Science.gov

Sample records for forensic disaster analysis

  1. Real-time Forensic Disaster Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenzel, F.; Daniell, J.; Khazai, B.; Mühr, B.; Kunz-Plapp, T.; Markus, M.; Vervaeck, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM, www.cedim.de) - an interdisciplinary research center founded by the German Research Centre for Geoscience (GFZ) and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) - has embarked on a new style of disaster research known as Forensic Disaster Analysis. The notion has been coined by the Integrated Research on Disaster Risk initiative (IRDR, www.irdrinternational.org) launched by ICSU in 2010. It has been defined as an approach to studying natural disasters that aims at uncovering the root causes of disasters through in-depth investigations that go beyond the reconnaissance reports and case studies typically conducted after disasters. In adopting this comprehensive understanding of disasters CEDIM adds a real-time component to the assessment and evaluation process. By comprehensive we mean that most if not all relevant aspects of disasters are considered and jointly analysed. This includes the impact (human, economy, and infrastructure), comparisons with recent historic events, social vulnerability, reconstruction and long-term impacts on livelihood issues. The forensic disaster analysis research mode is thus best characterized as "event-based research" through systematic investigation of critical issues arising after a disaster across various inter-related areas. The forensic approach requires (a) availability of global data bases regarding previous earthquake losses, socio-economic parameters, building stock information, etc.; (b) leveraging platforms such as the EERI clearing house, relief-web, and the many sources of local and international sources where information is organized; and (c) rapid access to critical information (e.g., crowd sourcing techniques) to improve our understanding of the complex dynamics of disasters. The main scientific questions being addressed are: What are critical factors that control loss of life, of infrastructure, and for economy? What are the critical interactions between hazard - socio-economic systems - technological systems? What were the protective measures and to what extent did they work? Can we predict pattern of losses and socio-economic implications for future extreme events from simple parameters: hazard parameters, historic evidence, socio-economic conditions? Can we predict implications for reconstruction from simple parameters: hazard parameters, historic evidence, socio-economic conditions? The M7.2 Van Earthquake (Eastern Turkey) of 23 Oct. 2011 serves as an example for a forensic approach.

  2. Forensic Disaster Analysis in Near-real Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunz, Michael; Zschau, Jochen; Wenzel, Friedemann; Khazai, Bijan; Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Trieselmann, Werner

    2014-05-01

    The impacts of extreme hydro-meteorological and geophysical events are controlled by various factors including severity of the event (intensity, duration, spatial extent), amplification with other phenomena (multihazard or cascading effects), interdependencies of technical systems and infrastructure, preparedness and resilience of the society. The Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM) has adopted the comprehensive understanding of disasters and develops methodologies of near real-time FDA as a complementing component of the FORIN program of IRDR. The new research strategy 'Near Real-Time Forensic Disaster Analysis (FDA)' aims at scrutinizing disasters closely with a multi-disciplinary approach in order to assess the various aspects of disasters and to identify mechanisms most relevant for an extreme event to become a disaster (e.g., causal loss analysis). Recent technology developments - which have opened unprecedented opportunities for real-time hazard, vulnerability and loss assessment - are used for analyzing disasters and their impacts in combination with databases of historical events. The former covers modern empirical and analytical methods available in engineering and remote sensing for rapid impact assessments, rapid information extraction from crowd sourcing as well as rapid assessments of socio-economic impacts and economic losses. The event-driven science-based assessments of CEDIM are compiled based on interdisciplinary expertise and include the critical evaluation, assessment, validation, and quantification of an event. An important component of CEDIM's FDA is the near real-time approach which is expected to significantly speed up our understanding of natural disasters and be used to provide timely, relevant and valuable information to various user groups within their respective contexts. Currently, CEDIM has developed models and methodologies to assess different types of hazard. These approaches were applied to several disasters including, for example, Super Typhoon Haiyan/Yolanda (Nov. 2013), Central European Floods (June 2013), Hurricane Sandy (Oct. 2012), US Droughts (Summer 2012), or Typhoon Saola in Taiwan and Philippines (July 2012).

  3. Social Media in Crisis Management and Forensic Disaster Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittrich, André; Lucas, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Today, modern sensors or sensor networks provide good quality measurements for the observation of large-scale emergencies as a result of natural disasters. Mostly however, only at certain points in their respective locations and for a very limited number of measurement parameters (e.g. seismograph) and not over the entire course of a disaster event. The proliferation of different social media application (e.g. Twitter, Facebook, Google+, etc.), yields the possibility to use the resulting data as a free and fast supplement or complement to traditional monitoring techniques. In particular, these new channels can serve for rapid detection, for information gathering for emergency protection and for information dissemination. Thus, each user of these networks represents a so-called virtual sensor ('social sensor'), whose eyewitness account can be important for understanding the situation on the ground. The advantages of these social sensors are the high mobility, the versatility of the parameters that can be captured (text, images, videos, etc.) as well as the rapid spread of information. Due to the subjective characteristics however, the data often show different quality and quantity. Against this background, it is essential for an application in crisis management to reasonably (pre-)process the data from social media. Hence, fully-automated processes are used which adequately filter and structure the enormous amount of information and associate it with an event, respectively, a geographic location. This is done through statistical monitoring of the volume of messages (Twitter) in different geographic regions of the world. In combination with a frequency analysis with respect to disaster-relevant terms (in 43 languages), thematic as well as spatio-temporal clustering, an initial assessment regarding the severity and extent of the detected event, its classification and (spatio-temporal) localization can be achieved. This detection in real time (2-5 minutes) thus allows gathering first responder reports or eyewitness reports, which can provide important information for a first situation analysis for the various officials and volunteers, especially in case of large-scale emergencies. Eventually, this can be used in combination with conventional sensors and information sources to conduct a detailed forensic disaster analysis of an event.

  4. Web-based Weather and Climate Information Service of Forensic Disaster Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mühr, Bernhard; Kunz, Michael; Köbele, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Extreme meteorological events not only trigger natural disasters, they also control the impact of various catastrophes. Especially for cascading effects or in case of multihazards, for example when an earthquake occurs in conjunction with a cold wave, the actual weather situation might substantially boost the impact. Thus, reliable information on extreme meteorological events and the general weather condition during disasters is an important component of Forensic Disaster Analyses. The Web Service 'Wettergefahren-Frühwarnung' (early warning of weather hazards) provides information on imminent or just occurring unusual or extreme weather events worldwide. Of particular interest are events with a high impact and massive damage that occur around the globe, but with a special focus on Germany and Europe. The Service started on 1 February 2004 with an operational routine. During the last 10 years, 'Wettergefahren-Frühwarnun' examined and assessed more than 800 unusual or extreme weather events that occurred all over the world. Permanent availability, daily updated information, editorially enhanced reports on extreme or unusual weather events enriched by images and measured values, are the hallmarks of the internet project. All warnings, special notes, detailed and high-quality reports can be found in an ever-growing archive. In addition to daily monitoring and assessment of global weather events, 'Wettergefahren-Frühwarnung' also creates its own special maps and images. In recent years, increasingly complex codes have been developed that now produce many hundreds of weather charts for the entire world every 6 hours. Allegedly threatened areas or cities can be identified immediately. The maps give information about rainfall, temperature deviations, convection indices, wind, snow accumulation and much more. Additionally, for some 2800 cities worldwide, daily point forecasts are calculated and the predicted weather parameters are clearly arranged in tables for Germany, Europe, and the other continents. In 2007, 'Wettergefahren-Frühwarnung' became part of CEDIM and contributed to the activity of near-real time Forensic Disaster Analysis ahead, during and after a major event. Information is provided as text, own weather charts or data.

  5. Near-real-time Forensic Disaster Analysis: experiences from hurricane Sandy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunz, Michael; Mühr, Bernhard; Schröter, Kai; Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Daniell, James; Khazai, Bijan; Wenzel, Friedemann; Vannieuwenhuyse, Marjorie; Comes, Tina; Münzberg, Thomas; Elmer, Florian; Fohringer, Joachim; Lucas, Christian; Trieselmann, Werner; Zschau, Jochen

    2013-04-01

    Hurricane Sandy was the last tropical cyclone of the 2012 Northern Atlantic Hurricane season that made landfall. It moved on an unusual track from the Caribbean to the East Coast of the United States from 24 to 30 October as a Category 1 and 2 Hurricane according to the Saffir-Simpson Scale. Along its path, the severe storm event caused widespread damage including almost 200 fatalities. In the early hours of 30 October, Sandy made landfall near Atlantic City, N.J. Sandy was an extraordinary event due to its multihazard nature and several cascading effects in the aftermath. From the hydro-meteorological perspective, most unusual was the very large spatial extent of up to 1,700 km. High wind speeds were associated with record breaking storm surges at the U.S. Mid- Atlantic and New England Coast during high (astronomical) tide, leading to widespread flooding. Though Sandy was not the most severe storm event in terms of wind speed and precipitation, the impact in the U.S. was enormous with total damage estimates of up to 90 billion US (own estimate from Dec. 2012). Although much better data emerge weeks after such an event, the Forensic Disaster Analysis (FDA) Task Force of the Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM) made an effort to obtain a comprehensive and holistic overview of the causes, hazardous effects and consequences associated with Sandy immediately after landfall at the U.S. coast on 30 October 2012. This was done in an interdisciplinary way by collecting and compiling scattered and distributed information from available databases and sources via the Internet, by applying own methodologies and models for near-real time analyses developed in recent years, and by expert knowledge. This contribution gives an overview about the CEDIM-FDA analyses' results. It describes the situation that led to the extraordinary event, highlights the interaction of the tropical cyclone with other hydro-meteorological events, and examines the impacts such as social and economic losses including cascading effects, for example, due to power outages. It is examined how Sandy compares to historic hurricane events in the U.S., both from the hydro-meteorological and impact perspective. Direct and indirect losses are estimated by comparison with past events and with the help of an economic loss model that describes the interdependencies between various economic sectors (input-output approach) combined with an assessment of the industrial vulnerability against indirect damages.

  6. Near real time Forensic Disaster Analysis of the central European flood in June 2013 in Germany: Impact and management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazai, Bijan; Bessel, Tina; Möhrle, Stella; Dittrich, André; Schröter, Kai; Mühr, Bernhard; Elmer, Florian; Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Trieselmann, Werner; Kunz, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Within its current research activity on near real time Forensic Disaster Analysis (FDA), researchers from the Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM) aim to identify major risk drivers and to understand the root causes of disaster and infer the implications for disaster mitigation. A key component of this activity is the development of rapid assessment tools which allow for a science based estimate of disaster impacts. The central European flood in June 2013 caused in Germany severe damage to buildings, infrastructure and agricultural lands and has had a great impact on people, transportation and the economy. In many areas thousands of people were evacuated. Electrical grid and local water supply utilities failed during the floods. Furthermore, traffic was disrupted in the interregional transportation network including federal highways and long distance railways. CEDIM analysed the impact and management of the flood event within an FDA activity. An analysis on the amount and spatial distribution of flood-related Twitter messages in Germany revealed a high interest in the flood in the social media. Furthermore, an analysis of the resilience of selected affected areas in Germany has been carried out to assess the impact of the flood on the district level. The resilience indicator is based on social, economic and institutional indicators which are supplemented with information on the number of people evacuated and transportation disruptions. Combined with the magnitude of the event, an index is calculated that allows for a rapid initial but preliminary estimate of the flood impact. Results show high resilience of the administrative districts along the Danube while heavy impacts are seen along the Mulde and Elbe.

  7. The near real time Forensic Disaster Analysis of the central European flood in June 2013 - A graphical representation of the main results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröter, Kai; Elmer, Florian; Trieselmann, Werner; Kreibich, Heidi; Kunz, Michael; Khazai, Bijan; Dransch, Doris; Wenzel, Friedemann; Zschau, Jochen; Merz, Bruno; Mühr, Bernhard; Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Möhrle, Stella; Bessel, Tina; Fohringer, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    The Central European flood of June 2013 is one of the most severe flood events that have occurred in Central Europe in the past decades. All major German river basins were affected (Rhine, Danube, and Elbe as well as the smaller Weser catchment).In terms of spatial extent and event magnitude, it was the most severe event at least since 1950. Within the current research focus on near real time forensic disaster analysis, the Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM) assessed and analysed the multiple facets of the flood event from the beginning. The aim is to describe the on-going event, analyse the event sources, link the physical characteristics to the impact and consequences of the event and to understand the root causes that turn the physical event into a disaster (or prevent it from becoming disastrous). For the near real time component of this research, tools for rapid assessment and concise presentation of analysis results are essential. This contribution provides a graphical summary of the results of the CEDIM-FDA analyses on the June 2013 flood. It demonstrates the potential of visual representations for improving the communication and hence usability of findings in a rapid, intelligible and expressive way as a valuable supplement to usual event reporting. It is based on analyses of the hydrometeorological sources, the flood pathways (from satellite imagery, data extraction from social media), the resilience of the affected regions, and causal loss analysis. The prototypical representation of the FDA-results for the June 2013 flood provides an important step in the development of graphical event templates for the visualisation of forensic disaster analyses. These are intended to become a standard component of future CEDIM-FDA event activities.

  8. Forensic Investigation of mass disasters in Nigeria: A review

    PubMed Central

    Obafunwa, John Oladapo; Faduyile, Francis Adedayo; Soyemi, Sunday Sokunle; Eze, Uwom Okereke; Nwana, Edmund J. C.; Odesanmi, William Olufemi

    2015-01-01

    This paper is to establish the present state of things in the country in terms of legal framework and the availability of personnel with a view to presenting an overview of proper mass disaster investigations. This is a retrospective review of mass disasters in Nigeria that occurred within the last 20 years. The study therefore reviews the state of the forensic investigation of the mass disasters as well as the efforts made to identify the victims of the disaster. The process of proper forensic investigation from the stage of evaluation of the scene and recovery process to the final identification of victims are presented to serve as a protocol for the country. The assessment of the present state of preparedness in Nigeria is also examined with a view to improving the practice to international standards. Data were retrieved from official documents from the aviation industry as well as Nigeria news reports. The standard protocols for disaster victim identification were retrieved from the guide released by the INTERPOL. The state of preparedness of the country and recommendations for improvement are presented. The Federal government and the states of the federation should without further delay put in place the process of reviewing the law of Coroner's system and provide the enabling environment for the proper forensic investigation. The training curriculum of the first responders should incorporate mass disaster investigations in order to produce efficient officers and personnel. A functional disaster victim identification (DVI) team is strongly advocated to incorporate different professionals involved in mass disaster management. PMID:25657485

  9. THE ROLE OF FORENSIC DENTIST FOLLOWING MASS DISASTER

    PubMed Central

    Kolude, B.; Adeyemi, B.F.; Taiwo, J.O.; Sigbeku, O.F.; Eze, U.O.

    2010-01-01

    This review article focuses on mass disaster situations that may arise from natural or manmade circumstances and the significant role of forensic dental personnel in human identification following such occurrences. The various forensic dental modalities of identification that include matching techniques, postmortem profiling, genetic fingerprinting, dental fossil assessment and dental biometrics with digital subtraction were considered. The varying extent of use of forensic dental techniques and the resulting positive impact on human identification were considered. The importance of preparation by way of special training for forensic dental personnel, mock disaster rehearsal, and use of modern day technology was stressed. The need for international standardization of identification through the use of Interpol Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) for ms was further emphasized. Recommendations for improved human identification in Nigerian situation include reform of the National Emergency Management Association (NEMA), incorporation of dental care in primary health care to facilitate proper ante mortem database of the populace and commencement of identification at site of disaster. PMID:25161478

  10. Making Forensic Attack Event/forensic Analysis as Simple

    E-print Network

    Peisert, Sean

    science can only answer part of it. · Forensic analysis is an art, but there are scientific componentsMaking Forensic Attack Event/forensic Analysis as Simple as Possible and No Simpler Sean Peisert to focus on non-binary (e.g., post mortem analysis). 5Tuesday, July 22, 2008 #12;What is forensic Analysis

  11. The USS Iowa disaster: success of the forensic dental team.

    PubMed

    Brannon, Robert B; Morlang, William M

    2004-09-01

    The authors record the contributions of dentistry to the identification of the crew members who were in one of the most significant peacetime military accidents in U.S. Navy history-the April 1989 explosion in a gun turret on the battleship USS Iowa and the deaths of 47 U.S. Navy personnel. Dental identification was the primary means of identification for most because a very high percentage of the bodies were burned or fragmented. The dental-identification team's success was a direct result of its preparedness, its use of dental personnel with mass-disaster experience, and the overall excellent quality of the antemortem dental records. The dental-identification team's successful involvement in the USS Iowa tragedy was considered a model for success and therefore was instrumental in contributing to the development of the American Board of Forensic Odontology "Guidelines for the Development of a Disaster Dental Identification Team." PMID:15461111

  12. NUCLEAR FORENSICS ANALYSIS CENTER FORENSIC ANALYSIS TO DATA INTERPRETATION

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, T.

    2011-02-07

    The Nuclear Forensics Analysis Center (NFAC) is part of Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and is one of only two USG National Laboratories accredited to perform nuclear forensic analyses to the requirements of ISO 17025. SRNL NFAC is capable of analyzing nuclear and radiological samples from bulk material to ultra-trace samples. NFAC provides analytical support to the FBI's Radiological Evidence Examination Facility (REEF), which is located within SRNL. REEF gives the FBI the capability to perform traditional forensics on material that is radiological and/or is contaminated. SRNL is engaged in research and development efforts to improve the USG technical nuclear forensics capabilities. Research includes improving predictive signatures and developing a database containing comparative samples.

  13. Terminology and forensic gait analysis.

    PubMed

    Birch, Ivan; Vernon, Wesley; Walker, Jeremy; Young, Maria

    2015-07-01

    The use of appropriate terminology is a fundamental aspect of forensic gait analysis. The language used in forensic gait analysis is an amalgam of that used in clinical practice, podiatric biomechanics and the wider field of biomechanics. The result can often be a lack of consistency in the language used, the definitions used and the clarity of the message given. Examples include the use of 'gait' and 'walking' as synonymous terms, confusion between 'step' and 'stride', the mixing of anatomical, positional and pathological descriptors, and inability to describe appropriately movements of major body segments such as the torso. The purpose of this paper is to share the well-established definitions of the fundamental parameters of gait, common to all professions, and advocate their use in forensic gait analysis to establish commonality. The paper provides guidance on the selection and use of appropriate terminology in the description of gait in the forensic context. This paper considers the established definitions of the terms commonly used, identifies those terms which have the potential to confuse readers, and suggests a framework of terminology which should be utilised in forensic gait analysis. PMID:26087876

  14. Particle Analysis in Forensic Science.

    PubMed

    Bisbing, R E; Schneck, W M

    2006-07-01

    Microscopic trace evidence includes particles from many sources such as biologicals, soil, building materials, metals, explosives, gunshot residues, and cosmetics. The particles are identified by morphological analysis, microscopy, and chemical analysis. Their identity is confirmed by comparison with reference materials or other comparison samples. The probative value of particles of forensic interest depends on their nature and the circumstances of their presence. PMID:26247226

  15. Project Title: Thematic Analysis of Forensic

    E-print Network

    Hickman, Mark

    Project Title: Thematic Analysis of Forensic Service Whanau/family Booklet Bachelor of Arts Application Deadline: 13 February, Noon Project Description: The Canterbury Regional Forensic Service (http' and their families' journey through the Forensic Service. The data has already been transcribed but needs in

  16. The role of forensic anthropology in the examination of the Daegu subway disaster (2003, Korea).

    PubMed

    Park, Dae-Kyoon; Park, Kyung-Ho; Ko, Jeong-Sik; Kim, Yi-Suk; Chung, Nak-Eun; Ahn, Yong-Woo; Han, Seung-Ho

    2009-05-01

    Meticulous recovery of victims in the Daegu subway disaster was possible, because charred and fragmented victims were left in situ. Because bodies were piled one over another within the train, appropriate methodology during the recovery was critical to identifying the victims. The disaster area was thoroughly documented with notes, photographs, and schematic drawings of the various locations. The recovery team, comprising two medical examiners and one forensic anthropologist, decided when charred body parts and cremated bones were linked to the same individual based on the anatomy and forensic anthropological examination. Without these recovery procedures, it would not have been possible to efficiently harvest representative DNA sample from most of the victims' body parts. After the entire process of identification, 136 victims were positively identified, and six victims remained unidentified. This study supports the crucial role of forensic anthropologists in the recovery of victims, especially in fire scenes. PMID:19432735

  17. Topics in Forensic DNA Analysis &

    E-print Network

    Society of Forensic Genetics and serve as an Associate Editor for Forensic Science International: Genetics and Mathematical Sciences Honored Alumnus (2005), and the Scientific Prize of the International Society of Forensic science journal. Dr. Butler has been an invited speaker to numerous national and international forensic

  18. Forensic Analyses on A Compound Disaster and Its Impacts Following the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei

    2014-05-01

    The 7.9 Mw Wenchuan Earthquake on May 12 in 2008 was one of the most devastating natural disasters in the 21st century and caused massive damages and vast disruptions in Western China. Our analysis takes a special look into the Wolong National Nature Reserve bear the epicenter, where long-term quantitative and qualitative data on socioeconomic and natural conditions have been collected from late 1990s to 2013. The Reserve is known internationally as the hometown of Giant Pandas and a tourism hotspot, where around 5000 ethnic minorities (e.g., Tibetan, Qiang) also reside. While the Reserve suffered lower level of immediate damages and mortalities relative to several nearby areas, the reconstruction and recovery process in the Reserve have been much slower, mainly due to recurrent flush floods, landslides, and debris flow that took place in every summer since 2008. The suddenly increased frequency and intensity of these secondary natural disasters has led to the formation of compound disaster in the Reserve. The reconstruction of the only road to outside will not be completed till at least 2016, and the livelihoods of the local communities are severely compromised, which has induced a resurrection of illegal logging and hunting in the Reserve. Taking advantage of our longitudinal survey data of~200 local households (on their income, expenditure, energy use, land use behaviors, and perceptions and attitudes toward disasters and polices) over a nine-year period before as well as one and several years after the earthquake and also our in-depth knowledge on the ecology and the institutional arrangements in the area, we conducted, in an interdisciplinary and comprehensive manner, a critical cause analysis to investigate the non-human and human drivers behind the predicament that the Reserve is facing currently. We identified a series of proximate and root causes at various spatial and temporal scales and institutional levels. The results were exchanged with various local stakeholders and their feedback was collected. Our case contribute to the expanding examples of forensic disaster investigations and prove that such studies can provide important insights into how fewer people may be adversely impacted and wiser investments and choices may be made when comparable events take place somewhere else.

  19. Forensic Analysis of Compromised Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Directory Tree Analysis File Generator is a Practical Extraction and Reporting Language (PERL) script that simplifies and automates the collection of information for forensic analysis of compromised computer systems. During such an analysis, it is sometimes necessary to collect and analyze information about files on a specific directory tree. Directory Tree Analysis File Generator collects information of this type (except information about directories) and writes it to a text file. In particular, the script asks the user for the root of the directory tree to be processed, the name of the output file, and the number of subtree levels to process. The script then processes the directory tree and puts out the aforementioned text file. The format of the text file is designed to enable the submission of the file as input to a spreadsheet program, wherein the forensic analysis is performed. The analysis usually consists of sorting files and examination of such characteristics of files as ownership, time of creation, and time of most recent access, all of which characteristics are among the data included in the text file.

  20. Forensic dental identification in mass disasters: the current status.

    PubMed

    Wood, James D

    2014-06-01

    Dentists continue to play a valuable role in the identification of victims in a mass disaster. Individuals and multidisciplinary teams are available to assist authorities in the process. Training, experience and advances in technology continue to improve the efficiency of the identification process. PMID:25080762

  1. Forensic analysis of explosions: Inverse calculation of the charge mass.

    PubMed

    van der Voort, M M; van Wees, R M M; Brouwer, S D; van der Jagt-Deutekom, M J; Verreault, J

    2015-07-01

    Forensic analysis of explosions consists of determining the point of origin, the explosive substance involved, and the charge mass. Within the EU FP7 project Hyperion, TNO developed the Inverse Explosion Analysis (TNO-IEA) tool to estimate the charge mass and point of origin based on observed damage around an explosion. In this paper, inverse models are presented based on two frequently occurring and reliable sources of information: window breakage and building damage. The models have been verified by applying them to the Enschede firework disaster and the Khobar tower attack. Furthermore, a statistical method has been developed to combine the various types of data, in order to determine an overall charge mass distribution. In relatively open environments, like for the Enschede firework disaster, the models generate realistic charge masses that are consistent with values found in forensic literature. The spread predicted by the IEA tool is however larger than presented in the literature for these specific cases. This is also realistic due to the large inherent uncertainties in a forensic analysis. The IEA-models give a reasonable first order estimate of the charge mass in a densely built urban environment, such as for the Khobar tower attack. Due to blast shielding effects which are not taken into account in the IEA tool, this is usually an under prediction. To obtain more accurate predictions, the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations is advised. The TNO IEA tool gives unique possibilities to inversely calculate the TNT equivalent charge mass based on a large variety of explosion effects and observations. The IEA tool enables forensic analysts, also those who are not experts on explosion effects, to perform an analysis with a largely reduced effort. PMID:25933424

  2. A PATTERN CLASSIFICATION FRAMEWORK FOR THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF COMPONENT FORENSICS

    E-print Network

    Liu, K. J. Ray

    A PATTERN CLASSIFICATION FRAMEWORK FOR THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF COMPONENT FORENSICS Ashwin, College Park ABSTRACT Component forensics is an emerging methodology for forensic anal- ysis that aims a theoreti- cal foundation to examine the performance limits of component forensics. Using ideas from pattern

  3. VALIDATION GUIDELINES FOR LABORATORIES PERFORMING FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL TERRORISM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Scientific Working Group on Forensic Analysis of Chemical Terrorism (SWGFACT) has developed the following guidelines for laboratories engaged in the forensic analysis of chemical evidence associated with terrorism. This document provides a baseline framework and guidance for...

  4. Molecular forensic science analysis of nuclear materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, Dallas David

    Concerns over the proliferation and instances of nuclear material in the environment have increased interest in the expansion of nuclear forensics analysis and attribution programs. A new related field, molecular forensic science (MFS) has helped meet this expansion by applying common scientific analyses to nuclear forensics scenarios. In this work, MFS was applied to three scenarios related to nuclear forensics analysis. In the first, uranium dioxide was synthesized and aged at four sets of static environmental conditions and studied for changes in chemical speciation. The second highlighted the importance of bulk versus particle characterizations by analyzing a heterogeneous industrially prepared sample with similar techniques. In the third, mixed uranium/plutonium hot particles were collected from the McGuire Air Force Base BOMARC Site and analyzed for chemical speciation and elemental surface composition. This work has identified new signatures and has indicated unexpected chemical behavior under various conditions. These findings have lead to an expansion of basic actinide understanding, proof of MFS as a tool for nuclear forensic science, and new areas for expansion in these fields.

  5. Principles-Driven ForensicAnalysis Sean Peisert

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    -resolution forensics, abstraction shortcuts, race conditions NSPW 2005 Lake Arrowhead CA USA © 2006 ACM 1." -Sherlock Holmes, A Scandal in Bohemia, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (1891) Forensic analysis is the process

  6. Disaster SitRep -A Vertical Search Engine and Information Analysis Tool in Disaster Management Domain

    E-print Network

    Chen, Shu-Ching

    resources for major disaster recovery planning and management. Our proposed techniques create a disaster and lack of a well-designed and regularly tested disaster plan make companies, particularly smallDisaster SitRep - A Vertical Search Engine and Information Analysis Tool in Disaster Management

  7. Toward Models for Forensic Analysis Sean Peisert

    E-print Network

    Yoo, S. J. Ben

    ad hoc, because applica- tions log it for debugging purposes (syslog) or because it "seems" important to help balance the usefulness of logged data against the practicality of performing both logging and auditing. Practical forensic analysis has traditionally traded off accuracy against the amount of data

  8. Forensic analysis of black coral (Order Antipatharia).

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Edgard O; Scanlan, Michael D; McClure, Pamela J; Baker, Barry W

    2012-03-10

    Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), discriminate analysis, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), and stereoscopic microscopy were used to separate black coral forensic evidence items from similarly appearing items manufactured from plastics, bovid keratin, and mangrove wood. In addition, novel observations were made of bromine and iodine relationships in black coral that have not been previously reported. PMID:21925814

  9. Forensic Analysis of Phone Call Networks

    E-print Network

    Catanese, Salvatore; Fiumara, Giacomo

    2013-01-01

    In the context of preventing and fighting crime, the analysis of mobile phone traffic, among actors of a criminal network, is helpful in order to reconstruct illegal activities on the base of the relationships connecting those specific individuals. Thus, forensic analysts and investigators require new advanced tools and techniques which allow them to manage these data in a meaningful and efficient way. In this paper we present LogAnalysis, a tool we developed to provide visual data representation and filtering, statistical analysis features and the possibility of a temporal analysis of mobile phone activities. Its adoption may help in unveiling the structure of a criminal network and the roles and dynamics of communications among its components. By using LogAnalysis, forensic investigators could deeply understand hierarchies within criminal organizations, for example discovering central members that provide connections among different sub-groups, etc. Moreover, by analyzing the temporal evolution of the conta...

  10. Use of NGS for forensic applications Mitochondrial whole genome analysis

    E-print Network

    Use of NGS for forensic applications · Mitochondrial whole genome analysis ­ Potential for improved within STRs identify `sub-alleles' · Forensically relevant SNPs: newer human identity applications-parallel/high-throughput next-generation sequencing technologies provide the ability to directly sequence forensically relevant

  11. A MACHINE VISION SYSTEM FOR FORENSIC ANALYSIS Ovidiu Ghita1

    E-print Network

    Whelan, Paul F.

    A MACHINE VISION SYSTEM FOR FORENSIC ANALYSIS Ovidiu Ghita1 , René Gapert2 , Laura Monks1 , Jason Forensic Anthropology Unit, Department of Human Anatomy and Physiology, University College Dublin remains are analysed by forensic anthropologists in order to draw conclusions about the probable identity

  12. MSIS 4243: Digital Forensic Analysis Spring Semester 2015

    E-print Network

    : Required: Digital Evidence and Computer Crime, Third Edition: Forensic Science, Computers, and the Internet understanding of the domain of digital forensic science. This class will be a blended mix of lecture and selfMSIS 4243: Digital Forensic Analysis Spring Semester 2015 Sections: MSIS 4243.001 M, 4:30 ­ 7

  13. Boston University, Biomedical Forensic Sciences DNA Mixture Analysis Training Tool

    E-print Network

    Boston University, Biomedical Forensic Sciences DNA Mixture Analysis Training Tool NIJ Conference, 2012 Funded by: NIJ Forensic Science Training Development and Delivery Program NIJ Grant # 2008-DN-BX-K158, awarded to Biomedical Forensic Science Program at Boston University School of Medicine #12;DNA

  14. Information Gap Analysis: near real-time evaluation of disaster response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, Trevor

    2014-05-01

    Disasters, such as major storm events or earthquakes, trigger an immediate response by the disaster management system of the nation in question. The quality of this response is a large factor in its ability to limit the impacts on the local population. Improving the quality of disaster response therefore reduces disaster impacts. Studying past disasters is a valuable exercise to understand what went wrong, identify measures which could have mitigated these issues, and make recommendations to improve future disaster planning and response. While such ex post evaluations can lead to improvements in the disaster management system, there are limitations. The main limitation that has influenced this research is that ex post evaluations do not have the ability to inform the disaster response being assessed for the obvious reason that they are carried out long after the response phase is over. The result is that lessons learned can only be applied to future disasters. In the field of humanitarian relief, this limitation has led to the development of real time evaluations. The key aspect of real time humanitarian evaluations is that they are completed while the operation is still underway. This results in findings being delivered at a time when they can still make a difference to the humanitarian response. Applying such an approach to the immediate disaster response phase requires an even shorter time-frame, as well as a shift in focus from international actors to the nation in question's government. As such, a pilot study was started and methodology developed, to analyze disaster response in near real-time. The analysis uses the information provided by the disaster management system within the first 0 - 5 days of the response. The data is collected from publicly available sources such as ReliefWeb and sorted under various categories which represent each aspect of disaster response. This process was carried out for 12 disasters. The quantity and timeliness of information produced under each category was then compared to establish best practices. Thus, the information produced by a disaster management system following a major disaster can be compared to these best practices within days of the disaster. The resulting "information gap analysis" can help identify areas of the response that may need to be improved and raise questions as to why critical information is lacking or delayed. This information gap analysis therefore complements ex post evaluations and can help lead to improvements in the immediate response and subsequently reduce disaster impacts on the population. The methodology has already been applied in the Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology's (CEDIM) Forensic Disaster Analysis (FDA) activities following tropical cyclone Phailin in India, and the Bohol Earthquake and Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines.

  15. Spectroscopic analysis of bones for forensic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tofanelli, Mirko; Pardini, Lorenzo; Borrini, Matteo; Bartoli, Fulvio; Bacci, Alessandra; D'Ulivo, Alessandro; Pitzalis, Emanuela; Mascherpa, Marco Carlo; Legnaioli, Stefano; Lorenzetti, Giulia; Pagnotta, Stefano; de Holanda Cavalcanti, Gildo; Lezzerini, Marco; Palleschi, Vincenzo

    2014-09-01

    The elemental analysis of human bones can give information about the dietary habits of the deceased, especially in the last years of their lives, which can be useful for forensic studies. The most important requirement that must be satisfied for this kind of analysis is that the concentrations of analyzed elements are the same as ante mortem. In this work, a set of bones was analyzed using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and validated using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES), in order to compare those two techniques and to investigate the effect of possible alterations in the elemental concentrations' proportion resulting from the treatment usually applied for preparing the bones for traditional forensic analysis. The possibility that elemental concentrations' changes would occur after accidental or intentional burning of the bones was also studied.

  16. Statistical Tools for Forensic Analysis of Toolmarks

    SciTech Connect

    David Baldwin; Max Morris; Stan Bajic; Zhigang Zhou; James Kreiser

    2004-04-22

    Recovery and comparison of toolmarks, footprint impressions, and fractured surfaces connected to a crime scene are of great importance in forensic science. The purpose of this project is to provide statistical tools for the validation of the proposition that particular manufacturing processes produce marks on the work-product (or tool) that are substantially different from tool to tool. The approach to validation involves the collection of digital images of toolmarks produced by various tool manufacturing methods on produced work-products and the development of statistical methods for data reduction and analysis of the images. The developed statistical methods provide a means to objectively calculate a ''degree of association'' between matches of similarly produced toolmarks. The basis for statistical method development relies on ''discriminating criteria'' that examiners use to identify features and spatial relationships in their analysis of forensic samples. The developed data reduction algorithms utilize the same rules used by examiners for classification and association of toolmarks.

  17. Careers in Forensics: Analysis, Evidence, and Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torpey, Elka Maria

    2009-01-01

    In legal proceedings, a case is only as strong as its evidence. And whether that evidence is strong depends, in large part, on the work of forensic specialists. The field of forensics is broad and involves many kinds of workers. Some of them are involved in crimesolving. Others, such as forensic social workers or forensic economists, help to…

  18. Components of Disaster Tolerant Computing: Analysis of Disaster Recovery, IT Application

    E-print Network

    Thornton, Mitchell

    Continuity Planning, BCP 1. INTRODUCTION & BACKGROUND A disaster is an event that can cause systemComponents of Disaster Tolerant Computing: Analysis of Disaster Recovery, IT Application Downtime://engr.smu.edu/emis/disastertolerant ABSTRACT This paper provides a review of disaster tolerant Information Technology (IT). The state

  19. Models for regionalizing economic data and their applications within the scope of forensic disaster analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Hanns-Maximilian; Wiens, rer. pol. Marcus, , Dr.; Schultmann, rer. pol. Frank, Prof. _., Dr.

    2015-04-01

    The impact of natural hazards on the economic system can be observed in many different regions all over the world. Once the local economic structure is hit by an event direct costs instantly occur. However, the disturbance on a local level (e.g. parts of city or industries along a river bank) might also cause monetary damages in other, indirectly affected sectors. If the impact of an event is strong, these damages are likely to cascade and spread even on an international scale (e.g. the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull and its impact on the automotive sector in Europe). In order to determine these special impacts, one has to gain insights into the directly hit economic structure before being able to calculate these side effects. Especially, regarding the development of a model used for near real-time forensic disaster analyses any simulation needs to be based on data that is rapidly available or easily to be computed. Therefore, we investigated commonly used or recently discussed methodologies for regionalizing economic data. Surprisingly, even for German federal states there is no official input-output data available that can be used, although it might provide detailed figures concerning economic interrelations between different industry sectors. In the case of highly developed countries, such as Germany, we focus on models for regionalizing nationwide input-output table which is usually available at the national statistical offices. However, when it comes to developing countries (e.g. South-East Asia) the data quality and availability is usually much poorer. In this case, other sources need to be found for the proper assessment of regional economic performance. We developed an indicator-based model that can fill this gap because of its flexibility regarding the level of aggregation and the composability of different input parameters. Our poster presentation brings up a literature review and a summary on potential models that seem to be useful for this specific task. Moreover, some sample data from our own applications for developed and developing countries are shown. The use of the different methodologies for the calculation of indirect losses in the field of forensic disaster analyses is also to be discussed. Finally, we give an outlook on the further utilization of these models aiming for the simulation of indirect losses.

  20. (Environmental and disaster management risk analysis)

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, C.C.

    1990-01-03

    The traveler attended workshops on Environmental and Disaster Management Risk Analysis in New Delhi and Jaipur, India. The objective of the workshops was to provide technical knowledge to Indians in the areas of environmental planning, industrial hazards, risk analysis, and disaster management. Conference participants identified the following top priorities to aid in the development of environmental and disaster management in India: (1) technology transfer in the area of atmospheric dispersion modelling, (2) increased training of scientific personnel to effectively deal with environmental problems, and (3) access to data bases on toxicological properties of chemicals.

  1. Transcriptomic analysis of degraded forensic body fluids.

    PubMed

    Lin, Meng-Han; Jones, Daniel F; Fleming, Rachel

    2015-07-01

    Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) has facilitated a significant increase in transcriptomic studies in all biological disciplines. However, the analysis of degraded RNA remains a genuine challenge in practice. In forensic science the biological samples encountered are often extensively degraded and of low abundance. RNA from these compromised samples is used for body fluid identification through the detection of body fluid-specific transcripts. Here we demonstrate the sequencing of four forensically relevant body fluids: oral mucosa/saliva (buccal), circulatory blood, menstrual blood and vaginal fluid. RNA was extracted from fresh, two and six week aged samples. Despite the extensive degradation of most body fluids, significant high quality sequencing output (>80% sequence above Q30) was generated. An average of over 80% of reads from all but one sample aligned successfully to the reference human genome. Furthermore, FPKMs (fragments per kilobase of exon per million fragments mapped) generated indicate the accurate detection of known body fluid markers in respective body fluids. Assessment of global gene expression levels over degradation time enabled the characterisation of differential RNA degradation in different body fluids. This study demonstrates the practical application of MPS technology for the accurate analysis of degraded RNA from minimal samples. PMID:25797141

  2. Gait analysis in forensic medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Peter K.; Simonsen, Erik B.; Lynnerup, Niels

    2007-01-01

    We have combined the basic human ability to recognize other individuals with functional anatomical and biomechanical knowledge, in order to analyze the gait of perpetrators as recorded on surveillance video. The perpetrators are then compared with similar analyses of suspects. At present we give a statement to the police as to whether the perpetrator has a characteristic gait pattern compared to normal gait, and if a suspect has a comparable gait pattern. We have found agreements such as: limping, varus instability in the knee at heel strike, larger lateral flexion of the spinal column to one side than the other, inverted ankle during stance, pronounced sagittal head-movements, and marked head-shoulder posture. Based on these characteristic features, we state whether suspect and perpetrator could have the same identity but it is not possible to positively identify the perpetrator. Nevertheless, we have been involved in several cases where the court has found that this type of gait analysis, especially combined with photogrammetry, was a valuable tool. The primary requisites are surveillance cameras recording with sufficient frequency, ideally about 15 Hz, which are positioned in frontal and preferably also in profile view.

  3. Photogrammetry Tool for Forensic Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, John

    2012-01-01

    A system allows crime scene and accident scene investigators the ability to acquire visual scene data using cameras for processing at a later time. This system uses a COTS digital camera, a photogrammetry calibration cube, and 3D photogrammetry processing software. In a previous instrument developed by NASA, the laser scaling device made use of parallel laser beams to provide a photogrammetry solution in 2D. This device and associated software work well under certain conditions. In order to make use of a full 3D photogrammetry system, a different approach was needed. When using multiple cubes, whose locations relative to each other are unknown, a procedure that would merge the data from each cube would be as follows: 1. One marks a reference point on cube 1, then marks points on cube 2 as unknowns. This locates cube 2 in cube 1 s coordinate system. 2. One marks reference points on cube 2, then marks points on cube 1 as unknowns. This locates cube 1 in cube 2 s coordinate system. 3. This procedure is continued for all combinations of cubes. 4. The coordinate of all of the found coordinate systems is then merged into a single global coordinate system. In order to achieve maximum accuracy, measurements are done in one of two ways, depending on scale: when measuring the size of objects, the coordinate system corresponding to the nearest cube is used, or when measuring the location of objects relative to a global coordinate system, a merged coordinate system is used. Presently, traffic accident analysis is time-consuming and not very accurate. Using cubes with differential GPS would give absolute positions of cubes in the accident area, so that individual cubes would provide local photogrammetry calibration to objects near a cube.

  4. Forensic analysis of social networking applications on mobile devices Noora Al Mutawa, Ibrahim Baggili, Andrew Marrington*

    E-print Network

    Almulhem, Ahmad

    Forensic analysis of social networking applications on mobile devices Noora Al Mutawa, Ibrahim Baggili, Andrew Marrington* Advanced Cyber Forensics Research Laboratory, Zayed University, PO Box 19282, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Keywords: Mobile device forensics Social networking iPhone Android

  5. Automated Analysis for Digital Forensic Science: Semantic Integrity Checking

    E-print Network

    Yoo, S. J. Ben

    Automated Analysis for Digital Forensic Science: Semantic Integrity Checking Tye Stallard and Karl Levitt Department of Computer Science University of California, Davis One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA- puter forensic analysts attempting to determine the relevant causes and effects are forced to perform

  6. Uses of software in digital image analysis: a forensic report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Mukesh; Jha, Shailendra

    2010-02-01

    Forensic image analysis is required an expertise to interpret the content of an image or the image itself in legal matters. Major sub-disciplines of forensic image analysis with law enforcement applications include photo-grammetry, photographic comparison, content analysis and image authentication. It has wide applications in forensic science range from documenting crime scenes to enhancing faint or indistinct patterns such as partial fingerprints. The process of forensic image analysis can involve several different tasks, regardless of the type of image analysis performed. Through this paper authors have tried to explain these tasks, which are described in to three categories: Image Compression, Image Enhancement & Restoration and Measurement Extraction. With the help of examples like signature comparison, counterfeit currency comparison and foot-wear sole impression using the software Canvas and Corel Draw.

  7. Forensic Learning Disability Nursing Role Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Tom; Phipps, Dianne; Melling, Kat

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a study carried out on the role constructs of forensic and nonforensic Learning Disability Nursing in relation to six binary themes. The aims were to identify if there were differences in perceptions of forensic learning disability nurses and nonforensic learning disability nurses in relation to the six binary themes of the…

  8. Development under extreme conditions: forensic bioinformatics in the wake of the World Trade Center disaster.

    PubMed

    Cash, Howard D; Hoyle, Jonathan W; Sutton, Amy J

    2003-01-01

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 resulted in death and devastation in three locations, and extraordinary efforts have been exerted to identify the remains of all victims. As mass fatalities go, this one has been unusual at a policy level because the goal has been not merely to identify remains for every decedent, but to identify every bit of remains found so that even small pieces of tissue can be returned to families for burial. While the human impact at the Pentagon and Shanksville, PA was horrific, the World Trade Center site presented a particularly complex challenge for forensic DNA matching and data handling. A complete and definitive list of all those killed is still elusive, and human remains were crushed and co-mingled by the falling towers. Software tools had never been considered for a problem of this scale and scope. New data handling systems had to be created under extreme software development conditions characterized by incomplete requirements specifications, chaotically changing priorities, truly impossible deadlines and rapidly rolling production releases. Partly because of the company's experience with mtDNA tools built for the Armed Forces DNA Identification Lab starting in 1997, the New York City Office of Chief Medical Examiner [OCME] contacted Gene Codes Corporation in late September as existing data-handling tools began to fail. We began work on the project in mid-October, 2001. Our approach to the problem included: Extreme Programming [XP] methodology for functional software development, On-site time and motion analysis at the OCME for user interface design, Evidentiary references between STR, SNP and mtDNA analysis results, and Separate data Quality Control [QC] and software Quality Assurance [QA] initiatives. A substantial software suite was developed called M-FISys, an acronym for Mass-Fatality Identification System. PMID:12603064

  9. DNA fingerprinting in forensics: past, present, future

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    DNA fingerprinting, one of the great discoveries of the late 20th century, has revolutionized forensic investigations. This review briefly recapitulates 30 years of progress in forensic DNA analysis which helps to convict criminals, exonerate the wrongly accused, and identify victims of crime, disasters, and war. Current standard methods based on short tandem repeats (STRs) as well as lineage markers (Y chromosome, mitochondrial DNA) are covered and applications are illustrated by casework examples. Benefits and risks of expanding forensic DNA databases are discussed and we ask what the future holds for forensic DNA fingerprinting. PMID:24245688

  10. QUALITY ASSURANCE GUIDELINES FOR LABORATORIES PERFORMING FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL TERRORISM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Scientific Working Group on Forensic Analysis of Chemical Terrorism (SWGFACT) has developed the following quality assurance guidelines to provide laboratories engaged in forensic analysis of chemical evidence associated with terrorism a framework to implement a quality assura...

  11. A 3-D Photo Forensic Analysis of the Lee Harvey Oswald Backyard Photo

    E-print Network

    Bucci, David J.

    A 3-D Photo Forensic Analysis of the Lee Harvey Oswald Backyard Photo Hany Farid Department of the Oswald photos to determine if such claims of tampering are warranted. Keywords: Photo Forensics, 3-D on this earlier work, we describe a 3-D photo forensic examination that allows for a quantitative analysis

  12. JPEG Error Analysis and Its Applications to Digital Image Forensics

    E-print Network

    Aickelin, Uwe

    1 JPEG Error Analysis and Its Applications to Digital Image Forensics Weiqi Luo, Member, IEEE, Jiwu Huang, Senior Member, IEEE, and Guoping Qiu, Member, IEEE Abstract JPEG is one of the most extensively used image formats. Understanding the inherent characteristics of JPEG may play a useful role

  13. My-Forensic-Loci-queries (MyFLq) framework for analysis of forensic STR data generated by massive parallel sequencing.

    PubMed

    Van Neste, Christophe; Vandewoestyne, Mado; Van Criekinge, Wim; Deforce, Dieter; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip

    2014-03-01

    Forensic scientists are currently investigating how to transition from capillary electrophoresis (CE) to massive parallel sequencing (MPS) for analysis of forensic DNA profiles. MPS offers several advantages over CE such as virtually unlimited multiplexy of loci, combining both short tandem repeat (STR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci, small amplicons without constraints of size separation, more discrimination power, deep mixture resolution and sample multiplexing. We present our bioinformatic framework My-Forensic-Loci-queries (MyFLq) for analysis of MPS forensic data. For allele calling, the framework uses a MySQL reference allele database with automatically determined regions of interest (ROIs) by a generic maximal flanking algorithm which makes it possible to use any STR or SNP forensic locus. Python scripts were designed to automatically make allele calls starting from raw MPS data. We also present a method to assess the usefulness and overall performance of a forensic locus with respect to MPS, as well as methods to estimate whether an unknown allele, which sequence is not present in the MySQL database, is in fact a new allele or a sequencing error. The MyFLq framework was applied to an Illumina MiSeq dataset of a forensic Illumina amplicon library, generated from multilocus STR polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on both single contributor samples and multiple person DNA mixtures. Although the multilocus PCR was not yet optimized for MPS in terms of amplicon length or locus selection, the results show excellent results for most loci. The results show a high signal-to-noise ratio, correct allele calls, and a low limit of detection for minor DNA contributors in mixed DNA samples. Technically, forensic MPS affords great promise for routine implementation in forensic genomics. The method is also applicable to adjacent disciplines such as molecular autopsy in legal medicine and in mitochondrial DNA research. PMID:24528572

  14. Comparison of hard tissues that are useful for DNA analysis in forensic autopsy.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Yu; Ohira, Hiroshi; Tsuda, Yukio; Yamada, Yoshihiro

    2015-11-01

    Forensic analysis of DNA from hard tissues can be important when investigating a variety of cases resulting from mass disaster or criminal cases. This study was conducted to evaluate the most suitable tissues, method and sample size for processing of hard tissues prior to DNA isolation. We also evaluated the elapsed time after death in relation to the quantity of DNA extracted. Samples of hard tissues (37 teeth, 42 skull, 42 rib, and 39 nails) from 42 individuals aged between 50 and 83years were used. The samples were taken from remains following forensic autopsy (from 2days to 2years after death). To evaluate the integrity of the nuclear DNA isolated, the percentage of allele calls for short tandem repeat profiles were compared between the hard tissues. DNA typing results indicated that until 1month after death, any of the four hard tissue samples could be used as an alternative to teeth, allowing analysis of all of the loci. However, in terms of the sampling site, collection method and sample size adjustment, the rib appeared to be the best choice in view of the ease of specimen preparation. Our data suggest that the rib could be an alternative hard tissue sample for DNA analysis of human remains. PMID:26209550

  15. Toward Models for Forensic Analysis Sean Peisert # Matt Bishop + Sidney Karin Keith Marzullo

    E-print Network

    Bishop, Matt

    Toward Models for Forensic Analysis Sean Peisert # Matt Bishop + Sidney Karin Keith Marzullo Abstract The existing solutions in the field of computer forensics are largely ad hoc. This paper discusses the need for a rigorous model of forensics and outlines qualities that such a model should possess

  16. Object-oriented image analysis methods in disaster risk management

    E-print Network

    Object-oriented image analysis methods in disaster risk management Dr. Norman Kerle #12;2 Lecture of Twente 3 years ago Various degree courses and certificates in Disaster management Earth sciences Geoinformatics Governance Land administration Natural resources Urban planning Water resources Univ

  17. DNA Commission of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG): Recommendations regarding the role of forensic

    E-print Network

    Spirtes, Peter

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 www.elsevier.com/locate/fsig Forensic Science InternReview DNA Commission of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG): Recommendations regarding the role of forensic genetics for disaster victim identification (DVI) M. Prinz a,*, A. Carracedo

  18. Crowd Disasters as Systemic Failures: Analysis of the Love Parade Disaster

    E-print Network

    Helbing, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Each year, crowd disasters happen in different areas of the world. How and why do such disasters happen? Are the fatalities caused by relentless behavior of people or a psychological state of panic that makes the crowd 'go mad'? Or are they a tragic consequence of a breakdown of coordination? These and other questions are addressed, based on a qualitative analysis of publicly available videos and materials, which document the planning and organization of the Love Parade in Duisburg, Germany, and the crowd disaster on July 24, 2010. Our analysis reveals a number of misunderstandings that have widely spread. We also provide a new perspective on concepts such as 'intentional pushing', 'mass panic', 'stampede', and 'crowd crushs'. The focus of our analysis is on the contributing causal factors and their mutual interdependencies, not on legal issues or the judgment of personal or institutional responsibilities. Video recordings show that, in Duisburg, people stumbled and piled up due to a 'domino effect', resultin...

  19. Spatial Durbin model analysis macroeconomic loss due to natural disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusrini, D. E.; Mukhtasor

    2015-03-01

    Magnitude of the damage and losses caused by natural disasters is huge for Indonesia, therefore this study aimed to analyze the effects of natural disasters for macroeconomic losses that occurred in 115 cities/districts across Java during 2012. Based on the results of previous studies it is suspected that it contains effects of spatial dependencies in this case, so that the completion of this case is performed using a regression approach to the area, namely Analysis of Spatial Durbin Model (SDM). The obtained significant predictor variable is population, and predictor variable with a significant weighting is the number of occurrences of disasters, i.e., disasters in the region which have an impact on other neighboring regions. Moran's I index value using the weighted Queen Contiguity also showed significant results, meaning that the incidence of disasters in the region will decrease the value of GDP in other.

  20. Forensic webwatch: Forensic computing.

    PubMed

    Bouhaidar, R

    2005-02-01

    With the rapid and continuous development of information technology, policing faces new challenges. As computer equipments are becoming cheaper and the internet more readily available, computer crime and criminal exploitation is on the increase. Investigating such crimes requires identification, preservation, analysis and presentation of digital evidence, the key elements of forensic computing. This is helped by the fact that Locard's principle is applicable to this branch of science as much as in other areas of forensic science. This webwatch considers the ever evolving area of Forensic Computing. PMID:15763691

  1. Crowd Disasters as Systemic Failures: Analysis of the Love Parade Disaster

    E-print Network

    Dirk Helbing; Pratik Mukerji

    2012-06-25

    Each year, crowd disasters happen in different areas of the world. How and why do such disasters happen? Are the fatalities caused by relentless behavior of people or a psychological state of panic that makes the crowd 'go mad'? Or are they a tragic consequence of a breakdown of coordination? These and other questions are addressed, based on a qualitative analysis of publicly available videos and materials, which document the planning and organization of the Love Parade in Duisburg, Germany, and the crowd disaster on July 24, 2010. Our analysis reveals a number of misunderstandings that have widely spread. We also provide a new perspective on concepts such as 'intentional pushing', 'mass panic', 'stampede', and 'crowd crushs'. The focus of our analysis is on the contributing causal factors and their mutual interdependencies, not on legal issues or the judgment of personal or institutional responsibilities. Video recordings show that, in Duisburg, people stumbled and piled up due to a 'domino effect', resulting from a phenomenon called 'crowd turbulence' or 'crowd quake'. Crowd quakes are a typical reason for crowd disasters, to be distinguished from crowd disasters resulting from 'panic stampedes' or 'crowd crushes'. In Duisburg, crowd turbulence was the consequence of amplifying feedback and cascading effects, which are typical for systemic instabilities. Accordingly, things can go terribly wrong in spite of no bad intentions from anyone. Comparing the incident in Duisburg with others, we give recommendations to help prevent future crowd disasters. In particular, we introduce a new scale to assess the criticality of conditions in the crowd. This may allow preventative measures to be taken earlier on. Furthermore, we discuss the merits and limitations of citizen science for public investigation, considering that today, almost every event is recorded and reflected in the World Wide Web.

  2. Forensic genetic analysis of bio-geographical ancestry.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Chris

    2015-09-01

    With the great strides made in the last ten years in the understanding of human population variation and the detailed characterization of the genome, it is now possible to identify sets of ancestry informative markers suitable for relatively small-scale PCR-based assays and use them to analyze the ancestry of an individual from forensic DNA. This review outlines some of the current understanding of past human population structure and how it may have influenced the complex distribution of contemporary human diversity. A simplified description of human diversity can provide a suitable basis for choosing the best ancestry-informative markers, which is important given the constraints of multiplex sizes in forensic DNA tests. It is also important to decide the level of geographic resolution that is realistic to ensure the balance between informativeness and an over-simplification of complex human diversity patterns. A detailed comparison is made of the most informative ancestry markers suitable for forensic use and assessments are made of the data analysis regimes that can provide statistical inferences of a DNA donor's bio-geographical ancestry. PMID:26013312

  3. Are these liquids explosive? Forensic analysis of confiscated indoor fireworks.

    PubMed

    Castro, Kepa; Fdez-Ortiz de Vallejuelo, Silvia; Astondoa, Izaskun; Goñi, Félix M; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2011-07-01

    Complete forensic analysis of several confiscated liquids and gels putatively used as firework components was achieved by combining Raman, FTIR spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy combined with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The chemical composition of the liquids was consistent with their use as indoor fireworks. Alcohols (methanol and isopropyl alcohol) were used to solubilise compounds producing coloured flames. Boric acid, recently introduced in the list of Substances of Very High Concern (SVHC) for the REACH Regulation of the European Union, was found in one of the samples. PMID:21533802

  4. Forensic Analysis Demonstration via Hawaii Five-O

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shmaefsky, Brian R.

    2006-01-01

    "Forensics," in its most universal sense, is defined as the use of science or technology in the investigation and establishment of facts or evidence for determining identity or relatedness. Most forensic reasoning is used for arguing legal matters. However, forensic studies are also used in agronomy, biology, chemistry, geology, and physics to…

  5. Forensic analysis of Malin landslide in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ering, P.; Kulkarni, R.; Kolekar, Y.; Dasaka, S. M.; Babu, G. L., Sr.

    2015-09-01

    A devastating landslide occurred on 30th July 2014, resulting in the burial of a village of about 40 houses called Malin, in western India and also led to about 160 deaths. The landslide was triggered by heavy rainfall in the area and mass movement of debris. The paper investigates slope failure in the Malin area using back analysis and numerical methods. Site investigation was conducted to obtain representative information of the area. Finite difference analyses using FLAC 2D is performed for the failed slope to determine the possible cause of failure. Analysis results show that slope failure occurred due to the loss of suction strength at the interface between rock and local soil.

  6. Digital Forensics Analysis of Spectral Estimation Methods

    E-print Network

    Mataracioglu, Tolga

    2011-01-01

    Steganography is the art and science of writing hidden messages in such a way that no one apart from the intended recipient knows of the existence of the message. In today's world, it is widely used in order to secure the information. In this paper, the traditional spectral estimation methods are introduced. The performance analysis of each method is examined by comparing all of the spectral estimation methods. Finally, from utilizing those performance analyses, a brief pros and cons of the spectral estimation methods are given. Also we give a steganography demo by hiding information into a sound signal and manage to pull out the information (i.e, the true frequency of the information signal) from the sound by means of the spectral estimation methods.

  7. Use of Stable Isotopes in Forensic Analysis of Microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.; Hegg, Eric L.

    2012-01-18

    The use of isotopic signatures for forensic analysis of biological materials is well-established, and the same general principles that apply to interpretation of stable isotope content of C, N, O, and H apply to the analysis of microorganisms. Heterotrophic microorganisms derive their isotopic content from their growth substrates, which are largely plant and animal products, and the water in their culture medium. Thus the isotope signatures of microbes are tied to their growth environment. The C, N, O, and H isotope ratios of spores have been demonstrated to constitute highly discriminating signatures for sample matching. They can rule out specific samples of media and/or water as possible production media, and can predict isotope ratio ranges of the culture media and water used to produce a given sample. These applications have been developed and tested through analyses of approximately 250 samples of Bacillus subtilis spores and over 500 samples of culture media, providing a strong statistical basis for data interpretation. A Bayesian statistical framework for integrating stable isotope data with other types of signatures derived from microorganisms has been able to characterize the culture medium used to produce spores of various Bacillus species, leveraging isotopic differences in different medium types and demonstrating the power of data integration for forensic investigations.

