among body parts after death. They may be useful for personal identification in cases of mass disasters and decomposed unidentified bodies. Dental records may help in the identification of suspects in criminal investigations and in medicolegal cases. Maintenance of dental records is legally mandatory in most of the European and American countries. Unfortunately, the law is not very clear in India, and the awareness is very poor. Aims: To assess the awareness regarding the dental record maintenance among dentists in Rajasthan, to deduce the quality of average dental records kept by them and to evaluate the potential use of their maintained records, in any of forensic or medicolegal cases. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 100 dental practitioners of different cities in Rajasthan, India. Materials and Methods: Data were collected through a structured questionnaire, which was responded by the study population in the course of a telephonic interview. The questionnaire addressed on the mode of maintaining dental records in their regular practice. Statistical Analysis Used: The data so gathered were subjected for descriptive analysis. Results: As for knowledge or awareness about maintaining dental records, surprisingly a very low percentile (about 38%) of surveyed dentists maintained records. Sixty-two percent of the dentists were maintaining no records at all. Conclusion: Nonmaintenance or poor quality of records maintained indicates that the dentists in Rajasthan are not prepared for any kind of forensic and medicolegal need if it arises. PMID:22408320

Astekar, Madhusudan; Saawarn, Swati; Ramesh, Gayathri; Saawarn, Nisheeth

2011-01-01

274

Examining the state of preparedness of Information Technology management in New Zealand for events that may require forensic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer security is of concern to those in IT (Information Technology) and forensic readiness (being prepared to deal effectively with events that may require forensic investigation) is a growing issue. Data held only on magnetic or other transient media require expert knowledge and special procedures to preserve and present it as valid in a criminal or employment court. Staff required

Spike Quinn

2005-01-01

275

Validation of Inverse Methods Applied to Forensic Analysis of Spent Fuel  

SciTech Connect

Inverse depletion/decay methods are useful tools for application to nuclear forensics. Previously, inverse methods were applied to the generic case of predicting the burnup, initial enrichment, and cooling time for selected spent nuclear fuels based on measured actinide and fission product concentrations. These existing measurements were not developed or optimized for use by these inverse techniques, and hence previous work demonstrated the prediction of only the fuel burnup, initial enrichment, and cooling time. Previously, nine spent fuel samples from an online data compilation were randomly selected for study. This work set out to demonstrate the full prediction capabilities using measured isotopic data, but with a more deliberate selection of fuel samples. The current approach is to evaluate nuclides within the same element to see if complementary information can be obtained in addition to the reactor burnup, enrichment, and cooling. Specifically, the reactor power and the fuel irradiation time values are desired to achieve the maximum prediction capabilities of these techniques.

Broadhead, Bryan L [ORNL] [ORNL; Weber, Charles F [ORNL] [ORNL

2010-01-01

276

Review The development and practice of forensic podiatry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic podiatry a small, but potentially useful specialty using clinical podiatric knowledge for the purpose of person identification. The practice of forensic podiatry began in the early 1970s in Canada and the UK, although supportive research commenced later in the 1990s. Techniques of forensic podiatry include identification from podiatry records, the human footprint, footwear, and the analysis of gait forms

Wesley Vernon

277

Computer Forensics: An Essential Ingredient for Cyber Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer forensics uses computer investigation and analysis techniques to collect evidence regarding what happened on a computer that is admissible in a court of law. Computer forensics requires a well- balanced combination of technical skills, legal acumen, and ethical conduct. Computer forensics specialists use powerful software tools to uncover data to be sorted through, and then must figure out the

Richard Bassett; Linda Bass; Paul O'Brien

278

Synchrotron radiation identified human chemical fingerprints a novel forensic approach  

E-print Network

a forensic analysis of the fingerprint chemistry, or to identify the latent prints of pre-pubescent childrenSynchrotron radiation identified human chemical fingerprints ­ a novel forensic approach T with the goal of developing an advanced forensic technique to identify complicated partial latent prints

279

Forensic entomology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Necrophagous insects are important in the decomposition of cadavers. The close association between insects and corpses and the use of insects in medicocriminal investigations is the subject of forensic entomology. The present paper reviews the historical background of this discipline, important postmortem processes, and discusses the scientific basis underlying attempts to determine the time interval since death. Using medical techniques, such as the measurement of body temperature or analysing livor and rigor mortis, time since death can only be accurately measured for the first two or three days after death. In contrast, by calculating the age of immature insect stages feeding on a corpse and analysing the necrophagous species present, postmortem intervals from the first day to several weeks can be estimated. These entomological methods may be hampered by difficulties associated with species identification, but modern DNA techniques are contributing to the rapid and authoritative identification of necrophagous insects. Other uses of entomological data include the toxicological examination of necrophagous larvae from a corpse to identify and estimate drugs and toxicants ingested by the person when alive and the proof of possible postmortem manipulations. Forensic entomology may even help in investigations dealing with people who are alive but in need of care, by revealing information about cases of neglect.

Amendt, Jens; Krettek, Roman; Zehner, Richard

280

Forensic entomology.  

PubMed

Necrophagous insects are important in the decomposition of cadavers. The close association between insects and corpses and the use of insects in medicocriminal investigations is the subject of forensic entomology. The present paper reviews the historical background of this discipline, important postmortem processes, and discusses the scientific basis underlying attempts to determine the time interval since death. Using medical techniques, such as the measurement of body temperature or analysing livor and rigor mortis, time since death can only be accurately measured for the first two or three days after death. In contrast, by calculating the age of immature insect stages feeding on a corpse and analysing the necrophagous species present, postmortem intervals from the first day to several weeks can be estimated. These entomological methods may be hampered by difficulties associated with species identification, but modern DNA techniques are contributing to the rapid and authoritative identification of necrophagous insects. Other uses of entomological data include the toxicological examination of necrophagous larvae from a corpse to identify and estimate drugs and toxicants ingested by the person when alive and the proof of possible postmortem manipulations. Forensic entomology may even help in investigations dealing with people who are alive but in need of care, by revealing information about cases of neglect. PMID:14991142

Amendt, Jens; Krettek, Roman; Zehner, Richard

2004-02-01

281

A SNaPshot of next generation sequencing for forensic SNP analysis.  

PubMed

Forensic phenotyping can provide useful intelligence regarding the biogeographical ancestry (BGA) and externally visible characteristics (EVCs) of the donor of an evidentiary sample. Currently, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) based inference of BGA and EVCs is performed most commonly using SNaPshot(®), a single base extension (SBE) assay. However, a single SNaPshot multiplex PCR is limited to 30-40 SNPs. Next generation sequencing (NGS) offers the potential to genotype hundreds to thousands of SNPs from multiple samples in a single experimental run. The PCR multiplexes from five SNaPshot assays (SNPforID 52plex, SNPforID 34plex, Eurasiaplex, IrisPlex and an unpublished BGA assay) were applied to three different DNA template amounts (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3ng) in three samples (9947A and 007 control DNAs and a male donor). The pooled PCR amplicons containing 136 unique SNPs were sequenced using Life Technologies' Ion Torrent™ PGM system. Approximately 72Mb of sequence was generated from two 10Mb Ion 314™ v1 chips. Accurate genotypes were readily obtained from all three template amounts. Of a total of 408 genotypes, 395 (97%) were fully concordant with SNaPshot across all three template amounts. Of those genotypes discordant with SNaPshot, six Ion Torrent sequences (1.5%) were fully concordant with Sanger sequencing across the three template amounts. Seven SNPs (1.7%) were either discordant between template amounts or discordant with Sanger sequencing. Sequence coverage observed in the negative control, and, allele coverage variation for heterozygous genotypes highlights the need to establish a threshold for background levels of sequence output and heterozygous balance. This preliminary study of the Ion Torrent PGM system has demonstrated considerable potential for use in forensic DNA analyses as a low to medium throughput NGS platform using established SNaPshot assays. PMID:25282603

Daniel, R; Santos, C; Phillips, C; Fondevila, M; van Oorschot, R A H; Carracedo, A; Lareu, M V; McNevin, D

2015-01-01

282

The Role of Forensic Anthropology in Mass Fatality Incidents Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mass disaster situations, the positive identification of human remains is an important task performed by forensic scientists, i.e., pathologists, biologists, crime scene investigators, odontologists, fingerprint experts, and anthropologists. The identification process of the victims is usually accomplished by scientific methods. The comparison procedure of a large number of bodies with numerous missing persons calls for dividing the population into

Tzipi Kahana; Jehuda Hiss

2009-01-01

283

An Examination of Digital Forensic Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Law enforcement is in a perpetual race with criminals in the application of digital technologies, and requires the development of tools to systematically search digital devices for pertinent evidence. Another part of this race, and perhaps more crucial, is the development of a methodology in digital forensics that encompasses the forensic analysis of all genres of digital crime scene investigations.

Mark Reith; Clint Carr; Gregg H. Gunsch

2002-01-01

284

forensics.uts.edu.au research themes  

E-print Network

) > Fire investigation and analysis > Illicit drugs > Toxicology > DNA profiling > Forensic anatomyforensics.uts.edu.au research themes science science.uts.edu.au #12;ThE UNIVERSITy OF TEChNOLOgy, SyDNEy'S (UTS) centre for forensic science (cfs) IS A WORLD-LEADINg ACADEMIC AND RESEARCh g

University of Technology, Sydney

285

Investigating the Worldwide Popularity of Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The popularity of forensic science has increased dramatically over the past decade throughout the United States. However, has this popularity spread to other countries around the world and to what extent? In the United States, there are numerous television shows focusing on the law and crime scene analysis, including “CSI,” “Law and Order,” “24,” “Crossing Jordan,” and “Forensic Files,” just

Heather Stankiewicz

2007-01-01

286

Crop insurance as a form of disaster relief: an analysis of the alternatives  

E-print Network

and in the commodities eligible for insurance but was still relatively limited until major reforms were enacted in 1980. Congress enacted legislation in 1980 providing major modifications intended to make crop insurance the primary source of disaster risk management... program encourages judicious use of it as a risk management tool. APPROACH A literature review was conducted to determine the fundamental problems facing the crop insurance program. Ibid. , 31. Ibid. , 33. Informal discussions were held with a...

Crenwelge, Cheryl

2012-06-07

287

Adult carrion arthropod community in a tropical rainforest of Malaysia: analysis on three common forensic entomology animal models.  

PubMed

Decomposing carrion provides a temporary microhabitat and food source for a distinct community of organisms. Arthropods constitute a major part of this community and can be utilized to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI) of cadavers during criminal investigations. However, in Malaysia, knowledge of carrion arthropod assemblages and their succession is superficial. Therefore, a study on three types of forensic entomology animal model was conducted from 27 September 2010 to 28 October 2010 in a tropical rainforest at National University of Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia. Over one month collections of arthropods were made on nine animal carcasses: three laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus, mean weight: 0.508 ± 0.027 kg), three rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus, mean weight: 2.538 ± 0.109 kg) and three long tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis, mean weight: 5.750 ± 0.551 kg). A total of 31,433 arthropods belonging to eight orders and twenty-eight families were collected from all carcasses. Among 2924 of adults flies collected, approximately 19% were calliphorids with Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) being the most abundant. Arthropod taxon richness was lower on rat carcasses compared to that of rabbit and monkey carcasses, and this was more apparent during the first week of decomposition. However, there were no significant differences in Shannon-Weiner index (H'), Simpson dominance index (C) and Pielou's Evenness index (J) between different animal model. The arthropod assemblages associated to animal model were different significantly (p<0.05) while decomposition stage was a significant factor influencing insect assemblages (p<0.05). Analysis on the arthropods succession indicated that some taxa have a clear visitation period while the others, particularly Coleoptera, did not show a clear successional pattern thus require futher insect succession study. Although human bodies were not possible for the succession study, most of the arthropods collected are necrophagous, and will also possibly colonize human cadaver, and potentially be useful in assisting in estimates of PMI in future forensic cases in Malaysia. PMID:24189678

Azwandi, A; Nina Keterina, H; Owen, L C; Nurizzati, M D; Omar, B

2013-09-01

288

Cluster analysis of a forensic population with antisocial personality disorder regarding PCL-R scores: Differentiation of two patterns of criminal profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty six cases of a forensic population were submitted to a cluster analysis to observe the aglomerative behavior in relation to the total scores of the items comprising the PCL-R Psychopathy Checklist Revised [R.D. Hare, Manual for the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised, Multi-Health System, Toronto, 1991]. The analysis indicated two independent types of antisocial personality disorders, not identified in the PCL-R

Hilda Clotilde Penteado Morana; Fernando Portela Câmara; Julio Arboleda-Flórez

2006-01-01

289

Disaster analysis: emergency management offices and arrangements. Final report on Phase 1  

SciTech Connect

Part I describes and analyzes the research of the Disaster Research Center (DRC) on the responses of local emergency management system in six community disasters. Effectiveness of response was assessed in terms of communication that resulted in correct information collection, a fully functioning EOC, appropriate procurement and distribution of human and material resources, proper task delegation and coordination, a legitimated authority structure, integrated and coordinated relationship with outside private, state, and federal organizations, cooperative relationships with mass media groups, and response activities based upon real, not mythical needs. We examined how extensiveness of response was influenced by prior disaster experiences, prior planning, and federal aid. We then derived an eight-fold categorization of emergency management systems: traditional offices, by-passed agencies, emergent agencies, established agencies, embedded agencies; by-passed community agencies; emergent community agencies; and established community agencies. After a comparative examination of the likelihood of the existence of different types, we point out the policy implications of the findings for response, planning and structure of local emergency management systems. Part II describes the processes and problems in the computerization of the DRC library and data base and projectes DRC's future work.

Wenger, D.; Quarantelli, E.L.; Dynes, R.

1987-02-01

290

High-resolution melt analysis of the minisatellite D1S80: A potential forensic screening tool.  

PubMed

High-resolution melt (HRM) analysis of the VNTR region of the human D1S80 locus, a 16-bp repeat minisatellite from approximately 400 to over 700 bp in length, was investigated. A Qiagen Rotor-Gene Q using the Type-it PCR HRM kit was used to acquire HRM curves for 14 single, and 16 biallelic, dsDNA samples. The HRM analysis was applicable over a range of DNA concentrations; however the characteristics of the melt curve did depend on the forward and reverse primer ratio. Despite the large amplicon size and the similarities of the repeat sequences, it was possible to discriminate different genotypes. Heterozygotes were clearly different from the homozygous variants and even small differences in the repeat sequence could be differentiated. However, the melt analysis requires a high-resolution system with temperature resolution of 0.02°C or better in order to sort out differences in these large amplicons of near identical GC content (in this case 56%). HRM analysis of amplicons with large repeat sequences can be used as a means of comparing DNA fragments. Examination of multiple sequences can be used to differentiate DNA samples and demonstrate the potential of HRM analysis as a rapid and inexpensive prescreening technique in forensic applications. PMID:25204971

Pomeroy, Robert S; Balamurugan, Kuppareddi; Wong, Helena; Duncan, George

2014-11-01

291

Surviving Disasters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools play a unique role in communities when disaster strikes. They serve as shelter for evacuees and first responders; they are a trusted source of information; and once danger has passed, the district, as employer and community center, often serves as a foundation for recovery. Technology plays a key role in a school district's ability to…

Henke, Karen Greenwood

2008-01-01

292

Disaster risk management in prospect mining area Blitar district, East Java, using microtremor analysis and ANP (analytical network processing) approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indonesia has a wealth of natural assets is so large to be managed and utilized, either from its own local government and local communities, especially in the mining sector. However, mining activities can change the state of the surface layer of the earth that have a high impact disaster risk. This could threaten the safety and disrupt human life, environmental damage, loss of property, and the psychological impact, sulking to the rule of law no 24 of 2007. That's why we strive to manage and minimize the risk of mine disasters in the region, how to use the method of calculation of Amplification Factor (AF) from the analysis based microtremor sulking Kanai and Nakamura, and decision systems were tested by analysis of ANP. Based on the amplification factor and Analytical Network Processing (ANP) obtained, some points showed instability in the surface layer of a mining area include the site of the TP-7, TP-8, TP-9, TP-10, (Birowo2). If in terms of structure, location indicated unstable due to have a sloping surface layer, resulting in the occurrence of landslides and earthquake risk is high. In the meantime, other areas of the mine site can be said to be a stable area.

