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1

Forensic Disaster Analysis in Near-real Time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impacts of extreme hydro-meteorological and geophysical events are controlled by various factors including severity of the event (intensity, duration, spatial extent), amplification with other phenomena (multihazard or cascading effects), interdependencies of technical systems and infrastructure, preparedness and resilience of the society. The Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM) has adopted the comprehensive understanding of disasters and develops methodologies of near real-time FDA as a complementing component of the FORIN program of IRDR. The new research strategy 'Near Real-Time Forensic Disaster Analysis (FDA)' aims at scrutinizing disasters closely with a multi-disciplinary approach in order to assess the various aspects of disasters and to identify mechanisms most relevant for an extreme event to become a disaster (e.g., causal loss analysis). Recent technology developments - which have opened unprecedented opportunities for real-time hazard, vulnerability and loss assessment - are used for analyzing disasters and their impacts in combination with databases of historical events. The former covers modern empirical and analytical methods available in engineering and remote sensing for rapid impact assessments, rapid information extraction from crowd sourcing as well as rapid assessments of socio-economic impacts and economic losses. The event-driven science-based assessments of CEDIM are compiled based on interdisciplinary expertise and include the critical evaluation, assessment, validation, and quantification of an event. An important component of CEDIM's FDA is the near real-time approach which is expected to significantly speed up our understanding of natural disasters and be used to provide timely, relevant and valuable information to various user groups within their respective contexts. Currently, CEDIM has developed models and methodologies to assess different types of hazard. These approaches were applied to several disasters including, for example, Super Typhoon Haiyan/Yolanda (Nov. 2013), Central European Floods (June 2013), Hurricane Sandy (Oct. 2012), US Droughts (Summer 2012), or Typhoon Saola in Taiwan and Philippines (July 2012).

Kunz, Michael; Zschau, Jochen; Wenzel, Friedemann; Khazai, Bijan; Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Trieselmann, Werner

2014-05-01

2

Social Media in Crisis Management and Forensic Disaster Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today, modern sensors or sensor networks provide good quality measurements for the observation of large-scale emergencies as a result of natural disasters. Mostly however, only at certain points in their respective locations and for a very limited number of measurement parameters (e.g. seismograph) and not over the entire course of a disaster event. The proliferation of different social media application (e.g. Twitter, Facebook, Google+, etc.), yields the possibility to use the resulting data as a free and fast supplement or complement to traditional monitoring techniques. In particular, these new channels can serve for rapid detection, for information gathering for emergency protection and for information dissemination. Thus, each user of these networks represents a so-called virtual sensor ('social sensor'), whose eyewitness account can be important for understanding the situation on the ground. The advantages of these social sensors are the high mobility, the versatility of the parameters that can be captured (text, images, videos, etc.) as well as the rapid spread of information. Due to the subjective characteristics however, the data often show different quality and quantity. Against this background, it is essential for an application in crisis management to reasonably (pre-)process the data from social media. Hence, fully-automated processes are used which adequately filter and structure the enormous amount of information and associate it with an event, respectively, a geographic location. This is done through statistical monitoring of the volume of messages (Twitter) in different geographic regions of the world. In combination with a frequency analysis with respect to disaster-relevant terms (in 43 languages), thematic as well as spatio-temporal clustering, an initial assessment regarding the severity and extent of the detected event, its classification and (spatio-temporal) localization can be achieved. This detection in real time (2-5 minutes) thus allows gathering first responder reports or eyewitness reports, which can provide important information for a first situation analysis for the various officials and volunteers, especially in case of large-scale emergencies. Eventually, this can be used in combination with conventional sensors and information sources to conduct a detailed forensic disaster analysis of an event.

Dittrich, André; Lucas, Christian

2014-05-01

3

Web-based Weather and Climate Information Service of Forensic Disaster Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extreme meteorological events not only trigger natural disasters, they also control the impact of various catastrophes. Especially for cascading effects or in case of multihazards, for example when an earthquake occurs in conjunction with a cold wave, the actual weather situation might substantially boost the impact. Thus, reliable information on extreme meteorological events and the general weather condition during disasters is an important component of Forensic Disaster Analyses. The Web Service 'Wettergefahren-Frühwarnung' (early warning of weather hazards) provides information on imminent or just occurring unusual or extreme weather events worldwide. Of particular interest are events with a high impact and massive damage that occur around the globe, but with a special focus on Germany and Europe. The Service started on 1 February 2004 with an operational routine. During the last 10 years, 'Wettergefahren-Frühwarnun' examined and assessed more than 800 unusual or extreme weather events that occurred all over the world. Permanent availability, daily updated information, editorially enhanced reports on extreme or unusual weather events enriched by images and measured values, are the hallmarks of the internet project. All warnings, special notes, detailed and high-quality reports can be found in an ever-growing archive. In addition to daily monitoring and assessment of global weather events, 'Wettergefahren-Frühwarnung' also creates its own special maps and images. In recent years, increasingly complex codes have been developed that now produce many hundreds of weather charts for the entire world every 6 hours. Allegedly threatened areas or cities can be identified immediately. The maps give information about rainfall, temperature deviations, convection indices, wind, snow accumulation and much more. Additionally, for some 2800 cities worldwide, daily point forecasts are calculated and the predicted weather parameters are clearly arranged in tables for Germany, Europe, and the other continents. In 2007, 'Wettergefahren-Frühwarnung' became part of CEDIM and contributed to the activity of near-real time Forensic Disaster Analysis ahead, during and after a major event. Information is provided as text, own weather charts or data.

Mühr, Bernhard; Kunz, Michael; Köbele, Daniel

2014-05-01

4

Near real time Forensic Disaster Analysis of the central European flood in June 2013 in Germany: Impact and management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within its current research activity on near real time Forensic Disaster Analysis (FDA), researchers from the Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM) aim to identify major risk drivers and to understand the root causes of disaster and infer the implications for disaster mitigation. A key component of this activity is the development of rapid assessment tools which allow for a science based estimate of disaster impacts. The central European flood in June 2013 caused in Germany severe damage to buildings, infrastructure and agricultural lands and has had a great impact on people, transportation and the economy. In many areas thousands of people were evacuated. Electrical grid and local water supply utilities failed during the floods. Furthermore, traffic was disrupted in the interregional transportation network including federal highways and long distance railways. CEDIM analysed the impact and management of the flood event within an FDA activity. An analysis on the amount and spatial distribution of flood-related Twitter messages in Germany revealed a high interest in the flood in the social media. Furthermore, an analysis of the resilience of selected affected areas in Germany has been carried out to assess the impact of the flood on the district level. The resilience indicator is based on social, economic and institutional indicators which are supplemented with information on the number of people evacuated and transportation disruptions. Combined with the magnitude of the event, an index is calculated that allows for a rapid initial but preliminary estimate of the flood impact. Results show high resilience of the administrative districts along the Danube while heavy impacts are seen along the Mulde and Elbe.

Khazai, Bijan; Bessel, Tina; Möhrle, Stella; Dittrich, André; Schröter, Kai; Mühr, Bernhard; Elmer, Florian; Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Trieselmann, Werner; Kunz, Michael

2014-05-01

5

Use of automated seabed photomosaicing in forensic analysis of the RMS TITANIC disaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1998 expedition to the wreckage of the RMS TITANIC, a new technique was used for creating a photomosaic that significantly improved the process and the results of forensic analysis. In excess of 20,000 digital images were collected with two high-resolution digital cameras mounted on the submersible NAUTILE and with an ROV based high-resolution video camera. The individual images

P. K. Matthias; R. F. Silloway

2000-01-01

6

The near real time Forensic Disaster Analysis of the central European flood in June 2013 - A graphical representation of the main results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Central European flood of June 2013 is one of the most severe flood events that have occurred in Central Europe in the past decades. All major German river basins were affected (Rhine, Danube, and Elbe as well as the smaller Weser catchment).In terms of spatial extent and event magnitude, it was the most severe event at least since 1950. Within the current research focus on near real time forensic disaster analysis, the Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM) assessed and analysed the multiple facets of the flood event from the beginning. The aim is to describe the on-going event, analyse the event sources, link the physical characteristics to the impact and consequences of the event and to understand the root causes that turn the physical event into a disaster (or prevent it from becoming disastrous). For the near real time component of this research, tools for rapid assessment and concise presentation of analysis results are essential. This contribution provides a graphical summary of the results of the CEDIM-FDA analyses on the June 2013 flood. It demonstrates the potential of visual representations for improving the communication and hence usability of findings in a rapid, intelligible and expressive way as a valuable supplement to usual event reporting. It is based on analyses of the hydrometeorological sources, the flood pathways (from satellite imagery, data extraction from social media), the resilience of the affected regions, and causal loss analysis. The prototypical representation of the FDA-results for the June 2013 flood provides an important step in the development of graphical event templates for the visualisation of forensic disaster analyses. These are intended to become a standard component of future CEDIM-FDA event activities.

Schröter, Kai; Elmer, Florian; Trieselmann, Werner; Kreibich, Heidi; Kunz, Michael; Khazai, Bijan; Dransch, Doris; Wenzel, Friedemann; Zschau, Jochen; Merz, Bruno; Mühr, Bernhard; Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Möhrle, Stella; Bessel, Tina; Fohringer, Joachim

2014-05-01

7

[Mass disasters in former East Germany--a forensic medicine retrospect].  

PubMed

The authors report the analysis of mass disasters, which had been dealt with by forensic experts, on the territory of the former GDR. The report comes on the initiative of the Society of Forensic Medicine and with the support of regional institutes. For the period 1960 to 1989, 20 events with 738 casualties were registered. The number of victims was particularly high in aviation and rail disasters as well as in the Zwickau mine disaster. The Forensic Institute of the Humboldt-University in Berlin was engaged in the investigation of the three airplane crashes on Berlin territory and near Berlin (Königs-Wusterhausen 1972, Berlin-Bohnsdorf 1986 and Berlin-Schönefeld 1989) as well as of the railway disaster near Lebus in 1977. As a result of the analysis, the experience gained in three decades regarding the planning, organization and realization of the identification of victims is dealt with in more detail. It emphasizes the significance of close cooperation with dentists and criminalists. Because of ethical, legal and criminalistic reasons the aim should always be a complete examination (including autopsy) of the victims as well as their identification. PMID:1489334

Geserick, G; Strauch, H

1992-01-01

8

Encoded evidence: DNA in forensic analysis.  

PubMed

Sherlock Holmes said "it has long been an axiom of mine that the little things are infinitely the most important", but never imagined that such a little thing, the DNA molecule, could become perhaps the most powerful single tool in the multifaceted fight against crime. Twenty years after the development of DNA fingerprinting, forensic DNA analysis is key to the conviction or exoneration of suspects and the identification of victims of crimes, accidents and disasters, driving the development of innovative methods in molecular genetics, statistics and the use of massive intelligence databases. PMID:15510165

Jobling, Mark A; Gill, Peter

2004-10-01

9

NUCLEAR FORENSICS ANALYSIS CENTER FORENSIC ANALYSIS TO DATA INTERPRETATION  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Forensics Analysis Center (NFAC) is part of Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and is one of only two USG National Laboratories accredited to perform nuclear forensic analyses to the requirements of ISO 17025. SRNL NFAC is capable of analyzing nuclear and radiological samples from bulk material to ultra-trace samples. NFAC provides analytical support to the FBI's Radiological Evidence Examination Facility (REEF), which is located within SRNL. REEF gives the FBI the capability to perform traditional forensics on material that is radiological and/or is contaminated. SRNL is engaged in research and development efforts to improve the USG technical nuclear forensics capabilities. Research includes improving predictive signatures and developing a database containing comparative samples.

Nichols, T.

2011-02-07

10

A brief history of forensic odontology and disaster victim identification practices in Australia.  

PubMed

Today we consider forensic odontology to be a specialised and reliable method of identification of the deceased, particularly in multiple fatality incidents. While this reputation has been gained from the application of forensic odontology in both single identification and disaster situations over a number of years, the professional nature of the discipline and its practices have evolved only recently. This paper summarises some of early uses of forensic odontology internationally and in Australia and discusses the development of both forensic odontology and Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) practices in each of the states and territories of Australia. The earliest accounts of the use of forensic odontology in Australia date to the 1920's and 30's, and were characterised by inexperienced practitioners and little procedural formality. An organised and semi-formal service commenced in most states during the 1960's although its use by police forces was spasmodic. Today the service provided by qualified and experienced forensic odontologists is highly professional and regularly utilised by police and coronial services. The development of DVI Practices in Australia began following the crash of a Vickers Viscount aircraft into Botany Bay in 1961 and, as with practices internationally, have evolved into an equally professional and reliable specialist discipline of policing in which forensic odontology plays a significant part. PMID:22785099

Taylor, J

2009-12-01

11

Forensic Analyses on A Compound Disaster and Its Impacts Following the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 7.9 Mw Wenchuan Earthquake on May 12 in 2008 was one of the most devastating natural disasters in the 21st century and caused massive damages and vast disruptions in Western China. Our analysis takes a special look into the Wolong National Nature Reserve bear the epicenter, where long-term quantitative and qualitative data on socioeconomic and natural conditions have been collected from late 1990s to 2013. The Reserve is known internationally as the hometown of Giant Pandas and a tourism hotspot, where around 5000 ethnic minorities (e.g., Tibetan, Qiang) also reside. While the Reserve suffered lower level of immediate damages and mortalities relative to several nearby areas, the reconstruction and recovery process in the Reserve have been much slower, mainly due to recurrent flush floods, landslides, and debris flow that took place in every summer since 2008. The suddenly increased frequency and intensity of these secondary natural disasters has led to the formation of compound disaster in the Reserve. The reconstruction of the only road to outside will not be completed till at least 2016, and the livelihoods of the local communities are severely compromised, which has induced a resurrection of illegal logging and hunting in the Reserve. Taking advantage of our longitudinal survey data of~200 local households (on their income, expenditure, energy use, land use behaviors, and perceptions and attitudes toward disasters and polices) over a nine-year period before as well as one and several years after the earthquake and also our in-depth knowledge on the ecology and the institutional arrangements in the area, we conducted, in an interdisciplinary and comprehensive manner, a critical cause analysis to investigate the non-human and human drivers behind the predicament that the Reserve is facing currently. We identified a series of proximate and root causes at various spatial and temporal scales and institutional levels. The results were exchanged with various local stakeholders and their feedback was collected. Our case contribute to the expanding examples of forensic disaster investigations and prove that such studies can provide important insights into how fewer people may be adversely impacted and wiser investments and choices may be made when comparable events take place somewhere else.

Liu, Wei

2014-05-01

12

Bovine and equine forensic DNA analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal forensic DNA analysis is being used for human criminal investigations (e.g traces from cats and dogs), wildlife management, breeding and food safety. The most common DNA markers used for such forensic casework are short tandem repeats (STR). Rules and guidelines concerning quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) have been well established for human forensic STR DNA testing, which

L. H. P. van de Goor

2011-01-01

13

Forensic Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Academy of Forensic Engineers (1) provides a short definition of forensic engineering as: "the application of the art and science of engineering in matters which are in, or may possibly relate to the jurisprudence system, inclusive of alternative dispute resolution." Specialty areas in forensic engineering include fire investigation, industrial accidents, product liability, traffic accidents, civil engineering and transportation disasters, and environmental systems failures. For example, forensic engineers investigate structural collapses, such as the 2004 Paris Airport collapse described in this article from the Institution of Structural Engineers (2) This website from Materials Evaluation and Engineering, Inc. (3) points out that materials engineering is useful in product failure analysis because many products fail due to materials problems. Given the role forensic engineers play in legal disputes, research in forensic engineering is also a topic on this engineering ethics website (4). Forensic-Evidence.com (5 ) offers The Forensic Center Newsletter, which aims "to stimulate interdisciplinary efforts and research that unite, explore, and advance knowledge in the broad areas of law, medicine, and forensic sciences." This website from the Engineering Forensics Research Institute provides some examples of current research in forensic engineering (6). Finally, Glendale High School offers this Civil Structures Module (7) as a resource for teaching about topics related to forensic engineering, using the 1981 Kansas City Hyatt Regency walkway collapse as an example for analysis.

14

The role of forensic anthropology in mass disaster resolution.  

PubMed

On Dec.12, 1985, a military charter DC-8 crashed shortly after takeoff at Gander, Nfld., Canada. All 256 aboard were killed, making this the deadliest U.S. military aircraft accident in history. The investigation team (consisting of forensic pathologists, odontologists, radiologists, anthropologists, graves registration personnel, and systems engineers) succeeded in identifying the remains of all 248 manifested passengers and 8 crewmembers. The unique contribution of anthropology necessitates that a forensic anthropologist be included in all phases of casualty resolution from recovery and initial processing to final evaluation, rather than being summoned as a last resort. This approach would yield immediate information on "unknowns" and would eliminate subsequent duplication of effort. PMID:2775124

Hinkes, M J

1989-07-01

15

Forensic Analysis of Compromised Computers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Directory Tree Analysis File Generator is a Practical Extraction and Reporting Language (PERL) script that simplifies and automates the collection of information for forensic analysis of compromised computer systems. During such an analysis, it is sometimes necessary to collect and analyze information about files on a specific directory tree. Directory Tree Analysis File Generator collects information of this type (except information about directories) and writes it to a text file. In particular, the script asks the user for the root of the directory tree to be processed, the name of the output file, and the number of subtree levels to process. The script then processes the directory tree and puts out the aforementioned text file. The format of the text file is designed to enable the submission of the file as input to a spreadsheet program, wherein the forensic analysis is performed. The analysis usually consists of sorting files and examination of such characteristics of files as ownership, time of creation, and time of most recent access, all of which characteristics are among the data included in the text file.

Wolfe, Thomas

2004-01-01

16

Fimag: the United Kingdom disaster victim/forensic identification imaging system.  

PubMed

Imaging is an integral diagnostic tool in mass fatality investigations undertaken traditionally by plain X-rays, fluoroscopy, and dental radiography. However, little attention has been given to appropriate image reporting, secure data transfer and storage particularly in relation to the need to meet stringent judicial requirements. Notwithstanding these limitations, it is the risk associated with the safe handling and investigation of contaminated fatalities which is providing new challenges for mass fatality radiological imaging. Mobile multi-slice computed tomography is an alternative to these traditional modalities as it provides a greater diagnostic yield and an opportunity to address the requirements of the criminal justice system. We present a new national disaster victim/forensic identification imaging system--Fimag--which is applicable for both contaminated and non-contaminated mass fatality imaging and addresses the issues of judicial reporting. We suggest this system opens a new era in radiological diagnostics for mass fatalities. PMID:19804521

Rutty, Guy N; Robinson, Claire; Morgan, Bruno; Black, Sue; Adams, Catherine; Webster, Philip

2009-11-01

17

VALIDATION GUIDELINES FOR LABORATORIES PERFORMING FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL TERRORISM  

EPA Science Inventory

The Scientific Working Group on Forensic Analysis of Chemical Terrorism (SWGFACT) has developed the following guidelines for laboratories engaged in the forensic analysis of chemical evidence associated with terrorism. This document provides a baseline framework and guidance for...

18

Biosensors in forensic analysis. A review.  

PubMed

Forensic analysis is an important branch of modern Analytical Chemistry with many legal and socially relevant implications. Biosensors can play an important role as efficient tools in this field considering their well known advantages of sensitivity, selectivity, easy functioning, affordability and capability of miniaturization and automation. This article reviews the latest advances in the use of biosensors for forensic analysis. The different methodologies for the transduction of the produced biological events are considered and the applications to forensic toxicological analysis, classified by the nature of the target analytes, as well as those related with chemical and biological weapons critically commented. The article provides several Tables where the more relevant analytical characteristics of the selected reported methods are gathered. PMID:24746348

Yáñez-Sedeño, P; Agüí, L; Villalonga, R; Pingarrón, J M

2014-05-01

19

Molecular forensic science analysis of nuclear materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concerns over the proliferation and instances of nuclear material in the environment have increased interest in the expansion of nuclear forensics analysis and attribution programs. A new related field, molecular forensic science (MFS) has helped meet this expansion by applying common scientific analyses to nuclear forensics scenarios. In this work, MFS was applied to three scenarios related to nuclear forensics analysis. In the first, uranium dioxide was synthesized and aged at four sets of static environmental conditions and studied for changes in chemical speciation. The second highlighted the importance of bulk versus particle characterizations by analyzing a heterogeneous industrially prepared sample with similar techniques. In the third, mixed uranium/plutonium hot particles were collected from the McGuire Air Force Base BOMARC Site and analyzed for chemical speciation and elemental surface composition. This work has identified new signatures and has indicated unexpected chemical behavior under various conditions. These findings have lead to an expansion of basic actinide understanding, proof of MFS as a tool for nuclear forensic science, and new areas for expansion in these fields.

Reilly, Dallas David

20

Forensic neutron activation analysis the Japanese scene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The progress of forensic neutron activation analysis (FNAA) in Japan is described. FNAA began in 1965 and during the past 20 years many cases have been handled; these include determination of toxic materials, comparison examination of physical evidences (e.g., paints, metal fragments, plastics and inks) and drug sample differentiation. Neutron activation analysis is applied routinely to the scientific criminal investigation

T. Kishi

1987-01-01

21

Forensic Analysis of BIOS Chips  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data can be hidden in BIOS chips without hindering computer performance. This feature has been exploited by virus writers and computer game enthusiasts. Unused BIOS storage can also be used by criminals, terrorists and intelligence agents to conceal secrets. However, BIOS chips are largely ignored in digital forensic investigations. Few techniques exist for imaging BIOS chips and no tools are available specifically for analyzing BIOS data.

Gershteyn, Pavel; Davis, Mark; Shenoi, Sujeet

22

Information Gap Analysis: near real-time evaluation of disaster response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disasters, such as major storm events or earthquakes, trigger an immediate response by the disaster management system of the nation in question. The quality of this response is a large factor in its ability to limit the impacts on the local population. Improving the quality of disaster response therefore reduces disaster impacts. Studying past disasters is a valuable exercise to understand what went wrong, identify measures which could have mitigated these issues, and make recommendations to improve future disaster planning and response. While such ex post evaluations can lead to improvements in the disaster management system, there are limitations. The main limitation that has influenced this research is that ex post evaluations do not have the ability to inform the disaster response being assessed for the obvious reason that they are carried out long after the response phase is over. The result is that lessons learned can only be applied to future disasters. In the field of humanitarian relief, this limitation has led to the development of real time evaluations. The key aspect of real time humanitarian evaluations is that they are completed while the operation is still underway. This results in findings being delivered at a time when they can still make a difference to the humanitarian response. Applying such an approach to the immediate disaster response phase requires an even shorter time-frame, as well as a shift in focus from international actors to the nation in question's government. As such, a pilot study was started and methodology developed, to analyze disaster response in near real-time. The analysis uses the information provided by the disaster management system within the first 0 - 5 days of the response. The data is collected from publicly available sources such as ReliefWeb and sorted under various categories which represent each aspect of disaster response. This process was carried out for 12 disasters. The quantity and timeliness of information produced under each category was then compared to establish best practices. Thus, the information produced by a disaster management system following a major disaster can be compared to these best practices within days of the disaster. The resulting "information gap analysis" can help identify areas of the response that may need to be improved and raise questions as to why critical information is lacking or delayed. This information gap analysis therefore complements ex post evaluations and can help lead to improvements in the immediate response and subsequently reduce disaster impacts on the population. The methodology has already been applied in the Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology's (CEDIM) Forensic Disaster Analysis (FDA) activities following tropical cyclone Phailin in India, and the Bohol Earthquake and Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines.

Girard, Trevor

2014-05-01

23

Forensic Analysis using Geological and Geochemical Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the globalisation of legal (and illegal) trade there is an increasing demand for techniques which can verify the geographical origin and transfer routes of many legal and illegal commodities and products. Although geological techniques have been used in forensic investigations since the emergence of forensics as a science in the late eighteen hundreds, the last decade has seen a marked increase in geo-scientists initiating concept studies using the latest analytical techniques, including studying natural abundance isotope variations, micro analysis with laser ablation ICPMS and geochemical mapping. Most of the concept studies have shown a good potential but uptake by the law enforcement and legal community has been limited due to concerns about the admissibility of the new methods. As an introduction to the UGU2009 session "Forensic Provenancing using Geological and Geochemical Techniques" I will give an overview of the state of the art of forensic geology and the issues that concern the admissibility of geological forensic evidence. I will use examples from the NITECRIME and FIRMS networks, the EU TRACE project and other projects and literature to illustrate the important issues at hand.

Hoogewerff, J.

2009-04-01

24

Forensic Science: A Bibliography of Activation Analysis Papers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gives references to activation analysis in forensic science and is indexed into 32 categories for precise literature searching by the forensic scientist. An author index is included. (Author)

G. J. Lutz

1970-01-01

25

Encoded evidence: DNA in forensic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sherlock Holmes said “it has long been an axiom of mine that the little things are infinitely the most important”, but never imagined that such a little thing, the DNA molecule, could become perhaps the most powerful single tool in the multifaceted fight against crime. Twenty years after the development of DNA fingerprinting, forensic DNA analysis is key to the

Mark A. Jobling; Peter Gill

2004-01-01

26

Forensic analysis of black coral (Order Antipatharia).  

PubMed

Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), discriminate analysis, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), and stereoscopic microscopy were used to separate black coral forensic evidence items from similarly appearing items manufactured from plastics, bovid keratin, and mangrove wood. In addition, novel observations were made of bromine and iodine relationships in black coral that have not been previously reported. PMID:21925814

Espinoza, Edgard O; Scanlan, Michael D; McClure, Pamela J; Baker, Barry W

2012-03-10

27

Memory Forensics: Review of Acquisition and Analysis Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document presents an overview of the most common memory forensics techniques used in the acquisition and analysis of a system's volatile memory. Memory forensics rose from obscurity in 2005 in response to a challenge issued by the Digital Forensics R...

G. Osbourne

2013-01-01

28

(Environmental and disaster management risk analysis)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler attended workshops on Environmental and Disaster Management Risk Analysis in New Delhi and Jaipur, India. The objective of the workshops was to provide technical knowledge to Indians in the areas of environmental planning, industrial hazards, risk analysis, and disaster management. Conference participants identified the following top priorities to aid in the development of environmental and disaster management in India: (1) technology transfer in the area of atmospheric dispersion modelling, (2) increased training of scientific personnel to effectively deal with environmental problems, and (3) access to data bases on toxicological properties of chemicals.

Travis, C.C.

1990-01-03

29

Careers in Forensics: Analysis, Evidence, and Law  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In legal proceedings, a case is only as strong as its evidence. And whether that evidence is strong depends, in large part, on the work of forensic specialists. The field of forensics is broad and involves many kinds of workers. Some of them are involved in crimesolving. Others, such as forensic social workers or forensic economists, help to…

Torpey, Elka Maria

2009-01-01

30

Forensic DNA testing.  

PubMed

Forensic DNA testing has a number of applications, including parentage testing, identifying human remains from natural or man-made disasters or terrorist attacks, and solving crimes. This article provides background information followed by an overview of the process of forensic DNA testing, including sample collection, DNA extraction, PCR amplification, short tandem repeat (STR) allele separation and sizing, typing and profile interpretation, statistical analysis, and quality assurance. The article concludes with discussions of possible problems with the data and other forensic DNA testing techniques. PMID:22135660

Butler, John M

2011-12-01

31

Method ontology for intelligent network forensics analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network forensics is an after the fact process to investigate malicious activities conducted over computer networks by gathering useful intelligence. Recently, several machine learning techniques have been proposed to automate and develop intelligent network forensics systems. An intelligent network forensics system that reconstructs intrusion scenarios and makes attack attributions requires knowledge about intrusions signatures, evidences, impacts, and objectives. In addition,

Sherif Saad; Issa Traore

2010-01-01

32

Defining Digital Forensic Examination and Analysis Tools Using Abstraction Layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses the theory of abstraction layers to describe the purpose and goals of digital forensic analysis tools. Using abstraction layers, we identify where tools can introduce errors and provide requirements that the tools must follow. Categories of forensic analysis types are also defined based on the abstraction layers. Abstraction layers are not a new concept, but their usage

Brian Carrier

2002-01-01

33

Gait analysis in forensic medicine*.  

PubMed

Recordings from video surveillance systems are used as evidence from crime scenes. It would be useful to perform comparisons between disguised perpetrators and suspects based on their gait. We applied functional anatomical and biomechanical knowledge to analyze the gait of perpetrators, as recorded on surveillance video. Using a structured checklist, which addresses the single body segments during gait, we were able to give a statement concerning the gait patterns. Characteristic parameters were, e.g., varus instability in the knee at heel strike, and larger lateral flexion of the spinal column to one side than the other. Based on these characteristic features, we are able to state with reasonable certainty whether the suspect could be the perpetrator, but it is not possible to identify the perpetrator positively. Nevertheless, we have been involved in several cases where the court has found that this type of gait analysis was a valuable tool. PMID:18636978

Larsen, Peter K; Simonsen, Erik B; Lynnerup, Niels

2008-09-01

34

Gait analysis in forensic medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have combined the basic human ability to recognize other individuals with functional anatomical and biomechanical knowledge, in order to analyze the gait of perpetrators as recorded on surveillance video. The perpetrators are then compared with similar analyses of suspects. At present we give a statement to the police as to whether the perpetrator has a characteristic gait pattern compared to normal gait, and if a suspect has a comparable gait pattern. We have found agreements such as: limping, varus instability in the knee at heel strike, larger lateral flexion of the spinal column to one side than the other, inverted ankle during stance, pronounced sagittal head-movements, and marked head-shoulder posture. Based on these characteristic features, we state whether suspect and perpetrator could have the same identity but it is not possible to positively identify the perpetrator. Nevertheless, we have been involved in several cases where the court has found that this type of gait analysis, especially combined with photogrammetry, was a valuable tool. The primary requisites are surveillance cameras recording with sufficient frequency, ideally about 15 Hz, which are positioned in frontal and preferably also in profile view.

Larsen, Peter K.; Simonsen, Erik B.; Lynnerup, Niels

2007-01-01

35

Photogrammetry Tool for Forensic Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system allows crime scene and accident scene investigators the ability to acquire visual scene data using cameras for processing at a later time. This system uses a COTS digital camera, a photogrammetry calibration cube, and 3D photogrammetry processing software. In a previous instrument developed by NASA, the laser scaling device made use of parallel laser beams to provide a photogrammetry solution in 2D. This device and associated software work well under certain conditions. In order to make use of a full 3D photogrammetry system, a different approach was needed. When using multiple cubes, whose locations relative to each other are unknown, a procedure that would merge the data from each cube would be as follows: 1. One marks a reference point on cube 1, then marks points on cube 2 as unknowns. This locates cube 2 in cube 1 s coordinate system. 2. One marks reference points on cube 2, then marks points on cube 1 as unknowns. This locates cube 1 in cube 2 s coordinate system. 3. This procedure is continued for all combinations of cubes. 4. The coordinate of all of the found coordinate systems is then merged into a single global coordinate system. In order to achieve maximum accuracy, measurements are done in one of two ways, depending on scale: when measuring the size of objects, the coordinate system corresponding to the nearest cube is used, or when measuring the location of objects relative to a global coordinate system, a merged coordinate system is used. Presently, traffic accident analysis is time-consuming and not very accurate. Using cubes with differential GPS would give absolute positions of cubes in the accident area, so that individual cubes would provide local photogrammetry calibration to objects near a cube.

Lane, John

2012-01-01

36

Analysis of forensic samples in Banco Nacional de Datos Genéticos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of forensic samples to evaluate the rate of success for molecular markers: autosomal STRs, Y chromosome, and mitochondrial DNA. Since 2006 to date a total of 390 forensic samples were analyzed: bones, teeth, hairs, swabs, stains and paraffin embedded tissue. Bones and teeth, were pulverized in a Freezer Mill, extracted by chloroform\\/phenol\\/isoamyl alcohol method, and then purified with Centricon

O. Santapa; S. Filippini; S. Valente; M. B. Rodriguez Cardozo

2009-01-01

37

Forensic analysis of dyed textile fibers.  

PubMed

Textile fibers are a key form of trace evidence, and the ability to reliably associate or discriminate them is crucial for forensic scientists worldwide. While microscopic and instrumental analysis can be used to determine the composition of the fiber itself, additional specificity is gained by examining fiber color. This is particularly important when the bulk composition of the fiber is relatively uninformative, as it is with cotton, wool, or other natural fibers. Such analyses pose several problems, including extremely small sample sizes, the desire for nondestructive techniques, and the vast complexity of modern dye compositions. This review will focus on more recent methods for comparing fiber color by using chromatography, spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. The increasing use of multivariate statistics and other data analysis techniques for the differentiation of spectra from dyed fibers will also be discussed. PMID:19543886

Goodpaster, John V; Liszewski, Elisa A

2009-08-01

38

An economic and ethical analysis of the Katrina disaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to apply economic and ethical analysis to natural disasters such as Hurricane Katrina to determine which approaches to disaster relief work best and which should be abandoned. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper provides a combination of narrative with argument and analysis. Findings – Government involvement in disaster relief has proven to be economically

Robert W. McGee

2008-01-01

39

Infrastructure for Forensic Analysis of Multi-Agent Based Simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Multi Agent Systems (MAS) theory has methodical approaches to analyze, understand and debug the social level of agents.\\u000a This paper aims to argue that technologies for the analysis of MAS can be used in the field of Multi-agent based simulation\\u000a (MABS). In particular, forensic analysis is proposed. It is explained the creation of an infrastructure for forensic analysis to

Emilio Serrano; Juan A. Botía; Jose M. Cadenas

2009-01-01

40

Recent advances in forensic drug analysis by DART-MS.  

PubMed

Mass spectrometry methods play a major role in many forensic applications. While gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods are commonly used in crime laboratories and enforcement agencies, a variety of advanced techniques are now available that can improve upon standard methods and address emerging issues in forensic science. New mass spectrometry technologies include more versatile ionization sources, allowing the next generation of instrumentation to be more multipurpose and adaptable to the needs of the discipline. Direct analysis in real-time mass spectrometry is an ambient ionization method that allows direct testing of gas, liquid and solid samples without the need for any preparation or extraction, based on thermal desorption and ionization directly from the sample surface. This Review will provide an in-depth description of direct analysis in real-time time-of-flight mass spectrometry as applied to samples relevant to forensic science, with a focus on analysis and characterization related to forensic drug chemistry. PMID:24702113

Lesiak, Ashton D; Shepard, Jason Re

2014-03-01

41

DNA fingerprinting in forensics: past, present, future.  