  8. Computer-aided fiber analysis for crime scene forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrandt, Mario; Arndt, Christian; Makrushin, Andrey; Dittmann, Jana

    2012-03-01

    The forensic analysis of fibers is currently completely manual and therefore time consuming. The automation of analysis steps can significantly support forensic experts and reduce the time, required for the investigation. Moreover, a subjective expert belief is extended by objective machine estimation. This work proposes the pattern recognition pipeline containing the digital acquisition of a fiber media, the pre-processing for fiber segmentation, and the extraction of the distinctive characteristics of fibers. Currently, basic geometrical features like width, height, area of optically dominant fibers are investigated. In order to support the automatic classification of fibers, supervised machine learning algorithms are evaluated. The experimental setup includes a car seat and two pieces clothing of a different fabric. As preliminary work, acrylic as synthetic and sheep wool as natural fiber are chosen to be classified. While sitting on the seat, a test person leaves textile fibers. The test aims at automatic distinguishing of clothes through the fiber traces gained from the seat with the help of adhesive tape. The digitalization of fiber samples is provided by a contactless chromatic white light sensor. First test results showed, that two optically very different fibers can be properly assigned to their corresponding fiber type. The best classifier achieves an accuracy of 75 percent correctly classified samples for our suggested features.

  9. An intelligent crowdsourcing system for forensic analysis of surveillance video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahboub, Khalid; Gadgil, Neeraj; Ribera, Javier; Delgado, Blanca; Delp, Edward J.

    2015-03-01

    Video surveillance systems are of a great value for public safety. With an exponential increase in the number of cameras, videos obtained from surveillance systems are often archived for forensic purposes. Many automatic methods have been proposed to do video analytics such as anomaly detection and human activity recognition. However, such methods face significant challenges due to object occlusions, shadows and scene illumination changes. In recent years, crowdsourcing has become an effective tool that utilizes human intelligence to perform tasks that are challenging for machines. In this paper, we present an intelligent crowdsourcing system for forensic analysis of surveillance video that includes the video recorded as a part of search and rescue missions and large-scale investigation tasks. We describe a method to enhance crowdsourcing by incorporating human detection, re-identification and tracking. At the core of our system, we use a hierarchal pyramid model to distinguish the crowd members based on their ability, experience and performance record. Our proposed system operates in an autonomous fashion and produces a final output of the crowdsourcing analysis consisting of a set of video segments detailing the events of interest as one storyline.

  10. Objective analysis of toolmarks in forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Grieve, Taylor N.

    2013-03-01

    Since the 1993 court case of Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc. the subjective nature of toolmark comparison has been questioned by attorneys and law enforcement agencies alike. This has led to an increased drive to establish objective comparison techniques with known error rates, much like those that DNA analysis is able to provide. This push has created research in which the 3-D surface profile of two different marks are characterized and the marks’ cross-sections are run through a comparative statistical algorithm to acquire a value that is intended to indicate the likelihood of a match between the marks. The aforementioned algorithm has been developed and extensively tested through comparison of evenly striated marks made by screwdrivers. However, this algorithm has yet to be applied to quasi-striated marks such as those made by the shear edge of slip-joint pliers. The results of this algorithm’s application to the surface of copper wire will be presented. Objective mark comparison also extends to comparison of toolmarks made by firearms. In an effort to create objective comparisons, microstamping of firing pins and breech faces has been introduced. This process involves placing unique alphanumeric identifiers surrounded by a radial code on the surface of firing pins, which transfer to the cartridge’s primer upon firing. Three different guns equipped with microstamped firing pins were used to fire 3000 cartridges. These cartridges are evaluated based on the clarity of their alphanumeric transfers and the clarity of the radial code surrounding the alphanumerics.

  11. Quantitative Phase Analysis by the Rietveld Method for Forensic Science.

    PubMed

    Deng, Fei; Lin, Xiaodong; He, Yonghong; Li, Shu; Zi, Run; Lai, Shijun

    2015-07-01

    Quantitative phase analysis (QPA) is helpful to determine the type attribute of the object because it could present the content of the constituents. QPA by Rietveld method requires neither measurement of calibration data nor the use of an internal standard; however, the approximate crystal structure of each phase in a mixture is necessary. In this study, 8 synthetic mixtures composed of potassium nitrate and sulfur were analyzed by Rietveld QPA method. The Rietveld refinement was accomplished with a material analysis using diffraction program and evaluated by three agreement indices. Results showed that Rietveld QPA yielded precise results, with errors generally less than 2.0% absolute. In addition, a criminal case which was broken successfully with the help of Rietveld QPA method was also introduced. This method will allow forensic investigators to acquire detailed information of the material evidence, which could point out the direction for case detection and court proceedings. PMID:25782471

  12. Comparative Analysis of the Variability of Facial Landmarks for Forensics Using CCTV Images

    E-print Network

    Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

    , video surveillance, data analysis 1 Introduction Automatic face recognition over forensic caseworks. In an anthropometric analysis they extract manually a set of facial landmarks, then compute some distances between them

  13. Age estimation in forensic sciences: Application of combined aspartic acid racemization and radiocarbon analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Alkass, K; Buchholz, B A; Ohtani, S; Yamamoto, T; Druid, H; Spalding, S L

    2009-11-02

    Age determination of unknown human bodies is important in the setting of a crime investigation or a mass disaster, since the age at death, birth date and year of death, as well as gender, can guide investigators to the correct identity among a large number of possible matches. Traditional morphological methods used by anthropologists to determine age are often imprecise, whereas chemical analysis of tooth dentin, such as aspartic acid racemization has shown reproducible and more precise results. In this paper we analyze teeth from Swedish individuals using both aspartic acid racemization and radiocarbon methodologies. The rationale behind using radiocarbon analysis is that above-ground testing of nuclear weapons during the cold war (1955-1963) caused an extreme increase in global levels of carbon-14 ({sup 14}C) which have been carefully recorded over time. Forty-four teeth from 41 individuals were analyzed using aspartic acid racemization analysis of tooth crown dentin or radiocarbon analysis of enamel and ten of these were split and subjected to both radiocarbon and racemization analysis. Combined analysis showed that the two methods correlated well (R2=0.66, p < 0.05). Radiocarbon analysis showed an excellent precision with an overall absolute error of 0.6 {+-} 04 years. Aspartic acid racemization also showed a good precision with an overall absolute error of 5.4 {+-} 4.2 years. Whereas radiocarbon analysis gives an estimated year of birth, racemization analysis indicates the chronological age of the individual at the time of death. We show how these methods in combination can also assist in the estimation of date of death of an unidentified victim. This strategy can be of significant assistance in forensic casework involving dead victim identification.

  14. Forensic Analysis of Venezuelan Elections during the Chávez Presidency

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Raúl; Hidalgo, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Hugo Chávez dominated the Venezuelan electoral landscape since his first presidential victory in 1998 until his death in 2013. Nobody doubts that he always received considerable voter support in the numerous elections held during his mandate. However, the integrity of the electoral system has come into question since the 2004 Presidential Recall Referendum. From then on, different sectors of society have systematically alleged electoral irregularities or biases in favor of the incumbent party. We have carried out a thorough forensic analysis of the national-level Venezuelan electoral processes held during the 1998–2012 period to assess these complaints. The second-digit Benford's law and two statistical models of vote distributions, recently introduced in the literature, are reviewed and used in our case study. In addition, we discuss a new method to detect irregular variations in the electoral roll. The outputs obtained from these election forensic tools are examined taking into account the substantive context of the elections and referenda under study. Thus, we reach two main conclusions. Firstly, all the tools uncover anomalous statistical patterns, which are consistent with election fraud from 2004 onwards. Although our results are not a concluding proof of fraud, they signal the Recall Referendum as a turning point in the integrity of the Venezuelan elections. Secondly, our analysis calls into question the reliability of the electoral register since 2004. In particular, we found irregular variations in the electoral roll that were decisive in winning the 50% majority in the 2004 Referendum and in the 2012 Presidential Elections. PMID:24971462

  15. Analysis of the alleged Kyshtym disaster

    SciTech Connect

    Soran, D.M.; Stillman, D.B.

    1982-01-01

    The alleged Kyshtym disaster has been an intriguing intelligence puzzle for almost 25 years. Zhores Medvedev, a Soviet dissident, has written numerous journal articles as well as two books on the subject. He has argued that a vast contaminated area exists east of the city of Kyshtym in the southern Ural Mountains. Further, he has alleged that a nuclear waste disposal accident in 1957 to 1958 caused the contamination. The authors of this report are in partial disagreement with Medvedev's first allegation and in complete disagreement with his second. A contaminated area does exist east of Kyshtym, but Soviet carelessness coupled with general disregard for the citizenry and the environment are the prime causative factors, not a nuclear waste accident.

  16. Potential Analysis of Rainfall-induced Sediment Disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jing-Wen; Chen, Yie-Ruey; Hsieh, Shun-Chieh; Tsai, Kuang-Jung; Chue, Yung-Sheng

    2014-05-01

    Most of the mountain regions in Taiwan are sedimentary and metamorphic rocks which are fragile and highly weathered. Severe erosion occurs due to intensive rainfall and rapid flow, the erosion is even worsen by frequent earthquakes and severely affects the stability of hillsides. Rivers are short and steep in Taiwan with large runoff differences in wet and dry seasons. Discharges respond rapidly with rainfall intensity and flood flows usually carry large amount of sediment. Because of the highly growth in economics and social change, the development in the slope land is inevitable in Taiwan. However, sediment disasters occur frequently in high and precipitous region during typhoon. To make the execution of the regulation of slope land development more efficiency, construction of evaluation model for sediment potential is very important. In this study, the Genetic Adaptive Neural Network (GANN) was implemented in texture analysis techniques for the classification of satellite images of research region before and after typhoon or extreme rainfall and to obtain surface information and hazard log data. By using GANN weight analysis, factors, levels and probabilities of disaster of the research areas are presented. Then, through geographic information system the disaster potential map is plotted to distinguish high potential regions from low potential regions. Finally, the evaluation processes for sediment disaster after rainfall due to slope land use are established. In this research, the automatic image classification and evaluation modules for sediment disaster after rainfall due to slope land disturbance and natural environment are established in MATLAB to avoid complexity and time of computation. After implementation of texture analysis techniques, the results show that the values of overall accuracy and coefficient of agreement of the time-saving image classification for different time periods are at intermediate-high level and above. The results of GANN show that the weight of building density is the largest in all slope land disturbance factors, followed by road density, orchard density, baren land density, vegetation density, and farmland density. The weight of geology is the largest in all natural environment factors, followed by slope roughness, slope, and elevation. Overlaying the locations of large sediment disaster in the past on the potential map predicted by GANN, we found that most damage areas were in the region with medium-high or high potential of landslide. Therefore, the proposed potential model of sediment disaster can be used in practice.

  17. Over the last decade, memory forensics has transi oned from very rudimentary techniques to a powerful set of tools for preserva on and analysis of vola le evidence. Memory forensics is now used both to support tradi on-

    E-print Network

    Stanley, Kenneth O.

    Over the last decade, memory forensics has transi oned from very rudimentary techniques to a powerful set of tools for preserva on and analysis of vola le evidence. Memory forensics is now used both to support tradi on- al forensics inves ga ons as well as incident response and malware analysis. Now

  18. Forensic analysis of MTBE contamination using basic hydrogeologic concepts.

    PubMed

    Boving, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    Contamination of groundwater with petroleum hydrocarbons and additives, such as methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), is often linked to the leaking product distribution system of gas stations. In very few cases is it know if and when a leak occurred and how much product was released to the environment. In the absence of direct evidence, a careful analysis of the available data, such as contaminant breakthrough at receptor wells or discrepancies in the product inventory data, may provide evidence about the nature of the release, its timing and magnitude. Using a MTBE contamination site in the formerly glaciated New England region as an example, two possible release scenarios (slow, long-term release vs. spill) were examined. Of the two scenarios, the slow release could be ruled out as the sole source even though there was no direct evidence for a spill. The analysis of hydraulic test results together with chemical data further permitted to estimate when such an undocumented spill might have occurred. Analyses of the data also allowed these results to be compared to that of a prior transport and fate modeling study. Good agreement and consistency for contaminant travel times was confirmed. This forensic analysis demonstrates that applying basic hydrogeologic principles can aide in the reconstruction of contamination events while providing more readily understandable and defendable evidence relative to complex models. Conceptually, the approach described herein is transferable to other sites with similar hydrogeologies. PMID:24840309

  19. NanoSIMS analysis of Bacillus spores for forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, P K; Davisson, M L; Velsko, S P

    2010-02-23

    The threat associated with the potential use of radiological, nuclear, chemical and biological materials in terrorist acts has resulted in new fields of forensic science requiring the application of state-of-the-science analytical techniques. Since the anthrax letter attacks in the United States in the fall of 2001, there has been increased interest in physical and chemical characterization of bacterial spores. While molecular methods are powerful tools for identifying genetic differences, other methods may be able to differentiate genetically identical samples based on physical and chemical properties, as well as provide complimentary information, such as methods of production and approximate date of production. Microanalysis has the potential to contribute significantly to microbial forensics. Bacillus spores are highly structured, consisting of a core, cortex, coat, and in some species, an exosporium. This structure provides a template for constraining elemental abundance differences at the nanometer scale. The primary controls on the distribution of major elements in spores are likely structural and physiological. For example, P and Ca are known to be abundant in the spore core because that is where P-rich nucleic acids and Cadipicolinic acid are located, respectively. Trace elements are known to bind to the spore coat but the controls on these elements are less well understood. Elemental distributions and abundances may be directly related to spore production, purification and stabilization methodologies, which are of particular interest for forensic investigation. To this end, we are developing a high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry method using a Cameca NanoSIMS 50 to study the distribution and abundance of trace elements in bacterial spores. In this presentation we will review and compare methods for preparing and analyzing samples, as well as review results on the distribution and abundance of elements in bacterial spores. We use NanoSIMS to directly image samples as well as depth profile samples. The directly imaged samples are sectioned to present a flat surface for analysis. We use focused ion beam (FIB) milling to top-cut individual spores to create flat surfaces for NanoSIMS analysis. Depth profiling can be used on whole spores, which are consumed in the process of analysis. The two methods generate comparable results, with the expected distribution of P and Ca. Ca-compatible elements, such as Mg and Mn, are found to follow the distribution of Ca. The distribution of other elements will be discussed. We envision the first application of this methodology will be to sample matching for trace samples. Towards this end, we are generating a baseline data set for samples produced by multiple laboratories. Preliminary results suggest that this method provides significant probative value for identifying samples produced by the same method in the same laboratory, as well as coming from the same initial production run. The results of this study will be presented.

  20. Forensic Analysis of Windows Hosts Using UNIX-based Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Cory Altheide

    2004-07-19

    Many forensic examiners are introduced to UNIX-based forensic utilities when faced with investigating a UNIX-like operating system for the first time. They will use these utilities for this very specific task, because in many cases these tools are the only ones for the given job. For example, at the time of this writing, given a FreeBSD 5.x file system, the author's only choice is to use The Coroner's Toolkit running on FreeBSD 5.x. However, many of the same tools examiners use for the occasional UNIX-like system investigation are extremely capable when a Windows system is the target. Indeed, the Linux operating system itself can prove to be an extremely useful forensics platform with very little use of specialized forensics utilities at all.

  1. Forensic analysis of the microbiome of phones and shoes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lax, Simon; Hampton-Marcell, Jarrad T.; Gibbons, Sean M.; Colares, Geórgia Barguil; Smith, Daniel; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Gilbert, Jack A.

    2015-05-12

    Background: Microbial interaction between human-associated objects and the environments we inhabit may have forensic implications, and the extent to which microbes are shared between individuals inhabiting the same space may be relevant to human health and disease transmission. In this study, two participants sampled the front and back of their cell phones, four different locations on the soles of their shoes, and the floor beneath them every waking hour over a 2-day period. A further 89 participants took individual samples of their shoes and phones at three different scientific conferences. Results: Samples taken from different surface types maintained significantly differentmore »microbial community structures. The impact of the floor microbial community on that of the shoe environments was strong and immediate, as evidenced by Procrustes analysis of shoe replicates and significant correlation between shoe and floor samples taken at the same time point. Supervised learning was highly effective at determining which participant had taken a given shoe or phone sample, and a Bayesian method was able to determine which participant had taken each shoe sample based entirely on its similarity to the floor samples. Both shoe and phone samples taken by conference participants clustered into distinct groups based on location, though much more so when an unweighted distance metric was used, suggesting sharing of low-abundance microbial taxa between individuals inhabiting the same space. In conclusion, correlations between microbial community sources and sinks allow for inference of the interactions between humans and their environment.« less

  2. Forensic analysis of the microbiome of phones and shoes

    SciTech Connect

    Lax, Simon; Hampton-Marcell, Jarrad T.; Gibbons, Sean M.; Colares, Geórgia Barguil; Smith, Daniel; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Gilbert, Jack A.

    2015-05-12

    Background: Microbial interaction between human-associated objects and the environments we inhabit may have forensic implications, and the extent to which microbes are shared between individuals inhabiting the same space may be relevant to human health and disease transmission. In this study, two participants sampled the front and back of their cell phones, four different locations on the soles of their shoes, and the floor beneath them every waking hour over a 2-day period. A further 89 participants took individual samples of their shoes and phones at three different scientific conferences. Results: Samples taken from different surface types maintained significantly different microbial community structures. The impact of the floor microbial community on that of the shoe environments was strong and immediate, as evidenced by Procrustes analysis of shoe replicates and significant correlation between shoe and floor samples taken at the same time point. Supervised learning was highly effective at determining which participant had taken a given shoe or phone sample, and a Bayesian method was able to determine which participant had taken each shoe sample based entirely on its similarity to the floor samples. Both shoe and phone samples taken by conference participants clustered into distinct groups based on location, though much more so when an unweighted distance metric was used, suggesting sharing of low-abundance microbial taxa between individuals inhabiting the same space. In conclusion, correlations between microbial community sources and sinks allow for inference of the interactions between humans and their environment.

  3. Stable Isotope Ratios and the Forensic Analysis of Microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.; Jarman, Kristin H.

    2007-06-01

    In the aftermath of the anthrax letters of 2001, researchers have been exploring various analytical signatures for the purpose of characterizing the production environment of microorganisms. One such signature is stable isotope ratios, which in heterotrophs are a function of nutrient and water sources. Here we discuss the use of stable isotope ratios in microbe forensics, using as a database the carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope ratios of 247 separate cultures of B. subtilis 6051 spores produced on a total of 32 different culture media. In the context of using stable isotope ratios as a signature for sample matching, we present an analysis of variation between individual samples, between cultures produced in tandem, and between cultures produced in the same medium but at different times. Additionally, we correlate the stable isotope ratios of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen for growth medium nutrients or water with those of spores and show examples of how these relationships can be used to exclude nutrient or water samples as possible growth substrates for specific cultures.

  4. Forensic palynological analysis of intestinal contents of a Korean mummy.

    PubMed

    Arguelles, Paulette; Reinhard, Karl; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2015-06-01

    Experimental studies show that pollen resides in the intestinal tract for a minimum of seven days to at least 21 days. Because of this long residence time, pollen analysis is an important avenue of forensic research. Pollen provides evidence of the environment of the decedent as well as foods and medicine. We analyzed a coprolite recovered from a Korean mummy. The decedent was a high-ranking general who lived during the 16th or 17th centuries. Twenty pollen types were recovered. These ranged from 100 s to 10,000 s of pollen grains per gram of coprolite. Importantly, comparison of the coprolite pollen spectrum to modern aeropalynology studies of Korea suggests that the general died in winter between middle November to late February. Economic pollen types were most abundant. Economic refers to dietary, medicinal, spice, and beverage types. Dietary pollen types include pollen from Oryza (rice), Eriogonum (buckwheat), Brassicaceae (mustard family), and Solanaceae (tomato-chile pepper family). Pollen consistent with dandelion is present and may represent its use as food. Tens of thousands of grains from water plants, bur-reed or cattail, dominate the pollen spectrum. We believe that this was introduced with water. The large numbers of water-related pollen suggest that the general consumed broth, tea, or soup for a considerable time before death. PMID:25998651

  5. FORENSIC SCIENCE About Forensic Science

    E-print Network

    Su, Xiao

    Fact Sheet FORENSIC SCIENCE About Forensic Science: The Forensic Science program at SJSU offers: The SJSU Forensic Science program delivers coursework and training to · Empowergraduatestobecomeagentsofchangetorecognize, document and report errors and injustices in the practice of forensic science and crime scene

  6. Paint Analysis Using Visible Reflectance Spectroscopy: An Undergraduate Forensic Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Erin M.; Beussman, Douglas J.

    2007-01-01

    The study of forensic science is found throughout undergraduate programs in growing numbers, both as stand-alone courses as well as specific examples within existing courses. Part of the driving force for this trend is the ability to apply common chemistry techniques to everyday situations, all couched in the context of a mystery that must be…

  7. Interviewing a Silent (Radioactive) Witness through Nuclear Forensic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Klaus; Wallenius, Maria; Varga, Zsolt

    2015-12-01

    Nuclear forensics is a relatively young discipline in science which aims at providing information on nuclear material of unknown origin. The determination of characteristic parameters through tailored analytical techniques enables establishing linkages to the material's processing history and hence provides hints on its place and date of production and on the intended use. PMID:26376028

  8. Forensic analysis of social networking application on iOS devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuhui; Wang, Lianhai

    2013-12-01

    The increased use of social networking application on iPhone and iPad make these devices a goldmine for forensic investigators. Besides, QQ, Wechat, Sina Weibo and skype applications are very popular in China and didn't draw attention to researchers. These social networking applications are used not only on computers, but also mobile phones and tablets. This paper focuses on conducting forensic analysis on these four social networking applications on iPhone and iPad devices. The tests consisted of installing the social networking applications on each device, conducting common user activities through each application and correlation analysis with other activities. Advices to the forensic investigators are also given. It could help the investigators to describe the crime behavior and reconstruct the crime venue.

  9. Application of Material Characterization Techniques to Electrical Forensic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, T.D.

    2003-03-11

    The application of forensic science techniques to electrical equipment failure investigation has not been widely documented in the engineering world. This paper is intended to share an example of using material characterization techniques to support an initial cause determination of an electrical component failure event. The resulting conclusion supported the initial cause determination and ruled out the possibility of design deficiencies. Thus, the qualification testing of the equipment was allowed to continue to successful completion.

  10. [The concept of "forensic medicine"].

    PubMed

    Popov, V L

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of the definition of forensic medicine and its evolution during the past 300 years is presented. The special character of forensic medicine, its subject-matter, scope of research, procedures, goals and targeted application of forensic medical knowledge are discussed. The original definition of the notion of "forensic medicine" is proposed. PMID:23888497

  11. 646 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING, VOL. 14, NO. 5, MAY 2005 Forensic Analysis of Nonlinear Collusion Attacks

    E-print Network

    Liu, K. J. Ray

    30602-03-2-0045 and in part by the National Science Foundation under CAREER Award CCR-0133704646 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING, VOL. 14, NO. 5, MAY 2005 Forensic Analysis of Nonlinear for collusion scenarios to improve the detection performance. Index Terms--Digital forensics, multimedia

  12. GC-MS Analysis of [gamma]-Hydroxybutyric Acid Analogs: A Forensic Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henck, Colin; Nally, Luke

    2007-01-01

    An upper-division forensic chemistry experiment is described. It involves using glycolic acid and sodium glycolate as analogs of [gamma]-hydroxybutyric acid and its sodium salt. The experiment shows the use of silylation in GC-MS analysis and gives students the opportunity to work with a commonly used silylating reagent,…

  13. A general strategy for differential forensic analysis Simson Garfinkel a,*, Alex J. Nelson b

    E-print Network

    Almulhem, Ahmad

    forensic images (or, more generally, any pair of digital artifacts) and reports the differences between that somehow transformed the first digital image into the second). Differential analysis is widely practiced drive before the malware is introduced with the hard drive captured after the mal- ware infection. Sex

  14. Temporary disaster debris management site identification using binomial cluster analysis and GIS.

    PubMed

    Grzeda, Stanislaw; Mazzuchi, Thomas A; Sarkani, Shahram

    2014-04-01

    An essential component of disaster planning and preparation is the identification and selection of temporary disaster debris management sites (DMS). However, since DMS identification is a complex process involving numerous variable constraints, many regional, county and municipal jurisdictions initiate this process during the post-disaster response and recovery phases, typically a period of severely stressed resources. Hence, a pre-disaster approach in identifying the most likely sites based on the number of locational constraints would significantly contribute to disaster debris management planning. As disasters vary in their nature, location and extent, an effective approach must facilitate scalability, flexibility and adaptability to variable local requirements, while also being generalisable to other regions and geographical extents. This study demonstrates the use of binomial cluster analysis in potential DMS identification in a case study conducted in Hamilton County, Indiana. PMID:24601923

  15. The 'relics of Joan of Arc': a forensic multidisciplinary analysis.

    PubMed

    Charlier, P; Poupon, J; Eb, A; De Mazancourt, P; Gilbert, T; Huynh-Charlier, I; Loublier, Y; Verhille, A M; Moulheirat, C; Patou-Mathis, M; Robbiola, L; Montagut, R; Masson, F; Etcheberry, A; Brun, L; Willerslev, E; de la Grandmaison, G Lorin; Durigon, M

    2010-01-30

    Archaeological remains can provide concrete cases, making it possible to develop, refine or validate medico-legal techniques. In the case of the so-called 'Joan of Arc's relics' (a group of bone and archaeological remains known as the 'Bottle of Chinon'), 14 specialists analysed the samples such as a cadaver X of carbonised aspect: forensic anthropologist, medical examiners, pathologists, geneticists, radiologist, biochemists, palynologists, zoologist and archaeologist. Materials, methods and results of this study are presented here. This study aims to offer an exploitable methodology for the modern medico-legal cases of small quantities of human bones of carbonised aspect. PMID:19913375

  16. Maori heads (mokomokai): the usefulness of a complete forensic analysis procedure.

    PubMed

    Charlier, Philippe; Huynh-Charlier, Isabelle; Brun, Luc; Champagnat, Julie; Laquay, Laetitia; Hervé, Christian

    2014-09-01

    Based on an analysis of 19 mummified Maori heads (mokomokai) referred to our forensic laboratory for anthropological analysis prior to their official repatriation from France to New Zealand, and data from the anthropological and medical literature, we propose a complete forensic procedure for the analysis of such pieces. A list of 12 original morphological criteria was developed. Items included the sex, age at death, destruction of the skull base, the presence of argil deposits in the inner part of the skull, nostrils closed with exogenous material, sewing of eyelids and lips, pierced earlobes, ante-mortem and/or post-mortem tattoos, the presence of vegetal fibers within nasal cavities, and other pathological or anthropological anomalies. These criteria were tested for all 19 mokomokai repatriated to New Zealand by the French authorities. Further complementary analyses were limited to fiberscopic examination of the intracranial cavities because of the taboo on any sampling requested by the Maori authorities. In the context of global repatriation of human artifacts to native communities, this type of anthropological expertise is increasingly frequently requested of forensic anthropologists and other practitioners. We discuss the reasons for and against repatriating non-authentic artifacts to such communities and the role played by forensic anthropologists during the authentication process. PMID:24748277

  17. Developing an open geographic data model and analysis tools for disaster management: landslide case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydinoglu, A. C.; Bilgin, M. S.

    2015-02-01

    Disaster management aims to reduce catastrophic losses of disasters. Geographic information technologies support disaster management activities for effective and collaborative data management considering the complex nature of disasters. This study with an original conceptual approach aims to develop interoperable geographic data model and analysis tools to manage geographic data sets coming from different sources. For landslide disaster, 39 scenario-based activities were analysed with the required data according to user needs in a cycle of activities at mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery phases. An interoperable geographic data model for disaster management (ADYS), enabling up-to-date exchange of geographic data, was designed, compliant with the standards of ISO/TC211 Geographic Information/Geomatics, Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), and the Turkish National GIS (TUCBS). An open source and free analysis toolbox was developed and tested in the case study of activities such as landslide hazard analysis and a disaster warning system to support the Provincial Disaster Management Centres of Turkey. Open data models and analysis tools make effective activity management and data sharing possible. However, transforming data sets into data exchange formats is laborious.

  18. The Gender Analysis Tools Applied in Natural Disasters Management: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Sohrabizadeh, Sanaz; Tourani, Sogand; Khankeh, Hamid Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although natural disasters have caused considerable damages around the world, and gender analysis can improve community disaster preparedness or mitigation, there is little research about the gendered analytical tools and methods in communities exposed to natural disasters and hazards. These tools evaluate gender vulnerability and capacity in pre-disaster and post-disaster phases of the disaster management cycle. Objectives: Identifying the analytical gender tools and the strengths and limitations of them as well as determining gender analysis studies which had emphasized on the importance of using gender analysis in disasters. Methods: The literature search was conducted in June 2013 using PubMed, Web of Sciences, ProQuest Research Library, World Health Organization Library, Gender and Disaster Network (GDN) archive. All articles, guidelines, fact sheets and other materials that provided an analytical framework for a gender analysis approach in disasters were included and the non-English documents as well as gender studies of non-disasters area were excluded. Analysis of the included studies was done separately by descriptive and thematic analyses. Results: A total of 207 documents were retrieved, of which only nine references were included. Of these, 45% were in form of checklist, 33% case study report, and the remaining 22% were article. All selected papers were published within the period 1994-2012. Conclusions: A focus on women’s vulnerability in the related research and the lack of valid and reliable gender analysis tools were considerable issues identified by the literature review. Although non-English literatures with English abstract were included in the study, the possible exclusion of non-English ones was found as the limitation of this study. PMID:24678441

  19. A method for enhancement of background sounds in forensic

    E-print Network

    Maher, Robert C.

    A method for enhancement of background sounds in forensic audio recordings Robert C. Maher;Outline · Introduction ­ Audio forensic analysis ­ Adaptive interference cancelling ­ Sinusoidal modeling · Test implementation · Example processing · Conclusion #12;Audio Forensics · Audio Forensics

  20. Analytical and Radiochemistry for Nuclear Forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, Robert Ernest; Dry, Donald E.; Kinman, William Scott; Podlesak, David; Tandon, Lav

    2015-05-26

    Information about nonproliferation nuclear forensics, activities in forensics at Los Alamos National Laboratory, radio analytical work at LANL, radiochemical characterization capabilities, bulk chemical and materials analysis capabilities, and future interests in forensics interactions.

  1. [Fatal skiing accidents: a forensic analysis taking the example of Salzburg].

    PubMed

    Kunz, Sebastian N; Keller, Thomas; Grove, Christina; Lochner, Stefanie; Monticelli, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    The rising popularity of Alpine skiing in recent years has led to an increase of skiing accidents, some with fatal outcome. In this paper, all fatal skiing accidents from the autopsy material of the Institute of Forensic Medicine of the Paris Lodron University Salzburg were evaluated and compared with statistical data of the Alpine Police. In the wintertime of 2005/2006 until 2013/2014, 22 deadly skiing accidents were autopsied. The age of the male and female victims ranged between 12 and 71 years. The main cause of death was craniocerebral and chest trauma. A relevant blood alcohol concentration was detected in only one case. Together with trauma-biomechanical and technical experts, forensic medicine serves as a necessary clarification interface between the investigating authorities and the judiciary. Determining the cause and manner of death as well as reconstructing the accident is the main task of the forensic pathologist. The present study shows that in the county of Salzburg, only a small percentage of fatal skiing accidents is evaluated from a forensic and trauma-biomechanical point of view. Thus the possibilities of an interdisciplinary accident analysis are not always fully utilized. PMID:26419087

  2. Analysis of media agenda setting during and after Hurricane Katrina: implications for emergency preparedness, disaster response, and disaster policy.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Michael D; Hanson, Carl L; Novilla, Len M B; Meacham, Aaron T; McIntyre, Emily; Erickson, Brittany C

    2008-04-01

    Media agenda setting refers to the deliberate coverage of topics or events with the goal of influencing public opinion and public policy. We conducted a quantitative content analysis of 4 prominent newspapers to examine how the media gathered and distributed news to shape public policy priorities during Hurricane Katrina. The media framed most Hurricane Katrina stories by emphasizing government response and less often addressing individuals' and communities' level of preparedness or responsibility. Hence, more articles covered response and recovery than mitigation and preparation. The newspapers studied focused significantly more on government response than on key public health roles in disaster management. We discuss specific implications for public health professionals, policymakers, and mass media so that, in the future, coordination can be enhanced among these entities before, during, and after disasters occur. PMID:18309133

  3. Analysis of Media Agenda Setting During and After Hurricane Katrina: Implications for Emergency Preparedness, Disaster Response, and Disaster Policy

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Michael D.; Hanson, Carl L.; Novilla, Len M. B.; Meacham, Aaron T.; McIntyre, Emily; Erickson, Brittany C.

    2008-01-01

    Media agenda setting refers to the deliberate coverage of topics or events with the goal of influencing public opinion and public policy. We conducted a quantitative content analysis of 4 prominent newspapers to examine how the media gathered and distributed news to shape public policy priorities during Hurricane Katrina. The media framed most Hurricane Katrina stories by emphasizing government response and less often addressing individuals’ and communities’ level of preparedness or responsibility. Hence, more articles covered response and recovery than mitigation and preparation. The newspapers studied focused significantly more on government response than on key public health roles in disaster management. We discuss specific implications for public health professionals, policymakers, and mass media so that, in the future, coordination can be enhanced among these entities before, during, and after disasters occur. PMID:18309133

  4. Portable XRF and principal component analysis for bill characterization in forensic science.

    PubMed

    Appoloni, C R; Melquiades, F L

    2014-02-01

    Several modern techniques have been applied to prevent counterfeiting of money bills. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the potential of Portable X-ray Fluorescence (PXRF) technique and the multivariate analysis method of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for classification of bills in order to use it in forensic science. Bills of Dollar, Euro and Real (Brazilian currency) were measured directly at different colored regions, without any previous preparation. Spectra interpretation allowed the identification of Ca, Ti, Fe, Cu, Sr, Y, Zr and Pb. PCA analysis separated the bills in three groups and subgroups among Brazilian currency. In conclusion, the samples were classified according to its origin identifying the elements responsible for differentiation and basic pigment composition. PXRF allied to multivariate discriminate methods is a promising technique for rapid and no destructive identification of false bills in forensic science. PMID:24393811

  5. Chemical Differentiation of Osseous, Dental, and Non-skeletal Materials in Forensic Anthropology using Elemental Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Heather A; Meizel-Lambert, Cayli J; Schultz, John J; Sigman, Michael E

    2015-03-01

    Forensic anthropologists are generally able to identify skeletal materials (bone and tooth) using gross anatomical features; however, highly fragmented or taphonomically altered materials may be problematic to identify. Several chemical analysis techniques have been shown to be reliable laboratory methods that can be used to determine if questionable fragments are osseous, dental, or non-skeletal in nature. The purpose of this review is to provide a detailed background of chemical analysis techniques focusing on elemental compositions that have been assessed for use in differentiating osseous, dental, and non-skeletal materials. More recently, chemical analysis studies have also focused on using the elemental composition of osseous/dental materials to evaluate species and provide individual discrimination, but have generally been successful only in small, closed groups, limiting their use forensically. Despite significant advances incorporating a variety of instruments, including handheld devices, further research is necessary to address issues in standardization, error rates, and sample size/diversity. PMID:25753999

  6. Disaster medicine: genealogy of a concept.

    PubMed

    Stehrenberger, Cécile Stephanie; Goltermann, Svenja

    2014-11-01

    This paper evaluates disaster medicine from a historical perspective that facilitates the understanding of its present. Today, disaster medicine and humanitarian medicine are inextricably linked and the terms are sometimes used synonymously. An in-depth analysis of an extensive body of concrete empirical cases from various sources (i.e. archival records) reveals, however, that they have not always been the same. A genealogical, history-of-knowledge approach demonstrates that the concept of disaster medicine emerged in the early 20th century in Switzerland in the context of industrialization. Even though it gained important impetus during the First World War, the concept was informed by the experiences of forensic physicians in technological disasters such as mining explosions. The Cold War constituted the historical constellation in which disaster medicine was developed in West Germany during the 1960s and 1970s in a way that was paradigmatic for other Western European countries. At the same time, it was contested there in an unusual, historically unique way. Although focusing on a Western European context, this paper explores how medical interventions in disasters were international events and how the practice of disaster medicine was developed and "trained" through being applied in the Global South. It demonstrates the historicity of disaster medicine's political character and of the controversies generated by its involvement in civil and military operations. Throughout the 20th century, the political nature and military involvement of disaster medicine resulted in a number of ethical and practical issues, which are similar to the challenges facing humanitarian medicine today. The exploration of disaster medicine's past can therefore open up critical interventions in humanitarian medicine's present. PMID:24862174

  7. The Kaprun cable car fire disaster--aspects of forensic organisation following a mass fatality with 155 victims.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Harald J

    2003-12-17

    In November 2000, a tunnel-bound cable car in Kaprun caught fire, with the subsequent death of 155 persons. No passenger list was in existence and bodies were burnt to such an extent that morphological identification was not feasible. A full post-mortem examination was performed on all bodies. All bodies were positively identified within 19 days after the incident by DNA analysis. Cause of death was determined to be carbon monoxide poisoning in combination with suffocation due to inhalation of smoke. The organisational aspects of processing are portrayed. PMID:14642713

  8. Validation of a Framework for Measuring Hospital Disaster Resilience Using Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Shuang; Clark, Michele; Hou, Xiang-Yu; Zang, Yuli; FitzGerald, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Hospital disaster resilience can be defined as “the ability of hospitals to resist, absorb, and respond to the shock of disasters while maintaining and surging essential health services, and then to recover to its original state or adapt to a new one.” This article aims to provide a framework which can be used to comprehensively measure hospital disaster resilience. An evaluation framework for assessing hospital resilience was initially proposed through a systematic literature review and Modified-Delphi consultation. Eight key domains were identified: hospital safety, command, communication and cooperation system, disaster plan, resource stockpile, staff capability, disaster training and drills, emergency services and surge capability, and recovery and adaptation. The data for this study were collected from 41 tertiary hospitals in Shandong Province in China, using a specially designed questionnaire. Factor analysis was conducted to determine the underpinning structure of the framework. It identified a four-factor structure of hospital resilience, namely, emergency medical response capability (F1), disaster management mechanisms (F2), hospital infrastructural safety (F3), and disaster resources (F4). These factors displayed good internal consistency. The overall level of hospital disaster resilience (F) was calculated using the scoring model: F = 0.615F1 + 0.202F2 + 0.103F3 + 0.080F4. This validated framework provides a new way to operationalise the concept of hospital resilience, and it is also a foundation for the further development of the measurement instrument in future studies. PMID:24945190

  9. Validation of a framework for measuring hospital disaster resilience using factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Shuang; Clark, Michele; Hou, Xiang-Yu; Zang, Yuli; FitzGerald, Gerard

    2014-06-01

    Hospital disaster resilience can be defined as "the ability of hospitals to resist, absorb, and respond to the shock of disasters while maintaining and surging essential health services, and then to recover to its original state or adapt to a new one." This article aims to provide a framework which can be used to comprehensively measure hospital disaster resilience. An evaluation framework for assessing hospital resilience was initially proposed through a systematic literature review and Modified-Delphi consultation. Eight key domains were identified: hospital safety, command, communication and cooperation system, disaster plan, resource stockpile, staff capability, disaster training and drills, emergency services and surge capability, and recovery and adaptation. The data for this study were collected from 41 tertiary hospitals in Shandong Province in China, using a specially designed questionnaire. Factor analysis was conducted to determine the underpinning structure of the framework. It identified a four-factor structure of hospital resilience, namely, emergency medical response capability (F1), disaster management mechanisms (F2), hospital infrastructural safety (F3), and disaster resources (F4). These factors displayed good internal consistency. The overall level of hospital disaster resilience (F) was calculated using the scoring model: F = 0.615F1 + 0.202F2 + 0.103F3 + 0.080F4. This validated framework provides a new way to operationalise the concept of hospital resilience, and it is also a foundation for the further development of the measurement instrument in future studies. PMID:24945190

  10. Soil examination for a forensic trace evidence laboratory - Part 2: Elemental analysis.

    PubMed

    Woods, Brenda; Paul Kirkbride, K; Lennard, Chris; Robertson, James

    2014-10-14

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) are compared in terms of their discrimination power when applied to Australian soil specimens. SEM/EDX and XRF are frequently used in forensic laboratories for the elemental analysis of paint and glass, and for miscellaneous examinations. LIBS is an emerging technique for forensic applications, with a number of researchers promoting its use for the elemental profiling of glass fragments. In this study, 29 soil specimens were analysed, with 12 specimens coming from the Canberra area and the remaining 17 specimens from other sites around Australia. As very good discrimination results were obtained for each of the analytical methods, any of these elemental analysis techniques, available in a trace evidence laboratory, could be used as part of a wider examination protocol to differentiate soil specimens. PMID:25459270

  11. Forensic trace DNA: a review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    DNA analysis is frequently used to acquire information from biological material to aid enquiries associated with criminal offences, disaster victim identification and missing persons investigations. As the relevance and value of DNA profiling to forensic investigations has increased, so too has the desire to generate this information from smaller amounts of DNA. Trace DNA samples may be defined as any sample which falls below recommended thresholds at any stage of the analysis, from sample detection through to profile interpretation, and can not be defined by a precise picogram amount. Here we review aspects associated with the collection, DNA extraction, amplification, profiling and interpretation of trace DNA samples. Contamination and transfer issues are also briefly discussed within the context of trace DNA analysis. Whilst several methodological changes have facilitated profiling from trace samples in recent years it is also clear that many opportunities exist for further improvements. PMID:21122102

  12. Forensic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brettell, T. A.; Saferstein, R.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a review of articles appealing to forensic practitioners. Topics include: drugs and poisons, forensic biochemistry, and trace evidence. Lists noteworthy books published on forensic science topics since 1986. (MVL)

  13. Climate Change, Disaster and Sentiment Analysis over Social Media Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; McCusker, J. P.; McGuinness, D. L.

    2012-12-01

    Accelerated climate change causes disasters and disrupts people living all over the globe. Disruptive climate events are often reflected in expressed sentiments of the people affected. Monitoring changes in these sentiments during and after disasters can reveal relationships between climate change and mental health. We developed a semantic web tool that uses linked data principles and semantic web technologies to integrate data from multiple sources and analyze them together. We are converting statistical data on climate change and disaster records obtained from the World Bank data catalog and the International Disaster Database into a Resource Description Framework (RDF) representation that was annotated with the RDF Data Cube vocabulary. We compare these data with a dataset of tweets that mention terms from the Emotion Ontology to get a sense of how disasters can impact the affected populations. This dataset is being gathered using an infrastructure we developed that extracts term uses in Twitter with controlled vocabularies. This data was also converted to RDF structure so that statistical data on the climate change and disasters is analyzed together with sentiment data. To visualize and explore relationship of the multiple data across the dimensions of time and location, we use the qb.js framework. We are using this approach to investigate the social and emotional impact of climate change. We hope that this will demonstrate the use of social media data as a valuable source of understanding on global climate change.

  14. Monte Carlo analysis of thermochromatography as a fast separation method for nuclear forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Howard L

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear forensic science has become increasingly important for global nuclear security, and enhancing the timeliness of forensic analysis has been established as an important objective in the field. New, faster techniques must be developed to meet this objective. Current approaches for the analysis of minor actinides, fission products, and fuel-specific materials require time-consuming chemical separation coupled with measurement through either nuclear counting or mass spectrometry. These very sensitive measurement techniques can be hindered by impurities or incomplete separation in even the most painstaking chemical separations. High-temperature gas-phase separation or thermochromatography has been used in the past for the rapid separations in the study of newly created elements and as a basis for chemical classification of that element. This work examines the potential for rapid separation of gaseous species to be applied in nuclear forensic investigations. Monte Carlo modeling has been used to evaluate the potential utility of the thermochromatographic separation method, albeit this assessment is necessarily limited due to the lack of available experimental data for validation.

  15. Comparative analysis of LWR and FBR spent fuels for nuclear forensics evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Permana, Sidik; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Su'ud, Zaki

    2012-06-01

    Some interesting issues are attributed to nuclide compositions of spent fuels from thermal reactors as well as fast reactors such as a potential to reuse as recycled fuel, and a possible capability to be manage as a fuel for destructive devices. In addition, analysis on nuclear forensics which is related to spent fuel compositions becomes one of the interesting topics to evaluate the origin and the composition of spent fuels from the spent fuel foot-prints. Spent fuel compositions of different fuel types give some typical spent fuel foot prints and can be estimated the origin of source of those spent fuel compositions. Some technics or methods have been developing based on some science and technological capability including experimental and modeling or theoretical aspects of analyses. Some foot-print of nuclear forensics will identify the typical information of spent fuel compositions such as enrichment information, burnup or irradiation time, reactor types as well as the cooling time which is related to the age of spent fuels. This paper intends to evaluate the typical spent fuel compositions of light water (LWR) and fast breeder reactors (FBR) from the view point of some foot prints of nuclear forensics. An established depletion code of ORIGEN is adopted to analyze LWR spent fuel (SF) for several burnup constants and decay times. For analyzing some spent fuel compositions of FBR, some coupling codes such as SLAROM code, JOINT and CITATION codes including JFS-3-J-3.2R as nuclear data library have been adopted. Enriched U-235 fuel composition of oxide type is used for fresh fuel of LWR and a mixed oxide fuel (MOX) for FBR fresh fuel. Those MOX fuels of FBR come from the spent fuels of LWR. Some typical spent fuels from both LWR and FBR will be compared to distinguish some typical foot-prints of SF based on nuclear forensic analysis.

  16. Comparative analysis of LWR and FBR spent fuels for nuclear forensics evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Permana, Sidik; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Su'ud, Zaki

    2012-06-06

    Some interesting issues are attributed to nuclide compositions of spent fuels from thermal reactors as well as fast reactors such as a potential to reuse as recycled fuel, and a possible capability to be manage as a fuel for destructive devices. In addition, analysis on nuclear forensics which is related to spent fuel compositions becomes one of the interesting topics to evaluate the origin and the composition of spent fuels from the spent fuel foot-prints. Spent fuel compositions of different fuel types give some typical spent fuel foot prints and can be estimated the origin of source of those spent fuel compositions. Some technics or methods have been developing based on some science and technological capability including experimental and modeling or theoretical aspects of analyses. Some foot-print of nuclear forensics will identify the typical information of spent fuel compositions such as enrichment information, burnup or irradiation time, reactor types as well as the cooling time which is related to the age of spent fuels. This paper intends to evaluate the typical spent fuel compositions of light water (LWR) and fast breeder reactors (FBR) from the view point of some foot prints of nuclear forensics. An established depletion code of ORIGEN is adopted to analyze LWR spent fuel (SF) for several burnup constants and decay times. For analyzing some spent fuel compositions of FBR, some coupling codes such as SLAROM code, JOINT and CITATION codes including JFS-3-J-3.2R as nuclear data library have been adopted. Enriched U-235 fuel composition of oxide type is used for fresh fuel of LWR and a mixed oxide fuel (MOX) for FBR fresh fuel. Those MOX fuels of FBR come from the spent fuels of LWR. Some typical spent fuels from both LWR and FBR will be compared to distinguish some typical foot-prints of SF based on nuclear forensic analysis.

  17. Parallel digital forensics infrastructure.

    SciTech Connect

    Liebrock, Lorie M.; Duggan, David Patrick

    2009-10-01

    This report documents the architecture and implementation of a Parallel Digital Forensics infrastructure. This infrastructure is necessary for supporting the design, implementation, and testing of new classes of parallel digital forensics tools. Digital Forensics has become extremely difficult with data sets of one terabyte and larger. The only way to overcome the processing time of these large sets is to identify and develop new parallel algorithms for performing the analysis. To support algorithm research, a flexible base infrastructure is required. A candidate architecture for this base infrastructure was designed, instantiated, and tested by this project, in collaboration with New Mexico Tech. Previous infrastructures were not designed and built specifically for the development and testing of parallel algorithms. With the size of forensics data sets only expected to increase significantly, this type of infrastructure support is necessary for continued research in parallel digital forensics. This report documents the implementation of the parallel digital forensics (PDF) infrastructure architecture and implementation.

  18. Sex determination in forensic odontology: A review.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, K; Sharma, Subramanya; Sreeja, C; Pratima, D Bhavani; Aesha, I; Vijayabanu, B

    2015-08-01

    Forensic odontology is the application of dental principles to legal issues. Sex determination is a subdivision of forensic odontology and it is very important especially when information relating to the deceased is unavailable. Sex determination becomes the first priority in the process of identification of a person by a forensic investigator in the case of mishaps, chemical and nuclear bomb explosions, natural disasters crime investigations, and ethnic studies. This article reviews upon the various methods used in sex determination. PMID:26538886

  19. Sex determination in forensic odontology: A review

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, K.; Sharma, Subramanya; Sreeja, C.; Pratima, D. Bhavani; Aesha, I.; Vijayabanu, B.

    2015-01-01

    Forensic odontology is the application of dental principles to legal issues. Sex determination is a subdivision of forensic odontology and it is very important especially when information relating to the deceased is unavailable. Sex determination becomes the first priority in the process of identification of a person by a forensic investigator in the case of mishaps, chemical and nuclear bomb explosions, natural disasters crime investigations, and ethnic studies. This article reviews upon the various methods used in sex determination. PMID:26538886

  20. Opportunities for Fluid Dynamics Research in the Forensic Discipline of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attinger, Daniel; Moore, Craig; Donaldson, Adam; Jafari, Arian; Stone, Howard

    2013-11-01

    This review [Forensic Science International, vol. 231, pp. 375-396, 2013] highlights research opportunities for fluid dynamics (FD) studies related to the forensic discipline of bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA). The need for better integrating FD and BPA is mentioned in a 2009 report by the US National Research Council, entitled ``Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward''. BPA aims for practical answers to specific questions of the kind: ``How did a bloodletting incident happen?'' FD, on the other hand, aims to quantitatively describe the transport of fluids and the related causes, with general equations. BPA typically solves the indirect problem of inspecting stains in a crime scene to infer the most probable bloodletting incident that produced these patterns. FD typically defines the initial and boundary conditions of a fluid system and from there describe how the system evolves in time and space, most often in a deterministic manner. We review four topics in BPA with strong connections to FD: the generation of drops, their flight, their impact and the formation of stains. Future research on these topics would deliver new quantitative tools and methods for BPA, and present new multiphase flow problems for FD.

  1. Forensic animal DNA analysis using economical two-step direct PCR.

    PubMed

    Kitpipit, Thitika; Chotigeat, Wilaiwan; Linacre, Adrian; Thanakiatkrai, Phuvadol

    2014-03-01

    Wildlife forensic DNA analysis by amplification of a mitochondrial locus followed by DNA sequencing is routine, yet suffers from being costly and time-consuming. To address these disadvantages we report on a low-cost two-step direct PCR assay to efficiently analyze 12 forensically relevant mammalian sample types without DNA extraction. A cytochrome oxidase I degenerate-universal primer pair was designed and validated for the developed assay. The 12 sample types, which included bone, horn, feces, and urine, were amplified successfully by the assay using a pre-direct PCR dilution protocol. The average amplification success rate was as high as 92.5 % (n = 350), with an average PCR product concentration of 220.71 ± 180.84 ng/?L. Differences in amplification success rate and PCR product quantity between sample types were observed; however, most samples provided high quality sequences, permitting a 100 % nucleotide similarity to their respective species via BLAST database queries. The combination of PBS and Phire(®) Hot Start II DNA polymerase gave comparable amplification success rate and amplicon quantity with the proprietary commercial kits (P > 0.05, n = 350) but at considerably lower cost. The stability of the assay was tested by successfully amplifying samples that had been stored for up to 12 months. Our data indicate that this low-cost two-step direct amplification assay has the potential to be a valuable tool for the forensic DNA community. PMID:24435950

  2. Phylogenetic analysis and forensic characteristics of 12 populations using 23 Y-STR loci.

    PubMed

    Gao, Tianzhen; Yun, Libing; Gu, Yan; He, Wang; Wang, Zheng; Hou, Yiping

    2015-11-01

    Genetic analysis of Y-STRs has the potential to be used to explore the complexity in population substructures and to perform forensic ancestry inference. In this study, 334 individuals from 12 populations were typed using the PowerPlex(®) Y23 System (Promega, USA) to investigate their relationship. Population comparisons with other East Asian populations collated from YHRD (Y-STR Haplotype Reference Database) were also performed. Variant alleles, including seven intermediate alleles in 15 samples were observed, while the novel allele 11.3 at the DYS549 locus was confirmed by sequencing. Our results showed that the fraction of unique haplotypes differed among the 12 populations studied here. A close relationship was found between Chinese and other East Asian populations. The present study contributed to the enrichment of the forensic Y-chromosome databases with a high resolution 23 Y-STR marker set, which is informative in forensic casework, such as familial searching and estimating the geographical origin of the offender. PMID:26218983

  3. Forensic identification science evidence since Daubert: Part I--A quantitative analysis of the exclusion of forensic identification science evidence.

    PubMed

    Page, Mark; Taylor, Jane; Blenkin, Matt

    2011-09-01

    The U.S. Supreme Court decisions in Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals Inc. and Kumho Tire Co. Ltd. v. Carmichael transformed the way scientific expert evidence was reviewed in courts across the United States. To gauge the impact of these rulings on the admission of forensic identification evidence, the authors analyzed 548 judicial opinions from cases where admission of such evidence was challenged. Eighty-one cases (15%) involved exclusion or limitation of identification evidence, with 50 (65.7%) of these failing to meet the "reliability" threshold. This was largely because of a failure to demonstrate a sufficient scientific foundation for either the technique (27 cases) or the expert's conclusions (17 cases). The incidence of exclusion/limitation because of a lack of demonstrable reliability suggests that there is a continuing need for the forensic sciences to pursue research validating their underlying theories and techniques of identification to ensure their continued acceptance by the courts. PMID:21884119

  4. Forensic radiology in dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Manigandan, T.; Sumathy, C.; Elumalai, M.; Sathasivasubramanian, S.; Kannan, A.

    2015-01-01

    Radiography can play an important part in forensic odontology, mainly to establish identification. This may take the precise form of comparison between antemortem and postmortem radiographs. Radiographs may also be taken to determine the age of a minor victim and even help in the assessment of the sex and ethnic group. Comparable radiographs are an essential factor to confirm identification in a mass disaster. PMID:26015728

  5. Enhanced Genetic Analysis of Single Human Bioparticles Recovered by Simplified Micromanipulation from Forensic ‘Touch DNA’ Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Farash, Katherine; Hanson, Erin K.; Ballantyne, Jack

    2015-01-01

    DNA profiles can be obtained from ‘touch DNA’ evidence, which comprises microscopic traces of human biological material. Current methods for the recovery of trace DNA employ cotton swabs or adhesive tape to sample an area of interest. However, such a ‘blind-swabbing’ approach will co-sample cellular material from the different individuals, even if the individuals’ cells are located in geographically distinct locations on the item. Thus, some of the DNA mixtures encountered in touch DNA samples are artificially created by the swabbing itself. In some instances, a victim’s DNA may be found in significant excess thus masking any potential perpetrator’s DNA. In order to circumvent the challenges with standard recovery and analysis methods, we have developed a lower cost, ‘smart analysis’ method that results in enhanced genetic analysis of touch DNA evidence. We describe an optimized and efficient micromanipulation recovery strategy for the collection of bio-particles present in touch DNA samples, as well as an enhanced amplification strategy involving a one-step 5 µl microvolume lysis/STR amplification to permit the recovery of STR profiles from the bio-particle donor(s). The use of individual or few (i.e., “clumps”) bioparticles results in the ability to obtain single source profiles. These procedures represent alternative enhanced techniques for the isolation and analysis of single bioparticles from forensic touch DNA evidence. While not necessary in every forensic investigation, the method could be highly beneficial for the recovery of a single source perpetrator DNA profile in cases involving physical assault (e.g., strangulation) that may not be possible using standard analysis techniques. Additionally, the strategies developed here offer an opportunity to obtain genetic information at the single cell level from a variety of other non-forensic trace biological material. PMID:25867046

  6. Near-Real-Time Analysis of Publicly Communicated Disaster Response Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, Trevor

    2015-04-01

    During a disaster situation the public will need to make critical actions regarding what to do, where to go, how to get there, and so on. The more informed the public is, the better actions they are able to make, resulting in reduced disaster impacts. The criteria for what information to provide the public needs to change depending on the specific needs of the disaster affected population. The method of dissemination also needs to match the communication channels that the public typically uses in disaster situations. This research project investigates the dynamic information needs of disaster affected populations and how information leads to actions. The purpose of the research project is to identify key indicators for measuring how well informed the public is during disasters. The indicators are limited to those which can be observed as communication is happening (i.e., in near-real-time). By doing so, the indicators can be analyzed as disaster situations unfold, deficiencies can be identified, and recommendations can be made to potentially improve communication while the response is still underway. The end goal of the research is to improve the ability of communicators to inform disaster affected communities. A classification scheme has been developed to categorize the information provided to the public during disasters. Under each category is a set of typical questions that the information should answer. These questions are the result of a best observed practice review of the information available during 11 disasters. For example, under the category 'Life Saving Response', the questions which should be answered are who is doing what (Evacuation, SAR), where and when, and the amount of the affected communities' needs being covered by these actions. Review of what questions remain unanswered acts as the first indicator, referred to as an 'Information Gap Analysis'. Comparative analysis of the information within categories, between categories, and between similar disasters allows for further indicators to be observed in near-real-time. Other indicators include: timing of information provision; appropriate emphasis on most critical information; appropriate terminology; appropriate information medium; appropriate comparison to past events, and; guidance regarding what to do.