Parwatiningtyas, Diyan; Ambarsari, Erlin Windia; Marlina, Dwi; Wiratomo, Yogi

2014-03-01

293

IMPLEMENTATION OF A DATABASE AND INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR FORENSIC INVESTIGATION OF PAVEMENTS 6. Performing Organization Code  

Microsoft Academic Search

16. Abstract This report describes the implementation of a database and information system for forensic investigation of pavements by enhancing the 1998 version of the ForenSys database software. The enhanced ForenSys database software can serve as the center component of an integrated forensic information and analysis system for analyzing forensic related data and information and producing forensic reports. In the

Zhanmin Zhang; Chunrong Zhou

294

Rapid Disaster Damage Estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experiences from recent disaster events showed that detailed information derived from high-resolution satellite images could accommodate the requirements from damage analysts and disaster management practitioners. Richer information contained in such high-resolution images, however, increases the complexity of image analysis. As a result, few image analysis solutions can be practically used under time pressure in the context of post-disaster and emergency responses. To fill the gap in employment of remote sensing in disaster response, this research develops a rapid high-resolution satellite mapping solution built upon a dual-scale contextual framework to support damage estimation after a catastrophe. The target objects are building (or building blocks) and their condition. On the coarse processing level, statistical region merging deployed to group pixels into a number of coarse clusters. Based on majority rule of vegetation index, water and shadow index, it is possible to eliminate the irrelevant clusters. The remaining clusters likely consist of building structures and others. On the fine processing level details, within each considering clusters, smaller objects are formed using morphological analysis. Numerous indicators including spectral, textural and shape indices are computed to be used in a rule-based object classification. Computation time of raster-based analysis highly depends on the image size or number of processed pixels in order words. Breaking into 2 level processing helps to reduce the processed number of pixels and the redundancy of processing irrelevant information. In addition, it allows a data- and tasks- based parallel implementation. The performance is demonstrated with QuickBird images captured a disaster-affected area of Phanga, Thailand by the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami are used for demonstration of the performance. The developed solution will be implemented in different platforms as well as a web processing service for operational uses.

Vu, T. T.

2012-07-01

295

From sample to PCR product in under 45 minutes: a polymeric integrated microdevice for clinical and forensic DNA analysis.  

PubMed

The extraction and amplification of DNA from biological samples is laborious and time-consuming, requiring numerous instruments and sample handling steps. An integrated, single-use, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microdevice for DNA extraction and amplification would benefit clinical and forensic communities, providing a completely closed system with rapid sample-in-PCR-product-out capability. Here, we show the design and simple flow control required for enzyme-based DNA preparation and PCR from buccal swabs or liquid whole blood samples with an ~5-fold reduction in time. A swab containing cells or DNA could be loaded into a novel receptacle together with the DNA liberation reagents, heated using an infrared heating system, mixed with PCR reagents for one of three different target sets under syringe-driven flow, and thermally-cycled in less than 45 min, an ~6-fold reduction in analysis time as compared to conventional methods. The 4 : 1 PCR reagents : DNA ratio required to provide the correct final concentration of all PCR components for effective amplification was verified using image analysis of colored dyes in the PCR chamber. Novel single-actuation, 'normally-open' adhesive valves were shown to effectively seal the PCR chamber during thermal cycling, preventing air bubble expansion. The effectiveness of the device was demonstrated using three target sets: the sex-typing gene Amelogenin, co-amplification of the ?-globin and gelsolin genes, and the amplification of 15 short tandem repeat (STR) loci plus Amelogenin. The use of the integrated microdevice was expanded to the analysis of liquid blood samples which, when incubated with the DNA liberation reagents, form a brown precipitate that inhibits PCR. A simple centrifugation of the integrated microchips (on a custom centrifuge), mobilized the precipitate away from the microchannel entrance, improving amplification of the ?-globin and gelsolin gene fragments by ~6-fold. This plastic integrated microdevice represents a microfluidic platform with potential for evolution into point-of-care prototypes for application to both clinical and forensic analyses, providing a 5-fold reduction from conventional analysis time. PMID:23389252

Lounsbury, Jenny A; Karlsson, Anne; Miranian, Daniel C; Cronk, Stephen M; Nelson, Daniel A; Li, Jingyi; Haverstick, Doris M; Kinnon, Paul; Saul, David J; Landers, James P

2013-04-01

296

Microbial Forensics: A Scientific Assessment  

SciTech Connect

Microorganisms have been used as weapons in criminal acts, most recently highlighted by the terrorist attack using anthrax in the fall of 2001. Although such ''biocrimes'' are few compared with other crimes, these acts raise questions about the ability to provide forensic evidence for criminal prosecution that can be used to identify the source of the microorganisms used as a weapon and, more importantly, the perpetrator of the crime. Microbiologists traditionally investigate the sources of microorganisms in epidemiological investigations, but rarely have been asked to assist in criminal investigations. A colloquium was convened by the American Academy of Microbiology in Burlington, Vermont, on June 7-9, 2002, in which 25 interdisciplinary, expert scientists representing evolutionary microbiology, ecology, genomics, genetics, bioinformatics, forensics, chemistry, and clinical microbiology, deliberated on issues in microbial forensics. The colloquium's purpose was to consider issues relating to microbial forensics, which included a detailed identification of a microorganism used in a bioattack and analysis of such a microorganism and related materials to identify its forensically meaningful source--the perpetrators of the bioattack. The colloquium examined the application of microbial forensics to assist in resolving biocrimes with a focus on what research and education are needed to facilitate the use of microbial forensics in criminal investigations and the subsequent prosecution of biocrimes, including acts of bioterrorism. First responders must consider forensic issues, such as proper collection of samples to allow for optimal laboratory testing, along with maintaining a chain of custody that will support eventual prosecution. Because a biocrime may not be immediately apparent, a linkage must be made between routine diagnosis, epidemiological investigation, and criminal investigation. There is a need for establishing standard operating procedures and training to meet these initial challenges so as minimize disturbance of the evidence. While epidemiology and forensics are similar sciences with similar goals when applied to biocrimes, forensics has additional and more stringent requirements. Maintaining a chain of custody on evidentiary samples is one example of an extra requirement imposed on an investigation of a biocrime. Another issue is the intent in microbial forensics to identify a bioattack organism in greatest detail. If possible, forensic investigations will strive to identify the precise strain and substrain, rather than just to the species level, which might be sufficient in an epidemiological investigation. Although multiple groups have developed lists of bioterrorism target pathogens, these lists are too narrow. An expansion of microorganisms relevant to food and water threats should be considered. Computerized networks should be established to track infectious disease outbreaks in real time. These systems could alert public health and agricultural officials to the existence of a potential bioattack earlier than simply waiting for a report of a suspicious cluster of similar patients. Once a biocrime is suspected, a wide variety of methods are available to identify the microorganism used in the bioattack and to analyze features that might lead to the source of the event. A multi-pronged approach to such an investigation may be preferable, using many available methods-ranging from genomics to sequencing to physiology to analysis of substances in the sample. Microbial forensics will be most effective if there is sufficient basic scientific information concerning microbial genetics, evolution, physiology, and ecology. Strain subtyping analysis will be difficult to interpret if we do not understand some of the basic evolutionary mechanisms and population diversity of pathogens. Phenotypic features associated with evidentiary pathogens also may provide investigative leads, but full exploitation of these features can only be accomplished if we understand basic principles that control microbial physiology. Finally

Keim, Paul

2003-02-17

297

What can multiwave studies teach us about disaster research: an analysis of low-income Hurricane Katrina survivors.  

PubMed

Previous research on natural disasters has been limited by a lack of predisaster data and statistical analyses that do not adequately predict change in psychological symptoms. In the current study, we addressed these limitations through analysis of 3 waves of data from a longitudinal investigation of 313 low-income, African American mothers who were exposed to Hurricane Katrina. Although postdisaster cross-sectional estimates of the impact of traumatic stress exposure and postdisaster social support on postdisaster psychological distress were somewhat inflated, the general trends persisted when controlling for predisaster data (B = 0.88 and -0.33, vs. B = 0.81 and -0.27, respectively). Hierarchical linear modeling of the 3 waves of data revealed that lower predisaster social support was associated with higher psychological distress at the time of the disaster (? = -.16), and that higher traumatic stress exposure was associated with greater increases in psychological distress after the storm (? = .86). Based on the results, we suggest that the impact of traumatic stress on psychological trajectories cannot be accounted for solely by preexisting risk, and recommend more complex research designs to further illuminate the complex, dynamic relationships between psychological distress, traumatic stress exposure, and social support. PMID:22684676

Green, Gillian; Lowe, Sarah R; Rhodes, Jean E

2012-06-01

298

Systematic toxicological analysis procedures for acidic drugs and\\/or metabolites relevant to clinical and forensic toxicology and\\/or doping control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews systematic toxicological analysis (STA) procedures for acidic drugs and\\/or metabolites relevant to clinical and forensic toxicology or doping control using gas chromatography, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography, thin-layer chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. Papers from 1992 to 1998 have been taken into consideration. Screening procedures in biosamples (whole blood, plasma, serum, urine, vitreous humor, brain, liver or hair)

Hans H Maurer

1999-01-01

299

In-Depth Analysis of the Cold Boot Attack: Can It Be Used for Sound Forensic Memory Acquisition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this technical memorandum is to examine the technical characteristics behind the cold boot attack technique and to understand when and how this technique should be applied to the field of computer forensic investigations. Upon thorough exam...

C. Bean, M. Salois, R. Carbone

2011-01-01

300

Vaginal microbial flora analysis by next generation sequencing and microarrays; can microbes indicate vaginal origin in a forensic context?  

PubMed

Forensic analysis of biological traces generally encompasses the investigation of both the person who contributed to the trace and the body site(s) from which the trace originates. For instance, for sexual assault cases, it can be beneficial to distinguish vaginal samples from skin or saliva samples. In this study, we explored the use of microbial flora to indicate vaginal origin. First, we explored the vaginal microbiome for a large set of clinical vaginal samples (n?=?240) by next generation sequencing (n?=?338,184 sequence reads) and found 1,619 different sequences. Next, we selected 389 candidate probes targeting genera or species and designed a microarray, with which we analysed a diverse set of samples; 43 DNA extracts from vaginal samples and 25 DNA extracts from samples from other body sites, including sites in close proximity of or in contact with the vagina. Finally, we used the microarray results and next generation sequencing dataset to assess the potential for a future approach that uses microbial markers to indicate vaginal origin. Since no candidate genera/species were found to positively identify all vaginal DNA extracts on their own, while excluding all non-vaginal DNA extracts, we deduce that a reliable statement about the cellular origin of a biological trace should be based on the detection of multiple species within various genera. Microarray analysis of a sample will then render a microbial flora pattern that is probably best analysed in a probabilistic approach. PMID:22282153

Benschop, Corina C G; Quaak, Frederike C A; Boon, Mathilde E; Sijen, Titia; Kuiper, Irene

2012-03-01

301

Integrating Forensic Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the implementation of forensic science in an integrated curriculum and discusses the advantages of this approach. Lists the forensic science course syllabi studied in three high schools. Discusses the unit on polymers in detail. (YDS)

Funkhouser, John; Deslich, Barbara J.

2000-01-01

302

Interim Report on SNP analysis and forensic microarray probe design for South American hemorrhagic fever viruses, tick-borne encephalitis virus, henipaviruses, Old World Arenaviruses, filoviruses, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever viruses, Rift Valley fever  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project is to develop forensic genotyping assays for select agent viruses, enhancing the current capabilities for the viral bioforensics and law enforcement community. We used a multipronged approach combining bioinformatics analysis, PCR-enriched samples, microarrays and TaqMan assays to develop high resolution and cost effective genotyping methods for strain level forensic discrimination of viruses. We have leveraged substantial experience and efficiency gained through year 1 on software development, SNP discovery, TaqMan signature design and phylogenetic signature mapping to scale up the development of forensics signatures in year 2. In this report, we have summarized the whole genome wide SNP analysis and microarray probe design for forensics characterization of South American hemorrhagic fever viruses, tick-borne encephalitis viruses and henipaviruses, Old World Arenaviruses, filoviruses, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus and Japanese encephalitis virus.

Jaing, C; Gardner, S

2012-06-05

303

The clavicle bone as an alternative matrix in forensic toxicological analysis.  

PubMed

Although human blood is the reference medium in the field of forensic toxicology, alternative matrices may be required when traditional specimens are not available, especially in the investigation of cases involving decomposing remains. Clavicle bone may provide an appropriate sample of choice since it can easily be obtained at autopsy after the removal of the breastplate for the inspection of the thoracic viscera. To the author's knowledge, this is the first time that clavicle bone is used as an alternative matrix for the detection of drugs. The present study aimed to investigate the suitability of clavicle bone as an alternative matrix for the detection of opiates. Opiates were assayed using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the selected ion monitoring mode. Morphine-d6, codeine-d6 and 6-MAM-d3 were used as internal standards for the determination of morphine, codeine and 6-MAM, respectively. A GC/MS method was developed and validated for the determination of opiates in clavicle samples. Morphine, codeine and 6-MAM were successfully separated in spiked samples allowing for their detection at low levels without interferences from the matrix. Chromatographic run time was 11 min and the tested linearity ranged from 5 to 500 ng/g (r2 > 0.99) for all analytes. The method was further applied in clavicle samples of drug-related cases. Its validation parameters and the application of the developed method in clavicle samples from drug addicts, prove its suitability for the detection of opiates and potentially other drugs. PMID:24485412

Vardakou, Ioanna; Athanaselis, Sotiris; Pistos, Constantinos; Papadodima, Stauroula; Spiliopoulou, Chara; Moraitis, Konstantinos

2014-02-01

304

Modeling Network Forensics Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network forensics is a new approach to network security. However, this field is not very clear to new researchers and practitioners. In this paper, we discuss network forensics behavior systematically from both the technical view and legal view. The goal of this discussion is to outline the formalization and standardization of network forensics behavior. To our knowledge, this is the

Wei Ren

2006-01-01

305

Introduction to Forensic Anthropology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Course Objectives: This course provides a broad overview of forensic anthropology, an applied field of biological anthropology that seeks to recover, identify, and evaluate human skeletal remains within a medico-legal context. In this course, students will learn: to identify the bones of the human skeleton; recovery techniques and initial treatment of forensic material; the techniques used by forensic anthropologists to

P. James Macaluso

2008-01-01

306

Forensic Automatic Speaker Recognition  

E-print Network

considered "the golden standard of forensic identification" Fingerprint experts have long claimed: "Absolute1 Forensic Automatic Speaker Recognition: Fiction or Science? Joaquin Gonzalez-Rodriguez ATVS identification problem Influence of "classical" forensic identification This talk is: NOT a tutorial on Speaker

Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

307

Forensic entomology in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic entomology (FE) is increasingly gaining international recognition. In Germany, however, the development of FE has been stagnating, mainly because of the lack of cooperation between police, forensic medicine and entomology. In 1997 a co-operative research project ‘Forensic Entomology’ was started in Frankfurt\\/Main at the Center of Legal Medicine and the Research Institute Senckenberg. The aim of this project is

Jens Amendt; Roman Krettek; Constanze Niess; Richard Zehner; Hansjürgen Bratzke

2000-01-01

308

High Performance Proactive Digital Forensics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the increase in the number of digital crimes and in their sophistication, High Performance Computing (HPC) is becoming a must in Digital Forensics (DF). According to the FBI annual report, the size of data processed during the 2010 fiscal year reached 3,086 TB (compared to 2,334 TB in 2009) and the number of agencies that requested Regional Computer Forensics Laboratory assistance increasing from 689 in 2009 to 722 in 2010. Since most investigation tools are both I/O and CPU bound, the next-generation DF tools are required to be distributed and offer HPC capabilities. The need for HPC is even more evident in investigating crimes on clouds or when proactive DF analysis and on-site investigation, requiring semi-real time processing, are performed. Although overcoming the performance challenge is a major goal in DF, as far as we know, there is almost no research on HPC-DF except for few papers. As such, in this work, we extend our work on the need of a proactive system and present a high performance automated proactive digital forensic system. The most expensive phase of the system, namely proactive analysis and detection, uses a parallel extension of the iterative z algorithm. It also implements new parallel information-based outlier detection algorithms to proactively and forensically handle suspicious activities. To analyse a large number of targets and events and continuously do so (to capture the dynamics of the system), we rely on a multi-resolution approach to explore the digital forensic space. Data set from the Honeynet Forensic Challenge in 2001 is used to evaluate the system from DF and HPC perspectives.

Alharbi, Soltan; Moa, Belaid; Weber-Jahnke, Jens; Traore, Issa

2012-10-01

309

Forensic implications of the foot and ankle.  

PubMed

To clinicians, forensic medicine and the foot and ankle complex may appear to have little connection. However, if decomposed, burned, fragmented, or skeletonized human remains are recovered, the foot and ankle can provide information leading to identification and incident analysis. Furthermore, analysis of data collected at accidents can lead to safety modifications. This article reviews common elements of forensic medicine applied to the foot and ankle in 2 areas: establishing positive identification by using radiographic comparisons and analyzing aviation incidents. An understanding of these cases will enhance clinicians' awareness of the potential forensic value of the foot and ankle. PMID:12907933

Rich, Jeremy; Dean, Dorothy E; Cheung, Yvonne Y

2003-01-01

310

The Registry of Forensic Pathology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of the Registry of Forensic Pathology since its origin in 1958 is discussed, and an analysis of various factors involved in nearly 900 cases is given. Information concerning the contribution of cases as well as the selection, diagnostic co...