PubMed

DNA fingerprinting, one of the great discoveries of the late 20th century, has revolutionized forensic investigations. This review briefly recapitulates 30 years of progress in forensic DNA analysis which helps to convict criminals, exonerate the wrongly accused, and identify victims of crime, disasters, and war. Current standard methods based on short tandem repeats (STRs) as well as lineage markers (Y chromosome, mitochondrial DNA) are covered and applications are illustrated by casework examples. Benefits and risks of expanding forensic DNA databases are discussed and we ask what the future holds for forensic DNA fingerprinting. PMID:24245688

Roewer, Lutz

2013-01-01

42

Disaster Analysis: Emergency Management Offices and Arrangements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Part I describes and analyzes the research of the Disaster Research Center (DRC) on the responses of local emergency management system in six community disasters. Effectiveness of response was assessed in terms of communication which resulted in correct i...

D. Wenger E. L. Quarantelli R. Dynes

1987-01-01

43

QUALITY ASSURANCE GUIDELINES FOR LABORATORIES PERFORMING FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL TERRORISM  

EPA Science Inventory

The Scientific Working Group on Forensic Analysis of Chemical Terrorism (SWGFACT) has developed the following quality assurance guidelines to provide laboratories engaged in forensic analysis of chemical evidence associated with terrorism a framework to implement a quality assura...

44

Compositional data analysis for elemental data in forensic science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discrimination of material based on elemental composition was achieved within a compositional data (CoDa) analysis framework in a form appropriate for use in forensic science. The methods were carried out on example data from New Zealand nephrite. We have achieved good separation of the in situ outcrops of nephrite from within a well-defined area. The most significant achievement of working

Gareth P. Campbell; James M. Curran; Gordon M. Miskelly; Sally Coulson; Gregory M. Yaxley; Eric C. Grunsky; Simon C. Cox

2009-01-01

45

The contribution of forensic science to crime analysis and investigation: Forensic intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The debate in forensic science concentrates on issues such as standardisation, accreditation and de-contextualisation, in a legal and economical context, in order to ensure the scientific objectivity and efficiency that must guide the process of collecting, analysing, interpreting and reporting forensic evidence. At the same time, it is recognised that forensic case data is still poorly integrated into the investigation

Olivier Ribaux; Simon J. Walsh; Pierre Margot

2006-01-01

46

Helping formulate propositions in forensic DNA analysis.  

PubMed

The Bayesian paradigm is the preferred approach to evidence interpretation. It requires the evaluation of the probability of the evidence under at least two propositions. The value of the findings (i.e., our LR) will depend on these propositions and the case information, so it is crucial to identify which propositions are useful for the case at hand. Previously, a number of principles have been advanced and largely accepted for the evaluation of evidence. In the evaluation of traces involving DNA mixtures there may be more than two propositions possible. We apply these principles to some exemplar situations. We also show that in some cases, when there are no clear propositions or no defendant, a forensic scientist may be able to generate explanations to account for observations. In that case, the scientist plays a role of investigator, rather than evaluator. We believe that it is helpful for the scientist to distinguish those two roles. PMID:25002042

Buckleton, John; Bright, Jo-Anne; Taylor, Duncan; Evett, Ian; Hicks, Tacha; Jackson, Graham; Curran, James M

2014-07-01

47

Digital Evidence Retrieval and Forensic Analysis on Gambling Machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hardware forensic analysis involves the process of analyzing digital evidence derived from digital sources. The analysis is\\u000a done to facilitate and prove either the device is used to commit crime, whether it contains evidence of a crime or is the\\u000a target of a crime. Gambling machines serve as the main source by which illegal games are conducted. This paper presents

Pritheega Magalingam; Azizah Abdul Manaf; Rabiah Ahmad; Zuraimi Yahya

2009-01-01

48

Raman spectroscopy for forensic analysis of inks in questioned documents.  

PubMed

The methods for perpetrating forgery and alteration of documents are becoming increasingly more sophisticated. Forensic examinations of questioned documents routinely involve physical and chemical analysis of inks. Raman spectroscopy is a very attractive technique for ink analysis because it combines chemical selectivity with ease and fast analysis and it does not require sample preparation nor leads to destruction of the evidence. However, some limitations of this technique include low sensitivity and the overwhelming phenomenon of fluorescence, which can be solved by resonance Raman spectroscopy and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. This article aims to demonstrate the great potential of the Raman-based techniques by providing an overview of their application to forensic examinations of ink evidence from pens and printers. Moreover, it is also addressed the chemistry of ink-paper interactions and the problematic of intersecting lines. PMID:24053882

Braz, André; López-López, Maria; García-Ruiz, Carmen

2013-10-10

49

Biocatalytic analysis of biomarkers for forensic identification of gender.  

PubMed

A new biocatalytic assay analyzing the simultaneous presence of creatine kinase (CK) and alanine transaminase (ALT) was developed aiming at the recognition of biofluids of different gender for forensic applications. Knowing the difference in the concentrations of CK and ALT enzymes in the blood of healthy adults of male and female groups we mimicked the samples of different gender with various CK-ALT concentrations. The analysis was performed using a multi-enzyme/multi-step biocatalytic cascade where the differences in both included enzymes resulted in an amplified difference in the final analytical response. The analysis performed in human serum solutions allowed discrimination of samples corresponding to male/female groups. The robustness of the developed analysis allowed determination of the gender for serum solutions after their drying and ageing at least for 1 hour. Importantly for forensic applications, reaction with a chromogenic reactant nitroblue tetrazolium allowed qualitative discrimination of the "male" and "female" samples by the naked eye. PMID:24292012

Bakshi, Saira; Halámková, Lenka; Halámek, Jan; Katz, Evgeny

2014-02-01

50

Forensic Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is incorporating a broader spectrum of chemical sciences. Existing forensic practices are being revisited as the purview of forensic chemistry extends outward from drug analysis and toxicology into such diverse areas as combustion chemistry, materials science, and pattern evidence.

Bell, Suzanne

2009-07-01

51

Forensic chemistry.  

PubMed

Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is incorporating a broader spectrum of chemical sciences. Existing forensic practices are being revisited as the purview of forensic chemistry extends outward from drug analysis and toxicology into such diverse areas as combustion chemistry, materials science, and pattern evidence. PMID:20636064

Bell, Suzanne

2009-01-01

52

Towards an integrated e-mail forensic analysis framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to its simple and inherently vulnerable nature, e-mail communication is abused for numerous illegitimate purposes. E-mail spamming, phishing, drug trafficking, cyber bullying, racial vilification, child pornography, and sexual harassment are some common e-mail mediated cyber crimes. Presently, there is no adequate proactive mechanism for securing e-mail systems. In this context, forensic analysis plays a major role by examining suspected

Rachid Hadjidj; Mourad Debbabi; Hakim Lounis; Farkhund Iqbal; Adam Szporer; Djamel Benredjem

2009-01-01

53

Recent Improvements in Forensic Hair Analysis for Illicit Drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review summarizes technical and administrative improvements in forensic hair analysis for methamphet- amine (MA) and designer drugs, recently developed by the present authors' team. These improvements include the establishment of three types of screening methods, and a column-switching liquid chromatographic-mass spectro- metric (LC-MS) method for determining such drugs and their metabolites to serve as an alternative confirmation technique. The

Akihiro Miki; Munehiro Katagi; Hitoshi Tsuchihashi

2003-01-01

54

A Cybercrime Forensic Method for Chinese Web Information Authorship Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing popularization of the Internet, Internet services used as illegal purposes have become a serious problem.\\u000a How to prevent these phenomena from happening has become a major concern for society. In this paper, a cybercrime forensic\\u000a method for Chinese illegal web information authorship analysis was described. Various writing-style features including linguistic\\u000a features and structural features were extracted. To

Jianbin Ma; Guifa Teng; Yuxin Zhang; Yueli Li; Ying Li

2009-01-01

55

Recent trend and perspectives in forensic anthropology: a bibliometric analysis.  

PubMed

This paper evaluates research in Forensic Anthropology (FA) in order to report on the state of this field of science. In particular, we carried out a review of all PubMed-listed scientific studies in the past decades using "forensic anthropology" as the keyword. In our "meta-analysis", we observed variation in the number of publications per 2-year interval throughout the study period. In total, 1589 studies were found in the database and 1292 of them were published in the period 2000-2009. There was a significant positive correlation between the number of published articles and time (subdivided into 2-year intervals). The rate of increase was lower in the last decade. Based on the observed trend, we expect that the phenomenon will continue in the near future, reaching a number close to 400 FA publications in PubMed in the biennium 2012-13. We also carried out a specific content analysis of all FA papers published in the journal Forensic Science International in the last decade. During this period, the majority of FA papers concerned skeletal biology, although there was a positive shift toward virtual anthropological studies. PMID:23941009

Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela; Fonti, Giulia

2013-06-01

56

Investigation of Italy's deadliest building collapse: forensic aspects of a mass disaster.  

PubMed

We describe the investigation of the 1999 collapse of an apartment building in Foggia, Italy. Sixty-one victims were recovered in the rubble of the building, and five people were unaccounted for. All the bodies were well preserved except for two who had been burned. The majority of the victims were identified visually or by comparing body features, clothing, or personal effects with information collected from relatives or friends. Positive identifications of the two victims who were burned were obtained by dental comparison and DNA analysis. Approximately half of the victims (51.6%) sustained fatal injuires, while the remainder died from asphyxia. The injuries were characterized using the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and the New Injury Severity Score (NISS) systems. Injury severity associated with the location of victims inside the apartment may provide useful information for those involved in building design and/or search and rescue operations. Engineers determined that the collapse was the result of the use of inappropriate foundation material. PMID:12762538

Campobasso, Carlo P; Falamingo, Rosa; Vinci, Francesco

2003-05-01

57

Forensic Analysis Demonstration via Hawaii Five-O  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Forensics," in its most universal sense, is defined as the use of science or technology in the investigation and establishment of facts or evidence for determining identity or relatedness. Most forensic reasoning is used for arguing legal matters. However, forensic studies are also used in agronomy, biology, chemistry, geology, and physics to…

Shmaefsky, Brian R.

2006-01-01

58

Identifying Significant Features for Network Forensic Analysis Using Artificial Intelligence Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Network forensics is the study ofanalyzing network activity in order to discover the source of security policy violations or information assurance breaches. Capturing network activity for forensic analysis is simple in theory, but relatively trivial in practice. Not all the information captured or recorded will be useful for analysis. Identifying key features that reveal information deemed worthy for further

Srinivas Mukkamala; Andrew H. Sung

2003-01-01

59

Forensic Anthropology and Forensic Pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter presents a critical analysis of forensic anthropology. An evaluation of the conception of forensic anthropology\\u000a across European and American countries is attempted. Furthermore, the authors set out to identify the growing fields in which\\u000a the anthropologist is involved, alone or together with forensic pathologists.\\u000a \\u000a Certification, training requirements, and teaching are rather heterogeneous across the several countries analyzed. Yet,

Eugénia Cunha; Cristina Cattaneo

60

Analysis of condom lubricants for forensic casework.  

PubMed

The detection of DNA is inhibited in cases of sexual assault involving condom use. Trace evidence, including condom lubricant residues, provides crucial associative evidence in such cases. The existing Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) methods for lubricant analysis and detection are limited with regard to sensitivity and discrimination. The aim of this research was to establish a new method as an alternative to FTIR for the analysis of condom lubricant residues. Pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (PyGC-MS) and GC-MS are highly sensitive methods of analysis for a wide range of chemical substances. PyGC-MS and GC-MS were used to analyze condom lubricants in standard solution, from clean swabs and from postcoital swabs. Pyrolysis of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) lubricant forms cyclic products known as cyclic dimethyl siloxanes (DMS), which are separated and detected by the GC-MS. The polyethylene glycol (PEG) lubricant can be analyzed by GC-MS directly from solution. The methods of extraction and analysis presented in this paper were shown to be significantly more sensitive than FTIR for the analysis of PDMS and PEG condom lubricants. PDMS was detected as low as 1 mug in standard solution and from clean swabs using the PyGC-MS method. PEG was detected as low as 0.5 microg from standard solution and 50 mug from clean swabs using the GC-MS method. Unfortunately, we were unable to provide further discrimination between condom brands and subbrands. The methods established throughout the research were used successfully to detect condom lubricants from donated postcoital swabs. Lubricants were detected in abundance on swabs 12 h postcoitus. Recommendations are made regarding implementation of new methods for routine analysis of casework samples along with strict pyrolysis interpretation criteria to minimize the possibility of misinterpretation of false positives. PMID:17456090

Campbell, Gareth P; Gordon, Amanda L

2007-05-01

61

Requirements and Functional Analysis of a Multi-Hazard Disaster-Risk Analysis System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article applies a systems engineering approach to formulate a conceptual design of a multi-hazard disaster risk analysis system. An analysis of the requirements of this system identifies user, technical, and output requirements. Functional analysis decomposes these prescribed requirements into a set of system descriptions. Design constraints that impede multi-hazard disaster risk analysis are identified by their requirements and functions.

Y.-M. Chen; K. S. Fan; L.-C. Chen

2010-01-01

62

Use of Stable Isotopes in Forensic Analysis of Microorganisms  

SciTech Connect

The use of isotopic signatures for forensic analysis of biological materials is well-established, and the same general principles that apply to interpretation of stable isotope content of C, N, O, and H apply to the analysis of microorganisms. Heterotrophic microorganisms derive their isotopic content from their growth substrates, which are largely plant and animal products, and the water in their culture medium. Thus the isotope signatures of microbes are tied to their growth environment. The C, N, O, and H isotope ratios of spores have been demonstrated to constitute highly discriminating signatures for sample matching. They can rule out specific samples of media and/or water as possible production media, and can predict isotope ratio ranges of the culture media and water used to produce a given sample. These applications have been developed and tested through analyses of approximately 250 samples of Bacillus subtilis spores and over 500 samples of culture media, providing a strong statistical basis for data interpretation. A Bayesian statistical framework for integrating stable isotope data with other types of signatures derived from microorganisms has been able to characterize the culture medium used to produce spores of various Bacillus species, leveraging isotopic differences in different medium types and demonstrating the power of data integration for forensic investigations.

Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.; Hegg, Eric L.

2012-01-18

63

Computer-aided fiber analysis for crime scene forensics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The forensic analysis of fibers is currently completely manual and therefore time consuming. The automation of analysis steps can significantly support forensic experts and reduce the time, required for the investigation. Moreover, a subjective expert belief is extended by objective machine estimation. This work proposes the pattern recognition pipeline containing the digital acquisition of a fiber media, the pre-processing for fiber segmentation, and the extraction of the distinctive characteristics of fibers. Currently, basic geometrical features like width, height, area of optically dominant fibers are investigated. In order to support the automatic classification of fibers, supervised machine learning algorithms are evaluated. The experimental setup includes a car seat and two pieces clothing of a different fabric. As preliminary work, acrylic as synthetic and sheep wool as natural fiber are chosen to be classified. While sitting on the seat, a test person leaves textile fibers. The test aims at automatic distinguishing of clothes through the fiber traces gained from the seat with the help of adhesive tape. The digitalization of fiber samples is provided by a contactless chromatic white light sensor. First test results showed, that two optically very different fibers can be properly assigned to their corresponding fiber type. The best classifier achieves an accuracy of 75 percent correctly classified samples for our suggested features.

Hildebrandt, Mario; Arndt, Christian; Makrushin, Andrey; Dittmann, Jana

2012-02-01

64

The forensic analysis of thermal transfer printing.  

PubMed

Thermal transfer printing refers to printing processes that utilize heat to produce an image by either physical or chemical means or by a combination of both. As the technology has improved and the supplies have become less expensive, the use of thermal printing in the personal and business markets has increased significantly. Specifically, dye diffusion thermal transfer and thermal mass transfer have become predominant in the production of counterfeit credit cards, drivers' licenses, and other types of documents produced on plastic media. Chemical analysis by means of thin layer chromatography (TLC) has proven to be useful in characterizing various types of inks (e.g., writing and inkjet inks). In this study, the authors examined 81 different samples that included a total of 54 printer samples (43 photographic prints on paper and eleven plastic card samples) and 27 printer ribbons. A new TLC method was developed and tested utilizing a solvent system (80% n-hexane, 3% methyl ethyl ketone, and 17% ethyl acetate) that is capable of producing excellent resolution. PMID:14535687

LaPorte, Gerald M; Wilson, Jeffrey D; Mancke, S Amanda; Payne, Jeffrey A; Ramotowski, Robert S; Fortunato, Susan L

2003-09-01

65

Objective analysis of toolmarks in forensics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the 1993 court case of Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc. the subjective nature of toolmark comparison has been questioned by attorneys and law enforcement agencies alike. This has led to an increased drive to establish objective comparison techniques with known error rates, much like those that DNA analysis is able to provide. This push has created research in which the 3-D surface profile of two different marks are characterized and the marks' cross-sections are run through a comparative statistical algorithm to acquire a value that is intended to indicate the likelihood of a match between the marks. The aforementioned algorithm has been developed and extensively tested through comparison of evenly striated marks made by screwdrivers. However, this algorithm has yet to be applied to quasi-striated marks such as those made by the shear edge of slip-joint pliers. The results of this algorithm's application to the surface of copper wire will be presented. Objective mark comparison also extends to comparison of toolmarks made by firearms. In an effort to create objective comparisons, microstamping of firing pins and breech faces has been introduced. This process involves placing unique alphanumeric identifiers surrounded by a radial code on the surface of firing pins, which transfer to the cartridge's primer upon firing. Three different guns equipped with microstamped firing pins were used to fire 3000 cartridges. These cartridges are evaluated based on the clarity of their alphanumeric transfers and the clarity of the radial code surrounding the alphanumerics.

Grieve, Taylor N.

66

Application of computer simulation technology for structure analysis in disaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of mechanics and computer technology, computer simulation has become an important tool in the structure analysis and design. Especially when the structures are under disaster load such as blast, penetration, impact of collapse or typhoon, it is difficult to analyze with test method, while the advantages of computer simulation method such as safe, efficient and cheap, are

Lu Xinzheng; Yang Ning; Jiang Jianjing

2004-01-01

67

Satellite Image Analysis for Disaster and Crisis-Management Support  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes how multisource satellite data and efficient image analysis may successfully be used to conduct rapid-mapping tasks in the domain of disaster and crisis-management support. The German Aerospace Center (DLR) has set up a dedicated crosscutting service, which is the so-called \\

Stefan Voigt; Thomas Kemper; Torsten Riedlinger; Ralph Kiefl; Klaas Scholte; Harald Mehl

2007-01-01

68

Automated Forensic DNA Purification Optimized for FTA Card Punches and Identifiler STR-based PCR Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic labs globally face the same problem—a growing need to process a greater number and wider variety of samples for DNA analysis. The same forensic lab can be tasked all at once with processing mixed casework samples from crime scenes, convicted offender samples for database entry, and tissue from tsunami victims for identification. Besides flexibility in the robotic system chosen

Lois C. Tack; Michelle Thomas; Karl Reich

2005-01-01

69

Age estimation in forensic sciences: application of combined aspartic acid racemization and radiocarbon analysis.  

PubMed

Age determination of unknown human bodies is important in the setting of a crime investigation or a mass disaster because the age at death, birth date, and year of death as well as gender can guide investigators to the correct identity among a large number of possible matches. Traditional morphological methods used by anthropologists to determine age are often imprecise, whereas chemical analysis of tooth dentin, such as aspartic acid racemization, has shown reproducible and more precise results. In this study, we analyzed teeth from Swedish individuals using both aspartic acid racemization and radiocarbon methodologies. The rationale behind using radiocarbon analysis is that aboveground testing of nuclear weapons during the cold war (1955-1963) caused an extreme increase in global levels of carbon-14 ((14)C), which has been carefully recorded over time. Forty-four teeth from 41 individuals were analyzed using aspartic acid racemization analysis of tooth crown dentin or radiocarbon analysis of enamel, and 10 of these were split and subjected to both radiocarbon and racemization analysis. Combined analysis showed that the two methods correlated well (R(2) = 0.66, p < 0.05). Radiocarbon analysis showed an excellent precision with an overall absolute error of 1.0 +/- 0.6 years. Aspartic acid racemization also showed a good precision with an overall absolute error of 5.4 +/- 4.2 years. Whereas radiocarbon analysis gives an estimated year of birth, racemization analysis indicates the chronological age of the individual at the time of death. We show how these methods in combination can also assist in the estimation of date of death of an unidentified victim. This strategy can be of significant assistance in forensic casework involving dead victim identification. PMID:19965905

Alkass, Kanar; Buchholz, Bruce A; Ohtani, Susumu; Yamamoto, Toshiharu; Druid, Henrik; Spalding, Kirsty L

2010-05-01

70

Age estimation in forensic sciences: Application of combined aspartic acid racemization and radiocarbon analysis  

SciTech Connect

Age determination of unknown human bodies is important in the setting of a crime investigation or a mass disaster, since the age at death, birth date and year of death, as well as gender, can guide investigators to the correct identity among a large number of possible matches. Traditional morphological methods used by anthropologists to determine age are often imprecise, whereas chemical analysis of tooth dentin, such as aspartic acid racemization has shown reproducible and more precise results. In this paper we analyze teeth from Swedish individuals using both aspartic acid racemization and radiocarbon methodologies. The rationale behind using radiocarbon analysis is that above-ground testing of nuclear weapons during the cold war (1955-1963) caused an extreme increase in global levels of carbon-14 ({sup 14}C) which have been carefully recorded over time. Forty-four teeth from 41 individuals were analyzed using aspartic acid racemization analysis of tooth crown dentin or radiocarbon analysis of enamel and ten of these were split and subjected to both radiocarbon and racemization analysis. Combined analysis showed that the two methods correlated well (R2=0.66, p < 0.05). Radiocarbon analysis showed an excellent precision with an overall absolute error of 0.6 {+-} 04 years. Aspartic acid racemization also showed a good precision with an overall absolute error of 5.4 {+-} 4.2 years. Whereas radiocarbon analysis gives an estimated year of birth, racemization analysis indicates the chronological age of the individual at the time of death. We show how these methods in combination can also assist in the estimation of date of death of an unidentified victim. This strategy can be of significant assistance in forensic casework involving dead victim identification.

Alkass, K; Buchholz, B A; Ohtani, S; Yamamoto, T; Druid, H; Spalding, S L

2009-11-02

71

Potential Analysis of Rainfall-induced Sediment Disaster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the mountain regions in Taiwan are sedimentary and metamorphic rocks which are fragile and highly weathered. Severe erosion occurs due to intensive rainfall and rapid flow, the erosion is even worsen by frequent earthquakes and severely affects the stability of hillsides. Rivers are short and steep in Taiwan with large runoff differences in wet and dry seasons. Discharges respond rapidly with rainfall intensity and flood flows usually carry large amount of sediment. Because of the highly growth in economics and social change, the development in the slope land is inevitable in Taiwan. However, sediment disasters occur frequently in high and precipitous region during typhoon. To make the execution of the regulation of slope land development more efficiency, construction of evaluation model for sediment potential is very important. In this study, the Genetic Adaptive Neural Network (GANN) was implemented in texture analysis techniques for the classification of satellite images of research region before and after typhoon or extreme rainfall and to obtain surface information and hazard log data. By using GANN weight analysis, factors, levels and probabilities of disaster of the research areas are presented. Then, through geographic information system the disaster potential map is plotted to distinguish high potential regions from low potential regions. Finally, the evaluation processes for sediment disaster after rainfall due to slope land use are established. In this research, the automatic image classification and evaluation modules for sediment disaster after rainfall due to slope land disturbance and natural environment are established in MATLAB to avoid complexity and time of computation. After implementation of texture analysis techniques, the results show that the values of overall accuracy and coefficient of agreement of the time-saving image classification for different time periods are at intermediate-high level and above. The results of GANN show that the weight of building density is the largest in all slope land disturbance factors, followed by road density, orchard density, baren land density, vegetation density, and farmland density. The weight of geology is the largest in all natural environment factors, followed by slope roughness, slope, and elevation. Overlaying the locations of large sediment disaster in the past on the potential map predicted by GANN, we found that most damage areas were in the region with medium-high or high potential of landslide. Therefore, the proposed potential model of sediment disaster can be used in practice.

Chen, Jing-Wen; Chen, Yie-Ruey; Hsieh, Shun-Chieh; Tsai, Kuang-Jung; Chue, Yung-Sheng

2014-05-01

72

Field damage assessments as a design tool for information and communications technology systems that are resilient to natural disasters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses how to perform field damage assessments after natural disasters as a systematic design tool to achieve information and communications technology (ICT) systems that are more resilient to natural disasters. Hence, damage assessments are analogous to performing forensic analysis, such as autopsies, in biological sciences. Yet, for ICT system designs, practical studies based on damage assessments have been

Alexis Kwasinski

2011-01-01

73

Forensic Analysis of Venezuelan Elections during the Chávez Presidency.  

PubMed

Hugo Chávez dominated the Venezuelan electoral landscape since his first presidential victory in 1998 until his death in 2013. Nobody doubts that he always received considerable voter support in the numerous elections held during his mandate. However, the integrity of the electoral system has come into question since the 2004 Presidential Recall Referendum. From then on, different sectors of society have systematically alleged electoral irregularities or biases in favor of the incumbent party. We have carried out a thorough forensic analysis of the national-level Venezuelan electoral processes held during the 1998-2012 period to assess these complaints. The second-digit Benford's law and two statistical models of vote distributions, recently introduced in the literature, are reviewed and used in our case study. In addition, we discuss a new method to detect irregular variations in the electoral roll. The outputs obtained from these election forensic tools are examined taking into account the substantive context of the elections and referenda under study. Thus, we reach two main conclusions. Firstly, all the tools uncover anomalous statistical patterns, which are consistent with election fraud from 2004 onwards. Although our results are not a concluding proof of fraud, they signal the Recall Referendum as a turning point in the integrity of the Venezuelan elections. Secondly, our analysis calls into question the reliability of the electoral register since 2004. In particular, we found irregular variations in the electoral roll that were decisive in winning the 50% majority in the 2004 Referendum and in the 2012 Presidential Elections. PMID:24971462

Jiménez, Raúl; Hidalgo, Manuel

2014-01-01

74

Establishing standards for criminal forensic reports: an empirical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic psychologists and forensic psychiatrists (about 80% of whom were certified by a specialty board) were surveyed regarding their beliefs about the necessary and appropriate content for reports on competency to stand trial (CST) (N = 102) and criminal responsibility\\/not guilty by reason of insanity (CR) (N = 96). Report elements concerning the identification of the defendant and evaluation methods

R. Borum; Thomas Grisso

1996-01-01

75

A disaster-severity assessment DSS comparative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to provide a comparative analysis of fuzzy rule-based systems and some standard statistical and other machine\\u000a learning techniques in the context of the development of a decision support system (DSS) for the assessment of the severity\\u000a of natural disasters. This DSS, which will be referred to as SEDD, has been proposed by the authors to help decision

J. Tinguaro Rodríguez; Begoña Vitoriano; Javier Montero; Vojislav Kecman

2011-01-01

76

Forensic Analysis of MTBE Contamination Using Basic Hydrogeologic Concepts.  

PubMed

Contamination of groundwater with petroleum hydrocarbons and additives, such as methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), is often linked to the leaking product distribution system of gas stations. In very few cases is it know if and when a leak occurred and how much product was released to the environment. In the absence of direct evidence, a careful analysis of the available data, such as contaminant breakthrough at receptor wells or discrepancies in the product inventory data, may provide evidence about the nature of the release, its timing and magnitude. Using a MTBE contamination site in the formerly glaciated New England region as an example, two possible release scenarios (slow, long-term release vs. spill) were examined. Of the two scenarios, the slow release could be ruled out as the sole source even though there was no direct evidence for a spill. The analysis of hydraulic test results together with chemical data further permitted to estimate when such an undocumented spill might have occurred. Analyses of the data also allowed these results to be compared to that of a prior transport and fate modeling study. Good agreement and consistency for contaminant travel times was confirmed. This forensic analysis demonstrates that applying basic hydrogeologic principles can aide in the reconstruction of contamination events while providing more readily understandable and defendable evidence relative to complex models. Conceptually, the approach described herein is transferable to other sites with similar hydrogeologies. PMID:24840309

Boving, Thomas

2014-07-01

77

Forensic Analysis of Windows Hosts Using UNIX-based Tools  

SciTech Connect

Many forensic examiners are introduced to UNIX-based forensic utilities when faced with investigating a UNIX-like operating system for the first time. They will use these utilities for this very specific task, because in many cases these tools are the only ones for the given job. For example, at the time of this writing, given a FreeBSD 5.x file system, the author's only choice is to use The Coroner's Toolkit running on FreeBSD 5.x. However, many of the same tools examiners use for the occasional UNIX-like system investigation are extremely capable when a Windows system is the target. Indeed, the Linux operating system itself can prove to be an extremely useful forensics platform with very little use of specialized forensics utilities at all.

Cory Altheide

2004-07-19

78

Analysis of clinical forensic examination reports on sexual assault  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical-forensic examination of sexual assault victims and alleged offenders is a common task of many forensic institutes.\\u000a In the current study, the results from samples taken at the Institute of Legal Medicine, Hanover Medical School, during a\\u000a period from 2005 to 2007 were retrospectively evaluated. In total, 292 victims (283 females and nine males) and 88 suspects\\u000a were examined. At

Stefanie Jänisch; Hildrun Meyer; Tanja Germerott; Urs-Vito Albrecht; Yvonne Schulz; Anette Solveig Debertin

2010-01-01

79

Validation of mitochondrial DNA sequencing for forensic casework analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two sets of studies were performed to evaluate the forensic utility of sequencing human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) derived from various tissues and amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sequencing was performed on a Perkin-Elmer\\/Applied Biosystems Division (PE\\/ABD) automated DNA sequencer (model 373A). The first set of experiments included typical validation studies that had previously been conducted on forensic DNA

Mark R. Wilson; Joseph A. DiZinno; Deborah Polanskey; Jeri Replogle; Bruce Budowle

1995-01-01

80

Sequence analysis of domestic dog mitochondrial DNA for forensic use.  

PubMed

A method has been developed for the direct sequencing of hypervariable region 1 (HV1) of domestic dog (Canis familiaris) and wolf (Canis lupus) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) using single hairs as template. The method uses a robotic work-station and an automated sequencer to allow for robust routine analysis. A population data base was created in order to investigate the forensic and population-genetic informativeness of domestic dog HV1. Sequence variation, partitioning of dog breeds among sequence variants and phylogenetic relations between the variants were determined. Samples from 102 domestic dogs of 52 different breeds and two captive wolves were analyzed. Nineteen dog-sequence variants were found and the frequencies of the variants ranged from 1 to 21%. The calculated discrimination power of the region, i.e., the exclusion capacity, implied that nine out of ten disputed individuals can be excluded by this analysis. The sequence variants were found to cluster into four phylogenetic groups. PMID:9243824

Savolainen, P; Rosén, B; Holmberg, A; Leitner, T; Uhlén, M; Lundeberg, J

1997-07-01

81

Development of a novel forensic STR multiplex for ancestry analysis and extended identity testing.  

PubMed

There is growing interest in developing additional DNA typing techniques to provide better investigative leads in forensic analysis. These include inference of genetic ancestry and prediction of common physical characteristics of DNA donors. To date, forensic ancestry analysis has centered on population-divergent SNPs but these binary loci cannot reliably detect DNA mixtures, common in forensic samples. Furthermore, STR genotypes, forming the principal DNA profiling system, are not routinely combined with forensic SNPs to strengthen frequency data available for ancestry inference. We report development of a 12-STR multiplex composed of ancestry informative marker STRs (AIM-STRs) selected from 434 tetranucleotide repeat loci. We adapted our online Bayesian classifier for AIM-SNPs: Snipper, to handle multiallele STR data using frequency-based training sets. We assessed the ability of the 12-plex AIM-STRs to differentiate CEPH Human Genome Diversity Panel populations, plus their informativeness combined with established forensic STRs and AIM-SNPs. We found combining STRs and SNPs improves the success rate of ancestry assignments while providing a reliable mixture detection system lacking from SNP analysis alone. As the 12 STRs generally show a broad range of alleles in all populations, they provide highly informative supplementary STRs for extended relationship testing and identification of missing persons with incomplete reference pedigrees. Lastly, mixed marker approaches (combining STRs with binary loci) for simple ancestry inference tests beyond forensic analysis bring advantages and we discuss the genotyping options available. PMID:23400880

Phillips, Chris; Fernandez-Formoso, Luis; Gelabert-Besada, Miguel; Garcia-Magariños, Manuel; Santos, Carla; Fondevila, Manuel; Carracedo, Angel; Lareu, Maria Victoria

2013-04-01

82

OHE OBJECT ORIENTED ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION METHOD FOR THE NATURAL DISASTER BASED ON SPATIAL TECHNIQUES: A PILOT STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some different techniques were adopted in disaster management and research. Difficulties appeared in operational disaster emergency response works. There is no effective scheme to integrate various methods to a system considering that big difference exist among different disaster happening environment. Considering OHE as the unification of objects having relationship with natural disaster, we put forward a hypothesis that different analysis

HU Zhuowei; GONG Huili; ZHAO Wenji; LI Xiaojuan

83

An Architecture for the Forensic Analysis of Windows System Artifacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose an architecture to enable the forensic investigator to analyze and visualise a range of system generated artifacts with known and unknown data structures. The architecture is intended to facilitate the extraction and analysis of operating system artifacts while being extensible, flexible and reusable. The examples selected for the paper are the Windows Event Logs and Swap Files. Event logs can reveal evidence regarding logons, authentication, accounts and privileged use and can address questions relating to which user accounts were being used and which machines were accessed. The Swap file may contain fragments of data, remnants or entire documents, e-mail messages or the results of internet browsing which may reveal past user activities. Issues relating to understanding and visualising artifacts data structures are discussed and possible solutions are explored. We outline a proposed solution; an extraction component responsible for extracting data and preparing the data for visualisation, a storage subsystem consisting of a database that holds all of the extracted data and the interface, an integrated set of visualization tools.

Hashim, Noor; Sutherland, Iain

84

Role of deoxyribonucleic acid technology in forensic dentistry  

PubMed Central

In the last few years, Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) analysis methods have been applied to forensic cases. Forensic dental record comparison has been used for human identification in cases where destruction of bodily tissues or prolonged exposure to the environment has made other means of identification impractical, that is, after fire exposure or mass disaster. Teeth play an important role in identification and criminology, due to their unique characteristics and relatively high degree of physical and chemical resistance. The use of a DNA profile test in forensic dentistry offers a new perspective in human identification. The DNA is responsible for storing all the genetic material and is unique to each individual. The currently available DNA tests have high reliability and are accepted as legal proofs in courts. This article gives an overview of the evolution of DNA technology in the last few years, highlighting its importance in cases of forensic investigation.

Datta, Pankaj; Datta, Sonia Sood

2012-01-01

85

Forensic isotope analysis to refine a hydrologic conceptual model.  