  7. Real-Time Earthquake Analysis for Disaster Mitigation (READI) Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Real-time GNSS networks are making a significant impact on our ability to forecast, assess, and mitigate the effects of geological hazards. I describe the activities of the Real-time Earthquake Analysis for Disaster Mitigation (READI) working group. The group leverages 600+ real-time GPS stations in western North America operated by UNAVCO (PBO network), Central Washington University (PANGA), US Geological Survey & Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SCIGN project), UC Berkeley & US Geological Survey (BARD network), and the Pacific Geosciences Centre (WCDA project). Our goal is to demonstrate an earthquake and tsunami early warning system for western North America. Rapid response is particularly important for those coastal communities that are in the near-source region of large earthquakes and may have only minutes of warning time, and who today are not adequately covered by existing seismic and basin-wide ocean-buoy monitoring systems. The READI working group is performing comparisons of independent real time analyses of 1 Hz GPS data for station displacements and is participating in government-sponsored earthquake and tsunami exercises in the Western U.S. I describe a prototype seismogeodetic system using a cluster of southern California stations that includes GNSS tracking and collocation with MEMS accelerometers for real-time estimation of seismic velocity and displacement waveforms, which has advantages for improved earthquake early warning and tsunami forecasts compared to seismic-only or GPS-only methods. The READI working group's ultimate goal is to participate in an Indo-Pacific Tsunami early warning system that utilizes GNSS real-time displacements and ionospheric measurements along with seismic, near-shore buoys and ocean-bottom pressure sensors, where available, to rapidly estimate magnitude and finite fault slip models for large earthquakes, and then forecast tsunami source, energy scale, geographic extent, inundation and runup. This will require cooperation with other real-time efforts around the Pacific Rim in terms of sharing, analysis centers, and advisory bulletins to the responsible government agencies. The IAG's Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS), in particular its natural hazards theme, provides a natural umbrella for achieving this objective.

  8. Comparative evaluation of different extraction and quantification methods for forensic RNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Grabmüller, Melanie; Madea, Burkhard; Courts, Cornelius

    2015-05-01

    Since about 2005, there is increasing interest in forensic RNA analysis whose versatility may very favorably complement traditional DNA profiling in forensic casework. There is, however, no method available specifically dedicated for extraction of RNA from forensically relevant sample material. In this study we compared five commercially available and commonly used RNA extraction kits and methods (mirVana™ miRNA Isolation Kit Ambion; Trizol® Reagent, Invitrogen; NucleoSpin® miRNA Kit Macherey-Nagel; AllPrep DNA/RNA Mini Kit and RNeasy® Mini Kit both Qiagen) to assess their relative effectiveness of yielding RNA of good quality and their compatibility with co-extraction of DNA amenable to STR profiling. We set up samples of small amounts of dried blood, liquid saliva, semen and buccal mucosa that were aged for different time intervals for co-extraction of RNA and DNA. RNA quality was assessed by determination of 'RNA integrity number' (RIN) and quantitative PCR based expression analysis. DNA quality was assessed via monitoring STR typing success rates. By comparison, the different methods exhibited considerable differences between RNA and DNA yields, RNA quality values and expression levels, and STR profiling success, with the AllPrep DNA/RNA Mini Kit and the NucleoSpin® miRNA Kit excelling at DNA co-extraction and RNA results, respectively. Overall, there was no 'best' method to satisfy all demands of comprehensible co-analysis of RNA and DNA and it appears that each method has specific merits and flaws. We recommend to cautiously choose from available methods and align its characteristics with the needs of the experimental setting at hand. PMID:25625965

  9. Application of mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis in the forensic identification of Chinese sika deer subspecies.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hua; Wan, Qiu-Hong; Fang, Sheng-Guo; Zhang, Shu-Yan

    2005-03-10

    As a direct and indirect consequence of human activities, only two subspecies, Cervus nippon sinchuanicus and Cervus nippon kopschi, currently subsist in the wild of China. However, a large population of Cervus nippon hortulorum and Cervus nippon nippon is raised in order to gain deer parts for Chinese traditional medicine. According to Chinese Wild Animal Conservation Law, hunting, capturing and trading of the wild sika deer are strictly banned, however, raising and trading of the domestic individual are permitted. Thus, it is very necessary to identify the subspecies of sika deer in China in forensic tests. In our study, we used mitochondrial DNA control region sequence analysis and phylogenetic analysis to identify the subspecies of sika deer. Mitochondrial DNA control region sequences analysis revealed that two haplotypes came from the unknown samples. One is the same as the haplotype that came from the samples of wild population of C. n. kopschi. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the two haplotypes of unknown samples clustered with the haplotypes of C. n. kopschi, and had significant difference from the haplotypes of the other subspecies. These results together revealed that the unknown samples came from two individuals that belong to the wild population of C. n. kopschi living in the Qinglingfeng State Natural Reserve of Zhejiang province. Therefore, the results provide forensic evidence of illegal wild animal hunting. PMID:15639603

  10. Critical review of forensic trace evidence analysis and the need for a new approach.

    PubMed

    Stoney, David A; Stoney, Paul L

    2015-06-01

    The historical development, contributions and limitations of the two traditional approaches to trace evidence analysis are reviewed. The first approach was as generalist practitioner, looking broadly at an assemblage of many different particle types. The second was that of specialist practitioner, with attention focused on one specific particle type. Four factors have significantly impacted the effectiveness of these approaches: (1) increasing technological capabilities, (2) increasing complexity in the character of manufactured materials, (3) changes in forensic laboratory management, and (4) changing scientific and legal expectations. The effectiveness of each approach is assessed within the context of these changes. More recently, new technologies have been applied to some trace evidence problems, intended to address one or more limitations. This has led to a third approach founded on discrete, highly technical methods addressing specific analytical problems. After evaluating the contributions and limitations of this third approach, we consider the different ways that technologies could be developed to address unmet needs in forensic trace evidence analysis. The route toward effective use of new technologies is contrasted with how forensic science laboratories are currently choosing and employing them. The conclusion is that although new technologies are contributing, we are not on a path that will result in their most effective and appropriate use. A new approach is required. Based on an analysis of the contributions of each of the three exisiting approaches, seven characteristics of an effective trace evidence analysis capability were determined: (1) particle traces should be a major problem-solving tool, (2) there should be readily available, straightforward methods to enable their use, (3) all available and potentially useful particle types should be considered, (4) decisions to use them should be made in the context of each case, guided by what they can contribute to the case and how efficiently they can do so, (5) analyses should be conducted using appropriate technologies, (6) findings should be timely and directly integrated with case-specific problems, and (7) new technologies should be used to improve the overall effectiveness of the capability. Clearly new technologies have the potential to revolutionize forensic trace evidence, but just as clearly some of the traditional capabilities have been rendered ineffective, or lost entirely, by the way we have come to approach the problem. Having critically defined the current limitations of and the desired outcomes, the next focus should be consideration of alternative approaches that might achieve such a result. PMID:25909995

  11. [The use of emission spectrum analysis in the forensic medical expertise of gunshot wounds (experimental research)].

    PubMed

    Makarenko, T F; Luzanova, I S; Chirkova, O G

    1999-01-01

    Presents the methodology of experimental shots from various guns (n = 11) by common cartridges and of emission spectral analysis (ESA) which was used to study the regularities in deposition of "gunshot metals" at the site of gunshot injuries and to detect the characteristic differences in shooting with and without obstacles. Effects of some factors on deposition of metal components of gunshot products at the site of gunshot injuries are studied: type of gun, shell (with/without coating or semicoated), presence of obstacles, distance, and order of the shot. Results of studies are presented for some guns, which may be useful in forensic medical expert evaluations by means of ESA. PMID:10224918

  12. Advanced Signal Analysis for Forensic Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Koppenjan; Matthew Streeton; Hua Lee; Michael Lee; Sashi Ono

    2004-06-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) systems have traditionally been used to image subsurface objects. The main focus of this paper is to evaluate an advanced signal analysis technique. Instead of compiling spatial data for the analysis, this technique conducts object recognition procedures based on spectral statistics. The identification feature of an object type is formed from the training vectors by a singular-value decomposition procedure. To illustrate its capability, this procedure is applied to experimental data and compared to the performance of the neural-network approach.

  13. Laura Monks (99584204) Forensic Image Analysis of the Foramen Magnum The gender identification can be made to approximately 95% accuracy when all the

    E-print Network

    Whelan, Paul F.

    Laura Monks (99584204) Forensic Image Analysis of the Foramen Magnum Abstract The gender of the foramen magnum. The initial study used 5 skulls from the UCD anthropological department to evaluate1 #12;Laura Monks (99584204) Forensic Image Analysis of the Foramen Magnum Table of Contents

  14. Advances in X-Ray Chemical Analysis, Japan, 45 (2014) ISSN 0911-7806 Role of Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy in the Forensic Analysis of

    E-print Network

    Jun, Kawai

    2014-01-01

    IR Dura As As AsAs 1 As As O 2 O #12;45 91 3 10 a b 4 11 3a 3b Scope ATR Attenuated Total Reflectance Spectroscopy in the Forensic Analysis of Wakayama Curry Arsenic Poisoning Case Anthony T. TU and Jun KAWAI #12 80523, U. S. A. 606-8501 Role of Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy in the Forensic Analysis of Wakayama

  15. Forensic age estimation by the Schmeling method: computed tomography analysis of the medial clavicular epiphysis.

    PubMed

    Ekizoglu, Oguzhan; Hocaoglu, Elif; Inci, Ercan; Sayin, Ibrahim; Solmaz, Dilek; Bilgili, Mustafa Gokhan; Can, Ismail Ozgur

    2015-01-01

    The variability of anthropometric measures, such as the degree of ossification, among societies should be taken into account when estimating age. The degree of ossification of the medial clavicle can be determined with thin-section computed tomography (CT), which is one of the methods recommended by the Study Group on Forensic Age Diagnostics of the German Association of Forensic Medicine. The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate the applicability of thin-section CT analysis of the degree of ossification of the medial clavicle in a Turkish population. We evaluated the CT images (1-mm slice thickness) of 503 patients (362 male, 141 female; age, 10-35 years) using the Schmeling five-stage method. The Spearman's correlation analysis revealed a positive correlation between age and ossification stage in both male and female patients (total group: rho?=?0.838, p?analysis results indicated that the ossification stage of the medial clavicle is a good predictor when estimating age (r (2)?=?0.735 for all patients, 0.734 for male patients, 0.741 for female patients). Sex differences in ossification stages were observed only for stage 1 and 4 ossification. We believe that future research could expand the database on this topic and contribute to improvements in this measurement method. PMID:25408292

  16. Diatoms in forensic analysis: A practical approach in rats.

    PubMed

    Badu, Isaac K; Girela, Eloy; Beltrán, Cristina M; Ruz-Caracuel, Ignacio; Jimena, Ignacio

    2015-07-01

    A diagnosis of drowning is a challenge in legal medicine, as there is generally a lack of pathognomonic findings indicative of drowning. Diatom analysis has been considered very supportive for a diagnosis of drowning, although the test is still controversial for some investigators. We assessed diatoms association with drowning in the peripheral tissues of drowned rats and the effects of the drowning medium on the diatom yield. A modified acid digestion method was optimised for diatom recovery in water and rat tissues. Eighteen adult Wistar rats were employed for the study, subdivided into six groups of three rats. Groups 1, 3 and 5 were drowned in seawater, lake water, or river water respectively, while groups 2, 4 and 6 were controls (immersed after death in seawater, lake water or river water respectively). Water samples were taken from the sea, lake and river in Málaga and Córdoba (Spain) for the purposes of diatomological mapping and drowning of the rats. Diatoms were successfully recovered from all water samples and matched with tissues of the drowned rats. There were significant differences in diatom numbers between control and test samples for all the tissues studied, as well as within test samples. Histological investigations conducted on lung samples obtained from drowned rats provided complementary and valuable information. This study demonstrates the feasibility of the diatom test as a reliable method for the diagnosis of drowning, especially if adequate precautions are taken to avoid contamination, and if interpretation of the analysis is performed in light of other complementary investigations. PMID:24966336

  17. Forensic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, P. G. W.

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes the type of work carried out by forensic chemists and the minimum qualification needed for appointment. Indicates that there are eight Home Office regional forensic science laboratories in addition to the Central Research Establishment at Aldermaston. (CC)

  18. The analysis of forensic samples using laser micro-pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Armitage, S; Saywell, S; Roux, C; Lennard, C; Greenwood, P

    2001-09-01

    Laser micropyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is used for the analysis of paint, photocopier toner, and synthetic fiber materials to test the forensic potential of this emerging technology. It uses a laser microprobe to selectively target very small parts of the materials for GC-MS analysis. Whereas the paint and the toner samples were amenable to direct laser pyrolysis, the synthetic fibers proved transparent to the 1064 nm laser radiation. The difficulty with the fibers demonstrates that a specific laser wavelength may not be appropriate for all types of materials. Nevertheless, the fibers were able to be indirectly pyrolyzed by impregnation in a strongly absorbing graphite matrix. A vast array of hydrocarbon pyrolysates was detected from the different materials studied. Unique product distributions were detected from each sample and in sufficient detail to facilitate individual molecular characterization (i.e., molecular fingerprinting). The integrity of the laser data were confirmed by comparison to data obtained from the same samples by the more conventional pyroprobe pyrolysis GC-MS method. The high spatial resolution and selectivity of the laser method may be advantageous for specific forensic applications, however, further work may be required to improve the reproducibility of the data. PMID:11569542

  19. Morphological, spectral and chromatography analysis and forensic comparison of PET fibers.

    PubMed

    Farah, Shady; Tsach, Tsadok; Bentolila, Alfonso; Domb, Abraham J

    2014-06-01

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fiber analysis and comparison by spectral and polymer molecular weight determination was investigated. Plain fibers of PET, a common textile fiber and plastic material was chosen for this study. The fibers were analyzed for morphological (SEM and AFM), spectral (IR and NMR), thermal (DSC) and molecular weight (MS and GPC) differences. Molecular analysis of PET fibers by Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) allowed the comparison of fibers that could not be otherwise distinguished with high confidence. Plain PET fibers were dissolved in hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) and analyzed by GPC using hexafluoroisopropanol:chloroform 2:98 v/v as eluent. 14 PET fiber samples, collected from various commercial producers, were analyzed for polymer molecular weight by GPC. Distinct differences in the molecular weight of the different fiber samples were found which may have potential use in forensic fiber comparison. PET fibers with average molecular weights between about 20,000 and 70,000 g mol(-1) were determined using fiber concentrations in HFIP as low as 1 ?g mL(-1). This GPC analytical method can be applied for exclusively distinguish between PET fibers using 1 ?g of fiber. This method can be extended to forensic comparison of other synthetic fibers such as polyamides and acrylics. PMID:24725864

  20. Population studies of 17 equine STR for forensic and phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    van de Goor, L H P; van Haeringen, W A; Lenstra, J A

    2011-12-01

    As a consequence of the close integration of horses into human society, equine DNA analysis has become relevant for forensic purposes. However, the information content of the equine Short Tandem Repeat (STR) loci commonly used for the identification or paternity testing has so far not been fully characterized. Population studies were performed for 17 polymorphic STR loci (AHT4, AHT5, ASB2, ASB17, ASB23, CA425, HMS1, HMS2, HMS3, HMS6, HMS7, HTG4, HTG6, HTG7, HTG10, LEX3 and VHL20) including 8641 horses representing 35 populations. The power of parental exclusion, polymorphic information content, expected and observed heterozygosity and probability of identity were calculated, showing that the set of 17 STRs has sufficient discriminating power for forensic analysis in almost all breeds. We also explored the reliability of individual assignment tests in identifying the correct breeds of origin for unknown samples. The overall proportion of individuals correctly assigned to a population was 97.2%. Finally, we demonstrate the phylogenetic signal of the 17 STR. We found three clusters of related breeds: (i) the cold-blooded draught breeds Haflinger, Dutch draft and Friesian; (ii) the pony breeds Shetland and Miniature horse with the Falabella, Appaloosa and Icelandic; and (iii) The Warmblood riding breeds, together with the hot-blooded Standard-bred, Thoroughbred and Arabian. PMID:22035004

  1. The development of a tool for assessing the quality of closed circuit camera footage for use in forensic gait analysis.

    PubMed

    Birch, Ivan; Vernon, Wesley; Walker, Jeremy; Saxelby, Jai

    2013-10-01

    Gait analysis from closed circuit camera footage is now commonly used as evidence in criminal trials. The biomechanical analysis of human gait is a well established science in both clinical and laboratory settings. However, closed circuit camera footage is rarely of the quality of that taken in the more controlled clinical and laboratory environments. The less than ideal quality of much of this footage for use in gait analysis is associated with a range of issues, the combination of which can often render the footage unsuitable for use in gait analysis. The aim of this piece of work was to develop a tool for assessing the suitability of closed circuit camera footage for the purpose of forensic gait analysis. A Delphi technique was employed with a small sample of expert forensic gait analysis practitioners, to identify key quality elements of CCTV footage used in legal proceedings. Five elements of the footage were identified and then subdivided into 15 contributing sub-elements, each of which was scored using a 5-point Likert scale. A Microsoft Excel worksheet was developed to calculate automatically an overall score from the fifteen sub-element scores. Five expert witnesses experienced in using CCTV footage for gait analysis then trialled the prototype tool on current case footage. A repeatability study was also undertaken using standardized CCTV footage. The results showed the tool to be a simple and repeatable means of assessing the suitability of closed circuit camera footage for use in forensic gait analysis. The inappropriate use of poor quality footage could lead to challenges to the practice of forensic gait analysis. All parties involved in criminal proceedings must therefore understand the fitness for purpose of any footage used. The development of this tool could offer a method of achieving this goal, and help to assure the continued role of forensic gait analysis as an aid to the identification process. PMID:24112345

  2. The relationship of forensic odontology with various dental specialties in the articles published in the Journal of Forensic odonto-stomatology from 2005 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is a paucity of information about the relationship of forensic odontology with various dental specialties in the articles published in the Journal of Forensic Odonto-Stomatology. This study aimed to find the relationship of forensic odontology with various dental specialties in the articles published in the Journal of Forensic Odonto-Stomatology from 2005 to 2012 over an 8-year period. Methods: Bibliometric analysis was performed using web-based search during December 2013. Results: Out of the total 97 published articles, the maximum number of published articles were related to oral medicine and radiology (20) and community dentistry (20), followed by orthodontics (18), prosthodontics (15), and oral pathology and microbiology (8), pedodontics (7), oral and maxillofacial surgery (4) and conservative dentistry and endodontics (3). Among the articles published in Journal of Forensic Odonto-Stomatology, mass disasters (10) and bite mark analysis (10), followed by sexual dimorphism (8) and dental fraud and malpractice (8), followed by craniofacial superimposition (6) and identification (6) form the major attraction of the contributors. Conclusion: This paper has tried to evaluate the new working classification proposed for forensic odontology based on its relationship with other dental specialties. PMID:26097336

  3. Frequency spectrum method-based stress analysis for oil pipelines in earthquake disaster areas.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaonan; Lu, Hongfang; Huang, Kun; Wu, Shijuan; Qiao, Weibiao

    2015-01-01

    When a long distance oil pipeline crosses an earthquake disaster area, inertial force and strong ground motion can cause the pipeline stress to exceed the failure limit, resulting in bending and deformation failure. To date, researchers have performed limited safety analyses of oil pipelines in earthquake disaster areas that include stress analysis. Therefore, using the spectrum method and theory of one-dimensional beam units, CAESAR II is used to perform a dynamic earthquake analysis for an oil pipeline in the XX earthquake disaster area. This software is used to determine if the displacement and stress of the pipeline meet the standards when subjected to a strong earthquake. After performing the numerical analysis, the primary seismic action axial, longitudinal and horizontal displacement directions and the critical section of the pipeline can be located. Feasible project enhancement suggestions based on the analysis results are proposed. The designer is able to utilize this stress analysis method to perform an ultimate design for an oil pipeline in earthquake disaster areas; therefore, improving the safe operation of the pipeline. PMID:25692790

  4. Frequency Spectrum Method-Based Stress Analysis for Oil Pipelines in Earthquake Disaster Areas

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaonan; Lu, Hongfang; Huang, Kun; Wu, Shijuan; Qiao, Weibiao

    2015-01-01

    When a long distance oil pipeline crosses an earthquake disaster area, inertial force and strong ground motion can cause the pipeline stress to exceed the failure limit, resulting in bending and deformation failure. To date, researchers have performed limited safety analyses of oil pipelines in earthquake disaster areas that include stress analysis. Therefore, using the spectrum method and theory of one-dimensional beam units, CAESAR II is used to perform a dynamic earthquake analysis for an oil pipeline in the XX earthquake disaster area. This software is used to determine if the displacement and stress of the pipeline meet the standards when subjected to a strong earthquake. After performing the numerical analysis, the primary seismic action axial, longitudinal and horizontal displacement directions and the critical section of the pipeline can be located. Feasible project enhancement suggestions based on the analysis results are proposed. The designer is able to utilize this stress analysis method to perform an ultimate design for an oil pipeline in earthquake disaster areas; therefore, improving the safe operation of the pipeline. PMID:25692790

  5. Literature Tracking NYC OCME Forensic Biology Continuing Education Seminar

    E-print Network

    http://www.fbi.gov/hq/lab/fsc/ current/backissu.htm Forensic Science Publications Journal of ForensicLiterature Tracking NYC OCME Forensic Biology Continuing Education Seminar March 25, 2009 http and Technology john.butler@nist.gov Topics and Techniques for Forensic DNA Analysis NYC OCME Dept of Forensic

  6. Assessment of palatal rugae pattern and their reproducibility for application in forensic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Divya; Juneja, Achint; Jain, Anshi; Khanna, Kaveri Surya; Pruthi, Neha; Gupta, Amit; Chowdhary, Meenakshi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Rugae are the anatomical folds that are located on the anterior third of palate behind the incisive papillae. They are also known as “Plica palatine,” and the study of these patterns is called palatoscopy. It can be used in various fields such as sex determination, orthodontics and forensic odontology. Objective: To investigate palatal rugae patterns in females and males and to evaluate the stability of these patterns in pre- and post-operative orthodontic cases. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients were selected for this study (25 males and 25 females). From the above sample, 10 males and 10 females had undergone orthodontic treatment and their casts were retrieved for sex determination analysis and stability of rugae patterns pre- and post-treatment. Results: Changes occur in bony structures during fixed orthodontic treatment but rugae patterns remain stable. Kappa stats and Chi square test were used to analyze agreement between the two evaluators, and 95% correct matches were achieved. Conclusion: Palatal rugae are unique to every individual and can be used as an indicator in forensic odontology. PMID:24255558

  7. Characterization/Selection of a Continuous Wave Laser for RIMS Analysis in Nuclear Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Sunny; Alves, F.; Karunasiri, G.; Smith, C.; Isselhardt, B.

    2015-03-01

    The effort to implement the technology of resonance ionization mass spectroscopy (RIMS) to problems of nuclear forensics involves the use of multiple lasers to selectively ionize the elements of concern. While current systems incorporate pulsed lasers, we present the results of a feasibility study to determine alternative (Continuous Wave) laser technologies to be employed for analysis of the actinides and fission products of debris from a nuclear detonation. RIMS has the potential to provide rapid isotope ratio quantification of the actinides and important fission products for post detonation nuclear forensics. The current approach to ionize uranium and plutonium uses three Ti-Sapphire pulsed lasers capable of a fundamental wavelength range of 700-1000 nm. In this work, we describe the use of a COTS CW laser to replace one of the pulsed lasers used for the second resonance excitation step of plutonium near 847.282 nm. We characterize the critical laser parameters necessary to achieve high precision isotope ratio measurements including the stability over time of the mean wavelength, bandwidth and spectral mode purity. This far narrower bandwidth laser provides a simpler setup, more robust hardware (greater mobility), and more efficient use of laser irradiance.

  8. MtDNA Analysis for Genetic Identification of Forensically Important Sarcophagid Flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Changquan; Fu, Xiaoliang; Xie, Kai; Yan, Weitao; Guo, Yadong

    2015-11-01

    DNA-based technologies have been increasingly used in species determination of forensically important sarcophagids, as they are often not morphologically distinct, especially for the immature specimens. The mitochondrial genome has been broadly used for species-level identifications. Although Chinese sarcophagid sequences of short fragments (200-600?bp) had been deposited in GenBank, the barcode region and the complete cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and COII sequences are still unavailable. In this study, 78 sarcophagid fly specimens, representing 17 Chinese sarcophagid species, were collected from 29 locations in 18 Chinese provinces. Sequence data of the mitochondrial COI and COII of the most important Chinese flesh fly taxa associated with cadavers were presented for first time, which serve as reference standards for Chinese species determination. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the COI and COII sequences were useful for identifying most sarcophagid species. The results of this research will be conductive for implementation of the Chinese Sarcophagidae in forensic entomology. However, the application of mitochondrial DNA as species identifier requires great circumspection and additional markers and methods should be studied to ensure accuracy of identification in the future. PMID:26336270

  9. A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Stance in Disaster News Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Lian; Stevenson, Marie

    2013-01-01

    This study examines stance in cross-cultural media discourse by comparing disaster news reports on the Sichuan earthquake of May 2008 in a Chinese, an Australian Chinese, and an Australian newspaper. The stance taken in the news reports is examined using the Attitude sub-system of Martin and White's (2005) Appraisal framework. The analysis

  10. Macroeconomics of Natural Disasters: Strengths and Weaknesses of Meta-Analysis Versus Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    A G van Bergeijk, Peter; Lazzaroni, Sara

    2015-06-01

    We use the case of the macroeconomic impact of natural disasters to analyze strengths and weaknesses of meta-analysis in an emerging research field. Macroeconomists have published on this issue since 2002 (we identified 60 studies to date). The results of the studies are contradictory and therefore the need to synthesize the available research is evident. Meta-analysis is a useful method in this field. An important aim of our article is to show how one can use the identified methodological characteristics to better understand the robustness and importance of new findings. To provide a comparative perspective, we contrast our meta-analysis and its findings with the major influential research synthesis in the field: the IPCC's 2012 special report Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation. We show that the IPCC could have been more confident about the negative economic impact of disasters and more transparent on inclusion and qualification of studies, if it had been complemented by a meta-analysis. Our meta-analysis shows that, controlling for modeling strategies and data set, the impact of disasters is significantly negative. The evidence is strongest for direct costs studies where we see no difference between our larger sample and the studies included in the IPCC report. Direct cost studies and indirect cost studies differ significantly, both in terms of the confidence that can be attached to a negative impact of natural disasters and in terms of the sources of heterogeneity of the findings reported in the primary studies. PMID:25847486

  11. Forensic Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, William D.; Jackson, Glen P.

    2015-07-01

    Developments in forensic mass spectrometry tend to follow, rather than lead, the developments in other disciplines. Examples of techniques having forensic potential born independently of forensic applications include ambient ionization, imaging mass spectrometry, isotope ratio mass spectrometry, portable mass spectrometers, and hyphenated chromatography-mass spectrometry instruments, to name a few. Forensic science has the potential to benefit enormously from developments that are funded by other means, if only the infrastructure and personnel existed to adopt, validate, and implement the new technologies into casework. Perhaps one unique area in which forensic science is at the cutting edge is in the area of chemometrics and the determination of likelihood ratios for the evaluation of the weight of evidence. Such statistical techniques have been developed most extensively for ignitable-liquid residue analyses and isotope ratio analysis. This review attempts to capture the trends, motivating forces, and likely impact of developing areas of forensic mass spectrometry, with the caveat that none of this research is likely to have any real impact in the forensic community unless: (a) The instruments developed are turned into robust black boxes with red and green lights for positives and negatives, respectively, or (b) there are PhD graduates in the workforce who can help adopt these sophisticated techniques.

  12. The Central European Flood in June 2013: Experiences from a Near-Real Time Disaster Analysis in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröter, Kai; Khazai, Bijan; Mühr, Bernhard; Elmer, Florian; Bessel, Tina; Möhrle, Stella; Dittrich, André; Kreibich, Heidi; Fohringer, Joachim; Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Trieselmann, Werner; Kunz, Michael; Merz, Bruno

    2014-05-01

    The central European flood in June 2013 once again revealed that complete flood protection is not possible. Inundations caused severe damage to buildings, infrastructure and agricultural lands. Official estimates of total damage in Germany amount to approx. 8bn € which is lower than the damage caused by the August 2002 flood - the most expensive natural hazard experienced so far in Germany. Repeated and long lasting precipitation in combination with extremely adverse preconditions induced a large scale flood event. In Germany, particularly the catchment areas of the Danube and Elbe were affected. The June 2013 flood has been the most severe flood event in terms of spatial extent and magnitude of flood peaks in Germany during the last 60 years. Large scale inundation occurred as a consequence of levee breaches near Deggendorf (Danube), Groß Rosenau and Fischbeck (Elbe). The flood has had a great impact on people, transportation and the economy. In many areas more than 50,000 thousand people were evacuated. Electrical grid and local water supply utilities failed during the floods. Furthermore, traffic was disrupted in the interregional transportation network including federal highways and long distance railways. CEDIM analysed and assessed the flood event within its current research activity on near real time forensic disaster analysis (CEDIM FDA: www.cedim.de). This contribution gives an overview about the CEDIM FDA analyses' results. It describes the key hydro-meteorological factors that triggered this extraordinary event and draws comparisons to major flood events in August 2002 and July 1954. Further, it shows the outcomes of a rapid initial impact assessment on the district level using social, economic and institutional indicators which are supplemented with information on the number of people evacuated and transportation disruptions and combined with the magnitude of the event.

  13. Forensic analysis of inks by imaging desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ifa, D R; Gumaelius, L M; Eberlin, L S; Manicke, N E; Cooks, R G

    2007-05-01

    Desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) is employed in the forensic analysis of documents. Blue ballpoint pen inks applied to ordinary writing paper are examined under ambient conditions without any prior sample preparation. When coupled to an automated moving stage, two-dimensional molecular images are generated. Proof-of-principle experiments include characterization of a simulated forged number and examination of older written records. This application of DESI has advantages over extractive techniques in terms of speed and sample preservation. The effects of the desorbing solvent composition, in this case a mixture of methanol and water, and of flow rate, are evaluated. Results suggest that the solubility of the analyte (dyes Basic Blue 7, Basic Violet 3 and Solvent Blue 26) plays an important role in desorption from the paper surface. PMID:17471393

  14. Measurement and analysis of diastereomer ratios for forensic characterization of brodifacoum

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, John R.; Alperin, Paul J.; Cho, Herman M.

    2012-01-10

    The highly toxic organic compound brodifacoum exists as two diastereomers. The diasteromer ratio in a sample depends on the methods and conditions used for synthesis and purification, and may vary over time due to differential stability of the diastereomers. The stereoisomer distribution may thus be viewed as a chemical forensic signature, containing information about the production and history of unknown samples, and providing a basis of comparison between samples. A determination of diastereomer ratios can be performed by a number of techniques, notably gas or liquid chromatography or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. An analysis of a cross-section of U.S.-made commercial technical grade brodifacoum material shows that there are detectable manufacturer-to-manufacturer and batch-to-batch variations in diastereomer ratios. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  15. Design of experiments and data analysis challenges in calibration for forensics applications

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson-Cook, Christine M.; Burr, Thomas L.; Hamada, Michael S.; Ruggiero, Christy E.; Thomas, Edward V.

    2015-07-15

    Forensic science aims to infer characteristics of source terms using measured observables. Our focus is on statistical design of experiments and data analysis challenges arising in nuclear forensics. More specifically, we focus on inferring aspects of experimental conditions (of a process to produce product Pu oxide powder), such as temperature, nitric acid concentration, and Pu concentration, using measured features of the product Pu oxide powder. The measured features, Y, include trace chemical concentrations and particle morphology such as particle size and shape of the produced Pu oxide power particles. Making inferences about the nature of inputs X that were used to create nuclear materials having particular characteristics, Y, is an inverse problem. Therefore, statistical analysis can be used to identify the best set (or sets) of Xs for a new set of observed responses Y. One can fit a model (or models) such as ? = f(?) + error, for each of the responses, based on a calibration experiment and then “invert” to solve for the best set of Xs for a new set of Ys. This perspectives paper uses archived experimental data to consider aspects of data collection and experiment design for the calibration data to maximize the quality of the predicted Ys in the forward models; that is, we assume that well-estimated forward models are effective in the inverse problem. In addition, we consider how to identify a best solution for the inferred X, and evaluate the quality of the result and its robustness to a variety of initial assumptions, and different correlation structures between the responses. We also briefly review recent advances in metrology issues related to characterizing particle morphology measurements used in the response vector, Y.

  16. Design of experiments and data analysis challenges in calibration for forensics applications

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Anderson-Cook, Christine M.; Burr, Thomas L.; Hamada, Michael S.; Ruggiero, Christy E.; Thomas, Edward V.

    2015-07-15

    Forensic science aims to infer characteristics of source terms using measured observables. Our focus is on statistical design of experiments and data analysis challenges arising in nuclear forensics. More specifically, we focus on inferring aspects of experimental conditions (of a process to produce product Pu oxide powder), such as temperature, nitric acid concentration, and Pu concentration, using measured features of the product Pu oxide powder. The measured features, Y, include trace chemical concentrations and particle morphology such as particle size and shape of the produced Pu oxide power particles. Making inferences about the nature of inputs X that were usedmore »to create nuclear materials having particular characteristics, Y, is an inverse problem. Therefore, statistical analysis can be used to identify the best set (or sets) of Xs for a new set of observed responses Y. One can fit a model (or models) such as ? = f(?) + error, for each of the responses, based on a calibration experiment and then “invert” to solve for the best set of Xs for a new set of Ys. This perspectives paper uses archived experimental data to consider aspects of data collection and experiment design for the calibration data to maximize the quality of the predicted Ys in the forward models; that is, we assume that well-estimated forward models are effective in the inverse problem. In addition, we consider how to identify a best solution for the inferred X, and evaluate the quality of the result and its robustness to a variety of initial assumptions, and different correlation structures between the responses. We also briefly review recent advances in metrology issues related to characterizing particle morphology measurements used in the response vector, Y.« less

  17. City ecosystem resilience analysis in case of disasters

    E-print Network

    Asprone, D; Latora, V; Manfredi, G; Nicosia, V

    2013-01-01

    One of the tasks of urban and hazard planning is to mitigate the damages and minimize the costs of the recovery process after catastrophic events. The rapidity and the efficiency of the recovery process are referred to as resilience. A mathematical definition of the resilience of an urban community has not yet identified. In this paper we propose and test a methodology for the assessment of urban resilience a catastrophic event. The idea is to merge the concepts of the engineering resilience and the ecosystem resilience. As first step we suggest a way to model an urban community inside the framework of complex network theory. Hence, to model the city as a whole, we identify hybrid networks, composed by human elements, i.e. the citizens, and physical networks, i.e. urban lifelines and infrastructures. As second step, we define and evaluate a class of efficiency indexes on the hybrid networks. By modelling the disasters of the physical components and the subsequent recovery process, and by measuring the efficie...

  18. FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF WINDOW’S® VIRTUAL MEMORY INCORPORATING THE SYSTEM’S PAGEFILE COUNTERINTELLIGENCE THROUGH MALICIOUS CODE ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Jared Stimson Edward Murphy

    2007-06-01

    FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF WINDOW’S® VIRTUAL MEMORY INCORPORATING THE SYSTEM’S PAGEFILE Computer Forensics is concerned with the use of computer investigation and analysis techniques in order to collect evidence suitable for presentation in court. The examination of volatile memory is a relatively new but important area in computer forensics. More recently criminals are becoming more forensically aware and are now able to compromise computers without accessing the hard disk of the target computer. This means that traditional incident response practice of pulling the plug will destroy the only evidence of the crime. While some techniques are available for acquiring the contents of main memory, few exist which can analyze these data in a meaningful way. One reason for this is how memory is managed by the operating system. Data belonging to one process can be distributed arbitrarily across physical memory or the hard disk, making it very difficult to recover useful information. This report will focus on how these disparate sources of information can be combined to give a single, contiguous address space for each process. Using address translation a tool is developed to reconstruct the virtual address space of a process by combining a physical memory dump with the page-file on the hard disk. COUNTERINTELLIGENCE THROUGH MALICIOUS CODE ANALYSIS As computer network technology continues to grow so does the reliance on this technology for everyday business functionality. To appeal to customers and employees alike, businesses are seeking an increased online prescience, and to increase productivity the same businesses are computerizing their day-to-day operations. The combination of a publicly accessible interface to the businesses network, and the increase in the amount of intellectual property present on these networks presents serious risks. All of this intellectual property now faces constant attacks from a wide variety of malicious software that is intended to uncover company and government secrets. Every year billions of dollars are invested in preventing and recovering from the introduction of malicious code into a system. However, there is little research being done on leveraging these attacks for counterintelligence opportunities. With the ever-increasing number of vulnerable computers on the Internet the task of attributing these attacks to an organization or a single person is a daunting one. This thesis will demonstrate the idea of intentionally running a piece of malicious code in a secure environment in order to gain counterintelligence on an attacker.

  19. sian czar and czarina. The editor's own contribution to the volume describes the forensic analysis of a mummi-

    E-print Network

    Badyaev, Alex

    Argentino Anthropologia Forense (Argentine Forensic Anthropology Team). An example of how the team worked activities and cases of their peers, and it is also a great book to supplement forensic anthropology

  20. Analysis on the spatial-temporal change characteristics of flood and drought disasters in China during 1950-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Xiuping; Chen, Shaofeng; Xu, Zengrang; Ning, Miao

    2008-10-01

    The paper is intended to analyze the temporal change and spatial distribution of flood and drought disasters during the period from 1950 to 2005 in China based on the GIS (Geographic Information System) spatial analysis methods. The data for the analysis includes statistical data of the flood and drought disasters which are suffering area and affected area and spatial geographical data of China which are 1:1000 000 province boundary vector map. The spatial data obtained from National Natural atlas published by Institute of Geographical sciences and Nature resources research, CAS. The flood disaster data are gathered from China Hazard Report in 1949-1995 and China Statistical Yearbook compiled by National Bureau of Statistics of China. By analysis of the temporal change and spatial distribution of flood and drought disasters, it can be seen that Flood and drought disasters increased in the research period. Before the middle of 1980s flood and drought disasters had lower and influenced area increased evidently after the middle of 1980s.The indicated that China flood and drought were expanded on the whole situation and stabilizing, this demonstrates China floods and droughts continued on the trend of expansion. China's major flood occurred in the South, the North and floods occurred in both the frequency or intensity was much smaller than the South, China's major drought occurred in the north. The affected rate and suffered rate for flood and drought disasters are positive correlative. This indicates the resistance capacity of agriculture system in China is faintish in general.

  1. Compound-Specific Isotope Analysis of Diesel Fuels in a Forensic Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammad, Syahidah; Frew, Russell; Hayman, Alan

    2015-02-01

    Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) offers great potential as a tool to provide chemical evidence in a forensic investigation. Many attempts to trace environmental oil spills were successful where isotopic values were particularly distinct. However, difficulties arise when a large data set is analyzed and the isotopic differences between samples are subtle. In the present study, discrimination of diesel oils involved in a diesel theft case was carried out to infer the relatedness of the samples to potential source samples. This discriminatory analysis used a suite of hydrocarbon diagnostic indices, alkanes, to generate carbon and hydrogen isotopic data of the compositions of the compounds which were then processed using multivariate statistical analyses to infer the relatedness of the data set. The results from this analysis were put into context by comparing the data with the ?13C and ?2H of alkanes in commercial diesel samples obtained from various locations in the South Island of New Zealand. Based on the isotopic character of the alkanes, it is suggested that diesel fuels involved in the diesel theft case were distinguishable. This manuscript shows that CSIA when used in tandem with multivariate statistical analysis provide a defensible means to differentiate and source-apportion qualitatively similar oils at the molecular level. This approach was able to overcome confounding challenges posed by the near single-point source of origin i.e. the very subtle differences in isotopic values between the samples.

  2. Compound-specific isotope analysis of diesel fuels in a forensic investigation.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Syahidah A; Frew, Russell D; Hayman, Alan R

    2015-01-01

    Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) offers great potential as a tool to provide chemical evidence in a forensic investigation. Many attempts to trace environmental oil spills were successful where isotopic values were particularly distinct. However, difficulties arise when a large data set is analyzed and the isotopic differences between samples are subtle. In the present study, discrimination of diesel oils involved in a diesel theft case was carried out to infer the relatedness of the samples to potential source samples. This discriminatory analysis used a suite of hydrocarbon diagnostic indices, alkanes, to generate carbon and hydrogen isotopic data of the compositions of the compounds which were then processed using multivariate statistical analyses to infer the relatedness of the data set. The results from this analysis were put into context by comparing the data with the ?(13)C and ?(2)H of alkanes in commercial diesel samples obtained from various locations in the South Island of New Zealand. Based on the isotopic character of the alkanes, it is suggested that diesel fuels involved in the diesel theft case were distinguishable. This manuscript shows that CSIA when used in tandem with multivariate statistical analysis provide a defensible means to differentiate and source-apportion qualitatively similar oils at the molecular level. This approach was able to overcome confounding challenges posed by the near single-point source of origin, i.e., the very subtle differences in isotopic values between the samples. PMID:25774366

  3. Compound-specific isotope analysis of diesel fuels in a forensic investigation

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, Syahidah A.; Frew, Russell D.; Hayman, Alan R.

    2015-01-01

    Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) offers great potential as a tool to provide chemical evidence in a forensic investigation. Many attempts to trace environmental oil spills were successful where isotopic values were particularly distinct. However, difficulties arise when a large data set is analyzed and the isotopic differences between samples are subtle. In the present study, discrimination of diesel oils involved in a diesel theft case was carried out to infer the relatedness of the samples to potential source samples. This discriminatory analysis used a suite of hydrocarbon diagnostic indices, alkanes, to generate carbon and hydrogen isotopic data of the compositions of the compounds which were then processed using multivariate statistical analyses to infer the relatedness of the data set. The results from this analysis were put into context by comparing the data with the ?13C and ?2H of alkanes in commercial diesel samples obtained from various locations in the South Island of New Zealand. Based on the isotopic character of the alkanes, it is suggested that diesel fuels involved in the diesel theft case were distinguishable. This manuscript shows that CSIA when used in tandem with multivariate statistical analysis provide a defensible means to differentiate and source-apportion qualitatively similar oils at the molecular level. This approach was able to overcome confounding challenges posed by the near single-point source of origin, i.e., the very subtle differences in isotopic values between the samples. PMID:25774366

  4. The transferability of diatoms to clothing and the methods appropriate for their collection and analysis in forensic geoscience.

    PubMed

    Scott, Kirstie R; Morgan, Ruth M; Jones, Vivienne J; Cameron, Nigel G

    2014-08-01

    Forensic geoscience is concerned with the analysis of geological materials in order to compare and exclude environmental samples from a common source, or to identify an unknown provenance in a criminal investigation. Diatom analysis is currently an underused technique within the forensic geoscience approach, which has the potential to provide an independent ecological assessment of trace evidence. This study presents empirical data to provide a preliminary evidence base in order to be able to understand the nature of diatom transfers to items of clothing, and the collection of transferred diatom trace evidence from a range of environments under experimental conditions. Three diatom extraction methods were tested on clothing that had been in contact with soil and water sites: rinsing in water (RW), rinsing in ethanol (RE), and submersion in H2O2 solution (H). Scanning electron microscopy (S.E.M.) analysis was undertaken in order to examine the degree of diatom retention on treated clothing samples. The total diatom yield and species richness data was recorded from each experimental sample in order to compare the efficacy of each method in collecting a representative sample for analysis. Similarity was explored using correspondence analysis. The results highlight the efficiency of H2O2 submersion in consistently extracting high diatom counts with representative species from clothing exposed to both aquatic and terrestrial sites. This is corroborated by S.E.M. analysis. This paper provides an important empirical evidence base for both establishing that diatoms do indeed transfer to clothing under forensic conditions in a range of environments, and in identifying that H2O2 extraction is the most efficient technique for the optimal collection of comparative samples. There is therefore potentially great value in collecting and analysing diatom components of geoforensic samples in order to aid in forensic investigation. PMID:24915452

  5. [Development of forensic thanatology through the prism of analysis of postmortem protocols collected at the Department of Forensic Medicine, Jagiellonian University].

    PubMed

    Konopka, Tomasz

    2011-01-01

    When assessed based on the analysis of postmortem protocols, the successes of forensic thanatology appear to differ from those that might be assumed using as the foundation a review of publications and textbooks. The greatest achievements date back to as early as the 18th and 19th centuries, when the morphological changes observed in the majority of types of deaths resulting from disease-associated and traumatic causes were described. Within the past 130 years, however, or in other words, in the period when autopsy protocols were written that are today collected in the archives of the Krakow Department of Forensic Medicine, the causes and mechanisms of death became understood even when the said factors were associated with discrete postmortem changes only or no no such changes whatsoever were left. At the end of the 19th century and for a long time afterwards, a difficult problem was posed by sudden deaths, where the postmortem examinations demonstrated solely atherosclerosis and the cause of death was described as "heart palsy". As it turned out, a great portion of such deaths represented individuals with myocardial infarction; in spite of its evident macroscopic presentation, the diagnostic management of the disease was progressing very slowly. Myocardial infarction, known at least since 1912, was associated by forensic medicine with the phenomenon of sudden death only in the forties, and the ability to detect myocardial infarction in practice developed only in the fifties of the last century. The achievement of the present dissertation is the formulation of a theory ascribing such a long delay in macroscopic diagnostics of myocardial infarction to forensic medicine specialists being attached to and fond of employing the "in situ" autopsy technique, which was unfavorable from the viewpoint of heart examination, since the organ was not dissected free and removed from the body in the course of a postmortem examination. When autopsies started to concentrate on hearts dissected free from large vessels, within several years, the number of diagnosed myocardial infarctions increased several times, what gave rise to a theory of a myocardial infarction epidemics formulated in some centers. A proof supporting the theory postulated by the author is a sudden increase in the number of deaths resulting from pulmonary embolism observed in the same several-year period; this diagnosis was also not facilitated by the "in situ" autopsy technique. Another cause of death, which - although undoubtedly common - was for years interpreted as "heart palsy" was alcohol poisoning. Evolution of methods used in chemical examinations for the presence of alcohol, and especially the use of blood tests rather than gastric contents tests allowed in time for determining alcohol poisoning as the cause of death and demonstrated the true extent of the phenomenon. Here, a milestone was the introduction of the Widmark method, what in turn resulted in changes in the toxicology theory, such as for example the use of a new term of "lethal concentration" in addition to the formerly employed notion of a "lethal dose", which is useless in the case of alcohol. Of lesser importance with respect to the number of cases, but of much greater significance in view of its association with homicides were the achievements in diagnostic management of strangulation. Choking and strangulation, as well as hanging--in spite of the fact that their fundamental features were known as early as in the 19th century--were really understood and the ability to diagnose these phenomena was achieved only in the interwar period. Such a long delay resulted from the autopsy technique that did not include examination of the organs situated in the neck, as well as from difficulties in acquiring experience in examining the type of homicide that was very uncommon. On the other hand, for many years, the erroneous theory of the fluidity of blood in a corpse as an indicator of violent strangulation resulted in dubious opinions on strangling b

  6. Activation analysis study on Li-ion batteries for nuclear forensic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Erik B.; Whitney, Chad; Holbert, Keith E.; Zhang, Taipeng; Stannard, Tyler; Christie, Anthony; Harper, Peter; Anderson, Blake; Christian, James F.

    2015-06-01

    The nuclear materials environment has been increasing significantly in complexity over the past couple of decades. The prevention of attacks from nuclear weapons is becoming more difficult, and nuclear forensics is a deterrent by providing detailed information on any type of nuclear event for proper attribution. One component of the nuclear forensic analysis is a measurement of the neutron spectrum. As an example, the neutron component provides information on the composition of the weapons, whether boosting is involved or the mechanisms used in creating a supercritical state. As 6Li has a large cross-section for thermal neutrons, the lithium battery is a primary candidate for assessing the neutron spectrum after detonation. The absorption process for 6Li yields tritium, which can be measured at a later point after the nuclear event, as long as the battery can be processed in a manner to successfully extract the tritium content. In addition, measuring the activated constituents after exposure provides a means to reconstruct the incident neutron spectrum. The battery consists of a spiral or folded layers of material that have unique, energy dependent interactions associated with the incident neutron flux. A detailed analysis on the batteries included a pre-irradiated mass spectrometry analysis to be used as input for neutron spectrum reconstruction. A set of batteries were exposed to a hard neutron spectrum delivered by the University of Massachusetts, Lowell research reactor Fast Neutron Irradiator (FNI). The gamma spectra were measured from the batteries within a few days and within a week after the exposure to obtain sufficient data on the activated materials in the batteries. The activity was calculated for a number of select isotopes, indicating the number of associated neutron interactions. The results from tritium extraction are marginal. A measurable increase in detected particles (gammas and betas) below 50 keV not self-attenuated by the battery was observed, yet as the spectra are coarse, the gamma information is not separable from tritium spectra. The activation analysis was successful, and the incident neutron spectrum was reconstructed using materials found in lithium batteries.

  7. FORENSIC IDENTIFICATION REPORTING USING AUTOMATIC SPEAKER RECOGNITION SYSTEMS

    E-print Network

    Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

    FORENSIC IDENTIFICATION REPORTING USING AUTOMATIC SPEAKER RECOGNITION SYSTEMS J. Gonzalez to the bayesian approach for evidence analysis and forensic reporting. This approach, firmly established in other forensic areas as fingerprint, DNA or fiber analysis, suits the needs of both the court and the forensic

  8. The joint return period analysis of natural disasters based on monitoring and statistical modeling of multidimensional hazard factors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xueqin; Li, Ning; Yuan, Shuai; Xu, Ning; Shi, Wenqin; Chen, Weibin

    2015-12-15

    As a random event, a natural disaster has the complex occurrence mechanism. The comprehensive analysis of multiple hazard factors is important in disaster risk assessment. In order to improve the accuracy of risk analysis and forecasting, the formation mechanism of a disaster should be considered in the analysis and calculation of multi-factors. Based on the consideration of the importance and deficiencies of multivariate analysis of dust storm disasters, 91 severe dust storm disasters in Inner Mongolia from 1990 to 2013 were selected as study cases in the paper. Main hazard factors from 500-hPa atmospheric circulation system, near-surface meteorological system, and underlying surface conditions were selected to simulate and calculate the multidimensional joint return periods. After comparing the simulation results with actual dust storm events in 54years, we found that the two-dimensional Frank Copula function showed the better fitting results at the lower tail of hazard factors and that three-dimensional Frank Copula function displayed the better fitting results at the middle and upper tails of hazard factors. However, for dust storm disasters with the short return period, three-dimensional joint return period simulation shows no obvious advantage. If the return period is longer than 10years, it shows significant advantages in extreme value fitting. Therefore, we suggest the multivariate analysis method may be adopted in forecasting and risk analysis of serious disasters with the longer return period, such as earthquake and tsunami. Furthermore, the exploration of this method laid the foundation for the prediction and warning of other nature disasters. PMID:26327640

  9. Forensic massively parallel sequencing data analysis tool: Implementation of MyFLq as a standalone web- and Illumina BaseSpace(®)-application.

    PubMed

    Van Neste, Christophe; Gansemans, Yannick; De Coninck, Dieter; Van Hoofstat, David; Van Criekinge, Wim; Deforce, Dieter; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip

    2015-03-01

    Routine use of massively parallel sequencing (MPS) for forensic genomics is on the horizon. The last few years, several algorithms and workflows have been developed to analyze forensic MPS data. However, none have yet been tailored to the needs of the forensic analyst who does not possess an extensive bioinformatics background. We developed our previously published forensic MPS data analysis framework MyFLq (My-Forensic-Loci-queries) into an open-source, user-friendly, web-based application. It can be installed as a standalone web application, or run directly from the Illumina BaseSpace environment. In the former, laboratories can keep their data on-site, while in the latter, data from forensic samples that are sequenced on an Illumina sequencer can be uploaded to Basespace during acquisition, and can subsequently be analyzed using the published MyFLq BaseSpace application. Additional features were implemented such as an interactive graphical report of the results, an interactive threshold selection bar, and an allele length-based analysis in addition to the sequenced-based analysis. Practical use of the application is demonstrated through the analysis of four 16-plex short tandem repeat (STR) samples, showing the complementarity between the sequence- and length-based analysis of the same MPS data. PMID:25457631

  10. Research on Evaluation Models and Empirical Analysis of Earthquake Disaster Losses in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Men, Kepei; Cui, Lei

    2012-11-01

    Earthquake disasters occurred very frequently in China. As a result, to evaluate the losses has important social value and economic effect. This paper focuses on the assessment of economic losses of earthquake disasters which is divided into two parts: direct economic loss and indirect economic loss. First, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test is used to determine the distribution of the earthquake losses per year in China, fitting the frequency of earthquake that happened per month in China. Second, the grey clustering method and principal component analysis (PCA) are applied, respectively, for direct economic loss rating and indirect economic loss rating. Finally, the economic loss generated by the earthquakes which happened from 2006 to 2009 in China is evaluated, and eight earthquakes are rated based on the comprehensive economic loss.

  11. Population-Sequencing as a Biomarker of Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei Evolution through Microbial Forensic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Jakupciak, John P; Wells, Jeffrey M; Karalus, Richard J; Pawlowski, David R; Lin, Jeffrey S; Feldman, Andrew B

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale genomics projects are identifying biomarkers to detect human disease. B. pseudomallei and B. mallei are two closely related select agents that cause melioidosis and glanders. Accurate characterization of metagenomic samples is dependent on accurate measurements of genetic variation between isolates with resolution down to strain level. Often single biomarker sensitivity is augmented by use of multiple or panels of biomarkers. In parallel with single biomarker validation, advances in DNA sequencing enable analysis of entire genomes in a single run: population-sequencing. Potentially, direct sequencing could be used to analyze an entire genome to serve as the biomarker for genome identification. However, genome variation and population diversity complicate use of direct sequencing, as well as differences caused by sample preparation protocols including sequencing artifacts and mistakes. As part of a Department of Homeland Security program in bacterial forensics, we examined how to implement whole genome sequencing (WGS) analysis as a judicially defensible forensic method for attributing microbial sample relatedness; and also to determine the strengths and limitations of whole genome sequence analysis in a forensics context. Herein, we demonstrate use of sequencing to provide genetic characterization of populations: direct sequencing of populations. PMID:24455204

  12. Population-Sequencing as a Biomarker of Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei Evolution through Microbial Forensic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jakupciak, John P.; Wells, Jeffrey M.; Karalus, Richard J.; Pawlowski, David R.; Lin, Jeffrey S.; Feldman, Andrew B.

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale genomics projects are identifying biomarkers to detect human disease. B. pseudomallei and B. mallei are two closely related select agents that cause melioidosis and glanders. Accurate characterization of metagenomic samples is dependent on accurate measurements of genetic variation between isolates with resolution down to strain level. Often single biomarker sensitivity is augmented by use of multiple or panels of biomarkers. In parallel with single biomarker validation, advances in DNA sequencing enable analysis of entire genomes in a single run: population-sequencing. Potentially, direct sequencing could be used to analyze an entire genome to serve as the biomarker for genome identification. However, genome variation and population diversity complicate use of direct sequencing, as well as differences caused by sample preparation protocols including sequencing artifacts and mistakes. As part of a Department of Homeland Security program in bacterial forensics, we examined how to implement whole genome sequencing (WGS) analysis as a judicially defensible forensic method for attributing microbial sample relatedness; and also to determine the strengths and limitations of whole genome sequence analysis in a forensics context. Herein, we demonstrate use of sequencing to provide genetic characterization of populations: direct sequencing of populations. PMID:24455204

  13. 1 Forensic Sciences FORENSIC SCIENCES

    E-print Network

    Vertes, Akos

    with an overview of the analytical methods, procedures, equipment and data used by forensic specialists. Coursework in Washington, D.C. provides students with opportunities to interact with federal, state and local agencies Education Center in Arlington, VA. A graduate certificate is offered in forensic investigations. GRADUATE

  14. Reverse engineering--rapid prototyping of the skull in forensic trauma analysis.

    PubMed

    Kettner, Mattias; Schmidt, Peter; Potente, Stefan; Ramsthaler, Frank; Schrodt, Michael

    2011-07-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP) comprises a variety of automated manufacturing techniques such as selective laser sintering (SLS), stereolithography, and three-dimensional printing (3DP), which use virtual 3D data sets to fabricate solid forms in a layer-by-layer technique. Despite a growing demand for (virtual) reconstruction models in daily forensic casework, maceration of the skull is frequently assigned to ensure haptic evidence presentation in the courtroom. Owing to the progress in the field of forensic radiology, 3D data sets of relevant cases are usually available to the forensic expert. Here, we present a first application of RP in forensic medicine using computed tomography scans for the fabrication of an SLS skull model in a case of fatal hammer impacts to the head. The report is intended to show that this method fully respects the dignity of the deceased and is consistent with medical ethics but nevertheless provides an excellent 3D impression of anatomical structures and injuries. PMID:21470229

  15. FORENSIC ORNITHOLOGY Carla J. Dove

    E-print Network

    Mathis, Wayne N.

    FORENSIC ORNITHOLOGY Carla J. Dove Division of Birds Smithsonian Institution Washington, DC 20560 to avian systematics, it has since been the basis for studies in AForensic Ornithology@ and ABird Strike Analysis@. Forensic ornithology seeks to identify birds from fragmentary feathers, bones, beaks, talons

  16. UV-visible microscope spectrophotometric polarization and dichroism with increased discrimination power in forensic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purcell, Dale Kevin

    Microanalysis of transfer (Trace) evidence is the application of a microscope and microscopical techniques for the collection, observation, documentation, examination, identification, and discrimination of micrometer sized particles or domains. Microscope spectrophotometry is the union of microscopy and spectroscopy for microanalysis. Analytical microspectroscopy is the science of studying the emission, reflection, transmission, and absorption of electromagnetic radiation to determine the structure or chemical composition of microscopic-size materials. Microscope spectrophotometry instrument designs have evolved from monochromatic illumination which transmitted through the microscope and sample and then is detected by a photometer detector (photomultiplier tube) to systems in which broad-band (white light) illumination falls incident upon a sample followed by a non-scanning grating spectrometer equipped with a solid-state multi-element detector. Most of these small modern spectrometers are configured with either silicon based charged-couple device detectors (200-950 nm) or InGaAs based diode array detectors (850-2300 nm) with computerized data acquisition and signal processing being common. A focus of this research was to evaluate the performance characteristics of various modern forensic (UV-Vis) microscope photometer systems as well as review early model instrumental designs. An important focus of this research was to efficiently measure ultraviolet-visible spectra of microscopically small specimens for classification, differentiation, and possibly individualization. The first stage of the project consisted of the preparation of microscope slides containing neutral density filter reference materials, molecular fluorescence reference materials, and dichroic reference materials. Upon completion of these standard slide preparations analysis began with measurements in order to evaluate figures of merit for comparison of the instruments investigated. The figures of merit investigated included: 1) wavelength accuracy, 2) wavelength precision, 3) wavelength resolution stability, 4) photometric accuracy, 5) photometric precision, 6) photometric linearity, 7) photometric noise, and 8) short-term baseline stability. In addition, intrinsic instrument polarization effects were investigated to determine the impact of these properties on spectral interpretation and data quality. Finally, a set of recommendations were developed which describe instrument performance characteristics for microscope and spectrometer features and functions, and specific instrument parameters that must be controlled in order to acquire high quality data from an ultraviolet-visible forensic microscope spectrophotometer system for increased discrimination power.