C. J. Stahl

1968-01-01

311

International forensic automotive paint database  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Technical Working Group for Materials Analysis (TWGMAT) is supporting an international forensic automotive paint database. The Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) are collaborating on this effort through TWGMAT. This paper outlines the support and further development of the RCMP's Automotive Paint Database, `Paint Data Query'. This cooperative agreement augments and supports a current,

Gregory A. Bishea; Joe L. Buckle; Scott G. Ryland

1999-01-01

312

Forensic analysis of laser printed ink by X-ray fluorescence and laser-excited plume fluorescence.  

PubMed

We demonstrated a minimally destructive two-tier approach for multielement forensic analysis of laser-printed ink. The printed document was first screened using a portable-X-ray fluorescence (XRF) probe. If the results were not conclusive, a laser microprobe was then deployed. The laser probe was based on a two-pulse scheme: the first laser pulse ablated a thin layer of the printed ink; the second laser pulse at 193 nm induced multianalytes in the desorbed ink to fluoresce. We analyzed four brands of black toners. The toners were printed on paper in the form of patches or letters or overprinted on another ink. The XRF probe could sort the four brands if the printed letters were larger than font 20. It could not tell the printing sequence in the case of overprints. The laser probe was more discriminatory; it could sort the toner brands and reveal the overprint sequence regardless of font size while the sampled area was not visibly different from neighboring areas even under the microscope. In terms of general analytical performance, the laser probe featured tens of micrometer lateral resolution and tens to hundreds of nm depth resolution and atto-mole mass detection limits. It could handle samples of arbitrary size and shape and was air compatible, and no sample pretreatment was necessary. It will prove useful whenever high-resolution and high sensitivity 3D elemental mapping is required. PMID:23570307

Chu, Po-Chun; Cai, Bruno Yue; Tsoi, Yeuk Ki; Yuen, Ronald; Leung, Kelvin S Y; Cheung, Nai-Ho

2013-05-01

313

Accreditation standards for undergraduate forensic science programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Undergraduate forensic science programs are experiencing unprecedented growth in numbers of programs offered and, as a result, student enrollments are increasing. Currently, however, these programs are not subject to professional specialized accreditation. This study sought to identify desirable student outcome measures for undergraduate forensic science programs that should be incorporated into such an accreditation process. To determine desirable student outcomes, three types of data were collected and analyzed. All the existing undergraduate forensic science programs in the United States were examined with regard to the input measures of degree requirements and curriculum content, and for the output measures of mission statements and student competencies. Accreditation procedures and guidelines for three other science-based disciplines, computer science, dietetics, and nursing, were examined to provide guidance on accreditation processes for forensic science education programs. Expert opinion on outcomes for program graduates was solicited from the major stakeholders of undergraduate forensic science programs-forensic science educators, crime laboratory directors, and recent graduates. Opinions were gathered by using a structured Internet-based survey; the total response rate was 48%. Examination of the existing undergraduate forensic science programs revealed that these programs do not use outcome measures. Of the accreditation processes for other science-based programs, nursing education provided the best model for forensic science education, due primarily to the balance between the generality and the specificity of the outcome measures. From the analysis of the questionnaire data, preliminary student outcomes, both general and discipline-specific, suitable for use in the accreditation of undergraduate forensic science programs were determined. The preliminary results were reviewed by a panel of experts and, based on their recommendations, the outcomes identified were revised and refined. The results of this study were used to identify student outcomes and to suggest accreditation standards and an accreditation process for undergraduate forensic science programs based on those outcomes.

Miller, Marilyn Tebbs

314

Centre for Forensic Science Centre for Forensic Science  

E-print Network

chemistry � BSc Forensic Biology � Scientific and Law Enforcement training � Professional bodies PracticeCentre for Forensic Science #12;Centre for Forensic Science � First program in UK and now in itsKie #12;Education, Research & Practice � MSc/PgDip Forensic Science � BSc/MChem Forensic & Analytical

Mottram, Nigel

315

Temporal Forensics and Anti-Forensics for Motion Compensated Video  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the ease with which digital information can be altered, many digital forensic techniques have been developed to authenticate multimedia content. Similarly, a number of anti-forensic operations have recently been designed to make digital forgeries undetectable by forensic techniques. However, like the digital manipulations they are designed to hide, many anti-forensic operations leave behind their own forensically detectable traces.

Matthew C. Stamm; W. Sabrina Lin; K. J. Ray Liu

2012-01-01

316

Forensic analysis of explosives using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS)--part 1: instrument validation of the DELTAplusXP IRMS for bulk nitrogen isotope ratio measurements.  

PubMed

A significant amount of research has been conducted into the use of stable isotopes to assist in determining the origin of various materials. The research conducted in the forensic field shows the potential of isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) to provide a level of discrimination not achievable utilizing traditional forensic techniques. Despite the research there have been few, if any, publications addressing the validation and measurement uncertainty of the technique for forensic applications. This study, the first in a planned series, presents validation data for the measurement of bulk nitrogen isotope ratios in ammonium nitrate (AN) using the DELTA(plus)XP (Thermo Finnigan) IRMS instrument equipped with a ConFlo III interface and FlashEA 1112 elemental analyzer (EA). Appropriate laboratory standards, analytical methods and correction calculations were developed and evaluated. A validation protocol was developed in line with the guidelines provided by the National Association of Testing Authorities, Australia (NATA). Performance characteristics including: accuracy, precision/repeatability, reproducibility/ruggedness, robustness, linear range, and measurement uncertainty were evaluated for the measurement of nitrogen isotope ratios in AN. AN (99.5%) and ammonium thiocyanate (99.99+%) were determined to be the most suitable laboratory standards and were calibrated against international standards (certified reference materials). All performance characteristics were within an acceptable range when potential uncertainties, including the manufacturer's uncertainty of the technique and standards, were taken into account. The experiments described in this article could be used as a model for validation of other instruments for similar purposes. Later studies in this series will address the more general issue of demonstrating that the IRMS technique is scientifically sound and fit-for-purpose in the forensic explosives analysis field. PMID:20015166

Benson, Sarah J; Lennard, Christopher J; Hill, David M; Maynard, Philip; Roux, Claude

2010-01-01

317

Experience of technological and natural disasters and their impact on the perceived risk of nuclear accidents after the Fukushima nuclear disaster in Japan 2011: A cross-country analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses cross-country data compiled immediately after the Fukushima nuclear accident to investigate how the experience of such disasters affects the perception of the risk of nuclear accidents. Estimation results show that the perceived risk of a nuclear accident is positively associated with experiencing technological disasters but not with that of natural disasters.

Eiji Yamamura

2011-01-01

318

Experience of technological and natural disasters and their impact on the perceived risk of nuclear accidents after the Fukushima nuclear disaster in Japan 2011: A cross-country analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses cross-country data compiled immediately after the Fukushima nuclear accident to investigate how the experience of such disasters affects the perception of the risk of nuclear accidents. Estimation results show that the perceived risk of a nuclear accident is positively associated with experiencing technological disasters but not with that of natural disasters.

Eiji Yamamura

2012-01-01

319

Survey of Forensic Service Providers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Government-funded studies, to date, have focused on forensic science within the laboratory setting. Recent studies have suggested that there is a significant amount of forensic services that take place outside of the forensic laboratories. There has been a lack of research that quantifies and benchmarks forensic services performed outside of the traditional forensic laboratories. This study, funded through the West

Randall A. Childs; Tom S. Witt; Kanybek Nur-tegin

2009-01-01

320

Open Source Live Distributions for Computer Forensics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current distributions of open source forensic software provide digital investigators with a large set of heterogeneous tools. Their use is not always focused on the target and requires high technical expertise. We present a new GNU/Linux live distribution, named CAINE (Computer Aided INvestigative Environment) that contains a collection of tools wrapped up into a user friendly environment. The CAINE forensic framework introduces novel important features, aimed at filling the interoperability gap across different forensic tools. Moreover, it provides a homogeneous graphical interface that drives digital investigators during the acquisition and analysis of electronic evidence, and it offers a semi-automatic mechanism for the creation of the final report.

Giustini, Giancarlo; Andreolini, Mauro; Colajanni, Michele

321

Forensic genetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA hypervariable region I/II sequences: an expanded Korean population database.  

PubMed

We have analyzed variation of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hypervariable segments I and II (HVS-I and HVS-II) in 185 randomly chosen individuals from Korea to provide an expanded and reliable Korean database. Combined sequence comparison of HVS-I and HVS-II led to the identification of 167 different haplotypes characterized by 154 variable sites. One hundred and fifty-one of the haplotypes were individual-specific, 14 were found in two individuals and 2 were found in three individuals. A pairwise comparison of the 185 HVS-I/II sequences found an average of 10.11 +/- 4.63 differences between individuals. The random match probability and gene diversity for the combined hypervariable regions were estimated at 0.66% and 0.9988, respectively. Analyzing the expanded database including three previously reported data sets and the present data using haplogroup-based comparisons and comparison with closely related sequences allowed errors to be detected and eliminated, thus considerably improving data quality. Sample division comparisons based on PhiST genetic distance measures revealed no significant population differentiation in the distribution of mtDNA sequence variations between the present data set and a database in The Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM), but did indicate differences from other sets of data. Based on the results of mtDNA profiles, almost all of the mtDNA types studied here could be classified into subsets of haplogroups common in east Asia, and show that the Koreans possess lineages from both the southern and the northern haplogroup complexes of east Asian populations. The new data, combined with other mtDNA sequences, demonstrate how useful comparison with closely related mtDNA sequences can be for improving database quality, as well as providing haplotype information for forensic and population genetic analyses in the Korean population. PMID:15990264

Jin, Han Jun; Kwak, Kyoung Don; Hong, Seung Bum; Shin, Dong Jik; Han, Myun Soo; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Kim, Wook

2006-05-10

322

Trace elemental analysis of glass and paint samples of forensic interest by ICP-MS using laser ablation solid sample introduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance of small amounts of glass and paint evidence as a means to associate a crime event to a suspect or a suspect to another individual has been demonstrated in many cases. Glass is a fragile material that is often found at the scenes of crimes such as burglaries, hit-and-run accidents and violent crime offenses. Previous work has demonstrated the utility of elemental analysis by solution ICP-MS of small amounts of glass for the comparison between a fragment found at a crime scene to a possible source of the glass. The multi-element capability and the sensitivity of ICP-MS combined with the simplified sample introduction of laser ablation prior to ion detection provides for an excellent and relatively non-destructive technique for elemental analysis of glass fragments. The direct solid sample introduction technique of laser ablation (LA) is reported as an alternative to the solution method. Direct solid sampling provides several advantages over solution methods and shows great potential for a number of solid sample analyses in forensic science. The advantages of laser ablation include the simplification of sample preparation, thereby reducing the time and complexity of the analysis, the elimination of handling acid dissolution reagents such as HF and the reduction of sources of interferences in the ionization plasma. Direct sampling also provides for essentially "non-destructive" sampling due to the removal of very small amounts of sample needed for analysis. The discrimination potential of LA-ICP-MS is compared with previously reported solution ICP-MS methods using external calibration with internal standardization and a newly reported solution isotope dilution (ID) method. A total of ninety-one different glass samples were used for the comparison study using the techniques mentioned. One set consisted of forty-five headlamps taken from a variety of automobiles representing a range of twenty years of manufacturing dates. A second set consisted of forty-six automotive glasses (side windows and windshields) representing casework glass from different vehicle manufacturers over several years was also characterized by RI and elemental composition analysis. The solution sample introduction techniques (external calibration and isotope dilution) provide for excellent sensitivity and precision but have the disadvantages of destroying the sample and also involve complex sample preparation. The laser ablation method was simpler, faster and produced comparable discrimination to the EC-ICP-MS and ID-ICP-MS. LA-ICP-MS can provide for an excellent alternative to solution analysis of glass in forensic casework samples. Paints and coatings are frequently encountered as trace evidence samples submitted to forensic science laboratories. A LA-ICP-MS method has been developed to complement the commonly used techniques in forensic laboratories in order to better characterize these samples for forensic purposes. Time-resolved plots of each sample can be compared to associate samples to each other or to discriminate between samples. Additionally, the concentration of lead and the ratios of other elements have been determined in various automotive paints by the reported method. A sample set of eighteen (18) survey automotive paint samples have been analyzed with the developed method in order to determine the utility of LA-ICP-MS and to compare the method to the more commonly used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) method for elemental characterization of paint layers in forensic casework.

Almirall, Jose R.; Trejos, Tatiana; Hobbs, Andria; Furton, Kenneth G.

2003-09-01

323

Capillary electrophoresis: a new tool in forensic toxicology. Applications and prospects in hair analysis for illicit drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capillary electrophoresis, the modern approach to instrumental electrophoresis, is probably the most rapidly expanding analytical technique that has appeared in recent years. In the hands of forensic toxicologists, capillary electrophoresis (CE) represents a powerful new analytical tool, which has proved suitable for the investigation of illicit drugs in seized preparations and also in complex biological matrices, among which is hair.

F. Tagliaro; W. F. Smyth; S. Turrina; Z. Deyl; M. Marigo

1995-01-01

324

Validity of Rorschach Inkblot Scores for Discriminating Psychopaths from Nonpsychopaths in Forensic Populations: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gacono and Meloy (2009) have concluded that the Rorschach Inkblot Test is a sensitive instrument with which to discriminate psychopaths from nonpsychopaths. We examined the association of psychopathy with 37 Rorschach variables in a meta-analytic review of 173 validity coefficients derived from 22 studies comprising 780 forensic participants. All…

Wood, James M.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Nezworski, M. Teresa; Garb, Howard N.; Allen, Keli Holloway; Wildermuth, Jessica L.

2010-01-01

325

Using the new Phadebas ® Forensic Press test to find crime scene saliva stains suitable for DNA analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Phadebas® Forensic Press test is a new product that detects saliva stains by reacting with amylase. When the paper is pressed against a saliva stain a blue spot occurs. To test the sensitivity of the paper, a set of dilution series of saliva down to 1:500 was prepared on cotton fabric. Blue spots could be seen for dilutions of

Johannes Hedman; Karin Gustavsson; Ricky Ansell

2008-01-01

326

Applying Traditional Forensic Taxonomy to Digital Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early digital forensic examinations were conducted in toto — every file on the storage media was examined along with the entire file system structure. However, this is no longer practical\\u000a as operating systems have become extremely complex and storage capacities are growing geometrically. Examiners now perform\\u000a targeted examinations using forensic tools and databases of known files, selecting specific files and

Mark Pollitt

2008-01-01

327

Forensic analysis of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT): implementation of a screening and confirmatory analysis concept is hampered by the lack of CDT isoform standards.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to test combinations of commercially available carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) assays for their usefulness as screening and confirmatory CDT analysis systems. A set of 292 serum samples from routine CDT analysis was analyzed by two assays based on anion-exchanger microcolumn CDT and non-CDT fractionation followed by a turbidimetric immunoassay (ChronAlcoI.D. and %CDT TIA) and a high-performance liquid chromatography with on-line sample preparation (ClinRep CDT on-line). The CDT analysis results were divided into four groups based on the test-specific borderlines of the compared methods: NN with negative CDT results by both tests, PN with positive screening but negative confirmation results, NP with negative screening and positive confirmation results, and PP with positive results by both tests. Regardless of the test combination and whether applying the lower or upper limits of the borderlines, approximately one-third of contradictory (positive screening and negative confirmation or vice versa corresponding to groups PN and NP) were obtained. This was not due to analytical outliers (only 6 of 292 serum samples). Indeed, parametric and non-parametric ANOVA analysis pointed to different calibrations and/or recoveries of the three CDT assays. Our data give again evidence for the urgent need of an international CDT isoform standard material. At this time, we cannot recommend a combination of the three tests for screening and confirmatory analysis in forensic CDT testing. PMID:15485716

Arndt, Torsten; Keller, Thomas

2004-11-10

328

GSM Cell Site Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cell site forensics is a new and growing area of digital forensics, enabling investigators to verify a mobile phone subscriber’s\\u000a location at specific times. This paper focuses on cell site forensics in GSM networks. In particular, it discusses current\\u000a methods utilizing call detail records generated from telephone switches that provide information about cellular calls and\\u000a text messages, and the cellular

Christopher Swenson; Tyler Moore; Sujeet Shenoi

2006-01-01

329

Forensic odontology: an overview.  

PubMed

This article is an overview of the field of forensic odontology, highlighting historical cases, with an emphasis on California cases, and briefly discussing some of the current techniques and issues in the field. As with all fields of dentistry, forensic odontology is adapting to new methodologies, changes in techniques, research findings and legal issues. Today's dentist who works in the forensic arena must face and understand these changes and advancements. PMID:25080766

Spencer, Duane E

2014-06-01

330

Determination of amphetamine and methadone in human urine by microextraction by packed sorbent coupled directly to mass spectrometry: An alternative for rapid clinical and forensic analysis†.  