PubMed

Water resources in the arid southwestern United States are frequently the subject of conflict from competing private and public interests. Legal remedies may remove impasses, but the technical analysis of the problem often determines the future success of legal solutions. In Owens Valley, California, the source of water for the Los Angeles Aqueduct (LAA) is flow diverted from the Owens River and its tributaries and ground water from valley aquifers. Future management of ground water delivered to the LAA needs technical support regarding quantity available, interconnection of shallow and confined aquifers, impact on local springs, and rate of recharge. Ground water flow models and ground water composition are tools already in use, but these have large uncertainty for local interpretations. This study conducted targeted sampling of springs and wells to evaluate the hydrologic system to corroborate conceptual and numerical models. The effort included measurement of intrinsic isotopic composition at key locations in the aquifers. The stable isotopic data of boron (delta(11)B), sulfur (delta(34)S), oxygen (delta(18)O), hydrogen (delta D), and tritium ((3)H) supported by basic chemical data provided rules for characterizing the upper and the lower aquifer system, confirmed the interpretation of ground water flow near faults and flow barriers, and detected hydraulic connections between the LAA and the perennial springs at key locations along the unlined reach of the LAA. This study exemplifies the use of forensic isotopic approaches as independent checks on the consistency of interpretations of conceptual models of a ground water system and the numerical hydrologic simulations. PMID:18266731

Bassett, R L; Steinwand, Aaron; Jorat, Saeed; Petersen, Christian; Jackson, Randy

2008-01-01

86

Insertion-deletion polymorphisms--utilization on forensic analysis.  

PubMed

Insertion-deletion (INDEL) markers are very frequent in the human genome and present several advantages for population and forensic studies, such as low mutation rates, easy interpretation, small amplicons, easy genotyping, and the possibility of using multiplex PCR. The great adaptability of INDELs for amplification of low copy number or degraded DNA allows its using as an interesting platform of genetic identity by DNA in forensic cases. In the present study, we tested the ability of 48 diallelic INDEL markers on genotyping forensic samples collected from different biological samples related to criminal cases. Moreover, we evaluated the lowest DNA concentration with which there was amplification of all markers from each one of three indel-plex panels. When comparing the performances obtained by the indel-plex panels described in this study with results obtained using Identifiler® kit (Applied Biosystems) related to forensic samples, as well as to control samples with different concentrations of DNA, we observed superior efficiency on samples with low copy number or in the presence of inhibitors. PMID:21647760

da Costa Francez, Pablo Abdon; Rodrigues, Elzemar Martins Ribeiro; de Velasco, Afrânio Maurício; dos Santos, Sidney Emanuel Batista

2012-07-01

87

Paint Analysis Using Visible Reflectance Spectroscopy: An Undergraduate Forensic Lab  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study of forensic science is found throughout undergraduate programs in growing numbers, both as stand-alone courses as well as specific examples within existing courses. Part of the driving force for this trend is the ability to apply common chemistry techniques to everyday situations, all couched in the context of a mystery that must be…

Hoffman, Erin M.; Beussman, Douglas J.

2007-01-01

88

NanoSIMS analysis of Bacillus spores for forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The threat associated with the potential use of radiological, nuclear, chemical and biological materials in terrorist acts has resulted in new fields of forensic science requiring the application of state-of-the-science analytical techniques. Since the anthrax letter attacks in the United States in the fall of 2001, there has been increased interest in physical and chemical characterization of bacterial spores. While

P K Weber; M L Davisson; S P Velsko

2010-01-01

89

Pervasive Forensic Analysis Based on Mobile Cloud Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cloud computing has become one of mobile's hottest topics. Moving computing processing and data storage away from mobile devices and into large data centers, mobile applications enable the users to improve productivity, to share data and to collaborate with others. Considering the benefits of mobile cloud computing, the forensic service based on mobile cloud computing could be good solution to

Jooyoung Lee; Dowon Hong

2011-01-01

90

Forensic Analysis of Document Fragment Based on SVM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to automatically classify document fragments based on their contents is important in digital forensics. This paper proposes an Enhanced String Kernel (ESK) to classify file header fragments with Support Vector Machine (SVM). ESK can extract a byte sequence feature map about document fragment. The map consists of byte-level patterns of document fragments, and captures the characteristic of document

Binglong Li; Qingxian Wang; Junyong Luo

2006-01-01

91

Automated Analysis for Digital Forensic Science: Semantic Integrity Checking  

Microsoft Academic Search

When computer security violations are detected, com- puter forensic analysts attempting to determine the relevant causes and effects are forced to perform the tedious tasks of finding and preserving useful clues in large networks of op- erational machines. To augment a computer crime investi- gator's efforts, the approach presented in this paper is an expert system with a decision tree

Tye Stallard; Karl N. Levitt

2003-01-01

92

Model-based analysis of striation patterns in forensic science  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new image processing strategy that enables an automated extraction of signatures from striation patterns. To this end, a signal model is proposed that allows a suitable description of the interesting features of forensically relevant striation marks. To provide for a high image quality, several images of the same surface area are recorded under systematically varying conditions. The

M. Heizmann

2000-01-01

93

Establishing standards for criminal forensic reports: an empirical analysis.  

PubMed

Forensic psychologists and forensic psychiatrists (about 80% of whom were certified by a specialty board) were surveyed regarding their beliefs about the necessary and appropriate content for reports on competency to stand trial (CST) (N = 102) and criminal responsibility/not guilty by reason of insanity (CR) (N = 96). Report elements concerning the identification of the defendant and evaluation methods (e.g., names, relevant dates, charges, data sources, notification to defendant of the purpose of the evaluation, and limits on confidentiality) were generally seen as "essential." Clinical data such as psychiatric history, current mental status, and current use of psychotropic medication were also seen as essential, as were data elements specific to each forensic question (e.g., understanding charges/penalties, possible pleas, and roles of trial participants for CST, and collateral information and defendant's description of alleged offense for CR). While most respondents agreed that it was important to provide an opinion about and reasoning for any diagnosis and its relation to the psycholegal question, there was lack of consensus regarding the propriety of offering "ultimate opinions," particularly concerning CR. Although there was general cross-disciplinary agreement regarding the appropriate content for criminal forensic reports, there was some disagreement as to the degree of importance of certain elements. Implications for practice and the development of professional standards are discussed, including advantages and cautions about using these data to influence issues of standards and policy. PMID:8889131

Borum, R; Grisso, T

1996-01-01

94

A meta-analysis of risk factors for depression in adults and children after natural disasters  

PubMed Central

Background A number of studies have shown a range of negative psychological symptoms (e.g. depression) after exposure to natural disasters. The aim of this study was to determine risk factors for depression in both children and adults who have survived natural disasters. Methods Four electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and PsychInfo) were used to search for observational studies (case–control, cross-sectional, and cohort studies) about depression following natural disasters. The literature search, study selection, and data extraction were conducted independently by two authors. Thirty-one articles were included in the study, of which twenty included adult participants and eleven included child participants. Summary estimates were obtained using random-effects models. Subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, and publication bias tests were performed on the data. Results The prevalence of depression after natural disasters ranged from 5.8% to 54.0% in adults and from 7.5% to 44.8% in children. We found a number of risk factors for depression after exposure to natural disasters. For adults, the significant predictors were being female ;not married;holding religious beliefs; having poor education; prior trauma; experiencing fear, injury, or bereavement during the disaster; or losing employment or property, suffering house damage as a result of the disaster. For children, the significant predictors were prior trauma; being trapped during the disaster; experiencing injury, fear, or bereavement during the disaster; witnessing injury/death during the disaster; or having poor social support. Conclusions The current analysis provides evidence of risk factors for depression in survivors of natural disasters. Further research is necessary to design interventions to improve the mental health of survivors of natural disasters.

2014-01-01

95

Forensic elemental analysis of materials by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Materials analysis and characterization can provide important information as evidence in legal proceedings. Although the utility of trace elemental analyses for comparisons of glass, paint chips, bullet lead and metal fragments has been shown to offer a high degree of discrimination between different sources of these materials, the instrumentation required for the generation of good analytical data in forensic comparisons can be beyond the reach of many forensic laboratories. Scanning Electron Microscopy with an Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (SEM-EDS), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (LA-ICP-AES) and, more recently, LA-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) have been used in forensic laboratories for elemental analysis determinations. A newly developed Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument (Foster and Freeman Ltd., Evesham, U.K.) has been evaluated as a tool for the forensic elemental analysis of glass and compared in performance to other elemental methods in order to determine the utility of comparing casework sized glass samples. Developments in the instrumental design of this LIBS system, which is specifically designed to address the analytical requirements of the forensic laboratory, are presented. The utility of the LIBS system for the analysis of glass, paint, metals, gun shot residue and other matrices are also presented. The power of the LIBS-based elemental analysis to discriminate between different glass samples is also compared to the discrimination power of SEM-EDS, XRF and LA-ICP-MS. The relatively low cost (expected to be $ 60,000.), ease of operation and almost non-destructive nature of the LIBS analysis makes the technique a viable forensic elemental analysis tool.

Almirall, Jose R.; Umpierrez, Sayuri; Castro, Waleska; Gornushkin, Igor; Winefordner, James

2005-05-01

96

A Simple Cost-Effective Framework for iPhone Forensic Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Apple iPhone has made significant impact on the society both as a handheld computing device and as a cellular phone. Due to the unique hardware system as well as storage structure, iPhone has already attracted the forensic community in digital investigation of the device. Currently available commercial products and methodologies for iPhone forensics are somewhat expensive, complex and often require additional hardware for analysis. Some products are not robust and often fail to extract optimal evidence without modifying the iPhone firmware which makes the analysis questionable in legal platforms. In this paper, we present a simple and inexpensive framework (iFF) for iPhone forensic analysis. Through experimental results using real device, we have shown the effectiveness of this framework in extracting digital evidence from an iPhone.

Husain, Mohammad Iftekhar; Baggili, Ibrahim; Sridhar, Ramalingam

97

Lecture Notes On Forensic Law  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers lecture notes relating to an introductory survey course on forensic science. It is designed to provide a comprehensive understanding and analysis of technical and legal issues involving forensic techniques. The lectures, focus on traditional subjects relating to the services of crime laboratories,but also deals with allied subjects,including forensic psychiatry, forensic pathology, and social science.

O'Connor, Tom

2011-07-14

98

Effects of population structure on DNA fingerprint analysis in forensic science  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA fingerprints are used in forensic science to identify individuals. However, current analyses could underestimate the probability of two individuals sharing the same profile because the effect of population structure is not incorporated. An alternative analysis is proposed to take into account population stratification. The analysis uses studies of inbreeding in human populations to obtain an empirical upper bound on

Richard A Nichols; David J Balding

1991-01-01

99

Effects of Processing Techniques on the Forensic DNA Analysis of Human Skeletal Remains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human remains processed by forensic anthropologists may potentially be used for genetic analysis. Therefore, the condition of the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in processed remains may become an issue for future analysis. Processing techniques employed by anthropologists are highlyvariableandscanningelectronmicroscopyrevealssignificantalterationstothebonesurfacedependinguponthetechniqueused.Suchdamage to the bone indicates differences may exist in quality and quantity of DNA extracted. This study assessed how five processing procedures used

Jacquel L. Arismendi; Lori E. Baker; Karla J. Matteson

2004-01-01

100

Recent advances in the applications of forensic science to fire debris analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The forensic discipline of ignitable liquid and fire debris analysis is rapidly changing. Refinements in existing methods as well as development of new techniques are changing the routine methods of analysis. Optimization of existing extraction techniques and research into novel methods of extracting debris have improved the recovery of ignitable liquids from debris samples. The application of highly specialized instrumentation

J. Dolan

2003-01-01

101

The Y chromosome in forensic analysis and paternity testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The male specificity of the human Y chromosome makes it potentially useful in forensic studies and paternity testing, and\\u000a markers are now available which will allow its usefulness to be assessed in practice. However, while it can be used confidently\\u000a for exclusions, the unusual properties of the Y mean that inclusions will be very difficult to make: haplotypes are confined

M. A. Jobling; A. Pandya; C. Tyler-Smith

1997-01-01

102

The ‘relics of Joan of Arc’: A forensic multidisciplinary analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Archaeological remains can provide concrete cases, making it possible to develop, refine or validate medico-legal techniques.In the case of the so-called ‘Joan of Arc's relics’ (a group of bone and archaeological remains known as the ‘Bottle of Chinon’), 14 specialists analysed the samples such as a cadaver X of carbonised aspect: forensic anthropologist, medical examiners, pathologists, geneticists, radiologist, biochemists, palynologists,

P. Charlier; J. Poupon; A. Eb; P. De Mazancourt; T. Gilbert; I. Huynh-Charlier; Y. Loublier; A. M. Verhille; C. Moulheirat; M. Patou-Mathis; L. Robbiola; R. Montagut; F. Masson; A. Etcheberry; L. Brun; E. Willerslev; G. Lorin de la Grandmaison; M. Durigon

2010-01-01

103

The Gender Analysis Tools Applied in Natural Disasters Management: A Systematic Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Background: Although natural disasters have caused considerable damages around the world, and gender analysis can improve community disaster preparedness or mitigation, there is little research about the gendered analytical tools and methods in communities exposed to natural disasters and hazards. These tools evaluate gender vulnerability and capacity in pre-disaster and post-disaster phases of the disaster management cycle. Objectives: Identifying the analytical gender tools and the strengths and limitations of them as well as determining gender analysis studies which had emphasized on the importance of using gender analysis in disasters. Methods: The literature search was conducted in June 2013 using PubMed, Web of Sciences, ProQuest Research Library, World Health Organization Library, Gender and Disaster Network (GDN) archive. All articles, guidelines, fact sheets and other materials that provided an analytical framework for a gender analysis approach in disasters were included and the non-English documents as well as gender studies of non-disasters area were excluded. Analysis of the included studies was done separately by descriptive and thematic analyses. Results: A total of 207 documents were retrieved, of which only nine references were included. Of these, 45% were in form of checklist, 33% case study report, and the remaining 22% were article. All selected papers were published within the period 1994-2012. Conclusions: A focus on women’s vulnerability in the related research and the lack of valid and reliable gender analysis tools were considerable issues identified by the literature review. Although non-English literatures with English abstract were included in the study, the possible exclusion of non-English ones was found as the limitation of this study.

Sohrabizadeh, Sanaz; Tourani, Sogand; Khankeh, Hamid Reza

2014-01-01

104

Analysis of Media Agenda Setting During and After Hurricane Katrina: Implications for Emergency Preparedness, Disaster Response, and Disaster Policy  

PubMed Central

Media agenda setting refers to the deliberate coverage of topics or events with the goal of influencing public opinion and public policy. We conducted a quantitative content analysis of 4 prominent newspapers to examine how the media gathered and distributed news to shape public policy priorities during Hurricane Katrina. The media framed most Hurricane Katrina stories by emphasizing government response and less often addressing individuals’ and communities’ level of preparedness or responsibility. Hence, more articles covered response and recovery than mitigation and preparation. The newspapers studied focused significantly more on government response than on key public health roles in disaster management. We discuss specific implications for public health professionals, policymakers, and mass media so that, in the future, coordination can be enhanced among these entities before, during, and after disasters occur.

Barnes, Michael D.; Hanson, Carl L.; Novilla, Len M. B.; Meacham, Aaron T.; McIntyre, Emily; Erickson, Brittany C.

2008-01-01

105

GC-MS Analysis of [gamma]-Hydroxybutyric Acid Analogs: A Forensic Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An upper-division forensic chemistry experiment is described. It involves using glycolic acid and sodium glycolate as analogs of [gamma]-hydroxybutyric acid and its sodium salt. The experiment shows the use of silylation in GC-MS analysis and gives students the opportunity to work with a commonly used silylating reagent,…

Henck, Colin; Nally, Luke

2007-01-01

106

A study on the forensic mechanisms of VoIP attacks: Analysis and digital evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the use of communication technology to commit crimes, including crime facts and crime techniques. The analysis focuses on the security of voice over Internet protocol (VoIP), a prevention method against VoIP call attack and the attention points for setting up an Internet phone. The importance of digital evidence and digital forensics are emphasised. This paper provides the

Yun-Sheng Yen; I.-Long Lin; Bo-Lin Wu

2011-01-01

107

Improvements in Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry for Forensic Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was evaluated for elemental analysis of tapes and copper wires for forensic comparison purposes. Both a conventional 10 ns laser and a short pulse (100 fs) laser were used. Principal ...

J. Berry M. L. Mekoli R. S. Houk S. J. Bajic

2013-01-01

108

Application of Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy to Forensic Science: Analysis of Paint and Glass Samples.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A commercial single 1064 nm pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument was purchased with the funding provided under this award and the instrument was utilized to evaluate the potential for using LIBS in the forensic analysis of glass sa...

M. E. Sigman

2010-01-01

109

Escape from Psychiatrization: A Statistical Analysis of Referrals to a Forensic Unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors offer a pertinent review of statistical studies concerning the psychiatric disorders in jail populations and present their statistical analysis of a group of 272 mentally ill inmates seen for competency evaluation at the Milwaukee County Mental Health Forensic Unit during a period of three years. The mentally ill pseudo-offenders have been divided by type of offense and typology

George B. Palermo; Edward J. Gumz; Maurice B. Smith; Frank J. Liska

1992-01-01

110

FORENSIC ANALYSIS AND SOURCE PARTITIONING OF ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBON CONTAMINATION IN LAKE MARUIT AQUATIC SEDIMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations of natural and\\/or engineered environmental systems require achieving a comprehensive characterization and identification of contaminants of concern. The differentiation of contaminant molecular markers (MMs) that originate from various sources is difficult when simply based only on their chemical compositions. Thus, a comprehensive forensic analysis coupled with source partitioning modeling is needed for characterizing contaminant compositions, predicting their possible transport,

TAREK A. KASSIM

111

Validation of a Framework for Measuring Hospital Disaster Resilience Using Factor Analysis  

PubMed Central

Hospital disaster resilience can be defined as “the ability of hospitals to resist, absorb, and respond to the shock of disasters while maintaining and surging essential health services, and then to recover to its original state or adapt to a new one.” This article aims to provide a framework which can be used to comprehensively measure hospital disaster resilience. An evaluation framework for assessing hospital resilience was initially proposed through a systematic literature review and Modified-Delphi consultation. Eight key domains were identified: hospital safety, command, communication and cooperation system, disaster plan, resource stockpile, staff capability, disaster training and drills, emergency services and surge capability, and recovery and adaptation. The data for this study were collected from 41 tertiary hospitals in Shandong Province in China, using a specially designed questionnaire. Factor analysis was conducted to determine the underpinning structure of the framework. It identified a four-factor structure of hospital resilience, namely, emergency medical response capability (F1), disaster management mechanisms (F2), hospital infrastructural safety (F3), and disaster resources (F4). These factors displayed good internal consistency. The overall level of hospital disaster resilience (F) was calculated using the scoring model: F = 0.615F1 + 0.202F2 + 0.103F3 + 0.080F4. This validated framework provides a new way to operationalise the concept of hospital resilience, and it is also a foundation for the further development of the measurement instrument in future studies.

Zhong, Shuang; Clark, Michele; Hou, Xiang-Yu; Zang, Yuli; FitzGerald, Gerard

2014-01-01

112

Validation of a framework for measuring hospital disaster resilience using factor analysis.  

PubMed

Hospital disaster resilience can be defined as "the ability of hospitals to resist, absorb, and respond to the shock of disasters while maintaining and surging essential health services, and then to recover to its original state or adapt to a new one." This article aims to provide a framework which can be used to comprehensively measure hospital disaster resilience. An evaluation framework for assessing hospital resilience was initially proposed through a systematic literature review and Modified-Delphi consultation. Eight key domains were identified: hospital safety, command, communication and cooperation system, disaster plan, resource stockpile, staff capability, disaster training and drills, emergency services and surge capability, and recovery and adaptation. The data for this study were collected from 41 tertiary hospitals in Shandong Province in China, using a specially designed questionnaire. Factor analysis was conducted to determine the underpinning structure of the framework. It identified a four-factor structure of hospital resilience, namely, emergency medical response capability (F1), disaster management mechanisms (F2), hospital infrastructural safety (F3), and disaster resources (F4). These factors displayed good internal consistency. The overall level of hospital disaster resilience (F) was calculated using the scoring model: F = 0.615F1 + 0.202F2 + 0.103F3 + 0.080F4. This validated framework provides a new way to operationalise the concept of hospital resilience, and it is also a foundation for the further development of the measurement instrument in future studies. PMID:24945190

Zhong, Shuang; Clark, Michele; Hou, Xiang-Yu; Zang, Yuli; FitzGerald, Gerard

2014-01-01

113

Investigation of quartz grain surface textures by atomic force microscopy for forensic analysis.  

PubMed

This paper presents a study of quartz sand grain surface textures using atomic force microscopy (AFM) to image the surface. Until now scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has provided the primary technique used in the forensic surface texture analysis of quartz sand grains as a means of establishing the provenance of the grains for forensic reconstructions. The ability to independently corroborate the grain type classifications is desirable and provides additional weight to the findings of SEM analysis of the textures of quartz grains identified in forensic soil/sediment samples. AFM offers a quantitative means of analysis that complements SEM examination, and is a non-destructive technique that requires no sample preparation prior to scanning. It therefore has great potential to be used for forensic analysis where sample preservation is highly valuable. By taking quantitative topography scans, it is possible to produce 3D representations of microscopic surface textures and diagnostic features for examination. Furthermore, various empirical measures can be obtained from analysing the topography scans, including arithmetic average roughness, root-mean-square surface roughness, skewness, kurtosis, and multiple gaussian fits to height distributions. These empirical measures, combined with qualitative examination of the surfaces can help to discriminate between grain types and provide independent analysis that can corroborate the morphological grain typing based on the surface textures assigned using SEM. Furthermore, the findings from this study also demonstrate that quartz sand grain surfaces exhibit a statistically self-similar fractal nature that remains unchanged across scales. This indicates the potential for a further quantitative measure that could be utilised in the discrimination of quartz grains based on their provenance for forensic investigations. PMID:23088825

Konopinski, D I; Hudziak, S; Morgan, R M; Bull, P A; Kenyon, A J

2012-11-30

114

Forensic microbiology.  

PubMed

The field of forensic microbiology is fairly new and still evolving. With a threat of bioterror and biocrime, the rapid identification and subtyping of infectious agents is of upmost importance. Microbial genetic analysis is a valuable tool in this arena. The cost to sequence a microbial genome has fallen dramatically in recent years making this method more widely available. Surveillance and vigilance are important as is further research. The United States Department of Homeland Security established the Bioforensics Analysis Center to become the foremost U.S. biodefense research institution involved with bioforensics. Many countries are better prepared for biologic events than ever before, but more work is needed. Most medical laboratory scientists are not familiar with forensic principles or testifying in court. Demonstrating chain of custody and quality assurance are critical so that test results will be admissible in a court of law. The Scientific Working Group on Microbial Genetics and Forensics has published guidelines for forensic microbiology laboratories. Incorporating these guidelines help to provide test results that are useful in legal proceedings. If a laboratory scientist suspects bioterror or biocrime, or other legal case, law enforcement agents must be notified and diagnostic samples preserved. Additional sample testing might be necessary in court cases. PMID:22693782

Lehman, Donald C

2012-01-01

115

Forensic Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a review of articles appealing to forensic practitioners. Topics include: drugs and poisons, forensic biochemistry, and trace evidence. Lists noteworthy books published on forensic science topics since 1986. (MVL)

Brettell, T. A.; Saferstein, R.

1989-01-01

116

Forensic Entomology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A succinct but clear introduction to forensic entomology with an emphasis on the role of the forensic investigator. Covers life cycles, protocols, information to collect at the scene. Also provides links to other forensic entomology websites and resources.

0002-11-30

117

Forensic trace DNA: a review  

PubMed Central

DNA analysis is frequently used to acquire information from biological material to aid enquiries associated with criminal offences, disaster victim identification and missing persons investigations. As the relevance and value of DNA profiling to forensic investigations has increased, so too has the desire to generate this information from smaller amounts of DNA. Trace DNA samples may be defined as any sample which falls below recommended thresholds at any stage of the analysis, from sample detection through to profile interpretation, and can not be defined by a precise picogram amount. Here we review aspects associated with the collection, DNA extraction, amplification, profiling and interpretation of trace DNA samples. Contamination and transfer issues are also briefly discussed within the context of trace DNA analysis. Whilst several methodological changes have facilitated profiling from trace samples in recent years it is also clear that many opportunities exist for further improvements.

2010-01-01

118

Climate Change, Disaster and Sentiment Analysis over Social Media Mining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accelerated climate change causes disasters and disrupts people living all over the globe. Disruptive climate events are often reflected in expressed sentiments of the people affected. Monitoring changes in these sentiments during and after disasters can reveal relationships between climate change and mental health. We developed a semantic web tool that uses linked data principles and semantic web technologies to integrate data from multiple sources and analyze them together. We are converting statistical data on climate change and disaster records obtained from the World Bank data catalog and the International Disaster Database into a Resource Description Framework (RDF) representation that was annotated with the RDF Data Cube vocabulary. We compare these data with a dataset of tweets that mention terms from the Emotion Ontology to get a sense of how disasters can impact the affected populations. This dataset is being gathered using an infrastructure we developed that extracts term uses in Twitter with controlled vocabularies. This data was also converted to RDF structure so that statistical data on the climate change and disasters is analyzed together with sentiment data. To visualize and explore relationship of the multiple data across the dimensions of time and location, we use the qb.js framework. We are using this approach to investigate the social and emotional impact of climate change. We hope that this will demonstrate the use of social media data as a valuable source of understanding on global climate change.

Lee, J.; McCusker, J. P.; McGuinness, D. L.

2012-12-01

119

Forensic Psychology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Introduction to forensic psychology; Psychological structure of the administration of justice; The methods of forensic psychology; Psychological fundamentals of preliminary investigation; Psychological fundamentals of court proceedings; Psycholo...

A. V. Dulov

1976-01-01

120

Radiology in forensic expert team operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiological methods are widely used in forensic pathology. Their most common applications are in complementing human identification, particularly in investigations of mass disasters and decomposed bodies, and in searching for foreign material inside corpses. A team of Finnish forensic experts investigated human skeletal remains in Bosnia and Herzegovina (1996) and in Kosovo, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1998). It also

Juha Rainio; Kaisa Lalu; Helena Ranta; Antti Penttilä

2001-01-01

121

Portable XRF and principal component analysis for bill characterization in forensic science.  

PubMed

Several modern techniques have been applied to prevent counterfeiting of money bills. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the potential of Portable X-ray Fluorescence (PXRF) technique and the multivariate analysis method of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for classification of bills in order to use it in forensic science. Bills of Dollar, Euro and Real (Brazilian currency) were measured directly at different colored regions, without any previous preparation. Spectra interpretation allowed the identification of Ca, Ti, Fe, Cu, Sr, Y, Zr and Pb. PCA analysis separated the bills in three groups and subgroups among Brazilian currency. In conclusion, the samples were classified according to its origin identifying the elements responsible for differentiation and basic pigment composition. PXRF allied to multivariate discriminate methods is a promising technique for rapid and no destructive identification of false bills in forensic science. PMID:24393811

Appoloni, C R; Melquiades, F L

2014-02-01

122

Interactive Disaster Communication on the Internet: A Content Analysis of Sixty-Four Disaster Relief Home Pages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disaster relief home pages were content analyzed using a seven-dimensional conceptualization of interactivity. This study provides a theoretical exploration of the concept of interactivity and its potential contributions to the Internet as an increasingly interactive mass medium. It then applies interactivity to the development of disaster communication and tests that framework in the context of disaster relief home pages. Although

Mary Jae Paul

2001-01-01

123

The return period analysis of natural disasters with statistical modeling of bivariate joint probability distribution.  

PubMed

New features of natural disasters have been observed over the last several years. The factors that influence the disasters' formation mechanisms, regularity of occurrence and main characteristics have been revealed to be more complicated and diverse in nature than previously thought. As the uncertainty involved increases, the variables need to be examined further. This article discusses the importance and the shortage of multivariate analysis of natural disasters and presents a method to estimate the joint probability of the return periods and perform a risk analysis. Severe dust storms from 1990 to 2008 in Inner Mongolia were used as a case study to test this new methodology, as they are normal and recurring climatic phenomena on Earth. Based on the 79 investigated events and according to the dust storm definition with bivariate, the joint probability distribution of severe dust storms was established using the observed data of maximum wind speed and duration. The joint return periods of severe dust storms were calculated, and the relevant risk was analyzed according to the joint probability. The copula function is able to simulate severe dust storm disasters accurately. The joint return periods generated are closer to those observed in reality than the univariate return periods and thus have more value in severe dust storm disaster mitigation, strategy making, program design, and improvement of risk management. This research may prove useful in risk-based decision making. The exploration of multivariate analysis methods can also lay the foundation for further applications in natural disaster risk analysis. PMID:22616629

Li, Ning; Liu, Xueqin; Xie, Wei; Wu, Jidong; Zhang, Peng

2013-01-01

124

Forensic comparative glass analysis by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glass samples of four types commonly encountered in forensic examinations have been analyzed by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the purpose of discriminating between samples originating from different sources. Some of the glass sets were also examined by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Refractive index (RI) measurements were also made on all glass samples and the refractive index data was combined with the LIBS and with the LA-ICP-MS data to enhance discrimination. The glass types examined included float glass taken from front and side automobile windows (examined on the non-float side), automobile headlamp glass, automobile side-mirror glass and brown beverage container glass. The largest overall discrimination was obtained by employing RI data in combination with LA-ICP-MS (98.8% discrimination of 666 pairwise comparisons at 95% confidence), while LIBS in combination with RI provided a somewhat lower discrimination (87.2% discrimination of 1122 pairwise comparisons at 95% confidence). Samples of side-mirror glass were less discriminated by LIBS due to a larger variance in emission intensities, while discrimination of side-mirror glass by LA-ICP-MS remained high.

Bridge, Candice M.; Powell, Joseph; Steele, Katie L.; Sigman, Michael E.

2007-12-01

125

Ontogenetic study of three Calliphoridae of forensic importance through cuticular hydrocarbon analysis.  

PubMed

The ontogeny of the cuticular hydrocarbons of three dipterans of importance to forensic entomology, Calliphora vomitoria (Linné), Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy) and Protophormia terraenovae (Robineau-Desvoidy) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), was explored using gas chromatography analysis. The stages examined ranged from eggs to 8-day-old adults. Cuticular hydrocarbon profiles revealed that odd linear alkanes dominate in all three species. Short-chain carbon compounds in larvae and post-feeding larvae were seen to evolve to long-chain carbon compounds in pupae and adults. Discriminant analysis of cuticular hydrocarbon profiles showed a clear differentiation among the different stages (larvae, post-feeding larvae, pupae and adults) and within stages, according to the age of individuals. This study concluded that the postmortem interval can be determined from the composition of cuticular waxes in Calliphoridae in forensic situations. PMID:19120957

Roux, O; Gers, C; Legal, L

2008-12-01

126

Parallel digital forensics infrastructure.  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the architecture and implementation of a Parallel Digital Forensics infrastructure. This infrastructure is necessary for supporting the design, implementation, and testing of new classes of parallel digital forensics tools. Digital Forensics has become extremely difficult with data sets of one terabyte and larger. The only way to overcome the processing time of these large sets is to identify and develop new parallel algorithms for performing the analysis. To support algorithm research, a flexible base infrastructure is required. A candidate architecture for this base infrastructure was designed, instantiated, and tested by this project, in collaboration with New Mexico Tech. Previous infrastructures were not designed and built specifically for the development and testing of parallel algorithms. With the size of forensics data sets only expected to increase significantly, this type of infrastructure support is necessary for continued research in parallel digital forensics. This report documents the implementation of the parallel digital forensics (PDF) infrastructure architecture and implementation.

Liebrock, Lorie M. (New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM); Duggan, David Patrick

2009-10-01

127

Blood species identification for forensic purposes using Raman spectroscopy combined with advanced statistical analysis.  

PubMed

Forensic analysis has become one of the most growing areas of analytical chemistry in recent years. The ability to determine the species of origin of a body fluid sample is a very important and crucial part of a forensic investigation. We introduce here a new technique which utilizes a modern analytical method based on the combination of Raman spectroscopy and advanced statistics to analyze the composition of blood traces from different species. Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy (NIR) was used to analyze multiple dry samples of human, canine, and feline blood for the ultimate application to forensic species identification. All of the spectra were combined into a single data matrix, and the number of principle components that described the system was determined using multiple statistical methods such as significant factor analysis (SFA), principle component analysis (PCA), and several cross-validation methods. Of the six principle components that were determined to be present, the first three, which contributed over 90% to the spectral data of the system, were used to form a three-dimensional scores plot that clearly showed significant separation between the three groups of species. Ellipsoids representing a 99% confidence interval surrounding each species group showed no overlap. This technique using Raman spectroscopy is nondestructive and quick and can potentially be performed at the scene of a crime. PMID:19670872

Virkler, Kelly; Lednev, Igor K

2009-09-15

128

Identifying 1st instar larvae for three forensically important blowfly species using "fingerprint" cuticular hydrocarbon analysis.  

PubMed

Calliphoridae are known to be the most forensically important insects when it comes to establishing the minimum post mortem interval (PMImin) in criminal investigations. The first step in calculating the PMImin is to identify the larvae present to species level. Accurate identification which is conventionally carried out by morphological analysis is crucial because different insects have different life stage timings. Rapid identification in the immature larvae stages would drastically cut time in criminal investigations as it would eliminate the need to rear larvae to adult flies to determine the species. Cuticular hydrocarbon analysis on 1st instar larvae has been applied to three forensically important blowflies; Lucilia sericata, Calliphora vicina and Calliphora vomitoria, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and principal component analysis (PCA). The results show that each species holds a distinct "fingerprint" hydrocarbon profile, allowing for accurate identification to be established in 1-day old larvae, when it can be challenging to apply morphological criteria. Consequently, this GC-MS based technique could accelerate and strengthen the identification process, not only for forensically important species, but also for other entomological samples which are hard to identify using morphological features. PMID:24815992

Moore, Hannah E; Adam, Craig D; Drijfhout, Falko P

2014-07-01

129

FEMA Disaster Cost-Shares: Evolution and Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The cost-share regulation cites per capita damage amounts that could qualify a state for cost-share reductions. The per capita amounts are updated on an annual basis. With the adjustment process in regulation, and with larger disasters more frequent in su...