  17. Bite mark documentation and analysis: the forensic 3D/CAD supported photogrammetry approach.

    PubMed

    Thali, M J; Braun, M; Markwalder, Th H; Brueschweiler, W; Zollinger, U; Malik, Naseem J; Yen, K; Dirnhofer, R

    2003-08-12

    Bite mark identification is based on the individuality of a dentition, which is used to match a bite mark to a suspected perpetrator. This matching is based on a tooth-by-tooth and arch-to-arch comparison utilising parameters of size, shape and alignment. The most common method used to analyse bite mark are carried out in 2D space. That means that the 3D information is preserved only two dimensionally with distortions. This paper presents a new 3D documentation, analysis and visualisation approach based on forensic 3D/CAD supported photogrammetry (FPHG) and the use of a 3D surface scanner. Our photogrammetric approach and the used visualisation method is, to the best to our knowledge, the first 3D approach for bite mark analysis in an actual case. The documentation has no distortion artifacts as can be found with standard photography. All the data are documented with a metric 3D measurement, orientation and subsequent analysis in 3D space. Beside the metrical analysis between bite mark and cast, it is possible using our method to utilise the topographical 3D feature of each individual tooth. This means that the 3D features of the biting surfaces and edges of each teeth are respected which is--as shown in our case--very important especially in the front teeth which have the first contact to the skin. Based upon the 3D detailed representation of the cast with the 3D topographic characteristics of the teeth, the interaction with the 3D documented skin can be visualised and analysed on the computer screen. PMID:12927412

  18. Elemental analysis of forensic glasses by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almirall, Jose R.; Duckworth, Douglas C.; Bayne, Charles K.; Morton, Sherman A.; Smith, David H.; Koons, Robert D.; Furton, Kenneth G.

    1999-02-01

    Flat glass is a common type of evidence collected from the scenes of crimes such as burglaries, vandalism, and hit-and- run accidents. The usefulness of such evidence lies in the ability to associate the glass from the scene (or a suspect) to the original source. Physical and chemical analysis of the glass can be used for discrimination between the possible sources of glass. If the sample is large enough, physical attributes such as fracture matches, density, color, and thickness can be employed for comparison between a recovered fragment(s) to the suspect source. More commonly, refractive index (RI) comparisons are employed. Due to the improved control over glass manufacturing processes, RI values often cannot differentiate glasses where approximately 6 - 9% of casework samples are not expected to be distinguished by RI alone even if they originated from different sources. Employing methods such as NAA, XRF, ICP-AES, and ICP-MS for the comparison of trace elemental compositions has been shown to be more discriminating than RI comparisons. The multielement capability and the sensitivity of ICP-AES and ICP-MS provide for excellent discrimination power. In this work, the sources of variability in ICP-MS of glass analysis are investigated to determine possible sources of variation. The sources of variation examined include errors due to sample preparation, instrument accuracy and precision, and interlaboratory reproducibility. Other sources of variation include inhomogeneity across a sheet of glass from the same source. Analysis of variance has been applied to our ICP-MS analysis of NIST standards and to the interlaboratory comparisons of float glass samples collected across a sheet in a production facility. The results of these experiments allows for a more accurate interpretation of forensic glass data and a better understanding of the discriminating power (absolute and practical) of ICP-MS.

  19. Optimization of multiplexed PCR on an integrated microfluidic forensic platform for rapid DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Estes, Matthew D; Yang, Jianing; Duane, Brett; Smith, Stan; Brooks, Carla; Nordquist, Alan; Zenhausern, Frederic

    2012-12-01

    This study reports the design, prototyping, and assay development of multiplexed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on a plastic microfluidic device. Amplification of 17 DNA loci is carried out directly on-chip as part of a system for continuous workflow processing from sample preparation (SP) to capillary electrophoresis (CE). For enhanced performance of on-chip PCR amplification, improved control systems have been developed making use of customized Peltier assemblies, valve actuators, software, and amplification chemistry protocols. Multiple enhancements to the microfluidic chip design have been enacted to improve the reliability of sample delivery through the various on-chip modules. This work has been enabled by the encapsulation of PCR reagents into a solid phase material through an optimized Solid Phase Encapsulating Assay Mix (SPEAM) bead-based hydrogel fabrication process. SPEAM bead technology is reliably coupled with precise microfluidic metering and dispensing for efficient amplification and subsequent DNA short tandem repeat (STR) fragment analysis. This provides a means of on-chip reagent storage suitable for microfluidic automation, with the long shelf-life necessary for point-of-care (POC) or field deployable applications. This paper reports the first high quality 17-plex forensic STR amplification from a reference sample in a microfluidic chip with preloaded solid phase reagents, that is designed for integration with up and downstream processing. PMID:22970426

  20. Analysis of Carbohydrate and Fatty Acid Marker Abundance in Ricin Toxin Preparations for Forensic Information

    SciTech Connect

    Colburn, Heather A.; Wunschel, David S.; Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.; Moran, James J.; Antolick, Kathryn C.; Melville, Angela M.

    2010-07-15

    One challenge in the forensic analysis of ricin samples is determining the method and extent of sample preparation. Ricin purification from the source castor seeds is essentially a protein purification through removal of the non-protein fractions of the seed. Two major, non-protein constituents in the seed are the castor oil and carbohydrates. Ricinoleic acid is a relatively unique fatty acid in nature and is the most abundant component of castor oil, which comprises roughly half the seed weight. The carbohydrate component comprises roughly half of the remaining “mash” left after oil and hull removal. We used derivatization of carbohydrate and fatty acid markers followed by identification and quantification using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to assess compositional changes in ricin samples purified by different methods. The loss of ricinoleic acid indicated steps for oil removal had occurred. Changes to the carbohydrate content of the sample were also observed following protein precipitation. The differential loss of arabinose relative to mannose indicated removal of the major carbohydrate fraction of the seed and enrichment of the protein content. Taken together, these changes in fatty acid and carbohydrate abundance are indicative of the preparation method used for each sample.

  1. Analysis of 11 tetrameric STRs in wild boars for forensic purposes.

    PubMed

    Caratti, Stefano; Rossi, Luca; Sona, Bruno; Origlia, Silvia; Viara, Silvana; Martano, Giuseppe; Torre, Carlo; Robino, Carlo

    2010-10-01

    STR profiling of animal species has a wide range of applications, including forensic identification, wildlife preservation, veterinary public health protection and food safety. We tested the efficacy of a multiplex PCR-based assay including 11 porcine-specific tetrameric STRs in a population sample of wild boars (n=142) originating from Piedmont (North West Italy). Multiple deviations from Hardy-Weinberg expectations were observed, mostly due to a reduction in observed heterozygosity indicative of a high degree of inbreeding. A value of ? of 0.046 and an inbreeding coefficient of 0.089 were estimated. Combined power of discrimination and probability of exclusion values for the STR panel were 0.9999999999996 and 0.99989. In order to test the suitability of the method for meat traceability purposes, a domestic pig reference sample (n=412), consisting of commercial lines commonly used in the meat production process, was also typed. A Bayesian cluster analysis carried out using the observed genotypes, showed a percentage of correct subspecies assignment of individual samples of 0.974 for wild boars and 0.991 for pigs, thus demonstrating the usefulness of the multiplex STR-typing system for discrimination purposes. PMID:20685189

  2. Computer analysis of ATR-FTIR spectra of paint samples for forensic purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szafarska, Ma?gorzata; Wo?niakiewicz, Micha?; Pilch, Mariusz; Zi?ba-Palus, Janina; Ko?cielniak, Pawe?

    2009-04-01

    A method of subtraction and normalization of IR spectra (MSN-IR) was developed and successfully applied to extract mathematically the pure paint spectrum from the spectrum of paint coat on different bases, both acquired by the Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) technique. The method consists of several stages encompassing several normalization and subtraction processes. The similarity of the spectrum obtained with the reference spectrum was estimated by means of the normalized Manhattan distance. The utility and performance of the method proposed were tested by examination of five different paints sprayed on plastic (polyester) foil and on fabric materials (cotton). It was found that the numerical algorithm applied is able - in contrast to other mathematical approaches conventionally used for the same aim - to reconstruct a pure paint IR spectrum effectively without a loss of chemical information provided. The approach allows the physical separation of a paint from a base to be avoided, hence a time and work-load of analysis to be considerably reduced. The results obtained prove that the method can be considered as a useful tool which can be applied to forensic purposes.

  3. Scanning electron microscopic analysis of incinerated teeth: An aid to forensic identification

    PubMed Central

    Pol, Chetan A; Gosavi, Suchitra R

    2014-01-01

    Background: Forensic dental identification of victims involved in fire accidents is often a complex and challenging endeavor. Knowledge of the charred human dentition and residues of restorative material can help in the recognition of bodies burned beyond recognition. Aim: To observe the effects of predetermined temperatures on healthy unrestored teeth and different restorative materials in restored teeth, by scanning electron microscope, for the purpose of identification. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 135 extracted teeth, which were divided into four groups. Group 1-healthy unrestored teeth, group 2-teeth restored with all ceramic crowns, group 3-teeth restored with class I composite resin and group 4-teeth restored with class I glass ionomer cement (GIC). Results: The scanning electron microscope is useful in the analysis of burned teeth, as it gives fine structural details, requires only a small sample and does not destroy the already fragile specimen. Conclusion: Scanning electron microscope can be a useful tool for the characterization and study of severely burnt teeth for victim identification. PMID:24959034

  4. Forensic odontological observations in the victims of DANA air crash

    PubMed Central

    Obafunwa, John Oladapo; Ogunbanjo, Victor Olabode; Ogunbanjo, Ogunbiyi Babatunde; Soyemi, Sunday Sokunle; Faduyile, Francis Adedayo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Forensic odontology or forensic dentistry is that aspect of forensic science that uses the application of dental science for the identification of unknown human remains and bite marks. Deaths resulting from mass disasters such as plane crash or fire incidence have always been given mass burial in Nigeria. This was obviously due to the fact that Forensic Pathologists whose roles involve disaster victim identification were not available at that time. However, in the DANA air crash in Lagos in 2012, the Forensic pathologist and dental teams were invited for the first time to identify the victims. The objectives of this paper are to identify the extent of victims’ identification using Forensic odontology alone and its combination with DNA analysis. It also presents the pattern of fractures seen in the mandible and maxilla of the victims. Methods The bodies were dissected using following the standard protocol dissection. Prior to this all the victims had Dental Radiological Examination. The oral cavities were exposed after which the Odontology team was invited for photographing first, followed by dental charting. Fractures of the mandible, maxilla including the anatomical regions were all recorded and photographed. Dental prosthesis, restorations, crowns and bridge and other findings were also noted, recorded and compared with ante mortem records where available. Results A total of152 bodies were recovered from the crash site while 148 victims were eventually identified through a combination of DNA analysis and forensic odontology. This represented 97.4%. Forensic odontology was the primary identifier in 10%. There were no fingerprinting information in this country at present therefore, it could not be used. A total of 89 (60%) were males while females accounted for 59(40%). This gives a ratio of 1.5:1. Most of the victims were in the age group 30-49years; this represented 52% of the victims while the least involved age groups were victims above 60 years of age which accounted for only 4.7%. Mandibular fractures were seen in 29 victims, maxilla in 15, combined mandibullo/maxillary in 15 victims, while 89victims had nojaw fracture. The most common area of fracture in the mandible was the body which accounted for 36.4%, closely followed byparasymphysealregion 31.9%, symphyseal 22.7% and the angle 9.0%. The most common fracture in the maxillae was palatal split fracture which accounted for 52%, this was followed by pterygoid 24%, alveolar 8% and multiple locations 16%. Conclusion A combination of DNA analysis and forensic odontology was able to identify a total of 148 victims out of 152 representing 97.4%. Forensic odontology was the primary identifier in only 10%. In the latter, poor and lack of dental records were responsible for this very low figure. The most common area of fracture in the mandible was th ebody which accounted for 36.4%, while that of the maxillae was palatal fracture which accounted for 52%. Padding of the back of the seats in the aircraft should be canvassed for to provide Cushing effect for passengers. PMID:26213597

  5. INSTITUTE FOR FORENSIC SCIENCE AT TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY: The Institute for Forensic Science at Texas Tech University (TTU) invites applications for a Postdoctoral

    E-print Network

    Rock, Chris

    1 INSTITUTE FOR FORENSIC SCIENCE AT TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY: The Institute for Forensic Science at Texas Tech University (TTU) invites applications for a Postdoctoral Fellow in Forensic Science (req analysis, forensic software). This position may also contribute to the Masters of Science in Forensic

  6. Forensic Chemistry Option and Typical Schedule Fall Spring

    E-print Network

    Lawson, Catherine L.

    :160:491 Seminar (1.0 cr) 01:160:492 Forensic Science (3.0 cr) 01:202:351 Forensic Science (3.0 cr) 01 in Forensic Science and a laboratory in Instrumental analysis. The aim of the program is to ensureForensic Chemistry Option and Typical Schedule Fall Spring FIRST YEAR General Chemistry Lecture (4

  7. Age Estimation in Forensic Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Alkass, Kanar; Buchholz, Bruce A.; Ohtani, Susumu; Yamamoto, Toshiharu; Druid, Henrik; Spalding, Kirsty L.

    2010-01-01

    Age determination of unknown human bodies is important in the setting of a crime investigation or a mass disaster because the age at death, birth date, and year of death as well as gender can guide investigators to the correct identity among a large number of possible matches. Traditional morphological methods used by anthropologists to determine age are often imprecise, whereas chemical analysis of tooth dentin, such as aspartic acid racemization, has shown reproducible and more precise results. In this study, we analyzed teeth from Swedish individuals using both aspartic acid racemization and radiocarbon methodologies. The rationale behind using radiocarbon analysis is that aboveground testing of nuclear weapons during the cold war (1955–1963) caused an extreme increase in global levels of carbon-14 (14C), which has been carefully recorded over time. Forty-four teeth from 41 individuals were analyzed using aspartic acid racemization analysis of tooth crown dentin or radiocarbon analysis of enamel, and 10 of these were split and subjected to both radiocarbon and racemization analysis. Combined analysis showed that the two methods correlated well (R2 = 0.66, p < 0.05). Radiocarbon analysis showed an excellent precision with an overall absolute error of 1.0 ± 0.6 years. Aspartic acid racemization also showed a good precision with an overall absolute error of 5.4 ± 4.2 years. Whereas radiocarbon analysis gives an estimated year of birth, racemization analysis indicates the chronological age of the individual at the time of death. We show how these methods in combination can also assist in the estimation of date of death of an unidentified victim. This strategy can be of significant assistance in forensic casework involving dead victim identification. PMID:19965905

  8. What is the cost of a life in a disaster? - Examples, Practice and Global Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniell, James; Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Schaefer, Andreas; Wenzel, Friedemann; Khazai, Bijan

    2015-04-01

    An analysis is presented based on historical evidence and global exposure metrics using the CATDAT Socioeconomic databases, in order to create a global distribution of the cost of life in a disaster using various metrics. Casualty insurance models require a value of life & mitigation and cost-benefit studies require a value of life in order to make decisions and set premiums. Although this is a contentious concept, there are two general approaches to human life costing: the first is based on human capital which looks at the production capacity and potential output as a proxy for future earning; the second looks at willingness to pay which estimates people's value on reducing risk and compensation payouts. A combination approach is used. For each of the 245 nations, a value of life is estimated using the following parameters:- (1) Age of people in a country using the life expectancy and distribution data in CATDAT (2) Output of the economy and wage distribution (3) Household and community interactions (4) Lost quality of life The range of statistical life costs are examined globally from different sources, with the range of a life value being from 10,000 up to in the order of 10 million between different countries. The difference of the cost for a fatality vs. that of a severe injury is also discussed with a severe injury often having higher costs than a fatality for loss purposes. The losses in terms of historical disasters are looked at and examined with the percentage of life cost shown as a proportion of total losses. The losses of a future major earthquake in a low seismicity region show some of the largest potential life cost losses with that of a M6.8 in Adelaide, Australia; having around 160 billion in life costs (25,000 deaths, 15,000 severe injuries). This study has benefits post-disaster for quantification of human capital losses in major disasters, and pre-disaster for the analysis of insurance and mitigation options.

  9. Embedding Forensic Capabilities into Networks: Addressing Inefficiencies in Digital Forensics Investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara; Frincke, Deb A.

    2006-08-01

    A typical incident response pits technicians against networks that aren't prepared forensically. [1, 2] If practitioners do consider collecting network forensic data, they face a choice between expending extraordinary effort (time and money) collecting forensically sound data, or simply restoring the network as quickly as possible. In this context, the concept of organizational network forensic readiness has emerged. This paper proposes a methodology for "operationalizing" organizational network forensic readiness. The methodology, and the theoretical analysis that led to its development, are offered as a conceptual framework for thinking about more efficient, proactive approaches to digital forensics on networks.

  10. Forensics Investigator

    MedlinePLUS

    ... used. When criminal cases come to trial, forensic science technicians often provide testimony as expert witnesses, testifying on specific laboratory findings by identifying and classifying substances, materials, and other evidence collected at the crime scene. ...

  11. Forensic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Keith O.; Nigh, W. G.

    1973-01-01

    A course is described, which was given during an interim, with an enrollment of 41 students. The course involved an in-depth study of forensic science, involving students with the methodology of science. (DF)

  12. How useful and reliable are disaster databases in the context of climate and global change? A comparative case study analysis in Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huggel, C.; Raissig, A.; Rohrer, M.; Romero, G.; Diaz, A.; Salzmann, N.

    2015-03-01

    Damage caused by weather- and climate-related disasters have increased over the past decades, and growing exposure and wealth have been identified as main drivers of this increase. Disaster databases are a primary tool for the analysis of disaster characteristics and trends at global or national scales, and they support disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation. However, the quality, consistency and completeness of different disaster databases are highly variable. Even though such variation critically influences the outcome of any study, comparative analyses of different databases are still rare to date. Furthermore, there is an unequal geographic distribution of current disaster trend studies, with developing countries being underrepresented. Here, we analyze three different disaster databases in the developing-country context of Peru: a global database (Emergency Events Database: EM-DAT), a multinational Latin American database (DesInventar) and a national database (Peruvian National Information System for the Prevention of Disasters: SINPAD). The analysis is performed across three dimensions: (1) spatial scales, from local to regional (provincial) and national scale; (2) timescales, from single events to decadal trends; and (3) disaster categories and metrics, including the number of single disaster event occurrence, or people killed and affected. Results show limited changes in disaster occurrence in the Cusco and ApurÍmac regions in southern Peru over the past four decades but strong positive trends in people affected at the national scale. We furthermore found large variations of the disaster metrics studied over different spatial and temporal scales, depending on the disaster database analyzed. We conclude and recommend that the type, method and source of documentation should be carefully evaluated for any analysis of disaster databases; reporting criteria should be improved and documentation efforts strengthened.

  13. Forensic Science Certificate

    E-print Network

    Saldin, Dilano

    Forensic Science Certificate What do Forensic Scientists Do? Forensic scientists apply scientific. Is Forensic Science Right for Me? Students in forensic science have a strong interest in chemistry, biology and death investigators. The median annual wage of forensic science technicians (a common entry level job

  14. Hair-MAP: a prototype automated system for forensic hair comparison and analysis.

    PubMed

    Verma, Mool S; Pratt, Lorien; Ganesh, Chidamber; Medina, Christy

    2002-10-01

    This paper demonstrates the feasibility of the automation of forensic hair analysis and comparison task using neural network explanation systems (NNESs). Our system takes as input microscopic images of two hairs and produces a classification decision as to whether or not the hairs came from the same person. Hair images were captured using a NEXTDimension video board in a NEXTDimension color turbo computer, connected to a video camera. Image processing was done on an SGI indigo workstation. Each image is segmented into a number of pieces appropriate for classification of different features. A variety of image processing techniques are used to enhance this information. Use of wavelet analysis and the Haralick texture algorithm to pre-process data has allowed us to compress large amounts of data into smaller, yet representative data. Neural networks are then used for feature classification. Finally, statistical tests determine the degree of match between the resulting collection of hair feature vectors. An important issue in automation of any task in criminal investigations is the reliability and understandability of the resulting system. To address this concern, we have developed methods to facilitate explanation of neural network's behavior using a decision tree. The system was able to achieve a performance of 83% hair match accuracy, using 5 of the 21 morphological characteristics used by experts. This shows promise for the usefulness of a fuller scale system. While an automated system would not replace the expert, it would make the task easier by providing a means for pre-processing the large amount of data with which the expert must contend. PMID:12372687

  15. The Development of a Generic Framework for the Forensic Analysis of SCADA and Process Control Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slay, Jill; Sitnikova, Elena

    There is continuing interest in researching generic security architectures and strategies for managing SCADA and process control systems. Documentation from various countries on IT security does now begin to recommendations for security controls for (federal) information systems which include connected process control systems. Little or no work exists in the public domain which takes a big picture approach to the issue of developing a generic or generalisable approach to SCADA and process control system forensics. The discussion raised in this paper is that before one can develop solutions to the problem of SCADA forensics, a good understanding of the forensic computing process, and the range of technical and procedural issues subsumed with in this process, need to be understood, and also agreed, by governments, industry and academia.

  16. Corporate involvement in disaster response and recovery : an analysis of the Gujarat Earthquake

    E-print Network

    Sayegh, Tracy, 1976-

    2004-01-01

    Disaster vulnerability is a serious issue in developing countries where globalization, development patterns, poverty and environmental degradation are placing more people at risk to natural disasters. Recent appeals for ...

  17. September 2006 FORENSIC TECHNIQUES

    E-print Network

    SECURITY INCIDENTS FORENSIC TECHNIQUES: HELPING ORGANIZATIONS IMPROVE THEIR RESPONSES TO INFORMATION SECURITY INCIDENTS Shirley Radack, EditorShirley Radack, Editor Computer Security DivisionComputer Security of science to the identification, collection, examination, and analysis of data in ways that preserve

  18. Forensic Applications of LIBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hark, Richard R.; East, Lucille J.

    Forensic science is broadly defined as the application of science to matters of the law. Practitioners typically use multidisciplinary scientific techniques for the analysis of physical evidence in an attempt to establish or exclude an association between a suspect and the scene of a crime.

  19. Nowcasting Disaster Damage

    E-print Network

    Kryvasheyeu, Yury; Obradovich, Nick; Moro, Esteban; Van Hentenryck, Pascal; Fowler, James; Cebrian, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Could social media data aid in disaster response and damage assessment? Countries face both an increasing frequency and intensity of natural disasters due to climate change. And during such events, citizens are turning to social media platforms for disaster-related communication and information. Social media improves situational awareness, facilitates dissemination of emergency information, enables early warning systems, and helps coordinate relief efforts. Additionally, spatiotemporal distribution of disaster-related messages helps with real-time monitoring and assessment of the disaster itself. Here we present a multiscale analysis of Twitter activity before, during, and after Hurricane Sandy. We examine the online response of 50 metropolitan areas of the United States and find a strong relationship between proximity to Sandy's path and hurricane-related social media activity. We show that real and perceived threats -- together with the physical disaster effects -- are directly observable through the intens...

  20. STR Analysis and Artifacts NYC OCME Forensic Biology Continuing Education Seminar

    E-print Network

    Genome Project have increased knowledge regarding the human genome, and hence there are many more STRSTR lociforimprovedanalysisofdegradedDNAsamples.J.ForensicSci.53(1):73-80 How many STRs in the human genome? · The efforts of the Human 20,000 tetranucleotide STR loci have been characterized in the human genome (Collins et al

  1. Analysis of suspected wildlife crimes submitted for forensic examinations in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Millins, Caroline; Howie, Fiona; Everitt, Charles; Shand, Michael; Lamm, Catherine

    2014-09-01

    This study describes the occurrence of suspected wildlife crimes submitted for forensic examination in Scotland in 2010. The study aims were to determine which types of crimes were committed, which species were targeted, and the outcome of investigations, in order to assess the contribution of forensic examinations in the prosecution of wildlife crimes. Information on suspected wildlife crimes submitted between January 1 and December 31, 2010 to the SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services Disease Surveillance Centers, Science and Advice for Scottish Agriculture, and to the University of Glasgow, was used. The location of suspected crimes, the species targeted, cause of death, and types of the 188 submitted wildlife crimes were summarized. More information regarding cases involving birds were submitted than cases involving mammals, and included 114 raptors, 14 waterfowl, and 22 "other bird species." Mammal cases (n = 38) included 12 badgers, 8 foxes, 7 deer, 4 hares, and 7 "other mammals." The cause of death was determined in 124 suspected crimes; malicious or accidental trauma was the most likely cause of death in 72, and 33 were poisoned. Forensic evidence supporting criminal activity was found in 53 cases, and poisoning was the most frequent crime recorded. At least five individuals were successfully prosecuted, representing 2.7 % of submissions. It was challenging to track cases from submission through to prosecution and laboratories conducting forensic investigations were often not informed of the outcome of prosecutions or court decisions. PMID:24935435

  2. Prioritizing health: a human rights analysis of disaster, vulnerability, and urbanization in New Orleans and Port-au-Prince.

    PubMed

    Carmalt, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Climate change prompts increased urbanization and vulnerability to natural hazards. Urbanization processes are relevant to a right to health analysis of natural hazards because they can exacerbate pre-disaster inequalities that create vulnerability. The 2010 earthquake in Port-au-Prince and the 2005 hurricane in New Orleans provide vivid illustrations of the relationship between spatial inequality and the threats associated with natural hazards. The link between urbanization processes, spatial inequality, and vulnerability to natural hazards is important in terms of an analysis of the right to health; in particular, it provides a basis for arguing that states should prioritize equitable land use and development as a matter of human rights. This article draws on work by geographers, disaster specialists, and international legal scholars to argue that inequitable urbanization processes violate the obligations to respect, protect, and fulfill the human right to health in disaster-prone regions. PMID:25474610

  3. Application of the ORIGEN Fallout Analysis Tool and the DELFIC Fallout Planning Tool to National Technical Nuclear Forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Jodoin, Vincent J; Lee, Ronald W; Peplow, Douglas E.; Lefebvre, Jordan P

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this project was to provide a robust fallout analysis and planning tool for the National Technical Nuclear Forensics interagency ground sample collection team. Their application called for a fast-running, portable mission-planning tool for use in response to emerging improvised nuclear device (IND) post-detonation situations. The project met those goals by research and development of models to predict the physical, chemical, and radiological properties of fallout debris. ORNL has developed new graphical user interfaces for two existing codes, the Oak Ridge Isotope Generation (ORIGEN) code and the Defense Land Fallout Interpretive Code (DELFIC). ORIGEN is a validated, radionuclide production and decay code that has been implemented into the Fallout Analysis Tool to predict the fallout source term nuclide inventory after the detonation of an IND. DELFIC is a validated, physics-based, research reference fallout prediction software package. It has been implemented into the Fallout Planning Tool and is used to predict the fractionated isotope concentrations in fallout, particle sizes, fractionation ratios, dose rate, and integrated dose over the planned collection routes - information vital to ensure quality samples for nuclear forensic analysis while predicting dose to the sample collectors. DELFIC contains a particle activity module, which models the radiochemical fractionation of the elements in a cooling fireball as they condense into and onto particles to predict the fractionated activity size distribution for a given scenario. This provides the most detailed physics-based characterization of the fallout source term phenomenology available in an operational fallout model.

  4. Disaster Recovery: Courting Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hanlon, Charlene

    2007-01-01

    An inadequate or nonexistent disaster recovery plan can have dire results. Fire, power outage, and severe weather all can brin down the best of networks in an instant. This article draws on the experiences of the Charlotte County Public Schools (Port Charlotte, Florida), which were able to lessen the damage caused by Hurricane Charley when it hit…

  5. Error rates in forensic DNA analysis: definition, numbers, impact and communication.

    PubMed

    Kloosterman, Ate; Sjerps, Marjan; Quak, Astrid

    2014-09-01

    Forensic DNA casework is currently regarded as one of the most important types of forensic evidence, and important decisions in intelligence and justice are based on it. However, errors occasionally occur and may have very serious consequences. In other domains, error rates have been defined and published. The forensic domain is lagging behind concerning this transparency for various reasons. In this paper we provide definitions and observed frequencies for different types of errors at the Human Biological Traces Department of the Netherlands Forensic Institute (NFI) over the years 2008-2012. Furthermore, we assess their actual and potential impact and describe how the NFI deals with the communication of these numbers to the legal justice system. We conclude that the observed relative frequency of quality failures is comparable to studies from clinical laboratories and genetic testing centres. Furthermore, this frequency is constant over the five-year study period. The most common causes of failures related to the laboratory process were contamination and human error. Most human errors could be corrected, whereas gross contamination in crime samples often resulted in irreversible consequences. Hence this type of contamination is identified as the most significant source of error. Of the known contamination incidents, most were detected by the NFI quality control system before the report was issued to the authorities, and thus did not lead to flawed decisions like false convictions. However in a very limited number of cases crucial errors were detected after the report was issued, sometimes with severe consequences. Many of these errors were made in the post-analytical phase. The error rates reported in this paper are useful for quality improvement and benchmarking, and contribute to an open research culture that promotes public trust. However, they are irrelevant in the context of a particular case. Here case-specific probabilities of undetected errors are needed. These should be reported, separately from the match probability, when requested by the court or when there are internal or external indications for error. It should also be made clear that there are various other issues to consider, like DNA transfer. Forensic statistical models, in particular Bayesian networks, may be useful to take the various uncertainties into account and demonstrate their effects on the evidential value of the forensic DNA results. PMID:24905336

  6. [Research Progress on Forensic Entomotoxicology].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-jiang; Zhai, Xian-dun; Guan, Ling; Mo, Yao-nan

    2015-06-01

    Forensic entomotoxicology is a branch of forensic medicine, which applies entomology, toxicology and other related studies to solve the poisoning cases. It has an obvious advantage in the investigation on poisoning death. Based on the expounding definition and research of entomotoxicology, this paper reviews research progress and application value in some aspects of forensic medicine, such as the effects of drugs/toxins on the growth and development of sarcosaphagous insects and the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the drugs/toxins in the poisoned body tissue. PMID:26442378

  7. Analysis of Forensic Autopsy in 120 Cases of Medical Disputes Among Different Levels of Institutional Settings.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lin-Sheng; Ye, Guang-Hua; Fan, Yan-Yan; Li, Xing-Biao; Feng, Xiang-Ping; Han, Jun-Ge; Lin, Ke-Zhi; Deng, Miao-Wu; Li, Feng

    2015-09-01

    Despite advances in medical science, the causes of death can sometimes only be determined by pathologists after a complete autopsy. Few studies have investigated the importance of forensic autopsy in medically disputed cases among different levels of institutional settings. Our study aimed to analyze forensic autopsy in 120 cases of medical disputes among five levels of institutional settings between 2001 and 2012 in Wenzhou, China. The results showed an overall concordance rate of 55%. Of the 39% of clinically missed diagnosis, cardiovascular pathology comprises 55.32%, while respiratory pathology accounts for the remaining 44. 68%. Factors that increase the likelihood of missed diagnoses were private clinics, community settings, and county hospitals. These results support that autopsy remains an important tool in establishing causes of death in medically disputed case, which may directly determine or exclude the fault of medical care and therefore in helping in resolving these cases. PMID:25929602

  8. [Fixation of cells for analysis by laser microdissection--comparative studies in forensic trace material].

    PubMed

    Fischer, Elisabeth J; Laberke, Patrick J; Kübler, Eric; Balitzki, Beate

    2012-01-01

    This paper is focused on the preparation of samples for laser microdissection (LM) in forensic casework. In forensic genetics, it is essential to preserve and separate cellular traces during sample preparation, as they are usually gathered in very small amounts and are often contaminated with undesired cells. This is made possible by laser microdissection, a technique developed to cut cells or tissue of a certain type from a microscopical specimen by UV laser and catapult them directly into a PCR reactor. This method minimizes the risk of getting inconclusive, mixed DNA profiles due to contamination by foreign DNA and also supplies information about the cellular origin of a DNA profile. A method for optimized fixation and staining of spermatozoa for laser microdissection was established. Four different fixation methods combined with two staining methods were tested on two different microscope slides. Moreover, the effect of a blocker pen to contain the specimen on the slide was investigated. PMID:22924276

  9. Effect of electron beam irradiation on forensic evidence. 2. Analysis of writing inks on porous surfaces.

    PubMed

    Ramotowski, Robert S; Regen, Erin M

    2007-05-01

    The effect of electron beam irradiation on a series of different writing inks is described. As the anthrax-tainted letters were discovered in October 2001, the U.S. government began to experiment with the use of the electron beam irradiation process for destroying such biological agents. Plans initially considered a large-scale countrywide use of this technology. However, over time the scope of this plan as well as the radiation dosage were reduced, especially when some adverse consequences to mailed items subjected to this process were observed. Little data existed at the time to characterize what level of damage might be expected to occur with common items sent through the mail. This was especially important to museums and other institutions that routinely ship valuable and historic items through the mail. Although the Smithsonian Institution initiated some studies of the effect of electron beam irradiation on archived materials, little data existed on the effect that this process would have on forensic evidence. Approximately 97 different black, blue, red, green, and yellow writing inks were selected. Writing ink types included ballpoint, gel, plastic/felt tip, and rollerball. All noncontrol samples were subjected to standard mail irradiation conditions used by the U.S. Postal Service at the time this experiment was performed. A video spectral comparator and thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analysis were used to evaluate both the control and the irradiated samples. Some published studies reported changes in the presence/absence of dye bands in the chromatograms of irradiated writing inks. Some of these studies report the formation of additional dye bands on the chromatogram while others report missing dye bands. However, using standard testing guidelines and procedures, none of the 97 irradiated inks tested were found to show any significant optical or chemical differences from the control samples. In addition, random testing of some of the ink samples using a second solvent system did not reveal any changes. However, one control ink did show some minor changes in optical properties and dye characteristics over time (but not TLC) while the irradiated sample remained stable. Significant changes in the ultraviolet fluorescence characteristics of the irradiated paper samples themselves (not inks) were also observed. PMID:17456088

  10. Nuclear forensic analysis of an unknown uranium ore concentrate sample seized in a criminal investigation in Australia.

    PubMed

    Keegan, Elizabeth; Kristo, Michael J; Colella, Michael; Robel, Martin; Williams, Ross; Lindvall, Rachel; Eppich, Gary; Roberts, Sarah; Borg, Lars; Gaffney, Amy; Plaue, Jonathan; Wong, Henri; Davis, Joel; Loi, Elaine; Reinhard, Mark; Hutcheon, Ian

    2014-07-01

    Early in 2009, a state policing agency raided a clandestine drug laboratory in a suburb of a major city in Australia. During the search of the laboratory, a small glass jar labelled "Gamma Source" and containing a green powder was discovered. The powder was radioactive. This paper documents the detailed nuclear forensic analysis undertaken to characterise and identify the material and determine its provenance. Isotopic and impurity content, phase composition, microstructure and other characteristics were measured on the seized sample, and the results were compared with similar material obtained from the suspected source (ore and ore concentrate material). While an extensive range of parameters were measured, the key 'nuclear forensic signatures' used to identify the material were the U isotopic composition, Pb and Sr isotope ratios, and the rare earth element pattern. These measurements, in combination with statistical analysis of the elemental and isotopic content of the material against a database of uranium ore concentrates sourced from mines located worldwide, led to the conclusion that the seized material (a uranium ore concentrate of natural isotopic abundance) most likely originated from Mary Kathleen, a former Australian uranium mine. PMID:24836840

  11. Wavelength dependence on the forensic analysis of glass by nanosecond 266 nm and 1064 nm laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Cahoon, Erica M.; Almirall, Jose R.

    2010-05-01

    Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy can be used for the chemical characterization of glass to provide evidence of an association between a fragment found at a crime scene to a source of glass of known origin. Two different laser irradiances, 266 nm and 1064 nm, were used to conduct qualitative and quantitative analysis of glass standards. Single-pulse and double-pulse configurations and lens-to-sample-distance settings were optimized to yield the best laser-glass coupling. Laser energy and acquisition timing delays were also optimized to result in the highest signal-to-noise ratio corresponding to the highest precision and accuracy. The crater morphology was examined and the mass removed was calculated for both the 266 nm and 1064 nm irradiations. The analytical figures of merit suggest that the 266 nm and 1064 nm wavelengths are capable of good performance for the forensic chemical characterization of glass. The results presented here suggest that the 266 nm laser produces a better laser-glass matrix coupling, resulting in a better stoichiometric representation of the glass sample. The 266 nm irradiance is therefore recommended for the forensic analysis and comparison of glass samples.

  12. Virtual tool mark generation for efficient striation analysis in forensic science

    SciTech Connect

    Ekstrand, Laura

    2012-11-16

    In 2009, a National Academy of Sciences report called for investigation into the scienti#12;c basis behind tool mark comparisons (National Academy of Sciences, 2009). Answering this call, Chumbley et al. (2010) attempted to prove or disprove the hypothesis that tool marks are unique to a single tool. They developed a statistical algorithm that could, in most cases, discern matching and non-matching tool marks made at di#11;erent angles by sequentially numbered screwdriver tips. Moreover, in the cases where the algorithm misinterpreted a pair of marks, an experienced forensics examiner could discern the correct outcome. While this research served to con#12;rm the basic assumptions behind tool mark analysis, it also suggested that statistical analysis software could help to reduce the examiner's workload. This led to a new tool mark analysis approach, introduced in this thesis, that relies on 3D scans of screwdriver tip and marked plate surfaces at the micrometer scale from an optical microscope. These scans are carefully cleaned to remove noise from the data acquisition process and assigned a coordinate system that mathematically de#12;nes angles and twists in a natural way. The marking process is then simulated by using a 3D graphics software package to impart rotations to the tip and take the projection of the tip's geometry in the direction of tool travel. The edge of this projection, retrieved from the 3D graphics software, becomes a virtual tool mark. Using this method, virtual marks are made at increments of 5#14; and compared to a scan of the evidence mark. The previously developed statistical package from Chumbley et al. (2010) performs the comparison, comparing the similarity of the geometry of both marks to the similarity that would occur due to random chance. The resulting statistical measure of the likelihood of the match informs the examiner of the angle of the best matching virtual mark, allowing the examiner to focus his/her mark analysis on a smaller range of angles. Preliminary results are quite promising. In a study with both sides of 6 screwdriver tips and 34 corresponding marks, the method distinguished known matches from known non-matches with zero false positive matches and only two matches mistaken for non-matches. For matches, it could predict the correct marking angle within #6;5-10#14;. Moreover, on a standard desktop computer, the virtual marking software is capable of cleaning 3D tip and plate scans in minutes and producing a virtual mark and comparing it to a real mark in seconds. These results support several of the professional conclusions of the tool mark analysis com- munity, including the idea that marks produced by the same tool only match if they are made at similar angles. The method also displays the potential to automate part of the comparison process, freeing the examiner to focus on other tasks, which is important in busy, backlogged crime labs. Finally, the method o#11;ers the unique chance to directly link an evidence mark to the tool that produced it while reducing potential damage to the evidence.

  13. Effects of printing and ninhydrin treatment on forensic analysis of paper.

    PubMed

    Itamiya, Hiromi; Sugita, Ritsuko

    2015-10-01

    Paper is ubiquitous in human activities and can be found as evidence in the commission of many crimes such as threatening letters, deceptive advertisements and counterfeiting banknotes. To link the paper evidence to a source is a comparative process that is hampered when a blank paper is compared to a paper that has been submitted to printing or other treatments such as ninhydrin for the detection of fingermarks. During a forensic investigation, printed paper is analyzed with various instruments after fingerprint examination. In this study, the effects of printing and ninhydrin treatment on forensic paper examination of grammage, thickness, fillers, and pulp composition were studied. Grammage and thickness were increased by full-page double-sided printing, and grammage depended on the type of printer. The effects of printing on the analytical data about fillers and pulp composition were negligible, and ninhydrin treatment affected only paper thickness. These minor effects notwithstanding, the results indicate that conventional analytical methods used in forensic science for examining papers can be applied. PMID:26074166

  14. Forensic Science T. A. Brettell*

    E-print Network

    Forensic Science T. A. Brettell* Department of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Cedar Crest College journals: Journal of Forensic Sciences; Forensic Science International; Forensic Science International: Genetics; International Journal of Legal Medicine; Legal Medi- cine; Forensic Science Communications

  15. Forensic Science T. A. Brettell*

    E-print Network

    Forensic Science T. A. Brettell* Department of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Cedar Crest College journals: Journal of Forensic Sciences, Forensic Science International, International Journal of Legal Medicine, Legal Medicine, Forensic Science Review, Forensic Science Communica- tions, Analytical Chemistry

  16. [Measurement and analysis of reflected information from crops canopy suffering from wind disaster influence].

    PubMed

    Bao, Yu-Long; Zhang, Ji-Quan; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Wang, Yong-Fang; Ma, Dong-Lai; Sun, Zhong-Qiu

    2013-04-01

    The corn in the grain filling stage fell over in the central region of Jilin province by the Typhoon Bolaven influence. In order to determine the impact of falling over corn canopy on the reflected information, the hyperspectral reflectance was detected at different viewing zenith angles, at the same time, the polarized reflection was also measured. The results from the analysis by combining the reflection and polarization from corn canopy showed that the reflection of falling over corn is low in visible, while increases in the near infrared wavelength. The reflection from falling over corn canopy was more anisotropic than stand-up corn canopy. The reflected light was highly polarized, the polarization of corn canopy provided the probability for distinguishing between falling over corn and stand-up corn. This research provides a basis for estimating the disaster area and lost units. PMID:23841428

  17. Monitoring As A Helpful Means In Forensic Analysis Of Dams Static Instability Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solimene, Pellegrino

    2013-04-01

    Monitoring is a means of controlling the behavior of a structure, which during its operational life is subject to external actions as ordinary loading conditions and disturbing ones; these factors overlap with the random manner defined by the statistical parameter of the return period. The analysis of the monitoring data is crucial to gain a reasoned opinion on the reliability of the structure and its components, and also allows to identify, in the overall operational scenario, the time when preparing interventions aimed at maintaining the optimum levels of functionality and safety. The concept of monitoring in terms of prevention is coupled with the activity of Forensic Engineer who, by Judiciary appointment for the occurrence of an accident, turns its experience -the "Scientific knowledge"- in an "inverse analysis" in which he summed up the results of a survey, which also draws on data sets arising in the course of the constant control of the causes and effects, so to determine the correlations between these factors. His activity aims at giving a contribution to the identification of the typicality of an event, which represents, together with "causal link" between the conduct and events and contra-juridical, the factors judging if there an hypothesis of crime, and therefore liable according to law. In Italy there are about 10,000 dams of varying sizes, but only a small portion of them are considered "large dams" and subjected to a rigorous program of regular inspections and monitoring, in application of specific rules. The rest -"small" dams, conventionally defined as such by the standard, but not for the impact on the area- is affected by a heterogeneous response from the local authorities entrusted with this task: there is therefore a high potential risk scenario, as determined by the presence of not completely controlled structures that insist even on areas heavily populated. Risk can be traced back to acceptable levels if they were implemented with the necessary uniformity of procedures usually adopted for major works, and, therefore, is intended to emphasize the importance to have a more complete cognitive picture of the issues affecting the dams, especially so-called "minor" and their relationship with the embedding territory. This contribution consists of a brief digression on dams, their characteristics, functions performed by them and their relationship with the territory in terms of risk and benefit. After, it is discussed the concept of risk factors that characterize the importance of monitoring extended to the crisis management with a focus to the fast verification of structural reliability after a crisis event. A case study of the vulnerability of a dam under seismic action by "Event tree analysis" is presented, based on data acquired in the course of constant surveillance and control. Some considerations about the monitoring actions related specifically to earthquakes and weather events are presented in order to emphasize its function with regard to risk mitigation through early warning procedures. Finally, the results of a survey on the main accidents involving Italian and USA dams are presented even as a factor pushing to improve the national regulatory framework . Finally, we will discuss some anomalies in the regional rules, leading to interruption in the technical management of the dams by the Public Authority, holding the function of supervision and control over these works and the role of reference for the management of flood mitigation for the hydraulic system. Several hints are provided to contribute towards overcoming the problems that emerged, necessary and urgent to provide answer to the question of security of civil society.

  18. Disaster Preparedness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Constance

    Most librarians know the importance of disaster preparedness. Many disasters could have been prevented altogether or have had reduced impact if institutions had been better prepared. This resource guide suggests how disaster preparedness can be achieved at cultural institutions. Twenty-three basic resource articles are presented to introduce…

  19. a Preliminary Study of Web-Based Spatial Data Analysis Feasibility - One of Possible Solutions for Disaster Response and Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, C. C.; Chang, K.-C.

    2012-07-01

    As the massive tsunami that struck northeast Japan in 11 March 2011 after a magnitude 9.0 earthquake, it reveals that people are living in a critical environment. Although great improvement has been achieved in disaster prevention technologies, many natural disasters are still unpredictable. In addition to the prevention, rapid and effective responses to such disasters are also crucial. One of the key elements to success is the information dissemination of disaster, including both area and people living within that region. In the past decade, web-based spatial information system has become the major platform for both data sharing and displaying. What is coming next is the development of web-based spatial data analysis. A web-based service allows people to implement spatial analysis immediately as long as the internet connection among database and application servers is available. This useful and helpful spatial information is able to be accessed by all users around the world almost simultaneously. The main goal of this paper is to implement a spatial data analysis module based on service oriented architecture (SOA) concept. The main interest and focus of our study is based on the knowledge regularization processes of spatial data analysis to achieve the automated land cover change detection (LCCD) over internet. The proposed automated model is tested and verified by FORMOSAT-2 imageries taken in 2005 and in 2008. It will be published online for users around the world to maximize the add-on value and minimize the cost of the spatial data, moreover, to reveal the situations of disaster rapidly.

  20. Dentistry and Mass Disaster – A Review

    PubMed Central

    Sakthi, D Sri

    2014-01-01

    Mass disaster situations may arise from natural or manmade circumstances like bioterrorism and dentists or dental responders have significant roles in human identification, following such occurrences. The various roles of dentists in mass disaster management, that include bio surveillance and notification, diagnosis and monitoring, triage, referrals of patients, immunizations, decontamination and infection control would be considered. The varying extents of use of forensic dental techniques and the resulting positive impacts made on human identification will also be included. The importance of preparation by way of special training for the dental personnel, mass disaster rehearsal, and use of modern day technology will be stressed on. PMID:25177658

  1. [The dentist as an expert in disasters: dental identification in the disasters with the Zeebrugge ferry].

    PubMed

    de Valck, E

    1990-01-01

    The Herald of Free Enterprise Disaster on the 6th of March 1987 just outside Zeebrugge harbour was without any doubt a disaster of major proportions. The ferry disaster highlighted different approaches in major incident procedures in both countries involved but nevertheless the identification team which was composed of both British and Belgian specialists did perform good work. The identification of the victims had to be done in three phases each of them with its own specific work and problems. As the process of identification of bodies is an exacting science, and forensic odontology is known to be among the most reliable scientific methods in mass disasters, it is easily understood that forensic odontology took an active part in all three phases of the identification process. PMID:2396022

  2. Forensic geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffell, Alastair; McKinley, Jennifer

    2014-02-01

    Geomorphology plays a critical role in two areas of geoforensics: searching the land for surface or buried objects and sampling scenes of crime and control locations as evidence. Associated geoscience disciplines have substantial bodies of work dedicated to their relevance in forensic investigations, yet geomorphology (specifically landforms, their mapping and evolution, soils and relationship to geology and biogeography) have not had similar public exposure. This is strange considering how fundamental to legal enquiries the location of a crime and its evolution are, as this article will demonstrate. This work aims to redress the balance by showing how geomorphology featured in one of the earliest works on forensic science methods, and has continued to play a role in the sociology, archaeology, criminalistics and geoforensics of crime. Traditional landscape interpretation from aerial photography is used to demonstrate how a geomorphological approach saved police time in the search for a clandestine grave. The application geomorphology has in military/humanitarian geography and environmental/engineering forensics is briefly discussed as these are also regularly reviewed in courts of law.

  3. NISTIR 7387 Cell Phone Forensic Tools

    E-print Network

    NISTIR 7387 Cell Phone Forensic Tools: AnOverviewandAnalysisUpdate RickAyers WayneJansen LudovicMoenner AurelienDelaitre #12;iii NISTIR 7387 Cell Phone Forensic Tools: An Overview and Analysis available for the purpose. iii #12;Abstract Cell phones and other handheld devices incorporating cell phone

  4. NISTIR 7250 Cell Phone Forensic Tools

    E-print Network

    NISTIR 7250 Cell Phone Forensic Tools: AnOverviewandAnalysis RickAyers WayneJansen NicolasCilleros RonanDaniellou #12;iii NISTIR 7250 Cell Phone Forensic Tools: An Overview and Analysis Rick Ayers Wayne Interagency Report 187 pages (2005) iii #12;Abstract Cell phones and other handheld devices incorporating cell

  5. COE589: Digital Forensics Introduction to Digital Forensics

    E-print Network

    Almulhem, Ahmad

    COE589: Digital Forensics Introduction to Digital Forensics Dr. Ahmad Almulhem KFUPM ­ Spring 2013 (T122) 1COE589 - Ahmad Almulhem #12;Outline · Forensic Science (Forensics) ­ Classic (Analog) vs Digital Forensics · Branches of Digital Forensics · Digital Forensics vs Other Fields · Digital Evidences

  6. COE589: Digital Forensics Introduction to Digital Forensics

    E-print Network

    Almulhem, Ahmad

    COE589: Digital Forensics Introduction to Digital Forensics Dr. Ahmad Almulhem KFUPM - Fall 2012 (T121) 1COE589 - Ahmad Almulhem #12;Outline · Forensic Science (Forensics) ­ Classic (Analog) vs Digital Forensics · Branches of Digital Forensics · Digital Forensics vs Other Fields · Digital Evidences · Computer

  7. Specifying digital forensics: A forensics policy approach

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Carol Louise; Popovsky, Barbara; Frincke, Deborah A.

    2007-09-01

    In this paper we present an approach to digital forensics specification based on forensic policy definition. Our methodology borrows from computer security policy specification, which has accumulated a significant body of research over the past 30 years. We first define the process of specifying forensics properties through a forensics policy and then present an example application of the process. This approach lends itself to formal policy specification and verification, which would allow for more clarity and less ambiguity in the specification process

  8. Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Human Movements and Applications for Disaster Response Management Utilizing Cell Phone Usage Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasumiishi, M.; Renschler, C. S.; Bittner, T. E.

    2015-07-01

    As cell phone usage becomes a norm in our daily lives, analysis and application of the data has become part of various research fields. This study focuses on the application of cell phone usage data to disaster response management. Cell phones work as a communication link between emergency responders and victims during and after a major disaster. This study recognizes that there are two kinds of disasters, one with an advance warning, and one without an advance warning. Different movement distance between a day with a blizzard (advanced warning) and a normal weather day was identified. In the scenario of a day with an extreme event without advanced warning (earthquake), factors that alter the phone users' movements were analyzed. Lastly, combining both cases, a conceptual model of human movement factors is proposed. Human movements consist of four factors that are push factors, movement-altering factors, derived attributes and constraint factors. Considering each category of factors in case of emergency, it should be necessary that we prepare different kinds of emergency response plans depending on the characteristics of a disaster.

  9. Forensic hash for multimedia information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wenjun; Varna, Avinash L.; Wu, Min

    2010-01-01

    Digital multimedia such as images and videos are prevalent on today's internet and cause significant social impact, which can be evidenced by the proliferation of social networking sites with user generated contents. Due to the ease of generating and modifying images and videos, it is critical to establish trustworthiness for online multimedia information. In this paper, we propose novel approaches to perform multimedia forensics using compact side information to reconstruct the processing history of a document. We refer to this as FASHION, standing for Forensic hASH for informatION assurance. Based on the Radon transform and scale space theory, the proposed forensic hash is compact and can effectively estimate the parameters of geometric transforms and detect local tampering that an image may have undergone. Forensic hash is designed to answer a broader range of questions regarding the processing history of multimedia data than the simple binary decision from traditional robust image hashing, and also offers more efficient and accurate forensic analysis than multimedia forensic techniques that do not use any side information.

  10. ice | proceedings Forensic Engineering

    E-print Network

    Mottram, Toby

    ice | proceedings Forensic Engineering Volume 165 Issue FE4 November 2012 Forensic Engineering or economic damage. Research and practice papers are sought on traditional or modern forensic engineering, design and construction. Topics covered also include research and education best practice in forensic

  11. Screening sensitivity analysis of a radionuclides atmospheric dispersion model applied to the Fukushima disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, Sylvain; Korsakissok, Irène; Mallet, Vivien

    2014-10-01

    Numerical models used to forecast the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides following nuclear accidents are subject to substantial uncertainties. Input data, such as meteorological forecasts or source term estimations, as well as poorly known model parameters contribute for a large part to this uncertainty. A sensitivity analysis with the method of Morris was carried out in the case of the Fukushima disaster as a first step towards the uncertainty analysis of the Polyphemus/Polair3D model. The main difficulties stemmed from the high dimension of the model's input and output. Simple perturbations whose magnitudes were devised from a thorough literature review were applied to 19 uncertain inputs. Several outputs related to atmospheric activity and ground deposition were aggregated, revealing different inputs rankings. Other inputs based on gamma dose rates measurements were used to question the possibility of calibrating the inputs uncertainties. Some inputs, such as the cloud layer thickness, were found to have little influence on most considered outputs and could therefore be safely discarded from further studies. On the contrary, wind perturbations and emission factors for iodine and caesium are predominant. The performance indicators derived from dose rates observations displayed strong sensitivities. This emphasises the share of the overall uncertainty due to input uncertainties and asserts the relevance of the simple perturbation scheme that was employed in this work.

  12. Hazard Analysis and Disaster Preparedness in the Fairbanks North Star Borough, Alaska using Hazard Simulations, GIS, and Network Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, K.; Prakash, A.; Witte, W.

    2011-12-01

    The Fairbanks North Star Borough (FNSB) lies in interior Alaska, an area that is dominated by semiarid, boreal forest climate. FNSB frequently witnesses flooding events, wild land fires, earthquakes, extreme winter storms and other natural and man-made hazards. Being a large 19,065 km2 area, with a population of approximately 97,000 residents, providing emergency services to residents in a timely manner is a challenge. With only four highways going in and out of the borough, and only two of those leading to another city, most residents do not have quick access to a main road. Should a major disaster occur and block one of the two highways, options for evacuating or getting supplies to the area quickly dwindle. We present the design of a Geographic Information System (GIS) and network analysis based decision support tool that we have created for planning and emergency response. This tool will be used by Emergency Service (Fire/EMS), Emergency Management, Hazardous Materials Team, and Law Enforcement Agencies within FNSB to prepare and respond to a variety of potential disasters. The GIS combines available road and address networks from different FNSB agencies with the 2010 census data. We used ESRI's ArcGIS and FEMA's HAZUS-MH software to run multiple disaster scenarios and create several evacuation and response plans. Network analysis resulted in determining response time and classifying the borough by response times to facilitate allocation of emergency resources. The resulting GIS database can be used by any responding agency in FNSB to determine possible evacuation routes, where to open evacuation centers, placement of resources, and emergency response times. We developed a specific emergency response plan for three common scenarios: (i) major wildfire threatening Fairbanks, (ii) a major earthquake, (iii) loss of power during flooding in a flood-prone area. We also combined the network analysis results with high resolution imagery and elevation data to determine 'one-way out' areas. These are areas that have only one road going in or out and if that road where to get shut down the residents would have no other way of evacuating.

  13. Detection Strategies for Malingering with the Miller Forensic Assessment of Symptoms Test: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Its Underlying Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitacco, Michael J.; Jackson, Rebecca L.; Rogers, Richard; Neumann, Craig S.; Miller, Holly A.; Gabel, Jason

    2008-01-01

    Two of the most widely used measures for the assessment of malingering in forensic populations are the Miller Forensic Assessment of Symptoms Test (M-FAST) and the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS). The underlying dimensions of the SIRS have been well established in the literature, but the structure of the M-FAST remains relatively…

  14. Factors Predicting Organizational Identification with Intercollegiate Forensics Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croucher, Stephen M.; Long, Bridget L.; Meredith, Michael J.; Oommen, Deepa; Steele, Emily L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between intercollegiate forensics competitors' organizational identification and organizational culture. Through a survey analysis of 314 intercollegiate forensics students, this study reports three major findings. First, this study found male competitors identify with forensics programs more than female…

  15. Inference from mitochondrial DNA data in forensic identification

    E-print Network

    Friedl, Herwig

    . and Evett, I. W. (1997) Bayesian analysis of DNA profiling data in forensic identification. J. R. StatisticInference from mitochondrial DNA data in forensic identification Paola Berchialla Department very small or degradated biological samples. A general problem in forensic identification arises when

  16. Objective forensic analysis of striated, quasi-striated and impressed toolmarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spotts, Ryan E.

    Following the 1993 Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc. court case and continuing to the 2010 National Academy of Sciences report, comparative forensic toolmark examination has received many challenges to its admissibility in court cases and its scientific foundations. Many of these challenges deal with the subjective nature in determining whether toolmarks are identifiable. This questioning of current identification methods has created a demand for objective methods of identification - "objective" implying known error rates and statistically reliability. The demand for objective methods has resulted in research that created a statistical algorithm capable of comparing toolmarks to determine their statistical similarity, and thus the ability to separate matching and nonmatching toolmarks. This was expanded to the creation of virtual toolmarking (characterization of a tool to predict the toolmark it will create). The statistical algorithm, originally designed for two-dimensional striated toolmarks, had been successfully applied to striated screwdriver and quasi-striated plier toolmarks. Following this success, a blind study was conducted to validate the virtual toolmarking capability using striated screwdriver marks created at various angles of incidence. Work was also performed to optimize the statistical algorithm by implementing means to ensure the algorithm operations were constrained to logical comparison regions (e.g. the opposite ends of two toolmarks do not need to be compared because they do not coincide with each other). This work was performed on quasi-striated shear cut marks made with pliers - a previously tested, more difficult application of the statistical algorithm that could demonstrate the difference in results due to optimization. The final research conducted was performed with pseudostriated impression toolmarks made with chisels. Impression marks, which are more complex than striated marks, were analyzed using the algorithm to separate matching and nonmatching toolmarks. Results of the conducted research are presented as well as evidence of the primary assumption of forensic toolmark examination; all tools can create identifiably unique toolmarks.