PubMed

Speed and low cost, together with regulatory approval, are the most important requirements of clinical assays. Therefore, a fast and automated on-line sample preparation method is essential for the routine analysis of biological samples. Microextraction by packed sorbent is an option for optimal sample preparation due to its easy automation, minimal requirements for the sample and elution solvent volumes, elimination of evaporation and reconstitution steps, and ability to integrate sample preparation and injection into one step. The use of effective sample preparation steps circumvents the need for chromatographic separation and therefore allows more rapid and less expensive sample analysis in clinical and forensic practice. Two biologically active compounds, amphetamine and methadone, were chosen as representative drugs of abuse for the application of microextraction by packed sorbent coupled directly to mass spectrometry. The developed method was validated, with the results confirming the suitability of the combination of these techniques for the analysis of biological samples. The approach was confirmed to be appropriate for use in clinical and forensic practice with regard to cost and time requirements for analysis. PMID:25187252

Vl?ková, Hana; El-Beqqali, Aziza; Nováková, Lucie; Solich, Petr; Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed

2014-11-01

331

Forensic dentistry in human identification: A review of the literature  

PubMed Central

An update is provided of the literature on the role of odontology in human identification, based on a PubMed-Medline search of the last 5 years and using the terms: “forensic dentistry” (n = 464 articles), “forensic odontology” (n = 141 articles) and “forensic dentistry identification” (n = 169 articles). Apart from these initial 774 articles, others considered to be important and which were generated by a manual search and cited as references in review articles were also included. Forensic dentistry requires interdisciplinary knowledge, since the data obtained from the oral cavity can contribute to identify an individual or provide information needed in a legal process. Furthermore, the data obtained from the oral cavity can narrow the search range of an individual and play a key role in the victim identification process following mass disasters or catastrophes. This literature search covering the last 5 years describes the novelties referred to buccodental studies in comparative identification, buccodental evaluation in reconstructive identification, human bites as a method for identifying the aggressor, and the role of DNA in dental identification. The oral cavity is a rich and noninvasive source of DNA, and can be used to solve problems of a social, economic or legal nature. Key words:Forensic identification, DNA, forensic dentistry, rugoscopy, cheiloscopy, saliva. PMID:24790717

Ata-Ali, Fadi

2014-01-01

332

Applying a Stepwise Forensic Approach to Incident Response and Computer Usage Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

While traditional digital investigation is limited to cyber crimes, now it is an essential procedure on most of civil and criminal case. With the proliferation of the digital investigation in this situation, the need for the timely identification, analysis and interpretation of digital evidence is becoming more crucial. The general method of investigating the suspect's computer is laborious, time-consuming, complicated

Kyung-Soo Lim; SeungBong Lee; Sangjin Lee

2009-01-01

333

NOAA's Improved Fire and Smoke Analysis, A Global Disaster Information Network Initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) of The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) produces a smoke and fire monitoring product based on environmental satellite data. In response to an initiative by NOAA's Global Disaster Information Network (GDIN), NESDIS is in the process of enhancing this product to better serve the needs of its customers. Environmental satellitescan detect and monitor hot spots and smoke associated with wildfires. Infrared and visible band sensors on NESDIS' Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES)and Polar Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) can delineate hot spots and smoke, respectively, resulting from fire activity. In response to requirements of the Fire Weather Program of the National Weather Service (NWS), NESDIS currently twice per day produces a product delineating hot spots and smoke for selected limited geographic areas of the Continental United States (CONUS). GOES and POES imagery is analyzed on an image display system, and a graphical depiction of smoke and hot spot areas is drawn by the analyst. The product is disseminated as imagery via the Internet, and is utilized by Incident Meteorologists, SPC personnel, and U.S. Forest Service fire managers. In response to formally expressed requirements of the NWS, and informal requests from many other users, including federal, state, and local fire management agencies, for a more frequent, spatially accurate product covering all of CONUS and Alaska, GDIN has initiated a program to enhance NOAA's smoke and fire products. The Satellite Services Division (SSD) of NESDIS' Office of Satellite Data Processing and Distribution is developing the Hazard Mapping System (HMS) based on these requirements. It will use data from GOES, POES, and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's (DMSP) On Line Scanner, which can detect hot spots at night. Automated hot spot and smoke detections will be provided by the Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (ABBA) and the Fire Identification, Mapping and Monitoring Algorithm (FIMMA), developed by NESDIS' Office of Research and Applications (ORA). Smoke trajectories will be calculated by the HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT), developed by NOAA's Air Resources Laboratory. Satellite imagery and model outputs will be displayable as multiple data layers in the HMS updated half hourly, and analysts will generate a composite image and graphic product disseminated on the Internet. The product will be geolocated and be compatible for display by commonly used Geographic Information Systems. Users will be able to choose geographic areas displayed. An operational demonstration is scheduled for early Summer, 2001, with subsequent further development, including the possible incorporation of data from the NASA's MODIS instrument and satellite derived vegetation index and fire potential maps.

Stephens, G.; McNamara, D. P.; Fennimore, R.; Ramsay, B. H.; Ruminski, M.; Ruminski, M.

2001-05-01

334

Satellite Application for Disaster Management Information Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract Satellites are becoming increasingly vital to modern day disaster management activities. Earth observation (EO) satellites provide images at various wavelengths that assist rapid-mapping in all phases of the disaster management cycle: mitigation of potential risks in a given area, preparedness for eventual disasters, immediate response to a disaster event, and the recovery/reconstruction efforts follo wing it. Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) assist all the phases by providing precise location and navigation data, helping manage land and infrastructures, and aiding rescue crews coordinate their search efforts. Effective disaster management is a complex problem, because it involves many parameters, which are usually not easy to measure and even identify: Analysis of current situation, planning, optimum resource management, coordination, controlling and monitoring current activities and making quick and correct decisions are only some of these parameters, whose complete list is very long. Disaster management information systems (DMIS) assist disaster management to analyse the situation better, make decisions and suggest further actions following the emergency plans. This requires not only fast and thorough processing and optimization abilities, but also real-time data provided to the DMIS. The need of DMIS for disaster’s real-time data can be satisfied by small satellites data utilization. Small satellites can provide up-to-data, plus a better media to transfer data. This paper suggests a rationale and a framework for utilization of small Satellite data by DMIS. DMIS should be used ‘’before’’, ‘’during’’ and ‘’after’’ the disasters. Data provided by the Small Satellites are almost crucial in any period of the disasters, because early warning can save lives, and satellite data may help to identify disasters before they occur. The paper also presents’ ‘when’’, ‘’where’’ and ‘’how’’ small satellite data should be used by DMIS.

Okpanachi, George

335

Synergy between DNA polymerases increases polymerase chain reaction inhibitor tolerance in forensic DNA analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success rate of diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis is lowered by inhibitory substances present in the samples. Recently, we showed that tolerance to PCR inhibitors in crime scene saliva stains can be improved by replacing the standard DNA polymerase AmpliTaq Gold with alternative DNA polymerase–buffer systems (Hedman et al., BioTechniques 47 (2009) 951–958). Here we show that blending

Johannes Hedman; Anders Nordgaard; Charlotte Dufva; Birgitta Rasmusson; Ricky Ansell; Peter Rådström

2010-01-01

336

Issues in forensic voice.  

PubMed

The following article provides a general review of an area that can be referred to as Forensic Voice. Its goals will be outlined and that discussion will be followed by a description of its major elements. Considered are (1) the processing and analysis of spoken utterances, (2) distorted speech, (3) enhancement of speech intelligibility (re: surveillance and other recordings), (4) transcripts, (5) authentication of recordings, (6) speaker identification, and (7) the detection of deception, intoxication, and emotions in speech. Stress in speech and the psychological stress evaluation systems (that some individuals attempt to use as lie detectors) also will be considered. Points of entry will be suggested for individuals with the kinds of backgrounds possessed by professionals already working in the voice area. PMID:24176301

Hollien, Harry; Huntley Bahr, Ruth; Harnsberger, James D

2014-03-01

337

Do Natural Disasters Promote Long-Run Growth?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we investigate the long-run relationships among disasters, capital accumulation, total factor productivity, and economic growth. The cross-country empirical analysis demonstrates that higher frequencies of climatic disasters are correlated with higher rates of human capital accumulation, increases in total factor productivity, and economic growth. Though disaster risk reduces the expected rate of return to physical capital, risk also

Mark Skidmore; Hideki Toya

2002-01-01

338

FIA: An Open Forensic Integration Architecture for Composing Digital Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis and value of digital evidence in an i nvestigation has been the domain of discourse in the digital forensic com munity for several years. While many works have considered different approaches to model digital evidence, a comprehensive understanding of the process of merging different evidence items recovered during a forensic analysis is still a dis tant dream. With

Sriram Raghavan; Andrew Clark; George M. Mohay

2009-01-01

339

World Trade Center disaster exposure-related probable posttraumatic stress disorder among responders and civilians: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

The World Trade Center (WTC) disaster on September 11, 2001 was an unprecedented traumatic event with long-lasting health consequences among the affected populations in the New York metropolitan area. This meta-analysis aimed to estimate the risk of probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) associated with specific types of WTC exposures. Meta-analytical findings from 10 studies of 3,271 to 20,294 participants yielded 37 relevant associations. The pooled summary odds ratio (OR) was 2.05 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.82, 2.32), with substantial heterogeneity linked to exposure classification, cohort type, data source, PTSD assessment instrument/criteria, and lapse time since 9/11. In general, responders (e.g. police, firefighters, rescue/recovery workers and volunteers) had a lower probable PTSD risk (OR?=?1.61; 95% CI: 1.39, 1.87) compared to civilians (e.g. residents, office workers, and passersby; OR?=?2.71, 95% CI: 2.35, 3.12). The differences in ORs between responders and civilians were larger for physical compared to psychosocial exposure types. We also found that injury, lost someone, and witnessed horror were the three (out of six) most pernicious exposures. These findings suggest that these three exposures should be a particular focus in psychological evaluation and treatment programs in WTC intervention and future emergency preparedness efforts. PMID:25047411

Liu, Bian; Tarigan, Lukman H; Bromet, Evelyn J; Kim, Hyun

2014-01-01

340

New perspectives in the use of ink evidence in forensic science: Part I. Development of a quality assurance process for forensic ink analysis by HPTLC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The level of information provided by ink evidence to the criminal and civil justice system is limited. The limitations arise from the weakness of the interpretative framework currently used, as proposed in the ASTM 1422-05 and 1789-04 on ink analysis. It is proposed to use the likelihood ratio from the Bayes theorem to interpret ink evidence.Unfortunately, when considering the analytical

Cedric Neumann; Pierre Margot

2009-01-01

341

Variability and similarity of gait as evaluated by joint angles: implications for forensic gait analysis.  

PubMed

Closed-circuit television (CCTV) footage is used in criminal investigations to compare perpetrators with suspects. Usually, incomplete gait cycles are collected, making evidential gait analysis challenging. This study aimed to analyze the discriminatory power of joint angles throughout a gait cycle. Six sets from 12 men were collected. For each man, a variability range VR (mean ± 1SD) of a specific joint angle at a specific time point (a gait cycle was 100 time points) was calculated. In turn, each individual was compared with the 11 others, and whenever 1 of these 11 had a value within this individual’s VR, it counted as positive. By adding the positives throughout the gait cycle, we created simple bar graphs; tall bars indicated a small discriminatory power, short bars indicated a larger one. The highest discriminatory power was at time points 60–80 in the gait cycle. We show how our data can assess gait data from an actual case. PMID:24745080

Yang, Sylvia X M; Larsen, Peter K; Alkjær, Tine; Simonsen, Erik B; Lynnerup, Niels

2014-03-01

342

Nuclear Forensic Materials and Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A short history and treatment of the various aspects of nuclear forensic analysis is followed by a discussion of the most common chemical procedures, including applications of tracers, radioisotopic generators, and sample chronometry. Analytic methodology discussed includes sample preparation, radiation detection, various forms of microscopy, and mass-spectrometric techniques. The chapter concludes with methods for the production and treatment of special nuclear materials and with a description of several actual case studies conducted at Livermore.

Hutcheon, I. D.; Grant, P. M.; Moody, K. J.

343

Multiple Forensic Interviews During Investigations of Child Sexual Abuse: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis  

PubMed Central

In cases of suspected child sexual abuse (CSA) some professionals routinely recommend multiple interviews by the same interviewer because any additional details provided might improve decision-making and increase perpetrator convictions. We analyzed alternative policies about child interviewing to estimate the probability that a policy of all children receiving multiple interviews will increase criminal convictions and better protect children. Using decision analysis, we prepared a decision tree reflecting the structure through which a case of possible CSA passes through the health care, welfare, and legal systems with an estimated probability of conviction of the offender. We reviewed the CSA disclosure, criminal justice, and child welfare literature to obtain estimates for the median and range of rates for the steps of disclosure, substantiation, criminal charges, and conviction. Using the R statistical package, our decision analysis model was populated using literature-based estimates. Once the model was populated, we simulated the experiences of 1,000 cases at 250 sets of plausible parameter values representing different hypothetical communities. Multiple interviews increase the likelihood that an offender will be convicted by 6.1% in the average community. Simulations indicate that a policy in which all children seen for a CSA medical evaluation receive multiple interviews would cost an additional $100,000 for each additional conviction. We estimate that approximately 17 additional children would need to be interviewed on more than one occasion to yield one additional conviction. A policy of multiple interviews has implications for the children, for the costs of care, for protecting other children, and for the risk of false prosecution. PMID:24244100

Block, Stephanie D.; Foster, E. Michael; Pierce, Matthew W.; Berkoff, Molly C.; Runyan, Desmond K.

2013-01-01

344

Developing Ideas through Forensics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If forensic activity is to contribute to student growth and development, careful attention must be given to training and experience in developing ideas. Borrowing from the time-honored premise of invention, forensics educators should highlight argument construction as a foundation in speechwriting practices. Some of the essential premises or…

Derryberry, Bob R.

345

Complexity in Forensic Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic Science is an end-to-end process beginning at the scene and finishing in court. There are many opportunities for quality failures along the way. To limit the focus to the validity and robustness of the actual tests does not support the contribution of forensic science to the criminal justice system and risks compromising it. A particularly critical aspect of the

Stan Brown; Sheila Willis

2010-01-01

346

Forensic geology exhumed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic geology binds applied geology to the world of legal controversy and action. However, the term ``forensic'' is often misconstrued. Although even some attorneys apply it only to the marshalling of evidence in criminal cases, it has a much broader definition. One dictionary defines it as ``pertaining to, connected with, or used in courts of law or public discussion and

Joseph Didier Martinez

1991-01-01

347

Automating the Coupling of ORIGEN with GADRAS via the Fallout Analysis Tool for National Technical Nuclear Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear forensic teams will be deployed to collect and evaluate fallout samples on the ground in the scenario of a low-yield nuclear detonation in a heavily populated area. Quick non-destructive methods of predicting the quality of the sample before it is analyzed in detail are essential for efficient post-event collections. In this work, the process of exporting Defense Land Fallout

Mateusz Monterial; Vincent J Jodoin; Jordan P Lefebvre; Douglas E. Peplow; David A Hooper

2012-01-01

348

Forensic discrimination of blue ballpoint pen inks based on thin layer chromatography and image analysis.  

PubMed

This article aims to provide a new and fast method for differentiation of inks on a questioned document. The data acquisition was carried out by designing specific image analysis software for evaluating thin layer chromatograms (TLC-IA). The ink spot was extracted from the document using methanol and separated by TLC using plastic sheet silica gel 60 without fluorescent indicator, and a mixture of ethyl acetate, ethanol, and water (70:35:30, v/v/v) as mobile phase. To discriminate between different pen inks, new software was designed on the basis of intensity profile of red, green, and blue (RGB) characteristic. In practice, after development of chromatogram, the chromatograms were scanned by ordinary office scanner, intensity profiles of RGB characteristics on the development straight of each sample were produced and compared with the mentioned software. RGB profiles of ballpoint inks from various manufacturers showed that the patterns in most cases were distinctly different from each other. This new method allowed discriminating among different pen inks with a high reliability and the discriminating power of 92.8%. Blue ballpoint pen inks of 41 different samples available on the local market were successfully analyzed and discriminated. PMID:18639403

Djozan, Djavanshir; Baheri, Tahmineh; Karimian, Ghader; Shahidi, Masomeh

2008-08-01

349

The medicolegal and forensic aspects of fires.  

PubMed

Fires, their consequences and their investigations, continue to provide forensic scientists, especially those involved in medicolegal investigation (the medical examiner or forensic pathologist), with constant work and variations in problems. The recent history of mass disasters involving high-rise buildings, transport accidents, and arson-related accidents in nightclubs and prisons has emphasized the necessity for corrective and preventive means to ensure safety to the occupants of any of these areas. Problems presented by fires include the determination of the cause of the fire, the identification of the victims, and the cause and manner of their deaths. The motivation of the fire setter and the settlement by the insurance company or legal means are also aspects to be considered. The imperceptible effects of the fires include many other aspects, among which loss of loved ones and family providers and loss of industrial revenue and job potential are all felt. The most frightening development of all, however, is the insidious surfacing of arson as a possible factor in many major fires. The most recent tragedies involving the Stouffer Inn fire and the Hilton International Hotel fire were both related to arsonous acts. The scope of this article is to review the subject as it affects the forensic medical practitioner directly or indirectly so that his or her investigation may be brought to completion in conjunction with other authorities involved in the case. PMID:7340512

Eckert, W G

1981-12-01

350

School COMSC Forensics, Trust & Identity  

E-print Network

processes in place to forensically deal with the incident. The aim of this module is to introduceSchool COMSC Forensics, Trust & Identity Every organization will eventually deal with cyber forensic techniques investigation using open-source forensics tools. Module Code CMT204 External Subject

Martin, Ralph R.