F. X. McCarthy

2010-01-01

130

The Vulnerable System: An Analysis of the Tenerife Air Disaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tenerife air disaster, in which a KLM 747 and a Pan Am 747 collided with a loss of 583 lives, is examined as a prototype of system vulnerability to crisis. It is concluded that the combination of interruption of important routines among interdependent systems, interdependencies that become tighter, a loss of cognitive efficiency due to autonomic arousal, and a

Karl E. Weick

1990-01-01

131

Critical Infrastructure Analysis of Telecom for Natural Disasters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critical national infrastructures for power, emergency services, finance, and other basic industries rely heavily on information and telecommunications networks (voice, data, Internet) to provide services and conduct business. While these networks tend to be highly reliable, severe, large scale outages do occur, especially at times of unfolding disasters, which can lead to cascading effects on other dependent infrastructures. This paper

Gerard O'Reilly; Ahmad Jrad; Ramesh Nagarajan; Theresa Brown; Stephen Conrad

2006-01-01

132

Monte Carlo analysis of thermochromatography as a fast separation method for nuclear forensics  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear forensic science has become increasingly important for global nuclear security, and enhancing the timeliness of forensic analysis has been established as an important objective in the field. New, faster techniques must be developed to meet this objective. Current approaches for the analysis of minor actinides, fission products, and fuel-specific materials require time-consuming chemical separation coupled with measurement through either nuclear counting or mass spectrometry. These very sensitive measurement techniques can be hindered by impurities or incomplete separation in even the most painstaking chemical separations. High-temperature gas-phase separation or thermochromatography has been used in the past for the rapid separations in the study of newly created elements and as a basis for chemical classification of that element. This work examines the potential for rapid separation of gaseous species to be applied in nuclear forensic investigations. Monte Carlo modeling has been used to evaluate the potential utility of the thermochromatographic separation method, albeit this assessment is necessarily limited due to the lack of available experimental data for validation.

Hall, Howard L [ORNL

2012-01-01

133

Comparative analysis of LWR and FBR spent fuels for nuclear forensics evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Some interesting issues are attributed to nuclide compositions of spent fuels from thermal reactors as well as fast reactors such as a potential to reuse as recycled fuel, and a possible capability to be manage as a fuel for destructive devices. In addition, analysis on nuclear forensics which is related to spent fuel compositions becomes one of the interesting topics to evaluate the origin and the composition of spent fuels from the spent fuel foot-prints. Spent fuel compositions of different fuel types give some typical spent fuel foot prints and can be estimated the origin of source of those spent fuel compositions. Some technics or methods have been developing based on some science and technological capability including experimental and modeling or theoretical aspects of analyses. Some foot-print of nuclear forensics will identify the typical information of spent fuel compositions such as enrichment information, burnup or irradiation time, reactor types as well as the cooling time which is related to the age of spent fuels. This paper intends to evaluate the typical spent fuel compositions of light water (LWR) and fast breeder reactors (FBR) from the view point of some foot prints of nuclear forensics. An established depletion code of ORIGEN is adopted to analyze LWR spent fuel (SF) for several burnup constants and decay times. For analyzing some spent fuel compositions of FBR, some coupling codes such as SLAROM code, JOINT and CITATION codes including JFS-3-J-3.2R as nuclear data library have been adopted. Enriched U-235 fuel composition of oxide type is used for fresh fuel of LWR and a mixed oxide fuel (MOX) for FBR fresh fuel. Those MOX fuels of FBR come from the spent fuels of LWR. Some typical spent fuels from both LWR and FBR will be compared to distinguish some typical foot-prints of SF based on nuclear forensic analysis.

Permana, Sidik; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Su'ud, Zaki [Department of Science and Technology for Nuclear Material Management (STNM), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 2-4 Shirane, Shirakata, Tokai Mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 Nuclear Physics and Bio (Indonesia); Department of Science and Technology for Nuclear Material Management (STNM), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 2-4 Shirane, Shirakata, Tokai Mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Nuclear Physics and Bio Physics Research Group, Department of Physics, Bandung Institute of Technology, Gedung Fisika, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

2012-06-06

134

Comparative analysis of LWR and FBR spent fuels for nuclear forensics evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some interesting issues are attributed to nuclide compositions of spent fuels from thermal reactors as well as fast reactors such as a potential to reuse as recycled fuel, and a possible capability to be manage as a fuel for destructive devices. In addition, analysis on nuclear forensics which is related to spent fuel compositions becomes one of the interesting topics to evaluate the origin and the composition of spent fuels from the spent fuel foot-prints. Spent fuel compositions of different fuel types give some typical spent fuel foot prints and can be estimated the origin of source of those spent fuel compositions. Some technics or methods have been developing based on some science and technological capability including experimental and modeling or theoretical aspects of analyses. Some foot-print of nuclear forensics will identify the typical information of spent fuel compositions such as enrichment information, burnup or irradiation time, reactor types as well as the cooling time which is related to the age of spent fuels. This paper intends to evaluate the typical spent fuel compositions of light water (LWR) and fast breeder reactors (FBR) from the view point of some foot prints of nuclear forensics. An established depletion code of ORIGEN is adopted to analyze LWR spent fuel (SF) for several burnup constants and decay times. For analyzing some spent fuel compositions of FBR, some coupling codes such as SLAROM code, JOINT and CITATION codes including JFS-3-J-3.2R as nuclear data library have been adopted. Enriched U-235 fuel composition of oxide type is used for fresh fuel of LWR and a mixed oxide fuel (MOX) for FBR fresh fuel. Those MOX fuels of FBR come from the spent fuels of LWR. Some typical spent fuels from both LWR and FBR will be compared to distinguish some typical foot-prints of SF based on nuclear forensic analysis.

Permana, Sidik; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Su'ud, Zaki

2012-06-01

135

DNA Commission of the International Society of Forensic Genetics: recommendations on forensic analysis using Y-chromosome STRs  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past few years the DNA commission of the International Society of Forensic Genetics has published a series of\\u000a documents providing guidelines and recommendations concerning the application of DNA polymorphisms to the problems of human\\u000a identification. This latest report addresses a relatively new area, namely Y-chromosome polymorphisms, with particular emphasis\\u000a on short tandem repeats (STRs). This report addresses nomenclature,

P. Gill; C. Brenner; B. Brinkmann; B. Budowle; A. Carracedo; M. A. Jobling; P. de Knijff; M. Kayser; M. Krawczak; W. R. Mayr; N. Morling; B. Olaisen; V. Pascali; M. Prinz; L. Roewer; P. M. Schneider; A. Sajantila; C. Tyler-Smith

2001-01-01

136

Disaster victim identification: new applications for postmortem computed tomography.  

PubMed

Mass fatalities can present the forensic anthropologist and forensic pathologist with a different set of challenges to those presented by a single fatality. To date radiography has played an important role in the disaster victim identification (DVI) process. The aim of this paper is to highlight the benefits of applying computed tomography (CT) technology to the DVI process. The paper begins by reviewing the extent to which sophisticated imaging techniques, specifically CT, have been increasingly used to assist in the analysis of deceased individuals. A small scale case study is then presented which describes aspects of the DVI process following a recent Australian aviation disaster involving two individuals. Having grided the scene of the disaster, a total of 41 bags of heavily disrupted human remains were collected. A postmortem examination was subsequently undertaken. Analysis of the CT images of all body parts (n = 162) made it possible not only to identify and side differentially preserved skeletal elements which were anatomically unrecognizable in the heavily disrupted body masses, but also to observe and record useful identifying features such as surgical implants. In this case the role of the forensic anthropologist and CT technology were paramount in facilitating a quick identification, and subsequently, an effective and timely reconciliation, of body parts. Although this case study is small scale, it illustrates the enormous potential for CT imaging to complement the existing DVI process. PMID:18547358

Blau, Soren; Robertson, Shelley; Johnstone, Marnie

2008-07-01

137

Elemental analysis of bone: proton-induced X-ray emission testing in forensic cases.  

PubMed

Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) is a spectroscopic technique that provides the researcher with the elemental composition of a given target material. In this paper, we illustrate the utility of PIXE analysis in two forensic contexts: (1) case of cremation in which the nature of the remains is questioned and (2) cases of death by gunshot wound. In the first case, elemental analysis by PIXE reveals that the purported cremated remains are not bone. The last two cases show that radiopaque metallic residue embedded in bone is composed of lead from a projectile. PMID:11852200

Warren, M W; Falsetti, A B; Kravchenko, I I; Dunnam, F E; Van Rinsvelt, H A; Maples, W R

2002-01-24

138

State of the art in risk analysis of workforce criticality influencing disaster preparedness for interdependent systems.  

PubMed

The objective of this article is to discuss a needed paradigm shift in disaster risk analysis to emphasize the role of the workforce in managing the recovery of interdependent infrastructure and economic systems. Much of the work that has been done on disaster risk analysis has focused primarily on preparedness and recovery strategies for disrupted infrastructure systems. The reliability of systems such as transportation, electric power, and telecommunications is crucial in sustaining business processes, supply chains, and regional livelihoods, as well as ensuring the availability of vital services in the aftermath of disasters. There has been a growing momentum in recognizing workforce criticality in the aftermath of disasters; nevertheless, significant gaps still remain in modeling, assessing, and managing workforce disruptions and their associated ripple effects to other interdependent systems. The workforce plays a pivotal role in ensuring that a disrupted region continues to function and subsequently recover from the adverse effects of disasters. With this in mind, this article presents a review of recent studies that have underscored the criticality of workforce sectors in formulating synergistic preparedness and recovery policies for interdependent infrastructure and regional economic systems. PMID:24593287

Santos, Joost R; Herrera, Lucia Castro; Yu, Krista Danielle S; Pagsuyoin, Sheree Ann T; Tan, Raymond R

2014-06-01

139

Forensic Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes the type of work carried out by forensic chemists and the minimum qualification needed for appointment. Indicates that there are eight Home Office regional forensic science laboratories in addition to the Central Research Establishment at Aldermaston. (CC)

Cobb, P. G. W.

1973-01-01

140

Forensic Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is

Suzanne Bell

2009-01-01

141

Adjusting to Natural Disasters  

Microsoft Academic Search

People can answer the risks presented by natural disasters in a number of ways; they canmove out of harms way, they can self protect, or they can insure. This paper uses the largest U.S. natural disaster on record, Hurricane Andrew, to evaluate how people and housing markets respond to a large disaster. Our analysis combines a unique ex post database

Kerry Smith; Jared C. Carbone; Daniel G. Hallstrom; Jaren C. Pope; Michael E. Darden

2005-01-01

142

Discriminant analysis of Raman spectra for body fluid identification for forensic purposes.  

PubMed

Detection and identification of blood, semen and saliva stains, the most common body fluids encountered at a crime scene, are very important aspects of forensic science today. This study targets the development of a nondestructive, confirmatory method for body fluid identification based on Raman spectroscopy coupled with advanced statistical analysis. Dry traces of blood, semen and saliva obtained from multiple donors were probed using a confocal Raman microscope with a 785-nm excitation wavelength under controlled laboratory conditions. Results demonstrated the capability of Raman spectroscopy to identify an unknown substance to be semen, blood or saliva with high confidence. PMID:22319277

Sikirzhytski, Vitali; Virkler, Kelly; Lednev, Igor K

2010-01-01

143

Discriminant Analysis of Raman Spectra for Body Fluid Identification for Forensic Purposes  

PubMed Central

Detection and identification of blood, semen and saliva stains, the most common body fluids encountered at a crime scene, are very important aspects of forensic science today. This study targets the development of a nondestructive, confirmatory method for body fluid identification based on Raman spectroscopy coupled with advanced statistical analysis. Dry traces of blood, semen and saliva obtained from multiple donors were probed using a confocal Raman microscope with a 785-nm excitation wavelength under controlled laboratory conditions. Results demonstrated the capability of Raman spectroscopy to identify an unknown substance to be semen, blood or saliva with high confidence.

Sikirzhytski, Vitali; Virkler, Kelly; Lednev, Igor K.

2010-01-01

144

A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Stance in Disaster News Reports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines stance in cross-cultural media discourse by comparing disaster news reports on the Sichuan earthquake of May 2008 in a Chinese, an Australian Chinese, and an Australian newspaper. The stance taken in the news reports is examined using the Attitude sub-system of Martin and White's (2005) Appraisal framework. The analysis

Liu, Lian; Stevenson, Marie

2013-01-01

145

Biocatalytic analysis of biomarkers for forensic identification of ethnicity between Caucasian and African American groups.  

PubMed

A new biocatalytic assay analyzing the simultaneous presence of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was developed aiming at the recognition of biofluids of different ethnic origins for forensic applications. Knowing the difference in the concentrations of CK and LDH in the blood of healthy adults of two ethnical groups, Caucasian (CA) and African American (AA), and taking into account the distribution pattern, we mimicked the samples of different ethnic origins with various CK-LDH concentrations. The analysis was performed using a multi-enzyme/multi-step biocatalytic cascade where the differences in both included enzymes resulted in an amplified difference in the final analytical response. The statistically established analytical results confirmed excellent probability to distinguish samples of different ethnic origins (CA vs. AA). The standard enzymatic assay routinely used in hospitals for the analysis of CK, performed for comparison, was not able to distinguish the difference in samples mimicking blood of different ethnic origins. The robustness of the proposed assay was successfully tested on dried/aged serum samples (up to 24 h) - in order to mimic real forensic situations. The results obtained on the model solutions were confirmed by the analysis of real serum samples collected from human subjects of different ethnic origins. PMID:24003440

Kramer, Friederike; Halámková, Lenka; Poghossian, Arshak; Schöning, Michael J; Katz, Evgeny; Halámek, Jan

2013-11-01

146

Forensic Mitochondrial DNA Analysis of 691 Casework Hairs  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: A five year retrospective review of mitochondrial,DNA (mtDNA) analysis on 691 casework,hairs was carried out. A full or partial mtDNA profile was obtained for >92% of hairs. With increasing age of the hair, the likelihood of obtaining a full profile decreased, although “mini-primer sets” could often be used to capture a partial profile. With increasing color and diameter of

Terry Melton; Gloria Dimick; M. s. Bonnie Higgins; M. s. Lynn Lindstrom

147

Morphological, spectral and chromatography analysis and forensic comparison of PET fibers.  

PubMed

Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fiber analysis and comparison by spectral and polymer molecular weight determination was investigated. Plain fibers of PET, a common textile fiber and plastic material was chosen for this study. The fibers were analyzed for morphological (SEM and AFM), spectral (IR and NMR), thermal (DSC) and molecular weight (MS and GPC) differences. Molecular analysis of PET fibers by Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) allowed the comparison of fibers that could not be otherwise distinguished with high confidence. Plain PET fibers were dissolved in hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) and analyzed by GPC using hexafluoroisopropanol:chloroform 2:98 v/v as eluent. 14 PET fiber samples, collected from various commercial producers, were analyzed for polymer molecular weight by GPC. Distinct differences in the molecular weight of the different fiber samples were found which may have potential use in forensic fiber comparison. PET fibers with average molecular weights between about 20,000 and 70,000 g mol(-1) were determined using fiber concentrations in HFIP as low as 1 ?g mL(-1). This GPC analytical method can be applied for exclusively distinguish between PET fibers using 1 ?g of fiber. This method can be extended to forensic comparison of other synthetic fibers such as polyamides and acrylics. PMID:24725864

Farah, Shady; Tsach, Tsadok; Bentolila, Alfonso; Domb, Abraham J

2014-06-01

148

Forensic Analysis of Venezuelan Elections during the Ch?vez Presidency  

PubMed Central

Hugo Chávez dominated the Venezuelan electoral landscape since his first presidential victory in 1998 until his death in 2013. Nobody doubts that he always received considerable voter support in the numerous elections held during his mandate. However, the integrity of the electoral system has come into question since the 2004 Presidential Recall Referendum. From then on, different sectors of society have systematically alleged electoral irregularities or biases in favor of the incumbent party. We have carried out a thorough forensic analysis of the national-level Venezuelan electoral processes held during the 1998–2012 period to assess these complaints. The second-digit Benford's law and two statistical models of vote distributions, recently introduced in the literature, are reviewed and used in our case study. In addition, we discuss a new method to detect irregular variations in the electoral roll. The outputs obtained from these election forensic tools are examined taking into account the substantive context of the elections and referenda under study. Thus, we reach two main conclusions. Firstly, all the tools uncover anomalous statistical patterns, which are consistent with election fraud from 2004 onwards. Although our results are not a concluding proof of fraud, they signal the Recall Referendum as a turning point in the integrity of the Venezuelan elections. Secondly, our analysis calls into question the reliability of the electoral register since 2004. In particular, we found irregular variations in the electoral roll that were decisive in winning the 50% majority in the 2004 Referendum and in the 2012 Presidential Elections.

Jimenez, Raul; Hidalgo, Manuel

2014-01-01

149

Population studies of 17 equine STR for forensic and phylogenetic analysis.  

PubMed

As a consequence of the close integration of horses into human society, equine DNA analysis has become relevant for forensic purposes. However, the information content of the equine Short Tandem Repeat (STR) loci commonly used for the identification or paternity testing has so far not been fully characterized. Population studies were performed for 17 polymorphic STR loci (AHT4, AHT5, ASB2, ASB17, ASB23, CA425, HMS1, HMS2, HMS3, HMS6, HMS7, HTG4, HTG6, HTG7, HTG10, LEX3 and VHL20) including 8641 horses representing 35 populations. The power of parental exclusion, polymorphic information content, expected and observed heterozygosity and probability of identity were calculated, showing that the set of 17 STRs has sufficient discriminating power for forensic analysis in almost all breeds. We also explored the reliability of individual assignment tests in identifying the correct breeds of origin for unknown samples. The overall proportion of individuals correctly assigned to a population was 97.2%. Finally, we demonstrate the phylogenetic signal of the 17 STR. We found three clusters of related breeds: (i) the cold-blooded draught breeds Haflinger, Dutch draft and Friesian; (ii) the pony breeds Shetland and Miniature horse with the Falabella, Appaloosa and Icelandic; and (iii) The Warmblood riding breeds, together with the hot-blooded Standard-bred, Thoroughbred and Arabian. PMID:22035004

van de Goor, L H P; van Haeringen, W A; Lenstra, J A

2011-12-01

150

Violent behaviour in a forensic psychiatric hospital in Finland: an analysis of violence incident reports.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper was to explore the frequency and provocation of physically violent incidents in a Finnish forensic psychiatric hospital. Three years (2007-2009) of violent incident reports were analysed retrospectively. The data were analysed by content analysis, and statistically by Poisson regression analysis. During the study period a total of 840 incidents of physical violence occurred. Six main categories were found to describe the provocation of violence where three of these categories seemed to be without a specified reason (61%), and three represented a reaction to something (36%). The risk for violent behaviour was highest for the civil patients (RR = 11.96; CI 95% 9.43-15.18; P < 0.001), compared to criminal patients (RR = 1). The civil patients represented 36.7% of the patients, and in 43.6% of the studied patient days, they caused 89.8% of the reported violence incidents. Patients undergoing a forensic mental examination did not frequently behave aggressively (RR = 1.97; CI 95% 0.91-4.28). These results can be used in the reorganization of health-care practices and the allocation of resources. PMID:23634912

Kuivalainen, S; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, K; Putkonen, A; Louheranta, O; Tiihonen, J

2014-04-01

151

Autopsy practice in forensic pathology - evidence-based or experience-based? a review of autopsies performed on victims of traumatic asphyxia in a mass disaster.  

PubMed

Current autopsy practice in forensic pathology is to a large extent based on experience and individual customary practices as opposed to evidence and consensus based practices. As a result there is the potential for substantial variation in how knowledge is applied in each case. In the present case series, we describe the variation observed in autopsy reports by five different pathologists of eight victims who died simultaneously from traumatic asphyxia due to compression during a human stampede. We observed that there was no mention of the availability of medical charts in five of the reports, of potentially confounding resuscitation efforts in three reports, of cardinal signs in seven reports and of associated injuries to a various degree in all reports. Further, there was mention of supplemental histological examination in two reports and of pre-autopsy radiograph in six reports. We inferred that reliance on experience and individual customary practices led to disparities between the autopsy reports as well as omissions of important information such as cardinal signs, and conclude that such reliance increases the potential for error in autopsy practice. We suggest that pre-autopsy data-gathering and the use of check lists specific to certain injury causes are likely to result in less deviation from evidence-based practices in forensic pathology. Pre-autopsy data-gathering and check lists will help ensure a higher degree of standardization in autopsy reports thus enhancing the quality and accuracy of the report as a legal document as well as rendering it more useful for data-gathering efforts. PMID:24485418

Colville-Ebeling, Bonnie; Freeman, Michael; Banner, Jytte; Lynnerup, Niels

2014-02-01

152

Characterization and forensic analysis of soil samples using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).  

PubMed

A method for the quantitative elemental analysis of surface soil samples using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was developed and applied to the analysis of bulk soil samples for discrimination between specimens. The use of a 266 nm laser for LIBS analysis is reported for the first time in forensic soil analysis. Optimization of the LIBS method is discussed, and the results compared favorably to a laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) method previously developed. Precision for both methods was <10% for most elements. LIBS limits of detection were <33 ppm and bias <40% for most elements. In a proof of principle study, the LIBS method successfully discriminated samples from two different sites in Dade County, FL. Analysis of variance, Tukey's post hoc test and Student's t test resulted in 100% discrimination with no type I or type II errors. Principal components analysis (PCA) resulted in clear groupings of the two sites. A correct classification rate of 99.4% was obtained with linear discriminant analysis using leave-one-out validation. Similar results were obtained when the same samples were analyzed by LA-ICP-MS, showing that LIBS can provide similar information to LA-ICP-MS. In a forensic sampling/spatial heterogeneity study, the variation between sites, between sub-plots, between samples and within samples was examined on three similar Dade sites. The closer the sampling locations, the closer the grouping on a PCA plot and the higher the misclassification rate. These results underscore the importance of careful sampling for geographic site characterization. PMID:21461623

Jantzi, Sarah C; Almirall, José R

2011-07-01

153

The Central European Flood in June 2013: Experiences from a Near-Real Time Disaster Analysis in Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The central European flood in June 2013 once again revealed that complete flood protection is not possible. Inundations caused severe damage to buildings, infrastructure and agricultural lands. Official estimates of total damage in Germany amount to approx. 8bn € which is lower than the damage caused by the August 2002 flood - the most expensive natural hazard experienced so far in Germany. Repeated and long lasting precipitation in combination with extremely adverse preconditions induced a large scale flood event. In Germany, particularly the catchment areas of the Danube and Elbe were affected. The June 2013 flood has been the most severe flood event in terms of spatial extent and magnitude of flood peaks in Germany during the last 60 years. Large scale inundation occurred as a consequence of levee breaches near Deggendorf (Danube), Groß Rosenau and Fischbeck (Elbe). The flood has had a great impact on people, transportation and the economy. In many areas more than 50,000 thousand people were evacuated. Electrical grid and local water supply utilities failed during the floods. Furthermore, traffic was disrupted in the interregional transportation network including federal highways and long distance railways. CEDIM analysed and assessed the flood event within its current research activity on near real time forensic disaster analysis (CEDIM FDA: www.cedim.de). This contribution gives an overview about the CEDIM FDA analyses' results. It describes the key hydro-meteorological factors that triggered this extraordinary event and draws comparisons to major flood events in August 2002 and July 1954. Further, it shows the outcomes of a rapid initial impact assessment on the district level using social, economic and institutional indicators which are supplemented with information on the number of people evacuated and transportation disruptions and combined with the magnitude of the event.

Schröter, Kai; Khazai, Bijan; Mühr, Bernhard; Elmer, Florian; Bessel, Tina; Möhrle, Stella; Dittrich, André; Kreibich, Heidi; Fohringer, Joachim; Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Trieselmann, Werner; Kunz, Michael; Merz, Bruno

2014-05-01

154

Biological Science Initative- Forensic Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides middle and high school teachers and students with concepts and techniques of forensic evidence analysis commonly employed in forensic laboratories. This site contains a series of laboratory exercises that can be downloaded for use in middle and high school settings. Experiments are designed to teach students basic principles and methods of forensic science and to motivate the teaching of science in the classroom. Experiments are designed to teach laboratory and data-collection techniques.

2011-06-09

155

Measurement and analysis of diastereomer ratios for forensic characterization of brodifacoum  

SciTech Connect

The highly toxic organic compound brodifacoum exists as two diastereomers. The diasteromer ratio in a sample depends on the methods and conditions used for synthesis and purification, and may vary over time due to differential stability of the diastereomers. The stereoisomer distribution may thus be viewed as a chemical forensic signature, containing information about the production and history of unknown samples, and providing a basis of comparison between samples. A determination of diastereomer ratios can be performed by a number of techniques, notably gas or liquid chromatography or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. An analysis of a cross-section of U.S.-made commercial technical grade brodifacoum material shows that there are detectable manufacturer-to-manufacturer and batch-to-batch variations in diastereomer ratios. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

Cort, John R.; Alperin, Paul J.; Cho, Herman M.

2012-01-10

156

Analysis of seismic disaster failure mechanism and dam-break simulation of high arch dam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on a Chinese national high arch dam located in a meizoseismal region, a nonlinear numerical analysis model of the damage and failure process of a dam-foundation system is established by employing a 3-D deformable distinct element code (3DEC) and its re-development functions. The proposed analysis model considers the dam-foundation-reservoir coupling effect, influence of nonlinear contact in the opening and closing of the dam seam surface and abutment rock joints during strong earthquakes, and radiation damping of far field energy dissipation according to the actual workability state of an arch dam. A safety assessment method and safety evaluation criteria is developed to better understand the arch dam system disaster process from local damage to ultimate failure. The dynamic characteristics, disaster mechanism, limit bearing capacity and the entire failure process of a high arch dam under a strong earthquake are then analyzed. Further, the seismic safety of the arch dam is evaluated according to the proposed evaluation criteria and safety assessment method. As a result, some useful conclusions are obtained for some aspects of the disaster mechanism and failure process of an arch dam. The analysis method and conclusions may be useful in engineering practice.

Zhang, Jingkui; Zhang, Liaojun

2014-06-01

157

Environmental Forensics : Compound Specific Isotope Analysis Of PAHs. Study Of A Former Coal Tar Plant.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable carbon isotopic fingerprints of PAHs obtained by GC-IRMS have often been used in source apportionment studies. The use of PAHs in environmental forensics relies on the assumption that carbon isotopic fractionation caused by microbial degradation is less significant for these heavy molecular weight compounds than for lighter molecules such as chlorinated solvents or BTEX. Carbon isotopic fractionation of PAHs during degradation is still not well understood. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of CSIA of PAHs for environmental forensics applications at a complex (hydrogeology affected by tidal fluxes) former coal tar plant. In this work, soil samples from a tar works site were analyzed. The tar works operated on the site over a period of sixty years. A source apportionment study was first carried out based on 90 target PAHs quantified by GC-MS. These results were then compared to carbon isotope fingerprints. The separation of compounds of interest from co-extracted interfering peaks is a crucial prerequisite of CSIA by GC-IRMS. Hence, a sample preparation method which allowed the determination of precise carbon isotope signatures for up to 35 compounds per soil extract was developed, validated and applied to the samples previously analyzed by GC- MS. Although most soil samples were shown to be related to the point source tar contamination, PAHs ratios and principal component analysis of abundances highlighted some samples with unusual patterns, suggesting the input of a second source of contaminants. However, no statistically significant variation of the isotopic fingerprints of heavy molecular weight PAHs of these samples was observed. This was inconsistent with the first diagnosis. Since evidence was provided that most samples were only affected by a single source of contaminants, carbon isotopic fractionation was investigated in-situ. Importantly, naphthalene and 2- and 1- methylnaphthalenes isotopic fractionation was observed in a vertical soil profile. Results of this study highlight advantages and limitations of CSIA of PAHs in environmental forensics studies and confirm the potential of this technique for deciphering new degradation pathways of lighter PAHs.

Assal, A.; Doherty, R.; Dickson, K.; Kalin, R. M.

2008-12-01

158

Capturing Reliable Data for Computer-Based Forensic Handwriting Analysis II: Pen-position Activations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The forensic investigationof a questionedsignaturewrit- ten on a piece of paper is a challenging task. Electronic pen-tablets for recording writing movements are consid- ered valuable tools to assist in this effort. However, little is known about the precision and reliability of such electronic devices that are not intended as forensic equipment origi- nally. Moreover, very few studies are conducted on

Katrin Franke

2009-01-01

159

Forensic Mental Health Clinical Evaluation: An Analysis of Interstate and Intersystemic Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic mental health evaluation systems have undergone major changes during the past two decades, and the variability of service delivery systems across states is significant. We compared assessments of competence to stand trial and criminal responsibility in three states with different systems for forensic mental health evaluations: Michigan, Ohio, and Virginia. Although all three states use comparable legal criteria to

Janet I. Warren; Barry Rosenfeld; W. Lawrence Fitch; Gary Hawk

1997-01-01

160

High-resolution remote sensing image disaster emergency investigation and analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A strong earthquake will cause a large number of residential damage, casualties, severely holding back regional economic development. Rapid extraction of information on disasters is critical to acquire the disaster index and disaster assessment, and emergency rapid response can be effective in reducing seismic disaster losses and casualties. Beijing April 14, 2010,Yushu County, Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Qinghai Province,

Dongjian Xue; Zhengwei He; Shu Tao

2011-01-01

161

Forensic Web Watch Forensic Podiatry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A search for forensic podiatry sites on the Internet revealed thousands of ‘hits’, of which very few were of any educational merit. Following extensive sifting of these addresses, it was found that only a few of the associations for human identification included any information on forensic podiatry methods. The search was also made difficult by many websites failing to make

T Brown; G. N Rutty

2003-01-01

162

FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF WINDOW’S® VIRTUAL MEMORY INCORPORATING THE SYSTEM’S PAGEFILE COUNTERINTELLIGENCE THROUGH MALICIOUS CODE ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF WINDOW’S® VIRTUAL MEMORY INCORPORATING THE SYSTEM’S PAGEFILE Computer Forensics is concerned with the use of computer investigation and analysis techniques in order to collect evidence suitable for presentation in court. The examination of volatile memory is a relatively new but important area in computer forensics. More recently criminals are becoming more forensically aware and are now able to compromise computers without accessing the hard disk of the target computer. This means that traditional incident response practice of pulling the plug will destroy the only evidence of the crime. While some techniques are available for acquiring the contents of main memory, few exist which can analyze these data in a meaningful way. One reason for this is how memory is managed by the operating system. Data belonging to one process can be distributed arbitrarily across physical memory or the hard disk, making it very difficult to recover useful information. This report will focus on how these disparate sources of information can be combined to give a single, contiguous address space for each process. Using address translation a tool is developed to reconstruct the virtual address space of a process by combining a physical memory dump with the page-file on the hard disk. COUNTERINTELLIGENCE THROUGH MALICIOUS CODE ANALYSIS As computer network technology continues to grow so does the reliance on this technology for everyday business functionality. To appeal to customers and employees alike, businesses are seeking an increased online prescience, and to increase productivity the same businesses are computerizing their day-to-day operations. The combination of a publicly accessible interface to the businesses network, and the increase in the amount of intellectual property present on these networks presents serious risks. All of this intellectual property now faces constant attacks from a wide variety of malicious software that is intended to uncover company and government secrets. Every year billions of dollars are invested in preventing and recovering from the introduction of malicious code into a system. However, there is little research being done on leveraging these attacks for counterintelligence opportunities. With the ever-increasing number of vulnerable computers on the Internet the task of attributing these attacks to an organization or a single person is a daunting one. This thesis will demonstrate the idea of intentionally running a piece of malicious code in a secure environment in order to gain counterintelligence on an attacker.

Jared Stimson Edward Murphy

2007-06-01

163

The development and practice of forensic podiatry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic podiatry a small, but potentially useful specialty using clinical podiatric knowledge for the purpose of person identification. The practice of forensic podiatry began in the early 1970s in Canada and the UK, although supportive research commenced later in the 1990s. Techniques of forensic podiatry include identification from podiatry records, the human footprint, footwear, and the analysis of gait forms

Wesley Vernon

2006-01-01

164

The transferability of diatoms to clothing and the methods appropriate for their collection and analysis in forensic geoscience.  

PubMed

Forensic geoscience is concerned with the analysis of geological materials in order to compare and exclude environmental samples from a common source, or to identify an unknown provenance in a criminal investigation. Diatom analysis is currently an underused technique within the forensic geoscience approach, which has the potential to provide an independent ecological assessment of trace evidence. This study presents empirical data to provide a preliminary evidence base in order to be able to understand the nature of diatom transfers to items of clothing, and the collection of transferred diatom trace evidence from a range of environments under experimental conditions. Three diatom extraction methods were tested on clothing that had been in contact with soil and water sites: rinsing in water (RW), rinsing in ethanol (RE), and submersion in H2O2 solution (H). Scanning electron microscopy (S.E.M.) analysis was undertaken in order to examine the degree of diatom retention on treated clothing samples. The total diatom yield and species richness data was recorded from each experimental sample in order to compare the efficacy of each method in collecting a representative sample for analysis. Similarity was explored using correspondence analysis. The results highlight the efficiency of H2O2 submersion in consistently extracting high diatom counts with representative species from clothing exposed to both aquatic and terrestrial sites. This is corroborated by S.E.M. analysis. This paper provides an important empirical evidence base for both establishing that diatoms do indeed transfer to clothing under forensic conditions in a range of environments, and in identifying that H2O2 extraction is the most efficient technique for the optimal collection of comparative samples. There is therefore potentially great value in collecting and analysing diatom components of geoforensic samples in order to aid in forensic investigation. PMID:24915452

Scott, Kirstie R; Morgan, Ruth M; Jones, Vivienne J; Cameron, Nigel G

2014-08-01

165

Disasters of endoscopic surgery and how to avoid them: error analysis.  