  17. Forensic entomology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amendt, Jens; Krettek, Roman; Zehner, Richard

    Necrophagous insects are important in the decomposition of cadavers. The close association between insects and corpses and the use of insects in medicocriminal investigations is the subject of forensic entomology. The present paper reviews the historical background of this discipline, important postmortem processes, and discusses the scientific basis underlying attempts to determine the time interval since death. Using medical techniques, such as the measurement of body temperature or analysing livor and rigor mortis, time since death can only be accurately measured for the first two or three days after death. In contrast, by calculating the age of immature insect stages feeding on a corpse and analysing the necrophagous species present, postmortem intervals from the first day to several weeks can be estimated. These entomological methods may be hampered by difficulties associated with species identification, but modern DNA techniques are contributing to the rapid and authoritative identification of necrophagous insects. Other uses of entomological data include the toxicological examination of necrophagous larvae from a corpse to identify and estimate drugs and toxicants ingested by the person when alive and the proof of possible postmortem manipulations. Forensic entomology may even help in investigations dealing with people who are alive but in need of care, by revealing information about cases of neglect.

  18. Modeling senescence changes of the pubic symphysis in historic Italian populations: a comparison of the Rostock and forensic approaches to aging using transition analysis.

    PubMed

    Godde, Kanya; Hens, Samantha M

    2015-03-01

    Age-related anatomical changes to the surface of the pubic symphysis are well-documented in the literature. However, aligning these morphological changes with chronological age has proven problematic, often resulting in biased age estimates. Statistical modeling provides an avenue for forensic anthropologists and bioarchaeologists to increase the accuracy of traditional aging methods. Locating appropriate samples to use as a basis for modeling age estimations can be challenging due to differing sample age distributions and potentially varying patterns of senescence. We compared two approaches, Rostock and Forensic, coupled with a Bayesian methodology, to address these issues. Transition analysis was run specific to each method (which differ by sample selection). A Gompertz model was derived from an informative prior that yielded the mortality and senescence parameters for constructing highest posterior density ranges, i.e., coverages, which are analogous to age ranges. These age ranges were generated from both approaches and are presented as reference tables useful for historic male and female Italian samples. The age ranges produced from each approach were tested on an historic Italian sample, using cumulative binomial tests. These two approaches performed similarly, with the Forensic approach showing a slight advantage. However, the Forensic approach is unable to identify varying senescence patterns between populations, thus preference for one approach over the other will depend on research design. Finally, we demonstrate that while populations exhibit similar morphological changes with advancing age, there are no significant sex differences in these samples, and the timing of these changes varies from population to population. PMID:25407762

  19. Disaster Response on September 11, 2001 Through the Lens of Statistical Network Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Schweinberger, Michael; Petrescu-Prahova, Miruna; Vu, Duy Quang

    2014-01-01

    The rescue and relief operations triggered by the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City demanded collaboration among hundreds of organisations. To shed light on the response to the September 11, 2001 attacks and help to plan and prepare the response to future disasters, we study the inter-organisational network that emerged in response to the attacks. Studying the inter-organisational network can help to shed light on (1) whether some organisations dominated the inter-organisational network and facilitated communication and coordination of the disaster response; (2) whether the dominating organisations were supposed to coordinate disaster response or emerged as coordinators in the wake of the disaster; and (3) the degree of network redundancy and sensitivity of the inter-organisational network to disturbances following the initial disaster. We introduce a Bayesian framework which can answer the substantive questions of interest while being as simple and parsimonious as possible. The framework allows organisations to have varying propensities to collaborate, while taking covariates into account, and allows to assess whether the inter-organisational network had network redundancy—in the form of transitivity—by using a test which may be regarded as a Bayesian score test. We discuss implications in terms of disaster management. PMID:24707073

  20. Of Disasters and Dragon Kings: A Statistical Analysis of Nuclear Power Incidents & Accidents

    E-print Network

    Wheatley, Spencer; Sornette, Didier

    2015-01-01

    We provide, and perform a risk theoretic statistical analysis of, a dataset that is 75 percent larger than the previous best dataset on nuclear incidents and accidents, comparing three measures of severity: INES (International Nuclear Event Scale), radiation released, and damage dollar losses. The annual rate of nuclear accidents, with size above 20 Million US$, per plant, decreased from the 1950s until dropping significantly after Chernobyl (April, 1986). The rate is now roughly stable at 0.002 to 0.003, i.e., around 1 event per year across the current fleet. The distribution of damage values changed after Three Mile Island (TMI; March, 1979), where moderate damages were suppressed but the tail became very heavy, being described by a Pareto distribution with tail index 0.55. Further, there is a runaway disaster regime, associated with the "dragon-king" phenomenon, amplifying the risk of extreme damage. In fact, the damage of the largest event (Fukushima; March, 2011) is equal to 60 percent of the total damag...

  1. Proposed Course: Forensic Geology and Homeland Security Instructors: Dr. PA Candela and Dr. PM Piccoli

    E-print Network

    Zeng, Ning

    to forensic science, will move on to how the earth sciences inform forensic analysis, and then will cover Topics (readings above and beyond the texts are listed below). 1. Introduction to Forensic Science. Earth Science Reviews volume 69, Pages 235-247. (Overview of the history of Forensic Geology; deals

  2. J Forensic Sci, July 2005, Vol. 50, No. 4 Paper ID JFS2004478

    E-print Network

    quantification methods. KEYWORDS: forensic science, DNA quantification, forensic DNA analysis, polymerase chainJ Forensic Sci, July 2005, Vol. 50, No. 4 Paper ID JFS2004478 Available online at: www Quantification Kit were designed for the quantification of human genomic DNA in forensic samples. The kits use

  3. A COMPONENT ESTIMATION FRAMEWORK FOR INFORMATION FORENSICS Ashwin Swaminathan, Min Wu and K. J. Ray Liu

    E-print Network

    Liu, K. J. Ray

    A COMPONENT ESTIMATION FRAMEWORK FOR INFORMATION FORENSICS Ashwin Swaminathan, Min Wu and K. J. Ray for a large number of high security and forensic applications, there is a strong need for techniques to verify the source and integrity of digital data. Com- ponent forensics is new approach for forensic analysis

  4. Let SDN Be Your Eyes: Secure Forensics in Data Center Networks

    E-print Network

    Ives, Zachary G.

    Let SDN Be Your Eyes: Secure Forensics in Data Center Networks Adam Bates Kevin Butler University or tamper with data to frustrate forensic analysis. Recently proposed forensic tools enable administrators) offers interesting new op- portunities for network forensics. We sketch the design of an SDN

  5. From sample to PCR product in under 45 minutes: a polymeric integrated microdevice for clinical and forensic DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Lounsbury, Jenny A; Karlsson, Anne; Miranian, Daniel C; Cronk, Stephen M; Nelson, Daniel A; Li, Jingyi; Haverstick, Doris M; Kinnon, Paul; Saul, David J; Landers, James P

    2013-04-01

    The extraction and amplification of DNA from biological samples is laborious and time-consuming, requiring numerous instruments and sample handling steps. An integrated, single-use, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microdevice for DNA extraction and amplification would benefit clinical and forensic communities, providing a completely closed system with rapid sample-in-PCR-product-out capability. Here, we show the design and simple flow control required for enzyme-based DNA preparation and PCR from buccal swabs or liquid whole blood samples with an ~5-fold reduction in time. A swab containing cells or DNA could be loaded into a novel receptacle together with the DNA liberation reagents, heated using an infrared heating system, mixed with PCR reagents for one of three different target sets under syringe-driven flow, and thermally-cycled in less than 45 min, an ~6-fold reduction in analysis time as compared to conventional methods. The 4 : 1 PCR reagents : DNA ratio required to provide the correct final concentration of all PCR components for effective amplification was verified using image analysis of colored dyes in the PCR chamber. Novel single-actuation, 'normally-open' adhesive valves were shown to effectively seal the PCR chamber during thermal cycling, preventing air bubble expansion. The effectiveness of the device was demonstrated using three target sets: the sex-typing gene Amelogenin, co-amplification of the ?-globin and gelsolin genes, and the amplification of 15 short tandem repeat (STR) loci plus Amelogenin. The use of the integrated microdevice was expanded to the analysis of liquid blood samples which, when incubated with the DNA liberation reagents, form a brown precipitate that inhibits PCR. A simple centrifugation of the integrated microchips (on a custom centrifuge), mobilized the precipitate away from the microchannel entrance, improving amplification of the ?-globin and gelsolin gene fragments by ~6-fold. This plastic integrated microdevice represents a microfluidic platform with potential for evolution into point-of-care prototypes for application to both clinical and forensic analyses, providing a 5-fold reduction from conventional analysis time. PMID:23389252

  6. Integrating Cyber-Forensics into a Forensic Science Masters Programme

    E-print Network

    Overill, Richard E.

    Integrating Cyber-Forensics into a Forensic Science Masters Programme Richard E Overill Department This paper traces the development of the cyber-forensics content of the MSc in Forensic Science at King's College London. It identifies the key interfaces between cyber-forensics and traditional forensic science

  7. COE589: Digital Forensics Research in Digital Forensics

    E-print Network

    Almulhem, Ahmad

    COE589: Digital Forensics Research in Digital Forensics Dr. Ahmad Almulhem KFUPM - Fall 2012 (T121? · Research Agenda for Digital Forensics · Future Research in Digital Forensics COE589 - Ahmad Almulhem 2 #12589 - Ahmad Almulhem 6 repeat hourglass model #12;Research in Digital Forensics · Digital forensics

  8. COE589: Digital Forensics Research in Digital Forensics

    E-print Network

    Almulhem, Ahmad

    COE589: Digital Forensics Research in Digital Forensics Dr. Ahmad Almulhem KFUPM - Spring 2013 (T Forensics · Future Research in Digital Forensics · Re-Visit to Course Syllabus COE589 - Ahmad Almulhem 2 #12 hourglass model #12;Research in Digital Forensics · Digital forensics is largely practitioner-driven field

  9. Feline mitochondrial DNA sampling for forensic analysis: when enough is enough!

    PubMed

    Grahn, Robert A; Alhaddad, Hasan; Alves, Paulo C; Randi, Ettore; Waly, Nashwa E; Lyons, Leslie A

    2015-05-01

    Pet hair has a demonstrated value in resolving legal issues. Cat hair is chronically shed and it is difficult to leave a home with cats without some level of secondary transfer. The power of cat hair as an evidentiary resource may be underused because representative genetic databases are not available for exclusionary purposes. Mitochondrial control region databases are highly valuable for hair analyses and have been developed for the cat. In a representative worldwide data set, 83% of domestic cat mitotypes belong to one of twelve major types. Of the remaining 17%, 7.5% are unique within the published 1394 sample database. The current research evaluates the sample size necessary to establish a representative population for forensic comparison of the mitochondrial control region for the domestic cat. For most worldwide populations, randomly sampling 50 unrelated local individuals will achieve saturation at 95%. The 99% saturation is achieved by randomly sampling 60-170 cats, depending on the numbers of mitotypes available in the population at large. Likely due to the recent domestication of the cat and minimal localized population substructure, fewer cats are needed to meet mitochondria DNA control region database practical saturation than for humans or dogs. Coupled with the available worldwide feline control region database of nearly 1400 cats, minimal local sampling will be required to establish an appropriate comparative representative database and achieve significant exclusionary power. PMID:25531059

  10. Bridging biometrics and forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yanjun; Osadciw, Lisa Ann

    2008-02-01

    This paper is a survey on biometrics and forensics, especially on the techniques and applications of face recognition in forensics. This paper describes the differences and connections between biometrics and forensics, and bridges each other by formulating the conditions when biometrics can be applied in forensics. Under these conditions, face recognition, as a non-intrusive and non-contact biometrics, is discussed in detail as an illustration of applying biometrics in forensics. The discussion on face recognition covers different approaches, feature extractions, and decision procedures. The advantages and limitations of biometrics in forensic applications are also addressed.

  11. An analysis of Japan Disaster Medical Assistance Team (J-DMAT) deployments in comparison with those of J-DMAT's counterpart in the United States (US-DMAT).

    PubMed

    Fuse, Akira; Yokota, Hiroyuki

    2010-12-01

    Lessons learned from the Great Hanshin-Awaji earthquake of 1995 underscored the necessity of establishing Disaster Medical Assistance Teams (DMATs) in Japan, and in 2005, the Japanese government's Central Disaster Prevention Council revised its Basic Disaster Management Plan to include full deployment of DMATs in disaster areas. Defining a DMAT as a trained, mobile, self-contained medical team that can act in the acute phase of a disaster (48 to 72 hours after its occurrence) to provide medical treatment in the devastated area, the revised plan called for the training of DMAT personnel for rapid deployment to any area of the country hit by a disaster. This paper presents descriptive data on the number and types of missions carried out by Japan DMAT (J-DMAT) in its first 5 years, and clarifies how J-DMAT differs from its counterpart in the United States (US-DMAT). The DMAT that the present authors belong to has been deployed for 2 natural disasters and 1 man-made disaster, and the operations carried out during these deployments are analyzed. Reports on J-DMAT activities published from 2004 through 2009 by the Japanese Association for Disaster Medicine are also included in the analysis. After training courses for J-DMAT personnel started in fiscal 2004, J-DMATs were deployed for 8 disasters in a period of 4 years. Five of these were natural disasters, and 3 man-made. Of the 5 natural disasters, 3 were earthquakes, and of the 3 man-made disasters, 2 were derailment accidents. Unlike in the United States, where hurricanes and floods account for the greatest number of DMAT deployments, earthquakes cause the largest number of disasters in Japan. Because Japan is small in comparison with the US (Japan has about 1/25 the land area of the US), most J-DMATs head for devastated areas by car from their respective hospitals. This is one reason why J-DMATs are smaller and more agile than US-DMATs. Another difference is that J-DMATs' activities following earthquakes involve providing treatment in confined spaces, triage, and stabilization of injuries: these services are required in the acute phase of a disaster, but the critical period is over in a much shorter time than in the case of water-related disasters. In response the kind of man-made disasters that occur in Japan-mainly transportation accidents, and occasional cases of random street violence-J-DMATs need to be deployed as soon as possible to provide medical services at the scene at the critical stage of the disaster. This means that J-DMATs have to be compact. The fact that J-DMATs are smaller and more agile than US-DMATs is a result of the types of disaster that hit Japan and the relatively small size of the country. PMID:21206145

  12. Analysis of Hospital Disaster in South Korea from 1990 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Back, Min-Ho

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to systematically review and analyze disasters involving South Korean hospitals from 1990 and to introduce a newly developed implement to manage patients' evacuation. Materials and Methods We searched for studies reporting disaster preparedness and hospital injuries in South Korean hospitals from 1990 to 2008, by using the Korean Studies Information Service System (KISS, copyright Korean Studies Information Co, Ltd, Seoul, Korea) and, simultaneously, hospital injuries which were reported and regarded as a disaster. Then, each study and injury were analyzed. Results Five studies (3 on prevention and structure, 1 on implement of new device, and 1 on basic supplement to current methods) and 8 injuries were found within this period. During the evacuations, the mean gait speed of walking patients was 0.82 m/s and the mean time of evacuation of individual patients was 38.39 seconds. Regarding structure evaluation, almost all hospitals had no balconies in patient rooms; hospital elevators were placed peripherally and were insufficient in number. As a new device, Savingsun (evacuation elevator) was introduced and had some merits as a fast and easy tool, regardless of patient status or the height of hospital. Conclusion In South Korea, preparation for hospital disasters was noted to be insufficient but has involved various departments such as architectural, clinical, and building operations. In addition, Savignsun has been shown to effectively evacuate and save patients in a hospital disaster. PMID:20879068

  13. Microbial Forensics: A Scientific Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Keim, Paul

    2003-02-17

    Microorganisms have been used as weapons in criminal acts, most recently highlighted by the terrorist attack using anthrax in the fall of 2001. Although such ''biocrimes'' are few compared with other crimes, these acts raise questions about the ability to provide forensic evidence for criminal prosecution that can be used to identify the source of the microorganisms used as a weapon and, more importantly, the perpetrator of the crime. Microbiologists traditionally investigate the sources of microorganisms in epidemiological investigations, but rarely have been asked to assist in criminal investigations. A colloquium was convened by the American Academy of Microbiology in Burlington, Vermont, on June 7-9, 2002, in which 25 interdisciplinary, expert scientists representing evolutionary microbiology, ecology, genomics, genetics, bioinformatics, forensics, chemistry, and clinical microbiology, deliberated on issues in microbial forensics. The colloquium's purpose was to consider issues relating to microbial forensics, which included a detailed identification of a microorganism used in a bioattack and analysis of such a microorganism and related materials to identify its forensically meaningful source--the perpetrators of the bioattack. The colloquium examined the application of microbial forensics to assist in resolving biocrimes with a focus on what research and education are needed to facilitate the use of microbial forensics in criminal investigations and the subsequent prosecution of biocrimes, including acts of bioterrorism. First responders must consider forensic issues, such as proper collection of samples to allow for optimal laboratory testing, along with maintaining a chain of custody that will support eventual prosecution. Because a biocrime may not be immediately apparent, a linkage must be made between routine diagnosis, epidemiological investigation, and criminal investigation. There is a need for establishing standard operating procedures and training to meet these initial challenges so as minimize disturbance of the evidence. While epidemiology and forensics are similar sciences with similar goals when applied to biocrimes, forensics has additional and more stringent requirements. Maintaining a chain of custody on evidentiary samples is one example of an extra requirement imposed on an investigation of a biocrime. Another issue is the intent in microbial forensics to identify a bioattack organism in greatest detail. If possible, forensic investigations will strive to identify the precise strain and substrain, rather than just to the species level, which might be sufficient in an epidemiological investigation. Although multiple groups have developed lists of bioterrorism target pathogens, these lists are too narrow. An expansion of microorganisms relevant to food and water threats should be considered. Computerized networks should be established to track infectious disease outbreaks in real time. These systems could alert public health and agricultural officials to the existence of a potential bioattack earlier than simply waiting for a report of a suspicious cluster of similar patients. Once a biocrime is suspected, a wide variety of methods are available to identify the microorganism used in the bioattack and to analyze features that might lead to the source of the event. A multi-pronged approach to such an investigation may be preferable, using many available methods-ranging from genomics to sequencing to physiology to analysis of substances in the sample. Microbial forensics will be most effective if there is sufficient basic scientific information concerning microbial genetics, evolution, physiology, and ecology. Strain subtyping analysis will be difficult to interpret if we do not understand some of the basic evolutionary mechanisms and population diversity of pathogens. Phenotypic features associated with evidentiary pathogens also may provide investigative leads, but full exploitation of these features can only be accomplished if we understand basic principles that control microbial physiology. Finally

  14. Information Dissemination Analysis of Different Media towards the Application for Disaster Pre-Warning

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Nan; Huang, Hong; Su, Boni; Zhao, Jinlong; Zhang, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Knowing the information dissemination mechanisms of different media and having an efficient information dissemination plan for disaster pre-warning plays a very important role in reducing losses and ensuring the safety of human beings. In this paper we established models of information dissemination for six typical information media, including short message service (SMS), microblogs, news portals, cell phones, television, and oral communication. Then, the information dissemination capability of each medium concerning individuals of different ages, genders, and residential areas was simulated, and the dissemination characteristics were studied. Finally, radar graphs were used to illustrate comprehensive assessments of the six media; these graphs show directly the information dissemination characteristics of all media. The models and the results are essential for improving the efficiency of information dissemination for the purpose of disaster pre-warning and for formulating emergency plans which help to reduce the possibility of injuries, deaths and other losses in a disaster. PMID:24878739

  15. Geospatial analysis of spaceborne remote sensing data for assessing disaster impacts and modeling surface runoff in the built-environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wodajo, Bikila Teklu

    Every year, coastal disasters such as hurricanes and floods claim hundreds of lives and severely damage homes, businesses, and lifeline infrastructure. This research was motivated by the 2005 Hurricane Katrina disaster, which devastated the Mississippi and Louisiana Gulf Coast. The primary objective was to develop a geospatial decision-support system for extracting built-up surfaces and estimating disaster impacts using spaceborne remote sensing satellite imagery. Pre-Katrina 1-m Ikonos imagery of a 5km x 10km area of Gulfport, Mississippi, was used as source data to develop the built-up area and natural surfaces or BANS classification methodology. Autocorrelation of 0.6 or higher values related to spectral reflectance values of groundtruth pixels were used to select spectral bands and establish the BANS decision criteria of unique ranges of reflectance values. Surface classification results using GeoMedia Pro geospatial analysis for Gulfport sample areas, based on BANS criteria and manually drawn polygons, were within +/-7% of the groundtruth. The difference between the BANS results and the groundtruth was statistically not significant. BANS is a significant improvement over other supervised classification methods, which showed only 50% correctly classified pixels. The storm debris and erosion estimation or SDE methodology was developed from analysis of pre- and post-Katrina surface classification results of Gulfport samples. The SDE severity level criteria considered hurricane and flood damages and vulnerability of inhabited built-environment. A linear regression model, with +0.93 Pearson R-value, was developed for predicting SDE as a function of pre-disaster percent built-up area. SDE predictions for Gulfport sample areas, used for validation, were within +/-4% of calculated values. The damage cost model considered maintenance, rehabilitation and reconstruction costs related to infrastructure damage and community impacts of Hurricane Katrina. The developed models were implemented for a study area along I-10 considering the predominantly flood-induced damages in New Orleans. The BANS methodology was calibrated for 0.6-m QuickBird2 multispectral imagery of Karachi Port area in Pakistan. The results were accurate within +/-6% of the groundtruth. Due to its computational simplicity, the unit hydrograph method is recommended for geospatial visualization of surface runoff in the built-environment using BANS surface classification maps and elevations data. Key words. geospatial analysis, satellite imagery, built-environment, hurricane, disaster impacts, runoff.

  16. Automating the Coupling of ORIGEN with GADRAS via the Fallout Analysis Tool for National Technical Nuclear Forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Monterial, Mateusz; Jodoin, Vincent J; Lefebvre, Jordan P; Peplow, Douglas E.; Hooper, David A

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear forensic teams will be deployed to collect and evaluate fallout samples on the ground in the scenario of a low-yield nuclear detonation in a heavily populated area. Quick non-destructive methods of predicting the quality of the sample before it is analyzed in detail are essential for efficient post-event collections. In this work, the process of exporting Defense Land Fallout Interpretive Code (DELFIC) results into Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) has been automated within the Fallout Analysis Tool. This coupling allows for the simulation of detector responses to fallout samples with varying degrees of fractionation. The degree to which the samples are fractionated depends on the location of the samples in the fallout field. In the following study, this phenomenon is examined, as its understanding is important to the investigation of debris distribution. The simulated detector spectra from GADRAS can be used to compare peak ratios of volatile-refractory isotope pairs in order to determine the degree of fractionation. Simulated fractionated fallout samples from DELFIC for a 10 kt, pure 235U fission surface burst were modeled for distances ranging to 256 km out from ground zero, and for times up to 1 week from detonation. The fractionation ratios, also known as r values, from isotope concentrations, photon lines and peak areas of four volatile-refractory pairs were calculated and compared. Fractionation prediction via the peak areas method was evaluated for each pair by comparing the results with the simulated radionuclide inventory.

  17. A person-centered analysis of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms following a natural disaster: predictors of latent class membership.

    PubMed

    Rosellini, Anthony J; Coffey, Scott F; Tracy, Melissa; Galea, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    The present study applied latent class analysis to a sample of 810 participants residing in southern Mississippi at the time of Hurricane Katrina to determine if people would report distinct, meaningful PTSD symptom classes following a natural disaster. We found a four-class solution that distinguished persons on the basis of PTSD symptom severity/pervasiveness (Severe, Moderate, Mild, and Negligible Classes). Multinomial logistic regression models demonstrated that membership in the Severe and Moderate Classes was associated with potentially traumatic hurricane-specific experiences (e.g., being physically injured, seeing dead bodies), pre-hurricane traumatic events, co-occurring depression symptom severity and suicidal ideation, certain religious beliefs, and post-hurricane stressors (e.g., social support). Collectively, the findings suggest that more severe/pervasive typologies of natural disaster PTSD may be predicted by the frequency and severity of exposure to stressful/traumatic experiences (before, during, and after the disaster), co-occurring psychopathology, and specific internal beliefs. PMID:24334161

  18. A Person-Centered Analysis of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Following a Natural Disaster: Predictors of Latent Class Membership

    PubMed Central

    Rosellini, Anthony J.; Coffey, Scott F.; Tracy, Melissa; Galea, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    The present study applied latent class analysis to a sample of 810 participants residing in southern Mississippi at the time of Hurricane Katrina to determine if people would report distinct, meaningful PTSD symptom classes following a natural disaster. We found a four-class solution that distinguished persons on the basis of PTSD symptom severity/pervasiveness (Severe, Moderate, Mild, and Negligible Classes). Multinomial logistic regression models demonstrated that membership in the Severe and Moderate Classes was associated with potentially traumatic hurricane-specific experiences (e.g., being physically injured, seeing dead bodies), pre-hurricane traumatic events, co-occurring depression symptom severity and suicidal ideation, certain religious beliefs, and post-hurricane stressors (e.g., social support). Collectively, the findings suggest that more severe/pervasive typologies of natural disaster PTSD may be predicted by the frequency and severity of exposure to stressful/traumatic experiences (before, during, and after the disaster), co-occurring psychopathology, and specific internal beliefs. PMID:24334161

  19. Interim Report on SNP analysis and forensic microarray probe design for South American hemorrhagic fever viruses, tick-borne encephalitis virus, henipaviruses, Old World Arenaviruses, filoviruses, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever viruses, Rift Valley fever

    SciTech Connect

    Jaing, C; Gardner, S

    2012-06-05

    The goal of this project is to develop forensic genotyping assays for select agent viruses, enhancing the current capabilities for the viral bioforensics and law enforcement community. We used a multipronged approach combining bioinformatics analysis, PCR-enriched samples, microarrays and TaqMan assays to develop high resolution and cost effective genotyping methods for strain level forensic discrimination of viruses. We have leveraged substantial experience and efficiency gained through year 1 on software development, SNP discovery, TaqMan signature design and phylogenetic signature mapping to scale up the development of forensics signatures in year 2. In this report, we have summarized the whole genome wide SNP analysis and microarray probe design for forensics characterization of South American hemorrhagic fever viruses, tick-borne encephalitis viruses and henipaviruses, Old World Arenaviruses, filoviruses, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus and Japanese encephalitis virus.

  20. Land use change and landslide characteristics analysis for community-based disaster mitigation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Yuan; Huang, Wen-Lin

    2013-05-01

    On August 8, 2009, Typhoon Morakot brought heavy rain to Taiwan, causing numerous landslides and debris flows in the Taihe village area of Meishan Township, Chiayi County, in south-central Taiwan. In the Taihe land is primary used for agriculture and land use management may be a factor in the area's landslides. This study explores Typhoon Morakot-induced landslides and land use changes between 1999 and 2009 using GIS with the aid of field investigation. Spot 5 satellite images with a resolution of 2.5 m are used for landslide interpretation and manually digitalized in GIS. A statistical analysis for landslide frequency-area distribution was used to identify the landslide characteristics associated with different types of land use. There were 243 landslides with a total area of 2.75 km(2) in the study area. The area is located in intrinsically fragile combinations of sandstone and shale. Typhoon Morakot-induced landslides show a power-law distribution in the study area. Landslides were mainly located in steep slope areas containing natural forest and in areas planted with bamboo, tea, and betel nut. Land covered with natural forest shows the highest landslide ratio, followed by bamboo, betel nut, and tea. Landslides thus show a higher ratio in areas planted with shallow root vegetation such as bamboo, betel nut, and tea. Furthermore, the degree of basin development is proportional to the landslide ratio. The results show that a change in vegetation cover results in a modified landslide area and frequency and changed land use areas have higher landslide ratios than non-changed. Land use management and community-based disaster prevention are needed in mountainous areas of Taiwan for hazard mitigation. PMID:22961329

  1. Integrating Forensic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funkhouser, John; Deslich, Barbara J.

    2000-01-01

    Explains the implementation of forensic science in an integrated curriculum and discusses the advantages of this approach. Lists the forensic science course syllabi studied in three high schools. Discusses the unit on polymers in detail. (YDS)

  2. Rainfall and snow-melt triggered glacial lake outbursts: a systematic analysis of the Kedarnath (Uttarakhand, India), June 2013 disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Simon; Rastner, Philipp; Arora, Manohar; Huggel, Christian; Stoffel, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Heavy rainfall in early June 2013 triggered flash flooding and landslides throughout the Indian Himalayan state of Uttarakhand, killing more than 6000 people. The destruction of roads and trekking routes left around 100,000 pilgrims and tourists stranded. Most fatalities and damages resulted directly from a lake outburst and debris flow disaster originating from above the village of Kedarnath on June 16 and 17. Here we provide a first systematic analysis of the contributing factors leading to the Kedarnath disaster, both in terms of hydro-meteorological triggering (rainfall, snowmelt, and temperature) and topographic predisposition. Specifically, the topographic characteristics of the Charobari lake watershed above Kedarnath are compared with other glacial lakes across the northwestern Indian Himalayan states of Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh, and implications for glacier lake outburst hazard assessment in a changing climate are discussed. Our analysis suggests that the early onset of heavy monsoon rainfall (390 mm, June 10 - 17) immediately following a prolonged four week period of unusually rapid snow cover depletion and elevated streamflow is the crucial hydro-meteorological factor, resulting in slope saturation and significant runoff into the small seasonal glacial lake. Over a four week period the MODIS-derived snow covered area above Kedarnath decreased nearly 50%, from above average coverage in mid-May to well below average coverage by the second week of June. Such a rapid decrease has not been observed in the previous 13-year record, where the average decrease in snow covered area over the same four week window is only 15%. The unusual situation of the lake being dammed in a steep, unstable paraglacial environment, but fed entirely from snow-melt and rainfall within a fluvial dominated watershed is important in the context of this disaster. A simple scheme enabling large-scale recognition of such an unfavorable topographic setting is presented, and on the basis of all assessed watershed parameters, the situation at Charobari lake indicates an anomalous predisposition towards rapid runoff and infilling during enhanced snowmelt or heavy rainfall. In view of projected 21st century changes in monsoon timing and heavy precipitation in South Asia, more emphasis should be given to potential hydro-meteorological triggering of lake outburst and related debris flow disasters in the Himalayas. The potential for Kedarnath-type lake breaching may further increase as glaciers recede or ultimately disappear, and watersheds become increasingly rainfall dominated. Hence, a long-term perspective to glacier lake outburst hazard assessment and management is required, as the greatest threat from hydro-meteorological triggering of related disasters may only be realized in an ice-free environment.

  3. High Performance Proactive Digital Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alharbi, Soltan; Moa, Belaid; Weber-Jahnke, Jens; Traore, Issa

    2012-10-01

    With the increase in the number of digital crimes and in their sophistication, High Performance Computing (HPC) is becoming a must in Digital Forensics (DF). According to the FBI annual report, the size of data processed during the 2010 fiscal year reached 3,086 TB (compared to 2,334 TB in 2009) and the number of agencies that requested Regional Computer Forensics Laboratory assistance increasing from 689 in 2009 to 722 in 2010. Since most investigation tools are both I/O and CPU bound, the next-generation DF tools are required to be distributed and offer HPC capabilities. The need for HPC is even more evident in investigating crimes on clouds or when proactive DF analysis and on-site investigation, requiring semi-real time processing, are performed. Although overcoming the performance challenge is a major goal in DF, as far as we know, there is almost no research on HPC-DF except for few papers. As such, in this work, we extend our work on the need of a proactive system and present a high performance automated proactive digital forensic system. The most expensive phase of the system, namely proactive analysis and detection, uses a parallel extension of the iterative z algorithm. It also implements new parallel information-based outlier detection algorithms to proactively and forensically handle suspicious activities. To analyse a large number of targets and events and continuously do so (to capture the dynamics of the system), we rely on a multi-resolution approach to explore the digital forensic space. Data set from the Honeynet Forensic Challenge in 2001 is used to evaluate the system from DF and HPC perspectives.

  4. Forensic analysis of printing inks using tandem Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subedi, Kiran; Trejos, Tatiana; Almirall, José

    2015-01-01

    Elemental analysis, using either LA-ICP-MS or LIBS, can be used for the chemical characterization of materials of forensic interest to discriminate between source materials originating from different sources and also for the association of materials known to originate from the same source. In this study, a tandem LIBS/LA-ICP-MS system that combines the benefits of both LIBS and LA-ICP-MS was evaluated for the characterization of samples of printing inks (toners, inkjets, intaglio and offset.). The performance of both laser sampling methods is presented. A subset of 9 black laser toners, 10 colored (CMYK) inkjet samples, 12 colored (CMYK) offset samples and 12 intaglio inks originating from different manufacturing sources were analyzed to evaluate the discrimination capability of the tandem method. These samples were selected because they presented a very similar elemental profile by LA-ICP-MS. Although typical discrimination between different ink sources is found to be > 99% for a variety of inks when only LA-ICP-MS was used for the analysis, additional discrimination was achieved by combining the elemental results from the LIBS analysis to the LA-ICP-MS analysis in the tandem technique, enhancing the overall discrimination capability of the individual laser ablation methods. The LIBS measurements of the Ca, Fe, K and Si signals, in particular, improved the discrimination for this specific set of different ink samples previously shown to exhibit very similar LA-ICP-MS elemental profiles. The combination of these two techniques in a single setup resulted in better discrimination of the printing inks with two distinct fingerprint spectra, providing information from atomic/ionic emissions and isotopic composition (m/z) for each ink sample.

  5. Ideas about Earthquakes after Experiencing a Natural Disaster in Taiwan: An Analysis of Students' Worldviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2001-01-01

    Explores students' worldviews as revealed by their ideas about the causality of earthquakes after experiencing the natural disaster. Finds that students accept scientific ideas and abandon their original worldviews, accept scientific ideas and retain their original worldviews, or retain their original worldviews and ignore the scientific…

  6. Tailoring Disaster Mental Health Services to Diverse Needs: An Analysis of 36 Crisis Counseling Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Craig S.; Greene, Carolyn J.; Young, Helena E.; Norris, Fran H.

    2010-01-01

    The federal Crisis Counseling Program (CCP) funds states' delivery of mental health services after disasters. These services are provided by social workers, other mental health professionals, and paraprofessionals from the local community. The present study examined whether CCP grant recipients that reported more tailoring of their interventions…

  7. Disaster Master

    MedlinePLUS

    ... turn in the hot seat and become a Disaster Master! Print out chapters of your own graphic ... Level 1 - Wildfire Level 2 - Tornado Level 3 - Hurricane/Blackout Level 4 - Home Fire Level 5: Winter ...

  8. Forensic Toxicology Certificate

    E-print Network

    Saldin, Dilano

    of forensic science that is concerned with the study of toxic substances or poisons. Toxicology encompasses scientists and therefore will have a strong interest in the sciences and math. The work of a forensic.edu/cfs UWMilwLetSci For More Information: Center for Forensic Science 414-229-0510 cfs@uwm.edu This certificate

  9. NISTIR 7617 Mobile Forensic

    E-print Network

    NISTIR 7617 Mobile Forensic Reference Materials: AMethodologyandReification WayneJansen AurélienDelaitre i #12;Mobile Forensic Reference Materials: A Methodology and Reification Wayne Jansen Aurélien of forensic tools. It describes an application and data set developed to populate identity modules

  10. Validity of Rorschach Inkblot scores for discriminating psychopaths from non-psychopaths in forensic populations: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wood, James M; Lilienfeld, Scott O; Nezworski, M Teresa; Garb, Howard N; Allen, Keli Holloway; Wildermuth, Jessica L

    2010-06-01

    Gacono and Meloy (2009) have concluded that the Rorschach Inkblot Test is a sensitive instrument with which to discriminate psychopaths from nonpsychopaths. We examined the association of psychopathy with 37 Rorschach variables in a meta-analytic review of 173 validity coefficients derived from 22 studies comprising 780 forensic participants. All studies included the Hare Psychopathy Checklist or one of its versions (Hare, 1980, 1991, 2003) and Exner's (2003) Comprehensive System for the Rorschach. Mean validity coefficients of Rorschach variables in the meta-analysis ranged from -.113 to .239, with a median validity of .070 and a mean validity of .062. Psychopathy displayed a significant and medium-sized association with the number of Aggressive Potential responses (weighted mean validity coefficient = .232) and small but significant associations with the Sum of Texture responses, Cooperative Movement = 0, the number of Personal responses, and the Egocentricity Index (weighted mean validity coefficients = .097 to .159). The remaining 32 Rorschach variables were not significantly related to psychopathy. The present findings contradict the view that the Rorschach is a clinically sensitive instrument for discriminating psychopaths from nonpsychopaths. PMID:20528061

  11. Dual-color bioluminescent bioreporter for forensic analysis: evidence of androgenic and anti-androgenic activity of illicit drugs.

    PubMed

    Cevenini, Luca; Michelini, Elisa; D'Elia, Marcello; Guardigli, Massimo; Roda, Aldo

    2013-01-01

    Bioassays represent promising complementary techniques to conventional analytical approaches used in doping analysis to detect illicit drugs like anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS). The fact that all AAS share a common mechanism of action via the human androgen receptor (hAR) enables the use of bioassays, relying on the activation of hAR as antidoping screening tools. Previously, we developed a dual-color bioreporter based on yeast cells engineered to express hAR and androgen response elements driving the expression of the bioluminescent (BL) reporter protein Photinus pyralis luciferase. A second reporter protein, the red-emitting luciferase PpyRE8, was introduced in the bioreporter as internal viability control. Here, we report the first forensic application of a straightforward, accurate, and cost-effective bioassay, relying on spectral resolution of the two BL signals, in 96-microwell format. The bioreporter responds to dihydrotestosterone as reference androgen in a concentration-dependent manner from 0.08 to 1,000 nM with intra- and inter-assay variation coefficients of 11.4 % and 13.1 %, respectively. We also demonstrated the suitability of this dual-color bioreporter to assess (anti)-androgenic activity of pure AAS, mixtures of AAS, and other illicit drugs provided by the Scientific Police. Significant anti-androgenic activity was observed in samples labeled as marijuana and hashish, containing ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol as major constituent. PMID:23010847

  12. Forensic analysis of laser printed ink by X-ray fluorescence and laser-excited plume fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Chu, Po-Chun; Cai, Bruno Yue; Tsoi, Yeuk Ki; Yuen, Ronald; Leung, Kelvin S Y; Cheung, Nai-Ho

    2013-05-01

    We demonstrated a minimally destructive two-tier approach for multielement forensic analysis of laser-printed ink. The printed document was first screened using a portable-X-ray fluorescence (XRF) probe. If the results were not conclusive, a laser microprobe was then deployed. The laser probe was based on a two-pulse scheme: the first laser pulse ablated a thin layer of the printed ink; the second laser pulse at 193 nm induced multianalytes in the desorbed ink to fluoresce. We analyzed four brands of black toners. The toners were printed on paper in the form of patches or letters or overprinted on another ink. The XRF probe could sort the four brands if the printed letters were larger than font 20. It could not tell the printing sequence in the case of overprints. The laser probe was more discriminatory; it could sort the toner brands and reveal the overprint sequence regardless of font size while the sampled area was not visibly different from neighboring areas even under the microscope. In terms of general analytical performance, the laser probe featured tens of micrometer lateral resolution and tens to hundreds of nm depth resolution and atto-mole mass detection limits. It could handle samples of arbitrary size and shape and was air compatible, and no sample pretreatment was necessary. It will prove useful whenever high-resolution and high sensitivity 3D elemental mapping is required. PMID:23570307

  13. Study Of The Risks Arising From Natural Disasters And Hazards On Urban And Intercity Motorways By Using Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA) Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DEL?CE, Yavuz

    2015-04-01

    Highways, Located in the city and intercity locations are generally prone to many kind of natural disaster risks. Natural hazards and disasters that may occur firstly from highway project making to construction and operation stages and later during the implementation of highway maintenance and repair stages have to be taken into consideration. And assessment of risks that may occur against adverse situations is very important in terms of project design, construction, operation maintenance and repair costs. Making hazard and natural disaster risk analysis is largely depending on the definition of the likelihood of the probable hazards on the highways. However, assets at risk , and the impacts of the events must be examined and to be rated in their own. With the realization of these activities, intended improvements against natural hazards and disasters will be made with the utilization of Failure Mode Effects Analysis (FMEA) method and their effects will be analyzed with further works. FMEA, is a useful method to identify the failure mode and effects depending on the type of failure rate effects priorities and finding the most optimum economic and effective solution. Although relevant measures being taken for the identified risks by this analysis method , it may also provide some information for some public institutions about the nature of these risks when required. Thus, the necessary measures will have been taken in advance in the city and intercity highways. Many hazards and natural disasters are taken into account in risk assessments. The most important of these dangers can be listed as follows; • Natural disasters 1. Meteorological based natural disasters (floods, severe storms, tropical storms, winter storms, avalanches, etc.). 2. Geological based natural disasters (earthquakes, tsunamis, landslides, subsidence, sinkholes, etc) • Human originated disasters 1. Transport accidents (traffic accidents), originating from the road surface defects (icing, signaling caused malfunctions and risks), fire or explosion etc.- In this study, with FMEA method, risk analysis of the urban and intercity motorways against natural disasters and hazards have been performed and found solutions were brought against these risks. Keywords: Failure Modes Effects Analysis (FMEA), Pareto Analyses (PA), Highways, Risk Management.

  14. Modeling the economic costs of disasters and recovery: analysis using a dynamic computable general equilibrium model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, W.; Li, N.; Wu, J.-D.; Hao, X.-L.

    2014-04-01

    Disaster damages have negative effects on the economy, whereas reconstruction investment has positive effects. The aim of this study is to model economic causes of disasters and recovery involving the positive effects of reconstruction activities. Computable general equilibrium (CGE) model is a promising approach because it can incorporate these two kinds of shocks into a unified framework and furthermore avoid the double-counting problem. In order to factor both shocks into the CGE model, direct loss is set as the amount of capital stock reduced on the supply side of the economy; a portion of investments restores the capital stock in an existing period; an investment-driven dynamic model is formulated according to available reconstruction data, and the rest of a given country's saving is set as an endogenous variable to balance the fixed investment. The 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake is selected as a case study to illustrate the model, and three scenarios are constructed: S0 (no disaster occurs), S1 (disaster occurs with reconstruction investment) and S2 (disaster occurs without reconstruction investment). S0 is taken as business as usual, and the differences between S1 and S0 and that between S2 and S0 can be interpreted as economic losses including reconstruction and excluding reconstruction, respectively. The study showed that output from S1 is found to be closer to real data than that from S2. Economic loss under S2 is roughly 1.5 times that under S1. The gap in the economic aggregate between S1 and S0 is reduced to 3% at the end of government-led reconstruction activity, a level that should take another four years to achieve under S2.

  15. Manmade disasters.

    PubMed

    Leonard, R B; Teitelman, U

    1991-04-01

    A disaster that produces a multitude of patients may severely stress a community's health-care system, from the EMS system to the hospitals. Physicians involved in such an event must realize that they will have to change their normal mode of delivering care, having to make decisions with less than the normal amount of information, and doing the most good for the most salvageable patients. Some understanding of and appreciation for the unique problems that face emergency personnel in the field are important for physicians who do not normally interact with fire and EMS personnel, because it will allow them to realize that they are not alone in the chaos of a disaster. Many manmade disasters produce patients with medical or surgical problems with which one is familiar, the only difference being the sheer number of patients. Other manmade disasters, however, most notably those involving hazardous materials and radioactive materials, are capable of producing patients who not only have unfamiliar medical problems but also have problems about which little information is readily available in the medical literature. Hospital physicians can do much to prepare themselves for these eventualities. Discussion and planning should be done among separate staffs (ICU, operating suite, emergency department), as well as among staff of the various disciplines so they can interact more effectively when a disaster occurs. Local disaster planners should receive input from hospital staffs so hospital capabilities are known and the field operation can mesh well with the hospital's operation. PMID:2049641

  16. Understanding Impact and Implications of Data Standards on Post Disaster Risk Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, Robert

    2010-05-01

    Although the physical and humanitarian effects of a natural catastrophe are often bound to the locality of the event the financial impacts can have global effects. This is particularly prominent in the re/insurance community, where through a number of market mechanisms and re/insurance structures financial loss is mitigated amongst many companies across the globe. The level of risk a company wishes to retain, given an event, represents the level of risk decision makers deem acceptable. Catastrophe risk modelling tools aid the estimation of risk retention and transfer mechanisms, and increasingly the level of capital required to withstand a catastrophic event. These tools rely on appropriate representations hazard, exposure, vulnerability and insurance conditions that reflect the reality of risk. In addition, accurate estimation of loss potential in the aftermath of a catastrophic event equally relies on the data available to assess the scale of damages experienced and to provide views on the likely scale of loss. A coherent and focussed data and modelling strategy is required to ensure that the risk assessment made is as accurate as possible. A fundamental factor in determining the accuracy of catastrophe output, is the quality of data entered. It is of vital importance, therefore, to have an understanding of both the data used as well as the standard of this data, which will so powerfully impact upon the decision making process. This is perhaps best illustrated through the study of historical events, such as Hurricane Katrina and Ike. The extent of data variance in post disaster analysis clearly demonstrates issues of data discrepancies, vintage, resolution and uncertainty propagation, and reflects on the standard of the original data utilized for modelling purposes and decision making. Using experience gained from recent events, this paper will explore current data variabilities, and the impacts on effective loss estimation, both in relation to reinsurance structuring, but also in terms of effective post-event analysis. It will provide views on how data is currently applied in this context, and will make suggestions as to the most important areas for future data improvements.

  17. [The dentist as an expert in disasters: dental identification in the disaster with the Zeebruge ferry. 1990].

    PubMed

    De Valck, Eddy

    2009-01-01

    The Herald of Free Enterprise Disaster on the 6th of March 1987 just outside Zeebrugge harbour was without any doubt a disaster of major proportions. The ferry disaster highlighted different approaches in major incident procedures in both countries involved but nevertheless the identification team which was composed of both British and Belgian specialists did perform good work. The identification of the victims had to be done in three phases each of them with its own specific work and problems. As the process of identification of bodies is an exacting science, and forensic odontology is known to be among the most reliable scientific methods in mass disasters, it is easily understood that forensic odontology took an active part in all three phases of the identification process. PMID:20178171

  18. Accreditation standards for undergraduate forensic science programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Marilyn Tebbs

    Undergraduate forensic science programs are experiencing unprecedented growth in numbers of programs offered and, as a result, student enrollments are increasing. Currently, however, these programs are not subject to professional specialized accreditation. This study sought to identify desirable student outcome measures for undergraduate forensic science programs that should be incorporated into such an accreditation process. To determine desirable student outcomes, three types of data were collected and analyzed. All the existing undergraduate forensic science programs in the United States were examined with regard to the input measures of degree requirements and curriculum content, and for the output measures of mission statements and student competencies. Accreditation procedures and guidelines for three other science-based disciplines, computer science, dietetics, and nursing, were examined to provide guidance on accreditation processes for forensic science education programs. Expert opinion on outcomes for program graduates was solicited from the major stakeholders of undergraduate forensic science programs-forensic science educators, crime laboratory directors, and recent graduates. Opinions were gathered by using a structured Internet-based survey; the total response rate was 48%. Examination of the existing undergraduate forensic science programs revealed that these programs do not use outcome measures. Of the accreditation processes for other science-based programs, nursing education provided the best model for forensic science education, due primarily to the balance between the generality and the specificity of the outcome measures. From the analysis of the questionnaire data, preliminary student outcomes, both general and discipline-specific, suitable for use in the accreditation of undergraduate forensic science programs were determined. The preliminary results were reviewed by a panel of experts and, based on their recommendations, the outcomes identified were revised and refined. The results of this study were used to identify student outcomes and to suggest accreditation standards and an accreditation process for undergraduate forensic science programs based on those outcomes.

  19. By Diana Ha, Undergraduate, UNLV Diversity in Forensics

    E-print Network

    Walker, Lawrence R.

    By Diana Ha, Undergraduate, UNLV Diversity in Forensics Since there is diversity forensic investigators, crime scene photographers, firearm and tool mark examiners, forensic accountants, forensic anthropologists, forensic artists, forensic biologists, forensic chemists, forensic document

  20. Nuclear forensics: Soil content

    SciTech Connect

    Beebe, Merilyn Amy

    2015-08-31

    Nuclear Forensics is a growing field that is concerned with all stages of the process of creating and detonating a nuclear weapon. The main goal is to prevent nuclear attack by locating and securing nuclear material before it can be used in an aggressive manner. This stage of the process is mostly paperwork; laws, regulations, treaties, and declarations made by individual countries or by the UN Security Council. There is some preliminary leg work done in the form of field testing detection equipment and tracking down orphan materials; however, none of these have yielded any spectacular or useful results. In the event of a nuclear attack, the first step is to analyze the post detonation debris to aid in the identification of the responsible party. This aspect of the nuclear forensics process, while reactive in nature, is more scientific. A rock sample taken from the detonation site can be dissolved into liquid form and analyzed to determine its chemical composition. The chemical analysis of spent nuclear material can provide valuable information if properly processed and analyzed. In order to accurately evaluate the results, scientists require information on the natural occurring elements in the detonation zone. From this information, scientists can determine what percentage of the element originated in the bomb itself rather than the environment. To this end, element concentrations in soils from sixty-nine different cities are given, along with activity concentrations for uranium, thorium, potassium, and radium in various building materials. These data are used in the analysis program Python.

  1. Forensic Sketch Recognition: Matching Forensic Sketches to Mugshot Images

    E-print Network

    Forensic Sketch Recognition: Matching Forensic Sketches to Mugshot Images Presented by: Brendan Klare With: Anil Jain, and Zhifeng Li #12;Forensic sketches are drawn by a police artist based on verbal these high value targets Same Person Forensic Sketch Examples Forensic Sketches Mugshots #12;Current Method

  2. Evaluation of Methods to Improve the Extraction and Recovery of DNA from Cotton Swabs for Forensic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Adamowicz, Michael S.; Stasulli, Dominique M.; Sobestanovich, Emily M.; Bille, Todd W.

    2014-01-01

    Samples for forensic DNA analysis are often collected from a wide variety of objects using cotton or nylon tipped swabs. Testing has shown that significant quantities of DNA are retained on the swab, however, and subsequently lost. When processing evidentiary samples, the recovery of the maximum amount of available DNA is critical, potentially dictating whether a usable profile can be derived from a piece of evidence or not. The QIAamp DNA Investigator extraction kit was used with its recommended protocol for swabs (one hour incubation at 56°C) as a baseline. Results indicate that over 50% of the recoverable DNA may be retained on the cotton swab tip, or otherwise lost, for both blood and buccal cell samples when using this protocol. The protocol’s incubation time and temperature were altered, as was incubating while shaking or stationary to test for increases in recovery efficiency. An additional step was then tested that included periodic re-suspension of the swab tip in the extraction buffer during incubation. Aliquots of liquid blood or a buccal cell suspension were deposited and dried on cotton swabs and compared with swab-less controls. The concentration of DNA in each extract was quantified and STR analysis was performed to assess the quality of the extracted DNA. Stationary incubations and those performed at 65°C did not result in significant gains in DNA yield. Samples incubated for 24 hours yielded less DNA. Increased yields were observed with three and 18 hour incubation periods. Increases in DNA yields were also observed using a swab re-suspension method for both cell types. The swab re-suspension method yielded an average two-fold increase in recovered DNA yield with buccal cells and an average three-fold increase with blood cells. These findings demonstrate that more of the DNA collected on swabs can be recovered with specific protocol alterations. PMID:25549111

  3. Evaluation of methods to improve the extraction and recovery of DNA from cotton swabs for forensic analysis.

    PubMed

    Adamowicz, Michael S; Stasulli, Dominique M; Sobestanovich, Emily M; Bille, Todd W

    2014-01-01

    Samples for forensic DNA analysis are often collected from a wide variety of objects using cotton or nylon tipped swabs. Testing has shown that significant quantities of DNA are retained on the swab, however, and subsequently lost. When processing evidentiary samples, the recovery of the maximum amount of available DNA is critical, potentially dictating whether a usable profile can be derived from a piece of evidence or not. The QIAamp DNA Investigator extraction kit was used with its recommended protocol for swabs (one hour incubation at 56°C) as a baseline. Results indicate that over 50% of the recoverable DNA may be retained on the cotton swab tip, or otherwise lost, for both blood and buccal cell samples when using this protocol. The protocol's incubation time and temperature were altered, as was incubating while shaking or stationary to test for increases in recovery efficiency. An additional step was then tested that included periodic re-suspension of the swab tip in the extraction buffer during incubation. Aliquots of liquid blood or a buccal cell suspension were deposited and dried on cotton swabs and compared with swab-less controls. The concentration of DNA in each extract was quantified and STR analysis was performed to assess the quality of the extracted DNA. Stationary incubations and those performed at 65°C did not result in significant gains in DNA yield. Samples incubated for 24 hours yielded less DNA. Increased yields were observed with three and 18 hour incubation periods. Increases in DNA yields were also observed using a swab re-suspension method for both cell types. The swab re-suspension method yielded an average two-fold increase in recovered DNA yield with buccal cells and an average three-fold increase with blood cells. These findings demonstrate that more of the DNA collected on swabs can be recovered with specific protocol alterations. PMID:25549111

  4. Changing disaster relief regimes in China: an analysis using four famines between 1876 and 1962.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Pierre

    2015-10-01

    Once afflicted by frequent episodes of famine, China--particularly the Chinese state--is growing in importance as a player in the overseas aid and development sector. This paper examines four famines in modern China-defined as the period since the First Opium War of 1839-42-to shed light on the changing nature of state involvement in disaster relief in the country, while also demonstrating the breadth and diversity of relief agency in the past. It makes the case that traditional disaster relief principles and methods were active well into the twentieth century, and that the statist model of today's People's Republic is not an essential characteristic of Chinese humanitarian organisation. Rather, the extent to which the Chinese state will continue to assume a dominant role in the country's re-emerging civic and charity sector is, as in earlier times, a function of the political developments and struggles that lie ahead. PMID:26395106

  5. Regional disaster impact analysis: comparing Input-Output and Computable General Equilibrium models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koks, E. E.; Carrera, L.; Jonkeren, O.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.; Husby, T. G.; Thissen, M.; Standardi, G.; Mysiak, J.

    2015-11-01

    A large variety of models has been developed to assess the economic losses of disasters, of which the most common ones are Input-Output (IO) and Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) models. In addition, an increasing numbers of scholars has developed hybrid approaches; one that combines both or either of them in combination with non-economic methods. While both IO and CGE models are widely used, they are mainly compared on theoretical grounds. Few studies have compared disaster impacts of different model types in a systematic way and for the same geographical area, using similar input data. Such a comparison is valuable from both a scientific and policy perspective as the magnitude and the spatial distribution of the estimated losses are likely to vary with the chosen modelling approach (IO, CGE, or hybrid). Hence, regional disaster impact loss estimates resulting from a range of models facilitates better decisions and policy making. Therefore, in this study we analyze one specific case study, using three regional models: two hybrid IO models and a regionally calibrated version of a global CGE model. The case study concerns two flood scenarios in the Po-river basin in Italy. Modelling results indicate that the difference in estimated total (national) economic losses and the regional distribution of those losses may vary by up to a factor of seven between the three models, depending on the type of recovery path. Total economic impact, comprising all Italian regions, is negative in all models though.

  6. Forensic Science T. A. Brettell*

    E-print Network

    Forensic Science T. A. Brettell* Office of Forensic Sciences, New Jersey State Police, New Jersey Forensic Science and Technology Complex, 1200 Negron Road, Horizon Center, Hamilton, New Jersey 08691 J. M Sciences, Forensic Science International, International Journal of Legal Medicine, Legal Medicine, Forensic

  7. National Commission on Forensic Science

    E-print Network

    National Commission on Forensic Science NATIONAL COMMISSION ON FORENSIC SCIENCE VICE-CHAIRS NELSON Assistant to the Director for Forensic Science AMERICAN ACADEMY OF FORENSIC SCIENCE ANNUAL MEETING FEBRUARY 19, 2014 #12;National Commission on Forensic Science COMMISSION OVERVIEW: JOHN BUTLER #12;National

  8. Determinants of the lethality of climate-related disasters in the Caribbean Community (CARICOM): a cross-country analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrewin, Aisha N.; Rodriguez-Llanes, Jose M.; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2015-07-01

    Floods and storms are climate-related hazards posing high mortality risk to Caribbean Community (CARICOM) nations. However risk factors for their lethality remain untested. We conducted an ecological study investigating risk factors for flood and storm lethality in CARICOM nations for the period 1980-2012. Lethality - deaths versus no deaths per disaster event- was the outcome. We examined biophysical and social vulnerability proxies and a decadal effect as predictors. We developed our regression model via multivariate analysis using a generalized logistic regression model with quasi-binomial distribution; removal of multi-collinear variables and backward elimination. Robustness was checked through subset analysis. We found significant positive associations between lethality, percentage of total land dedicated to agriculture (odds ratio [OR] 1.032; 95% CI: 1.013-1.053) and percentage urban population (OR 1.029, 95% CI 1.003-1.057). Deaths were more likely in the 2000-2012 period versus 1980-1989 (OR 3.708, 95% CI 1.615-8.737). Robustness checks revealed similar coefficients and directions of association. Population health in CARICOM nations is being increasingly impacted by climate-related disasters connected to increasing urbanization and land use patterns. Our findings support the evidence base for setting sustainable development goals (SDG).

  9. Disaster risk management in prospect mining area Blitar district, East Java, using microtremor analysis and ANP (analytical network processing) approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parwatiningtyas, Diyan; Ambarsari, Erlin Windia; Marlina, Dwi; Wiratomo, Yogi

    2014-03-01

    Indonesia has a wealth of natural assets is so large to be managed and utilized, either from its own local government and local communities, especially in the mining sector. However, mining activities can change the state of the surface layer of the earth that have a high impact disaster risk. This could threaten the safety and disrupt human life, environmental damage, loss of property, and the psychological impact, sulking to the rule of law no 24 of 2007. That's why we strive to manage and minimize the risk of mine disasters in the region, how to use the method of calculation of Amplification Factor (AF) from the analysis based microtremor sulking Kanai and Nakamura, and decision systems were tested by analysis of ANP. Based on the amplification factor and Analytical Network Processing (ANP) obtained, some points showed instability in the surface layer of a mining area include the site of the TP-7, TP-8, TP-9, TP-10, (Birowo2). If in terms of structure, location indicated unstable due to have a sloping surface layer, resulting in the occurrence of landslides and earthquake risk is high. In the meantime, other areas of the mine site can be said to be a stable area.

  10. Determinants of the lethality of climate-related disasters in the Caribbean Community (CARICOM): a cross-country analysis.