351

National Academy of Forensic Engineers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Academy of Forensic Engineers provides a short definition of forensic engineering here. After reading through the definition, click the "Menu" link at the bottom of the page to access the site's main menu. From here, you can find more information on the National Academy of Forensic Engineers, and forensic engineering in general.

2008-04-07

352

Scientists and disaster management  

Microsoft Academic Search

When disasters, even natural ones, have a chemical or nuclear dimension, scientists play a major role in their management. Presents the results of research on Canadian disasters, and includes other cases of disasters that occurred around the world. Discusses the experts? role in decisions related to the response: how to identify a specific product, its impact on health, for example,

Hélène Denis

1995-01-01

353

Disaster Planning in Libraries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Disaster preparedness is an important issue in library management today. This article presents a general overview of the theoretical aspects of disaster planning in libraries. The stages of disaster planning are a circular process of planning, prevention, response, recovery, preparedness, and training.

Wong, Yi Ling; Green, Ravonne

2006-01-01

354

Serving through Disaster  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Disaster planning focuses on future function and recovery, on helping libraries expeditiously return to their original states of operation. It all but ignores the concept of continuous function throughout a disaster. This is not true in the private and government sectors, however, which have managed to cover a wider load of disaster response…

Kuzyk, Raya

2007-01-01

355

Epidemics after Natural Disasters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between natural disasters and com- municable diseases is frequently misconstrued. The risk for outbreaks is often presumed to be very high in the chaos that follows natural disasters, a fear likely derived from a perceived association between dead bodies and epidem- ics. However, the risk factors for outbreaks after disasters are associated primarily with population displacement. The availability

John T. Watson; Michelle Gayer; Maire A. Connolly

2007-01-01

356

The concept of vulnerability within the disaster management cycle - A geospatial perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper illustrates the concept of vulnerability within the disaster management cycle from a geospatial perspective. Disaster management is widely regarded as a cyclic multi-stage concept starting with (1) a response phase after a disaster strikes, followed by (2) risk analysis and (3) mitigation efforts to minimize the impacts of future disasters. Different types of hazards such as hurricanes, tsunamis,

Christoph Aubrecht; Sérgio Freire; Stefan Kienberger; Klaus Steinnocher; Peter Zeil

2010-01-01

357

The realization of digital forensics identification workflow audit and custody system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital evidence gradually turns into a new type lawsuit evidence. The research on digital forensics technologies focus on evidence search, recovery and data analysis, while legality, authenticity and integrality of forensics process doesn't get supervised. In this paper, on the basis of forensic steps and process research, the author intends to illustrate modeling social auditing work and designing a system

Yang Zhang; Gao Yang

2010-01-01

358

Review article Entomotoxicology, experimental set-up and interpretation for forensic  

E-print Network

Available online 14 January 2011 Keywords: Drugs analysis Forensic entomology Forensic toxicology InsectReview article Entomotoxicology, experimental set-up and interpretation for forensic toxicologists Samyn a , Gert De Boeck a , Benoit Bourel c,d,e a Laboratory of Toxicology, National Institute

Rasmont, Pierre

359

Managing Performance in the Forensic Sciences: Expectations in Light of Limited Budgets  

Microsoft Academic Search

For forensic service providers worldwide, the demand for high-quality services greatly outpaces available resources to meet those requests. The gap between the demand for services and the resource-restricted supply of those services has implications for managing performance: the effectiveness and efficiency of forensic science. The effectiveness of forensic science is directly related to the quality of the scientific analysis and

Hilton Kobus; Max Houck; Paul Speaker; Richard Riley; Tom Witt

2011-01-01

360

Forensic and police identification of “X” bodies. A 6-years French experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The identification of X bodies is an everyday preoccupation in forensic pathology. This retrospective analysis studied all methods of identification and characteristics of unidentified bodies arrived in the Department of Forensic Medicine and Pathology (University Hospital R. Poincaré, Garches, France) during a 6-years period (2003–2009).The aim was to determine the identification methods used during all the forensic investigations, but also

S. Cavard; J. C. Alvarez; P. De Mazancourt; F. Tilotta; P. Brousseau; G. Lorin de la Grandmaison; P. Charlier

2011-01-01

361

The Case for Open Source Software in Digital Forensics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this introductory chapter we discuss the importance of the use of open source software (OSS), and in particular of free software (FLOSS) in computer forensics investigations including the identification, capture, preservation and analysis of digital evidence; we also discuss the importance of OSS in computer forensics

Zanero, Stefano; Huebner, Ewa

362

Research in document composition: Printing forensics and layout aesthetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation is composed of two projects that were carried out independently. Both projects are related to document composition analysis. The applications of the first study correspond to the area of printer forensics, and the second study concerns to the area of document layout aesthetics. ^ Common forensics tasks such as verifying ownership, authenticity, and copyright of a document can

Maria Valezzka Ortiz Segovia

2011-01-01

363

DRAFT AGENDA Measurement Science & Standards in Forensic Firearms  

E-print Network

DRAFT AGENDA Measurement Science & Standards in Forensic Firearms Analysis July 10-11, 2012 Enforcement Standards Office, Forensic Science Program · Scientific Working Group for Firearms and Toolmarks are in Eastern Time July 11, 2012 11:15 AM ­ 12:00 PM Manufacturing Processes and Materials · Manufacturing

364

Computer Forensics System Based on Artificial Immune Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current computer forensics approaches mainly focus on the network ac- tions capture and analysis the evidences after attacks, which always result in the static methods. Inspired by the theory of artificial immune systems (AIS), a novel model of Computer Forensics System is presented. The concepts and formal definitions of im- mune cells are given, and dynamically evaluative equations for

Jin Yang; Tao Li; Sunjun Liu; Tiefang Wang; Diangang Wang; Gang Liang

2007-01-01

365

Nature and place of crime scene management within forensic sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This short paper presents the preliminary results of a recent study aimed at appreciating the relevant parameters required to qualify forensic science as a science through an epistemological analysis. The reader is invited to reflect upon references within a historical and logical framework which assert that forensic science is based upon two fundamental principles (those of Locard and Kirk). The

Frank Crispino

2008-01-01

366

Developing a computer forensics program in police higher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

By the analysis and comparison of the application of domestic and overseas computer forensics education, combining with the demand of the industry, the characteristics of subjects and the aim of police education in China, an innovative program in computer forensics has been developed and begun in fall 2007. This four-year program consists of courses in general education, major (computer crime

Liu Zhijun; Wang Ning

2009-01-01

367

A Study of Current Trends in Database Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of databases as a means of storing critical data has made them an inviting target for criminal activity, which in turn has brought about the emerging area of database forensics. However, research in this area is just beginning, and few methods and tools designed for database forensic analysis exist at this time. Following a database security incident, it

Lawrence Suffern

2010-01-01

368

LARGE SCALE DISASTER ANALYSIS AND MANAGEMENT: SYSTEM LEVEL STUDY ON AN INTEGRATED MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

The increasing intensity and scale of human activity across the globe leading to severe depletion and deterioration of the Earth's natural resources has meant that sustainability has emerged as a new paradigm of analysis and management. Sustainability, conceptually defined by the...

369

The imported forensic expert  

SciTech Connect

A review of the experiences of one of the pioneer forensic pathologists in the United States offers an interesting insight into the possibilities of private forensic pathology in America. The author's experience includes serving as President of the National Boxing Association and the International Boxing Association, during which time he made many improvements in ring safety. His research into several areas of cases of product liability offer an insight to the wide scope of the potential of the forensic expert. This presentation reviews his activities in realms widely afield from medicine.

Larson, C.P.

1980-09-01

370

A review of the analysis of vegetable oil residues from fire debris samples: spontaneous ignition, vegetable oils, and the forensic approach.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the literature on the analysis of vegetable (and animal) oil residues from fire debris samples. The process of self-heating and spontaneous ignition is well-known by fire investigators and causes many fires. Vegetable oils are often the chemicals that originate such phenomenon. Vegetable oils are composed of lipids, which contain fatty acids. The autooxidation of the double bonds present in unsaturated fatty acids is the exothermic reaction at the origin of the self-heating process. The degree of unsaturation of fatty acids directly influences the propensity of an oil to undergo self-heating and, eventually, spontaneous ignition. When fire debris samples are collected, it is possible to examine them at the laboratory to extract and identify vegetable oil residues. This is typically performed by solvent extraction, followed by gas chromatographic(-mass spectrometric) analysis of the extract. Such analyses differ from ignitable liquid residue analyses, so a different forensic approach is necessary. PMID:16225213

Stauffer, Eric

2005-09-01

371

Forensic mental health professionals' perceptions of psychopathy: A prototypicality analysis of the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality in Sweden.  

PubMed

Assessments of psychopathic traits are used on a routine basis in forensic evaluations across Westernized countries. Despite this, consensus has not yet emerged concerning what exactly are the "core" features of this construct. Moreover, relatively little is known about how practitioners in the field construe this disorder. This study explored perceptions and attitudes regarding psychopathy among individuals working in the forensic mental health system (N = 90) in Sweden. Participants provided prototype ratings of what they considered to be core psychopathy features based on the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality (CAPP), a model that increasingly is the focus of research in North America and Europe. The study protocol also included questions regarding (a) global perceptions and attitudes about a number of aspects of the psychopathy construct (e.g., personal experience, perceived prevalence), and (b) attitudinal scales that assessed perceived correlates of psychopathic traits across a variety of domains (e.g., violence proneness, treatment amenability) and moral judgments and attitudes concerning how psychopathic offenders should be treated within the legal system. The majority of the 33 individual CAPP items and the six CAPP scales were rated as at least moderately prototypical of psychopathy, with Dominance, Self, and Attachment domains obtaining the highest mean ratings. Participants viewed psychopaths as more likely to commit crimes than the average criminal, without being blatantly "evil" people. We believe our results help to advance our understanding of the psychopathy construct by exploring forensic professionals' perceptions of this disorder in general and in relation to the CAPP model specifically. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24707908

Sörman, Karolina; Edens, John F; Smith, Shannon Toney; Svensson, Olof; Howner, Katarina; Kristiansson, Marianne; Fischer, Håkan

2014-10-01

372

Application impact analysis: a risk-based approach to business continuity and disaster recovery.  

PubMed

There are many possible disruptions that can occur in business. Overlooking or under planning for Business Continuity requires time, understanding and careful planning. Business Continuity Management is far more than producing a document and declaring business continuity success. What is the recipe for businesses to achieve continuity management success? Application Impact Analysis is a method for understanding the unique Business Attributes. This AIA Cycle involves a risk based approach to understanding the business priority and considering business aspects such as Financial, Operational, Service Structure, Contractual Legal, and Brand. The output of this analysis provides a construct for viewing data, evaluating impact, and delivering results, for an approved valuation of Recovery Time Objectives (RTO). PMID:24578024

Epstein, Beth; Khan, Dawn Christine

2014-01-01

373

Cross-validation and evaluation of the performance of methods for the elemental analysis of forensic glass by ?-XRF, ICP-MS, and LA-ICP-MS.  

PubMed

Elemental analysis of glass was conducted by 16 forensic science laboratories, providing a direct comparison between three analytical methods [micro-x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (?-XRF), solution analysis using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry]. Interlaboratory studies using glass standard reference materials and other glass samples were designed to (a) evaluate the analytical performance between different laboratories using the same method, (b) evaluate the analytical performance of the different methods, (c) evaluate the capabilities of the methods to correctly associate glass that originated from the same source and to correctly discriminate glass samples that do not share the same source, and (d) standardize the methods of analysis and interpretation of results. Reference materials NIST 612, NIST 1831, FGS 1, and FGS 2 were employed to cross-validate these sensitive techniques and to optimize and standardize the analytical protocols. The resulting figures of merit for the ICP-MS methods include repeatability better than 5% RSD, reproducibility between laboratories better than 10% RSD, bias better than 10%, and limits of detection between 0.03 and 9 ?g g(-1) for the majority of the elements monitored. The figures of merit for the ?-XRF methods include repeatability better than 11% RSD, reproducibility between laboratories after normalization of the data better than 16% RSD, and limits of detection between 5.8 and 7,400 ?g g(-1). The results from this study also compare the analytical performance of different forensic science laboratories conducting elemental analysis of glass evidence fragments using the three analytical methods. PMID:23673570

Trejos, Tatiana; Koons, Robert; Becker, Stefan; Berman, Ted; Buscaglia, JoAnn; Duecking, Marc; Eckert-Lumsdon, Tiffany; Ernst, Troy; Hanlon, Christopher; Heydon, Alex; Mooney, Kim; Nelson, Randall; Olsson, Kristine; Palenik, Christopher; Pollock, Edward Chip; Rudell, David; Ryland, Scott; Tarifa, Anamary; Valadez, Melissa; Weis, Peter; Almirall, Jose

2013-06-01

374

Forensic Science and Information Technology at NIST  

E-print Network

Forensic Science and Information Technology at NIST Martin Herman Information Technology Laboratory, mathematics, and statistics. · Cloud Computing · Complex Systems · Forensic Science · Health Information in Forensic Science Advance measurements and standards infrastructure for forensics through information

Perkins, Richard A.

375

Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Extreme Midwestern Blizzard Storm Tracks and Subsequent Federal Disaster Declarations  

E-print Network

to Zanice Bond de Pérez, American Studies graduate student and Writing Specialist for Graduate and International Students at the University vii of Kansas in Lawrence, Kansas, for her friendship and expert advice and encouragement during my many trips... Analysis 28 Chapter 3: Methodology 32 3.1 Study Area and Period of Study 32 3.2 Definition and Identification of Extreme Midwestern Blizzards 33 3.3 Charting of Blizzard Results 35 3.4 Storm Track Re-Construction 36 3.5 Definition...

Atkinson, Christopher John

2010-04-26

376

Modeling economic costs of disasters and recovery involving positive effects of reconstruction: analysis using a dynamic CGE model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disaster damages have negative effects on economy, whereas reconstruction investments have positive effects. The aim of this study is to model economic causes of disasters and recovery involving positive effects of reconstruction activities. Computable general equilibrium (CGE) model is a promising approach because it can incorporate these two kinds of shocks into a unified framework and further avoid double-counting problem. In order to factor both shocks in CGE model, direct loss is set as the amount of capital stock reduced on supply side of economy; A portion of investments restore the capital stock in existing period; An investment-driven dynamic model is formulated due to available reconstruction data, and the rest of a given country's saving is set as an endogenous variable. The 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake is selected as a case study to illustrate the model, and three scenarios are constructed: S0 (no disaster occurs), S1 (disaster occurs with reconstruction investment) and S2 (disaster occurs without reconstruction investment). S0 is taken as business as usual, and the differences between S1 and S0 and that between S2 and S0 can be interpreted as economic losses including reconstruction and excluding reconstruction respectively. The study showed that output from S1 is found to be closer to real data than that from S2. S2 overestimates economic loss by roughly two times that under S1. The gap in economic aggregate between S1 and S0 is reduced to 3% in 2011, a level that should take another four years to achieve under S2.

Xie, W.; Li, N.; Wu, J.-D.; Hao, X.-L.

2013-11-01

377

Physics and forensics  

SciTech Connect

This popular article in Physics World reviews the application of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectromicroscopy to Forensics, and predicts further applications due to the high inherent signal to noise available for FTIR microscopy at synchrotron sources.

Wilkinson, T.J.; Perry, D.L.; Martin, M.C.; McKinney, W.R.

2001-12-15

378

Forensic speaker recognition  

E-print Network

Looking at the different points highlighted in this article, we affirm that forensic applications of speaker recognition should still be taken under a necessary need for caution. Disseminating this message remains one of ...

Bonstre, Jean-Francois

379

Ion chromatography-mass spectrometry: a review of recent technologies and applications in forensic and environmental explosives analysis.  

PubMed

The development and application of ion chromatography (IC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) is discussed herein for the quantitative determination of low-order explosives-related ionic species in environmental and forensic sample types. Issues relating to environmental explosives contamination and the need for more confirmatory IC-MS based applications in forensic science are examined. In particular, the compatibility of a range of IC separation modes with MS detection is summarised along with the analytical challenges that have been overcome to facilitate determinations at the ng-?g L(-1) level. Observed trends in coupling IC to inductively coupled plasma and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry form a particular focus. This review also includes a discussion of the relative performance of reported IC-MS methods in comparison to orthogonal ion separation-based, spectrometric and spectroscopic approaches to confirmatory detection of low-order explosives. Finally, some promising areas for future research are highlighted and discussed with respect to potential IC-MS applications. PMID:24331039

Barron, Leon; Gilchrist, Elizabeth

2014-01-01

380

Return or relocate? An inductive analysis of decision-making in a disaster.  