PubMed

For every innovation there are two sides to consider. For endoscopic surgery the positive side is more comfort for the patient, and the negative side is new complications, even disasters, such as injuries to organs (e.g., the bowel), vessels, and the common bile duct. These disasters are rare and seldom reported in the scientific world, as at conferences, at symposiums, and in publications. Today there are many methods for testing an innovation (controlled clinical trials, consensus conferences, audits, and confidential inquiries). Reporting "complications," however, does not help to avoid them. We need real methods for avoiding negative failures. The failure analysis is the method of choice in industry. If an airplane crashes, error analysis starts immediately. Humans make errors, and making errors means punishment. Failure analysis means rigorously and objectively investigating a clinical situation to find clinical relevant information for avoiding these negative events in the future. Error analysis has four important steps: (1) What was the clinical situation? (2) What has happened? (3) Most important: Why did it happen? (4) How do we avoid the negative event or disaster in the future. Error analysis has decisive advantages. It is easy to perform; it supplies clinically relevant information to help avoid it; and there is no need for money. It can be done everywhere; and the information is available in a short time. The other side of the coin is that error analysis is of course retrospective, it may not be objective, and most important it will probably have legal consequences. To be more effective in medicine and surgery we must handle our errors using a different approach. According to Sir Karl Popper: "The consituation is that we have to learn from our errors. To cover up failure is therefore the biggest intellectual sin. PMID:10415211

Troidl, H

1999-08-01

166

How useful and reliable are disaster databases in the context of climate and global change? A comparative case study analysis in Peru  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Loss and damage caused by weather and climate related disasters have increased over the past decades, and growing exposure and wealth have been identified as main drivers of this increase. Disaster databases are a primary tool for the analysis of disaster characteristics and trends at global or national scales, and support disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation. However, the quality, consistency and completeness of different disaster databases are highly variable. Even though such variation critically influences the outcome of any study, comparative analyses of different disaster databases are still rare to date. Furthermore, there is an unequal geographic distribution of current disaster trend studies, with developing countries being under-represented. Here, we analyze three different disaster databases for the developing country context of Peru; a global database (EM-DAT), a regional Latin American (DesInventar) and a national database (SINPAD). The analysis is performed across three dimensions, (1) spatial scales, from local to regional (provincial) and national scale; (2) time scales, from single events to decadal trends; and (3) disaster categories and metrics, including the number of disaster occurrence, and damage metrics such as people killed and affected. Results show limited changes in disaster occurrence in the Cusco and Apurímac regions in southern Peru over the past four decades, but strong trends in people affected at the national scale. We furthermore found large variations of the disaster parameters studied over different spatial and temporal scales, depending on the disaster database analyzed. We conclude and recommend that the type, method and source of documentation should be carefully evaluated for any analysis of disaster databases; reporting criteria should be improved and documentation efforts strengthened.

Huggel, C.; Raissig, A.; Rohrer, M.; Romero, G.; Diaz, A.; Salzmann, N.

2014-06-01

167

Forensic Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A course is described, which was given during an interim, with an enrollment of 41 students. The course involved an in-depth study of forensic science, involving students with the methodology of science. (DF)

Berry, Keith O.; Nigh, W. G.

1973-01-01

168

Automated extraction of direct, reactive, and vat dyes from cellulosic fibers for forensic analysis by capillary electrophoresis.  

PubMed

Systematic designed experiments were employed to find the optimum conditions for extraction of direct, reactive, and vat dyes from cotton fibers prior to forensic characterization. Automated microextractions were coupled with measurements of extraction efficiencies on a microplate reader UV-visible spectrophotometer to enable rapid screening of extraction efficiency as a function of solvent composition. Solvent extraction conditions were also developed to be compatible with subsequent forensic characterization of extracted dyes by capillary electrophoresis with UV-visible diode array detection. The capillary electrophoresis electrolyte successfully used in this work consists of 5 mM ammonium acetate in 40:60 acetonitrile-water at pH 9.3, with the addition of sodium dithionite reducing agent to facilitate analysis of vat dyes. The ultimate goal of these research efforts is enhanced discrimination of trace fiber evidence by analysis of extracted dyes. PMID:19536528

Dockery, C R; Stefan, A R; Nieuwland, A A; Roberson, S N; Baguley, B M; Hendrix, J E; Morgan, S L

2009-08-01

169

Real-time forensic DNA analysis at a crime scene using a portable microchip analyzer.  

PubMed

An integrated lab-on-a-chip system has been developed and successfully utilized for real-time forensic short tandem repeat (STR) analysis. The microdevice comprises a 160-nL polymerase chain reaction reactor with an on-chip heater and a temperature sensor for thermal cycling, microvalves for fluidic manipulation, a co-injector for sizing standard injection, and a 7-cm-long separation channel for capillary electrophoretic analysis. A 9-plex autosomal STR typing system consisting of amelogenin and eight combined DNA index system (CODIS) core STR loci has been constructed and optimized for this real-time human identification study. Reproducible STR profiles of control DNA samples are obtained in 2h and 30min with analysis establishes the feasibility of real-time DNA typing to identify the contributor of probative biological evidence at a crime scene and for real-time human identification. PMID:19083840

Liu, Peng; Yeung, Stephanie H I; Crenshaw, Karin A; Crouse, Cecelia A; Scherer, James R; Mathies, Richard A

2008-09-01

170

Forensic Pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Forensic pathology is a branch of medicine that deals with the determination of the cause and manner of death in cases in\\u000a which death occurred under suspicious or unknown circumstances. Identification of the decedent and interpretation of postmortem\\u000a changes are duties of the forensic pathologist. Sudden death from natural disease frequently involves vascular disease, obstructive\\u000a or reactive lung disease, diabetes

Frank P. Miller; Jeffrey J. Barnard

171

Parts-Based Detection of AK-47s for Forensic Video Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Law enforcement, military personnel, and forensic analysts are increasingly reliant on imaging systems to perform in a hostile environment and require a robust method to efficiently locate objects of interest in videos and still images. Current approaches...

J. Jones

2010-01-01

172

Population-Sequencing as a Biomarker of Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei Evolution through Microbial Forensic Analysis.  

PubMed

Large-scale genomics projects are identifying biomarkers to detect human disease. B. pseudomallei and B. mallei are two closely related select agents that cause melioidosis and glanders. Accurate characterization of metagenomic samples is dependent on accurate measurements of genetic variation between isolates with resolution down to strain level. Often single biomarker sensitivity is augmented by use of multiple or panels of biomarkers. In parallel with single biomarker validation, advances in DNA sequencing enable analysis of entire genomes in a single run: population-sequencing. Potentially, direct sequencing could be used to analyze an entire genome to serve as the biomarker for genome identification. However, genome variation and population diversity complicate use of direct sequencing, as well as differences caused by sample preparation protocols including sequencing artifacts and mistakes. As part of a Department of Homeland Security program in bacterial forensics, we examined how to implement whole genome sequencing (WGS) analysis as a judicially defensible forensic method for attributing microbial sample relatedness; and also to determine the strengths and limitations of whole genome sequence analysis in a forensics context. Herein, we demonstrate use of sequencing to provide genetic characterization of populations: direct sequencing of populations. PMID:24455204

Jakupciak, John P; Wells, Jeffrey M; Karalus, Richard J; Pawlowski, David R; Lin, Jeffrey S; Feldman, Andrew B

2013-01-01

173

Population-Sequencing as a Biomarker of Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei Evolution through Microbial Forensic Analysis  

PubMed Central

Large-scale genomics projects are identifying biomarkers to detect human disease. B. pseudomallei and B. mallei are two closely related select agents that cause melioidosis and glanders. Accurate characterization of metagenomic samples is dependent on accurate measurements of genetic variation between isolates with resolution down to strain level. Often single biomarker sensitivity is augmented by use of multiple or panels of biomarkers. In parallel with single biomarker validation, advances in DNA sequencing enable analysis of entire genomes in a single run: population-sequencing. Potentially, direct sequencing could be used to analyze an entire genome to serve as the biomarker for genome identification. However, genome variation and population diversity complicate use of direct sequencing, as well as differences caused by sample preparation protocols including sequencing artifacts and mistakes. As part of a Department of Homeland Security program in bacterial forensics, we examined how to implement whole genome sequencing (WGS) analysis as a judicially defensible forensic method for attributing microbial sample relatedness; and also to determine the strengths and limitations of whole genome sequence analysis in a forensics context. Herein, we demonstrate use of sequencing to provide genetic characterization of populations: direct sequencing of populations.

Jakupciak, John P.; Wells, Jeffrey M.; Karalus, Richard J.; Pawlowski, David R.; Lin, Jeffrey S.; Feldman, Andrew B.

2013-01-01

174

Age Estimation in Forensic Sciences  

PubMed Central

Age determination of unknown human bodies is important in the setting of a crime investigation or a mass disaster because the age at death, birth date, and year of death as well as gender can guide investigators to the correct identity among a large number of possible matches. Traditional morphological methods used by anthropologists to determine age are often imprecise, whereas chemical analysis of tooth dentin, such as aspartic acid racemization, has shown reproducible and more precise results. In this study, we analyzed teeth from Swedish individuals using both aspartic acid racemization and radiocarbon methodologies. The rationale behind using radiocarbon analysis is that aboveground testing of nuclear weapons during the cold war (1955–1963) caused an extreme increase in global levels of carbon-14 (14C), which has been carefully recorded over time. Forty-four teeth from 41 individuals were analyzed using aspartic acid racemization analysis of tooth crown dentin or radiocarbon analysis of enamel, and 10 of these were split and subjected to both radiocarbon and racemization analysis. Combined analysis showed that the two methods correlated well (R2 = 0.66, p < 0.05). Radiocarbon analysis showed an excellent precision with an overall absolute error of 1.0 ± 0.6 years. Aspartic acid racemization also showed a good precision with an overall absolute error of 5.4 ± 4.2 years. Whereas radiocarbon analysis gives an estimated year of birth, racemization analysis indicates the chronological age of the individual at the time of death. We show how these methods in combination can also assist in the estimation of date of death of an unidentified victim. This strategy can be of significant assistance in forensic casework involving dead victim identification.

Alkass, Kanar; Buchholz, Bruce A.; Ohtani, Susumu; Yamamoto, Toshiharu; Druid, Henrik; Spalding, Kirsty L.

2010-01-01

175

Forensic analysis of Salvia divinorum using multivariate statistical procedures. Part I: discrimination from related Salvia species.  

PubMed

Salvia divinorum is a hallucinogenic herb that is internationally regulated. In this study, salvinorin A, the active compound in S. divinorum, was extracted from S. divinorum plant leaves using a 5-min extraction with dichloromethane. Four additional Salvia species (Salvia officinalis, Salvia guaranitica, Salvia splendens, and Salvia nemorosa) were extracted using this procedure, and all extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Differentiation of S. divinorum from other Salvia species was successful based on visual assessment of the resulting chromatograms. To provide a more objective comparison, the total ion chromatograms (TICs) were subjected to principal components analysis (PCA). Prior to PCA, the TICs were subjected to a series of data pretreatment procedures to minimize non-chemical sources of variance in the data set. Successful discrimination of S. divinorum from the other four Salvia species was possible based on visual assessment of the PCA scores plot. To provide a numerical assessment of the discrimination, a series of statistical procedures such as Euclidean distance measurement, hierarchical cluster analysis, Student's t tests, Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, and Pearson product moment correlation were also applied to the PCA scores. The statistical procedures were then compared to determine the advantages and disadvantages for forensic applications. PMID:22038586

Willard, Melissa A Bodnar; McGuffin, Victoria L; Smith, Ruth Waddell

2012-01-01

176

Analysis of forensically used autosomal short tandem repeat markers in Polish and neighboring populations.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the homogeneity of Polish populations with respect to STRs chosen as core markers of the Polish Forensic National DNA Intelligence Database, and to provide reference allele frequencies and to explore the genetic interrelationship between Poland and neighboring countries. The allele frequency distribution of 10 STRs included in the SGMplus kit was analyzed among 2176 unrelated individuals from 6 regional Polish populations and among 4321 individuals from Germany (three samples), Austria, The Netherlands, Sweden, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Belarus, Ukraine and the Russian Federation (six samples). The statistical approach consisted of AMOVA, calculation of pairwise Rst values and analysis by multidimensional scaling. We found homogeneity of present day Poland and consistent differences between Polish and German populations which contrasted with relative similarities between Russian and German populations. These discrepancies between genetic and geographic distances were confirmed by analysis of an independent data set on Y chromosome STRs. Migrations of Goths, Viking influences, German settlements in the region of Volga river and/or forced population resettlements and other events related to World War II are the historic events which might have caused these finding. PMID:19083822

Soltyszewski, Ireneusz; Plocienniczak, Andrzej; Fabricius, Hans Ake; Kornienko, Igor; Vodolazhsky, Dmitrij; Parson, Walther; Hradil, Roman; Schmitter, Hermann; Ivanov, Pavel; Kuzniar, Piotr; Malyarchuk, Boris A; Grzybowski, Tomasz; Wo?niak, Marcin; Henke, Jurgen; Henke, Lotte; Olkhovets, Sergiv; Voitenko, Vladimir; Lagus, Vita; Ficek, Andrej; Minárik, Gabriel; de Knijff, Peter; Reba?a, Krzysztof; Wysocka, Joanna; Kapi?ska, Ewa; Cybulska, Lidia; Mikulich, Alexei I; Tsybovsky, Iosif S; Szczerkowska, Zofia; Krajewski, Pawe?; Ploski, Rafa?

2008-06-01

177

A multivariate analysis of dichotomous opinions in dissensus disaster  

SciTech Connect

Despite the absence of evidence supporting either environmental or economic damages resulting from the Argo Merchant oil spill of 1976, a questionnaire administered 11 months afterward to 258 randomly selected heads of households in four towns contiguous to the spill revealed that 60 percent thought damages had occurred. In a secondary analysis of the original data to examine the causes of the damage perceptions, a discriminant function was developed on a randomly selected test group and evaluated on a control group. The results support the hypothesis that incorrect damage perceptions resulted from a priori views on the part of younger, socially conscious, higher-achieving heads of households. Support is indicated for the hypothesis that a priori perceptions were reinforced after the event. The index for total discriminating power was .43 for the test group and .38 for the control group. Television was the major media information source.

Rappaport, A.; Zincone, L.H. Jr.; Fricke, P.H.

1982-09-01

178

Challenges of DNA profiling in mass disaster investigations.  

PubMed

In cases of mass disaster, there is often a need for managing, analyzing, and comparing large numbers of biological samples and DNA profiles. This requires the use of laboratory information management systems for large-scale sample logging and tracking, coupled with bioinformatic tools for DNA database searching according to different matching algorithms, and for the evaluation of the significance of each match by likelihood ratio calculations. There are many different interrelated factors and circumstances involved in each specific mass disaster scenario that may challenge the final DNA identification goal, such as: the number of victims, the mechanisms of body destruction, the extent of body fragmentation, the rate of DNA degradation, the body accessibility for sample collection, or the type of DNA reference samples availability. In this paper, we examine the different steps of the DNA identification analysis (DNA sampling, DNA analysis and technology, DNA database searching, and concordance and kinship analysis) reviewing the "lessons learned" and the scientific progress made in some mass disaster cases described in the scientific literature. We will put special emphasis on the valuable scientific feedback that genetic forensic community has received from the collaborative efforts of several public and private USA forensic laboratories in assisting with the more critical areas of the World Trade Center (WTC) mass fatality of September 11, 2001. The main challenges in identifying the victims of the recent South Asian Tsunami disaster, which has produced the steepest death count rise in history, will also be considered. We also present data from two recent mass fatality cases that involved Spanish victims: the Madrid terrorist attack of March 11, 2004, and the Yakolev-42 aircraft accident in Trabzon, Turkey, of May 26, 2003. PMID:16100756

Alonso, Antonio; Martin, Pablo; Albarrán, Cristina; Garcia, Pilar; Fernandez de Simon, Lourdes; Jesús Iturralde, Maria; Fernández-Rodriguez, Amparo; Atienza, Inmaculada; Capilla, Javier; García-Hirschfeld, Julia; Martinez, Pilar; Vallejo, Gloria; García, Oscar; García, Emilio; Real, Pilar; Alvarez, David; León, Antonio; Sancho, Manuel

2005-08-01

179

Forensic analysis of Salvia divinorum using multivariate statistical procedures. Part II: association of adulterated samples to S. divinorum.  

PubMed

Salvia divinorum is a plant material that is of forensic interest due to the hallucinogenic nature of the active ingredient, salvinorin A. In this study, S. divinorum was extracted and spiked onto four different plant materials (S. divinorum, Salvia officinalis, Cannabis sativa, and Nicotiana tabacum) to simulate an adulterated sample that might be encountered in a forensic laboratory. The adulterated samples were extracted and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the resulting total ion chromatograms were subjected to a series of pretreatment procedures that were used to minimize non-chemical sources of variance in the data set. The data were then analyzed using principal components analysis (PCA) to investigate association of the adulterated extracts to unadulterated S. divinorum. While association was possible based on visual assessment of the PCA scores plot, additional procedures including Euclidean distance measurement, hierarchical cluster analysis, Student's t tests, Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, and Pearson product moment correlation were also applied to the PCA scores to provide a statistical evaluation of the association observed. The advantages and limitations of each statistical procedure in a forensic context were compared and are presented herein. PMID:22160202

Willard, Melissa A Bodnar; McGuffin, Victoria L; Smith, Ruth Waddell

2012-01-01

180

Scanning electron microscopic analysis of incinerated teeth: An aid to forensic identification  

PubMed Central

Background: Forensic dental identification of victims involved in fire accidents is often a complex and challenging endeavor. Knowledge of the charred human dentition and residues of restorative material can help in the recognition of bodies burned beyond recognition. Aim: To observe the effects of predetermined temperatures on healthy unrestored teeth and different restorative materials in restored teeth, by scanning electron microscope, for the purpose of identification. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 135 extracted teeth, which were divided into four groups. Group 1-healthy unrestored teeth, group 2-teeth restored with all ceramic crowns, group 3-teeth restored with class I composite resin and group 4-teeth restored with class I glass ionomer cement (GIC). Results: The scanning electron microscope is useful in the analysis of burned teeth, as it gives fine structural details, requires only a small sample and does not destroy the already fragile specimen. Conclusion: Scanning electron microscope can be a useful tool for the characterization and study of severely burnt teeth for victim identification.

Pol, Chetan A; Gosavi, Suchitra R

2014-01-01

181

Simulation of attenuated total reflection infrared absorbance spectra: applications to automotive clear coat forensic analysis.  

PubMed

Attenuated total reflection (ATR) is a widely used sampling technique in infrared (IR) spectroscopy because minimal sample preparation is required. Since the penetration depth of the ATR analysis beam is quite shallow, the outer layers of a laminate or multilayered paint sample can be preferentially analyzed with the entire sample intact. For this reason, forensic laboratories are taking advantage of ATR to collect IR spectra of automotive paint systems that may consist of three or more layers. However, the IR spectrum of a paint sample obtained by ATR will exhibit distortions, e.g., band broadening and lower relative intensities at higher wavenumbers, compared with its transmission counterpart. This hinders library searching because most library spectra are measured in transmission mode. Furthermore, the angle of incidence for the internal reflection element, the refractive index of the clear coat, and surface contamination due to inorganic contaminants can profoundly influence the quality of the ATR spectrum obtained for automotive paints. A correction algorithm to allow ATR spectra to be searched using IR transmission spectra of the paint data query (PDQ) automotive database is presented. The proposed correction algorithm to convert transmission spectra from the PDQ library to ATR spectra is able to address distortion issues such as the relative intensities and broadening of the bands, and the introduction of wavelength shifts at lower frequencies, which prevent library searching of ATR spectra using archived IR transmission data. PMID:25014606

Lavine, Barry K; Fasasi, Ayuba; Mirjankar, Nikhil; Nishikida, Koichi; Campbell, Jay

2014-05-01

182

Bite mark documentation and analysis: the forensic 3D/CAD supported photogrammetry approach.  

PubMed

Bite mark identification is based on the individuality of a dentition, which is used to match a bite mark to a suspected perpetrator. This matching is based on a tooth-by-tooth and arch-to-arch comparison utilising parameters of size, shape and alignment. The most common method used to analyse bite mark are carried out in 2D space. That means that the 3D information is preserved only two dimensionally with distortions. This paper presents a new 3D documentation, analysis and visualisation approach based on forensic 3D/CAD supported photogrammetry (FPHG) and the use of a 3D surface scanner. Our photogrammetric approach and the used visualisation method is, to the best to our knowledge, the first 3D approach for bite mark analysis in an actual case. The documentation has no distortion artifacts as can be found with standard photography. All the data are documented with a metric 3D measurement, orientation and subsequent analysis in 3D space. Beside the metrical analysis between bite mark and cast, it is possible using our method to utilise the topographical 3D feature of each individual tooth. This means that the 3D features of the biting surfaces and edges of each teeth are respected which is--as shown in our case--very important especially in the front teeth which have the first contact to the skin. Based upon the 3D detailed representation of the cast with the 3D topographic characteristics of the teeth, the interaction with the 3D documented skin can be visualised and analysed on the computer screen. PMID:12927412

Thali, M J; Braun, M; Markwalder, Th H; Brueschweiler, W; Zollinger, U; Malik, Naseem J; Yen, K; Dirnhofer, R

2003-08-12

183

Elemental analysis of forensic glasses by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flat glass is a common type of evidence collected from the scenes of crimes such as burglaries, vandalism, and hit-and- run accidents. The usefulness of such evidence lies in the ability to associate the glass from the scene (or a suspect) to the original source. Physical and chemical analysis of the glass can be used for discrimination between the possible sources of glass. If the sample is large enough, physical attributes such as fracture matches, density, color, and thickness can be employed for comparison between a recovered fragment(s) to the suspect source. More commonly, refractive index (RI) comparisons are employed. Due to the improved control over glass manufacturing processes, RI values often cannot differentiate glasses where approximately 6 - 9% of casework samples are not expected to be distinguished by RI alone even if they originated from different sources. Employing methods such as NAA, XRF, ICP-AES, and ICP-MS for the comparison of trace elemental compositions has been shown to be more discriminating than RI comparisons. The multielement capability and the sensitivity of ICP-AES and ICP-MS provide for excellent discrimination power. In this work, the sources of variability in ICP-MS of glass analysis are investigated to determine possible sources of variation. The sources of variation examined include errors due to sample preparation, instrument accuracy and precision, and interlaboratory reproducibility. Other sources of variation include inhomogeneity across a sheet of glass from the same source. Analysis of variance has been applied to our ICP-MS analysis of NIST standards and to the interlaboratory comparisons of float glass samples collected across a sheet in a production facility. The results of these experiments allows for a more accurate interpretation of forensic glass data and a better understanding of the discriminating power (absolute and practical) of ICP-MS.

Almirall, Jose R.; Duckworth, Douglas C.; Bayne, Charles K.; Morton, Shelby J.; Smith, David H.; Koons, Robert D.; Furton, Kenneth G.

1999-02-01

184

Confirmatory analysis of ethylglucuronide in urine by liquid-chromatography/electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry according to forensic guidelines.  

PubMed

beta-D-ethylglucuronide (EtG) is a stable Phase II metabolite of ethanol which can be detected in urine samples several days after elimination of ethanol. It is a useful diagnostic parameter for monitoring abstinence of alcoholics in alcohol withdrawal treatment. For this purpose, determination in urine is mainly performed by LC-MS, LC-MS/MS, or by GC-MS. For the mass spectrometric identification and detection of controlled substances in more sensitive fields such as forensic toxicology, workplace drug testing, doping analysis, and veterinary organic residue control, official guidelines have been released requiring a chromatographic separation and a minimum of two mass spectrometric transitions of the analyte. However, for detection of EtG none of the published LC-MS/MS methods could fulfill the minimum requirements of any of these guidelines. Therefore, an existing LC-MS/MS method has been modified by monitoring further MS/MS transitions instead of only one (deprotonated molecule [M - H](-)/product ions: m/z 75, 85, 113, and 159 optional) with the aim of withstanding administrative or court scrutiny in forensic or workplace drug testing cases. Full method validation has been performed in accordance to guidelines of the German Society of Toxicology and Forensic Chemistry (GTFCh) and requirements of ISO 17025. One application field in the United States is a workplace monitoring program to detect surreptitious alcohol use among recovering health professionals, who by contract had agreed on total abstinence after drug and alcohol withdrawal therapy. PMID:14766286

Weinmann, Wolfgang; Schaefer, Patrick; Thierauf, Annette; Schreiber, André; Wurst, Friedrich Martin

2004-02-01

185

A collaborative approach for incorporating forensic case data into crime investigation using criminal intelligence analysis and visualisation.  

PubMed

There is an increasing awareness that the articulation of forensic science and criminal investigation is critical to the resolution of crimes. However, models and methods to support an effective collaboration between the partners are still poorly expressed or even lacking. Three propositions are borrowed from crime intelligence methods in order to bridge this gap: (a) the general intelligence process, (b) the analyses of investigative problems along principal perspectives: entities and their relationships, time and space, quantitative aspects and (c) visualisation methods as a mode of expression of a problem in these dimensions. Indeed, in a collaborative framework, different kinds of visualisations integrating forensic case data can play a central role for supporting decisions. Among them, link-charts are scrutinised for their abilities to structure and ease the analysis of a case by describing how relevant entities are connected. However, designing an informative chart that does not bias the reasoning process is not straightforward. Using visualisation as a catalyser for a collaborative approach integrating forensic data thus calls for better specifications. PMID:24630325

Rossy, Quentin; Ribaux, Olivier

2014-03-01

186

Disaster Preparedness  

MedlinePLUS

Disaster Preparedness Alzheimer’s Caregiving Tips National Institutes of Health NIH...Turning Discovery Into Health® National Institute on ... with Alzheimer’s disease can be especially vulnerable during disasters such as severe weather, fires, floods, earthquakes, and ...

187

Forensic age estimation by spheno-occipital synchondrosis fusion degree: computed tomography analysis.  

PubMed

The analysis of ossification points plays a considerable role in forensic age estimation. Although traditional methods are still in use, researchers are working on different age estimation procedures especially within the development of radiologic methods. One of these methods is to define spheno-occipital synchondrosis fusion degree. Spheno-occipital synchondrosis, an important growth point on cranial base, provides noteworthy information about age estimation through its late stage ossification nature. This study aimed to investigate spheno-occipital synchondrosis fusion degree for age estimation in the Turkish population. In our study, 1-mm-sectioned computed tomography images of 638 (399 men and 139 women) subjects within the age of 10 to 25 years were retrospectively examined. It is stated in our study that spheno-occipital syncondrosis fusion begins superiorly and progresses inferiorly until it is completed. Spheno-occipital syncondrosis is known to be totally open at the mean (SD) age of 11.5 (1.5) years in men and 10.7 (0.8) years in women. In addition, fusion degree is known to be increased with age. Fusion starts approximately 2 years earlier in women than in men, and the process of fusion completes at the age of 17 years in both sexes. An analysis of fusion degree between sex groups showed significance at the age of 11 to 15 years, and Spearman rank correlations indicate a significant positive relationship between age and degree of spheno-occipital fusion (P < 0.001; men, ? = 0.714; women, ? = 0.698). Consequently, 5-staged analysis of spheno-occipital synchondrosis fusion degree in use with 1-mm computed tomography images will be helpful for age estimation between 11 and 17 years. PMID:25006899

Can, Ismail Ozgur; Ekizoglu, Oguzhan; Hocaoglu, Elif; Inci, Ercan; Sayin, Ibrahim; Kaya, Kamil Hakan

2014-07-01

188

Speech watermarking: an approach for the forensic analysis of digital telephonic recordings.  

PubMed

In this article, the authors discuss the problem of forensic authentication of digital audio recordings. Although forensic audio has been addressed in several articles, the existing approaches are focused on analog magnetic recordings, which are less prevalent because of the large amount of digital recorders available on the market (optical, solid state, hard disks, etc.). An approach based on digital signal processing that consists of spread spectrum techniques for speech watermarking is presented. This approach presents the advantage that the authentication is based on the signal itself rather than the recording format. Thus, it is valid for usual recording devices in police-controlled telephone intercepts. In addition, our proposal allows for the introduction of relevant information such as the recording date and time and all the relevant data (this is not always possible with classical systems). Our experimental results reveal that the speech watermarking procedure does not interfere in a significant way with the posterior forensic speaker identification. PMID:20412360

Faundez-Zanuy, Marcos; Lucena-Molina, Jose J; Hagmüller, Martin

2010-07-01

189

The Development of a Generic Framework for the Forensic Analysis of SCADA and Process Control Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is continuing interest in researching generic security architectures and strategies for managing SCADA and process control systems. Documentation from various countries on IT security does now begin to recommendations for security controls for (federal) information systems which include connected process control systems. Little or no work exists in the public domain which takes a big picture approach to the issue of developing a generic or generalisable approach to SCADA and process control system forensics. The discussion raised in this paper is that before one can develop solutions to the problem of SCADA forensics, a good understanding of the forensic computing process, and the range of technical and procedural issues subsumed with in this process, need to be understood, and also agreed, by governments, industry and academia.

Slay, Jill; Sitnikova, Elena

190

Structural analysis of human rib fracture and implications for forensic interpretation.  

PubMed

Patterns of rib fractures are of significant clinical and forensic interest. Linking patterns of rib fracture with specific physical events provides a foundation for understanding the nature of traumatic events that are associated with rib fracture in forensic contexts. In this study, isolated human ribs (n = 8) were end-loaded to failure to investigate: (i) local deformations (bone strain) prior to and during structural failure, (ii) location of ultimate failure, and (iii) fracture mode. Structural properties of ribs were used to calculate theoretical stresses to determine whether such calculations could be used to predict site of fracture. Ribs fractured on the sternal side of midshaft in all experiments, but mode of failure varied with transverse, buckle, spiral, and "butterfly" fractures observed. Comparison of calculated stress with observed strain values suggest that experimental, rather than theoretical, approaches will be most productive in furthering understanding rib fracture in forensic contexts. PMID:18798775

Daegling, David J; Warren, Michael W; Hotzman, Jennifer L; Self, Casey J

2008-11-01

191

Forensic culture as epistemic culture: the sociology of forensic science.  

PubMed

This paper explores whether we can interpret the notion of 'forensic culture' as something akin to what Knorr-Cetina called an 'epistemic culture'. Can we speak of a 'forensic culture', and, if so, how is it similar to, or different from, other epistemic cultures that exist in what is conventionally called 'science'? This question has important policy implications given the National Academy Science's (NAS) recent identification of 'culture' as one of the problems at the root of what it identified as 'serious deficiencies' in U.S. forensic science and 'scientific culture' as an antidote to those problems. Finding the NAS's characterisation of 'scientific culture' overly general and naïve, this paper offers a preliminary exploration of what might be called a 'forensic culture'. Specifically, the paper explores the way in which few of the empirical findings accumulated by sociologists of science about research science seem to apply to forensic science. Instead, forensic science seems to have developed a distinct culture for which a sociological analysis will require new explanatory tools. Faithful sociological analysis of 'forensic culture' will be a necessary prerequisite for the kind of culture change prescribed by external reformist bodies like the NAS. PMID:23021588

Cole, Simon A

2013-03-01

192

Method and apparatus for quantifying an impact of a disaster on a network  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The invention comprises a method and apparatus for determining an expected impact of a disaster on a network. In particular, one embodiment of the method includes modeling the network as a plurality of geographical regions associated with respective pluralities of network elements and network element interconnectivities, generating a disaster model associated with the disaster by adjusting a disaster framework using a disaster parameter, generating a disaster analysis model using the network model and the disaster model, wherein the disaster analysis model includes a disaster probability parameter and a disaster impact parameter, and determining the expected impact of the disaster on at least a portion of the network using the disaster analysis model.

2009-10-13

193

Forensic Information Warfare Requirement Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study presents an analysis of the state of the art in computer forensic technologies employed by the military, law enforcement, and business and industry sectors. Additionally, it charts the observed deficiencies in this area, by providing a research ...

C. Hosmer G. Gordon

2002-01-01

194

Forensic anthropology in the 1990s.  

PubMed

Forensic anthropology has undergone considerable change over the past 10 years. Today it is utilized by most law enforcement, coroner, and medical examiner systems. The techniques for determination of age at death, sex, race, and stature from skeletal remains have been modified and greatly expanded. The role of the forensic anthropologist within a medicolegal context is much broader than in previous years. In addition to establishing individual identity, forensic anthropologists are now consulted for trauma analysis, facial reconstruction, photographic superimposition, determination of time interval since death, and crime-scene recovery. Not all physical anthropologists are forensic anthropologists. Qualified individuals are certified, through rigorous examination, by the American Board of Forensic Anthropology. A list of board-certified forensic anthropologists may be obtained through the American Academy of Forensic Sciences. PMID:1510066

Reichs, K J

1992-06-01

195

Forensic entomology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Necrophagous insects are important in the decomposition of cadavers. The close association between insects and corpses and the use of insects in medicocriminal investigations is the subject of forensic entomology. The present paper reviews the historical background of this discipline, important postmortem processes, and discusses the scientific basis underlying attempts to determine the time interval since death. Using medical techniques,

Jens Amendt; Roman Krettek; Richard Zehner

2004-01-01

196

Forensic Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citation: Brigham, J., & Grisso, T. (2003). Forensic Psychology. In D.K. Friedheim & I.B. Weiner (eds.), Comprehensive handbook of psychology. Vol. 1: The history of psychology, (pp. 391-411). New York: John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 0471383201, 9780471383208.\\u000aLimited preview available via Google Books.

John C. Brigham; Thomas Grisso

2003-01-01

197

Concepts and possibilities in forensic intelligence.  

PubMed

Forensic intelligence can be viewed as comprising two parts, one directly concerning intelligence delivery in forensic casework, the other considering performance aspects of forensic work, loosely termed here as business intelligence. Forensic casework can be viewed as processes that produce an intelligence product useful to police investigations. Traditionally, forensic intelligence production has been confined to discipline-specific activity. This paper examines the concepts, processes and intelligence products delivered in forensic casework, the information repositories available from forensic examinations, and ways to produce within- and across-discipline casework correlations by using information technology to capitalise on the information sets available. Such analysis presents opportunities to improve forensic intelligence services as well as challenges for technical solutions to deliver appropriate data-mining capabilities for available information sets, such as digital photographs. Business intelligence refers primarily to examination of efficiency and effectiveness of forensic service delivery. This paper discusses measures of forensic activity and their relationship to crime outcomes as a measure of forensic effectiveness. PMID:16893621

Bell, Chris

2006-10-16

198

Forensic comparison of shotshell-pellet specimens by instrumental neutron activation analysis  

SciTech Connect

The very rapid INAA method, developed by Guinn and Purcell, works well for the determination of Sb, Ag, and Cu in shotshell pellets. Arsenic is also of interest to this study because it is added during the production of shotshell pellets to increase sphericity during pellet formation in the shot tower. Unfortunately, the one arsenic (n,..gamma..), product, 26.32 h /sup 76/As, is not susceptible to analysis via the rapid method. In the present study, a method involving a one-hour irradiation in the UCl TRIGA Mark 1 nuclear reactor was found to be effective in the determination of arsenic content in lead samples. This method also facilitates a second determination of antimony and copper levels via /sup 122/Sb and /sup 64/Cu activities. Several methods for the resolution of the 559-keV /sup 76/As/564-keV /sup 122/Sb photopeak doublet were evaluated. Also, two new gamma attenuation models, for disc and spherical lead samples, were developed. These models respond to the recognition that the gamma rays employed to assay the concentrations of the various elements are themselves attenuated within the sample - a lead matrix. After demonstrating that ammunition from different manufacturers, as well as inter-lot variances within a single manufacturer's ammunition, can readily be differentiated, this study also led to a statistically rigorous assignment of the probability of common origin of shotshell-pellet, or bullet-lead specimens, of analytically indistinguishable or nearly indistinguishable compositions. Additionally, the dissertation contains an Appendix detailing the development of the shotgun and its ammunition for those who are not very familiar with forensic ballistics.