    PubMed

    Andrewin, Aisha N; Rodriguez-Llanes, Jose M; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2015-01-01

    Floods and storms are climate-related hazards posing high mortality risk to Caribbean Community (CARICOM) nations. However risk factors for their lethality remain untested. We conducted an ecological study investigating risk factors for flood and storm lethality in CARICOM nations for the period 1980-2012. Lethality--deaths versus no deaths per disaster event- was the outcome. We examined biophysical and social vulnerability proxies and a decadal effect as predictors. We developed our regression model via multivariate analysis using a generalized logistic regression model with quasi-binomial distribution; removal of multi-collinear variables and backward elimination. Robustness was checked through subset analysis. We found significant positive associations between lethality, percentage of total land dedicated to agriculture (odds ratio [OR] 1.032; 95% CI: 1.013-1.053) and percentage urban population (OR 1.029, 95% CI 1.003-1.057). Deaths were more likely in the 2000-2012 period versus 1980-1989 (OR 3.708, 95% CI 1.615-8.737). Robustness checks revealed similar coefficients and directions of association. Population health in CARICOM nations is being increasingly impacted by climate-related disasters connected to increasing urbanization and land use patterns. Our findings support the evidence base for setting sustainable development goals (SDG). PMID:26153115

  11. Determinants of the lethality of climate-related disasters in the Caribbean Community (CARICOM): a cross-country analysis

    PubMed Central

    Andrewin, Aisha N.; Rodriguez-Llanes, Jose M.; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2015-01-01

    Floods and storms are climate-related hazards posing high mortality risk to Caribbean Community (CARICOM) nations. However risk factors for their lethality remain untested. We conducted an ecological study investigating risk factors for flood and storm lethality in CARICOM nations for the period 1980–2012. Lethality - deaths versus no deaths per disaster event- was the outcome. We examined biophysical and social vulnerability proxies and a decadal effect as predictors. We developed our regression model via multivariate analysis using a generalized logistic regression model with quasi-binomial distribution; removal of multi-collinear variables and backward elimination. Robustness was checked through subset analysis. We found significant positive associations between lethality, percentage of total land dedicated to agriculture (odds ratio [OR] 1.032; 95% CI: 1.013–1.053) and percentage urban population (OR 1.029, 95% CI 1.003–1.057). Deaths were more likely in the 2000–2012 period versus 1980–1989 (OR 3.708, 95% CI 1.615–8.737). Robustness checks revealed similar coefficients and directions of association. Population health in CARICOM nations is being increasingly impacted by climate-related disasters connected to increasing urbanization and land use patterns. Our findings support the evidence base for setting sustainable development goals (SDG). PMID:26153115

  12. Disaster risk management in prospect mining area Blitar district, East Java, using microtremor analysis and ANP (analytical network processing) approach

    SciTech Connect

    Parwatiningtyas, Diyan E-mail: erlinunindra@gmail.com; Ambarsari, Erlin Windia E-mail: erlinunindra@gmail.com; Marlina, Dwi E-mail: erlinunindra@gmail.com; Wiratomo, Yogi E-mail: erlinunindra@gmail.com

    2014-03-24

    Indonesia has a wealth of natural assets is so large to be managed and utilized, either from its own local government and local communities, especially in the mining sector. However, mining activities can change the state of the surface layer of the earth that have a high impact disaster risk. This could threaten the safety and disrupt human life, environmental damage, loss of property, and the psychological impact, sulking to the rule of law no 24 of 2007. That's why we strive to manage and minimize the risk of mine disasters in the region, how to use the method of calculation of Amplification Factor (AF) from the analysis based microtremor sulking Kanai and Nakamura, and decision systems were tested by analysis of ANP. Based on the amplification factor and Analytical Network Processing (ANP) obtained, some points showed instability in the surface layer of a mining area include the site of the TP-7, TP-8, TP-9, TP-10, (Birowo2). If in terms of structure, location indicated unstable due to have a sloping surface layer, resulting in the occurrence of landslides and earthquake risk is high. In the meantime, other areas of the mine site can be said to be a stable area.

  13. An Empirical Analysis of Forensics Skills Employed by Participants in Bicentennial Youth Debates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semlak, William; Shandrow, Kathy J.

    Poor delivery, artificial analysis, and unrealistic organization are all pointed to by critics of competitive tournament debate. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative ability of students with debate and nondebate training with regard to analysis, organization, and speaking skills. Ninety-four participants in the Bicentennial…

  14. National Institute of Standards and Technology -U.S. Department of Commerce "Leading the Way in Forensic DNA..."

    E-print Network

    collection on topics related to forensic DNA typing Locus-specific brackets (LSBs) for Y-STR typing Luminex in Forensic DNA..." Through Partnering with the Justice Department in Support of Law Enforcement and Forensic) DNA Forensics Program "Course-in-a-Box" · WTC Kinship and Data Analysis Panel (KADAP) and 2005

  15. Validity of Rorschach Inkblot Scores for Discriminating Psychopaths from Nonpsychopaths in Forensic Populations: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, James M.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Nezworski, M. Teresa; Garb, Howard N.; Allen, Keli Holloway; Wildermuth, Jessica L.

    2010-01-01

    Gacono and Meloy (2009) have concluded that the Rorschach Inkblot Test is a sensitive instrument with which to discriminate psychopaths from nonpsychopaths. We examined the association of psychopathy with 37 Rorschach variables in a meta-analytic review of 173 validity coefficients derived from 22 studies comprising 780 forensic participants. All…

  16. Forensic DNA Analysis of Wheat Flour as Commonly Used in White Powder Cases.

    PubMed

    Kikkawa, Hitomi S; Tahara, Makoto; Sugita, Ritsuko

    2015-09-01

    In the wake of terrorist attacks using anthrax and ricin, white powder is often encountered in cases of malicious mischief and terrorist threats. Wheat flour is a common white powder encountered in such criminal investigations. We used DNA analysis to investigate wheat flour samples for identification and discrimination as trace evidence. Species identification of commercially available wheat flour was carried out by sequencing a partial region of the ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase large subunit gene (rbcL). Samples were discriminated using short tandem repeat (STR) analysis. The rbcL sequences of all wheat flour samples were identical and showed a high level of similarity to known wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) sequences. Furthermore, flours had characteristic patterns in STR analyses, with specific cultivars showing distinctive patterns. These results suggested that the identification of wheat flour species is possible using rbcL sequencing, and that STR analysis is useful for discriminating between samples. PMID:26174661

  17. What can multiwave studies teach us about disaster research: an analysis of low-income Hurricane Katrina survivors.

    PubMed

    Green, Gillian; Lowe, Sarah R; Rhodes, Jean E

    2012-06-01

    Previous research on natural disasters has been limited by a lack of predisaster data and statistical analyses that do not adequately predict change in psychological symptoms. In the current study, we addressed these limitations through analysis of 3 waves of data from a longitudinal investigation of 313 low-income, African American mothers who were exposed to Hurricane Katrina. Although postdisaster cross-sectional estimates of the impact of traumatic stress exposure and postdisaster social support on postdisaster psychological distress were somewhat inflated, the general trends persisted when controlling for predisaster data (B = 0.88 and -0.33, vs. B = 0.81 and -0.27, respectively). Hierarchical linear modeling of the 3 waves of data revealed that lower predisaster social support was associated with higher psychological distress at the time of the disaster (? = -.16), and that higher traumatic stress exposure was associated with greater increases in psychological distress after the storm (? = .86). Based on the results, we suggest that the impact of traumatic stress on psychological trajectories cannot be accounted for solely by preexisting risk, and recommend more complex research designs to further illuminate the complex, dynamic relationships between psychological distress, traumatic stress exposure, and social support. PMID:22684676

  18. Surviving Disasters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henke, Karen Greenwood

    2008-01-01

    Schools play a unique role in communities when disaster strikes. They serve as shelter for evacuees and first responders; they are a trusted source of information; and once danger has passed, the district, as employer and community center, often serves as a foundation for recovery. Technology plays a key role in a school district's ability to…

  19. Forensic Analysis of Canine DNA Samples in the Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Tobin M.; Bradley, Sharonda Q.; Fekete, Brenda L.; Millard, Julie T.; LaRiviere, Frederick J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in canine genomics have allowed the development of highly distinguishing methods of analysis for both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. We describe a laboratory exercise suitable for an undergraduate biochemistry course in which the polymerase chain reaction is used to amplify hypervariable regions of DNA from dog hair and saliva…

  20. Rapid Disaster Damage Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, T. T.

    2012-07-01

    The experiences from recent disaster events showed that detailed information derived from high-resolution satellite images could accommodate the requirements from damage analysts and disaster management practitioners. Richer information contained in such high-resolution images, however, increases the complexity of image analysis. As a result, few image analysis solutions can be practically used under time pressure in the context of post-disaster and emergency responses. To fill the gap in employment of remote sensing in disaster response, this research develops a rapid high-resolution satellite mapping solution built upon a dual-scale contextual framework to support damage estimation after a catastrophe. The target objects are building (or building blocks) and their condition. On the coarse processing level, statistical region merging deployed to group pixels into a number of coarse clusters. Based on majority rule of vegetation index, water and shadow index, it is possible to eliminate the irrelevant clusters. The remaining clusters likely consist of building structures and others. On the fine processing level details, within each considering clusters, smaller objects are formed using morphological analysis. Numerous indicators including spectral, textural and shape indices are computed to be used in a rule-based object classification. Computation time of raster-based analysis highly depends on the image size or number of processed pixels in order words. Breaking into 2 level processing helps to reduce the processed number of pixels and the redundancy of processing irrelevant information. In addition, it allows a data- and tasks- based parallel implementation. The performance is demonstrated with QuickBird images captured a disaster-affected area of Phanga, Thailand by the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami are used for demonstration of the performance. The developed solution will be implemented in different platforms as well as a web processing service for operational uses.

  1. Review article Entomotoxicology, experimental set-up and interpretation for forensic

    E-print Network

    Rasmont, Pierre

    Available online 14 January 2011 Keywords: Drugs analysis Forensic entomology Forensic toxicology Insect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2.1.1. Life traits and drug pharmacokinetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1. Introduction From 1980 entomologists started to detect drugs in insects, hoping it would become

  2. In: IEEE Workshop on Statistical Analysis in Computer Vision (in conjunction with CVPR), 2003 Higher-order Wavelet Statistics and their Application to Digital Forensics

    E-print Network

    Bucci, David J.

    Higher-order Wavelet Statistics and their Application to Digital Forensics Hany Farid and Siwei Lyu regularities of nat- ural images. We show how this model can be useful in several digital forensic applications- eral digital forensic applications, specifically in detect- ing various types of digital tampering. 2

  3. Analysis of nonstandard and home-made explosives and post-blast residues in forensic practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotrlý, Marek; Turková, Ivana

    2014-05-01

    Nonstandard and home-made explosives may constitute a considerable threat and as well as a potential material for terrorist activities. Mobile analytical devices, particularly Raman, or also FTIR spectrometers are used for the initial detection. Various sorts of phlegmatizers (moderants) to decrease sensitivity of explosives were tested, some kinds of low viscosity lubricants yielded very good results. If the character of the substance allows it, phlegmatized samples are taken in the amount of approx.0.3g for a laboratory analysis. Various separation methods and methods of concentrations of samples from post-blast scenes were tested. A wide range of methods is used for the laboratory analysis. XRD techniques capable of a direct phase identification of the crystalline substance, namely in mixtures, have highly proved themselves in practice for inorganic and organic phases. SEM-EDS/WDS methods are standardly employed for the inorganic phase. In analysing post-blast residues, there are very important techniques allowing analysis at the level of separate particles, not the overall composition in a mixed sample.

  4. Forensic ancestry analysis with two capillary electrophoresis ancestry informative marker (AIM) panels: Results of a collaborative EDNAP exercise.

    PubMed

    Santos, C; Fondevila, M; Ballard, D; Banemann, R; Bento, A M; Børsting, C; Branicki, W; Brisighelli, F; Burrington, M; Capal, T; Chaitanya, L; Daniel, R; Decroyer, V; England, R; Gettings, K B; Gross, T E; Haas, C; Harteveld, J; Hoff-Olsen, P; Hoffmann, A; Kayser, M; Kohler, P; Linacre, A; Mayr-Eduardoff, M; McGovern, C; Morling, N; O'Donnell, G; Parson, W; Pascali, V L; Porto, M J; Roseth, A; Schneider, P M; Sijen, T; Stenzl, V; Court, D Syndercombe; Templeton, J E; Turanska, M; Vallone, P M; van Oorschot, R A H; Zatkalikova, L; Carracedo, Á; Phillips, C

    2015-11-01

    There is increasing interest in forensic ancestry tests, which are part of a growing number of DNA analyses that can enhance routine profiling by obtaining additional genetic information about unidentified DNA donors. Nearly all ancestry tests use single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), but these currently rely on SNaPshot single base extension chemistry that can fail to detect mixed DNA. Insertion-deletion polymorphism (Indel) tests have been developed using dye-labeled primers that allow direct capillary electrophoresis detection of PCR products (PCR-to-CE). PCR-to-CE maintains the direct relationship between input DNA and signal strength as each marker is detected with a single dye, so mixed DNA is more reliably detected. We report the results of a collaborative inter-laboratory exercise of 19 participants (15 from the EDNAP European DNA Profiling group) that assessed a 34-plex SNP test using SNaPshot and a 46-plex Indel test using PCR-to-CE. Laboratories were asked to type five samples with different ancestries and detect an additional mixed DNA sample. Statistical inference of ancestry was made by participants using the Snipper online Bayes analysis portal plus an optional PCA module that analyzes the genotype data alongside calculation of Bayes likelihood ratios. Exercise results indicated consistent genotyping performance from both tests, reaching a particularly high level of reliability for the Indel test. SNP genotyping gave 93.5% concordance (compared to the organizing laboratory's data) that rose to 97.3% excluding one laboratory with a large number of miscalled genotypes. Indel genotyping gave a higher concordance rate of 99.8% and a reduced no-call rate compared to SNP analysis. All participants detected the mixture from their Indel peak height data and successfully assigned the correct ancestry to the other samples using Snipper, with the exception of one laboratory with SNP miscalls that incorrectly assigned ancestry of two samples and did not obtain informative likelihood ratios for a third. Therefore, successful ancestry assignments were achieved by participants in 92 of 95 Snipper analyses. This exercise demonstrates that ancestry inference tests based on binary marker sets can be readily adopted by laboratories that already have well-established CE regimes in place. The Indel test proved to be easy to use and allowed all exercise participants to detect the DNA mixture as well as achieving complete and concordant profiles in nearly all cases. Lastly, two participants successfully ran parallel next-generation sequencing analyses (each using different systems) and achieved high levels of genotyping concordance using the exercise PCR primer mixes unmodified. PMID:26122263

  5. Scientific standards for studies in forensic genetics.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Peter M

    2007-01-17

    Forensic molecular genetics has evolved from a rapidly developing field with changing technologies into a highly recognized and generally accepted forensic science, leading to the establishment of national DNA databases with DNA profiles from suspects and convicted offenders. DNA evidence has taken a central role by carrying a significant weight for convictions, as well as by excluding innocent suspects early on in a criminal investigation. Due to this impact on the criminal justice system, guidelines for research in forensic genetics have been introduced already since many years. The most important issues regarding the selection and definition of typing systems both for paternity testing and for forensic identification, the criteria for technical and biostatistical validation, as well as the use of mitochondrial DNA analysis are summarized and discussed. PMID:16875790

  6. Contribution of forensic autopsy to scene reconstruction in mass fire casualties: a case of alleged arson on a floor consisting of small compartments in a building.

    PubMed

    Michiue, Tomomi; Ishikawa, Takaki; Oritani, Shigeki; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    A fire is an important cause of mass disasters, involving various forensic issues. Before dawn on an early morning, 16 male visitors in their twenties to sixties were killed in a possibly incendiary fire at a 'private video parlor' consisting of small compartments in a building. The main causes of death as determined by forensic autopsy were acute carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication for all of the 15 found-dead victims, and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy following acute CO intoxication for a victim who died in hospital. Burns were mild (<20% of body surface) in most victims, except for three victims found between the entrance and the estimated fire-outbreak site; thus, identification was completed without difficulty, supported by DNA analysis. Blood carboxyhemoglobin saturation (COHb) was higher for victims found dead in the inner area. Blood cyanide levels were sublethal, moderately correlated to COHb, but were higher in victims found around the estimated fire-outbreak site. There was no evidence of thinner, alcohol or drug abuse, or an attack of disease as a possible cause of an accidental fire outbreak. These observations contribute to evidence-based reconstruction of the fire disaster, and suggest how deaths could have been prevented by appropriate disaster measures. PMID:25311374

  7. Analysis of organophosphorus pesticides in whole blood by GC-MS-?ECD with forensic purposes.

    PubMed

    Valente, Nuno I P; Tarelho, Sónia; Castro, André L; Silvestre, Armando; Teixeira, Helena M

    2015-07-01

    In the present work, two multi-residue methods for the determination of ten organophosphorus pesticides (OPs), namely chlorfenvinphos, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dimethoate, fenthion, malathion, parathion, phosalone, pirimiphos-methyl and quinalphos, in post-mortem whole blood samples are presented. The adopted procedure uses GC-MS for screening and quantitation, and GC-?ECD (electron capture detector) for compound confirmation. Three different Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) procedures for OPs with Oasis(®) hydrophilic lipophilic balanced (HLB) and Sep-Pak(®) C18 cartridges were tested, and followed by GC-?ECD and GC-MS analysis. The Sep-Pak(®) C18 cartridges extraction procedure was selected since it generated analytical signals 5 times higher than those obtained with the two different Oasis(®) HLB cartridges extraction procedures. The method has shown to be selective for the isolation of selected OPs as well as to the chosen internal standard (ethion) in postmortem blood samples. Calibration curves between 50 and 5000 ng/mL were prepared using weighted linear regression models (1/x(2)). It was not possible to establish a working range for fenthion by GC-?ECD due to the lower sensitivity of the detector to this compound, whereas for pirimiphos-methyl it was set between 500 and 5000 ng/mL. The limit of quantitation was established at 50 ng/mL for all analytes, except for pirimiphos-methyl by GC-?ECD analysis (500 ng/mL). The average extraction efficiency ranged from 72 to 102%. The developed methods were considered robust and fit for the purpose, and had already been adopted in the laboratory routine analysis. PMID:26048493

  8. Issues in forensic voice.

    PubMed

    Hollien, Harry; Huntley Bahr, Ruth; Harnsberger, James D

    2014-03-01

    The following article provides a general review of an area that can be referred to as Forensic Voice. Its goals will be outlined and that discussion will be followed by a description of its major elements. Considered are (1) the processing and analysis of spoken utterances, (2) distorted speech, (3) enhancement of speech intelligibility (re: surveillance and other recordings), (4) transcripts, (5) authentication of recordings, (6) speaker identification, and (7) the detection of deception, intoxication, and emotions in speech. Stress in speech and the psychological stress evaluation systems (that some individuals attempt to use as lie detectors) also will be considered. Points of entry will be suggested for individuals with the kinds of backgrounds possessed by professionals already working in the voice area. PMID:24176301

  9. The analysis of illicit methaqualone containing preparations by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for forensic purposes.

    PubMed

    Grové, Alida A; Rohwer, Egmont R; Laurens, Johannes B; Vorster, Barend C

    2006-03-01

    A validated gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric method for quantitative analysis of methaqualone (MTQ) in illicit preparations is reported. The method proved to have a coefficient of variation of below 5%. Four batches of seized tablets, two pairs with similar imprints, were analyzed. It was found that the average MTQ concentration in all four batches of tablets differed significantly (p = 0.01) rendering it impossible to conclude that, on the basis of MTQ concentration alone, the batches with a similar logo originated from the same manufacturer or manufacturing batch. Conversely, it can be said that in this case, the four batches originated from either different clandestine laboratories or manufacturing batches. PMID:16566774

  10. Variability and similarity of gait as evaluated by joint angles: implications for forensic gait analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sylvia X M; Larsen, Peter K; Alkjær, Tine; Simonsen, Erik B; Lynnerup, Niels

    2014-03-01

    Closed-circuit television (CCTV) footage is used in criminal investigations to compare perpetrators with suspects. Usually, incomplete gait cycles are collected, making evidential gait analysis challenging. This study aimed to analyze the discriminatory power of joint angles throughout a gait cycle. Six sets from 12 men were collected. For each man, a variability range VR (mean ± 1SD) of a specific joint angle at a specific time point (a gait cycle was 100 time points) was calculated. In turn, each individual was compared with the 11 others, and whenever 1 of these 11 had a value within this individual’s VR, it counted as positive. By adding the positives throughout the gait cycle, we created simple bar graphs; tall bars indicated a small discriminatory power, short bars indicated a larger one. The highest discriminatory power was at time points 60–80 in the gait cycle. We show how our data can assess gait data from an actual case. PMID:24745080

  11. WESTERN UNIVERSITY Disaster Plan

    E-print Network

    Lennard, William N.

    WESTERN UNIVERSITY Disaster Plan January 2015 Disaster Plan #12;WESTERN UNIVERSITY Disaster Plan.4.2 Manmade Threats 1.5 Definitions 1.6 Scope of Western's Planning for Major Emergencies and Disasters 1/Administrative Unit Responsibilities 1.8.8 Situation Reports 2. UTILIZING THE DISASTER PLAN 2.1 Emergency Process

  12. Forensic dentistry in human identification: A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Ata-Ali, Fadi

    2014-01-01

    An update is provided of the literature on the role of odontology in human identification, based on a PubMed-Medline search of the last 5 years and using the terms: “forensic dentistry” (n = 464 articles), “forensic odontology” (n = 141 articles) and “forensic dentistry identification” (n = 169 articles). Apart from these initial 774 articles, others considered to be important and which were generated by a manual search and cited as references in review articles were also included. Forensic dentistry requires interdisciplinary knowledge, since the data obtained from the oral cavity can contribute to identify an individual or provide information needed in a legal process. Furthermore, the data obtained from the oral cavity can narrow the search range of an individual and play a key role in the victim identification process following mass disasters or catastrophes. This literature search covering the last 5 years describes the novelties referred to buccodental studies in comparative identification, buccodental evaluation in reconstructive identification, human bites as a method for identifying the aggressor, and the role of DNA in dental identification. The oral cavity is a rich and noninvasive source of DNA, and can be used to solve problems of a social, economic or legal nature. Key words:Forensic identification, DNA, forensic dentistry, rugoscopy, cheiloscopy, saliva. PMID:24790717

  13. A Forensically Sound Adversary Model for Mobile Devices

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an adversary model to facilitate forensic investigations of mobile devices (e.g. Android, iOS and Windows smartphones) that can be readily adapted to the latest mobile device technologies. This is essential given the ongoing and rapidly changing nature of mobile device technologies. An integral principle and significant constraint upon forensic practitioners is that of forensic soundness. Our adversary model specifically considers and integrates the constraints of forensic soundness on the adversary, in our case, a forensic practitioner. One construction of the adversary model is an evidence collection and analysis methodology for Android devices. Using the methodology with six popular cloud apps, we were successful in extracting various information of forensic interest in both the external and internal storage of the mobile device. PMID:26393812

  14. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of single fingerprints in forensic DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Ostojic, Lana; Klempner, Stacey A; Patel, Rosni A; Mitchell, Adele A; Axler-DiPerte, Grace L; Wurmbach, Elisa

    2014-11-01

    Fingerprints and touched items are important sources of DNA for STR profiling, since this evidence can be recovered in a wide variety of criminal offenses. However, there are some fundamental difficulties in working with these samples, including variability in quantity and quality of extracted DNA. In this study, we collected and analyzed over 700 fingerprints. We compared a commercially available extraction protocol (Zygem) to two methods developed in our laboratory, a simple one-tube protocol and a high sensitivity protocol (HighSens) that includes additional steps to concentrate and purify the DNA. The amplification protocols tested were AmpFLSTR® Identifiler® using either 28 or 31 amplification cycles, and Identifiler® Plus using 32 amplification cycles. We found that the HighSens and Zygem extraction methods were significantly better in their DNA yields than the one-tube method. Identifiler® Plus increased the quality of the STR profiles for the one-tube extraction significantly. However, this effect could not be verified for the other extraction methods. Furthermore, microscopic analysis of single fingerprints revealed that some individuals tended to shed more material than others onto glass slides. However, a dense deposition of skin flakes did not strongly correlate with a high quality STR profile. PMID:25098234

  15. FORENSIC SCIENCE The bachelor of science in forensic science at

    E-print Network

    FORENSIC SCIENCE The bachelor of science in forensic science at Wichita State University in forensic science at WSU. The academic resources (e.g., teaching, research, facilities) necessary investigations. Admission Freshman and transfer students declaring forensic science as a major will be assigned

  16. Trusted Internet Forensics: design of a network forensics appliance

    E-print Network

    Monga, Mattia

    1 Trusted Internet Forensics: design of a network forensics appliance extend abstract D. Bruschi M, rosti}@dico.unimi.it Abstract-- With the spreading of cyber-crime, computer foren- sics has emerged, Trusted Internet Forensics, a network appliance that collects data from the network for forensics purposes

  17. Evidence Aid approach to gap analysis and priority setting of questions for systematic reviews in disasters.

    PubMed

    Kayabu, Bonnix

    2015-02-01

    This article is based on a presentation at the Evidence Aid Symposium, on 20 September 2014, at Hyderabad, India. Ten years after the Indian Ocean Tsunami, Evidence Aid and it parters and other humanitarian stakeholders met to update about Evidence Aid work and discussed it future. The Evidence Aid approach to fill in the gap on the production and use of evidence in disater sector and other humanitarian health emergencies was widely discussed. Iterative approach to prioritise evidence reinforced Evidence Aid principle of independacy and a coordinated international orgasisation. The generation of 30 research questions during the prioritisation process contitute the first big step for Evidence Aid to become a one stop shop for the seach evidence on the effectiveness of interventions in disasters. PMID:25597957

  18. Forensic mental health professionals' perceptions of psychopathy: a prototypicality analysis of the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Sörman, Karolina; Edens, John F; Smith, Shannon Toney; Svensson, Olof; Howner, Katarina; Kristiansson, Marianne; Fischer, Håkan

    2014-10-01

    Assessments of psychopathic traits are used on a routine basis in forensic evaluations across Westernized countries. Despite this, consensus has not yet emerged concerning what exactly are the "core" features of this construct. Moreover, relatively little is known about how practitioners in the field construe this disorder. This study explored perceptions and attitudes regarding psychopathy among individuals working in the forensic mental health system (N = 90) in Sweden. Participants provided prototype ratings of what they considered to be core psychopathy features based on the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality (CAPP), a model that increasingly is the focus of research in North America and Europe. The study protocol also included questions regarding (a) global perceptions and attitudes about a number of aspects of the psychopathy construct (e.g., personal experience, perceived prevalence), and (b) attitudinal scales that assessed perceived correlates of psychopathic traits across a variety of domains (e.g., violence proneness, treatment amenability) and moral judgments and attitudes concerning how psychopathic offenders should be treated within the legal system. The majority of the 33 individual CAPP items and the six CAPP scales were rated as at least moderately prototypical of psychopathy, with Dominance, Self, and Attachment domains obtaining the highest mean ratings. Participants viewed psychopaths as more likely to commit crimes than the average criminal, without being blatantly "evil" people. We believe our results help to advance our understanding of the psychopathy construct by exploring forensic professionals' perceptions of this disorder in general and in relation to the CAPP model specifically. PMID:24707908

  19. Forensic DNA testing.

    PubMed

    Weedn, V W; Roby, R K

    1993-05-01

    Forensic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) testing has revolutionized criminal investigations. Deoxyribonucleic acid testing is superseding traditional serologic testing due to its discriminatory power, universal application to biologic materials, and resistance to environmental insults, among other advantages. Its acceptance is becoming commonplace, and it is being put into widespread use. Forensic DNA testing technology and its application is continuing to evolve. PMID:8489337

  20. Forensic Science Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Forensic science technicians, also called crime laboratory technicians or police science technicians, help solve crimes. They examine and identify physical evidence to reconstruct a crime scene. This article discusses everything students need to know about careers for forensic science technicians--wages, responsibilities, skills needed, career…

  1. Forensic toxicology.

    PubMed

    Davis, Gregory G

    2012-01-01

    Toxicologic analysis is an integral part of death investigation, and the use or abuse of an unsuspected substance belongs in the differential diagnosis of patients who have a sudden, unexpected change in their condition. History and physical findings may alter suspicion that intoxication played a role in a patient's decline or death, but suspicions cannot be confirmed and is performed, analysis unless toxicologic no toxicologic analysis is possible unless someone collects the proper specimens necessary for analysis. In a hospital autopsy the only specimens that can rightfully be collected are those within the restrictions stated in the autopsy permit. Autopsies performed by the medical examiner do not have these restrictions. Sometimes the importance of toxicologic testing in a case is not evident until days or weeks after the change in the patient's status, thus retaining the appropriate specimens until investigation of that case has ended is important. Proper interpretation of toxicologic findings requires integrating the clinical setting and findings with the toxicologic results in a way that makes medical sense. If called upon to testify concerning findings, answer the questions truthfully, politely, and in a way that is understandable to someone who has no special training in toxicology. PMID:22693783

  2. Development and Analysis of a Hurricane Hazard Model for Disaster Risk Assessment in Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pita, G. L.; Gunasekera, R.; Ishizawa, O. A.

    2014-12-01

    Hurricane and tropical storm activity in Central America has consistently caused over the past decades thousands of casualties, significant population displacement, and substantial property and infrastructure losses. As a component to estimate future potential losses, we present a new regional probabilistic hurricane hazard model for Central America. Currently, there are very few openly available hurricane hazard models for Central America. This resultant hazard model would be used in conjunction with exposure and vulnerability components as part of a World Bank project to create country disaster risk profiles that will assist to improve risk estimation and provide decision makers with better tools to quantify disaster risk. This paper describes the hazard model methodology which involves the development of a wind field model that simulates the gust speeds at terrain height at a fine resolution. The HURDAT dataset has been used in this study to create synthetic events that assess average hurricane landfall angles and their variability at each location. The hazard model also then estimates the average track angle at multiple geographical locations in order to provide a realistic range of possible hurricane paths that will be used for risk analyses in all the Central-American countries. This probabilistic hurricane hazard model is then also useful for relating synthetic wind estimates to loss and damage data to develop and calibrate existing empirical building vulnerability curves. To assess the accuracy and applicability, modeled results are evaluated against historical events, their tracks and wind fields. Deeper analyses of results are also presented with a special reference to Guatemala. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this paper are entirely those of the authors. They do not necessarily represent the views of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/World Bank and its affiliated organizations, or those of the Executive Directors of the World Bank or the governments they represent.

  3. Forensic psychiatry in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Tariq; Nizami, Asad Tamizuddin; Hirji, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews existing forensic psychiatric services in Pakistan highlighting the role played by the judicial and the medical fraternity in managing the legal and forensic issues of the population of patients with mental illnesses. Until 2001, all legal and forensic issues were dealt with the mental health legislation of 1912, the Lunacy Act of 1912. This was inherited from the British rulers in the Sub-Continent at the time. The Mental Health Ordinance of 2001 could not sustain following the 18th constitutional amendment in 2010, whereby psychiatric healthcare was devolved to the provinces from the previous federal authority. The article also highlights the difficulties and the barriers in implementation of the forensic psychiatric services in Pakistan at various levels within the healthcare system. This article also delves into the current framework of training in forensic psychiatry for postgraduates as well as the assessments and management schedules for the mentally ill offenders at tertiary care institutions in Pakistan. PMID:26024984

  4. A Network Transshipment Model for Planning Humanitarian Relief Operations after a Natural Disaster

    E-print Network

    Clark, Alistair

    A Network Transshipment Model for Planning Humanitarian Relief Operations after a Natural Disaster Revised submission to book on Decision Analysis and Support in Disaster Management Alistair Clark Every year, natural disasters and humanitarian crises affect approximately 200 million people, requiring

  5. FORENSIC TECHNIQUES FOR CELL PHONES

    E-print Network

    , is called mobile phone forensics. In general, forensic science is the application of scientific principles for legal, investigative, and public policy purposes. Digital forensic science refers to the preservation incidents. The science of recovering digital evidence from mobile phones, using forensically sound

  6. Recent NIST Forensic Science Efforts

    E-print Network

    Recent NIST Forensic Science Efforts John M. Butler Special Assistant to the Director for Forensic NISTOperatingUnits(OUs) #12;National Academies Report on Forensic Science · Released February 18, 2009 · Entitled "Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward" · 13 recommendations

  7. International Standards in Forensic DNA

    E-print Network

    and Technology NIST Fellow & Special Assistant to the Director for Forensic Science Vice-Chair, National Commission on Forensic Science World Forensics Festival Seoul, Korea October 15, 2014 #12;Definition;International and Regional Coordination Efforts in Forensic Science 2004 1974 1995 2008 19862008 2004 1968 DNA

  8. Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In the past 50 years forensic psychological practice has expanded dramatically. Because the practice of forensic psychology differs in important ways from more traditional practice areas (Monahan, 1980) the "Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists" were developed and published in 1991 (Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic

  9. Disaster response. Natural disaster: Katrina.

    PubMed

    McSwain, Norman E

    2010-07-01

    The aftermath and response to a disaster can be divided into four phases. The importance of each depends on the length of time without resupply and the resources that are required. This in turn depends on the time span of the disaster; the area involved; the number of the population affected; the resupply available; the extent of the devastation; and the size of the evacuation. The above phases are discussed using hurricane Katrina as an example. The phases are as follows: immediate response, evacuation, backfill and resupply, and restoration. The restoration phase is usually the longest and requires the most resources. This article addresses the situation of Katrina, the mistakes that were made, the lessons that were learned, and the solutions that are needed. Appropriate training and practice are required for all participants using realistic scenarios. PMID:20582507

  10. Microchip-based forensic short tandem repeat genotyping.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Tae; Heo, Hyun Young; Oh, Shin Hye; Lee, Seung Hwan; Kim, Do Hyun; Seo, Tae Seok

    2015-08-01

    Micro total analysis system (?TAS) or lab-on-a-chip (LOC) technology has advanced over decades, and the high performance for chemical and biological analysis has been well demonstrated with advantages of low sample consumption, rapid analysis time, high-throughput screening, and portability. In particular, ?TAS or LOC based genetic applications have been extensively explored, and the short tandem repeat (STR) typing on a chip has garnered attention in the forensic community due to its special use for human identification in the field of mass disaster and missing person investigation, paternity testing, and perpetrator identification. The STR typing process consists of sample collection, DNA extraction, DNA quantitation, STR loci amplification, capillary electrophoretic separation, and STR profiling. Recent progress of microtechnology shows its ability to substitute the conventional analytical tools, and furthermore demonstrates total integration of the whole STR processes on a single wafer for on-site STR typing. In this review article, we highlighted some representative results for fluorescence labeling techniques, microchip-based DNA purification, on-chip polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a capillary electrophoretic microdevice, and a fully integrated microdevice for STR typing. PMID:25963560

  11. Feasibility of contactless 3D optical measurement for the analysis of bone and soft tissue lesions: new technologies and perspectives in forensic sciences.

    PubMed

    Sansoni, Giovanna; Cattaneo, Cristina; Trebeschi, Marco; Gibelli, Daniele; Porta, Davide; Picozzi, Massimo

    2009-05-01

    In forensic pathology and anthropology, a correct analysis of lesions on soft tissues and bones is of the utmost importance, in order to verify the cause and manner of death. Photographs, videos, and photogrammetry may be an optimal manner of immortalizing a lesion, both on cadavers and skeletal remains; however, none of these can supply a detailed three-dimensional (3D) modeling of the lesion. Up to now, only the use of casts has given us the possibility of studying deep lesions such as saw marks with an accurate and complete 3D reconstruction of bone structure. The present study aims at verifying the applicability of 3D optical contactless measurement for the accurate recording of soft tissue and bone lesions, in order to develop a unique and precise method of registering and analyzing lesions, both in forensic pathology and anthropology. Three cases were analyzed: the first, a car accident with blunt force skin injuries; the second, a murder with blunt force injury to the head applied with a metal rod; the third, a series of sharp force knife and saw lesions on bone. Results confirm that 3D optical digitizing technology is a crucial tool in the immortalization of wound morphology in the medico-legal context even on "difficult" substrates such as cut marks and saw marks on bone. PMID:19368623

  12. J Forensic Sci, May 2005, Vol. 50, No. 3 Paper ID JFS2004505

    E-print Network

    -sequence typing assay (Roche Applied Science) in 16 forensic cases comprising 90 samples. Using the HVI/HVII mtJ Forensic Sci, May 2005, Vol. 50, No. 3 Paper ID JFS2004505 Available online at: www.astm.org Anna Allen,1 Ph.D. Forensic Casework Analysis Using the HVI/HVII mtDNA Linear Array Assay ABSTRACT

  13. lthough forensic DNA testing is well established, experts sometimes disagree about the interpreta-

    E-print Network

    Mueller, Laurence D.

    A lthough forensic DNA testing is well established, experts sometimes disagree about the interpreta. THOMPSON, LAURENCE D. MUELLER, AND DAN E. KRANE 12 Forensic DNA Statistics: Still Controversial In Some Group on DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM), a group of forensic scientists chosen by the FBI to propose

  14. Support for Computer Forensics Examination Planning with Domain Modeling: A Report of One Experiment Trial

    E-print Network

    Carver, Jeffrey C.

    Support for Computer Forensics Examination Planning with Domain Modeling: A Report of One@cse.msstate.edu Abstract In any forensic investigation, planning and analysis activities are required in order to determine methods for computer forensics examination: a methodology that includes domain modeling and a more typical

  15. Anti-forensic resilient memory acquisition Johannes Stttgen a,*, Michael Cohen b

    E-print Network

    Cortes, Corinna

    acquisition Anti forensics Live forensics Malware Computer security Information security Incident response a b present a novel memory acquisition technique, based on direct page table manipulation and PCI hardware a complete point-in-time static forensic image or to enable an external memory analysis module to perform

  16. [Development of forensic medical expertise of sexual conditions in men].

    PubMed

    Dmitrieva, O A

    2005-01-01

    The necessity of new methodological approaches in forensic medical examination of sexual male conditions are discussed basing on the analysis of questionnaire surveys of isolated groups of men and forensic medical examinations of male victims accused of sexual crimes. How to update expertise of sexual male conditions including investigations of anorectal and erectile dysfunctions in shown. PMID:16078542

  17. Fear and Loathing in Forensics: The View from Postmodern Suburbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, B. Keith

    This report attempts to construct a postmodern framework to provide for an analysis of Intercollegiate Forensics. It isolates the major theoretical constructs of postmodernism, applies them to Intercollegiate Forensics, and draws conclusions. The paper maintains that linguistic-based postmodernism consists of four theoretical areas: (1)…

  18. Accident analysis of large-scale technological disasters applied to an anaesthetic complication.

    PubMed

    Eagle, C J; Davies, J M; Reason, J

    1992-02-01

    The occurrence of serious accidents in complex industrial systems such as at Three Mile Island and Bhopal has prompted development of new models of causation and investigation of disasters. These analytical models have potential relevance in anaesthesia. We therefore applied one of the previously described systems to the investigation of an anaesthetic accident. The model chosen describes two kinds of failures, both of which must be sought. The first group, active failures, consists of mistakes made by practitioners in the provision of care. The second group, latent failures, represents flaws in the administrative and productive system. The model emphasizes the search for latent failures and shows that prevention of active failures alone is insufficient to avoid further accidents if latent failures persist unchanged. These key features and the utility of this model are illustrated by application to a case of aspiration of gastric contents. While four active failures were recognized, an equal number of latent failures also became apparent. The identification of both types of failures permitted the formulation of recommendations to avoid further occurrences. Thus this model of accident causation can provide a useful mechanism to investigate and possibly prevent anaesthetic accidents. PMID:1544192

  19. Forensic entomology: applications and limitations.

    PubMed

    Amendt, J; Richards, C S; Campobasso, C P; Zehner, R; Hall, M J R

    2011-12-01

    Forensic entomology is the science of collecting and analysing insect evidence to aid in forensic investigations. Its main application is in the determination of the minimum time since death in cases of suspicious death, either by estimating the age of the oldest necrophagous insects that developed on the corpse, or by analysing the insect species composition on the corpse. In addition, toxicological and molecular examinations of these insects may help reveal the cause of death or even the identity of a victim, by associating a larva with its last meal, for example, in cases where insect evidence is left at a scene after human remains have been deliberately removed. Some fly species can develop not only on corpses but on living bodies too, causing myiasis. Analysis of larvae in such cases can demonstrate the period of neglect of humans or animals. Without the appropriate professional collection of insect evidence, an accurate and convincing presentation of such evidence in court will be hampered or even impossible. The present paper describes the principles and methods of forensic entomology and the optimal techniques for collecting insect evidence. PMID:21213072

  20. DNA Fingerprinting in a Forensic Teaching Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagoner, Stacy A.; Carlson, Kimberly A.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an experiment designed to provide students, in a classroom laboratory setting, a hands-on demonstration of the steps used in DNA forensic analysis by performing DNA extraction, DNA fingerprinting, and statistical analysis of the data. This experiment demonstrates how DNA fingerprinting is performed and how long it takes. It…

  1. Sensitivity analysis of a short distance atmospheric dispersion model applied to the Fukushima disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Périllat, Raphaël; Girard, Sylvain; Korsakissok, Irène; Mallet, Vinien

    2015-04-01

    In a previous study, the sensitivity of a long distance model was analyzed on the Fukushima Daiichi disaster case with the Morris screening method. It showed that a few variables, such as horizontal diffusion coefficient or clouds thickness, have a weak influence on most of the chosen outputs. The purpose of the present study is to apply a similar methodology on the IRSN's operational short distance atmospheric dispersion model, called pX. Atmospheric dispersion models are very useful in case of accidental releases of pollutant to minimize the population exposure during the accident and to obtain an accurate assessment of short and long term environmental and sanitary impact. Long range models are mostly used for consequences assessment while short range models are more adapted to the early phases of the crisis and are used to make prognosis. The Morris screening method was used to estimate the sensitivity of a set of outputs and to rank the inputs by their influences. The input ranking is highly dependent on the considered output, but a few variables seem to have a weak influence on most of them. This first step revealed that interactions and non-linearity are much more pronounced with the short range model than with the long range one. Afterward, the Sobol screening method was used to obtain more quantitative results on the same set of outputs. Using this method was possible for the short range model because it is far less computationally demanding than the long range model. The study also confronts two parameterizations, Doury's and Pasquill's models, to contrast their behavior. The Doury's model seems to excessively inflate the influence of some inputs compared to the Pasquill's model, such as the altitude of emission and the air stability which do not have the same role in the two models. The outputs of the long range model were dominated by only a few inputs. On the contrary, in this study the influence is shared more evenly between the inputs.

  2. Ion chromatography-mass spectrometry: a review of recent technologies and applications in forensic and environmental explosives analysis.

    PubMed

    Barron, Leon; Gilchrist, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The development and application of ion chromatography (IC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) is discussed herein for the quantitative determination of low-order explosives-related ionic species in environmental and forensic sample types. Issues relating to environmental explosives contamination and the need for more confirmatory IC-MS based applications in forensic science are examined. In particular, the compatibility of a range of IC separation modes with MS detection is summarised along with the analytical challenges that have been overcome to facilitate determinations at the ng-?g L(-1) level. Observed trends in coupling IC to inductively coupled plasma and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry form a particular focus. This review also includes a discussion of the relative performance of reported IC-MS methods in comparison to orthogonal ion separation-based, spectrometric and spectroscopic approaches to confirmatory detection of low-order explosives. Finally, some promising areas for future research are highlighted and discussed with respect to potential IC-MS applications. PMID:24331039

  3. New psychoactive substances: catalysing a shift in forensic science practice?

    PubMed

    Tettey, Justice; Crean, Conor

    2015-08-01

    The analysis of substances of abuse remains one of the most matured areas in forensic science with a strong scientific basis, namely analytical chemistry. The current evolving drug markets, characterized by the global emergence of new psychoactive substances (NPS) and the need for forensic scientists to identify an unprecedented and ever-increasing number of NPS, presents a unique challenge to this discipline. This article looks at the current situation with NPS at the global level, and the challenges posed to the otherwise technically robust forensic science discipline of analysis of substances of abuse. It discusses the preparedness of forensic science to deal with the current situation and identifies the need for a shift in forensic science practice, especially one which embraces research and looks beyond normal casework in order to provide the much needed data for developing effective policy responses to the NPS problem. PMID:26101290

  4. Russian forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Lowe-Ponsford, F

    2000-01-01

    Two forensic psychiatric clinics visited on an exchange trip to Russia are described. The legal system for mentally disordered offenders in these institutions is also summarized, as is the training of psychiatrists in Russia. PMID:10689858

  5. Forensic speaker recognition

    E-print Network

    Bonstre, Jean-Francois

    Looking at the different points highlighted in this article, we affirm that forensic applications of speaker recognition should still be taken under a necessary need for caution. Disseminating this message remains one of ...

  6. Physics and forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkinson, T.J.; Perry, D.L.; Martin, M.C.; McKinney, W.R.

    2001-12-15

    This popular article in Physics World reviews the application of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectromicroscopy to Forensics, and predicts further applications due to the high inherent signal to noise available for FTIR microscopy at synchrotron sources.

  7. Computer Forensics Insider Problem

    E-print Network

    Peisert, Sean

    (Stoll) · "Evening with Berferd" (Cheswick) · Takedown (Shimomura/Gross) Lessons from Case Studies? 7 #12 immunology model · s-tide, Primary Response, pH Synthesizing Forensics and Intrusion Detection: Anomaly

  8. Forensic terrestrial photogrammetry from a single image.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Aguilera, Diego; Gomez-Lahoz, Javier

    2009-11-01

    Forensic terrestrial photogrammetry is one of the most valuable and low-cost resources of spatial data available today. Due to the ephemeral crime scene characteristics, these photographs can often capture information that is never to be seen again. This paper presents a novelty approach for the documentation, analysis, and visualization of crime scenes for which only a single perspective image is available. The photogrammetric process consists of a few well-known steps in close-range photogrammetry: features extraction, vanishing points computation, camera self-calibration, 3D metric reconstruction, dimensional analysis, and interactive visualization. Likewise, the method incorporates a quality control of the different steps accomplished sequentially. As a result, several cases of study are presented in the experimental results section in order to test their viability. The full approach can be applied easily through the free software, sv3DVision, which has been evaluated by a number of police officers, forensic scientists, and forensic educators satisfactorily. PMID:19804526

  9. Atypical Forensic Dental Identifications.

    PubMed

    Cardoza, Anthony R; Wood, James D

    2015-06-01

    Forensic dental identification specialists are typically the last conventional option for postmortem identification. Forensic dental identification is most often accomplished by comparing radiographs of the decedent's teeth with the dental radiographs obtained from the dentist of the suspected victim. Unfortunately, antemortem dental radiographs are not always available. When presented with this challenge, the authors of this article have been successful in completing identifications using means other than dental radiographic comparison. PMID:26126345

  10. Professionalism in Computer Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irons, Alastair D.; Konstadopoulou, Anastasia

    The paper seeks to address the need to consider issues regarding professionalism in computer forensics in order to allow the discipline to develop and to ensure the credibility of the discipline from the differing perspectives of practitioners, the criminal justice system and in the eyes of the public. There is a need to examine and develop professionalism in computer forensics in order to promote the discipline and maintain the credibility of the discipline.

  11. Multiple-probe thermography for estimating the postmortem interval: I. Continuous monitoring and data analysis of brain, liver, rectal and environmental temperatures in 117 forensic cases.

    PubMed

    Al-Alousi, L M; Anderson, R A; Worster, D M; Land, D V

    2001-03-01

    One hundred seventeen forensic postmortem cases have been studied under controlled conditions. In each case, temperatures of the brain, liver, rectum, and the environment were monitored over a period beginning shortly after death and ending up to 60 h postmortem. The four temperature measurements were recorded every 5 to 10 min using the Microwave Thermography System. Rectal and environmental temperatures were measured by electrical thermocouples while brain and liver temperatures were measured using microwave probes. Data acquisition, analogue-to-digital conversion (ADC), and data processing were provided by a microcomputer. The ADC technique is described and its problems are discussed. The data were then transferred to a mainframe computer for extensive curve-fitting and statistical analysis. The microcomputer-based ADC and data logging and acquisition were found to be accurate, fast, easy to implement, and useful for the field. The postmortem rate of human body cooling was found to be adequately represented by triple-exponential equations. PMID:11305433

  12. Forensic psychiatry in Britain.

    PubMed

    Beck, J C

    1995-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the criminal forensic mental health system in Great Britain, that is England and Wales. The report is based on the author's participant observation as a visiting consultant psychiatrist at a regional forensic facility in Manchester, England during early 1994. British law casts a net over a wider population of forensic patients than does U.S. law. There is a forensic care system in the British National Health Service that is parallel to and independent of the general psychiatric care system. The forensic system provides continuity of care from prison through maximum security hospitals to regional medium secure facilities, and finally, into the community. Community care is provided by psychiatrists and social workers and, if necessary, by psychiatric nurses. This system appears to provide effective treatment for persons with major mental disorders and histories of violence. Differences between Britain and the United States in philosophy of government, in law, and in forensic training and practice are discussed. The fundamental difference is a greater British belief in the capacity of government to act in the best interests of the individual. Current problems in the British health care system and plans to privatize some services are also discussed. PMID:8605409

  13. Transporting Forensic Psychiatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Dike, Charles C; Nicholson, Elizabeth; Young, John L

    2015-12-01

    Patients in a forensic psychiatric facility often require escorted transport to medical facilities for investigations or treatments of physical health ailments. Transporting these patients presents significant safety and custody challenges because of the nature of patients housed in forensic psychiatric facilities. A significant proportion of these patients may be transfers from the Department of Corrections (DOC) under legal mandates for psychiatric evaluation and treatment better provided in a hospital setting, and most of them will return to the DOC. Although departments of correction have protocols for escorting these potentially dangerous individuals, it is unclear whether receiving psychiatric hospitals have established procedures for maintaining the safety of others and custody of these individuals during transportation outside the hospital facility. The literature is sparse on precautions to be observed when transporting dangerous forensic psychiatric patients, including those with high escape risk. In this article, we describe one forensic inpatient facility's procedure for determining the appropriate level needed to transport these individuals outside of the forensic facility. We also describe the risk assessment procedure for determining level of transport. These are quality improvement measures resulting from a critical review of an incident of escape from the forensic facility several years ago. PMID:26668224

  14. Current and future directions of DNA in wildlife forensic science.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rebecca N; Wilson-Wilde, Linzi; Linacre, Adrian

    2014-05-01

    Wildlife forensic science may not have attained the profile of human identification, yet the scale of criminal activity related to wildlife is extensive by any measure. Service delivery in the arena of wildlife forensic science is often ad hoc, unco-ordinated and unregulated, yet many of those currently dedicated to wildlife conservation and the protection of endangered species are striving to ensure that the highest standards are met. The genetic markers and software used to evaluate data in wildlife forensic science are more varied than those in human forensic identification and are rarely standardised between species. The time and resources required to characterise and validate each genetic maker is considerable and in some cases prohibitive. Further, issues are regularly encountered in the construction of allelic databases and allelic ladders; essential in human identification studies, but also applicable to wildlife criminal investigations. Accreditation and certification are essential in human identification and are currently being strived for in the forensic wildlife community. Examples are provided as to how best practice can be demonstrated in all areas of wildlife crime analysis and ensure that this field of forensic science gains and maintains the respect it deserves. This review is aimed at those conducting human identification to illustrate how research concepts in wildlife forensic science can be used in the criminal justice system, as well as describing the real importance of this type of forensic analysis. PMID:24680123

  15. International Standards in Forensic DNA and

    E-print Network

    International Standards in Forensic DNA and Recent Forensic Science Activities in the United States to the Director for Forensic Science Vice-Chair, National Commission on Forensic Science Qiagen 4th Investigator in Forensic Science ­ National Commission on Forensic Science (NCFS) ­ Organization of Scientific Area

  16. The NASA Applied Science Program Disasters Area: Disaster Applications Research and Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, J. J.; Lindsay, F. E.; Stough, T.; Jones, C. E.

    2014-12-01

    The goal of the Natural Disaster Application Area is to use NASA's capabilities in spaceborne, airborne, surface observations, higher-level derived data products, and modeling and data analysis to improve natural disaster forecasting, mitigation, and response. The Natural Disaster Application Area applies its remote sensing observations, modeling and analysis capabilities to provide hazard and disaster information where and when it is needed. Our application research activities specifically contribute to 1) Understanding the natural processes that produce hazards, 2)Developing hazard mitigation technologies, and 3)Recognizing vulnerability of interdependent critical infrastructure. The Natural Disasters Application area selects research projects through a rigorous, impartial peer-review process that address a broad spectrum of disasters which afflict populations within the United States, regionally and globally. Currently there are 19 active projects in the research portfolio which address the detection, characterization, forecasting and response to a broad range of natural disasters including earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions and ash dispersion, wildfires, hurricanes, floods, tornado damage assessment, oil spills and disaster data mining. The Disasters team works with federal agencies to aid the government in meeting the challenges associated with natural disaster response and to transfer technologies to agencies as they become operational. Internationally, the Disasters Area also supports the Committee on Earth Observations Working Group on Disasters, and the International Charter on Space and Disasters to increase, strengthen, and coordinate contributions of NASA Earth-observing satellites and applications products to disaster risk management. The CEOS group will lead pilot efforts focused on identifying key systems to support flooding, earthquake, and volcanic events.

  17. World Trade Center disaster exposure-related probable posttraumatic stress disorder among responders and civilians: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bian; Tarigan, Lukman H; Bromet, Evelyn J; Kim, Hyun

    2014-01-01

    The World Trade Center (WTC) disaster on September 11, 2001 was an unprecedented traumatic event with long-lasting health consequences among the affected populations in the New York metropolitan area. This meta-analysis aimed to estimate the risk of probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) associated with specific types of WTC exposures. Meta-analytical findings from 10 studies of 3,271 to 20,294 participants yielded 37 relevant associations. The pooled summary odds ratio (OR) was 2.05 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.82, 2.32), with substantial heterogeneity linked to exposure classification, cohort type, data source, PTSD assessment instrument/criteria, and lapse time since 9/11. In general, responders (e.g. police, firefighters, rescue/recovery workers and volunteers) had a lower probable PTSD risk (OR?=?1.61; 95% CI: 1.39, 1.87) compared to civilians (e.g. residents, office workers, and passersby; OR?=?2.71, 95% CI: 2.35, 3.12). The differences in ORs between responders and civilians were larger for physical compared to psychosocial exposure types. We also found that injury, lost someone, and witnessed horror were the three (out of six) most pernicious exposures. These findings suggest that these three exposures should be a particular focus in psychological evaluation and treatment programs in WTC intervention and future emergency preparedness efforts. PMID:25047411

  18. Development of forensic assay signatures for ebolaviruses.

    PubMed

    Song, Jian; Doggett, Norman; Wren, Melinda; Burr, Tom; Fenimore, P W; Hatcher, Eneida L; Bruno, William J; Li, Po-E; Stubben, Chris; Wolinsky, Murray

    2015-03-01

    Ebolaviruses are a diverse group of RNA viruses comprising five different species, four of which cause fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans. Because of their high infectivity and lethality, ebolaviruses are considered major biothreat agents. Although detection assays exist, no forensic assays are currently available. Here, we report the development of forensic assays that differentiate ebolaviruses. We performed phylogenetic analyses and identified canonical SNPs for all species, major clades and isolates. TaqMan-MGB allelic discrimination assays based on these SNPs were designed, screened against synthetic RNA templates, and validated against ebolavirus genomic RNAs. A total of 45 assays were validated to provide 100% coverage of the species and variants with additional resolution at the isolate level. These assays enabled accurate forensic analysis on 4 "unknown" ebolaviruses. Unknowns were correctly classified to species and variant. A goal of providing resolution below the isolate level was not successful. These high-resolution forensic assays allow rapid and accurate genotyping of ebolaviruses for forensic investigations. PMID:25677086

  19. Forensic Proteomics of Poxvirus Production

    SciTech Connect

    Wunschel, David S.; Tulman, Edan; Engelmann, Heather E.; Clowers, Brian H.; Geary, Steven J.; Robinson, Aaron C.; Liao, Xiaofen

    2013-08-27

    The field of microbial forensics has recently sought to develop methods to discern biological signatures to indicate production methods for biological agents. Viral agents have received less attention to date. Their obligate propagation in living cells makes purification from cellular material a challenge. This leads to potential carryover of protein-rich signature of their production system. Here we have explored a proteomic analysis of Vaccinia virus as a model poxvirus system in which to compare samples of virus propagated in different cell lines and subjected to different purification schemes. The proteomic data sets indicated viral, host cell and culture medium proteins, and several layers of data analysis were applied to build confidence in the peptide identification and capture information on the taxonomic utility of each. The analysis showed clear shifts in protein profiles with virus purification, with successive gradient purification steps showing different levels of viral protein enrichment. Peptides from cellular proteins, including those present in purified virus preparations, provided signatures which enabled discrimination of cell line substrates, including distinguishing between cells derived from different primate species. The ability to discern multiple aspects of viral production demonstrates the potential value of proteomic analysis as tool for microbial forensics.

  20. Tools and techniques for Network Forensics

    E-print Network

    Meghanathan, Natarajan; Moore, Loretta A

    2010-01-01

    Network forensics deals with the capture, recording and analysis of network events in order to discover evidential information about the source of security attacks in a court of law. This paper discusses the different tools and techniques available to conduct network forensics. Some of the tools discussed include: eMailTrackerPro to identify the physical location of an email sender; Web Historian to find the duration of each visit and the files uploaded and downloaded from the visited website; packet sniffers like Etherea to capture and analyze the data exchanged among the different computers in the network. The second half of the paper presents a survey of different IP traceback techniques like packet marking that help a forensic investigator to identify the true sources of the attacking IP packets. We also discuss the use of Honeypots and Honeynets that gather intelligence about the enemy and the tools and tactics of network intruders.

  1. A CONCEPT FOR NATIONAL NUCLEAR FORENSIC LIBRARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Wacker, John F.; Curry, Michael

    2010-08-11

    The interpretation of data from the nuclear forensic analysis of illicit nuclear material of unknown origin requires comparative data from samples of known origin. One way to provide such comparative data is to create a system of national nuclear forensics libraries, in which each participating country stores information about nuclear or other radioactive material that either resides in or was manufactured by that country. Such national libraries could provide an authoritative record of the material located in or produced by a particular country, and thus forms an essential prerequisite for a government to investigate illicit uses of nuclear or other radioactive material within its borders. We describe the concept of the national nuclear forensic library, recommendations for content and structure, and suggested querying methods for utilizing the information for addressing nuclear smuggling.