PubMed

This paper proposes an inductive analysis of the decision as to whether to return or to relocate by persons in the State of Louisiana, United States, who evacuated after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in August and September 2005, respectively. Drawing on interviews with evacuees in these events and extensive fieldwork in the impacted area, the paper seeks to identify the folk dimensions of the decision-making process, assess their arrangements, and situate the process in the larger context of risk and resilience in an advanced society. It suggests that, despite the material and emotional upheaval experienced by affected persons, the decision-making process is a rational endeavour combining a definite set of tightly interconnected factors, involving material dimensions and substantive values that can act in concert or in conflict. In addition, it indicates that there are significant variations by geographic areas, homeownership, and kind of decision. Some theoretical implications, practical measures, and suggestions for future research are examined. PMID:23278427

Henry, Jacques

2013-04-01

381

Mac OS X Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper describes procedures for conducting forensic examinations of Apple Macs running Mac OS X. The target disk mode\\u000a is used to create a forensic duplicate of a Mac hard drive and preview it. Procedures are discussed for recovering evidence\\u000a from allocated space, unallocated space, slack space and virtual memory. Furthermore, procedures are described for recovering\\u000a trace evidence from Mac

Philip Craiger; Paul Burke

2006-01-01

382

A study of correlation of hand and foot dimensions for personal identification in mass disasters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The identification of isolated extremities is an issue of great significance in the investigation of the identity of victims of mass disasters and fatal assaults. In forensic investigations, the dimensions of the hand and foot have been used for determination of sex, age and stature of an individual. However, the data on correlation within and between hand and foot dimensions

Tanuj Kanchan; Kewal Krishan; Abhilasha Sharma; Ritesh G. Menezes

2010-01-01

383

Applying Machine Trust Models to Forensic Investigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital forensics involves the identification, preservation, analysis and presentation of electronic evidence for use in legal proceedings. In the presence of contradictory evidence, forensic investigators need a means to determine which evidence can be trusted. This is particularly true in a trust model environment where computerised agents may make trust-based decisions that influence interactions within the system. This paper focuses on the analysis of evidence in trust-based environments and the determination of the degree to which evidence can be trusted. The trust model proposed in this work may be implemented in a tool for conducting trust-based forensic investigations. The model takes into account the trust environment and parameters that influence interactions in a computer network being investigated. Also, it allows for crimes to be reenacted to create more substantial evidentiary proof.

Wojcik, Marika; Venter, Hein; Eloff, Jan; Olivier, Martin

384

Multiple-probe thermography for estimating the postmortem interval: I. Continuous monitoring and data analysis of brain, liver, rectal and environmental temperatures in 117 forensic cases.  

PubMed

One hundred seventeen forensic postmortem cases have been studied under controlled conditions. In each case, temperatures of the brain, liver, rectum, and the environment were monitored over a period beginning shortly after death and ending up to 60 h postmortem. The four temperature measurements were recorded every 5 to 10 min using the Microwave Thermography System. Rectal and environmental temperatures were measured by electrical thermocouples while brain and liver temperatures were measured using microwave probes. Data acquisition, analogue-to-digital conversion (ADC), and data processing were provided by a microcomputer. The ADC technique is described and its problems are discussed. The data were then transferred to a mainframe computer for extensive curve-fitting and statistical analysis. The microcomputer-based ADC and data logging and acquisition were found to be accurate, fast, easy to implement, and useful for the field. The postmortem rate of human body cooling was found to be adequately represented by triple-exponential equations. PMID:11305433

Al-Alousi, L M; Anderson, R A; Worster, D M; Land, D V

2001-03-01

385

Analysis of XXI Century Disasters in the National Geophysical Data Center Historical Natural Hazard Event Databases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) maintains a global historical event database of tsunamis, significant earthquakes, and significant volcanic eruptions. The database includes all tsunami events, regardless of intensity, as well as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions that caused fatalities, moderate damage, or generated a tsunami. Event date, time, location, magnitude of the phenomenon, and socio-economic information are included in the database. Analysis of the NGDC event database reveals that the 21st century began with earthquakes in Gujarat, India (magnitude 7.7, 2001) and Bam, Iran (magnitude 6.6, 2003) that killed over 20,000 and 31,000 people, respectively. These numbers were dwarfed by the numbers of earthquake deaths in Pakistan (magnitude 7.6, 2005-86,000 deaths), Wenchuan, China (magnitude 7.9, 2008-87,652 deaths), and Haiti (magnitude 7.0, 2010-222,000 deaths). The Haiti event also ranks among the top ten most fatal earthquakes. The 21st century has observed the most fatal tsunami in recorded history-the 2004 magnitude 9.1 Sumatra earthquake and tsunami that caused over 227,000 deaths and 10 billion damage in 14 countries. Six years later, the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami, although not the most fatal (15,000 deaths and 5,000 missing), could cost Japan's government in excess of 300 billion-the most expensive tsunami in history. Volcanic eruptions can cause disruptions and economic impact to the airline industry, but due to their remote locations, fatalities and direct economic effects are uncommon. Despite this fact, the second most expensive eruption in recorded history occurred in the 21st century-the 2010 Merapi, Indonesia volcanic eruption that resulted in 324 deaths, 427 injuries, and $600 million in damage. NGDC integrates all natural hazard event datasets into one search interface. Users can find fatal tsunamis generated by earthquakes or volcanic eruptions. The user can then link to information about the related runup observations (e.g. maximum wave height) and the source earthquake or volcano. If available, damage photographs and plots of water level data can also be viewed. The data are accessible online via tables, reports, and a new state-of-the-art interactive map viewer. These data and access capabilities help coastal communities assess their risks, identify hazards, and promote public awareness of tsunamis and earthquakes.

Dunbar, P. K.; McCullough, H. L.

2011-12-01

386

International disaster research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

No existing telecommunications system can be expected to provide strategy and tactics appropriate to the complex, many faceted problem of disaster. Despite the exciting capabilities of space, communications, remote sensing, and the miracles of modern medicine, complete turnkey transfers to the disaster problem do not make the fit, and cannot be expected to do so. In 1980, a Presidential team assigned the mission of exploring disaster response within the U.S. Federal Government encountered an unanticipated obstacle: disaster was essentially undefined. In the absence of a scientifically based paradigm of disaster, there can be no measure of cost effectiveness, optimum design of manpower structure, or precise application of any technology. These problems spawned a 10-year, multidisciplinary study designed to define the origins, anatomy, and necessary management techniques for catastrophes. The design of the study necessarily reflects interests and expertise in disaster medicine, emergency medicine, telecommunications, computer communications, and forencsic sciences. This study is described.

Silverstein, Martin Elliot

1991-01-01

387

Obtaining Disaster Assistance  

E-print Network

the disaster. Most government assistance programs require that you apply for disaster assistance through the Federal Emergency Management Administra- tion (FEMA). Money and services are provided through the Individu- als and Households Program (IHP). Low... ? call TTY: 1-800-462-7585). You also may apply online at www.fema.gov (by clicking on ?Online Individual As- sistance Center?). FEMA does not accept applications through the mail; nor can they be completed at Disaster Recovery Centers (unless a Center...

Cavanagh, Joyce

2008-09-24

388

Research on the application in disaster reduction for using cloud computing technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cloud Computing technology has been rapidly applied in different domains recently, promotes the progress of the domain's informatization. Based on the analysis of the state of application requirement in disaster reduction and combining the characteristics of Cloud Computing technology, we present the research on the application of Cloud Computing technology in disaster reduction. First of all, we give the architecture of disaster reduction cloud, which consists of disaster reduction infrastructure as a service (IAAS), disaster reduction cloud application platform as a service (PAAS) and disaster reduction software as a service (SAAS). Secondly, we talk about the standard system of disaster reduction in five aspects. Thirdly, we indicate the security system of disaster reduction cloud. Finally, we draw a conclusion the use of cloud computing technology will help us to solve the problems for disaster reduction and promote the development of disaster reduction.

Tao, Liang; Fan, Yida; Wang, Xingling

389

Forensic Management Academy Spring 2011 Tentative Schedule Forensic Management Academy  

E-print Network

Forensic Management Academy ­ Spring 2011 Tentative Schedule Forensic Management Academy Spring:30 ­ 11:30 Session VI Fundamentals of Budgeting Paul Speaker 8:30 ­ 11:30 Session IX Process Improvement:00 Tour Forensic Program Facilities 4:30 ­ 7:30 Session VIII Conflict Management Joyce Heames7:00 Free

Mohaghegh, Shahab

390

FORENSIC SCIENCE The bachelor of science in forensic science at  

E-print Network

FORENSIC SCIENCE The bachelor of science in forensic science at Wichita State University is designed to meet an increasing demand for trained forensic scientists and technicians. No other university an interdisciplinary major in biological sciences, chemistry, anthropology, psychology and criminal justice

391

Combined target factor analysis and Bayesian soft-classification of interference-contaminated samples: forensic fire debris analysis.  

PubMed

A bayesian soft classification method combined with target factor analysis (TFA) is described and tested for the analysis of fire debris data. The method relies on analysis of the average mass spectrum across the chromatographic profile (i.e., the total ion spectrum, TIS) from multiple samples taken from a single fire scene. A library of TIS from reference ignitable liquids with assigned ASTM classification is used as the target factors in TFA. The class-conditional distributions of correlations between the target and predicted factors for each ASTM class are represented by kernel functions and analyzed by bayesian decision theory. The soft classification approach assists in assessing the probability that ignitable liquid residue from a specific ASTM E1618 class, is present in a set of samples from a single fire scene, even in the presence of unspecified background contributions from pyrolysis products. The method is demonstrated with sample data sets and then tested on laboratory-scale burn data and large-scale field test burns. The overall performance achieved in laboratory and field test of the method is approximately 80% correct classification of fire debris samples. PMID:22920087

Williams, Mary R; Sigman, Michael E; Lewis, Jennifer; Pitan, Kelly McHugh

2012-10-10

392

Tools and techniques for Network Forensics  

E-print Network

Network forensics deals with the capture, recording and analysis of network events in order to discover evidential information about the source of security attacks in a court of law. This paper discusses the different tools and techniques available to conduct network forensics. Some of the tools discussed include: eMailTrackerPro to identify the physical location of an email sender; Web Historian to find the duration of each visit and the files uploaded and downloaded from the visited website; packet sniffers like Etherea to capture and analyze the data exchanged among the different computers in the network. The second half of the paper presents a survey of different IP traceback techniques like packet marking that help a forensic investigator to identify the true sources of the attacking IP packets. We also discuss the use of Honeypots and Honeynets that gather intelligence about the enemy and the tools and tactics of network intruders.

Meghanathan, Natarajan; Moore, Loretta A

2010-01-01

393

[Metabonomics and its perspective on forensic medicine].  

PubMed

Metabolomics is a new study, which use chromatography, mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), capillary electrophoresis (CE) techniques on the cells, organs and other body fluids and metabolites in samples were isolated, purified and testing, re-use bioinformatics tools on the obtained data are analyzed to obtain one or a set of biomarker information. Based on analysis of the literatures in recent years, metabolomics was summarized from history, concept, advantage, methods, application, difficulties and challenges, journals and books, websites, and its application in forensic medicine was forecasted. As a new branch of global system biology, metabonomics developed rapidly, and its perspective on forensic medicine was feasible and very optimistic. PMID:21287744

Zhang, Gao-Qin; Wang, Mei; Zhang, Da-Ming; Liu, Yao

2010-10-01

394

[Incest--forensic genetic approach].  

PubMed

The paper presents intimate relationships between biologically and legally close relatives, complicated in the social, culture and religion perspective. (art. 201 of the Penal Code), but it chiefly addresses problems associated with giving opinion on the fatherhood towards the incestuous child. The report calls for a broader interest in this issue from expert witnesses in forensic genetics, as well as encourages them to publish examples taken from their own professional experience that may unquestionably be helpful to other practitioners in this field and above all will lead to extending educational methods related to widely understood DNA analysis in giving an opinion on arguable fatherhood. PMID:23424940

Raczek, Ewa

2012-01-01

395

International forensic automotive paint database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Technical Working Group for Materials Analysis (TWGMAT) is supporting an international forensic automotive paint database. The Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) are collaborating on this effort through TWGMAT. This paper outlines the support and further development of the RCMP's Automotive Paint Database, `Paint Data Query'. This cooperative agreement augments and supports a current, validated, searchable, automotive paint database that is used to identify make(s), model(s), and year(s) of questioned paint samples in hit-and-run fatalities and other associated investigations involving automotive paint.

Bishea, Gregory A.; Buckle, Joe L.; Ryland, Scott G.

1999-02-01

396

Analysis of Ground-vibration induced by the sediment disaster on Izu Oshima, Tokyo in October 2013  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

October 2013, at the Mariana Islands, typhoon Wipha occurred. Wipha attacked Izu Ohshima of Japan and brought heavy rain. Izu Ohshima is part of Tokyo Metropolitan prefecture. Ohshima rain-gauge station of Japan Meteorological Agency showed 118.5 mm per hour and 824.0mm per 24hours. This 24 hour rainfall was about 2.5 times higher than the average rainfall for October (329.0mm / 24hour). And then, a lot of shallow landslides and debris flow has occurred. Thirty six people were killed and four people were missing by these sediment disaster. It is important to clarify that "When and where did disaster occur?". A lot of seismographs for volcano observation are installed in Izu Ohshima. And then, it is known that when sediment moved, ground-vibration occurred. We estimated time and location of disaster by analyzing ground-vibration in sediment moving. First, we estimated that the disaster occurred from 2:00 a.m. to 3:00 a.m. of October 16 by some newspaper reports. Second, we collected data of installed seismographs in Izu Ohshima and analyzed. And then, we caught that some wave data existed. These were different from earthquake data. We estimated that these showed ground-vibration data in sediment moving. Finally, we estimated hypocenter (location of sediment moving) by relationship between "distance between hypocenter and seismograph" and amplitude. Methods are as follows. Making envelope on basis of collected seismograph data and calculating maximum amplitude (y) Calculating amplitude (x) on basis of some assumed hypocenters Setting hypocenter (location of sediment moving) by minimum residual of y and x Comparing of set hypocenter and actual location of sediment moving. We found that distance of set hypocenter and actual location of sediment moving is close. Therefore, when sediment disaster occurs, by analyzing seismographs data, it may be possible to estimate that the location and timing of sediment moving. And, it may be possible to use as tools for people to evacuate.

Takahara, Teruyoshi; Kinoshita, Atsuhiko; Mizutani, Tasuku; Ishizuka, Tadanori; Ishida, Tetsuya; Kaihara, Soichi; Asahara, Hiroshi

2014-05-01

397

Electron microscopy and forensic practice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron microanalysis in forensic practice ranks among basic applications used in investigation of traces (latents, stains, etc.) from crime scenes. Applying electron microscope allows for rapid screening and receiving initial information for a wide range of traces. SEM with EDS/WDS makes it possible to observe topography surface and morphology samples and examination of chemical components. Physical laboratory of the Institute of Criminalistics Prague use SEM especially for examination of inorganic samples, rarely for biology and other material. Recently, possibilities of electron microscopy have been extended considerably using dual systems with focused ion beam. These systems are applied mainly in study of inner micro and nanoparticles , thin layers (intersecting lines in graphical forensic examinations, analysis of layers of functional glass, etc.), study of alloys microdefects, creating 3D particles and aggregates models, etc. Automated mineralogical analyses are a great asset to analysis of mineral phases, particularly soils, similarly it holds for cathode luminescence, predominantly colour one and precise quantitative measurement of their spectral characteristics. Among latest innovations that are becoming to appear also at ordinary laboratories are TOF - SIMS systems and micro Raman spectroscopy with a resolution comparable to EDS/WDS analysis (capable of achieving similar level as through EDS/WDS analysis).

Kotrlý, Marek; Turková, Ivana

2013-05-01

398

Forensic Proteomics of Poxvirus Production  

SciTech Connect

The field of microbial forensics has recently sought to develop methods to discern biological signatures to indicate production methods for biological agents. Viral agents have received less attention to date. Their obligate propagation in living cells makes purification from cellular material a challenge. This leads to potential carryover of protein-rich signature of their production system. Here we have explored a proteomic analysis of Vaccinia virus as a model poxvirus system in which to compare samples of virus propagated in different cell lines and subjected to different purification schemes. The proteomic data sets indicated viral, host cell and culture medium proteins, and several layers of data analysis were applied to build confidence in the peptide identification and capture information on the taxonomic utility of each. The analysis showed clear shifts in protein profiles with virus purification, with successive gradient purification steps showing different levels of viral protein enrichment. Peptides from cellular proteins, including those present in purified virus preparations, provided signatures which enabled discrimination of cell line substrates, including distinguishing between cells derived from different primate species. The ability to discern multiple aspects of viral production demonstrates the potential value of proteomic analysis as tool for microbial forensics.