Jourdan, T.H.

1986-01-01

199

An integrated system of ABO typing and multiplex STR testing for forensic DNA analysis.  

PubMed

A new amplification system for ABO and STR genotyping in a single reaction has been successfully developed. Two types of information can be obtained from a biological sample at one time. One is the classical information of ABO blood group typing for screening suspects and the other is STR information for individual identification. The system allows for the simultaneous detection of 15 autosomal STR loci (containing all CODIS STR loci as well as Penta D and Penta E), six ABO genotypes (O/O, B/B, A/A, A/O, A/B, and B/O) and the gender-determining locus Amelogenin. Primers are designed so that the amplicons are distributed ranging from 75bp to 500bp within a four-dye fluorescent design, leaving a fourth dye for the internal size standard. With 30 cycles, the results showed that the optimal amount of DNA template for this multiplex ranges from 250pg to 2ng and the lowest detection threshold is 125pg (as low as 63pg for ABO loci). For the DNA template outside the optimal detection range, we could adjust the number of cycles to obtain the robust profiles. Mixture studies showed that over 83% of minor alleles were detected at 1:9 ratios. The full profiles were still observed when 4ng of degraded DNA was digested by DNase I and 1ng undegraded DNA was added to 40?M haematin. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based conditions including the concentrations of primers, magnesium and the Taq polymerase as well as volume, cycle numbers and annealing temperature were examined and optimised. In addition, the system was validated by 364 bloodstain samples and 32 common casework samples. According to the Chinese National Standards and Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM) guidelines, our system demonstrates good detection performance and is an ideal tool for forensic DNA typing with potential application. PMID:22516188

Jiang, Xianhua; He, Juan; Jia, Fei; Shen, Hongying; Zhao, Jinling; Chen, Chuguang; Bai, Liping; Liu, Feng; Hou, Guangwei; Guo, Faye

2012-12-01

200

Particle size analysis of sediments, soils and related particulate materials for forensic purposes using laser granulometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particle size is a fundamental property of any sediment, soil or dust deposit which can provide important clues to nature and provenance. For forensic work, the particle size distribution of sometimes very small samples requires precise determination using a rapid and reliable method with a high resolution. The Coulter™ LS230 laser granulometer offers rapid and accurate sizing of particles in

Kenneth Pye; Simon J Blott

2004-01-01

201

Nuclear staining of telogen hair roots contributes to successful forensic nDNA analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Telogen hairs have generally presented significant challenges to routine and advanced forensic nDNA typing techniques. Nuclear specific DAPI fluorescence staining of telogen hair roots introduced a method of determining the number of nuclei still present in the hair root. However, a simple fixation step has increased the yield of complete nDNA profiles over the unfixed telogen root and the introduction

Elizabeth Mary Brooks; Melissa Cullen; Tamara Sztydna; Simon Joseph Walsh

2010-01-01

202

A review of the methodological aspects of aspartic acid racemization analysis for use in forensic science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate age determination of adult cadavers and human remains is a key requirement in forensic practice. The current morphological methods lack accuracy and precision, require specialist training and are costly. The use of aspartic acid racemization (AAR) in human dentine provides a simple, cost-effective solution and the method can achieve accuracies of ±3 years at best. Currently, there are differences

E. R Waite; M. J Collins; S Ritz-Timme; H-W Schutz; C Cattaneo; H. I. M Borrman

1999-01-01

203

DNA Commission of the International Society of Forensic Genetics (ISFG): an update of the recommendations on the use of Y-STRs in forensic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DNA Commission of the International Society of Forensic Genetics (ISFG) regularly publishes guidelines and recommendations concerning the application of DNA polymorphisms to the problems of human identification. A previous recommendation published in 2001 has already addressed Y-chromosome polymorphisms, with particular emphasis on short tandem repeats (STRs). Since then, the use of Y-STRs has become very popular, and numerous new

L. Gusmão; J. M. Butler; A. Carracedo; P. Gill; M. Kayser; W. R. Mayr; N. Morling; M. Prinz; L. Roewer; C. Tyler-Smith; P. M. Schneider

2006-01-01

204

Short communication DNA Commission of the International Society of Forensic Genetics (ISFG): An update of the recommendations on the use of Y-STRs in forensic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DNA Commission of the International Society of Forensic Genetics (ISFG) regularly publishes guidelines and recommendations concerning the application of DNA polymorphisms to the problems of human identification. A previous recommendation published in 2001 has already addressed Y-chromosome polymorphisms, with particular emphasis on short tandem repeats (STRs). Since then, the use of Y-STRs has become very popular, and a numerous

L. Gusmao; J. M. Butler; A. Carracedo; P. Gill; M. Kayser; W. R. Mayr; N. Morling; M. Prinz; L. Roewer; C. Tyler-Smith; P. M. Schneider

205

“Bureaucracy, meet catastrophe” : Analysis of the tsunami disaster relief efforts and their implications for global emergency governance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – An analysis of the way the bureaucratic management system responded to the tsunami disaster of December 26, 2004 is used as an example to highlight the severe shortcomings of the bureaucratic model as a paradigm for responding to situations in which the magnitude of the system's task is overwhelmingly complex and the timing process is bounded by urgency.

Margaret B. Takeda; Marilyn M. Helms

2006-01-01

206

Disaster Research and Social Network Analysis: Examples of the Scientific Understanding of Human Dynamics at the National Science Foundation  

Microsoft Academic Search

How can knowledge about human behavior be accumulated effectively? How does the funding agency best assure that scientific research is effectively organized? This paper was stimulated by a meeting of nine researchers who received small grants from NSF to conduct empirical analysis of individuals affected by the hurricane disasters (Katrina and Rita) of 2005. Two of the authors are NSF

Larry Suter; Thomas Birkland; Raima Larter

2009-01-01

207

Error rates in forensic DNA analysis: Definition, numbers, impact and communication.  

PubMed

Forensic DNA casework is currently regarded as one of the most important types of forensic evidence, and important decisions in intelligence and justice are based on it. However, errors occasionally occur and may have very serious consequences. In other domains, error rates have been defined and published. The forensic domain is lagging behind concerning this transparency for various reasons. In this paper we provide definitions and observed frequencies for different types of errors at the Human Biological Traces Department of the Netherlands Forensic Institute (NFI) over the years 2008-2012. Furthermore, we assess their actual and potential impact and describe how the NFI deals with the communication of these numbers to the legal justice system. We conclude that the observed relative frequency of quality failures is comparable to studies from clinical laboratories and genetic testing centres. Furthermore, this frequency is constant over the five-year study period. The most common causes of failures related to the laboratory process were contamination and human error. Most human errors could be corrected, whereas gross contamination in crime samples often resulted in irreversible consequences. Hence this type of contamination is identified as the most significant source of error. Of the known contamination incidents, most were detected by the NFI quality control system before the report was issued to the authorities, and thus did not lead to flawed decisions like false convictions. However in a very limited number of cases crucial errors were detected after the report was issued, sometimes with severe consequences. Many of these errors were made in the post-analytical phase. The error rates reported in this paper are useful for quality improvement and benchmarking, and contribute to an open research culture that promotes public trust. However, they are irrelevant in the context of a particular case. Here case-specific probabilities of undetected errors are needed. These should be reported, separately from the match probability, when requested by the court or when there are internal or external indications for error. It should also be made clear that there are various other issues to consider, like DNA transfer. Forensic statistical models, in particular Bayesian networks, may be useful to take the various uncertainties into account and demonstrate their effects on the evidential value of the forensic DNA results. PMID:24905336

Kloosterman, Ate; Sjerps, Marjan; Quak, Astrid

2014-09-01

208

Social network forensics: using commercial software in a university forensics lab environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this article is to give a practical overview of forensic investigation of social networks cases using certain commercial software packages in a university forensics lab environment. Students have to learn the usefulness of forensic procedures to ensure evidence collection, evidence preservation, forensic analysis, and reporting. It is demonstrated how to investigate important data from social network users. Different scenarios of investigations are presented that are well-suited for forensics lab work in university. In particular, we focus on the new version of Belkasoft Evidence Center and compare it with other well-known tools regarding functionality, usability and capabilities.

Halkin, Pavel; Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

2013-05-01

209

RNA in forensic science  

Microsoft Academic Search

RNA analysis offers insight into diseases and mechanisms leading to death and could develop into a valuable tool for diagnosis of the cause of death in forensic pathology. Other possible applications include the determination of the age of wounds and injuries and of the post-mortem interval. The molecular identification of body fluids by analysis of cell-specific mRNA expression already represents

M. Bauer

2007-01-01

210

DNA Microarray Analysis of the Mouse Adrenal Gland for the Detection of Hypothermia Biomarkers: Potential Usefulness for Forensic Investigation  

PubMed Central

We analyzed the adrenal gland transcriptome of mice killed by hypothermia using DNA microarray technology. A total of 4051 significantly expressed genes were identified; 2015 genes were upregulated and 2036 were downregulated. The FBJ osteosarcoma oncogene was the most upregulated, whereas stearoyl coenzyme A desaturase 3 was the most downregulated. Validation by quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that results obtained by both methods were consistent. In the gene set analysis, significant variations were found in nine pathways, and we suggest that transforming growth factor ? and tumor necrosis factor ? would be involved in the pathogenesis of hypothermia. Gene functional category analysis demonstrated the most overexpressed categories in upregulated and downregulated genes were cellular process in biological process, binding in molecular function, and cell and cell part in cellular component. The present study demonstrated acute adrenal responses in hypothermia, and we suggest that understanding adrenal mRNA expression would be useful for hypothermia diagnosis. Furthermore, the present microarray data may also facilitate development of immunohistochemical analysis of human cases. In forensic practice, the combination of macroscopic and microscopic observations with molecular biological analyses would be conducive to more accurate diagnosis of hypothermia. Although this study is aimed at forensic practice, the present data regarding more than 20,000 genes of the adrenal gland would be beneficial to inform future clinical hypothermia research. From the viewpoint of adrenal gene activity, they could contribute to elucidating the pathophysiology of hypothermia.

Saigusa, Kiyoshi; Dewa, Koji

2013-01-01

211

Application of the ORIGEN Fallout Analysis Tool and the DELFIC Fallout Planning Tool to National Technical Nuclear Forensics  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to provide a robust fallout analysis and planning tool for the National Technical Nuclear Forensics interagency ground sample collection team. Their application called for a fast-running, portable mission-planning tool for use in response to emerging improvised nuclear device (IND) post-detonation situations. The project met those goals by research and development of models to predict the physical, chemical, and radiological properties of fallout debris. ORNL has developed new graphical user interfaces for two existing codes, the Oak Ridge Isotope Generation (ORIGEN) code and the Defense Land Fallout Interpretive Code (DELFIC). ORIGEN is a validated, radionuclide production and decay code that has been implemented into the Fallout Analysis Tool to predict the fallout source term nuclide inventory after the detonation of an IND. DELFIC is a validated, physics-based, research reference fallout prediction software package. It has been implemented into the Fallout Planning Tool and is used to predict the fractionated isotope concentrations in fallout, particle sizes, fractionation ratios, dose rate, and integrated dose over the planned collection routes - information vital to ensure quality samples for nuclear forensic analysis while predicting dose to the sample collectors. DELFIC contains a particle activity module, which models the radiochemical fractionation of the elements in a cooling fireball as they condense into and onto particles to predict the fractionated activity size distribution for a given scenario. This provides the most detailed physics-based characterization of the fallout source term phenomenology available in an operational fallout model.

Jodoin, Vincent J [ORNL] [ORNL; Lee, Ronald W [ORNL] [ORNL; Peplow, Douglas E. [ORNL] [ORNL; Lefebvre, Jordan P [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01

212

How to Improve Forensic Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some institutional structures for inquiry produce better approximations to truth than others. The current institutional structure\\u000a of police forensics gives each lab a monopoly in the analysis of the police evidence it receives. Forensic workers have inadequate\\u000a incentives to produce reliable analyses of police evidence. Competition would create such incentives. I outline a system of\\u000a “competitive self regulation” for police

Roger Koppl

2005-01-01

213

Forensic odontology: A prosthodontic view  

PubMed Central

The most common role of the forensic dentist is the identification of deceased individuals. Dental identifications have always played a key role in natural and manmade disaster situations, and in particular, the mass casualties normally associated with aviation disasters. Because of the lack of a comprehensive fingerprint database, dental identification continues to be crucial in the world. An all-acrylic resin appliance such as a full denture or an all-acrylic partial denture (or orthodontic appliance), prior to delivery, could be inscribed with the patient's full name on a substrate (paper, metal) and sealed inconspicuously into the surface of a denture by various processes. It has been noted by several authors that in many cases of air disaster where the limbs are completely burnt off, some denture materials survive, especially the posterior part of acrylic dentures and metal-based dentures. Thus, marked dental prostheses (full and partial dentures, mouthguards and removal orthodontic appliances) would lead to rapid identification in the event of accidents and disaster.

Gosavi, Sulekha; Gosavi, Siddharth

2012-01-01

214

Xbox Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsoft's Xbox game console is little more than a low-end personal computer; with a small amount of effort it can be modified to run additional operating systems, enabling it to store gigabytes worth of non-game-related files in addition to allowing it to run various computer services. Little has been published, however, on the proper forensic procedures to determine whether an

Paul K. Burke; Philip Craiger

2006-01-01

215

Forensic Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic assessment has grown and advanced significantly during the last twenty years in particular. The present chapter has\\u000a reviewed and critically analyzed conceptual and empirical developments, as well as the addition of a variety of FAIs and FRIs\\u000a that are relevant to the legal decision-making process. Despite the important advances that we have described in this chapter,\\u000a however, there is

Kirk Heilbrun; Richard Rogers; Randy K. Otto

216

Microbial Forensics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article demonstrates how microbial forensics is a relatively new field that can help in solving cases such as: bioterrorism attacks, medical negligence, and outbreaks of foodborne diseases. The paper is suitable for undergraduate and beyond levels. Excerpts from the paper are provided in a companion article at http://www.actionbioscience.org/newfrontiers/salyersarticle.html, suitable for middle school and lower division high school reading.

Abigail Salyers (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign;)

2004-01-01

217

Molecular Forensics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Can we establish the origin of an infection by looking at DNA? In the 1990âÂÂs, suspicion that HIV in several individuals could be linked to a local dentist was investigated. We will take a closer look at sequence data from this dentist and other HIV positive individuals including patients who believed they were exposed to HIV during dental procedures. * examine viral DNA sequence data as forensic evidence

Sam Donovan (University of Pittsburgh;Biology)

2006-05-20

218

FORENSIC OBSTETRICS  

PubMed Central

Some of the more important and current aspects of forensic obstetrics are, broadly, 1. Fulfillment of basic criteria in all cases of alleged traumatic abortion. 2. Utilization of therapeutic abortion review boards, as well as sterilization committees, in all hospitals, with the active support of such committees by all those physicians interested in advancing the art and practice of obstetrics. 3. Early and active joint study of professional liability problems by combined groups of physicians and lawyers in every community.

Russell, Keith P.

1959-01-01

219

Forensic dentistry in a terrorist world.  

PubMed

While body identification by dental means has not changed substantially since 9/11, or even since the bombing of the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City in 1995, the conditions and potential risks of a bioterrorism action to the dental personnel is new. The purpose of this article is to review general forensic dentistry disaster responses and to address the impact a bioterrorism action might have on primary, secondary and tertiary dental responders. It will also examine the triage role that dental offices might play in the event of such a disaster. PMID:16013679

Glass, R Thomas

2005-04-01

220

Forensic geomorphology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geomorphology plays a critical role in two areas of geoforensics: searching the land for surface or buried objects and sampling scenes of crime and control locations as evidence. Associated geoscience disciplines have substantial bodies of work dedicated to their relevance in forensic investigations, yet geomorphology (specifically landforms, their mapping and evolution, soils and relationship to geology and biogeography) have not had similar public exposure. This is strange considering how fundamental to legal enquiries the location of a crime and its evolution are, as this article will demonstrate. This work aims to redress the balance by showing how geomorphology featured in one of the earliest works on forensic science methods, and has continued to play a role in the sociology, archaeology, criminalistics and geoforensics of crime. Traditional landscape interpretation from aerial photography is used to demonstrate how a geomorphological approach saved police time in the search for a clandestine grave. The application geomorphology has in military/humanitarian geography and environmental/engineering forensics is briefly discussed as these are also regularly reviewed in courts of law.

Ruffell, Alastair; McKinley, Jennifer

2014-02-01

221

The potential of X-ray diffraction in the analysis of burned remains from forensic contexts.  

PubMed

In view of the difficulties in extracting quantitative information from burned bone, we suggest a new and accurate method of determining the temperature and duration of burning of human remains in forensic contexts. Application of the powder X-ray diffraction approach to a sample of human bone and teeth allowed their microstructural behavior, as a function of temperature (200-1000 degrees C) and duration of burning (0, 18, 36, and 60 min), to be predicted. The experimental results from the 57 human bone sections and 12 molar teeth determined that the growth of hydroxylapatite crystallites is a direct and predictable function of the applied temperature, which follows a nonlinear logistic relationship. This will allow the forensic investigator to acquire useful information about the equilibrium temperature brought about by the burning process and to suggest a reasonable duration of fire exposure. PMID:19368627

Piga, Giampaolo; Thompson, Tim J U; Malgosa, Assumpciò; Enzo, Stefano

2009-05-01

222

Molecular identification of crocodile species using novel primers for forensic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

All crocodilians are under varying degrees of threat due to over exploitation and these species have been listed in Appendix\\u000a I or II of CITES. The lack of molecular techniques for the identification of confiscated samples makes it difficult to enforce\\u000a the law. Conclusive forensic identification of species requires a complete gene sequence which is difficult in case of degraded

P. R. Meganathan; Bhawna Dubey; Ikramul Haque

2009-01-01

223

State-of-the-art of bone marrow analysis in forensic toxicology: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although blood is the reference medium in the field of forensic toxicology, alternative matrices are required in case of limited,\\u000a unavailable or unusable blood samples. The present review investigated the suitability of bone marrow (BM) as an alternative\\u000a matrix to characterize xenobiotic consumption and its influence on the occurrence of death. Basic data on BM physiology are\\u000a reported in order

Nathalie Cartiser; Fabien Bévalot; Laurent Fanton; Yvan Gaillard; Jérôme Guitton

2011-01-01

224

Age Estimation in Forensic Sciences: APPLICATION OF COMBINED ASPARTIC ACID RACEMIZATION AND RADIOCARBON ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Age determination of unknown human bodies is important in the setting of a crime investigation or a mass disaster because the age at death, birth date, and year of death as well as gender can guide investigators to the correct identity among a large number of possible matches. Tra- ditional morphological methods used by anthropologists to determine age are often

Kanar Alkass; Bruce A. Buchholz; Susumu Ohtani; Toshiharu Yamamoto; Henrik Druid; Kirsty L. Spalding

2010-01-01

225

Sharp-force trauma analysis and the forensic anthropologist: techniques advocated by William R. Maples, Ph.D.  

PubMed

Forensic anthropological tenets supported by William R. Maples, Ph.D. provide the bases for a case study from the C.A. Pound Human Identification Laboratory. Using a multidisciplinary team that included police investigators, pathologists, odontologists, entomologists, and anthropologists, a biological profile and trauma analysis was constructed. Our analysis determined that the decedent was a middle-aged Hispanic male, approximately 5'6"-5'7" in stature, who had died a minimum of three months before the discovery of his remains. Gross and microscopic analysis revealed 11 areas of sharp trauma to the skull and cervical vertebrae. To aid with analysis of the trauma, nonhuman trauma exemplars were created using a Tiger rear flail mower of the make known to have been used at the scene where the remains were recovered. This use of nonhuman trauma exemplars proved to be essential in the effort to exclude the rear flail mower as the possible trauma agent. PMID:10432606

Walsh-Haney, H A

1999-07-01

226

Nuclear forensic analysis of an unknown uranium ore concentrate sample seized in a criminal investigation in Australia.  

PubMed

Early in 2009, a state policing agency raided a clandestine drug laboratory in a suburb of a major city in Australia. During the search of the laboratory, a small glass jar labelled "Gamma Source" and containing a green powder was discovered. The powder was radioactive. This paper documents the detailed nuclear forensic analysis undertaken to characterise and identify the material and determine its provenance. Isotopic and impurity content, phase composition, microstructure and other characteristics were measured on the seized sample, and the results were compared with similar material obtained from the suspected source (ore and ore concentrate material). While an extensive range of parameters were measured, the key 'nuclear forensic signatures' used to identify the material were the U isotopic composition, Pb and Sr isotope ratios, and the rare earth element pattern. These measurements, in combination with statistical analysis of the elemental and isotopic content of the material against a database of uranium ore concentrates sourced from mines located worldwide, led to the conclusion that the seized material (a uranium ore concentrate of natural isotopic abundance) most likely originated from Mary Kathleen, a former Australian uranium mine. PMID:24836840

Keegan, Elizabeth; Kristo, Michael J; Colella, Michael; Robel, Martin; Williams, Ross; Lindvall, Rachel; Eppich, Gary; Roberts, Sarah; Borg, Lars; Gaffney, Amy; Plaue, Jonathan; Wong, Henri; Davis, Joel; Loi, Elaine; Reinhard, Mark; Hutcheon, Ian

2014-07-01

227

The role of forensic geoscience in wildlife crime detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increase in both automation and precision in the analysis of geological materials has had significant impact upon forensic investigations in the last 10 years. There is however, a fundamental philosophical difference between forensic and geological enquiry. This paper presents the results of forensic geoscientific investigations of three cases of wildlife crime. Two cases involve the analysis of soils recovered

Ruth M. Morgan; Patricia Wiltshire; Adrian Parker; Peter A. Bull

2006-01-01

228

Microbial forensics: the next forensic challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathogens and toxins can be converted to bioweapons and used to commit bioterrorism and biocrime. Because of the potential and relative ease of an attack using a bioweapon, forensic science needs to be prepared to assist in the investigation to bring perpetrators to justice and to deter future attacks. A new subfield of forensics—microbial forensics—has been created, which is focused

Bruce Budowle; Randall Murch; Ranajit Chakraborty

2005-01-01

229

DISAST-CIR: Disastrous incidents systematic analysis through components, interactions and results: application to a large-scale train accident.  

PubMed

Disasters or hazardous incidents, either natural or man-made, continue to increase in frequency and affect more and more citizens of the world community. Many of these are published in the medical literature, each being a "case report" of a single event. In clinical medicine, a common nomenclature and uniform reporting of data enables the collection of similar cases to series studies, with clinical conclusions being drawn. Such a platform is lacking in the field of disaster medicine, impairing the ability to learn from past experiences. In the Medical Department of the Israeli Home Front Command, we coordinate the operation of various medical units and forces in a wide array of events. By doing so, we collect and analyze the relevant data related to disaster management, various components of the medical response, interactions between different components, and the ensuing results. We developed a systematic method of analyzing and describing disaster management issues in various events-DISAST-CIR-Disastrous Incidents Systematic AnalysiS Through Components, Interactions, Results. In this article, we describe this method by presenting the components, interactions, and results of a large-scale train accident that resulted in 270 casualties, 35 of whom were evacuated by helicopters from the accident site. Casualties were distributed among 10 different hospitals. The death toll was 7 people, 5 of whom died at the scene and 2 who died in hospitals. We recommend this method as a standard for scientific reporting of hazardous incidents. Accumulation of data, reported in a similar standardized fashion, would enable comparison and reporting of series, improving our understanding regarding the optimal medical response to various events. PMID:18024063

Leiba, Adi; Schwartz, Dagan; Eran, Talor; Blumenfeld, Amir; Laor, Daniel; Goldberg, Avishay; Weiss, Gali; Zalzman, Eilon; Ashkenazi, Issac; Levi, Yehezkel; Bar-Dayan, Yaron

2009-07-01

230

The Thin Blue Line-Forensic Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site draws on, and brings together, many scientific disciplines-identification of hairs and fibers, forensic psychology, DNA testing, photography, bloodstain pattern analysis, and computer forensics- that contribute to the integrated analysis of a crime and the physical evidence left at a crime scene.

2012-11-15

231

Monitoring As A Helpful Means In Forensic Analysis Of Dams Static Instability Events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring is a means of controlling the behavior of a structure, which during its operational life is subject to external actions as ordinary loading conditions and disturbing ones; these factors overlap with the random manner defined by the statistical parameter of the return period. The analysis of the monitoring data is crucial to gain a reasoned opinion on the reliability of the structure and its components, and also allows to identify, in the overall operational scenario, the time when preparing interventions aimed at maintaining the optimum levels of functionality and safety. The concept of monitoring in terms of prevention is coupled with the activity of Forensic Engineer who, by Judiciary appointment for the occurrence of an accident, turns its experience -the "Scientific knowledge"- in an "inverse analysis" in which he summed up the results of a survey, which also draws on data sets arising in the course of the constant control of the causes and effects, so to determine the correlations between these factors. His activity aims at giving a contribution to the identification of the typicality of an event, which represents, together with "causal link" between the conduct and events and contra-juridical, the factors judging if there an hypothesis of crime, and therefore liable according to law. In Italy there are about 10,000 dams of varying sizes, but only a small portion of them are considered "large dams" and subjected to a rigorous program of regular inspections and monitoring, in application of specific rules. The rest -"small" dams, conventionally defined as such by the standard, but not for the impact on the area- is affected by a heterogeneous response from the local authorities entrusted with this task: there is therefore a high potential risk scenario, as determined by the presence of not completely controlled structures that insist even on areas heavily populated. Risk can be traced back to acceptable levels if they were implemented with the necessary uniformity of procedures usually adopted for major works, and, therefore, is intended to emphasize the importance to have a more complete cognitive picture of the issues affecting the dams, especially so-called "minor" and their relationship with the embedding territory. This contribution consists of a brief digression on dams, their characteristics, functions performed by them and their relationship with the territory in terms of risk and benefit. After, it is discussed the concept of risk factors that characterize the importance of monitoring extended to the crisis management with a focus to the fast verification of structural reliability after a crisis event. A case study of the vulnerability of a dam under seismic action by "Event tree analysis" is presented, based on data acquired in the course of constant surveillance and control. Some considerations about the monitoring actions related specifically to earthquakes and weather events are presented in order to emphasize its function with regard to risk mitigation through early warning procedures. Finally, the results of a survey on the main accidents involving Italian and USA dams are presented even as a factor pushing to improve the national regulatory framework . Finally, we will discuss some anomalies in the regional rules, leading to interruption in the technical management of the dams by the Public Authority, holding the function of supervision and control over these works and the role of reference for the management of flood mitigation for the hydraulic system. Several hints are provided to contribute towards overcoming the problems that emerged, necessary and urgent to provide answer to the question of security of civil society.

Solimene, Pellegrino

2013-04-01

232

Forensic Science: Best Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All about forensic science Forensic Science for High School Do you watch CSI? You should look at related Web site! How about this one? FORENSIC SCIENCE and have a look at what the Scout Report has to say: Court TV: Forensic Files And don\\'t forget about CSI CSI: The TV Show ...

M., Marcia

2007-03-08

233

Forensic Analysis by Comprehensive Rapid Detection of Pathogens and Contamination Concentrated in Biofilms in Drinking Water Systems for Water Resource Protection and Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clean fresh water is becoming an increasingly critical resource that will become evermore precious as more societies industrialize and population pressure increases. The critical nature of the water resource expands the vulnerability of the water supply to political and terrorist activities. With this expanded vulnerability, the importance of forensic analysis in management of water resources and protection from contamination increases.

David C. White; Julia S. Gouffon; Aaron D. Peacock; Roland Geyer; Anita Biernacki; Greg A. Davis; Marsha Pryor; Mary Beth Tabacco; Kerry L. Sublette

2003-01-01

234

Disasters of Endoscopic Surgery and How to Avoid Them: Error Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   For every innovation there are two sides to consider. For endoscopic surgery the positive side is more comfort for the patient,\\u000a and the negative side is new complications, even disasters, such as injuries to organs (e.g., the bowel), vessels, and the\\u000a common bile duct. These disasters are rare and seldom reported in the scientific world, as at conferences, at

H. Troidl

1999-01-01

235

Human tissue preservation for disaster victim identification (DVI) in tropical climates.  

PubMed

Disaster victim identification (DVI) poses unique challenges for forensic personnel. Typical scenarios may involve many bodies or body parts to identify in remote locations with limited access to laboratory facilities and in extreme temperatures. Transportation of tissue samples to a forensic laboratory for DNA profiling can take weeks without refrigeration. As well as protecting DNA for subsequent analysis, tissue preservation methods ideally should be safe, readily available and easy to transport to the scene at relatively low cost. We examined eight tissue preservatives (salt, DMSO, ethanol, ethanol with EDTA, TENT buffer, RNAlater(®), DNA Genotek Tissue Stabilising Kit and DNAgard(®)) and compared the quantity and quality of DNA recovered from human tissue and preservative solution stored at 35°C. Salt, DMSO, ethanol solutions, DNA Genotek and DNAgard(®) produced full Identifiler(®) genotypes up to one month from DNA extracts. In addition, DMSO, DNA Genotek and DNAgard(®) produced full profiles from aliquots of the liquid preservative. PMID:22269964

Allen-Hall, A; McNevin, D

2012-09-01

236

Factors Predicting Organizational Identification with Intercollegiate Forensics Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the relationship between intercollegiate forensics competitors' organizational identification and organizational culture. Through a survey analysis of 314 intercollegiate forensics students, this study reports three major findings. First, this study found male competitors identify with forensics programs more than female…

Croucher, Stephen M.; Long, Bridget L.; Meredith, Michael J.; Oommen, Deepa; Steele, Emily L.

2009-01-01

237

Review The development and practice of forensic podiatry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic podiatry a small, but potentially useful specialty using clinical podiatric knowledge for the purpose of person identification. The practice of forensic podiatry began in the early 1970s in Canada and the UK, although supportive research commenced later in the 1990s. Techniques of forensic podiatry include identification from podiatry records, the human footprint, footwear, and the analysis of gait forms

Wesley Vernon

238

An Examination of Digital Forensic Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Law enforcement is in a perpetual race with criminals in the application of digital technologies, and requires the development of tools to systematically search digital devices for pertinent evidence. Another part of this race, and perhaps more crucial, is the development of a methodology in digital forensics that encompasses the forensic analysis of all genres of digital crime scene investigations.

Mark Reith; Clint Carr; Gregg H. Gunsch

2002-01-01

239

Tools and techniques for Network Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network forensics deals with the capture, recording and analysis of network events in order to discover evidential information about the source of security attacks in a court of law. This paper discusses the different tools and techniques available to conduct network forensics. Some of the tools discussed include: eMailTrackerPro to identify the physical location of an email sender; Web Historian

Natarajan Meghanathan; Sumanth Reddy Allam; Loretta A. Moore

2010-01-01

240

Investigating the Worldwide Popularity of Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The popularity of forensic science has increased dramatically over the past decade throughout the United States. However, has this popularity spread to other countries around the world and to what extent? In the United States, there are numerous television shows focusing on the law and crime scene analysis, including “CSI,” “Law and Order,” “24,” “Crossing Jordan,” and “Forensic Files,” just

Heather Stankiewicz

2007-01-01

241

An evidence based strategy for normalization of quantitative PCR data from miRNA expression analysis in forensically relevant body fluids.  

PubMed

Micro-RNA (miRNA) based analysis of body fluids and composition of complex crime stains has recently been introduced as a potential and powerful tool to forensic genetics. Analysis of miRNA has several advantages over mRNA but reliable miRNA detection and quantification using quantitative PCR requires a solid and forensically relevant normalization strategy. In our study we evaluated a panel of 13 carefully selected reference genes for their suitability as endogenous controls in miRNA qPCR normalization in forensically relevant settings. We analyzed assay performances and variances in venous blood, saliva, semen, menstrual blood, and vaginal secretion and mixtures thereof integrating highly standardized protocols with contemporary methodologies and included several well established computational algorithms. Based on these empirical results, we recommend normalization to the group of SNORD24, SNORD38B, and SNORD43 as this signature exhibits the most stable expression levels and the least expected variation among the evaluated candidate reference genes in the given set of forensically relevant body fluids. To account for the lack of consensus on how best to perform and interpret quantitative PCR experiments, our study's documentation is compliant to MIQE guidelines, defining the "minimum information for publication of quantitative real-time PCR experiments". PMID:24792917

Sauer, Eva; Madea, Burkhard; Courts, Cornelius

2014-07-01

242

A new approach to photography forensics using 3d analysis for correcting perception errors: a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a new approach to photography forensic field. This approach is on a referenced 3D photography forensic study. Two photos were taken by Alice and Bob which are controversially analyzed based on claims from different sides. With using Google map and two photos, we generate a 3D model and simulate whose claim is more to the truth. Throughout

Hyoung Joong Kim; Soomin Lim; Boram Kim; Eui S. Jung

2010-01-01

243

Atomic force microscopic investigation of commercial pressure sensitive adhesives for forensic analysis.  

PubMed

Pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA), such as those used in packaging and adhesive tapes, are very often encountered in forensic investigations. In criminal activities, packaging tapes may be used for sealing packets containing drugs, explosive devices, or questioned documents, while adhesive and electrical tapes are used occasionally in kidnapping cases. In this work, the potential of using atomic force microscopy (AFM) in both imaging and force mapping (FM) modes to derive additional analytical information from PSAs is demonstrated. AFM has been used to illustrate differences in the ultrastructural and nanomechanical properties of three visually distinguishable commercial PSAs to first test the feasibility of using this technique. Subsequently, AFM was used to detect nanoscopic differences between three visually indistinguishable PSAs. PMID:21342752

Canetta, Elisabetta; Adya, Ashok K

2011-07-15

244

Burning Down the House A Case Study in Forensic Instrumental Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab-based case, arson investigator “Marie Stanforth” comes under suspicion when her ex-husband dies in a fire. Students assume the role of forensic chemists working for the FBI to analyze charred samples recovered from the crime scene as well as clothing from the principal suspect, comparing what they find in the samples to accelerant standards whose spectra are already known. Once they have determined whether or not the fire was arson, they must then decide if the allegations against Marie are credible. This case study was designed for an instrumental methods course, but could be adapted for a non-science majors’ course.

Boyd, Adam M.; Larsen Iii., Randolph K.

2005-01-01

245

Analysis of body fluids for forensic purposes: from laboratory testing to non-destructive rapid confirmatory identification at a crime scene.  