  2. Saliva in forensic odontology: A comprehensive update

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Susmita; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, saliva has attracted much interest among researchers especially in the field of forensic sciences. This complex body fluid is gaining popularity due to its ease of collection, safety in handling and its close relationship with plasma. Analysis of saliva for serological testing and cellular content has proved to be of wide use in crime detection, drug and alcohol abuse, hormone identification, cases of poisoning and animal bites. There is a need for forensic laboratories to automate the settings specific for saliva as routinely done for blood or urine in order to consider saliva as the primary investigating tool in the absence of other body fluids. This update is aimed at highlighting the many uses of saliva in the practice of forensic odontology. PMID:26604508

  3. [New challenges in forensic psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Niveau, Gérard; Dang, Cécile

    2008-07-01

    The new Swiss criminal code and the recent evolution of evaluation methods have led to change in the three main areas of forensic psychiatry: criminal responsibility, credibility of child sexual abuse allegations, and dangerousness. The assessment of criminal responsibility requires the retrospective examination of the cognitive and volitive capacities of the accused. If needed, mandatory therapeutic propositions that conform to the new criminal code must be recommended. With regard to child sexual abuse allegations, the credibility of the allegations is analysed with specific scales, such as Statement Validity Analysis, interpreted in light of the current state of knowledge in child development and child psychiatry. PMID:18711972

  4. Persistence of activity on Twitter triggered by a natural disaster: A data analysis

    E-print Network

    Kawamoto, Tatsuro

    2015-01-01

    In this note, we list the results of a simple analysis of a Twitter dataset: the complete dataset of Japanese tweets in the 1-week period after the Great East Japan earthquake, which occurred on March 11, 2011. Our data analysis shows how people reacted to the earthquake on Twitter and how some users went inactive in the long-term.

  5. Challenge Paper: Validation of Forensic Techniques for Criminal Prosecution

    SciTech Connect

    Erbacher, Robert F.; Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara E.; Frincke, Deborah A.

    2007-04-10

    Abstract: As in many domains, there is increasing agreement in the user and research community that digital forensics analysts would benefit from the extension, development and application of advanced techniques in performing large scale and heterogeneous data analysis. Modern digital forensics analysis of cyber-crimes and cyber-enabled crimes often requires scrutiny of massive amounts of data. For example, a case involving network compromise across multiple enterprises might require forensic analysis of numerous sets of network logs and computer hard drives, potentially involving 100?s of gigabytes of heterogeneous data, or even terabytes or petabytes of data. Also, the goal for forensic analysis is to not only determine whether the illicit activity being considered is taking place, but also to identify the source of the activity and the full extent of the compromise or impact on the local network. Even after this analysis, there remains the challenge of using the results in subsequent criminal and civil processes.

  6. Satellite Application for Disaster Management Information Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okpanachi, George

    Abstract Satellites are becoming increasingly vital to modern day disaster management activities. Earth observation (EO) satellites provide images at various wavelengths that assist rapid-mapping in all phases of the disaster management cycle: mitigation of potential risks in a given area, preparedness for eventual disasters, immediate response to a disaster event, and the recovery/reconstruction efforts follo wing it. Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) assist all the phases by providing precise location and navigation data, helping manage land and infrastructures, and aiding rescue crews coordinate their search efforts. Effective disaster management is a complex problem, because it involves many parameters, which are usually not easy to measure and even identify: Analysis of current situation, planning, optimum resource management, coordination, controlling and monitoring current activities and making quick and correct decisions are only some of these parameters, whose complete list is very long. Disaster management information systems (DMIS) assist disaster management to analyse the situation better, make decisions and suggest further actions following the emergency plans. This requires not only fast and thorough processing and optimization abilities, but also real-time data provided to the DMIS. The need of DMIS for disaster’s real-time data can be satisfied by small satellites data utilization. Small satellites can provide up-to-data, plus a better media to transfer data. This paper suggests a rationale and a framework for utilization of small Satellite data by DMIS. DMIS should be used ‘’before’’, ‘’during’’ and ‘’after’’ the disasters. Data provided by the Small Satellites are almost crucial in any period of the disasters, because early warning can save lives, and satellite data may help to identify disasters before they occur. The paper also presents’ ‘when’’, ‘’where’’ and ‘’how’’ small satellite data should be used by DMIS.

  7. FRIENDS OF ROCKAWAY Building Resilience to Natural Disasters

    E-print Network

    Smerdon, Jason E.

    FRIENDS OF ROCKAWAY Building Resilience to Natural Disasters on the Rockaway Peninsula #12;Building Resilience to Natural Disasters on the Rockaway Peninsula | 2 Project Team Professor Kathleen Callahan Earth Systems Policy Analysis Spring 2014 #12;Building Resilience to Natural Disasters on the Rockaway

  8. Developing a health system approach to disaster management: A qualitative analysis of the core literature to complement the WHO Toolkit for assessing health-system capacity for crisis management

    PubMed Central

    Bayntun, Claire; Rockenschaub, Gerald; Murray, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND The World Health Organisation's (WHO) sixty-fourth World Health Assembly in May 2011 adopted a resolution on ‘strengthening national health emergency and disaster management capacities and resilience of health systems’. Disaster management is a topical issue globally and countries are being encouraged to improve their disaster preparedness, along with growing international commitment to strengthening health systems. Lessons identified from disasters have not been effectively collated; essential experience is forgotten. METHODS This paper describes the analysis of the worldwide experience of disasters through a health systems approach. A systematic search of the core literature from January 2000 to November 2011 was conducted. Components drawn from the WHO’s Global assessment of national health sector emergency preparedness and response baseline survey were combined with WHO’s six health system building blocks (or levers) to act as the initial analysis anchors, with a further grounded theory qualitative analysis of the literature allowing the identification of emerging themes and insights. The priority areas identified by this literature review were then compared with the topics covered by the new expert-consensus-derived Toolkit for assessing health-system capacity for crisis management developed by the WHO Regional Office for Europe. FINDINGS 143 publications identified from a literature search were analysed and appraised. Themes and examples from the literature demonstrate how health system strengthening should contribute to disaster management. Priority areas under-represented in the WHO Toolkit and identified by the qualitative analysis are discussed. INTERPRETATION Collation and analysis of the disaster management literature identifies how health system strengthening can promote resilience and efficient recovery in the face of disasters. These findings support and complement the WHO Toolkit. Countries can use the literature evidence with the WHO Toolkit to assess their disaster management capacities and identify priorities for strengthening their health system. Citation: Bayntun C, Rockenschaub G, Murray V. Developing a health system approach to disaster management: A qualitative analysis of the core literature to complement the WHO Toolkit for assessing health-system capacity for crisis management. PLOS Currents Disasters. 2012 Aug 22. doi: 10.1371/5028b6037259a. PMID:23066520

  9. Authentication of forensic DNA samples.

    PubMed

    Frumkin, Dan; Wasserstrom, Adam; Davidson, Ariane; Grafit, Arnon

    2010-02-01

    Over the past twenty years, DNA analysis has revolutionized forensic science, and has become a dominant tool in law enforcement. Today, DNA evidence is key to the conviction or exoneration of suspects of various types of crime, from theft to rape and murder. However, the disturbing possibility that DNA evidence can be faked has been overlooked. It turns out that standard molecular biology techniques such as PCR, molecular cloning, and recently developed whole genome amplification (WGA), enable anyone with basic equipment and know-how to produce practically unlimited amounts of in vitro synthesized (artificial) DNA with any desired genetic profile. This artificial DNA can then be applied to surfaces of objects or incorporated into genuine human tissues and planted in crime scenes. Here we show that the current forensic procedure fails to distinguish between such samples of blood, saliva, and touched surfaces with artificial DNA, and corresponding samples with in vivo generated (natural) DNA. Furthermore, genotyping of both artificial and natural samples with Profiler Plus((R)) yielded full profiles with no anomalies. In order to effectively deal with this problem, we developed an authentication assay, which distinguishes between natural and artificial DNA based on methylation analysis of a set of genomic loci: in natural DNA, some loci are methylated and others are unmethylated, while in artificial DNA all loci are unmethylated. The assay was tested on natural and artificial samples of blood, saliva, and touched surfaces, with complete success. Adopting an authentication assay for casework samples as part of the forensic procedure is necessary for maintaining the high credibility of DNA evidence in the judiciary system. PMID:20129467

  10. Location tracking forensics on mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sack, Stefan; Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2013-03-01

    The spread of navigation devices has increased significantly over the last 10 years. With the help of the current development of even smaller navigation receiver units it is to navigate with almost any current smart phone. Modern navigation systems are no longer limited to satellite navigation, but use current techniques, e.g. WLAN localization. Due to the increased use of navigation devices their relevance to forensic investigations has risen rapidly. Because navigation, for example with navigation equipment and smartphones, have become common place these days, also the amount of saved navigation data has risen rapidly. All of these developments lead to a necessary forensic analysis of these devices. However, there are very few current procedures for investigating of navigation devices. Navigation data is forensically interesting because by the position of the devices in most cases the location and the traveled path of the owner can be reconstructed. In this work practices for forensic analysis of navigation devices are developed. Different devices will be analyzed and it is attempted, by means of forensic procedures to restore the traveled path of the mobile device. For analysis of the various devices different software and hardware is used. There will be presented common procedures for securing and testing of mobile devices. Further there will be represented the specials in the investigation of each device. The different classes considered are GPS handhelds, mobile navigation devices and smartphones. It will be attempted, wherever possible, to read all data of the device. The aim is to restore complete histories of the navigation data and to forensically study and analyze these data. This is realized by the usage of current forensic software e.g. TomTology or Oxygen Forensic Suite. It is also attempted to use free software whenever possible. Further alternative methods are used (e.g. rooting) to access locked data of the unit. To limit the practical work the data extraction is focused on the frequently used device sample of a specific class, as the procedure for many groups of devices can be similar. In the present work a Garmin Dakota 10, a TomTom GO 700, an iPhone 4 (iOS) and a Samsung Galaxy S Plus (Android) is used because they have a wide circulation.

  11. Statistics in Practice Forensic Science

    E-print Network

    Lucy, David

    Statistics in Practice Forensic Science Dr. David Lucy d.lucy@lancaster.ac.uk Lancaster University Statistics in Practice ­ p.1/36 #12;Forensic Science Criminal evidence becoming increasingly "scientific in Practice ­ p.2/36 #12;Forensic Science Greater realisation that uncertainty is important has lead to

  12. The Future of Forensic DNA

    E-print Network

    and Technology Gaithersburg, Maryland United States of America The Paradigm Shift for UK Forensic Science and recent U.S. activities ­ National Commission on Forensic Science (NCFS) ­ Organization of Scientific Area on Forensic Science (SoFS) operated from July 2009 to Dec 2012 DOJ/NIST Partnership (announced Feb 2013) 1

  13. National Commission on Forensic Science

    E-print Network

    National Commission on Forensic Science Update John M. Butler, Ph.D. National Institute of Standards and Technology NIST Fellow & Special Assistant to the Director for Forensic Science Vice-Chair, National Commission on Forensic Science SWGDAM Meeting Fredericksburg, VA January 15, 2015 #12;NCFS

  14. National Commission on Forensic Science

    E-print Network

    National Commission on Forensic Science A Federal Advisory Committee for the U.S. Department://www.gsa.gov/portal/content/100916 #12;Duties of the National Commission on Forensic Science (NCFS) per its Charter Duties include: 1 guidance concerning the intersection of forensic science and the courtroom; 4. To develop policy

  15. Forensics on a Shoestring Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greco, Joseph A.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, forensic science has gained popularity thanks in part to high-profile court cases and television programs. Although the cost of forensic equipment and supplies may initially seem too expensive for the typical high school classroom, the author developed an activity that incorporates forensics into her 10th-grade biology curriculum…

  16. Proceedings of Australian Digital Forensics

    E-print Network

    Cortes, Corinna

    Proceedings of The 5th Australian Digital Forensics Conference 3rd December 2007 Edith Cowan-7298-0646-4 #12;Table of Contents 1. Anti-Forensics and the Digital Investigator ................................... 8 3. The effectiveness of investigative tools for Secure Digital (SD) Memory Card forensics

  17. The Future of Forensic DNA

    E-print Network

    ­ Workshops on mixture interpretation and CE troubleshooting ­ Third edition of Forensic DNA Typing textbook (2009, 2011, & 2013) #12;INTERPRETATION John M. Butler Forensic DNA Typing Textbook 3rd Edition is ThreeThe Future of Forensic DNA John M. Butler, PhD National Institute of Standards and Technology

  18. LARGE SCALE DISASTER ANALYSIS AND MANAGEMENT: SYSTEM LEVEL STUDY ON AN INTEGRATED MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The increasing intensity and scale of human activity across the globe leading to severe depletion and deterioration of the Earth's natural resources has meant that sustainability has emerged as a new paradigm of analysis and management. Sustainability, conceptually defined by the...

  19. Complexity and forensic pathology.

    PubMed

    Jones, Richard Martin

    2015-12-01

    It has become increasingly apparent that nonlinearity and complexity are the norm in human physiological systems, the relevance of which is informing an enhanced understanding of basic pathological processes such as inflammation, the host response to severe trauma, and critical illness. This article will explore how an understanding of nonlinear systems and complexity might inform the study of the pathophysiology of deaths of medicolegal interest, and how 'complexity thinking' might usefully be incorporated into modern forensic medicine and forensic pathology research, education and practice. PMID:26372537

  20. Forensic Science Center

    SciTech Connect

    Andresen, B.; Grant, P.M.

    1994-03-01

    Since 1991, the Laboratory's Forensic Science Center has focused a comprehensive range of analytical expertise on issues related to non proliferation, counterterrorism, and domestic law enforcement. During this short period, LLNL's singular combination of human and technological resources has made the Center among the best of its kind in the world. The Forensic Science Center houses a variety of state-of-the-art analytical tools ranging from gas chromatograph/mass spectrometers to ultratrace DNA detection techniques. The Center's multidisciplinary staff provides expertise in organic and inorganic analytical chemistry, nuclear science, biochemistry, and genetics useful for supporting law enforcement and for verifying compliance with international treaties and agreements.

  1. Forensic DNA databases in Western Balkan region: retrospectives, perspectives, and initiatives

    PubMed Central

    Marjanovi?, Damir; Konjhodži?, Rijad; Butorac, Sara Sanela; Drobni?, Katja; Merkaš, Siniša; Lauc, Gordan; Primorac, Damir; An?elinovi?, Šimun; Milosavljevi?, Mladen; Karan, Željko; Vidovi?, Stojko; Stojkovi?, Oliver; Pani?, Bojana; Vu?eti? Dragovi?, An?elka; Kova?evi?, Sandra; Jakovski, Zlatko; Asplen, Chris; Primorac, Dragan

    2011-01-01

    The European Network of Forensic Science Institutes (ENFSI) recommended the establishment of forensic DNA databases and specific implementation and management legislations for all EU/ENFSI members. Therefore, forensic institutions from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, and Macedonia launched a wide set of activities to support these recommendations. To assess the current state, a regional expert team completed detailed screening and investigation of the existing forensic DNA data repositories and associated legislation in these countries. The scope also included relevant concurrent projects and a wide spectrum of different activities in relation to forensics DNA use. The state of forensic DNA analysis was also determined in the neighboring Slovenia and Croatia, which already have functional national DNA databases. There is a need for a ‘regional supplement’ to the current documentation and standards pertaining to forensic application of DNA databases, which should include regional-specific preliminary aims and recommendations. PMID:21674821

  2. Application impact analysis: a risk-based approach to business continuity and disaster recovery.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Beth; Khan, Dawn Christine

    2014-01-01

    There are many possible disruptions that can occur in business. Overlooking or under planning for Business Continuity requires time, understanding and careful planning. Business Continuity Management is far more than producing a document and declaring business continuity success. What is the recipe for businesses to achieve continuity management success? Application Impact Analysis is a method for understanding the unique Business Attributes. This AIA Cycle involves a risk based approach to understanding the business priority and considering business aspects such as Financial, Operational, Service Structure, Contractual Legal, and Brand. The output of this analysis provides a construct for viewing data, evaluating impact, and delivering results, for an approved valuation of Recovery Time Objectives (RTO). PMID:24578024

  3. Disaster Preparation and Recovery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... be a natural disaster, like a hurricane, tornado, flood or earthquake. It might also be man-made, ... the insurance you need, including special types, like flood insurance. No matter what kind of disaster you ...

  4. Coping with Disasters

    MedlinePLUS

    After surviving a disaster, people may feel dazed or even numb. They may also feel sad, helpless, or anxious. In spite of the ... places or people that remind you of the disaster. You might have trouble sleeping, eating, or paying ...

  5. Exploring Trends in Forensic Odontology

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Narendra Nath; Ain, Tasneem S.; Sultan, Saima

    2014-01-01

    Background: Forensic odontology nowadays has become a developing science and is of great importance to society. It is important that dental practitioners should have a proper knowledge of forensics as the need has increased greatly over the last decades due to the unprecedented demand from the criminal justice including terrorism in Kashmir valley (J&K India). Materials and Methods: Data was collected based on questionnaire survey among qualified dental practitioners related to their awareness of forensic odontology. Results: A total number of 235 dental practitioners responded to the questionnaire. Results showed that there was a low confidence, in handling of forensic odontology related cases among dental practitioners and majority of dental practitioners were not having any formal training in forensic odontology. Conclusion: Each dental practitioner has a responsibility to understand the forensic implications associated with the practice of his profession and thus he should work sincerely enough so to ensure his contribution in the field of forensic odontology. PMID:25654026

  6. Obtaining Disaster Assistance 

    E-print Network

    Cavanagh, Joyce

    2008-09-24

    -800-829-1040. References Hurricane Disaster Assistance, Small Business Administration, www.sba.gov Downloaded September 30, 2005. Disaster Assistance Frequently Asked Questions www.fema.gov/rrr/dafaq/shtm Downloaded September 30, 2005. Help After a Disaster: Applicant...?s Guide to the Individuals & Households Program (August 2005) www.fema.gov/pdf/about/process/help_after_disaster _english.pdf Downloaded September 30, 2005. Compiled by Joyce Cavanagh, Associate Professor and Extension Family Economics...

  7. Enhanced forensic discrimination of pollutants by position-specific isotope analysis using isotope ratio monitoring by (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Julien, Maxime; Nun, Pierrick; Höhener, Patrick; Parinet, Julien; Robins, Richard J; Remaud, Gérald S

    2016-01-15

    In forensic environmental investigations the main issue concerns the inference of the original source of the pollutant for determining the liable party. Isotope measurements in geochemistry, combined with complimentary techniques for contaminant identification, have contributed significantly to source determination at polluted sites. In this work we have determined the intramolecular (13)C profiles of several molecules well-known as pollutants. By giving additional analytical parameters, position-specific isotope analysis performed by isotope ratio monitoring by (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (irm-(13)C NMR) spectrometry gives new information to help in answering the major question: what is the origin of the detected contaminant? We have shown that isotope profiling of the core of a molecule reveals both the raw materials and the process used in its manufacture. It also can reveal processes occurring between the contamination site 'source' and the sampling site. Thus, irm-(13)C NMR is shown to be a very good complement to compound-specific isotope analysis currently performed by mass spectrometry for assessing polluted sites involving substantial spills of pollutant. PMID:26592622

  8. Principal component analysis for the forensic discrimination of black inkjet inks based on the Vis-NIR fibre optics reflection spectra.

    PubMed

    Gál, Lukáš; Oravec, Michal; Gemeiner, Pavol; ?eppan, Michal

    2015-12-01

    Nineteen black inkjet inks of six different brands were examined by fibre optics reflection spectroscopy in Visible and Near Infrared Region (Vis-NIR FORS) directly on paper with a view to achieving good resolution between them. These different inks were tested on nineteen different inkjet printers from three brands. Samples were obtained from prints by reflection probe. Processed reflection spectra in the range 500-1000nm were used as samples in principal component analysis. Variability between spectra of the same ink obtained from different prints, as well as between spectra of square areas and lines was examined. For both spectra obtained from square areas and lines reference, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) models were created. According to these models, the inkjet inks were divided into clusters. PCA method is able to separate inks containing carbon black as main colorant from the other inks using other colorants. Some spectra were recorded from another piece of printer and used as validation samples. Spectra of validation samples were projected onto reference PCA models. According to position of validation samples in score plots it can be concluded that PCA based on Vis-NIR FORS can reliably differentiate inkjet inks which are included in the reference database. The presented method appears to be a suitable tool for forensic examination of questioned documents containing inkjet inks. Inkjet inks spectra were obtained without extraction or cutting sample with possibility to measure out of the laboratory. PMID:26448533

  9. Stand-off imaging Raman spectroscopy for forensic analysis of post-blast scenes: trace detection of ammonium nitrate and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceco, Ema; Önnerud, Hans; Menning, Dennis; Gilljam, John L.; Bââth, Petra; Östmark, Henric

    2014-05-01

    The following paper presents a realistic forensic capability test of an imaging Raman spectroscopy based demonstrator system, developed at FOI, the Swedish Defence Research Agency. The system uses a 532 nm laser to irradiate a surface of 25×25mm. The backscattered radiation from the surface is collected by an 8" telescope with subsequent optical system, and is finally imaged onto an ICCD camera. We present here an explosives trace analysis study of samples collected from a realistic scenario after a detonation. A left-behind 5 kg IED, based on ammonium nitrate with a TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) booster, was detonated in a plastic garbage bin. Aluminum sample plates were mounted vertically on a holder approximately 6 m from the point of detonation. Minutes after the detonation, the samples were analyzed with stand-off imaging Raman spectroscopy from a distance of 10 m. Trace amounts could be detected from the secondary explosive (ammonium nitrate with an analysis time of 1 min. Measurement results also indicated detection of residues from the booster (TNT). The sample plates were subsequently swabbed and analyzed with HPLC and GC-MS analyses to confirm the results from the stand-off imaging Raman system. The presented findings indicate that it is possible to determine the type of explosive used in an IED from a distance, within minutes after the attack, and without tampering with physical evidence at the crime scene.

  10. Serving through Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuzyk, Raya

    2007-01-01

    Disaster planning focuses on future function and recovery, on helping libraries expeditiously return to their original states of operation. It all but ignores the concept of continuous function throughout a disaster. This is not true in the private and government sectors, however, which have managed to cover a wider load of disaster response…

  11. Disaster Planning in Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Yi Ling; Green, Ravonne

    2006-01-01

    Disaster preparedness is an important issue in library management today. This article presents a general overview of the theoretical aspects of disaster planning in libraries. The stages of disaster planning are a circular process of planning, prevention, response, recovery, preparedness, and training.

  12. Planning for Disaster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Steven

    1996-01-01

    Disaster recovery planning need not be expensive nor complete to be effective. Systematic planning involves several crucial steps, including outlining the final plan, understanding the nature of a disaster's effects and the stages of disaster recovery, prioritizing appropriately, and learning how to test the plan in a practical way for the…

  13. On the Contribution of Raman Spectroscopy to Forensic Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzzini, Patrick; Massonnet, Genevieve

    2010-08-01

    Raman spectroscopy has only recently sparked interest from forensic laboratories. The Raman technique has demonstrated important advantages such as its nondestructive nature, its fast analysis time, and especially the possibility of performing microscopical in situ analyses. In forensic applications, it is a versatile technique that covers a wide spectrum of substances such as trace evidence, illicit drugs and inks. An overview of the recent developments of Raman spectroscopy in forensic science will be discussed. Also, the requirements for an analytical technique for the examination of physical evidence will be described. Examples of casework will be depicted.

  14. Return or relocate? An inductive analysis of decision-making in a disaster.

    PubMed

    Henry, Jacques

    2013-04-01

    This paper proposes an inductive analysis of the decision as to whether to return or to relocate by persons in the State of Louisiana, United States, who evacuated after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in August and September 2005, respectively. Drawing on interviews with evacuees in these events and extensive fieldwork in the impacted area, the paper seeks to identify the folk dimensions of the decision-making process, assess their arrangements, and situate the process in the larger context of risk and resilience in an advanced society. It suggests that, despite the material and emotional upheaval experienced by affected persons, the decision-making process is a rational endeavour combining a definite set of tightly interconnected factors, involving material dimensions and substantive values that can act in concert or in conflict. In addition, it indicates that there are significant variations by geographic areas, homeownership, and kind of decision. Some theoretical implications, practical measures, and suggestions for future research are examined. PMID:23278427

  15. Setting priorities: global patterns of disaster risk.

    PubMed

    Dilley, Maxx

    2006-08-15

    Natural disasters are caused by the exposure and vulnerabilities to natural hazards of people, infrastructure and economic activities. Analysis of these factors has permitted identification of countries and areas within them where disaster-related mortality and economic losses are likely in the future. These high-risk areas are candidates for increased attention to, and investment in, disaster risk identification, reduction and transfer. Plans are underway to further identify disaster risk levels and factors on national and subnational scales in high-risk countries to create evidence for improved risk management decision-making. In this paper, I review selected recent global and regional risk analyses to highlight findings, areas for improvement and next steps in the overall process of using disaster risk information for more effective risk management and cost-effective reduction of losses. PMID:16844657

  16. [PCR in forensic medicine].

    PubMed

    Coquoz, R

    1994-05-17

    PCR has brought important progress to forensic medicine. It has provided access to various effective, rapid and simple analytic techniques. It has distinctly increased the range of analyzable samples and comparably improved chances to identify a criminal. This had consequences for laboratories as well as police departments and even physicians that occasionally cooperate with legal agencies. PMID:7911590

  17. Forensic Science WWW.UVA.NL/MFS

    E-print Network

    Koolen, Marijn

    Forensic Science WWW.UVA.NL/MFS Institute for Interdisciplinary Studies The field of forensic proportionally. Forensic Science students at the University of Amsterdam gain a broad understanding of forensic science together with a in-depth knowledge of a specific scientific discipline. THE MASTER FORENSIC

  18. Inter-Faculty Bachelor of Forensic Science

    E-print Network

    Inter-Faculty Bachelor of Forensic Science Forensic science is the study of evidence in criminal of Forensic Science allows you to focus on three major areas of forensic science by choosing a scientific is intended for students interested in the use of DNA and serology in forensic science. 2) The Chemistry

  19. COE589: Digital Forensics Overview and Logistics

    E-print Network

    Almulhem, Ahmad

    COE589: Digital Forensics Overview and Logistics Dr. Ahmad Almulhem KFUPM - Fall 2012 (T121) 1COE589 - Ahmad Almulhem #12;Digital Forensics · Forensic Science: Applying science for the purpose of law ­ solve crimes ­ dealing with weapons, blood, fingerprints, · Digital Forensics: Forensics in the digital

  20. COE589: Digital Forensics Overview and Logistics

    E-print Network

    Almulhem, Ahmad

    COE589: Digital Forensics Overview and Logistics Dr. Ahmad Almulhem KFUPM ­ Spring 2013 (T122) 1COE589 - Ahmad Almulhem #12;Digital Forensics · Forensic Science: Applying science for the purpose of law ­ solve crimes ­ dealing with weapons, blood, fingerprints, · Digital Forensics: Forensics in the digital

  1. Disaster Doctor From 9/11 to Katrina

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from a hair brush." Ancient Egypt and Modern Analysis So he and his team developed OSIRIS, for ... research, as well as other forensic uses." Katrina Analysis Difficult, Poignant… Sherry found identifying the dead from ...

  2. Modeling economic costs of disasters and recovery involving positive effects of reconstruction: analysis using a dynamic CGE model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, W.; Li, N.; Wu, J.-D.; Hao, X.-L.

    2013-11-01

    Disaster damages have negative effects on economy, whereas reconstruction investments have positive effects. The aim of this study is to model economic causes of disasters and recovery involving positive effects of reconstruction activities. Computable general equilibrium (CGE) model is a promising approach because it can incorporate these two kinds of shocks into a unified framework and further avoid double-counting problem. In order to factor both shocks in CGE model, direct loss is set as the amount of capital stock reduced on supply side of economy; A portion of investments restore the capital stock in existing period; An investment-driven dynamic model is formulated due to available reconstruction data, and the rest of a given country's saving is set as an endogenous variable. The 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake is selected as a case study to illustrate the model, and three scenarios are constructed: S0 (no disaster occurs), S1 (disaster occurs with reconstruction investment) and S2 (disaster occurs without reconstruction investment). S0 is taken as business as usual, and the differences between S1 and S0 and that between S2 and S0 can be interpreted as economic losses including reconstruction and excluding reconstruction respectively. The study showed that output from S1 is found to be closer to real data than that from S2. S2 overestimates economic loss by roughly two times that under S1. The gap in economic aggregate between S1 and S0 is reduced to 3% in 2011, a level that should take another four years to achieve under S2.

  3. Selective enrichment of STRs for applications in forensic human identification.

    PubMed

    Gadipally, Sreeja R; Sarkar, Anujit; Nandineni, Madhusudan R

    2015-08-01

    Forensic human identification (HID) is currently based on determining repeat length polymorphisms located in short tandem repeat regions in the human genome. Despite the great progress made in the area of multiplex PCR-based approaches, limitations associated with challenging forensic samples such as DNA degradation, cooccurrence of inhabited microbial DNA and PCR inhibitors significantly affect the success rate of human DNA profiling. We have developed a sequence-specific pre-PCR STR enrichment method and evaluated its efficacy using DNA samples doped with various contaminants in view of its application on compromised forensic samples. This strategy has enabled us to generate complete and reproducible DNA profiles from samples doped with fivefold excess of nonhuman DNA and three to fourfold excess of various potent PCR inhibitors than that is claimed to be tolerated by some of the widely used commercial multiplex STR kits, from as little as two nanograms of degraded human DNA. The "hybrid capture"-based STR enrichment strategy described in this study is easily adaptable and offers a sensitive, efficient, and economical approach for successful human DNA profiling from compromised and recalcitrant forensic samples that are usually encountered in mass disaster incidents and missing persons' identifications. PMID:25959308

  4. A phenomenological analysis of disaster-related experiences in fire and emergency medical services personnel.

    PubMed

    De Soir, Erik; Knarren, Marcia; Zech, Emmanuelle; Mylle, Jacques; Kleber, Rolf; van der Hart, Onno

    2012-04-01

    This article explores the experiences of fire and Emergency Medical Services (EMS) personnel during and immediately after a technological event using a phenomenological approach. Personnel engaged in the rescue operations during and immediately after the Ghislenghien gas explosion reflected upon their experiences in their responses to a specially designed, self-reporting questionnaire that included open-ended questions. Firefighters reported more perceived threat and direct exposure to death than did EMS personnel. Qualitative analysis indicates that the central characteristics of this potentially traumatizing event were the suddenness and massiveness of the impact, and the fact that it involved young victims and/or multiple deaths. With regard to emotions, powerlessness, horror, fear, a sense of apocalypse, and grief were experienced by both firefighters and EMS personnel. Firefighters noted that the death of colleagues, the involvement of friends and family, the massive impact, and exposure to the burned victims were most shocking. Emergency Medical Services personnel and in-hospital staff reported the impact, the confrontation with death, the involvement of friends and family, and the pain, suffering, and screaming of burned victims as the most shocking aspects of this event. Qualitative differences in the lived experiences of firefighters, EMS personnel, and in-hospital staff might be explained by differences in life threat, contact with death, and various degrees of training. PMID:22587814

  5. Emergence of forensic podiatry--A novel sub-discipline of forensic sciences.

    PubMed

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; DiMaggio, John A

    2015-10-01

    "Forensic podiatry is defined as the application of sound and researched podiatric knowledge and experience in forensic investigations; to show the association of an individual with a scene of crime, or to answer any other legal question concerned with the foot or footwear that requires knowledge of the functioning foot". Forensic podiatrists can contribute to forensic identification by associating the pedal evidence with the criminal or crime scene. The most common pedal evidence collected from the crime scene is in the form of footprints, shoeprints and their tracks and trails. Forensic podiatrists can establish identity of the individuals from the footprints in many ways. The analysis of bare footprints involves the identification based on the individualistic features like flat footedness, ridges, humps, creases, an extra toe, missing toe, corns, cuts, cracks, pits, deformities, and various features of the toe and heel region. All these individualistic features can link the criminal with the crime. In addition to these, parameters of body size like stature and body weight as well as sex can also be estimated by using anthropometric methods. If a series of footprints are recovered from the crime scene, then parameters of the gait analysis such as stride/step length and general movement of the criminal can be traced. Apart from these, a newly established biometric parameter of the footprints i.e. footprint ridge density can also be evaluated for personal identification. Careful analysis of the footprint ridge density can give an idea about the sex of the criminal whose footprints are recovered at the scene which can further help to reduce the burden of the investigating officer as the investigations then may be directed toward either a male suspect or a female suspect accordingly. This paper highlights various aspects of Forensic Podiatry and discusses the different methods of personal identification related to pedal evidence. PMID:26163192

  6. Analysis of XXI Century Disasters in the National Geophysical Data Center Historical Natural Hazard Event Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, P. K.; McCullough, H. L.

    2011-12-01

    The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) maintains a global historical event database of tsunamis, significant earthquakes, and significant volcanic eruptions. The database includes all tsunami events, regardless of intensity, as well as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions that caused fatalities, moderate damage, or generated a tsunami. Event date, time, location, magnitude of the phenomenon, and socio-economic information are included in the database. Analysis of the NGDC event database reveals that the 21st century began with earthquakes in Gujarat, India (magnitude 7.7, 2001) and Bam, Iran (magnitude 6.6, 2003) that killed over 20,000 and 31,000 people, respectively. These numbers were dwarfed by the numbers of earthquake deaths in Pakistan (magnitude 7.6, 2005-86,000 deaths), Wenchuan, China (magnitude 7.9, 2008-87,652 deaths), and Haiti (magnitude 7.0, 2010-222,000 deaths). The Haiti event also ranks among the top ten most fatal earthquakes. The 21st century has observed the most fatal tsunami in recorded history-the 2004 magnitude 9.1 Sumatra earthquake and tsunami that caused over 227,000 deaths and 10 billion damage in 14 countries. Six years later, the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami, although not the most fatal (15,000 deaths and 5,000 missing), could cost Japan's government in excess of 300 billion-the most expensive tsunami in history. Volcanic eruptions can cause disruptions and economic impact to the airline industry, but due to their remote locations, fatalities and direct economic effects are uncommon. Despite this fact, the second most expensive eruption in recorded history occurred in the 21st century-the 2010 Merapi, Indonesia volcanic eruption that resulted in 324 deaths, 427 injuries, and $600 million in damage. NGDC integrates all natural hazard event datasets into one search interface. Users can find fatal tsunamis generated by earthquakes or volcanic eruptions. The user can then link to information about the related runup observations (e.g. maximum wave height) and the source earthquake or volcano. If available, damage photographs and plots of water level data can also be viewed. The data are accessible online via tables, reports, and a new state-of-the-art interactive map viewer. These data and access capabilities help coastal communities assess their risks, identify hazards, and promote public awareness of tsunamis and earthquakes.

  7. A longitudinal study of emerging networks during natural disaster

    E-print Network

    Abbasi, Alireza; Kapucu, Naim

    2015-01-01

    We present longitudinal analysis of the evolution of inter-organizational disaster coordination networks during natural disasters. We suggest that social networks are a useful paradigm for exploring this complex phenomenon from both theoretical and methodological perspective aiming to develop a quantitative assessment framework which could aid in developing a better understanding of the optimal functioning of these emerging inter-organizational networks during natural disasters. We highlight the importance of network metrics in order to investigate disaster response coordination networks. Results suggest that in disasters, rate of communication increases and creates the conditions where organizational structures need to move at that same pace to exchange new information.

  8. Forensic analysis of a single particle of partially burnt gunpowder by solid phase micro-extraction-gas chromatography-nitrogen phosphorus detector.

    PubMed

    Burleson, Garrett Lee; Gonzalez, Brittney; Simons, Kelsie; Yu, Jorn C C

    2009-05-29

    Solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) was adopted to extract organic gun shot residues (OGSRs) from a single particle of partially burnt gunpowder. The partially burnt particle samples were collected from gun shot residue (GSR) deposited near the target areas. OGSRs, such as diphenylamine (DPA), methyl centralite (MC), ethyl centralite (EC), from only one single particle of partially burnt gunpowder were successfully extracted by SPME and analyzed by a gas chromatography coupled to a nitrogen phosphorus detector (GC-NPD). The results confirmed that the new extraction procedure is capable of extracting trace amount of MC and EC as signature molecules for the identification of GSR. The method represents a solvent-free extraction as a complementary analytical procedure for the forensic analysis of GSR-related evidences. The new extraction scheme with the capability of analyzing single particle of partially burnt gunpowder can also be applied to the identification of explosive residues, such as in post-blast investigations of improvised explosive devices. PMID:19375082

  9. State-of-the-Art Forensic DNA

    E-print Network

    Marine Laboratory #12;National Academies Report on Forensic Science · Released February 18, 2009 · Entitled "Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward" · 13 recommendations provided to Congress · Recommends establishing a National Institute of Forensic Science (NIFS) · NIST

  10. Automated Forensic Animal Family Identification by Nested PCR and Melt Curve Analysis on an Off-the-Shelf Thermocycler Augmented with a Centrifugal Microfluidic Disk Segment.

    PubMed

    Keller, Mark; Naue, Jana; Zengerle, Roland; von Stetten, Felix; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Nested PCR remains a labor-intensive and error-prone biomolecular analysis. Laboratory workflow automation by precise control of minute liquid volumes in centrifugal microfluidic Lab-on-a-Chip systems holds great potential for such applications. However, the majority of these systems require costly custom-made processing devices. Our idea is to augment a standard laboratory device, here a centrifugal real-time PCR thermocycler, with inbuilt liquid handling capabilities for automation. We have developed a microfluidic disk segment enabling an automated nested real-time PCR assay for identification of common European animal groups adapted to forensic standards. For the first time we utilize a novel combination of fluidic elements, including pre-storage of reagents, to automate the assay at constant rotational frequency of an off-the-shelf thermocycler. It provides a universal duplex pre-amplification of short fragments of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA and cytochrome b genes, animal-group-specific main-amplifications, and melting curve analysis for differentiation. The system was characterized with respect to assay sensitivity, specificity, risk of cross-contamination, and detection of minor components in mixtures. 92.2% of the performed tests were recognized as fluidically failure-free sample handling and used for evaluation. Altogether, augmentation of the standard real-time thermocycler with a self-contained centrifugal microfluidic disk segment resulted in an accelerated and automated analysis reducing hands-on time, and circumventing the risk of contamination associated with regular nested PCR protocols. PMID:26147196

  11. Automated Forensic Animal Family Identification by Nested PCR and Melt Curve Analysis on an Off-the-Shelf Thermocycler Augmented with a Centrifugal Microfluidic Disk Segment

    PubMed Central

    Zengerle, Roland; von Stetten, Felix; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Nested PCR remains a labor-intensive and error-prone biomolecular analysis. Laboratory workflow automation by precise control of minute liquid volumes in centrifugal microfluidic Lab-on-a-Chip systems holds great potential for such applications. However, the majority of these systems require costly custom-made processing devices. Our idea is to augment a standard laboratory device, here a centrifugal real-time PCR thermocycler, with inbuilt liquid handling capabilities for automation. We have developed a microfluidic disk segment enabling an automated nested real-time PCR assay for identification of common European animal groups adapted to forensic standards. For the first time we utilize a novel combination of fluidic elements, including pre-storage of reagents, to automate the assay at constant rotational frequency of an off-the-shelf thermocycler. It provides a universal duplex pre-amplification of short fragments of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA and cytochrome b genes, animal-group-specific main-amplifications, and melting curve analysis for differentiation. The system was characterized with respect to assay sensitivity, specificity, risk of cross-contamination, and detection of minor components in mixtures. 92.2% of the performed tests were recognized as fluidically failure-free sample handling and used for evaluation. Altogether, augmentation of the standard real-time thermocycler with a self-contained centrifugal microfluidic disk segment resulted in an accelerated and automated analysis reducing hands-on time, and circumventing the risk of contamination associated with regular nested PCR protocols. PMID:26147196

  12. Awareness of Forensic Odontology among Legal Professionals, Chennai, India

    PubMed Central

    Selvajothi, Packiaraj; Lavanya, Chandra; Joshua, Elizabeth; Rao, Umadevi K.; Ranganathan, Kannan

    2014-01-01

    Background: The forensic discipline of law is a multidisciplinary team comprising of specialists in forensic medicine, forensic odontology, security and law. Aim: The study was to find the awareness level of scope and utility of forensic odontology among lawyers in Chennai, South India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study using a self administered structured questionnaire was conducted in 200 lawyers between August and September of 2013. The data was analyzed depending on age, gender, type and years of practice. Results: Lawyers above 40 years of experience were more aware of palatal rugae analysis (P = 0.02), and those with more than 20 years were aware of lip print (P = 0.001) and bite mark analysis (P = 0.001). Males were more aware of forensic odontology with respect to criminal identification (P = 0.001). The knowledge of bite mark analysis was higher among male lawyers (P = 0.001), civil and criminal practicing lawyers (P = 0.004). All participants were aware that loss or fracture of tooth constitutes a grievous injury under Indian Penal Code (IPC) 320 clause 7(5). Conclusion: This study highlighted the knowledge of forensic odontology among legal professionals and also identified the areas in which they need further appraisal. PMID:25535602

  13. The Role of Self-Forensics in Vehicle Crash Investigations and Event Reconstruction

    E-print Network

    Mokhov, Serguei A

    2009-01-01

    This paper further introduces and formalizes a novel concept of self-forensics for automotive vehicles, specified in the Forensic Lucid language. We argue that self-forensics, with the forensics taken out of the cybercrime domain, is applicable to "self-dissection" of intelligent vehicles and hardware systems for automated incident and anomaly analysis and event reconstruction by the software with or without the aid of the engineering teams in a variety of forensic scenarios. We propose a formal design, requirements, and specification of the self-forensic enabled units (similar to blackboxes) in vehicles that will help investigation of incidents and also automated reasoning and verification of theories along with the events reconstruction in a formal model. We argue such an analysis is beneficial to improve the safety of the passengers and their vehicles, like the airline industry does for planes.

  14. Towards Proactive Forensic Evidentiary Collection Clay Shields

    E-print Network

    Shields, Clay

    Towards Proactive Forensic Evidentiary Collection Clay Shields Department of Computer Science Georgetown University Washington, D.C., 20057 clay@cs.georgetown.edu Abstract Forensic investigations have

  15. Role of forensic odontologist in post mortem person identification

    PubMed Central

    Pramod, Jahagirdar B.; Marya, Anand; Sharma, Vidhii

    2012-01-01

    The natural teeth are the most durable organs in the bodies of vertebrates, and humankind's understanding of their own past and evolution relies heavily upon remnant dental evidence found as fossils. The use of features unique to the human dentition as an aid to personal identification is widely accepted within the forensic field. Comparative dental identifications play a major role in identifying the victims of violence, disaster or other mass tragedies. The comparison of ante-mortem and postmortem dental records to determine human identity has long been established. Indeed, it is still a major identification method in criminal investigations, mass disasters, grossly decomposed or traumatized bodies, and in other situations where visual identification is neither possible nor desirable. This article has comprehensively described some of the methods, and additional factors aiding in postmortem person identification. PMID:23559914

  16. Modelling the elements of country vulnerability to earthquake disasters.

    PubMed

    Asef, M R

    2008-09-01

    Earthquakes have probably been the most deadly form of natural disaster in the past century. Diversity of earthquake specifications in terms of magnitude, intensity and frequency at the semicontinental scale has initiated various kinds of disasters at a regional scale. Additionally, diverse characteristics of countries in terms of population size, disaster preparedness, economic strength and building construction development often causes an earthquake of a certain characteristic to have different impacts on the affected region. This research focuses on the appropriate criteria for identifying the severity of major earthquake disasters based on some key observed symptoms. Accordingly, the article presents a methodology for identification and relative quantification of severity of earthquake disasters. This has led to an earthquake disaster vulnerability model at the country scale. Data analysis based on this model suggested a quantitative, comparative and meaningful interpretation of the vulnerability of concerned countries, and successfully explained which countries are more vulnerable to major disasters. PMID:18958916

  17. Analysis of Ground-vibration induced by the sediment disaster on Izu Oshima, Tokyo in October 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahara, Teruyoshi; Kinoshita, Atsuhiko; Mizutani, Tasuku; Ishizuka, Tadanori; Ishida, Tetsuya; Kaihara, Soichi; Asahara, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    October 2013, at the Mariana Islands, typhoon Wipha occurred. Wipha attacked Izu Ohshima of Japan and brought heavy rain. Izu Ohshima is part of Tokyo Metropolitan prefecture. Ohshima rain-gauge station of Japan Meteorological Agency showed 118.5 mm per hour and 824.0mm per 24hours. This 24 hour rainfall was about 2.5 times higher than the average rainfall for October (329.0mm / 24hour). And then, a lot of shallow landslides and debris flow has occurred. Thirty six people were killed and four people were missing by these sediment disaster. It is important to clarify that "When and where did disaster occur?". A lot of seismographs for volcano observation are installed in Izu Ohshima. And then, it is known that when sediment moved, ground-vibration occurred. We estimated time and location of disaster by analyzing ground-vibration in sediment moving. First, we estimated that the disaster occurred from 2:00 a.m. to 3:00 a.m. of October 16 by some newspaper reports. Second, we collected data of installed seismographs in Izu Ohshima and analyzed. And then, we caught that some wave data existed. These were different from earthquake data. We estimated that these showed ground-vibration data in sediment moving. Finally, we estimated hypocenter (location of sediment moving) by relationship between "distance between hypocenter and seismograph" and amplitude. Methods are as follows. Making envelope on basis of collected seismograph data and calculating maximum amplitude (y) Calculating amplitude (x) on basis of some assumed hypocenters Setting hypocenter (location of sediment moving) by minimum residual of y and x Comparing of set hypocenter and actual location of sediment moving. We found that distance of set hypocenter and actual location of sediment moving is close. Therefore, when sediment disaster occurs, by analyzing seismographs data, it may be possible to estimate that the location and timing of sediment moving. And, it may be possible to use as tools for people to evacuate.

  18. The potential of using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma time of flight mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-TOF-MS) in the forensic analysis of micro debris.

    PubMed

    Scadding, Cameron J; Watling, R John; Thomas, Allen G

    2005-08-15

    The majority of crimes result in the generation of some form of physical evidence, which is available for collection by crime scene investigators or police. However, this debris is often limited in amount as modern criminals become more aware of its potential value to forensic scientists. The requirement to obtain robust evidence from increasingly smaller sized samples has required refinement and modification of old analytical techniques and the development of new ones. This paper describes a new method for the analysis of oxy-acetylene debris, left behind at a crime scene, and the establishment of its co-provenance with single particles of equivalent debris found on the clothing of persons of interest (POI). The ability to rapidly determine and match the elemental distribution patterns of debris collected from crime scenes to those recovered from persons of interest is essential in ensuring successful prosecution. Traditionally, relatively large amounts of sample (up to several milligrams) have been required to obtain a reliable elemental fingerprint of this type of material [R.J. Walting , B.F. Lynch, D. Herring, J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 12 (1997) 195]. However, this quantity of material is unlikely to be recovered from a POI. This paper describes the development and application of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma time of flight mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-TOF-MS), as an analytical protocol, which can be applied more appropriately to the analysis of micro-debris than conventional quadrupole based mass spectrometry. The resulting data, for debris as small as 70mum in diameter, was unambiguously matched between a single spherule recovered from a POI and a spherule recovered from the scene of crime, in an analytical procedure taking less than 5min. PMID:18970183

  19. Simultaneous analysis of 22 antiepileptic drugs in postmortem blood, serum and plasma using LC-MS-MS with a focus on their role in forensic cases.

    PubMed

    Deeb, Shaza; McKeown, Denise A; Torrance, Hazel J; Wylie, Fiona M; Logan, Barry K; Scott, Karen S

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, there has been a growth in reports of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) being misused on their own or in combination with other drugs of abuse in a variety of toxicological case types such as drug abuse, suicide, overdose and drug facilitated crime. To our knowledge, there are no simultaneous quantification methods for the analysis of the most commonly encountered AEDs in postmortem whole blood and clinical plasma/serum samples at the same time. A simple, accurate and cost-effective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS-MS) method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of carbamazepine (CBZ) and its metabolite CBZ-10,11-epoxide, eslicarbazepine acetate, oxcarbazepine and S-licarbazepine as a metabolite, gabapentin, lacosamide, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, pregabalin, phenobarbital, phenytoin and its metabolite 5-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-5-phenylhydantoin, retigabine (ezogabine) and its metabolite N-acetyl retigabine, rufinamide, stiripentol, topiramate, tiagabine, valproic acid, vigabatrin and zonisamide in postmortem whole blood, serum and plasma which would be suitable for routine forensic toxicological analysis and therapeutic drug monitoring. All AEDs were detected and quantified within 17 min without endogenous interferences. The correlation coefficient (R(2)) was >0.995 for all AEDs with accuracy ranging from 90 to 113% and precision <13% for all analytes. The recovery ranged from 70 to 98%. No carryover was observed in a blank control injected after the highest standard and the matrix effect was acceptable and ranged from 90 to 120%. The method has been successfully verified using authentic case samples that had previously been quantified using different methods. PMID:25217536

  20. Sentinel markers for industrial disasters.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, P V; Adler, J; Richter, E D

    1992-01-01

    Workers, managers, and occupational health and safety inspectors can be trained to detect or recognize and promote action to correct sentinel markers for industrial disasters. A sentinel marker is defined as a pre-disaster warning sign of impending failure in prevention. Administrative sentinel markers are: a weak occupational health and safety program; lack of spontaneous access to top management; failure to accept responsibility for subcontractors; the absence of written disaster plans and drills for emergency response in the factory and the adjacent community; noninvestigation of prodromal leaks, exposures, spills or injuries; punishment of "troublesome" individuals reporting such prodromal events; nonuse or misuse of data on illness, injury and absenteeism; and suboptimal work conditions and supervision of shift workers. Information sentinel markers include absence of worker and community right-to-know programs, nonuse of data on earlier mishaps from similar technologies, and failure to provide toxicologic data to hospitals in the pre-disaster phase. Technological sentinel markers are: absence of fail-safe controls, interlocks and automated alarm systems driven by real-time monitoring. Transportation sentinel markers include suboptimal vehicle standards, and drink, drugs and fatigue in drivers. Preventive programs based on identification of all sentinel markers by workers are suggested to be more effective than selective action based on risk assessment analysis. PMID:1428806

  1. These lives will not be lost in vain: organizational learning from disaster in US coal mining

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, P.M.

    2009-09-15

    The stated purpose of the investigations that invariably follow industrial, transportation, and mining disasters is to learn from those tragedies to prevent future tragedies. But does prior experience with disaster make organizations more capable of preventing future disasters? Do organizations learn from disasters experienced by other organizations? Do organizations learn differently from rare disasters than they do from common minor accidents? In its present state, the organizational safety literature is poorly equipped to answer these questions. The present work begins to address this gap by empirically examining how prior organizational experience with disaster affects the likelihood that organizations will experience future disasters. It approaches the issue in the context of fatal U.S. coal mining accidents from 1983 to 2006. The analysis demonstrates that organizations do learn to prevent future disasters through both direct and vicarious experience with disaster. It also indicates that the mechanisms through which organizations learn from disasters differ from those through which they learn from minor accidents.

  2. Visualizing disaster attitudes resulting from terrorist activities.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Halimahtun M; Helander, Martin G; Hood, Nilwan A

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze people's attitudes to disasters by investigating how people feel, behave and think during disasters. We focused on disasters induced by humans, such as terrorist attacks. Two types of textual information were collected - from Internet blogs and from research papers. The analysis enabled forecasting of attitudes for the design of proactive disaster advisory scheme. Text was analyzed using a text mining tool, Leximancer. The outcome of this analysis revealed core themes and concepts in the text concerning people's attitudes. The themes and concepts were sorted into three broad categories: Affect, Behaviour, and Cognition (ABC), and the data was visualized in semantic maps. The maps reveal several knowledge pathways of ABC for developing attitudinal ontologies, which describe the relations between affect, behaviour and cognition, and the sequence in which they develop. Clearly, terrorist attacks induced trauma and people became highly vulnerable. PMID:22944486

  3. Commentary: Coming Full Circle-Psychoanalysis, Psychodynamics, and Forensic Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Hegarty, Angela M

    2015-12-01

    Drs. Simopoulos and Cohen argue that knowledge of one's unconscious processes improves the forensic psychiatrist's capacity to manage complex forensic situations and to generate forensic formulations and opinions that are demonstrably more valid and reliable, much like competence in cultural assessment and formulation. In practice, the challenges posed by the application of these principles in forensic settings are far outweighed by the potential benefit. Forensic practice is informed by many specialties. Forensic psychiatrists do not have to complete full training in these disciplines to make use of the knowledge and perspectives they offer. The same may not be true of psychodynamic assessment and formulation. Although much can be learned from supervision, case seminars, conferences, and reading, such knowledge does little to foster awareness of one's unconscious processes that by definition operate outside awareness and thus contribute to the vitiating effect of bias. To date, the only method whereby psychiatrists can effectively come to appreciate their own unconscious processes in action is arguably through their own analysis conducted in the course of training in analysis or psychodynamic psychotherapy. PMID:26668220

  4. Validation of high throughput sequencing and microbial forensics applications.

    PubMed

    Budowle, Bruce; Connell, Nancy D; Bielecka-Oder, Anna; Colwell, Rita R; Corbett, Cindi R; Fletcher, Jacqueline; Forsman, Mats; Kadavy, Dana R; Markotic, Alemka; Morse, Stephen A; Murch, Randall S; Sajantila, Antti; Schmedes, Sarah E; Ternus, Krista L; Turner, Stephen D; Minot, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    High throughput sequencing (HTS) generates large amounts of high quality sequence data for microbial genomics. The value of HTS for microbial forensics is the speed at which evidence can be collected and the power to characterize microbial-related evidence to solve biocrimes and bioterrorist events. As HTS technologies continue to improve, they provide increasingly powerful sets of tools to support the entire field of microbial forensics. Accurate, credible results allow analysis and interpretation, significantly influencing the course and/or focus of an investigation, and can impact the response of the government to an attack having individual, political, economic or military consequences. Interpretation of the results of microbial forensic analyses relies on understanding the performance and limitations of HTS methods, including analytical processes, assays and data interpretation. The utility of HTS must be defined carefully within established operating conditions and tolerances. Validation is essential in the development and implementation of microbial forensics methods used for formulating investigative leads attribution. HTS strategies vary, requiring guiding principles for HTS system validation. Three initial aspects of HTS, irrespective of chemistry, instrumentation or software are: 1) sample preparation, 2) sequencing, and 3) data analysis. Criteria that should be considered for HTS validation for microbial forensics are presented here. Validation should be defined in terms of specific application and the criteria described here comprise a foundation for investigators to establish, validate and implement HTS as a tool in microbial forensics, enhancing public safety and national security. PMID:25101166

  5. Validation of high throughput sequencing and microbial forensics applications

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    High throughput sequencing (HTS) generates large amounts of high quality sequence data for microbial genomics. The value of HTS for microbial forensics is the speed at which evidence can be collected and the power to characterize microbial-related evidence to solve biocrimes and bioterrorist events. As HTS technologies continue to improve, they provide increasingly powerful sets of tools to support the entire field of microbial forensics. Accurate, credible results allow analysis and interpretation, significantly influencing the course and/or focus of an investigation, and can impact the response of the government to an attack having individual, political, economic or military consequences. Interpretation of the results of microbial forensic analyses relies on understanding the performance and limitations of HTS methods, including analytical processes, assays and data interpretation. The utility of HTS must be defined carefully within established operating conditions and tolerances. Validation is essential in the development and implementation of microbial forensics methods used for formulating investigative leads attribution. HTS strategies vary, requiring guiding principles for HTS system validation. Three initial aspects of HTS, irrespective of chemistry, instrumentation or software are: 1) sample preparation, 2) sequencing, and 3) data analysis. Criteria that should be considered for HTS validation for microbial forensics are presented here. Validation should be defined in terms of specific application and the criteria described here comprise a foundation for investigators to establish, validate and implement HTS as a tool in microbial forensics, enhancing public safety and national security. PMID:25101166

  6. Hurricane Katrina disaster diplomacy.

    PubMed

    Kelman, Ilan

    2007-09-01

    Hurricane Katrina struck the United States at the end of August 2005. The consequent devastation appeared to be beyond the US government's ability to cope with and aid was offered by several states in varying degrees of conflict with the US. Hurricane Katrina therefore became a potential case study for 'disaster diplomacy', which examines how disaster-related activities do and do not yield diplomatic gains. A review of past disaster diplomacy work is provided. The literature's case studies are then categorised using a new typology: propinquity, aid relationship, level and purpose. Hurricane Katrina and its aftermath are then placed in the context of the US government's foreign policy, the international response to the disaster and the US government's reaction to these responses. The evidence presented is used to discuss the potential implications of Hurricane Katrina disaster diplomacy, indicating that factors other than disaster-related activities generally dominate diplomatic relations and foreign policy. PMID:17714169

  7. International disaster research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverstein, Martin Elliot

    1991-01-01

    No existing telecommunications system can be expected to provide strategy and tactics appropriate to the complex, many faceted problem of disaster. Despite the exciting capabilities of space, communications, remote sensing, and the miracles of modern medicine, complete turnkey transfers to the disaster problem do not make the fit, and cannot be expected to do so. In 1980, a Presidential team assigned the mission of exploring disaster response within the U.S. Federal Government encountered an unanticipated obstacle: disaster was essentially undefined. In the absence of a scientifically based paradigm of disaster, there can be no measure of cost effectiveness, optimum design of manpower structure, or precise application of any technology. These problems spawned a 10-year, multidisciplinary study designed to define the origins, anatomy, and necessary management techniques for catastrophes. The design of the study necessarily reflects interests and expertise in disaster medicine, emergency medicine, telecommunications, computer communications, and forencsic sciences. This study is described.

  8. Key Aspects of Providing Healthcare Services in Disaster Response Stage

    PubMed Central

    POURHOSSEINI, Samira Sadat; ARDALAN, Ali; MEHROLHASSANI, Mohammad Hossien

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Health care management in disasters is one of the main parts of disaster management. Health in disasters is affected by performance of various sectors, and has an interactive impact on various aspects of disaster management. The aim of this study was to identify the most important themes affecting the healthcare management in disaster. Method In this qualitative study with a content analysis approach, in-depth interviews in two steps with 30 disaster experts and managers were conducted to collect the data. Results Eleven themes affecting healthcare management in disasters were identified. These themes were related to human resources management, resources management, victims’ management transfer, environmental hygiene monitoring, nutrition management, mental health control, inter-agency coordination, training, technology management, information and communication management, and budget management. Conclusion Providing effective health care service in disasters requires a comprehensive look at the various aspects of disaster management. Effective factors on the success of healthcare in disaster are not limited to the scope of healthcare. There should be a close relationship and interaction between different sectors of disaster management. PMID:26060782

  9. When is a natural disaster a development disaster; when is a natural disaster not a disaster?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutter, J. C.; Archibong, B.; Pi, D.