Wunschel, David S.; Tulman, Edan; Engelmann, Heather E.; Clowers, Brian H.; Geary, Steven J.; Robinson, Aaron C.; Liao, Xiaofen

2013-08-27

399

Forensic psychiatry in Singapore.  

PubMed

Singapore is a geographically small nation-state that has transformed itself from a third-world country to a developed nation after attaining political independence 46 years ago. The pace of change has been tremendous and mental health care is no exception. This paper provides an overview of mental health care and a review of key mental health legislation, including a National Mental Health Blueprint that was rolled out in 2007. On this background, the paper focuses on a description of forensic psychiatric services in Singapore. The role of the Department of Forensic Psychiatry at the Institute of Mental Health, which is the only forensic psychiatry department in the country, will be highlighted. Civil commitment and the treatment of unfit accused persons and insanity acquittees is reviewed. The role of forensic psychiatric assessments in the Singapore courts is examined. The application of the insanity and diminished responsibility defenses are reviewed. A trend is identified in the Singapore courts towards a more rehabilitation-focused sentencing approach and the role that forensic psychiatric assessments play in cases involving mentally disordered offenders is highlighted. PMID:23857802

Chan, Lai Gwen; Tomita, Todd

2013-12-01

400

Modeling the network forensics behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network forensics is a new coming approach to the network security. However, this field is not very clear to the new researchers. In this paper, we discuss the network forensics behaviors systematically from both the technical view and legal view. The goal of discussion is to outline the formalization and standardization of the network forensics behaviors. To our knowledge, this

Wei Ren; Hai Jin

2005-01-01

401

Cyber Forensics: Issues and Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter introduces the concept of cyber forensics, digital evidence, and computer forensic process. Cyber forensics is defined as the application of computer science to laws — to process and analyze digital evidence, to reconstruct a crime, and to provide links among the offender, the victim and the crime scene. Basically Digital evidence includes all digital data, which can be

Jau-Hwang Wang

402

FORENSIC TECHNIQUES FOR CELL PHONES  

E-print Network

June 2007 FORENSIC TECHNIQUES FOR CELL PHONES FORENSIC TECHNIQUES FOR CELL PHONES Shirley Radack cell phones are widely used for both personal and professional applications, the technology of cell forensics usually do not cover cell phones, especially those with advanced capabilities. The digital

403

Location tracking forensics on mobile devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spread of navigation devices has increased significantly over the last 10 years. With the help of the current development of even smaller navigation receiver units it is to navigate with almost any current smart phone. Modern navigation systems are no longer limited to satellite navigation, but use current techniques, e.g. WLAN localization. Due to the increased use of navigation devices their relevance to forensic investigations has risen rapidly. Because navigation, for example with navigation equipment and smartphones, have become common place these days, also the amount of saved navigation data has risen rapidly. All of these developments lead to a necessary forensic analysis of these devices. However, there are very few current procedures for investigating of navigation devices. Navigation data is forensically interesting because by the position of the devices in most cases the location and the traveled path of the owner can be reconstructed. In this work practices for forensic analysis of navigation devices are developed. Different devices will be analyzed and it is attempted, by means of forensic procedures to restore the traveled path of the mobile device. For analysis of the various devices different software and hardware is used. There will be presented common procedures for securing and testing of mobile devices. Further there will be represented the specials in the investigation of each device. The different classes considered are GPS handhelds, mobile navigation devices and smartphones. It will be attempted, wherever possible, to read all data of the device. The aim is to restore complete histories of the navigation data and to forensically study and analyze these data. This is realized by the usage of current forensic software e.g. TomTology or Oxygen Forensic Suite. It is also attempted to use free software whenever possible. Further alternative methods are used (e.g. rooting) to access locked data of the unit. To limit the practical work the data extraction is focused on the frequently used device sample of a specific class, as the procedure for many groups of devices can be similar. In the present work a Garmin Dakota 10, a TomTom GO 700, an iPhone 4 (iOS) and a Samsung Galaxy S Plus (Android) is used because they have a wide circulation.

Sack, Stefan; Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

2013-03-01

404

Computer Forensics Field Triage Process Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the proliferation of digital based evidence, the need for the timely identification, analysis and interpretation of digital evidence is becoming more crucial. In many investigations critical information is required while at the scene or within a short period of time - measured in hours as opposed to days. The traditional cyber forensics approach of seizing a system(s)\\/media, transporting it

Marcus K. Rogers; James Goldman; Rick Mislan; Timothy Wedge; Steve Debrota

2006-01-01

405

Trial by Science: A Forensic Extravaganza  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This intriguing crime-solving activity for middle level students demonstrates some of the basics of forensic science; including the analysis of fingerprints, hair, fiber, and soil evidence. The realism of the scenario is enhanced by recruiting adult volunteers to serve as suspects that can be questioned and tried by students through the process of scientific inquiry.

Hunt, Vanessa

2004-05-01

406

Nuclear Forensic Inferences Using Iterative Multidimensional Statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear forensics involves the analysis of interdicted nuclear material for specific material characteristics (referred to as 'signatures') that imply specific geographical locations, production processes, culprit intentions, etc. Predictive signatures rely on expert knowledge of physics, chemistry, and engineering to develop inferences from these material characteristics. Comparative signatures, on the other hand, rely on comparison of the material characteristics of the

M Robel; M J Kristo; M A Heller

2009-01-01

407

Forensic quest for age determination of bloodstains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bloodstains at crime scenes are among the most important types of evidence for forensic investigators. They can be used for DNA-profiling for verifying the suspect's identity or for pattern analysis in order to reconstruct the crime. However, until now, using bloodstains to determine the time elapsed since the crime was committed is still not possible. From a criminalistic point of

Rolf H. Bremmer; Karla G. de Bruin; Martin J. C. van Gemert; Ton G. van Leeuwen; Maurice C. G. Aalders

408

New Digital Forensics Investigation Procedure Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we presented a new digital forensics investigation procedure model which is as follows: investigation preparation, classifying cyber crime and deciding investigation priority, investigating damaged (victim) digital crime scene, criminal profiling consultant and analysis, tracking suspects, investigating injurer digital crime scene, summoning suspect, additional investigation, writing criminal profiling, writing report.

Yong-Dal Shin; Cyber Police

2008-01-01

409

Forensic Psychiatry in Iran  

PubMed Central

In Iran, department of forensic psychiatry is one of the special units of Legal Medicine Organization concerned with individuals who demonstrate psychological and psychiatric problems. The duties of forensic psychiatrists in the department are, performing psychiatric examinations and determining mental competence of two major groups of referrals: Individuals who are involved in a legal problem related to civil law and individuals who are involved in criminal responsibility and/or forbearance of punishment such as offenders and prisoners. One of the worries of the Iran jurisdiction system is the absence of a secure mental hospital devoted to the irresponsible mentally ill criminals. In fact, there is no forensic inpatient unit available in the country. PMID:24644492

Saberi, Seyed Mehdi; Mirsepassi, Gholam Reza

2013-01-01

410

Eye Care Following Disasters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The needs of ophthalmologic casualties mirror these general patterns of casualty care following disasters. The number of ophthalmologic casualties, however, may be large. In humans, the eyes account for only 0.1 % of the total body surface area, yet during an explosion as many as 10% of survivors may suffer eye trauma (3). Acute eye injuries during a disaster often

Michael G Weddle

411

Types of Disasters  

MedlinePLUS

... and there are manmade disasters, such as the oil spill that affected the Gulf Coast of the United States in 2010. Nature, including the weather, can cause big problems, such ... can cause disasters, like when the oil spilled into the Gulf of Mexico, or when ...

412

High-Tech Disasters  

Microsoft Academic Search

By the time this issue comes out, every reader will be familiar with the devastation inflicted by Hurricane Katrina on the Gulf Coast of the United States. Even though the victims' pain and suffering are certainly no worse than that borne by victims of any natural or man-made disaster, this particular disaster is notable for two reasons. First, seldom has

Warren Harrison

2005-01-01

413

Epidemics after Natural Disasters  

PubMed Central

The relationship between natural disasters and communicable diseases is frequently misconstrued. The risk for outbreaks is often presumed to be very high in the chaos that follows natural disasters, a fear likely derived from a perceived association between dead bodies and epidemics. However, the risk factors for outbreaks after disasters are associated primarily with population displacement. The availability of safe water and sanitation facilities, the degree of crowding, the underlying health status of the population, and the availability of healthcare services all interact within the context of the local disease ecology to influence the risk for communicable diseases and death in the affected population. We outline the risk factors for outbreaks after a disaster, review the communicable diseases likely to be important, and establish priorities to address communicable diseases in disaster settings. PMID:17370508

Gayer, Michelle; Connolly, Maire A.

2007-01-01

414

National Science Foundation: Disasters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fine website from the National Science Foundation (NSF) addresses its subject thusly: "Whether caused by acts of nature, human errors or even malevolence, disasters are an increasingly costly threat." Released as part of their "Special Reports" series, this interactive site profiles the latest in disaster research from the NSF and the "Critical Role of Research". First-time visitors will want to start by clicking on the "Understanding Disasters" area. Here they can learn about the NSF's work on observing, modeling, identifying, studying, and analyzing various disasters. Each subarea here includes Flash videos, charts, and images which help give some visual armature to each topic. Moving on, the "NSF and 9/11" area features work done through NSF in and around Lower Manhattan and the Pentagon in the aftermath of those tragic events. The site is rounded out by the "Disaster News" area, which features profiles of their work related to California wildfires, major thunderstorms, and levee destruction.

415

Handbook of Forensic Sciences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Curious about the procedures used in documenting a crime scene and gathering evidence? Look no further than the official handbook of the FBI Laboratory, "one of the largest and most comprehensive forensic laboratories in the world." The full text of the handbook may be read online in HTML format, divided by chapter. Topics discussed include guidelines for conducting a crime scene search, crime scene safety, guidelines for various types of evidence, and how to pack and ship evidence, among others. Also included at the site are links to the full text of the journal, Forensic Science Communications and to the official sites of the FBI Lab and Library.

1999-01-01

416

Handbook of Forensic Services  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Curious about the procedures used in documenting a crime scene and gathering evidence? Look no further than the official handbook of the FBI Laboratory, "one of the largest and most comprehensive forensic laboratories in the world." The full text of the handbook may be read online in HTML format, divided by chapter. Topics discussed include guidelines for conducting a crime scene search, crime scene safety, guidelines for various types of evidence, and how to pack and ship evidence, among others. Also included at the site are links to the full text of the journal, Forensic Science Communications and to the official sites of the FBI Lab and Library.

2005-11-01

417

Forensic Science Center  

SciTech Connect

Since 1991, the Laboratory's Forensic Science Center has focused a comprehensive range of analytical expertise on issues related to non proliferation, counterterrorism, and domestic law enforcement. During this short period, LLNL's singular combination of human and technological resources has made the Center among the best of its kind in the world. The Forensic Science Center houses a variety of state-of-the-art analytical tools ranging from gas chromatograph/mass spectrometers to ultratrace DNA detection techniques. The Center's multidisciplinary staff provides expertise in organic and inorganic analytical chemistry, nuclear science, biochemistry, and genetics useful for supporting law enforcement and for verifying compliance with international treaties and agreements.

Andresen, B.; Grant, P.M.

1994-03-01

418

Regional Computer Forensic Laboratory Program, Fiscal Year 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the Fiscal Year 2009 publication of the RCFL National Program. Digital forensics is the application of science and engineering to the recovery of digital evidence in a legally acceptable method. Examiners use digital investigation and analysis tec...

2009-01-01

419

Regional Computer Forensic Laboratory Program, Fiscal Year 2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the Fiscal Year 2005 publication of the RCFL National Program. Digital forensics is the application of science and engineering to the recovery of digital evidence in a legally acceptable method. Examiners use digital investigation and analysis tec...

2005-01-01

420

Regional Computer Forensic Laboratory Program, Fiscal Year 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the Fiscal Year 2006 publication of the RCFL National Program. Digital forensics is the application of science and engineering to the recovery of digital evidence in a legally acceptable method. Examiners use digital investigation and analysis tec...

2006-01-01

421

Regional Computer Forensic Laboratory Program, Fiscal Year 2008.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the Fiscal Year 2008 publication of the RCFL National Program. Digital forensics is the application of science and engineering to the recovery of digital evidence in a legally acceptable method. Examiners use digital investigation and analysis tec...

2008-01-01

422

Regional Computer Forensic Laboratory Program, Fiscal Year 2007.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the Fiscal Year 2007 publication of the RCFL National Program. Digital forensics is the application of science and engineering to the recovery of digital evidence in a legally acceptable method. Examiners use digital investigation and analysis tec...

2007-01-01

423

Regional Computer Forensic Laboratory Program, Fiscal Year 2003.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Digital forensics is the application of science and engineering to the recovery of digital evidence in a legally acceptable method. Examiners use digital investigation and analysis techniques to determine potential legal evidence by applying their skills ...

2003-01-01

424

Regional Computer Forensic Laboratory Program, Fiscal Year 2004.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the Fiscal Year 2004 publication of the RCFL National Program. Digital forensics is the application of science and engineering to the recovery of digital evidence in a legally acceptable method. Examiners use digital investigation and analysis tec...

2004-01-01

425

Laser mass spectrometry for DNA fingerprinting for forensic applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The application of DNA fingerprinting has become very broad in forensic analysis, patient identification, diagnostic medicine, and wildlife poaching, since every individual's DNA structure is identical within all tissues of their body. DNA fingerprinting ...

C. H. Chen, K. Tang, N. I. Taranenko, S. L. Allman, L. Y. Chang

1994-01-01

426

Developmental Integrative BiologyForensic Science A complement of specialized resources, equipment, and talent guides forensic  

E-print Network

, chemistry, biochemistry, forensic microscopy, and anthropology Advanced laboratory technologies offer high, Director of the UNT Forensic Science Program; and Professor of Chemistry: analytical chemistry; and electroanalytical chemistry Richard Ernest, Director of the Alliance Forensics Laboratory: forensic microscopy

Tarau, Paul

427

Forensic DNA databases in Western Balkan region: retrospectives, perspectives, and initiatives  

PubMed Central

The European Network of Forensic Science Institutes (ENFSI) recommended the establishment of forensic DNA databases and specific implementation and management legislations for all EU/ENFSI members. Therefore, forensic institutions from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, and Macedonia launched a wide set of activities to support these recommendations. To assess the current state, a regional expert team completed detailed screening and investigation of the existing forensic DNA data repositories and associated legislation in these countries. The scope also included relevant concurrent projects and a wide spectrum of different activities in relation to forensics DNA use. The state of forensic DNA analysis was also determined in the neighboring Slovenia and Croatia, which already have functional national DNA databases. There is a need for a ‘regional supplement’ to the current documentation and standards pertaining to forensic application of DNA databases, which should include regional-specific preliminary aims and recommendations. PMID:21674821

Marjanovic, Damir; Konjhodzic, Rijad; Butorac, Sara Sanela; Drobnic, Katja; Merkas, Sinisa; Lauc, Gordan; Primorac, Damir; An?elinovic, Simun; Milosavljevic, Mladen; Karan, Zeljko; Vidovic, Stojko; Stojkovic, Oliver; Panic, Bojana; Vucetic Dragovic, An?elka; Kovacevic, Sandra; Jakovski, Zlatko; Asplen, Chris; Primorac, Dragan

2011-01-01

428

Palatal rugae and their role in forensic odontology.  

PubMed

Establishing a person's identity can be a difficult task in cases of traffic accidents or in mass disaster situations. The records collected to identify a decedent should be accurate and totally inclusive of objective findings. When a victim has no teeth, information for use in personal identification based on methods available in forensic odontology is much more limited than in the case of dentate victims. Palatal rugae have been considered relevant for human identification due to its stability, which is equivalent to the fingerprint, in that it is unique for each ruga pattern. Palatal rugae appear to possess the features of an ideal forensic identification parameter, that is, uniqueness, postmortem resistance, and stability. The purpose of this article was to review the literature, in order to determine if there is enough evidence to establish the use of palatal rugae in dental identification. PMID:23371877

Jain, Anoop; Chowdhary, Ramesh

2014-08-01

429

Integrating Remote Sensing Data with Directional Two-Dimensional Wavelet Analysis and Open Geospatial Techniques for Efficient Disaster Monitoring and Management  

PubMed Central

In Taiwan, earthquakes have long been recognized as a major cause of landslides that are wide spread by floods brought by typhoons followed. Distinguishing between landslide spatial patterns in different disturbance regimes is fundamental for disaster monitoring, management, and land-cover restoration. To circumscribe landslides, this study adopts the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), which can be determined by simply applying mathematical operations of near-infrared and visible-red spectral data immediately after remotely sensed data is acquired. In real-time disaster monitoring, the NDVI is more effective than using land-cover classifications generated from remotely sensed data as land-cover classification tasks are extremely time consuming. Directional two-dimensional (2D) wavelet analysis has an advantage over traditional spectrum analysis in that it determines localized variations along a specific direction when identifying dominant modes of change, and where those modes are located in multi-temporal remotely sensed images. Open geospatial techniques comprise a series of solutions developed based on Open Geospatial Consortium specifications that can be applied to encode data for interoperability and develop an open geospatial service for sharing data. This study presents a novel approach and framework that uses directional 2D wavelet analysis of real-time NDVI images to effectively identify landslide patterns and share resulting patterns via open geospatial techniques. As a case study, this study analyzed NDVI images derived from SPOT HRV images before and after the ChiChi earthquake (7.3 on the Richter scale) that hit the Chenyulan basin in Taiwan, as well as images after two large typhoons (xangsane and Toraji) to delineate the spatial patterns of landslides caused by major disturbances. Disturbed spatial patterns of landslides that followed these events were successfully delineated using 2D wavelet analysis, and results of pattern recognitions of landslides were distributed simultaneously to other agents using geography markup language. Real-time information allows successive platforms (agents; to work with local geospatial data for disaster management. Furthermore, the proposed is suitable for detecting landslides in various regions on continental, regional, and local scales using remotely sensed data in various resolutions derived from SPOT HRV, IKONOS, and QuickBird multispectral images.