PubMed

Body fluid traces recovered at crime scenes are among the most important types of evidence to forensic investigators. They contain valuable DNA evidence which can identify a suspect or victim as well as exonerate an innocent individual. The first step of identifying a particular body fluid is highly important since the nature of the fluid is itself very informative to the investigation, and the destructive nature of a screening test must be considered when only a small amount of material is available. The ability to characterize an unknown stain at the scene of the crime without having to wait for results from a laboratory is another very critical step in the development of forensic body fluid analysis. Driven by the importance for forensic applications, body fluid identification methods have been extensively developed in recent years. The systematic analysis of these new developments is vital for forensic investigators to be continuously educated on possible superior techniques. Significant advances in laser technology and the development of novel light detectors have dramatically improved spectroscopic methods for molecular characterization over the last decade. The application of this novel biospectroscopy for forensic purposes opens new and exciting opportunities for the development of on-field, non-destructive, confirmatory methods for body fluid identification at a crime scene. In addition, the biospectroscopy methods are universally applicable to all body fluids unlike the majority of current techniques which are valid for individual fluids only. This article analyzes the current methods being used to identify body fluid stains including blood, semen, saliva, vaginal fluid, urine, and sweat, and also focuses on new techniques that have been developed in the last 5-6 years. In addition, the potential of new biospectroscopic techniques based on Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy is evaluated for rapid, confirmatory, non-destructive identification of a body fluid at a crime scene. PMID:19328638

Virkler, Kelly; Lednev, Igor K

2009-07-01

246

Disaster Preparation and Recovery  

MedlinePLUS

... for a disaster can reduce the fear, anxiety and losses that disasters cause. A disaster can be ... or chemical spill. You should know the risks and danger signs of different types of disasters. You ...

247

Information Dissemination Analysis of Different Media towards the Application for Disaster Pre-Warning  

PubMed Central

Knowing the information dissemination mechanisms of different media and having an efficient information dissemination plan for disaster pre-warning plays a very important role in reducing losses and ensuring the safety of human beings. In this paper we established models of information dissemination for six typical information media, including short message service (SMS), microblogs, news portals, cell phones, television, and oral communication. Then, the information dissemination capability of each medium concerning individuals of different ages, genders, and residential areas was simulated, and the dissemination characteristics were studied. Finally, radar graphs were used to illustrate comprehensive assessments of the six media; these graphs show directly the information dissemination characteristics of all media. The models and the results are essential for improving the efficiency of information dissemination for the purpose of disaster pre-warning and for formulating emergency plans which help to reduce the possibility of injuries, deaths and other losses in a disaster.

Zhang, Nan; Huang, Hong; Su, Boni; Zhao, Jinlong; Zhang, Bo

2014-01-01

248

Microbial Forensics: A Scientific Assessment  

SciTech Connect

Microorganisms have been used as weapons in criminal acts, most recently highlighted by the terrorist attack using anthrax in the fall of 2001. Although such ''biocrimes'' are few compared with other crimes, these acts raise questions about the ability to provide forensic evidence for criminal prosecution that can be used to identify the source of the microorganisms used as a weapon and, more importantly, the perpetrator of the crime. Microbiologists traditionally investigate the sources of microorganisms in epidemiological investigations, but rarely have been asked to assist in criminal investigations. A colloquium was convened by the American Academy of Microbiology in Burlington, Vermont, on June 7-9, 2002, in which 25 interdisciplinary, expert scientists representing evolutionary microbiology, ecology, genomics, genetics, bioinformatics, forensics, chemistry, and clinical microbiology, deliberated on issues in microbial forensics. The colloquium's purpose was to consider issues relating to microbial forensics, which included a detailed identification of a microorganism used in a bioattack and analysis of such a microorganism and related materials to identify its forensically meaningful source--the perpetrators of the bioattack. The colloquium examined the application of microbial forensics to assist in resolving biocrimes with a focus on what research and education are needed to facilitate the use of microbial forensics in criminal investigations and the subsequent prosecution of biocrimes, including acts of bioterrorism. First responders must consider forensic issues, such as proper collection of samples to allow for optimal laboratory testing, along with maintaining a chain of custody that will support eventual prosecution. Because a biocrime may not be immediately apparent, a linkage must be made between routine diagnosis, epidemiological investigation, and criminal investigation. There is a need for establishing standard operating procedures and training to meet these initial challenges so as minimize disturbance of the evidence. While epidemiology and forensics are similar sciences with similar goals when applied to biocrimes, forensics has additional and more stringent requirements. Maintaining a chain of custody on evidentiary samples is one example of an extra requirement imposed on an investigation of a biocrime. Another issue is the intent in microbial forensics to identify a bioattack organism in greatest detail. If possible, forensic investigations will strive to identify the precise strain and substrain, rather than just to the species level, which might be sufficient in an epidemiological investigation. Although multiple groups have developed lists of bioterrorism target pathogens, these lists are too narrow. An expansion of microorganisms relevant to food and water threats should be considered. Computerized networks should be established to track infectious disease outbreaks in real time. These systems could alert public health and agricultural officials to the existence of a potential bioattack earlier than simply waiting for a report of a suspicious cluster of similar patients. Once a biocrime is suspected, a wide variety of methods are available to identify the microorganism used in the bioattack and to analyze features that might lead to the source of the event. A multi-pronged approach to such an investigation may be preferable, using many available methods-ranging from genomics to sequencing to physiology to analysis of substances in the sample. Microbial forensics will be most effective if there is sufficient basic scientific information concerning microbial genetics, evolution, physiology, and ecology. Strain subtyping analysis will be difficult to interpret if we do not understand some of the basic evolutionary mechanisms and population diversity of pathogens. Phenotypic features associated with evidentiary pathogens also may provide investigative leads, but full exploitation of these features can only be accomplished if we understand basic principles that control microbial physiology. Finally

Keim, Paul

2003-02-17

249

A person-centered analysis of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms following a natural disaster: predictors of latent class membership.  

PubMed

The present study applied latent class analysis to a sample of 810 participants residing in southern Mississippi at the time of Hurricane Katrina to determine if people would report distinct, meaningful PTSD symptom classes following a natural disaster. We found a four-class solution that distinguished persons on the basis of PTSD symptom severity/pervasiveness (Severe, Moderate, Mild, and Negligible Classes). Multinomial logistic regression models demonstrated that membership in the Severe and Moderate Classes was associated with potentially traumatic hurricane-specific experiences (e.g., being physically injured, seeing dead bodies), pre-hurricane traumatic events, co-occurring depression symptom severity and suicidal ideation, certain religious beliefs, and post-hurricane stressors (e.g., social support). Collectively, the findings suggest that more severe/pervasive typologies of natural disaster PTSD may be predicted by the frequency and severity of exposure to stressful/traumatic experiences (before, during, and after the disaster), co-occurring psychopathology, and specific internal beliefs. PMID:24334161

Rosellini, Anthony J; Coffey, Scott F; Tracy, Melissa; Galea, Sandro

2014-01-01

250

Geospatial analysis of spaceborne remote sensing data for assessing disaster impacts and modeling surface runoff in the built-environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Every year, coastal disasters such as hurricanes and floods claim hundreds of lives and severely damage homes, businesses, and lifeline infrastructure. This research was motivated by the 2005 Hurricane Katrina disaster, which devastated the Mississippi and Louisiana Gulf Coast. The primary objective was to develop a geospatial decision-support system for extracting built-up surfaces and estimating disaster impacts using spaceborne remote sensing satellite imagery. Pre-Katrina 1-m Ikonos imagery of a 5km x 10km area of Gulfport, Mississippi, was used as source data to develop the built-up area and natural surfaces or BANS classification methodology. Autocorrelation of 0.6 or higher values related to spectral reflectance values of groundtruth pixels were used to select spectral bands and establish the BANS decision criteria of unique ranges of reflectance values. Surface classification results using GeoMedia Pro geospatial analysis for Gulfport sample areas, based on BANS criteria and manually drawn polygons, were within +/-7% of the groundtruth. The difference between the BANS results and the groundtruth was statistically not significant. BANS is a significant improvement over other supervised classification methods, which showed only 50% correctly classified pixels. The storm debris and erosion estimation or SDE methodology was developed from analysis of pre- and post-Katrina surface classification results of Gulfport samples. The SDE severity level criteria considered hurricane and flood damages and vulnerability of inhabited built-environment. A linear regression model, with +0.93 Pearson R-value, was developed for predicting SDE as a function of pre-disaster percent built-up area. SDE predictions for Gulfport sample areas, used for validation, were within +/-4% of calculated values. The damage cost model considered maintenance, rehabilitation and reconstruction costs related to infrastructure damage and community impacts of Hurricane Katrina. The developed models were implemented for a study area along I-10 considering the predominantly flood-induced damages in New Orleans. The BANS methodology was calibrated for 0.6-m QuickBird2 multispectral imagery of Karachi Port area in Pakistan. The results were accurate within +/-6% of the groundtruth. Due to its computational simplicity, the unit hydrograph method is recommended for geospatial visualization of surface runoff in the built-environment using BANS surface classification maps and elevations data. Key words. geospatial analysis, satellite imagery, built-environment, hurricane, disaster impacts, runoff.

Wodajo, Bikila Teklu

251

Comparative forensic soil analysis of New Jersey state parks using a combination of simple techniques with multivariate statistics.  

PubMed

This study has shown that the combination of simple techniques with the use of multivariate statistics offers the potential for the comparative analysis of soil samples. Five samples were obtained from each of twelve state parks across New Jersey in both the summer and fall seasons. Each sample was examined using particle-size distribution, pH analysis in both water and 1 M CaCl2 , and a loss on ignition technique. Data from each of the techniques were combined, and principal component analysis (PCA) and canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) were used for multivariate data transformation. Samples from different locations could be visually differentiated from one another using these multivariate plots. Hold-one-out cross-validation analysis showed error rates as low as 3.33%. Ten blind study samples were analyzed resulting in no misclassifications using Mahalanobis distance calculations and visual examinations of multivariate plots. Seasonal variation was minimal between corresponding samples, suggesting potential success in forensic applications. PMID:24502530

Bonetti, Jennifer; Quarino, Lawrence

2014-05-01

252

Computer Forensics Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of science and education to computer-related crime forensics is still largely limited to law enforcement organizations. Building a suitable workforce development program could support the rapidly growing field of computer and network forensics.

Alec Yasinsac; Robert F. Erbacher; Donald G. Marks; Mark Pollitt; Peter M. Sommer

2003-01-01

253

Integrating Forensic Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the implementation of forensic science in an integrated curriculum and discusses the advantages of this approach. Lists the forensic science course syllabi studied in three high schools. Discusses the unit on polymers in detail. (YDS)

Funkhouser, John; Deslich, Barbara J.

2000-01-01

254

Identification and phylogenetic analysis of hepatitis C virus in forensic blood samples obtained from injecting drug users.  

PubMed

Injecting drug users (IDUs) are a high-risk group for contracting hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. In Japan, data on the prevalence of those blood-borne viruses among IDUs are very limited. Blood samples were obtained from 12 cadavers of IDUs sent to Nagoya City University for the purpose of judicious autopsy and two alive IDUs with hepatitis C referred to a local hospital at the same period. The viruses were detected by polymerase chain reaction and phylogenetic analysis was performed. Two (16.6%) of the 12 autopsy cases were positive for HCV, but no case was positive for either HBV or HIV. Phylogenetic analysis of the two HCV isolates revealed that one was classified into genotype 1b and another was genotype 2b. Furthermore, nucleotide sequences of two isolates recovered from IDUs with hepatitis C were identical, that indicated the transmission of HCV between them, and those HCV were phylogenetically classified into genotype 2a. The prevalence of HCV infection among IDUs in Japan, despite the case of judicious autopsy, seems to be high, but HIV infection seems to be rare. The transmission of HCV between IDUs was demonstrated, and this indicates that phylogenetic analysis would applicable to also forensic analysis. HCV isolates identified in this study did not phylogenetically segregate, thus multiple transmission route of HCV among IDUs seems be exist in Japan. PMID:16829004

Kato, H; Maeno, Y; Seko-Nakamura, Y; Monma-Ohtaki, J; Sugiura, S; Takahashi, K; Zhe, L X; Matsumoto, T; Kurvanov, F; Mizokami, M; Nagao, M

2007-05-01

255

Forensic-Evidence.com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Forensic-Evidence.com offers The Forensic Center Newsletter, which aims "to stimulate interdisciplinary efforts and research that unite, explore, and advance knowledge in the broad areas of law, medicine, and forensic sciences." The site is organized into sections by topic, which include "Evidence Law News," "Identification Evidence," "Behavioral Evidence," "Biological Evidence," and "Law Enforcement Procedures." This is an excellent resource for news and other current information in forensics.

Moenssens, Andre A.

2008-04-03

256

From sample to PCR product in under 45 minutes: a polymeric integrated microdevice for clinical and forensic DNA analysis.  

PubMed

The extraction and amplification of DNA from biological samples is laborious and time-consuming, requiring numerous instruments and sample handling steps. An integrated, single-use, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microdevice for DNA extraction and amplification would benefit clinical and forensic communities, providing a completely closed system with rapid sample-in-PCR-product-out capability. Here, we show the design and simple flow control required for enzyme-based DNA preparation and PCR from buccal swabs or liquid whole blood samples with an ~5-fold reduction in time. A swab containing cells or DNA could be loaded into a novel receptacle together with the DNA liberation reagents, heated using an infrared heating system, mixed with PCR reagents for one of three different target sets under syringe-driven flow, and thermally-cycled in less than 45 min, an ~6-fold reduction in analysis time as compared to conventional methods. The 4 : 1 PCR reagents : DNA ratio required to provide the correct final concentration of all PCR components for effective amplification was verified using image analysis of colored dyes in the PCR chamber. Novel single-actuation, 'normally-open' adhesive valves were shown to effectively seal the PCR chamber during thermal cycling, preventing air bubble expansion. The effectiveness of the device was demonstrated using three target sets: the sex-typing gene Amelogenin, co-amplification of the ?-globin and gelsolin genes, and the amplification of 15 short tandem repeat (STR) loci plus Amelogenin. The use of the integrated microdevice was expanded to the analysis of liquid blood samples which, when incubated with the DNA liberation reagents, form a brown precipitate that inhibits PCR. A simple centrifugation of the integrated microchips (on a custom centrifuge), mobilized the precipitate away from the microchannel entrance, improving amplification of the ?-globin and gelsolin gene fragments by ~6-fold. This plastic integrated microdevice represents a microfluidic platform with potential for evolution into point-of-care prototypes for application to both clinical and forensic analyses, providing a 5-fold reduction from conventional analysis time. PMID:23389252

Lounsbury, Jenny A; Karlsson, Anne; Miranian, Daniel C; Cronk, Stephen M; Nelson, Daniel A; Li, Jingyi; Haverstick, Doris M; Kinnon, Paul; Saul, David J; Landers, James P

2013-04-01

257

An interactive approach for hierarchical analysis of helicopter logistics in disaster relief operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study develops a mathematical model for helicopter mission planning during a disaster relief operation. The decisions inherent in the problem decompose hierarchically into two sub-problems where tactical decisions are made at the top level, and the operational routing and loading decisions are made at the base level. Consistency between the decomposed problems is achieved with an iterative coordination procedure

Gülay Barbarosoglu; Linet Özdamar; Ahmet Çevik

2002-01-01

258

Availability Analysis of an Ad-Hoc DSMS for Disaster Relief Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of victims rescued alive when a disaster occurs depends on the efficiency of search and rescue teams. Hence, communication, coordination and collaboration must be developed as best as possible. Currently the communication infrastructure, radio gear, permits us only to transfer audio signals, so enhancing group interaction by providing complementary communication media and services is a challenge. An ad-hoc

Feniosky Peña-mora; Roberto Aldunate; Miguel Nussbaum

2002-01-01

259

Resourcing challenges for post-disaster housing reconstruction: a comparative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-disaster housing reconstruction is likely to suffer project deficiencies in relation to the availability of resources. Inefficiencies in dealing with resource shortages in the aftermath of a catastrophe can trigger economic and environmental impacts on the affected areas. Based on data collected from field research in China, Indonesia, and Australia, three types of resource-led reconstruction strategies are compared: government driven,

Yan Chang; Suzanne Wilkinson; Regan Potangaroa; Erica Seville

2010-01-01

260

Structure Reliability Analysis of Disaster Protection of Catenary for Railway Traction Power Supply System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, simulations of railway catenary supporting system have been performed with finite element method (FEM) in different wind and ice-coating disasters with or without a locomotive passing by. The results of stress and displacement indicate that existing catenary supporting structure is capable of meeting the requirement on strength and stiffness in most cases, though, the contact wire will

Xiaohui Xiao; Zhe Wei; Xuemei Tong; Liang Liu; Yakun Liang; Jian-ming Sun

2010-01-01

261

Analysis of Jordan's Proposed Emergency Communication Interoperability Plan (JECIP) for Disaster Response.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recently, the world has been affected by man-made and natural disasters of a level not shown before which depicts the importance of communication for an efficient and rapid response of First Responder Community (FRC) members in the field. The resilience o...

M. H. Alzaghal

2008-01-01

262

Impact analysis of natural disasters on critical infrastructure, associated industries, and communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critical infrastructure play an important role in supporting industries and communities and also responding against natural disasters to reduce their impacts (i.e., routes and bridges for evacuation and public buildings for sheltering). Due to global warming, there is an increase in the frequency of extreme weather events, which pose a high risk of functional and structural failure of critical infrastructure.

Eun Ho Oh

2010-01-01

263

Forensic entomology in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic entomology (FE) is increasingly gaining international recognition. In Germany, however, the development of FE has been stagnating, mainly because of the lack of cooperation between police, forensic medicine and entomology. In 1997 a co-operative research project ‘Forensic Entomology’ was started in Frankfurt\\/Main at the Center of Legal Medicine and the Research Institute Senckenberg. The aim of this project is

Jens Amendt; Roman Krettek; Constanze Niess; Richard Zehner; Hansjürgen Bratzke

2000-01-01

264

Modeling the economic costs of disasters and recovery: analysis using a dynamic computable general equilibrium model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disaster damages have negative effects on the economy, whereas reconstruction investment has positive effects. The aim of this study is to model economic causes of disasters and recovery involving the positive effects of reconstruction activities. Computable general equilibrium (CGE) model is a promising approach because it can incorporate these two kinds of shocks into a unified framework and furthermore avoid the double-counting problem. In order to factor both shocks into the CGE model, direct loss is set as the amount of capital stock reduced on the supply side of the economy; a portion of investments restores the capital stock in an existing period; an investment-driven dynamic model is formulated according to available reconstruction data, and the rest of a given country's saving is set as an endogenous variable to balance the fixed investment. The 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake is selected as a case study to illustrate the model, and three scenarios are constructed: S0 (no disaster occurs), S1 (disaster occurs with reconstruction investment) and S2 (disaster occurs without reconstruction investment). S0 is taken as business as usual, and the differences between S1 and S0 and that between S2 and S0 can be interpreted as economic losses including reconstruction and excluding reconstruction, respectively. The study showed that output from S1 is found to be closer to real data than that from S2. Economic loss under S2 is roughly 1.5 times that under S1. The gap in the economic aggregate between S1 and S0 is reduced to 3% at the end of government-led reconstruction activity, a level that should take another four years to achieve under S2.

Xie, W.; Li, N.; Wu, J.-D.; Hao, X.-L.

2014-04-01

265

When Autosomal Short Tandem Repeats Fail: Optimized Primer and Reaction Design for Y-chromosome Short Tandem Repeat Analysis in Forensic Casework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) are useful forensic DNA markers in investigation of sexual assault cases when a mixture of male and female DNA (e.g., in vaginal swabs) is present in a sample, especially when DNA of the male contributor is present only in very small amount compared to the DNA of the female victim. With autosomal STR analysis of

Walther Parson; Harald Niederstätter; Silvano Köchl; Martin Steinlechner; Burkhard Berger

2001-01-01

266

Resolution in forensic microbial genotyping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resolution is a key parameter for differentiating among the large number of strain typing methods that could be applied to pathogens involved in bioterror events or biocrimes. In this report we develop a first-principles analysis of strain typing resolution using a simple mathematical model to provide a basis for the rational design of microbial typing systems for forensic applications. We

Velsko

2005-01-01

267

Interim Report on SNP analysis and forensic microarray probe design for South American hemorrhagic fever viruses, tick-borne encephalitis virus, henipaviruses, Old World Arenaviruses, filoviruses, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever viruses, Rift Valley fever  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project is to develop forensic genotyping assays for select agent viruses, enhancing the current capabilities for the viral bioforensics and law enforcement community. We used a multipronged approach combining bioinformatics analysis, PCR-enriched samples, microarrays and TaqMan assays to develop high resolution and cost effective genotyping methods for strain level forensic discrimination of viruses. We have leveraged substantial experience and efficiency gained through year 1 on software development, SNP discovery, TaqMan signature design and phylogenetic signature mapping to scale up the development of forensics signatures in year 2. In this report, we have summarized the whole genome wide SNP analysis and microarray probe design for forensics characterization of South American hemorrhagic fever viruses, tick-borne encephalitis viruses and henipaviruses, Old World Arenaviruses, filoviruses, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus and Japanese encephalitis virus.

Jaing, C; Gardner, S

2012-06-05

268

Automating the Coupling of ORIGEN with GADRAS via the Fallout Analysis Tool for National Technical Nuclear Forensics  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear forensic teams will be deployed to collect and evaluate fallout samples on the ground in the scenario of a low-yield nuclear detonation in a heavily populated area. Quick non-destructive methods of predicting the quality of the sample before it is analyzed in detail are essential for efficient post-event collections. In this work, the process of exporting Defense Land Fallout Interpretive Code (DELFIC) results into Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) has been automated within the Fallout Analysis Tool. This coupling allows for the simulation of detector responses to fallout samples with varying degrees of fractionation. The degree to which the samples are fractionated depends on the location of the samples in the fallout field. In the following study, this phenomenon is examined, as its understanding is important to the investigation of debris distribution. The simulated detector spectra from GADRAS can be used to compare peak ratios of volatile-refractory isotope pairs in order to determine the degree of fractionation. Simulated fractionated fallout samples from DELFIC for a 10 kt, pure 235U fission surface burst were modeled for distances ranging to 256 km out from ground zero, and for times up to 1 week from detonation. The fractionation ratios, also known as r values, from isotope concentrations, photon lines and peak areas of four volatile-refractory pairs were calculated and compared. Fractionation prediction via the peak areas method was evaluated for each pair by comparing the results with the simulated radionuclide inventory.

Monterial, Mateusz [ORNL; Jodoin, Vincent J [ORNL; Lefebvre, Jordan P [ORNL; Peplow, Douglas E. [ORNL; Hooper, David A [ORNL

2012-01-01

269

Accreditation standards for undergraduate forensic science programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Undergraduate forensic science programs are experiencing unprecedented growth in numbers of programs offered and, as a result, student enrollments are increasing. Currently, however, these programs are not subject to professional specialized accreditation. This study sought to identify desirable student outcome measures for undergraduate forensic science programs that should be incorporated into such an accreditation process. To determine desirable student outcomes, three types of data were collected and analyzed. All the existing undergraduate forensic science programs in the United States were examined with regard to the input measures of degree requirements and curriculum content, and for the output measures of mission statements and student competencies. Accreditation procedures and guidelines for three other science-based disciplines, computer science, dietetics, and nursing, were examined to provide guidance on accreditation processes for forensic science education programs. Expert opinion on outcomes for program graduates was solicited from the major stakeholders of undergraduate forensic science programs-forensic science educators, crime laboratory directors, and recent graduates. Opinions were gathered by using a structured Internet-based survey; the total response rate was 48%. Examination of the existing undergraduate forensic science programs revealed that these programs do not use outcome measures. Of the accreditation processes for other science-based programs, nursing education provided the best model for forensic science education, due primarily to the balance between the generality and the specificity of the outcome measures. From the analysis of the questionnaire data, preliminary student outcomes, both general and discipline-specific, suitable for use in the accreditation of undergraduate forensic science programs were determined. The preliminary results were reviewed by a panel of experts and, based on their recommendations, the outcomes identified were revised and refined. The results of this study were used to identify student outcomes and to suggest accreditation standards and an accreditation process for undergraduate forensic science programs based on those outcomes.

Miller, Marilyn Tebbs

270

Surviving Disasters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools play a unique role in communities when disaster strikes. They serve as shelter for evacuees and first responders; they are a trusted source of information; and once danger has passed, the district, as employer and community center, often serves as a foundation for recovery. Technology plays a key role in a school district's ability to…

Henke, Karen Greenwood

2008-01-01

271

Disaster Drill.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bus disaster drills have been held all over country for years. A drill in Blairsville, Pennsylvania, taught officials important lessons: (1) keep roster of students and stops in designated area on bus, and ensure emergency workers know where location; (2) send at least three school officials to accident scene; (3) provide school officials with…

Jones, Rebecca

1998-01-01

272

The clavicle bone as an alternative matrix in forensic toxicological analysis.  

PubMed

Although human blood is the reference medium in the field of forensic toxicology, alternative matrices may be required when traditional specimens are not available, especially in the investigation of cases involving decomposing remains. Clavicle bone may provide an appropriate sample of choice since it can easily be obtained at autopsy after the removal of the breastplate for the inspection of the thoracic viscera. To the author's knowledge, this is the first time that clavicle bone is used as an alternative matrix for the detection of drugs. The present study aimed to investigate the suitability of clavicle bone as an alternative matrix for the detection of opiates. Opiates were assayed using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the selected ion monitoring mode. Morphine-d6, codeine-d6 and 6-MAM-d3 were used as internal standards for the determination of morphine, codeine and 6-MAM, respectively. A GC/MS method was developed and validated for the determination of opiates in clavicle samples. Morphine, codeine and 6-MAM were successfully separated in spiked samples allowing for their detection at low levels without interferences from the matrix. Chromatographic run time was 11 min and the tested linearity ranged from 5 to 500 ng/g (r2 > 0.99) for all analytes. The method was further applied in clavicle samples of drug-related cases. Its validation parameters and the application of the developed method in clavicle samples from drug addicts, prove its suitability for the detection of opiates and potentially other drugs. PMID:24485412

Vardakou, Ioanna; Athanaselis, Sotiris; Pistos, Constantinos; Papadodima, Stauroula; Spiliopoulou, Chara; Moraitis, Konstantinos

2014-02-01

273

Accident analysis of large-scale technological disasters applied to an anaesthetic complication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of serious accidents in complex industrial systems such as at Three Mile Island and Bhopal has prompted development\\u000a of new models of causation and investigation of disasters. These analytical models have potential relevance in anaesthesia.\\u000a We therefore applied one of the previously described systems to the investigation of an anaesthetic accident. The model chosen\\u000a describes two kinds of

Chris J. Eagle; Jan M. Davies; J. Reason

1992-01-01

274

Radiology in forensic expert team operations.  

PubMed

Radiological methods are widely used in forensic pathology. Their most common applications are in complementing human identification, particularly in investigations of mass disasters and decomposed bodies, and in searching for foreign material inside corpses. A team of Finnish forensic experts investigated human skeletal remains in Bosnia and Herzegovina (1996) and in Kosovo, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1998). It also investigated more recently deceased victims in Kosovo (1999). In these investigations, the benefit of X-ray was in the detection of foreign material inside victims and their remains. For identification purposes, X-rays were mainly used to provide the best evidence possible of any pathological changes, physical characteristics, and injuries present. PMID:12935731

Rainio, J; Lalu, K; Ranta, H; Penttilä, A

2001-03-01

275

Disaster analysis: emergency management offices and arrangements. Final report on Phase 1  

SciTech Connect

Part I describes and analyzes the research of the Disaster Research Center (DRC) on the responses of local emergency management system in six community disasters. Effectiveness of response was assessed in terms of communication that resulted in correct information collection, a fully functioning EOC, appropriate procurement and distribution of human and material resources, proper task delegation and coordination, a legitimated authority structure, integrated and coordinated relationship with outside private, state, and federal organizations, cooperative relationships with mass media groups, and response activities based upon real, not mythical needs. We examined how extensiveness of response was influenced by prior disaster experiences, prior planning, and federal aid. We then derived an eight-fold categorization of emergency management systems: traditional offices, by-passed agencies, emergent agencies, established agencies, embedded agencies; by-passed community agencies; emergent community agencies; and established community agencies. After a comparative examination of the likelihood of the existence of different types, we point out the policy implications of the findings for response, planning and structure of local emergency management systems. Part II describes the processes and problems in the computerization of the DRC library and data base and projectes DRC's future work.

Wenger, D.; Quarantelli, E.L.; Dynes, R.

1987-02-01

276

Rapid Disaster Damage Estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experiences from recent disaster events showed that detailed information derived from high-resolution satellite images could accommodate the requirements from damage analysts and disaster management practitioners. Richer information contained in such high-resolution images, however, increases the complexity of image analysis. As a result, few image analysis solutions can be practically used under time pressure in the context of post-disaster and emergency responses. To fill the gap in employment of remote sensing in disaster response, this research develops a rapid high-resolution satellite mapping solution built upon a dual-scale contextual framework to support damage estimation after a catastrophe. The target objects are building (or building blocks) and their condition. On the coarse processing level, statistical region merging deployed to group pixels into a number of coarse clusters. Based on majority rule of vegetation index, water and shadow index, it is possible to eliminate the irrelevant clusters. The remaining clusters likely consist of building structures and others. On the fine processing level details, within each considering clusters, smaller objects are formed using morphological analysis. Numerous indicators including spectral, textural and shape indices are computed to be used in a rule-based object classification. Computation time of raster-based analysis highly depends on the image size or number of processed pixels in order words. Breaking into 2 level processing helps to reduce the processed number of pixels and the redundancy of processing irrelevant information. In addition, it allows a data- and tasks- based parallel implementation. The performance is demonstrated with QuickBird images captured a disaster-affected area of Phanga, Thailand by the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami are used for demonstration of the performance. The developed solution will be implemented in different platforms as well as a web processing service for operational uses.

Vu, T. T.

2012-07-01

277

Review of the Federal Bureau of Investigation Laboratory's Forensic DNA Case Backlog.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Forensic DNA casework testing involves the identification and evaluation of biological evidence using DNA technologies. Forensic DNA analysis is an important tool in law enforcement and counterterrorism investigations. DNA analysis can be used to implicat...

2010-01-01

278

Forensic analysis of laser printed ink by X-ray fluorescence and laser-excited plume fluorescence.  

PubMed

We demonstrated a minimally destructive two-tier approach for multielement forensic analysis of laser-printed ink. The printed document was first screened using a portable-X-ray fluorescence (XRF) probe. If the results were not conclusive, a laser microprobe was then deployed. The laser probe was based on a two-pulse scheme: the first laser pulse ablated a thin layer of the printed ink; the second laser pulse at 193 nm induced multianalytes in the desorbed ink to fluoresce. We analyzed four brands of black toners. The toners were printed on paper in the form of patches or letters or overprinted on another ink. The XRF probe could sort the four brands if the printed letters were larger than font 20. It could not tell the printing sequence in the case of overprints. The laser probe was more discriminatory; it could sort the toner brands and reveal the overprint sequence regardless of font size while the sampled area was not visibly different from neighboring areas even under the microscope. In terms of general analytical performance, the laser probe featured tens of micrometer lateral resolution and tens to hundreds of nm depth resolution and atto-mole mass detection limits. It could handle samples of arbitrary size and shape and was air compatible, and no sample pretreatment was necessary. It will prove useful whenever high-resolution and high sensitivity 3D elemental mapping is required. PMID:23570307

Chu, Po-Chun; Cai, Bruno Yue; Tsoi, Yeuk Ki; Yuen, Ronald; Leung, Kelvin S Y; Cheung, Nai-Ho

2013-05-01

279

Dual-color bioluminescent bioreporter for forensic analysis: evidence of androgenic and anti-androgenic activity of illicit drugs.  

PubMed

Bioassays represent promising complementary techniques to conventional analytical approaches used in doping analysis to detect illicit drugs like anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS). The fact that all AAS share a common mechanism of action via the human androgen receptor (hAR) enables the use of bioassays, relying on the activation of hAR as antidoping screening tools. Previously, we developed a dual-color bioreporter based on yeast cells engineered to express hAR and androgen response elements driving the expression of the bioluminescent (BL) reporter protein Photinus pyralis luciferase. A second reporter protein, the red-emitting luciferase PpyRE8, was introduced in the bioreporter as internal viability control. Here, we report the first forensic application of a straightforward, accurate, and cost-effective bioassay, relying on spectral resolution of the two BL signals, in 96-microwell format. The bioreporter responds to dihydrotestosterone as reference androgen in a concentration-dependent manner from 0.08 to 1,000 nM with intra- and inter-assay variation coefficients of 11.4 % and 13.1 %, respectively. We also demonstrated the suitability of this dual-color bioreporter to assess (anti)-androgenic activity of pure AAS, mixtures of AAS, and other illicit drugs provided by the Scientific Police. Significant anti-androgenic activity was observed in samples labeled as marijuana and hashish, containing ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol as major constituent. PMID:23010847

Cevenini, Luca; Michelini, Elisa; D'Elia, Marcello; Guardigli, Massimo; Roda, Aldo

2013-01-01

280

Disaster risk management in prospect mining area Blitar district, East Java, using microtremor analysis and ANP (analytical network processing) approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indonesia has a wealth of natural assets is so large to be managed and utilized, either from its own local government and local communities, especially in the mining sector. However, mining activities can change the state of the surface layer of the earth that have a high impact disaster risk. This could threaten the safety and disrupt human life, environmental damage, loss of property, and the psychological impact, sulking to the rule of law no 24 of 2007. That's why we strive to manage and minimize the risk of mine disasters in the region, how to use the method of calculation of Amplification Factor (AF) from the analysis based microtremor sulking Kanai and Nakamura, and decision systems were tested by analysis of ANP. Based on the amplification factor and Analytical Network Processing (ANP) obtained, some points showed instability in the surface layer of a mining area include the site of the TP-7, TP-8, TP-9, TP-10, (Birowo2). If in terms of structure, location indicated unstable due to have a sloping surface layer, resulting in the occurrence of landslides and earthquake risk is high. In the meantime, other areas of the mine site can be said to be a stable area.

Parwatiningtyas, Diyan; Ambarsari, Erlin Windia; Marlina, Dwi; Wiratomo, Yogi

2014-03-01

281

Forensic analysis of explosives using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS)--part 1: instrument validation of the DELTAplusXP IRMS for bulk nitrogen isotope ratio measurements.  