    2009-12-01

    Extremes of nature like hurricanes, droughts and earthquakes influence human welfare in a variety of ways. While it might seem counterintuitive, evidence from long run macro-economic data suggests that when natural extremes are especially destructive to human societies, and earn the title “natural disaster” they can actually have a beneficial effect on development. The process involved may be akin to the “The gale of creative destruction” first described by the economist Joseph Schumpeter. Applied to disasters the notion is that, in the short term, disasters can stimulate certain industries such as construction with capital flows coming into the disaster region from outside sources such as central government or international aid that can stimulate the economy. Longer term, outdated and inefficient public and private infrastructure destroyed in the disaster can be replaced by up to date, efficient systems that permit the economy to function more effectively, so that post-disaster growth can exceed pre-disaster levels. Disasters are macro-economic shocks, fundamentally similar to the banking shock that lead to the current global recession and, in the same way require external capital stimuli to overcome and that stimulus can result in stronger economies after recovery. These large-scale and long-run trends disguise the fact that disasters have very different development outcomes for different societies. Globally, there is evidence that poorer countries are not systematically stimulated by disaster shocks and may even be driven into poverty traps by certain disasters. Locally, the recovery from Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans has had been very different for different social groups, with both over-recovery and under-recovery occurring simultaneously and in close proximity. We discuss the conditions under which disasters might be a stimulating force and when they might lead to development setbacks.

  10. Leveraging public health nurses for disaster risk communication in Fukushima City: a qualitative analysis of nurses' written records of parenting counseling and peer discussions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Local public health nurses (PHNs) have been recognized as the main health service providers in communities in Japan. The Fukushima nuclear disaster in 2011 has, however, created a major challenge for them in responding to mothers’ concerns. This was in part due to difficulties in assessing, understanding and communicating health risks on low-dose radiation exposure. In order to guide the development of risk communication plans, this study sought to investigate mothers’ primary concerns and possible solutions perceived by a core healthcare profession like the PHNs. Methods A total of 150 records from parenting counseling sessions conducted between PHNs and mothers who have attended mandatory 18-month health checkups for their children at the Fukushima City Health and Welfare Center in 2010, 2011 (year of disaster) and 2012 were examined. Discussion notes of three peer discussions among PHNs organized in response to the nuclear disaster in 2012 and 2013 were also analyzed. All transcribed data were first subjected to text mining to list the words according to their frequencies and inter-relationships. The Steps Coding and Theorization method was then undertaken as a framework for qualitative analysis. Results PHNs noted mothers to have considerable needs for information on radiation risks as they impact on decisions related to relocations, concerns for child safety, and experiences with interpersonal conflicts within the family owing to differing risk perceptions. PHNs identified themselves as the information channels in the community, recommended the building of their risk communication capacities to support residents in making well-informed decisions, and advocated for self-measurement of radiation levels to increase residents’ sense of control. PHNs also suggested a more standardized form of information dissemination and an expansion of community-based counseling services. Conclusions Inadequate risk communication on radiation in the Fukushima nuclear incident has resulted in multiple repercussions for mothers in the community. Empowerment of local residents to assume more active roles in the understanding of their environment, increasing PHNs’ capacity in communication, and an expansion of health services such as counseling will together better address risk communication challenges in post-disaster recovery efforts. PMID:24642079

  11. Workforce management strategies in a disaster scenario.

    SciTech Connect

    Kelic, Andjelka; Turk, Adam L.

    2008-08-01

    A model of the repair operations of the voice telecommunications network is used to study labor management strategies under a disaster scenario where the workforce is overwhelmed. The model incorporates overtime and fatigue functions and optimizes the deployment of the workforce based on the cost of the recovery and the time it takes to recover. The analysis shows that the current practices employed in workforce management in a disaster scenario are not optimal and more strategic deployment of that workforce is beneficial.

  12. Disasters within hospitals.

    PubMed

    Aghababian, R; Lewis, C P; Gans, L; Curley, F J

    1994-04-01

    Hospital disaster planning should encompass events that affect the safety of the hospital environment and address those measures that ensure the availability of necessary services. Although most of the emphasis has been placed on general disaster planning, there is little written about disasters occurring within a hospital. In recent years, several incidents at our medical center involving fire, flood, and power failure resulted in a reevaluation of our preparedness to handle such situations. These experiences prompted this discussion and literature review of internal disaster plan because it is likely that at some time an internal emergency may occur. PMID:8161046

  13. Preparing for Disaster: Taking the Lead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colber, Judith

    2008-01-01

    In this article, Irwin Redlener, director of the National Center for Disaster Preparedness describes disasters in relation to five phases that may serve as a helpful framework for planning disaster response: (1) before the disaster (pre-disaster); (2) during the disaster (intra-disaster); (3) immediately after the disaster (immediate…

  14. DNA methylation and application in forensic sciences.

    PubMed

    Kader, Farzeen; Ghai, Meenu

    2015-04-01

    DNA methylation of cytosine residues is a stable epigenetic alteration, beginning as early as foetal development in the uterus and continuously evolving throughout life. DNA methylation as well as other epigenetic modifications such as chromatin remodelling and histone modifications are indispensable in mammalian development. Methylation is to a large extent influenced by the ageing process, diets and lifestyle choices. Our understanding of this crucial modification may even contribute to the treatment and prevention of age-related illnesses in the very near future. Genome-wide methylation analysis using high throughput DNA technologies has discovered numerous differentially methylated regions (tDMRs) which differ in levels of methylation in various cell types and tissues. TDMRs have been useful in various applications, particularly medicine and forensic sciences. Forensic scientists are constantly seeking exciting and novel methods to aid in the reconstruction of crime scenes, and the analysis of tDMRs represents a new and reliable technique to identify biological fluids and tissues found at the scene of a violent act. Not only has research been able to unequivocally identify various fluids and tissues, but methods to determine the sex, age and phenotype of donors has been developed. New tDMRs in genes are being searched for consistently to serve as novel markers in forensic DNA analysis. PMID:25732744

  15. Image processing in forensic pathology.

    PubMed

    Oliver, W R

    1998-03-01

    Image processing applications in forensic pathology are becoming increasingly important. This article introduces basic concepts in image processing as applied to problems in forensic pathology in a non-mathematical context. Discussions of contrast enhancement, digital encoding, compression, deblurring, and other topics are presented. PMID:9523070

  16. World of Forensic Laboratory Testing

    MedlinePLUS

    ... CAP), American Board of Forensic Toxicology, the National Forensic Science Technology Center (NSFTC), and American Society of Crime ... to ensure that it reflects the most current science. A review may not require any modifications to the article, so the two ... Compliance . Produced by

  17. National Center for Nuclear Security: The Nuclear Forensics Project (F2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Klingensmith, A. L.

    2012-03-21

    These presentation visuals introduce the National Center for Nuclear Security. Its chartered mission is to enhance the Nation’s verification and detection capabilities in support of nuclear arms control and nonproliferation through R&D activities at the NNSS. It has three focus areas: Treaty Verification Technologies, Nonproliferation Technologies, and Technical Nuclear Forensics. The objectives of nuclear forensics are to reduce uncertainty in the nuclear forensics process & improve the scientific defensibility of nuclear forensics conclusions when applied to nearsurface nuclear detonations. Research is in four key areas: Nuclear Physics, Debris collection and analysis, Prompt diagnostics, and Radiochemistry.

  18. Postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) and disaster victim identification.

    PubMed

    Brough, A L; Morgan, B; Rutty, G N

    2015-09-01

    Radiography has been used for identification since 1927, and established a role in mass fatality investigations in 1949. More recently, postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) has been used for disaster victim identification (DVI). PMCT offers several advantages compared with fluoroscopy, plain film and dental X-rays, including: speed, reducing the number of on-site personnel and imaging modalities required, making it potentially more efficient. However, there are limitations that inhibit the international adoption of PMCT into routine practice. One particular problem is that due to the fact that forensic radiology is a relatively new sub-speciality, there are no internationally established standards for image acquisition, image interpretation and archiving. This is reflected by the current INTERPOL DVI form, which does not contain a PMCT section. The DVI working group of the International Society of Forensic Radiology and Imaging supports the use of imaging in mass fatality response and has published positional statements in this area. This review will discuss forensic radiology, PMCT, and its role in disaster victim identification. PMID:26108152

  19. Trace Analytical Techniques for Nuclear Forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, J.E.

    1999-04-28

    Over the history of the Savannah River Site, the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) has developed high sensitivity analytical capabilities in support of the Site's Environmental Monitoring Program and nuclear material protection process. Many of these techniques are applicable to the developing need for nuclear forensic analysis capabilities. Radiological and critically control procedures are in place at the SRTC, as well as clean room practices, to minimize the potential for a radiological evidentiary sample to contaminate personnel and the facility, as well as to minimize contaminating the sample thus rendering it useless by law enforcement agencies. Some of the trace analytical techniques available at the SRTC include ultra-low-level gamma and alpha spectrometry, high-sensitivity thermal ionization mass spectrometry, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and trace organic analyses. These techniques have been tested during a planned domestic smuggling exercise and in the analysis of an unknown sample.In the event of an interdiction involving the illegal use or movement of radioactive material by U.S. law enforcement agencies (local, state or federal) forensic analyses will be used in developing and building a legal case against the perpetrators. The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site, a former nuclear production site currently conducting nuclear material stabilization missions, located in Aiken South Carolina, has a long history of performing trace analytical analyses for environmental monitoring. Many of these techniques are also applicable to nuclear forensic analyses. A summary of the trace analytical techniques used at the SRTC, which are applicable to Nuclear Forensics, is presented in this paper.Contamination control, of facilities and personnel involved in the analytical analyses, as well as preventing contamination of the sample, is a unique challenge for nuclear forensic analyses. A discussion of sample handling and contamination control procedures is included in this paper. Some of the applicable analytical techniques available at the SRTC for nuclear forensic analyses include: ultra-low-level gamma and alpha spectroscopy, high-sensitivity thermal-ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), and trace organic analyses. Results from analyses of special nuclear material (SNM) standards, materials from nuclear smuggling exercises, and materials of unknown origin will be presented.

  20. Model Action Plan for Nuclear Forensics and Nuclear Attribution

    SciTech Connect

    Dudder, G B; Niemeyer, S; Smith, D K; Kristo, M J

    2004-03-01

    Nuclear forensics and nuclear attribution have become increasingly important tools in the fight against illegal trafficking in nuclear and radiological materials. This technical report documents the field of nuclear forensics and nuclear attribution in a comprehensive manner, summarizing tools and procedures that have heretofore been described independently in the scientific literature. This report also provides national policy-makers, decision-makers, and technical managers with guidance for responding to incidents involving the interdiction of nuclear and radiological materials. However, due to the significant capital costs of the equipment and the specialized expertise of the personnel, work in the field of nuclear forensics has been restricted so far to a handful of national and international laboratories. In fact, there are a limited number of specialists who have experience working with interdicted nuclear materials and affiliated evidence. Most of the laboratories that have the requisite equipment, personnel, and experience to perform nuclear forensic analysis are participants in the Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group or ITWG (see Section 1.8). Consequently, there is a need to disseminate information on an appropriate response to incidents of nuclear smuggling, including a comprehensive approach to gathering evidence that meets appropriate legal standards and to developing insights into the source and routes of nuclear and radiological contraband. Appendix A presents a ''Menu of Options'' for other Member States to request assistance from the ITWG Nuclear Forensics Laboratories (INFL) on nuclear forensic cases.

  1. Impact of Genomics in Forensic DNA Testing

    E-print Network

    ;Presentation Outline · NIST background and role in forensic science · Brief history of forensic DNA · Methods) measurement calibration Margaret Kline #12;National Academies Report on Forensic Science · Released February 18, 2009 · Entitled "Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward" · 13

  2. National Commission on Forensic Science (NCFS)

    E-print Network

    National Commission on Forensic Science (NCFS) and Organization of Scientific Area Committees (OSAC to the Director for Forensic Science Vice-Chair, National Commission on Forensic Science 25th International Symposium on Human Identification Phoenix, AZ October 1, 2014 #12;Forensic Science Realignment · NAS report

  3. National Commission on Forensic Science (NCFS) and

    E-print Network

    National Commission on Forensic Science (NCFS) and Organization of Scientific Area Committees (OSAC to the Director for Forensic Science Vice-Chair, National Commission on Forensic Science NEAFS Plenary Session Hershey, PA November 5, 2014 #12;NCFS and OSAC: U.S. Efforts to Strengthen Forensic Science · National

  4. Forensic Science International: Genetics Journal Status Report

    E-print Network

    Forensic Science International: Genetics Journal Status Report John M. Butler Associate Editor ISFG.S. initiatives to strengthen forensic science & international standards in forensic DNA Titia Sijen Molecular Ogden & Linacre Wildlife forensic science: a review of genetic geographic origin assignment Maria Brión

  5. National Commission on Forensic Science (NCFS)

    E-print Network

    National Commission on Forensic Science (NCFS) and Organization of Scientific Area Committees (OSAC on Forensic Science #12;Forensic Science Realignment · NAS report ­ Feb 2009 · White House Subcommittee on Forensic Science (SoFS) ­ July 2009 to Dec 2012 · DOJ/NIST Partnership ­ NCFS (National Commission

  6. NISTIR 7516 Forensic Filtering of Cell

    E-print Network

    NISTIR 7516 Forensic Filtering of Cell Phone Protocols AurélienDelaitre WayneJansen #12;ii Forensic of Standards and Technology Interagency Report 42 pages (2008) iii #12;Abstract Phone managers are non-forensic managers are sometimes used by forensic investigators to recover data from a cell phone when no suitable

  7. COMPUTER FORENSICS IN THE CLASSROOM Chris Eagle

    E-print Network

    COMPUTER FORENSICS IN THE CLASSROOM Keynote Chris Eagle Naval Postgraduate School Digital forensics. The resulting demand for trained computer forensics analysts presents unique challenges to a computer science degree program. The computer forensics process is traditionally divided into five phases: preparation

  8. AUDIO FORENSICS FROM ACOUSTIC REVERBERATION Hafiz Malik

    E-print Network

    Bucci, David J.

    AUDIO FORENSICS FROM ACOUSTIC REVERBERATION Hafiz Malik Department of Electrical and Computer be used in a forensic and ballistic setting. Index Terms-- Audio Forensics 1. INTRODUCTION The past few years have seen significant advances in image forensics [1]. At the same time, techniques

  9. Forensics@NIST December 3, 2014

    E-print Network

    Forensics@NIST December 3, 2014 Katherine Butler Gettings, Ph.D. Applied Genetics Group, or equipment identified are necessarily the best available for the purpose. Forensic STR Sequence Diversity by sequence Forensic STR Sequence Diversity [GGAA]13 [GGAA]13 Forensic STR Sequence Diversity NIST Population

  10. Combination of Face Regions in Forensic Scenarios.

    PubMed

    Tome, Pedro; Fierrez, Julian; Vera-Rodriguez, Ruben; Ortega-Garcia, Javier

    2015-07-01

    This article presents an experimental analysis of the combination of different regions of the human face on various forensic scenarios to generate scientific knowledge useful for the forensic experts. Three scenarios of interest at different distances are considered comparing mugshot and CCTV face images using MORPH and SC face databases. One of the main findings is that inner facial regions combine better in mugshot and close CCTV scenarios and outer facial regions combine better in far CCTV scenarios. This means, that depending of the acquisition distance, the discriminative power of the facial regions change, having in some cases better performance than the full face. This effect can be exploited by considering the fusion of facial regions which results in a very significant improvement of the discriminative performance compared to just using the full face. PMID:26189995

  11. [Forensic aspects of gunshot suicides in Germany].

    PubMed

    Kunz, Sebastian Niko; Meyer, Harald J; Kraus, Sybille

    2013-12-01

    Suicidal gunshot wounds are a common appearance in forensic casework. The main task of the coroner lies in the detection of typical pathomorphological correlates, thus differentiating between homicide, suicide and accident. Apart from characteristic bloodstain patterns on the gun and shooting hand, the localisation of the entrance wound and the position of the weapon, additional details such as family background or medical history are important aspects of forensic investigation. An uncommon choice of weaponry and its unusual morphological manifestation often complicate the examination and reconstruction of such cases. Furthermore, due to social stigmatisation, the possibility of secondary changes by relatives at the crime scene should be considered. In addition to autopsy findings, a careful crime scene investigation and bloodstain pattern analysis, a ballistic reconstruction can be an essential tool to gain knowledge of the shooting distance and position of the gun. PMID:23857247

  12. Bio-forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Trewhella, J.

    2004-01-01

    Bioforensics presents significant technical challenges. Determining if an outbreak is natural or not, and then providing evidence to trace an outbreak to its origin is very complex. Los Alamos scientists pioneered research and development that has generated leading edge strain identification methods based on sequence data. Molecular characterization of environmental background samples enable development of highly specific pathogen signatures. Economic impacts of not knowing the relationships at the molecular level Many different kinds of data are needed for DNA-based bio-forensics.

  13. Bayesian Integrated Microbial Forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Jarman, Kristin H.; Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.; Wunschel, David S.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Cliff, John B.; Petersen, Catherine E.; Colburn, Heather A.; Wahl, Karen L.

    2008-06-01

    In the aftermath of the 2001 anthrax letters, researchers have been exploring ways to predict the production environment of unknown source microorganisms. Different mass spectral techniques are being developed to characterize components of a microbe’s culture medium including water, carbon and nitrogen sources, metal ions added, and the presence of agar. Individually, each technique has the potential to identify one or two ingredients in a culture medium recipe. However, by integrating data from multiple mass spectral techniques, a more complete characterization is possible. We present a Bayesian statistical approach to integrated microbial forensics and illustrate its application on spores grown in different culture media.

  14. Disabilities and disaster 

    E-print Network

    Stough, Laura

    2010-01-01

    stream_source_info Disabilities and disaster.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 3 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Disabilities and disaster.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  15. Preparing for disaster.

    PubMed

    Rohrbacher, Emmanuel

    2015-11-01

    NATURAL DISASTERS and armed conflicts affect the health of hundreds of millions of people around the world, not only directly through violence and trauma, but also through damage to social and economic infrastructures. Disaster preparedness, however, can help ensure that health systems and communities are better prepared to cope with emergencies. PMID:26542916

  16. [Application of DNA polymorphism to forensic medicine].

    PubMed

    Misawa, S

    1994-06-01

    Recent recombinant DNA technology has provided some novel and powerful methods for forensic science application. Human genomic DNA can be analyzed directly for individual identification and paternity testing on the basis of variations in its sequence. The analysis of DNA isolated from forensic biological evidence provides valuable information relating to the identification of the source of the sample. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) testing, using a combination of single locus probe (SLP) that vary highly among individuals, produces a DNA fingerprint or profile. The PCR method using STR (microsatellite) and mitochondrial DNA analysis (mtDNA) is suitable for examination of the forensic biological samples (bloodstains, hairs, seminal stains, bones, tooth). For sex identification of bloodstains, bleached skeletons and teeth, Southern blot hybridization with Y-chromosome specific probe (pHY10; 3.4 kb) and PCR amplifying with sex chromosome specific fragments, can be used. Mitochondrial DNA RFLPs and 9-bp deletion type of mtDNA may suggest the characteristics of the human races. For the purpose of resolving the genetic basis of human uniqueness, we reported the isolation of human-specific sequences using the technique of genome subtraction (HS5, 2282 bp). PMID:7914244

  17. Advances in forensic DNA quantification: a review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Steven B; McCord, Bruce; Buel, Eric

    2014-11-01

    This review focuses upon a critical step in forensic biology: detection and quantification of human DNA from biological samples. Determination of the quantity and quality of human DNA extracted from biological evidence is important for several reasons. Firstly, depending on the source and extraction method, the quality (purity and length), and quantity of the resultant DNA extract can vary greatly. This affects the downstream method as the quantity of input DNA and its relative length can determine which genotyping procedure to use-standard short-tandem repeat (STR) typing, mini-STR typing or mitochondrial DNA sequencing. Secondly, because it is important in forensic analysis to preserve as much of the evidence as possible for retesting, it is important to determine the total DNA amount available prior to utilizing any destructive analytical method. Lastly, results from initial quantitative and qualitative evaluations permit a more informed interpretation of downstream analytical results. Newer quantitative techniques involving real-time PCR can reveal the presence of degraded DNA and PCR inhibitors, that provide potential reasons for poor genotyping results and may indicate methods to use for downstream typing success. In general, the more information available, the easier it is to interpret and process the sample resulting in a higher likelihood of successful DNA typing. The history of the development of quantitative methods has involved two main goals-improving precision of the analysis and increasing the information content of the result. This review covers advances in forensic DNA quantification methods and recent developments in RNA quantification. PMID:25088961

  18. Epidemics after Natural Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Gayer, Michelle; Connolly, Maire A.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between natural disasters and communicable diseases is frequently misconstrued. The risk for outbreaks is often presumed to be very high in the chaos that follows natural disasters, a fear likely derived from a perceived association between dead bodies and epidemics. However, the risk factors for outbreaks after disasters are associated primarily with population displacement. The availability of safe water and sanitation facilities, the degree of crowding, the underlying health status of the population, and the availability of healthcare services all interact within the context of the local disease ecology to influence the risk for communicable diseases and death in the affected population. We outline the risk factors for outbreaks after a disaster, review the communicable diseases likely to be important, and establish priorities to address communicable diseases in disaster settings. PMID:17370508

  19. Large-Scale Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gad-El-Hak, Mohamed

    "Extreme" events - including climatic events, such as hurricanes, tornadoes, and drought - can cause massive disruption to society, including large death tolls and property damage in the billions of dollars. Events in recent years have shown the importance of being prepared and that countries need to work together to help alleviate the resulting pain and suffering. This volume presents a review of the broad research field of large-scale disasters. It establishes a common framework for predicting, controlling and managing both manmade and natural disasters. There is a particular focus on events caused by weather and climate change. Other topics include air pollution, tsunamis, disaster modeling, the use of remote sensing and the logistics of disaster management. It will appeal to scientists, engineers, first responders and health-care professionals, in addition to graduate students and researchers who have an interest in the prediction, prevention or mitigation of large-scale disasters.

  20. DNA Fingerprint Analysis of Three Short Tandem Repeat (STR) Loci for Biochemistry and Forensic Science Laboratory Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara-Schroeder, Kathleen; Olonan, Cheryl; Chu, Simon; Montoya, Maria C.; Alviri, Mahta; Ginty, Shannon; Love, John J.

    2006-01-01

    We have devised and implemented a DNA fingerprinting module for an upper division undergraduate laboratory based on the amplification and analysis of three of the 13 short tandem repeat loci that are required by the Federal Bureau of Investigation Combined DNA Index System (FBI CODIS) data base. Students first collect human epithelial (cheek)…

  1. Norms, Reliability, and Item Analysis of the Hopelessness Scale in General Psychiatric, Forensic Psychiatric, and College Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durham, Thomas W.

    1982-01-01

    Administered the Hopelessness Scale to criminal psychiatric inpatients, general psychiatric inpatients, and college students. Both psychiatric groups endorsed significantly more items in the hopeless direction. Found the scale more reliable with the psychiatric patients. Item analysis of the Hopelessness Scale suggests that three items were not…

  2. Raman spectroscopy and laser desorption mass spectrometry for minimal destructive forensic analysis of black and color inkjet printed documents.

    PubMed

    Heudt, Laetitia; Debois, Delphine; Zimmerman, Tyler A; Köhler, Laurent; Bano, Fouzia; Partouche, Franck; Duwez, Anne-Sophie; Gilbert, Bernard; De Pauw, Edwin

    2012-06-10

    Inkjet ink analysis is the best way to discriminate between printed documents, or even though more difficult, to connect an inkjet printed document with a brand or model of printers. Raman spectroscopy and laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS) have been demonstrated as powerful tools for dyes and pigments analysis, which are ink components. The aim of this work is to evaluate the aforementioned techniques for inkjet inks analysis in terms of discriminating power, information quality, and nondestructive capability. So, we investigated 10 different inkjet ink cartridges (primary colors and black), 7 from the HP manufacturer and one each from Epson, Canon and Lexmark. This paper demonstrates the capabilities of three methods: Raman spectroscopy, LDMS and MALDI-MS. Raman spectroscopy, as it is preferable to try the nondestructive approach first, is successfully adapted to the analysis of color printed documents in most cases. For analysis of color inkjet inks by LDMS, we show that a MALDI matrix (9-aminoacridine, 9AA) is needed to desorb and to ionize dyes from most inkjet inks (except Epson inks). Therefore, a method was developed to apply the 9AA MALDI matrix directly onto the piece of paper while avoiding analyte spreading. The obtained mass spectra are very discriminating and lead to information about ink additives and paper compositions. Discrimination of black inkjet printed documents is more difficult because of the common use of carbon black as the principal pigment. We show for the first time the possibility to discriminate between two black-printed documents coming from different, as well as from the same, manufacturers. Mass spectra recorded from black inks in positive ion mode LDMS detect polyethylene glycol polymers which have characteristic mass distributions and end groups. Moreover, software has been developed for rapid and objective comparison of the low mass range of these positive mode LDMS spectra which have characteristic unknown peaks. PMID:22225847

  3. In search of a footprint: an investigation about the potentiality of large datasets and territorial analysis in disaster and resilience research.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pregnolato, Marco; Petitta, Marcello; Schneiderbauer, Stefan; Pedoth, Lydia; Iasio, Christian; Kaveckis, Giedrius

    2014-05-01

    The present investigation aims to contribute to a better understanding if and how coarse scale data can prove useful in a study on resilience of communities towards natural hazards. Main goal of the work is the exploitation of large datasets in search for indicators and information valuable for resilience research; in particular, for marks in the statistical distribution of events as well as in the physical signs on a territory, to be possibly defined as disaster footprints. The approach developed required to start from theoretical considerations about some key concepts, such as footprint and resilience and the possible influence of different types of adverse events on a territory. In particular, the research focuses on statistical signals that can be identified within datasets, concerning the effects of hazardous events against the background of resilience, defined as the "ability of a system and its component parts to anticipate, absorb, accommodate, or recover" from a disaster. The hypothesis for this work was that a disaster footprint could be shown using land features and changes maps. The question linked to this hypothesis was: is there a possibility to recognize on the land a multi-dimensional footprint? Is it possible to do this using land cover/land use data? In order to answer these questions this work proposes a synthetic index, named for convenience Hazard-Territory Index, created to categorize classes of Land Use/Land Cover from the CORINE Land Cover maps, by the mean of different approaches, according to the type of hazard. Through the use and elaboration of CORINE Land Cover data this work investigates whether the land and its use (in a way the relationship between a territory and the community living on it) and its changes over time can reveal some information and results relevant for the analysis of resilience. The investigation, set up in order to analyse these "signs on a map", led to implicate the notion of footprint as a multi-dimensional concept, dealing with different temporal scales and dimensions of resilience and it proposes therefore a definition of disaster footprint, as a multi-parametrical and complex impact indicator (or rather an indicator family). The mutual influence between the land, the hazard and the system on the territory presents different aspects that we tried to synthesize into the same index, differently analyzed according to different dimensions of disaster footprint considered; namely: probability of occurrence, susceptibility to harm, long-term impacts and modifications. The index visualizes the information at national and supra-national scale on maps. Although presenting important theoretical limitations (mainly in the spatial and temporal resolution of the data and in the definition of proxies for physical parameters), the application of this methodology at a supra-national scale has proved useful in the attempt to define the domains of investigations for community resilience studies at a local scale.

  4. Analysis of flood disaster characteristics by using GIS: a case study at the Kujukuri Plain in Chiba Prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Yuka; Chen, Huali; Sawamukai, Marie; Tokunaga, Tomochika

    2014-05-01

    Subsidence has occurred at many areas in Japan. The Kujukuri Plain, Chiba Prefecture, Japan, is one of the heavy subsidence areas caused by ground deformation from paleo-earthquakes, plate tectonics and human-induced subsidence by groundwater use. The maximum value of accumulated subsidence is 106.8 cm at the Mobara City during the period from 1969 to 2011. The impact of land subsidence on surface environment has been concerned; one of its effects may include the increase of the risk of flood. In the Kujukuri area, flood disaster has occurred repeatedly in the past. In this study, we analyzed and compared the flood disaster of different period that occurred at 1 July 1970, 8 to 11 October 2004, and 16 October 2013 by using GIS to understand the temporal change of the flood characteristics of the region. Three periods were selected because 1970 is after huge land modification, 2004 is prior to the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake, and 2013 is after the earthquake of 2011. Data used are 1-meter resolution airborne laser scanning data, Landsat-data, and precipitation data. Local topographic depressions were represented from the difference between the raster images that filled the sinks from original raster image using 1-m DEM. Slope angles along the road were calculated by using road data of digital map 2500 (Geospatial information authority of Japan: GSI) and 1-m DEM. Land use maps were produced by Landsat-1 MSS (26 November 1972) and Landsat-5 TM (1 April 2004 and 5 April 2011) and aerial photograph. Impervious ratio distribution map was made by defining the impervious area where covered by asphalt such as roads and buildings. The results showed that the distribution of depressions was mostly unchanged from 1970 to 2004, however, changed slightly in 2013. This change could be affected by ground deformation after earthquake or small human activities such as surface improvement. Flood disaster area is recognized in the depth of depression of more than 20cm with the road gradient of ca. 1 % or less at Mobara City. In some areas, flooding is also occurred in the depressions of ca. 5 to 10 cm. Land use change, impervious area, and other data will be analyzed and compared with flood record map to investigate flood¬-prone area.

  5. B.S. Degree, Option in Forensic Chemistry Course number and title Autumn Credits Spring Credits

    E-print Network

    Chu, Xi

    and Molecular Biology 4 - SOCI 2011S Criminology 3 - ANTH 286N Survey of Forensic Science - 3 General EducationB.S. Degree, Option in Forensic Chemistry First Year Course number and title Autumn Credits Spring Instrument Analysis - 4 CHMY 360 Applied Physical Chemistry 3 STAT 451/457 Statistical Methods 4 SOCI 221

  6. J Forensic Sci, Mar. 2005, Vol. 50, No. 2 Paper ID JFS2004293

    E-print Network

    in forensic DNA typing. It is used with highly degraded samples or low-copy number materials such as might sequence analysis. KEYWORDS: forensic science, DNA typing, mtDNA, SSO probes, mitochondrial DNA coding.D.; Cassandra D. Calloway,3,4 M.S.; and John M. Butler,1 Ph.D. Mitochondrial DNA Typing Screens with Control

  7. Forensic Linguistics: The Linguistic Analyst and Expert Witness of Language Evidence in Criminal Trials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Sherilynn Nidever

    Forensic linguistics (FL) provides consultation to lawyers through the analysis of language evidence during the pre-trial investigation. Evidence commonly analyzed by linguists in criminal cases includes transcripts of police interviews and language crimes (such as bribery) and anonymous or questioned texts. Forensic linguistic testimony is rarely…

  8. Analysis of lead isotopic ratios of glass objects with the aim of comparing them for forensic purposes.

    PubMed

    Martyna, Agnieszka; Sjastad, Knut-Endre; Zadora, Grzegorz; Ramos, Daniel

    2013-02-15

    This paper presents the possibilities of applying the likelihood ratio (LR) approach for the comparison problem to the data collected as a result of the Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) analysis targeted at lead (Pb)-isotope ratios. The assessment of the applied LR models performance was conducted by an Empirical Cross Entropy (ECE) approach. 35 glass samples were subjected to IRMS analysis and were described by Pb-isotope ratios: (208)Pb/(204)Pb, (207)Pb/(204)Pb, (206)Pb/(204)Pb, (208)Pb/(206)Pb, and (207)Pb/(206)Pb. Univariate and bivariate LR computations were performed, assuming normally distributed data subjected or not to a logarithmic transformation. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was employed for creating orthogonal variables to propose an alternative LR model. It was found that the application of variable (208)Pb/(204)Pb seems to be promising as it delivers one of the lowest percentages of false positive and false negative rates as well as being the only variable for which an ECE plot gave satisfactory results. PMID:23598003

  9. Twitter as a Potential Disaster Risk Reduction Tool. Part II: Descriptive Analysis of Identified Twitter Activity during the 2013 Hattiesburg F4 Tornado

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Guy Paul; Yeager, Violet; Burkle, Frederick M.; Subbarao, Italo

    2015-01-01

    Background: This article describes a novel triangulation methodological approach for identifying twitter activity of regional active twitter users during the 2013 Hattiesburg EF-4 Tornado. Methodology: A data extraction and geographically centered filtration approach was utilized to generate Twitter data for 48 hrs pre- and post-Tornado. The data was further validated using six sigma approach utilizing GPS data. Results: The regional analysis revealed a total of 81,441 tweets, 10,646 Twitter users, 27,309 retweets and 2637 tweets with GPS coordinates. Conclusions: Twitter tweet activity increased 5 fold during the response to the Hattiesburg Tornado.  Retweeting activity increased 2.2 fold. Tweets with a hashtag increased 1.4 fold. Twitter was an effective disaster risk reduction tool for the Hattiesburg EF-4 Tornado 2013.  PMID:26203396

  10. Guidelines for the identification of unknown samples for laboratories performing forensic analyses for chemical terrorism.

    PubMed

    Magnuson, Matthew L; Satzger, R Duane; Alcaraz, Armando; Brewer, Jason; Fetterolf, Dean; Harper, Martin; Hrynchuk, Ronald; McNally, Mary F; Montgomery, Madeline; Nottingham, Eric; Peterson, James; Rickenbach, Michael; Seidel, Jimmy L; Wolnik, Karen

    2012-05-01

    Since the early 1990s, the FBI Laboratory has sponsored Scientific Working Groups to improve discipline practices and build consensus among the forensic community. The Scientific Working Group on the Forensic Analysis of Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Terrorism developed guidance, contained in this document, on issues forensic laboratories encounter when accepting and analyzing unknown samples associated with chemical terrorism, including laboratory capabilities and analytical testing plans. In the context of forensic analysis of chemical terrorism, this guidance defines an unknown sample and addresses what constitutes definitive and tentative identification. Laboratory safety, reporting issues, and postreporting considerations are also discussed. Utilization of these guidelines, as part of planning for forensic analysis related to a chemical terrorism incident, may help avoid unfortunate consequences not only to the public but also to the laboratory personnel. PMID:22211294

  11. Nuclear Forensics: A Holistic Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Luksic, Andrzej T.; Friese, Judah I.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Starner, Jason R.; Wacker, John F.

    2010-08-11

    Discussions of nuclear forensics are often restricted to work performed by radio-chemists measuring nuclear material attributes in the laboratory. However, this represents only one portion of the work required to answer critical questions. Laboratory analysis results in measurements that need to be evaluated. The results of those evaluations must be put into their proper context in order for them to be useful to others and often require merging those results with additional information. This may contribute to attribution, by virtue of inclusion or exclusion. Finally, the end product must be presented such that appropriate actions can be taken. This could include prosecution by law enforcement, policy initiatives on the part of legislative bodies, or military action in the case of nuclear attack (whether that attack is preempted or not). Using the discovery of a sample of plutonium during cleanup activities at Hanford in 2004, we will step through the process of discovery (representing an interdiction), initial field analysis, laboratory analysis, data evaluation and merging with additional data (similar to law enforcement and/or all source), thereby providing an example of an integrated approach.

  12. First contribution of mites (Acari) to the forensic analysis of hanged corpses: a case study from Spain.

    PubMed

    Saloña-Bordas, Marta I; Perotti, M Alejandra

    2014-11-01

    This case study from North Spain, highlights the importance of the collection of mites in addition to insects, from crime scenes or corpses subjected to environmental constraints that reduce or minimise insect activity, such as hanged corpses. In addition, this analysis highlights the relevance of arthropods' collection in the field, even after the corpse has been moved away for autopsy. Four species of mites, phoretic on carrion (Silphidae) and rove (Staphylinidae) beetles, complemented and reinforced the autopsy analysis as well as the scarce information provided by insect activity. Poecilochirus carabi Canestrini & Canestrini, 1882 and Poecilochirus (Physoparasitus) davydovae Hyatt, 1980 (Mesostigmata: Parasitidae) were found in association with two Silphidae, Nicrophorus Fabricius, 1775 and Necrodes Leach, 1815, only when sampled in the autopsy room; this is suggestive of host-switching of mites and was likely due to the lack of availability of specific carriers in the field. The interpretation of the activity of Parasitidae mites both in the field and the autopsy room allows a better understanding of the timing and circumstances of decomposition. Phoretic deutonymphs of Pelzneria Scheucher 1957 (Astigmata: Histiostomatidae) were highly abundant, mostly P. crenulata Oudemans, 1909 and are reported for the first time on a Staphylinidae rove beetle, Creophilus maxillosus (L., 1758). Surprisingly, in this case study no Pelzneria were associated with the Silphidae found, which are their most common hosts, such as Necrodes littoralis (L., 1758) and Nicrophorus interruptus (Stephens, 1830). All histiostomatids were removed from the staphylinid (rove beetle) collected from the soil, at the scene of death, suggesting a recent arrival of the beetle. The occurrence of Staphylinidae beetles and their associated mites, such as Parasitidae and Pelzneria, and the information they provided would have been easily overlooked or lost if only the autopsy sampling would have been considered in the analysis of the case. The four mite species are reported for the first time for the Iberian Peninsula. PMID:25193143

  13. Preparation of a Ytterbium-tagged Gunshot Residue Standard for Quality Control in the Forensic Analysis of GSR.

    PubMed

    Hearns, Nigel G R; Laflèche, Denis N; Sandercock, Mark L

    2015-05-01

    Preparation of a ytterbium-tagged gunshot residue (GSR) reference standard for scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic (SEM-EDS) microanalysis is reported. Two different chemical markers, ytterbium and neodymium, were evaluated by spiking the primers of 38 Special ammunition cartridges (no propellant, no projectile) and discharging them onto 12.7 mm diameter aluminum SEM pin stubs. Following SEM-EDS microanalysis, the majority of tri-component particles containing lead, barium, and antimony (PbBaSb) were successfully tagged with the chemical marker. Results demonstrate a primer spiked with 0.75% weight percent of ytterbium nitrate affords PbBaSb particles characteristic of GSR with a ytterbium inclusion efficiency of between 77% and 100%. Reproducibility of the method was verified, and durability of the ytterbium-tagged tri-component particles under repeated SEM-EDS analysis was also tested. The ytterbium-tagged PbBaSb particles impart synthetic traceability to a GSR reference standard and are suitable for analysis alongside case work samples, as a positive control for quality assurance purposes. PMID:25678346

  14. Forensic Science Education and Educational Requirements for Forensic Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaensslen, Robert E.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on criminalistics, which can be understood to mean the activities and specialty areas characteristic of most municipal, county, or state forensic science laboratories in the United States. (DDR)

  15. Recommended Practice: Creating Cyber Forensics Plans for Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Eric Cornelius; Mark Fabro

    2008-08-01

    Cyber forensics has been in the popular mainstream for some time, and has matured into an information-technology capability that is very common among modern information security programs. The goal of cyber forensics is to support the elements of troubleshooting, monitoring, recovery, and the protection of sensitive data. Moreover, in the event of a crime being committed, cyber forensics is also the approach to collecting, analyzing, and archiving data as evidence in a court of law. Although scalable to many information technology domains, especially modern corporate architectures, cyber forensics can be challenging when being applied to non-traditional environments, which are not comprised of current information technologies or are designed with technologies that do not provide adequate data storage or audit capabilities. In addition, further complexity is introduced if the environments are designed using proprietary solutions and protocols, thus limiting the ease of which modern forensic methods can be utilized. The legacy nature and somewhat diverse or disparate component aspects of control systems environments can often prohibit the smooth translation of modern forensics analysis into the control systems domain. Compounded by a wide variety of proprietary technologies and protocols, as well as critical system technologies with no capability to store significant amounts of event information, the task of creating a ubiquitous and unified strategy for technical cyber forensics on a control systems device or computing resource is far from trivial. To date, no direction regarding cyber forensics as it relates to control systems has been produced other than what might be privately available from commercial vendors. Current materials have been designed to support event recreation (event-based), and although important, these requirements do not always satisfy the needs associated with incident response or forensics that are driven by cyber incidents. To address these issues and to accommodate for the diversity in both system and architecture types, a framework based in recommended practices to address forensics in the control systems domain is required. This framework must be fully flexible to allow for deployment into any control systems environment regardless of technologies used. Moreover, the framework and practices must provide for direction on the integration of modern network security technologies with traditionally closed systems, the result being a true defense-in-depth strategy for control systems architectures. This document takes the traditional concepts of cyber forensics and forensics engineering and provides direction regarding augmentation for control systems operational environments. The goal is to provide guidance to the reader with specifics relating to the complexity of cyber forensics for control systems, guidance to allow organizations to create a self-sustaining cyber forensics program, and guidance to support the maintenance and evolution of such programs. As the current control systems cyber security community of interest is without any specific direction on how to proceed with forensics in control systems environments, this information product is intended to be a first step.

  16. Mental health consequences of disasters.

    PubMed

    Goldmann, Emily; Galea, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    We present in this review the current state of disaster mental health research. In particular, we provide an overview of research on the presentation, burden, correlates, and treatment of mental disorders following disasters. We also describe challenges to studying the mental health consequences of disasters and discuss the limitations in current methodologies. Finally, we offer directions for future disaster mental health research. PMID:24159920

  17. Supportive housing and forensic patient outcomes.

    PubMed

    Salem, Leila; Crocker, Anne G; Charette, Yanick; Seto, Michael C; Nicholls, Tonia L; Côté, Gilles

    2015-06-01

    In Canada, Review Boards are mandated to evaluate individuals found Not Criminally Responsible on Account of Mental Disorder (NCRMD) on an annual basis and render 1 of 3 dispositions: (a) custody, (b) conditional discharge, or (c) absolute discharge. To promote social reintegration, conditional discharge can be ordered with the condition to live in supportive housing. However, NCRMD accused face great barriers to housing access as a result of the stigma associated with the forensic label. The goal of this study was to evaluate the role of housing in the clinical and criminal trajectories of forensic patients as they reintegrate into the community. Data for this study were extracted from a national study of individuals found NCRMD in Canada (Crocker, Nicholls, Seto, Côté, et al., in press). The present study focuses on a random sample of NCRMD accused in the province of Québec, who were under a conditional discharge disposition during the study period (n = 837). Controlling for sociodemographic, clinical, and criminal variables, survival analysis showed that individuals placed in independent housing following a conditional discharge from the Review Board were 2.5 times more likely to commit a new offense, nearly 3 times more likely to commit an offense against a person, and 1.4 times more likely to be readmitted for psychiatric treatment compared with individuals residing in supportive housing. These results point to the influence housing can have on the trajectories of forensic patients, above and beyond a range of clinical, criminological, and sociodemographic factors. PMID:25365472

  18. Rehydration of forensically important larval Diptera specimens.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Michelle R; Pechal, Jennifer L; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2011-01-01

    Established procedures for collecting and preserving evidence are essential for all forensic disciplines to be accepted in court and by the forensic community at large. Entomological evidence, such as Diptera larvae, are primarily preserved in ethanol, which can evaporate over time, resulting in the dehydration of specimens. In this study, methods used for rehydrating specimens were compared. The changes in larval specimens with respect to larval length and weight for three forensically important blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species in North America were quantified. Phormia regina (Meigen), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) third-instar larvae were collected from various decomposing animals and preserved with three preservation methods (80% ethanol, 70% isopropyl alcohol, and hot-water kill then 80% ethanol). Preservative solutions were allowed to evaporate. Rehydration was attempted with either of the following: 80% ethanol, commercial trisodium phosphate substitute solution, or 0.5% trisodium phosphate solution. All three methods partially restored weight and length of specimens recorded before preservation. Analysis of variance results indicated that effects of preservation, rehydration treatment, and collection animal were different in each species. The interaction between preservative method and rehydration treatment had a significant effect on both P. regina and C. macellaria larval length and weight. In addition, there was a significant interaction effect of collection animal on larval C. macellaria measurements. No significant effect was observed in C. rufifacies larval length or weight among the preservatives or treatments. These methods could be used to establish a standard operating procedure for dealing with dehydrated larval specimens in forensic investigations. PMID:21337957

  19. Advancing the science of forensic data management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naughton, Timothy S.

    2002-07-01

    Many individual elements comprise a typical forensics process. Collecting evidence, analyzing it, and using results to draw conclusions are all mutually distinct endeavors. Different physical locations and personnel are involved, juxtaposed against an acute need for security and data integrity. Using digital technologies and the Internet's ubiquity, these diverse elements can be conjoined using digital data as the common element. This result is a new data management process that can be applied to serve all elements of the community. The first step is recognition of a forensics lifecycle. Evidence gathering, analysis, storage, and use in legal proceedings are actually just distinct parts of a single end-to-end process, and thus, it is hypothesized that a single data system that can also accommodate each constituent phase using common network and security protocols. This paper introduces the idea of web-based Central Data Repository. Its cornerstone is anywhere, anytime Internet upload, viewing, and report distribution. Archives exist indefinitely after being created, and high-strength security and encryption protect data and ensure subsequent case file additions do not violate chain-of-custody or other handling provisions. Several legal precedents have been established for using digital information in courts of law, and in fact, effective prosecution of cyber crimes absolutely relies on its use. An example is a US Department of Agriculture division's use of digital images to back up its inspection process, with pictures and information retained on secure servers to enforce the Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act. Forensics is a cumulative process. Secure, web-based data management solutions, such as the Central Data Repository postulated here, can support each process step. Logically marrying digital technologies with Internet accessibility should help nurture a thought process to explore alternatives that make forensics data accessible to authorized individuals, whenever and wherever they need it.

  20. Evaluating the impacts of stressors of Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato on the effectiveness of multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis and multi-locus sequence typing in microbial forensic investigations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Crops in the USA are vulnerable to natural and criminal threats because of their widespread cultivation and lack of surveillance, and because of implementation of growing practices such as monoculture. To prepare for investigation and attribution of such events, forensic assays, including determination of molecular profiles, are being adapted for use with plant pathogens. The use of multi-locus variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) in investigations involving plant pathogens may be problematic because the long lag periods between pathogen introduction and discovery of associated disease may provide enough time for evolution to occur in the regions of the genome employed in each assay. Thus, more information on the stability of the loci employed in these methods is needed. Results The MLVA fingerprints and MLST profiles were consistent throughout the experiment, indicating that, using a specific set of primers and conditions, MLVA and MLST typing systems reliably identify P.s. tomato DC3000. This information is essential to forensic investigators in interpreting comparisons between MLVA and MLST typing profiles observed in P.s. tomato isolates. Conclusions Our results indicate that MLVA and MLST typing systems, utilizing the specified primers and conditions, could be employed successfully in forensics investigations involving P.s. tomato. Similar experiments should be conducted in the field and with other high-consequence plant pathogens to ensure that the assays are reliable for pathogens infecting plants in their natural environment and for organisms that may display faster rates of mutation. PMID:25132953

  1. Disaster Recovery Program guideline

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    Business and government are dependent upon automatic data processing (ADP) to perform their missions and cannot afford to be without total, or possibly even partial, ADP capability for extended periods of time. The dependency on ADP and the large capital investment organizations are making in ADP equipment and services make implementation of a Disaster Recovery Program, with associated Continuity of Operations and Contingency Plans, essential based on a risk assessment. An effective Disaster Recovery Program can mitigate the losses from a disaster, reduce the amount of time that a customer or user is without mission-essential ADP support, and decrease the time necessary for restoration of normal ADP operations.

  2. Short communication DNA Commission of the International Society of Forensic

    E-print Network

    Forensic Science Service, Birmingham, UK e Department of Forensic Molecular Biology, Erasmus University Science International 157 (2006) 187­197 § DNA Commission, International Society for Forensic GeneticsShort communication DNA Commission of the International Society of Forensic Genetics (ISFG

  3. Application of visible/near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy to uranium ore concentrates for nuclear forensic analysis and attribution.

    PubMed

    Klunder, Gregory L; Plaue, Jonathan W; Spackman, Paul E; Grant, Patrick M; Lindvall, Rachel E; Hutcheon, Ian D

    2013-09-01

    Uranium ore concentrates (UOCs) are produced at mining facilities from the various types of uranium-bearing ores using several processes that can include different reagents, separation procedures, and drying conditions. The final UOC products can consist of different uranium species, which are important to identify to trace interdicted samples back to their origins. Color has been used as a simple indicator; however, visual determination is subjective and no chemical information is provided. In this work, we report the application of near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a non-contact, non-destructive method to rapidly analyze UOC materials for species and/or process information. Diffuse reflectance spectra from 350 to 2500 nm were measured from a number UOC samples that were also characterized by X-ray diffraction. Combination and overtone bands were used to identify the amine and hydroxyl-containing species, such as ammonium uranates or ammonium uranyl carbonate, while other uranium oxide species (e.g., uranium trioxide [UO3] and triuranium octoxide [U3O8]) exhibit absorption bands arising from crystal field effects and electronic transitions. Principal component analysis was used to classify the different UOC materials. PMID:24067636

  4. Forensic Science--A Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geesaman, Donald P.; Abrahamson, Dean E.

    1973-01-01

    Forensic science is an approach to study desirability of specific technologies in the context of value objectives and biological imperatives of society. Such groups should be formed with people from various physical and social sciences. (PS)

  5. American Academy of Forensic Sciences

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Meetings AAFS 68th Annual Scientific Meeting — Las Vegas, Nevada 2016 Forensic Science Educational Conferences Non AAFS Sponsored ... Library AAFS 68th Annual Scientific Meeting — Las Vegas, Nevada 2016 Applicants for Membership and Promotion Resources Academy ...

  6. Forensic historiography: narratives and science.

    PubMed

    Drukteinis, Albert M

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatrists function, in part, as historians who rely on patient narratives to help them understand presenting mental disorders and explain their causes. Forensic psychiatrists have been skeptical of using narratives, raising concerns about their lack of objectivity and potential for bias. They also have criticized narratives as being more performative than scientific. Recent authors, however, have pointed out that narratives may be helpful in forming forensic opinions and supporting oral testimony, while stressing that their use must be consistent with the ethics espoused by forensic psychiatry. This article reviews the role of narratives in understanding human events and the ubiquitous presence of narratives in the judicial process. It delves into the inescapability of using explicit or implicit narratives in the course of forensic practice, as well as how they may be meaningfully incorporated into evaluations and find expression alongside scientific principles. PMID:25492068

  7. Logical Framework of Forensic Identification: Ability to Resist Fabricated DNA.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Zhou, Di; Zhang, Suhua; Bian, Yingnan; Hu, Zhen; Zhu, Ruxin; Lu, Daru; Li, Chengtao

    2015-12-01

    Over the past 30 years, DNA analysis has revolutionized forensic science and has become the most useful single tool in the multifaceted fight against crime. Today, DNA profiling with sets of highly polymorphic autosomal short tandem repeat markers is widely employed and accepted in the courts due to its high discriminating power and reliability. However, an artificial bloodstain purposefully created using molecular biology techniques succeeded in tricking a leading forensic DNA laboratory. The disturbing possibility that a forensic DNA profile can be faked shocked the general public and the mass media, and generated serious discussion about the credibility of DNA evidence. Herein, we present two exemplary assays based on tissue-specific methylation patterns and cell-specific mRNA expression, respectively. These two assays can be integrated into the DNA analysis pipelines without consumption of additional samples. We show that the two assays can not only distinguish between artificial and genuine samples, but also provide information on tissue origin. The two assays were tested on natural and artificial bloodstains (generated by polymerase chain reaction and whole genome amplification technique) and the results illustrated that the logical framework of forensic identification is still useful for forensic identification with the high credibility. PMID:26392194

  8. Speeding earthquake disaster relief

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mortensen, Carl; Donlin, Carolyn; Page, Robert A.; Ward, Peter

    1995-01-01

    In coping with recent multibillion-dollar earthquake disasters, scientists and emergency managers have found new ways to speed and improve relief efforts. This progress is founded on the rapid availability of earthquake information from seismograph networks.

  9. A Peanut Butter Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vento, Carla J.

    1976-01-01

    A discussion of how cross-age tutoring was used with older pupils helping younger ones by making media curriculum materials. How this method was applied to disaster preparedness education is described. (HB)

  10. Engendering development and disasters.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two decades the different impacts of disasters on women and men have been acknowledged, leading to calls to integrate gender into disaster risk reduction and response. This paper explores how evolving understandings of ways of integrating gender into development have influenced this process, critically analysing contemporary initiatives to 'engender' development that see the inclusion of women for both efficiency and equality gains. It has been argued that this has resulted in a 'feminisation of responsibility' that can reinforce rather than challenge gender relations. The construction of women affected by disasters as both an at-risk group and as a means to reduce risk suggests similar processes of feminisation. The paper argues that if disaster risk reduction initiatives are to reduce women's vulnerability, they need to focus explicitly on the root causes of this vulnerability and design programmes that specifically focus on reducing gender inequalities by challenging unequal gendered power relations. PMID:25494957

  11. Disasters and public health

    PubMed Central

    Lechat, M. F.

    1979-01-01

    Studies on the health effects of disasters have shown that epidemiological indices can be of value in planning preventive and relief measures and in evaluating their effectiveness. Mortality rates naturally vary considerably, but in earthquakes, for example, the number of deaths per 100 houses destroyed can give an indication of the adequacy of building techniques. Age-specific mortality rates can help to identify particularly vulnerable groups and perhaps indicate what form of education would be valuable. Except in earthquakes, the number of casualties after a disaster is usually low in relation to the number of deaths, and study of the distribution and types of lesions would help in planning the amounts and types of relief supplies and personnel required. Disasters also affect the general level of morbidity in a district because of either interruption of normal health care services or of spraying or other disease control measures. Mental health and nutrition following disasters are particular problems that require further investigation. Study of all these features of disasters has been handicapped by a lack of data, particularly concerning the health situation immediately after the impact. The provision of surveillance teams in disaster-prone areas would appear to be a field in which international cooperation could yield immense benefits. PMID:311707

  12. Application of Fuzzy C-Means Clustering Algorithm Based on Particle Swarm Optimization in Computer Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Deguang; Han, Baochang; Huang, Ming

    Computer forensics is the technology of applying computer technology to access, investigate and analysis the evidence of computer crime. It mainly include the process of determine and obtain digital evidence, analyze and take data, file and submit result. And the data analysis is the key link of computer forensics. As the complexity of real data and the characteristics of fuzzy, evidence analysis has been difficult to obtain the desired results. This paper applies fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm based on particle swarm optimization (FCMP) in computer forensics, and it can be more satisfactory results.

  13. Forensic applications of desorption electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (DESI-MS).

    PubMed

    Morelato, Marie; Beavis, Alison; Kirkbride, Paul; Roux, Claude

    2013-03-10

    Desorption electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) is an emerging analytical technique that enables in situ mass spectrometric analysis of specimens under ambient conditions. It has been successfully applied to a large range of forensically relevant materials. This review assesses and highlights forensic applications of DESI-MS including the analysis and detection of illicit drugs, explosives, chemical warfare agents, inks and documents, fingermarks, gunshot residues and drugs of abuse in urine and plasma specimens. The minimal specimen preparation required for analysis and the sensitivity of detection achieved offer great advantages, especially in the field of forensic science. PMID:23498998

  14. Oil spill analysis by means of full polarimetric UAVSAR (L-band) and Radarsat-2 (C-band) products acquired during Deepwater Horizon Disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latini, Daniele; Del Frate, Fabio; Jones, Cathleen E.

    2014-10-01

    SAR instruments with polarimetric capabilities, high resolution and short revisit time can provide powerful support in oil spill monitoring and different techniques of analysis have been developed for this purpose [1][2]. An oil film on the sea surface results in darker areas in SAR images, but careful interpretation is required because dark spots can also be caused by natural phenomena. In view of the very low backscatter from slicks, the Noise Equivalent Sigma Zero (NESZ) is a primary sensor parameter to be considered when using a sensor for slick analysis. Among the existing full polarimetric sensors, the high resolution and very low NESZ values of UAVSAR (L-band) and RADARSAT-2 (C-band) make them preferable for oil spill analysis compared to the last generation SAR instruments. The Deepwater Horizon disaster that occurred in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010 represents a unique and extensive test site where large amounts of SAR imagery and ground validation data are available. By applying the Cloude-Pottier decomposition method to full polarimetric UAVSAR (L-band) and RADARSAT-2 (C-band), it is possible to extract parameters that describe the scattering mechanism of the target. By comparing quasi-simultaneous acquisitions and exploiting the different penetration capabilities of the sensors, we investigate the potential of full polarimetric SAR to discriminate oil on the sea surface from look-alike phenomena covering the full range of backscattering values down to those at the instrument noise floor.

  15. Civil Defense, U. S. A.: A Programmed Orientation to Civil Defense. Unit 3. Natural Disasters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Battle Creek, MI.

    The effects of natural disasters and the implications which those effects have for community emergency preparedness are discussed. Major topics include: (1) Similarities and differences in types of responses required by a nuclear and natural disasters, (2) The civil defense function in natural disasters, (3) Vulnerability analysis, (4) Warning…

  16. Health services responses to disasters in Mumbai sharing experiences.

    PubMed

    Supe, Avinash; Satoskar, Rajeev

    2008-06-01

    In mass disaster situations, demands frequently exceed the capacity of personnel and facilities. In the last few years, there has been an increased incidence of civil disasters; the spectrum of possible catastrophes has also dramatically increased as a result of an increasingly technologically sophisticated society. During the last 15 years, varied terrorist activities have become increasingly common as expressions of the opinions of extreme political groups, especially in India. In Mumbai itself, we have witnessed disasters such as widespread riots, terrorist bomb blasts, floods, and fires. There have been other disasters in India, such as earthquakes, floods, cyclones, as well as tsunamis Though most of the hospitals in India manage the medical problems associated with these disasters fairly efficiently, an analysis of the situation is presented so that this may form the basis for future planning in disaster preparedness and provide a template for other communities that may want to implement preparedness protocols. We present our experience with disaster management in Mumbai, India. A successful medical response to multi-injury civilian disasters, either natural or man-made, dictates formulation, dissemination, and periodic assessment of a contingency plan to facilitate the triage and treatment of victims of disaster. PMID:18603744

  17. Uncertainty propagation in nuclear forensics.

    PubMed

    Pommé, S; Jerome, S M; Venchiarutti, C

    2014-07-01

    Uncertainty propagation formulae are presented for age dating in support of nuclear forensics. The age of radioactive material in this context refers to the time elapsed since a particular radionuclide was chemically separated from its decay product(s). The decay of the parent radionuclide and ingrowth of the daughter nuclide are governed by statistical decay laws. Mathematical equations allow calculation of the age of specific nuclear material through the atom ratio between parent and daughter nuclides, or through the activity ratio provided that the daughter nuclide is also unstable. The derivation of the uncertainty formulae of the age may present some difficulty to the user community and so the exact solutions, some approximations, a graphical representation and their interpretation are presented in this work. Typical nuclides of interest are actinides in the context of non-proliferation commitments. The uncertainty analysis is applied to a set of important parent-daughter pairs and the need for more precise half-life data is examined. PMID:24607529

  18. Forensic Analysis of Lunar Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, J. A.; Lindsay, J. F.; Noble, S. K.

    2008-03-01

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