Lin, Yun-Bin; Lin, Yu-Pin; Deng, Dong-Po; Chen, Kuan-Wei

2008-01-01

430

Transmission genetics of pancreatic acinar atrophy in the German Shepherd Dog and development of microsatellite DNA-based tools for canine forensics and linkage analysis  

E-print Network

analyses in the study of canine hereditary diseases. This was achieved through the development of 1) multiplexing strategies for the MSS-1, 2) a multiplex of microsatellite markers for use in canine forensics and parentage assays and 3) chromosome...

Clark, Leigh Anne

2004-09-30

431

Mechanism and strategies for preventing post-traumatic stress disorder in forensic workers responding to mass fatality incidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass fatality incidents (MFIs) expose medical examiners\\/coroners and associated staff to circumstances that may increase their risk for developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The aim of this paper is to provide guidance for efforts to prevent the development of PTSD in forensic teams who respond to mass disasters. We present a model of the paths through which exposure to mass

Elizabeth Brondolo; Robin Wellington; Nisha Brady; Daniel Libby; Thomas J. Brondolo

2008-01-01

432

Virtual Tour of a Forensic Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual tour of a forensic laboratory has three floors. Each floor has a number of rooms devoted to a particular forensic specialty. Each room has a slide show of forensic scientists performing their work. All rooms have a video explanation detailing the forensic specialty being visited. Some rooms also have videos of forensic scientists demonstrating analytical techniques.

2012-09-28

433

COE589: Digital Forensics Overview and Logistics  

E-print Network

­ solve crimes ­ dealing with weapons, blood, fingerprints, · Digital Forensics: Forensics in the digitalCOE589: Digital Forensics Overview and Logistics Dr. Ahmad Almulhem KFUPM - Fall 2012 (T121) 1COE589 - Ahmad Almulhem #12;Digital Forensics · Forensic Science: Applying science for the purpose of law

Almulhem, Ahmad

434

COE589: Digital Forensics Overview and Logistics  

E-print Network

­ solve crimes ­ dealing with weapons, blood, fingerprints, · Digital Forensics: Forensics in the digitalCOE589: Digital Forensics Overview and Logistics Dr. Ahmad Almulhem KFUPM ­ Spring 2013 (T122) 1COE589 - Ahmad Almulhem #12;Digital Forensics · Forensic Science: Applying science for the purpose of law

Almulhem, Ahmad

435

Changing Concepts in Forensics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses five theoretical concepts in general and two theoretical models in particular that are involved in forensics. The five concepts are: (1) causation, an inquiry into the reasons for ongoing processes or problems; (2) inherency, the division of a universe into its necessary features and its accidental features; (3) presumption, a…

Zarefsky, David

436

Introduction to Forensic Anthropology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The academic roots of modern forensic anthropology can be traced back to contributions of Europeans, beginning in the 18th\\u000a century. In particular, Jean-Joseph Sue, Matthieu-Joseph-Bonaventure Orfila, Paul Broca, Paul Topinard, étienne Rollet, Leonce\\u000a Manouvrier, and Karl Pearson published research on the methodology of stature estimation and related topics.

Douglas H. Ubelaker

437

Forensic speaker recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Looking at the different points highlighted in this article, we affirm that forensic applications of speaker recognition should still be taken under a necessary need for caution. Disseminating this message remains one of the most important responsibilities of speaker recognition researchers.

Joseph P. Campbell; Wade Shen; William M. Campbell; Reva Schwartz; Jean-François Bonastre; Driss Matrouf

2009-01-01

438

Issues in Computer Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Computer forensics is a new and fast growing field that involves carefully collecting and examining electronic evidence that not only assesses the damage,to a computer as a result of an electronic attack, but also to recover lost information from such a system to prosecute a criminal. With the growing importance of computer security today and the seriousness of cyber

Sonia Bui

439

Beliefs About Forensic Hypnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The beliefs people hold about hypnosis have an impact on the behavior of a witness who is hypnotized and on juries who hear these witnesses and weigh hypnotically influenced testimony. Students in Experiment 1 and registered voters from the community in Experiment 2 responded to questions about forensic hypnosis. Over 70% of the students as compared to about 50% of

Leanne Wilson; Edith Greene; Elizabeth F. Loftus

1986-01-01

440

Forensic medicine in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

In this paper, we discuss the current medico-legal practice and future plan to improve the medico-legal service of Bangladesh which is rooted in the remnants of British medical jurisprudence. It includes clinical forensic medicine and forensic pathology. In Bangladesh all unnatural deaths are to be reported at the nearest police station and an appointed police officer should visit the scene of crime for investigation and to arrange postmortem if required. The forensic services of the country are delivered partly by academic staffs of Government Medical Colleges and the rest by the Civil Surgeons. Sometimes, residential medical officers in the district hospitals perform the medico-legal work. Most of them have no forensic qualifications except a long exposure in the medico-legal field. Currently academic and professional postgraduate courses are available. The chemical examiner's laboratory is situated at Dhaka with the facility of quantitative tests only. The Government of Bangladesh is trying to standardize the existing system. A Workshop on medico-legal services has been organized regularly by The Medico-legal Society of Bangladesh. A DNA profiling laboratory at the Dhaka Medical College is in the process of being set up. Such progress will be a milestone in the development of the medico-legal service in Bangladesh. However, with a few exceptions, teaching and training facilities are still lacking. PMID:12935633

Islam, Muhammad Nurul; Islam, Mohammed Nasimul

2003-03-01

441

Manual of Forensic Odontology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Edited by C Michael Bowers and Gary L Belt. American Society of Forensic Odontology, Colorado Springs, third edition, 1996; 376 pp. soft cover; US$79.00 plus US$6.00 for handling direct from PO Box 669, Colorado Springs CO 80901-0669; ISBN 0 9650223 4 X.

Christopher Griffiths

1997-01-01

442

Current status of the use of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in forensic practices.  

PubMed

Forensic geneticists often use short tandem repeats (STRs) to solve cases. However, STRs can be insufficient when DNA samples are degraded due to environmental exposure and mass disasters, alleged and real relatives are genetically related in paternity or kinship analyses, or a suspect is lacking. In such cases, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can provide valuable information and thus should be seriously considered as a tool to help resolve challenging cases. In this review, the current status of SNP analyses in forensic applications and the comparative advantages and disadvantages of SNPs with other biomarkers are discussed. PMID:24754266

Canturk, Kemal Murat; Emre, Ramazan; K?noglu, Kubilay; Ba?p?nar, Bünyamin; Sahin, Feyzi; Ozen, Mustafa

2014-07-01

443

Forensic or archaeological issue: is chemical analysis of dental restorations helpful in assessing time since death and identification of skeletonized human remains?  

PubMed

In 2011, small mass grave with completely skeletonized remains was discovered in Belgrade suburb. An eyewitness claimed that skeletons belonged to German soldiers killed in WWII. Anthropologists were engaged to investigate whether the skeletal remains correspond to the indicated German group or represent more recent case requiring court trial. Numerous dental restorations were noticed. Owing to the fact that different dental materials were used in dental practice at certain times, the aim of this study was to explore whether analysis of dental restorations could help in identification and estimation of time since death. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry revealed that dental fillings corresponded to copper amalgam, conventional silver amalgam, silicophosphate cement, and zinc phosphate cement. Chemical results combined with anthropological and historical facts suggest that the individuals lived before the 1960s in country with well-developed dental service at that time. Therefore, chemical analysis of dental fillings was useful to distinguish between skeletal remains that are too old to be of forensic interest and the remains relevant to legal investigations. PMID:23866008

Zelic, Ksenija; Djonic, Danijela; Neskovic, Olivera; Stoiljkovic, Milovan; Nikolic, Slobodan; Zivkovic, Vladimir; Djuric, Marija

2013-09-01

444

Role of forensic odontologist in post mortem person identification  

PubMed Central

The natural teeth are the most durable organs in the bodies of vertebrates, and humankind's understanding of their own past and evolution relies heavily upon remnant dental evidence found as fossils. The use of features unique to the human dentition as an aid to personal identification is widely accepted within the forensic field. Comparative dental identifications play a major role in identifying the victims of violence, disaster or other mass tragedies. The comparison of ante-mortem and postmortem dental records to determine human identity has long been established. Indeed, it is still a major identification method in criminal investigations, mass disasters, grossly decomposed or traumatized bodies, and in other situations where visual identification is neither possible nor desirable. This article has comprehensively described some of the methods, and additional factors aiding in postmortem person identification. PMID:23559914

Pramod, Jahagirdar B.; Marya, Anand; Sharma, Vidhii

2012-01-01

445

Role of forensic odontologist in post mortem person identification.  

PubMed

The natural teeth are the most durable organs in the bodies of vertebrates, and humankind's understanding of their own past and evolution relies heavily upon remnant dental evidence found as fossils. The use of features unique to the human dentition as an aid to personal identification is widely accepted within the forensic field. Comparative dental identifications play a major role in identifying the victims of violence, disaster or other mass tragedies. The comparison of ante-mortem and postmortem dental records to determine human identity has long been established. Indeed, it is still a major identification method in criminal investigations, mass disasters, grossly decomposed or traumatized bodies, and in other situations where visual identification is neither possible nor desirable. This article has comprehensively described some of the methods, and additional factors aiding in postmortem person identification. PMID:23559914

Pramod, Jahagirdar B; Marya, Anand; Sharma, Vidhii

2012-09-01

446

The Role of Personal Social Networks in Risk Assessment and Management of Forensic Psychiatric Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social network factors are usually not accounted for in the clinical practice of risk assessment\\/management.This article introduces a social network analysis as an instrument to systematically chart the relationships and personal networks of forensic psychiatric patients. During the period 2005 to 2007, the so-called Forensic Social Network Analysis (FSNA) was developed in a Dutch forensic psychiatric hospital. A case study

Lydia Pomp; Marinus Spreen; Stefan Bogaerts; Beate Völker

2010-01-01

447

Distinguishing between forensic science and forensic pseudoscience: testing of validity and reliability, and approaches to forensic voice comparison.  

PubMed

In this paper it is argued that one should not attempt to directly assess whether a forensic analysis technique is scientifically acceptable. Rather one should first specify what one considers to be appropriate principles governing acceptable practice, then consider any particular approach in light of those principles. This paper focuses on one principle: the validity and reliability of an approach should be empirically tested under conditions reflecting those of the case under investigation using test data drawn from the relevant population. Versions of this principle have been key elements in several reports on forensic science, including forensic voice comparison, published over the last four-and-a-half decades. The aural-spectrographic approach to forensic voice comparison (also known as "voiceprint" or "voicegram" examination) and the currently widely practiced auditory-acoustic-phonetic approach are considered in light of this principle (these two approaches do not appear to be mutually exclusive). Approaches based on data, quantitative measurements, and statistical models are also considered in light of this principle. PMID:24796954

Morrison, Geoffrey Stewart

2014-05-01

448

Analysis of flood disaster characteristics by using GIS: a case study at the Kujukuri Plain in Chiba Prefecture, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subsidence has occurred at many areas in Japan. The Kujukuri Plain, Chiba Prefecture, Japan, is one of the heavy subsidence areas caused by ground deformation from paleo-earthquakes, plate tectonics and human-induced subsidence by groundwater use. The maximum value of accumulated subsidence is 106.8 cm at the Mobara City during the period from 1969 to 2011. The impact of land subsidence on surface environment has been concerned; one of its effects may include the increase of the risk of flood. In the Kujukuri area, flood disaster has occurred repeatedly in the past. In this study, we analyzed and compared the flood disaster of different period that occurred at 1 July 1970, 8 to 11 October 2004, and 16 October 2013 by using GIS to understand the temporal change of the flood characteristics of the region. Three periods were selected because 1970 is after huge land modification, 2004 is prior to the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake, and 2013 is after the earthquake of 2011. Data used are 1-meter resolution airborne laser scanning data, Landsat-data, and precipitation data. Local topographic depressions were represented from the difference between the raster images that filled the sinks from original raster image using 1-m DEM. Slope angles along the road were calculated by using road data of digital map 2500 (Geospatial information authority of Japan: GSI) and 1-m DEM. Land use maps were produced by Landsat-1 MSS (26 November 1972) and Landsat-5 TM (1 April 2004 and 5 April 2011) and aerial photograph. Impervious ratio distribution map was made by defining the impervious area where covered by asphalt such as roads and buildings. The results showed that the distribution of depressions was mostly unchanged from 1970 to 2004, however, changed slightly in 2013. This change could be affected by ground deformation after earthquake or small human activities such as surface improvement. Flood disaster area is recognized in the depth of depression of more than 20cm with the road gradient of ca. 1 % or less at Mobara City. In some areas, flooding is also occurred in the depressions of ca. 5 to 10 cm. Land use change, impervious area, and other data will be analyzed and compared with flood record map to investigate flood¬-prone area.

Ito, Yuka; Chen, Huali; Sawamukai, Marie; Tokunaga, Tomochika

2014-05-01

449

Coping with Disaster  

MedlinePLUS

... incurred during recovery to return the family to pre-disaster life and living conditions. Vulnerabilities in Children ... event. Birth through 2 years. When children are pre-verbal and experience a trauma, they do not ...

450

Disaster Recovery Assistance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As one might imagine, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)'s Disaster Recovery Assistance office works closely with other federal agencies, such as the Small Business Administration and the Federal Emergency Management Agency. On their homepage, visitors can learn about their programs in various states, or they may wish to start by viewing some of their latest press releases. The site contains a great deal of specific information on their work rebuilding New Orleans through the Disaster Housing Assistance Program and the Disaster Vouching Program. Users of the site will also be glad to learn that many of the materials are available in Spanish. The site is rounded out by a section on their work addressing disasters in Southern California.

451

Odontological identification of the victims of flight AI.IT 5148 air disaster Lyon-Strasbourg 20.01.1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report on the contribution of odontological identification of the flight ALIT 5148 air disaster victims, which occurred on 20th January 1992. The identification procedure was difficult due to large numbers of bodies and mutilations and required the involvement of multidisciplinary teams composed of odontologists, forensic pathologists, radiologists and biologists. The authors set up a simple, discriminant classification which

J. M. Hutt; B. Ludes; B. Kaess; A. Tracqui; F. Levy; P. Mangin; C. Kaempf; P. Kintz; H. Pfitzinger; F. Friederich; R. Haag; M. Disteldorf; B. Memheld; M. Evenot; R. Julien

1995-01-01

452

Trace elemental analysis of titanium dioxide pigments and automotive white paint fragments for forensic examination using high-energy synchrotron radiation x-ray fluorescence spectrometry.  

PubMed

High-energy synchrotron radiation x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SR-XRF) utilizing 116 keV x-rays was used to characterize titanium dioxide pigments (rutile) and automotive white paint fragments for forensic examination. The technique allowed analysis of K lines of 9 trace elements in 18 titanium dioxide pigments (rutile), and 10 trace elements in finish coat layers of seven automotive white paint fragments. High-field strength elements (HFSE) were found to strongly reflect the origin of the titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) pigments, and could be used as effective parameters for discrimination and classification of the pigments and paint fragments. A pairwise comparison of the finish coat layers of seven automotive white paint fragments was performed. The trace elements in the finish coat layers detected by the high-energy SR-XRF were especially effective for identification. By introducing the trace element information of primer and electrocoat layers, all the automotive white paint fragments could be discriminated by this technique. PMID:19302400

Nishiwaki, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Seiya; Shimoda, Osamu; Saito, Yasuhiro; Nakanishi, Toshio; Terada, Yasuko; Ninomiya, Toshio; Nakai, Izumi

2009-05-01

453

Laboratory guidelines and standards in clinical and forensic toxicology  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview is given of the existing standards and guidelines for analytical toxicology. Details about guidelines concerning\\u000a forensic toxicology, clinical toxicology, point-of-care testing, and an area of overlap are provided. Guidelines and standards\\u000a exist for forensic toxicological analysis</