PubMed

A significant amount of research has been conducted into the use of stable isotopes to assist in determining the origin of various materials. The research conducted in the forensic field shows the potential of isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) to provide a level of discrimination not achievable utilizing traditional forensic techniques. Despite the research there have been few, if any, publications addressing the validation and measurement uncertainty of the technique for forensic applications. This study, the first in a planned series, presents validation data for the measurement of bulk nitrogen isotope ratios in ammonium nitrate (AN) using the DELTA(plus)XP (Thermo Finnigan) IRMS instrument equipped with a ConFlo III interface and FlashEA 1112 elemental analyzer (EA). Appropriate laboratory standards, analytical methods and correction calculations were developed and evaluated. A validation protocol was developed in line with the guidelines provided by the National Association of Testing Authorities, Australia (NATA). Performance characteristics including: accuracy, precision/repeatability, reproducibility/ruggedness, robustness, linear range, and measurement uncertainty were evaluated for the measurement of nitrogen isotope ratios in AN. AN (99.5%) and ammonium thiocyanate (99.99+%) were determined to be the most suitable laboratory standards and were calibrated against international standards (certified reference materials). All performance characteristics were within an acceptable range when potential uncertainties, including the manufacturer's uncertainty of the technique and standards, were taken into account. The experiments described in this article could be used as a model for validation of other instruments for similar purposes. Later studies in this series will address the more general issue of demonstrating that the IRMS technique is scientifically sound and fit-for-purpose in the forensic explosives analysis field. PMID:20015166

Benson, Sarah J; Lennard, Christopher J; Hill, David M; Maynard, Philip; Roux, Claude

2010-01-01

282

Ask a Forensic Artist  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How exactly does one become a forensic artist? It is not easy, and this website provides some rather direct and frank advice about the profession. The Ask a Forensic Artist (AAFA) site is well organized, and first-time visitors should make a beeline for the "FAQ" section. Here they will find answers to questions like "What is 'Forensic Art'?" and "What training is available in Forensic Art?" The remaining sections include "Careers", "Gallery", "Artist Interviews" and the thematic "Categories" area on the right-hand side of the page. The "Artist Interviews" includes profiles with forensic artists working in many fields of law enforcement. The "Gallery" features a few samples of forensic art, and the "Careers" area includes some basic information for those who wish to get started in the field. The site is rounded out by a list of career-related sites and helpful blogs.

283

What Can Multiwave Studies Teach Us About Disaster Research: An Analysis of Low-Income Hurricane Katrina Survivors  

PubMed Central

Previous research on natural disasters has been limited by a lack of predisaster data and statistical analyses that do not adequately predict change in psychological symptoms. In the current study, we addressed these limitations through analysis of 3 waves of data from a longitudinal investigation of 313 low-income, African American mothers who were exposed to Hurricane Katrina. Although postdisaster cross-sectional estimates of the impact of traumatic stress exposure and postdisaster social support on postdisaster psychological distress were somewhat inflated, the general trends persisted when controlling for predisaster data (B = 0.88 and ?0.33, vs. B = 0.81 and ?0.27, respectively). Hierarchical linear modeling of the 3 waves of data revealed that lower predisaster social support was associated with higher psychological distress at the time of the disaster (? = ?.16), and that higher traumatic stress exposure was associated with greater increases in psychological distress after the storm (? = .86). Based on the results, we suggest that the impact of traumatic stress on psychological trajectories cannot be accounted for solely by preexisting risk, and recommend more complex research designs to further illuminate the complex, dynamic relationships between psychological distress, traumatic stress exposure, and social support.

Green, Gillian; Lowe, Sarah R.; Rhodes, Jean E.

2013-01-01

284

What can multiwave studies teach us about disaster research: an analysis of low-income Hurricane Katrina survivors.  

PubMed

Previous research on natural disasters has been limited by a lack of predisaster data and statistical analyses that do not adequately predict change in psychological symptoms. In the current study, we addressed these limitations through analysis of 3 waves of data from a longitudinal investigation of 313 low-income, African American mothers who were exposed to Hurricane Katrina. Although postdisaster cross-sectional estimates of the impact of traumatic stress exposure and postdisaster social support on postdisaster psychological distress were somewhat inflated, the general trends persisted when controlling for predisaster data (B = 0.88 and -0.33, vs. B = 0.81 and -0.27, respectively). Hierarchical linear modeling of the 3 waves of data revealed that lower predisaster social support was associated with higher psychological distress at the time of the disaster (? = -.16), and that higher traumatic stress exposure was associated with greater increases in psychological distress after the storm (? = .86). Based on the results, we suggest that the impact of traumatic stress on psychological trajectories cannot be accounted for solely by preexisting risk, and recommend more complex research designs to further illuminate the complex, dynamic relationships between psychological distress, traumatic stress exposure, and social support. PMID:22684676

Green, Gillian; Lowe, Sarah R; Rhodes, Jean E

2012-06-01

285

Computer Forensics and Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on theory gained from the science and culture research domain, this paper considers the relationship between computer\\u000a forensic science and culture. In order to develop a theoretical relationship between computer forensics and culture, this\\u000a paper examines computer forensics as science and discusses the universal nature of science. It points to an ongoing cross-cultural\\u000a work being carried out among computer

Yi-chi Lin; Jill Slay; I.-Long Lin

2008-01-01

286

Tools and techniques for Network Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network forensics deals with the capture, recording and analysis of network\\u000aevents in order to discover evidential information about the source of security\\u000aattacks in a court of law. This paper discusses the different tools and\\u000atechniques available to conduct network forensics. Some of the tools discussed\\u000ainclude: eMailTrackerPro to identify the physical location of an email sender;\\u000aWeb Historian

Natarajan Meghanathan; Sumanth Reddy Allam; Loretta A. Moore

2010-01-01

287

Court TV: Forensic Files  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This companion Web site to the Court TV series _Forensic Files_ offers a virtual forensics lab where visitors can learn more about the different techniques experts use to "put together the pieces of the crime puzzle." Each room of the virtual 3-story lab is dedicated to a different forensic technique, including DNA evidence, bite marks, blood splatter, time of death, and more. Each room offers an explanatory video presentation, as well as an annotated slide show or video of forensics scientists at work.

288

Laser Microdissection Separation of Pure Sprermatozoa Populations from Mixed Cell Samples for Forensic DNA Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Short Tandem Repeat (STR) analysis is a valuable tool in identifying the source of biological stains, particularly from the investigation of sexual assault crimes. Difficulties in analysis arise primarily in the interpretation of mixed genotypes when cell...

C. T. Sanders D. A. Peterson E. K. Reisenbigler

2007-01-01

289

Forensic anthropology casework-essential methodological considerations in stature estimation.  

PubMed

The examination of skeletal remains is a challenge to the medical examiner's/coroner's office and the forensic anthropologist conducting the investigation. One of the objectives of the medico-legal investigation is to estimate stature or height from various skeletal remains and body parts brought for examination. Various skeletal remains and body parts bear a positive and linear correlation with stature and have been successfully used for stature estimation. This concept is utilized in estimation of stature in forensic anthropology casework in mass disasters and other forensic examinations. Scientists have long been involved in standardizing the anthropological data with respect to various populations of the world. This review deals with some essential methodological issues that need to be addressed in research related to estimation of stature in forensic examinations. These issues have direct relevance in the identification of commingled or unknown remains and therefore it is essential that forensic nurses are familiar with the theories and techniques used in forensic anthropology. PMID:22372398

Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Menezes, Ritesh G; Ghosh, Abhik

2012-03-01

290

Forensic dentistry in human identification: A review of the literature  

PubMed Central

An update is provided of the literature on the role of odontology in human identification, based on a PubMed-Medline search of the last 5 years and using the terms: “forensic dentistry” (n = 464 articles), “forensic odontology” (n = 141 articles) and “forensic dentistry identification” (n = 169 articles). Apart from these initial 774 articles, others considered to be important and which were generated by a manual search and cited as references in review articles were also included. Forensic dentistry requires interdisciplinary knowledge, since the data obtained from the oral cavity can contribute to identify an individual or provide information needed in a legal process. Furthermore, the data obtained from the oral cavity can narrow the search range of an individual and play a key role in the victim identification process following mass disasters or catastrophes. This literature search covering the last 5 years describes the novelties referred to buccodental studies in comparative identification, buccodental evaluation in reconstructive identification, human bites as a method for identifying the aggressor, and the role of DNA in dental identification. The oral cavity is a rich and noninvasive source of DNA, and can be used to solve problems of a social, economic or legal nature. Key words:Forensic identification, DNA, forensic dentistry, rugoscopy, cheiloscopy, saliva.

Ata-Ali, Fadi

2014-01-01

291

Capillary electrophoresis: a new tool in forensic toxicology. Applications and prospects in hair analysis for illicit drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capillary electrophoresis, the modern approach to instrumental electrophoresis, is probably the most rapidly expanding analytical technique that has appeared in recent years. In the hands of forensic toxicologists, capillary electrophoresis (CE) represents a powerful new analytical tool, which has proved suitable for the investigation of illicit drugs in seized preparations and also in complex biological matrices, among which is hair.

F. Tagliaro; W. F. Smyth; S. Turrina; Z. Deyl; M. Marigo

1995-01-01

292

Volcano Hazard Tracking and Disaster Risk Mitigation: A Detailed Gap Analysis from Data-Collection to User Implementation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcano Hazard Tracking and Disaster Risk Mitigation: A Detailed Gap Analysis from Data-Collection to User Implementation Dohy Faied, Aurora Sanchez (on behalf of SSP08 VAPOR Project Team) Dohy.Faied@masters.isunet.edu While numerous global initiatives exist to address the potential hazards posed by volcanic eruption events and assess impacts from a civil security viewpoint, there does not yet exist a single, unified, international system of early warning and hazard tracking for eruptions. Numerous gaps exist in the risk reduction cycle, from data collection, to data processing, and finally dissemination of salient information to relevant parties. As part of the 2008 International Space University's Space Studies Program, a detailed gap analysis of the state of volcano disaster risk reduction was undertaken, and this paper presents the principal results. This gap analysis considered current sensor technologies, data processing algorithms, and utilization of data products by various international organizations. Recommendations for strategies to minimize or eliminate certain gaps are also provided. In the effort to address the gaps, a framework evolved at system level. This framework, known as VIDA, is a tool to develop user requirements for civil security in hazardous contexts, and a candidate system concept for a detailed design phase. VIDA also offers substantial educational potential: the framework includes a centralized clearinghouse for volcanology data which could support education at a variety of levels. Basic geophysical data, satellite maps, and raw sensor data are combined and accessible in a way that allows the relationships between these data types to be explored and used in a training environment. Such a resource naturally lends itself to research efforts in the subject but also research in operational tools, system architecture, and human/machine interaction in civil protection or emergency scenarios.

Faied, D.; Sanchez, A.

2009-04-01

293

Forensic Science Technician  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forensic science technicians, also called crime laboratory technicians or police science technicians, help solve crimes. They examine and identify physical evidence to reconstruct a crime scene. This article discusses everything students need to know about careers for forensic science technicians--wages, responsibilities, skills needed, career…

Tech Directions, 2010

2010-01-01

294

Fieldnotes: a forensic  

Microsoft Academic Search

This poetic investigation probes the linguistic and epistemological effects of the increasingly widespread circulation of forensic discourses in the media and popular culture. Further consideration is given to the disproportionate availability of forensic expertise and technologies when the bodies under investigation are White and located in industrialized nations. A brief preface, “Notes on an Investigation,” situates this project in relationship

Kate Eichhorn

2010-01-01

295

Forensic Science Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1991, the Laboratory's Forensic Science Center has focused a comprehensive range of analytical expertise on issues related to non proliferation, counterterrorism, and domestic law enforcement. During this short period, LLNL's singular combination of human and technological resources has made the Center among the best of its kind in the world. The Forensic Science Center houses a variety of state-of-the-art

B. Andresen; P.M. Grant

1994-01-01

296

Research of an E-mail forensic and analysis system based on visualization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, E-mail communication has been abused for numerous illegitimate purposes such as E-mail spamming, terrorist attack, business fraud, etc. As a result, to analysis the rich personal information hidden in E-mail is significant for investigation and evidence collection. In this paper, an investigation and analysis system aiming to Email was presented, which supports a variety of data sources including the

Fanlin Meng; Shunxiang Wu; Junbin Yang; Genzhen Yu

2009-01-01

297

Advances in forensic toxicology.  

PubMed

Over the last 15 years there have been many changes in the practice of forensic toxicology. One of the most noteworthy has been the recognition of the need for good laboratory practices in the forensic toxicology laboratory. This has resulted in the development of an accreditation program for laboratories. Increasingly, forensic toxicologists are asked to interpret results in driving under the influence of drug cases. These interpretations are also difficult because of the lack of data correlating blood (or plasma) concentrations with impairment. The development of newer immunoassays and hyphenated mass spectrometric techniques now allow the forensic toxicologist to assay a large number of drugs (both traditional and products of the biotechnology revolution) with increasing sensitivity. This article focuses on these changes and some of the challenges facing the forensic toxicologists of the 21st century. PMID:9614587

Peat, M A

1998-06-01

298

Forensic Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

upon the application of scientific methods and techniques to crime and law. Recent advances in scientific methods and principles have had an enormous impact upon law enforcement and the entire criminal justice system. In this course, scientific methods specifically relevant to crime detection and analysis will be presented. No prior chemistry instruction is required or assumed but the course should

James T. Spencer

2009-01-01

299

[Forensic entomology exemplified by a homicide. A combined stain and postmortem time analysis].  

PubMed

The combined analysis of both ant and blow fly evidence recovered from a corpse, and from the boot of a suspect, suggested that an assumed scenario in a high profile murder case was likely to be true. The ants (Lasius fuliginous) were used as classical crime scene stains that linked the suspect to the scene. Blow fly maggots (Calliphora spec.) helped to determine the post mortem interval (PMI) with the calculated PMI overlapping with the assumed time of the killing. In the trial, the results of the medico-legal analysis of the insects was understood to be crucial scientific evidence, and the suspect was sentenced to 8 years in prison. PMID:10489592

Benecke, M; Seifert, B

1999-01-01

300

National Academy of Forensic Engineers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Academy of Forensic Engineers provides a short definition of forensic engineering here. After reading through the definition, click the "Menu" link at the bottom of the page to access the site's main menu. From here, you can find more information on the National Academy of Forensic Engineers, and forensic engineering in general.

2008-04-07

301

Microbial Forensics: Applications in Bioterrorism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial forensics is a new discipline combining microbiology and forensic science. Unlike public health investigations, microbial forensics goes further to associate the source of the causative agent with a specific individual or group. Microbial forensics measures molecular variations between related microbial strains and their use to infer the origin, relationship, or transmission route of a particular microbial strain. Several advanced

Priyabrata Pattnaik; Asha Mukul Jana

2005-01-01

302

Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the past 50 years forensic psychological practice has expanded dramatically. Because the practice of forensic psychology differs in important ways from more traditional practice areas (Monahan, 1980) the "Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists" were developed and published in 1991 (Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic

American Psychologist, 2013

2013-01-01

303

Forensic Analysis of Canine DNA Samples in the Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent advances in canine genomics have allowed the development of highly distinguishing methods of analysis for both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. We describe a laboratory exercise suitable for an undergraduate biochemistry course in which the polymerase chain reaction is used to amplify hypervariable regions of DNA from dog hair and saliva…

Carson, Tobin M.; Bradley, Sharonda Q.; Fekete, Brenda L.; Millard, Julie T.; LaRiviere, Frederick J.

2009-01-01

304

Tandem mass spectrometry: a helpful tool in hair analysis for the forensic expert  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bavarian State Bureau of Investigation in Munich has the exclusive responsibility for investigation of criminal acts. One considerable expertise is that of hair analysis. According to the legal system in Germany, there is a special interest when some clients’ hair tested positive for illicit drugs. An accused with a lot of drugs in his hair will be treated as

Michael Uhl

2000-01-01

305

Inference structures for crime analysis and intelligence: the example of burglary using forensic science data  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been much work dedicated to crime analysis and intelligence in recent times. Independently, physical evidence has shown great potential for linking crimes and bringing solid informative data through the increased use of multiple databases. However, their informative potential is still often underestimated and has been poorly integrated into police information systems. We propose a framework that fully introduces

O. Ribaux; P. Margot

1999-01-01

306

Separation of antimony from synthetic cloth: Application in forensic science using neutron activation analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A simple ion-exchange separation procedure was developed for selective removal of antimony from synthetic cloth to facilitate determination of several trace elements frequently used to identify gunshot residues by neutron activation analysis. Radiotracers of Sb, Ba, Cu, Co, As, Zn, Hg and Ag were employed to optimize the developed procedure. The method involves the quantitative retention of the above elements,

C. A. Bhadkambekar; K. K. Swain; S. R. Kayasth; T. Mukherjee

2005-01-01

307

[Forensic applications of human skin spectral remission analysis employing a movable integrated sphere (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Spectral remission analysis has been known for long in the medical sciences [1,2,3] but has gained practical importance only in the last years due to the existence of modern techniques and components [4,5]. In this paper a method is presented which enlarges the range of applications of spectral remission and transmission analysis for wavelengths between 380 and 1100 nm considerably. This is achieved by a novel conception of the measuring instrumentation, the advantages of which are discussed and compared with the conventional technique. In detail these advantages are a) employment of a movable instead of a fixed detector (integrated sphere) b) illumination of standard and probe with radiation from a common source c) considerable increase of sensibility due to the use of selective lock-in amplifiers. As a demonstration of the proposed method results are given for 5 different probes of human skin. PMID:848134

Blazek, V

1977-01-21

308

Application of photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy in the forensic analysis of artists' inorganic pigments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fourier-transform photoacoustic infrared (PAIR) spectroscopy has been used in the analysis of 12 inorganic pigments commonly in use by artists today, viz., cobalt blue, ultramarine blue, Prussian blue, azurite, malachite, chromium oxide, viridian, cadmium yellow, chrome yellow, iron oxide, yellow ochre and Mars orange. The authenticity of these 12 commercial pigments was first established by recording their Raman spectra. The subsequent PAIR spectra were highly reproducible and matched well in the mid-IR region with previously published data for these pigments. A number of additional overtone and combination bands were also detected that will prove useful in the identification of the pigments in the future. The PAIR technique is a promising and reliable method for the analysis of inorganic pigments, especially since it involves much simpler preparation than is required for conventional IR measurements.

von Aderkas, Eleanor L.; Barsan, Mirela M.; Gilson, Denis F. R.; Butler, Ian S.

2010-12-01

309

Application of photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy in the forensic analysis of artists' inorganic pigments.  

PubMed

Fourier-transform photoacoustic infrared (PAIR) spectroscopy has been used in the analysis of 12 inorganic pigments commonly in use by artists today, viz., cobalt blue, ultramarine blue, Prussian blue, azurite, malachite, chromium oxide, viridian, cadmium yellow, chrome yellow, iron oxide, yellow ochre and Mars orange. The authenticity of these 12 commercial pigments was first established by recording their Raman spectra. The subsequent PAIR spectra were highly reproducible and matched well in the mid-IR region with previously published data for these pigments. A number of additional overtone and combination bands were also detected that will prove useful in the identification of the pigments in the future. The PAIR technique is a promising and reliable method for the analysis of inorganic pigments, especially since it involves much simpler preparation than is required for conventional IR measurements. PMID:20851668

von Aderkas, Eleanor L; Barsan, Mirela M; Gilson, Denis F R; Butler, Ian S

2010-12-01

310

Isotopic Analysis of the Explosive Urea Nitrate and Its Component Ions for Forensic Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urea nitrate (UN) is an explosive used in improvised explosive devices. UN (CH5N2O+NO3-) can be synthesized from readily available chemicals and was the main explosive used in the 1993 bombing of the World Trade Center. Isotopic analysis of this explosive has the potential to elucidate the isotopic ratios of the starting materials and geographic information on the location of synthesis.

R. Aranda; L. A. Stern; M. C. McCormick; R. F. Mothershead; J. A. Barrow

2008-01-01

311

TG-MS analysis of the thermal decomposition of pig bone for forensic applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the potential of thermal analysis for the determination of post-mortem age, rib bone specimens were\\u000a collected from the remains of a number of slaughtered pigs that were allowed to decompose in the Australian bush in a controlled\\u000a site under a range of conditions for time periods ranging from 1 to 5 years. The bone specimens were

A. Onishi; P. S. Thomas; B. H. Stuart; J. P. Guerbois; S. L. Forbes

2008-01-01

312

Analysis and interpretation of mixed forensic stains using DNA STR profiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of multiplex PCR and fluorescent dye technology in the automated detection and analysis of short tandem repeat loci provides not only qualitative information about the profile—i.e. which alleles are present—but can also provide quantitative information on the relative intensities of the bands, and is therefore a measure of the amount of amplified DNA. The availability of this quantitative

T. M. Clayton; J. P. Whitaker; R. Sparkes; P. Gill

1998-01-01

313

Inference structures for crime analysis and intelligence: the example of burglary using forensic sci  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract There has been,much,work,dedicated,to crime,analysis and,intelligence in recent times. Independently, physical evidence has shown great potential for linking crimes and bringing solid informative data through the increased use of multiple databases. However, their informative potential is still often underestimated,and has been,poorly integrated into police information systems. We propose a framework,that fully introduces this data into an intelligence based system. This

O. Ribaux; P. Margot

1999-01-01

314

Forensic mtDNA hair analysis excludes a dog from having caused a traffic accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dog was suspected of having caused a traffic accident. Three hair fragments were recovered from the damaged car and subjected\\u000a to DNA sequence analysis of the canine mitochondrial D-loop control region. The results were compared to saliva and hair samples\\u000a from the alleged dog, as well as to control hair samples from four unrelated dogs of different breeds. Two

P. M. Schneider; Y. Seo; C. Rittner

1999-01-01

315

Forensic osteological investigations in Kosovo.  

PubMed

A team of Finnish forensic experts performed investigations of alleged mass graves in Kosovo under the mandate of the European Union (EU). Human skeletal remains from two locations were examined. The remains contained three almost complete skeletons, and individual bones and bone fragments, part of which were burned. Injuries, pathological changes, and findings for identification purposes were examined and documented using standard methods of forensic pathology and osteology. Gunshot injuries were found in some cases, but reliable determination of the cause and manner of death was not possible. A discrepancy arose between the number of victims reported in information received from the presiding district court, and results of the investigations. The estimation of the minimum number of victims was mostly acquired by DNA analysis. PMID:11566420

Rainio, J; Hedman, M; Karkola, K; Lalu, K; Peltola, P; Ranta, H; Sajantila, A; Söderholm, N; Penttilä, A

2001-10-01

316

Topic in Depth - Forensic Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The field of forensic engineering involves the study of products, materials, and structures that fail to function properly. Forensic engineers investigate the problem to locate the source of the failure in order to improve the product or structure. Principles of forensic engineering are applied broadly across many different disciplines. Evidence from forensic engineering investigations is often used in both civil and criminal courts. The resources in this folder provide an overview of many different aspects of the forensic engineering discipline.

2010-09-10

317

Construction of Disaster Prevention Map Based on Digital Imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As global warming and has caused the number of abnormal changes, lots of damage has arisen recently due to natural disaster. To prevent and cope with these annually repeated natural hazards, the disaster management is required including the systematic management. Currently the national and related agencies are producing the flood hazard map and flood e map in case of disaster management and recovery, and coping with the disaster using them for building recovery plan, grasping disaster status and cause analysis. The hazard map is the one which indicates the calamity danger districts including the degree of risk in general and called the degree of disaster risk map or disaster expectation map and it means the map which marks the hazard zones by estimating the areas to coping with the natural disaster in the inclusive concept. Now that such hazard map should be understood easily from the place of the person concerned in the disaster, the production of new type of map which can be easily understood visually rather than the map by diagram. In this study, new concept disaster prevention map based on digital image and disaster attribute information was constructed. The various disaster information such as the areas of inundation of river, submergence and landslip caused by severe rain storm and typhoon is marked in the hazard information map, and the rescue route and refuge area are also marked by setting the damage-expected areas. The disaster prevention map is able to support quick decision making for disaster management and resident education.

Yun, H.-C.; Kim, J.-B.; Lee, J.-S.; Kang, I.-J.

2012-08-01

318

Natural Disasters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to our planet's structure and its dynamic system of natural forces through an examination of the natural hazards of earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides, tsunamis, floods and tornados, as well as avalanches, fires, hurricanes and thunderstorms. They see how these natural events become disasters when they impact people, and how engineers help to make people safe from them. Students begin by learning about the structure of the Earth; they create clay models showing the Earth's layers, see a continental drift demo, calculate drift over time, and make fault models. They learn how earthquakes happen; they investigate the integrity of structural designs using model seismographs. Using toothpicks and mini-marshmallows, they create and test structures in a simulated earthquake on a tray of Jell-O. Students learn about the causes, composition and types of volcanoes, and watch and measure a class mock eruption demo, observing the phases that change a mountain's shape. Students learn that the different types of landslides are all are the result of gravity, friction and the materials involved. Using a small-scale model of a debris chute, they explore how landslides start in response to variables in material, slope and water content. Students learn about tsunamis, discovering what causes them and makes them so dangerous. Using a table-top-sized tsunami generator, they test how model structures of different material types fare in devastating waves. Students learn about the causes of floods, their benefits and potential for disaster. Using riverbed models made of clay in baking pans, students simulate the impact of different river volumes, floodplain terrain and levee designs in experimental trials. They learn about the basic characteristics, damage and occurrence of tornadoes, examining them closely by creating water vortices in soda bottles. They complete mock engineering analyses of tornado damage, analyze and graph US tornado damage data, and draw and present structure designs intended to withstand high winds.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

319

Forensic analysis of mtDNA haplotypes from two rural communities in Haiti reflects their population history.  

PubMed

Very little genetic data exist on Haitians, an estimated 1.2 million of whom, not including illegal immigrants, reside in the United States. The absence of genetic data on a population of this size reduces the discriminatory power of criminal and missing-person DNA databases in the United States and Caribbean. We present a forensic population study that provides the first genetic data set for Haiti. This study uses hypervariable segment one (HVS-1) mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) nucleotide sequences from 291 subjects primarily from rural areas of northern and southern Haiti, where admixture would be minimal. Our results showed that the African maternal genetic component of Haitians had slightly higher West-Central African admixture than African-Americans and Dominicans, but considerably less than Afro-Brazilians. These results lay the foundation for further forensic genetics studies in the Haitian population and serve as a model for forensic mtDNA identification of individuals in other isolated or rural communities. PMID:22583388

Wilson, Jamie L; Saint-Louis, Vertus; Auguste, Jensen O; Jackson, Bruce A

2012-11-01

320

Tailoring disaster mental health services to diverse needs: an analysis of 36 crisis counseling projects.  

PubMed

The federal Crisis Counseling Program (CCP) funds states' delivery of mental health services after disasters. These services are provided by social workers, other mental health professionals, and paraprofessionals from the local community. The present study examined whether CCP grant recipients that reported more tailoring of their interventions to the needs of diverse community segments achieved greater community penetration. The study reviewed archival records from 36 crisis counseling projects ending between 1996 and 2001. Numbers of clients and client ethnicity were determined through service logs. Tailoring ofservices was determined by content coding of projects' reports. Community demographics were determined from census data. Fifty-six percent of the projects reported using three or more tailoring strategies, suggesting a "precompetence" or greater stage of cultural competence. The proportion of members of racial or ethnic minority groups among program clients closely matched the proportion in grantees' communities. Projects that reported more types of tailored activities reached more clients and served more members ofminority groups. These findings confirm that adapting crisis counseling services to diverse local needs is associated with greater community penetration of mental health services. PMID:20853648

Rosen, Craig S; Greene, Carolyn J; Young, Helena E; Norris, Fran H

2010-08-01

321

Analysis of orthopedic injuries in an airplane landing disaster and a suggested mechanism of trauma.  

PubMed

Survival after an airplane disaster is rare. We describe the injuries of survivors of an airplane accident and present a common mechanism of trauma for victims. Descriptive data were gathered by interviews with patients, physical examination. Review of charts and patients X-ray films. Informations regarding the flight characteristics were obtained from Iran air safety board. All dead patients were clinically examined by legal medicine department. The suggested mechanism of trauma was established according to present knowledge of mechanism of fractures. From 105 passengers, 27 survived. There was no mortality during hospital course. Between dead passengers, lower extremity fractures were the most common followed by chest wall fractures. Among the survivors, neurosurgical help was needed only in one case for shunt application. Brain concussions and effusions and one hematoma managed conservatively. Two laparotomies were performed for one splenectomy and two hepatoraphy. One pelvic fracture and two femur fractures were occurred. Tibia fractures were the most common (17) followed by spine (14) fractures. Ten tibial fractures were open, and 15 were in distal third. All tibia fractures were fixed with IM locking nails or locking plates. Eight posterior instrumentations were applied for seven burst and two fracture-dislocations. In this landing accident, a combination of vertical loading along with deceleration force produced burst fractures of spine and distal leg fractures. PMID:23412285

Mirzatolooei, Fardin; Bazzazi, Amirmohammad

2013-04-01

322

Accident analysis of large-scale technological disasters applied to an anaesthetic complication.  

PubMed

The occurrence of serious accidents in complex industrial systems such as at Three Mile Island and Bhopal has prompted development of new models of causation and investigation of disasters. These analytical models have potential relevance in anaesthesia. We therefore applied one of the previously described systems to the investigation of an anaesthetic accident. The model chosen describes two kinds of failures, both of which must be sought. The first group, active failures, consists of mistakes made by practitioners in the provision of care. The second group, latent failures, represents flaws in the administrative and productive system. The model emphasizes the search for latent failures and shows that prevention of active failures alone is insufficient to avoid further accidents if latent failures persist unchanged. These key features and the utility of this model are illustrated by application to a case of aspiration of gastric contents. While four active failures were recognized, an equal number of latent failures also became apparent. The identification of both types of failures permitted the formulation of recommendations to avoid further occurrences. Thus this model of accident causation can provide a useful mechanism to investigate and possibly prevent anaesthetic accidents. PMID:1544192

Eagle, C J; Davies, J M; Reason, J

1992-02-01

323

Forensic and police identification of “X” bodies. A 6-years French experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The identification of X bodies is an everyday preoccupation in forensic pathology. This retrospective analysis studied all methods of identification and characteristics of unidentified bodies arrived in the Department of Forensic Medicine and Pathology (University Hospital R. Poincaré, Garches, France) during a 6-years period (2003–2009).The aim was to determine the identification methods used during all the forensic investigations, but also

S. Cavard; J. C. Alvarez; P. De Mazancourt; F. Tilotta; P. Brousseau; G. Lorin de la Grandmaison; P. Charlier

2011-01-01

324

Possibilities and modification of the forensic investigation process of solid-state drives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses the possibilities of a forensic investigation of solid-state drives. The aim of this study is to clarify information gained via a forensic analysis of these media, and explain the differences to conventional forensic examinations of hard disk drives. Within each test design a series and a variety of hard- and software were used. An interesting result is that the built-in TRIM function of the SSD has an adverse affect in a forensic investigation.

Irmler, Frank; Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

2013-03-01

325

Applications of supercritical fluid extraction and chromatography in forensic science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical fluid technology is a rapidly expanding analytical technique. Here we give a brief insight into the background of supercritical fluid technology and how supercritical fluid extraction and supercritical fluid chromatography work in analysis. The applications of these two techniques in forensic science are known to be important. The main area of forensic use of supercritical fluid technology is in

Charlotte Radcliffe; Kristie Maguire; Brian Lockwood

2000-01-01

326

Genetic considerations for interpreting molecular microbial forensic evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic analyses of microbial evidence will be employed to assist in attribution of perpetrators of bioterrorism and biocrimes. There are some similarities and differences between human forensic and microbial forensic DNA analysis practices to consider. These population genetic and statistical interpretation issues center on the different genetic make-up, different inheritance mechanisms, different regulation mechanisms, and lineage-based analyses. In some cases,

B Budowle; R Chakraborty

2004-01-01

327

Enhancing Computer Forensics Investigation through Visualisation and Data Exploitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on establishing the need for new architectures on which to build visualisation systems that enhance computer forensic investigation of digital evidence. The issues surrounding processing of large quantities of digital evidence are established. In addition, the current state of visualisation and data analysis techniques for computer forensics are highlighted. This paper suggests need for new visualisation techniques

Grant Osborne; Benjamin Turnbull

2009-01-01

328

Forensic Science Methods Called Into Question by National Academies Report  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Study Calls for Oversight of Forensics in Crime Labs http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/19/us/19forensics.htmlCall For Forensics Overhaul Linked to 'CSI' Effecthttp://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=100831831Forensics under the microscopehttp://www.chicagotribune.com/news/specials/chi-forensics-specialpackage,0,4244313.specialStrengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forwardhttp://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12589#tocForensic Magazinehttp://www.forensicmag.com/DNA Forensics [Flash Player, pdf]http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/forensics.shtmlU.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Forensics Laboratory [pdf, Flash Player]http://www.lab.fws.gov/The average person watching any number of procedural crime television shows might be forgiven if he or she believed that every piece of carpet fiber or DNA can lead to a "case closed" finale. In real life, forensic science isn't nearly as infallible as it appears on television, and that is something that has troubled many at the National Academy of Sciences. In a report released this Wednesday, the National Academy of Sciences research team found that in 2005 there was a backlog of 359,000 requests for forensic analysis and that 80 percent of all crime laboratories are understaffed. The report went on to call into question the scientific merit of practically every commonly used forensic method of analysis, including the analysis of ballistics, arson, hair, and fingerprints. The team of scholars who wrote the report also recommended that the United States should standardize forensic tests and assume responsibility for the certification of forensic experts. These findings have garnered attention from the general public, the law enforcement community, and elected officials such as Senator Patrick Leahy (D) of Vermont. In a recent interview with the New York Times, Leahy commented, "I am troubled by the report's general finding that far too many forensic disciplines lack the standards necessary to ensure their scientific reliability in court."The first link will take users to a New York Times article from this Wednesday, which talks a bit about this recent report. The second link leads to an audio piece from National Public Radio about the report and how it might transform forensic science. Moving on, the third link leads to a very fine set of investigative articles on forensic science from the Chicago Tribune. The fourth link will whisk users away to the full-text of the Academies' recent report on the state of forensic science. The fifth link leads to the homepage of Forensic Science magazine. Here, visitors can learn more about the field and read articles from current and past editions of the publication. The sixth link leads to a set of resources on DNA forensic analysis offered by the Human Genome Project. Finally, the last link leads to the homepage of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Forensics Laboratory, which is "the only lab in the world dedicated to crimes against wildlife."

Grinnell, Max

2009-02-20

329

Performance Metrics for Disaster Monitoring Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the performance of disaster monitoring systems is a key to understanding their success, therefore; various qualitative and quantitative measures and metrics can be applied in the characterization and analysis of such systems. Through evaluation studies, problems that impede a disaster monitoring system performance can be identified. The results can be used for system control, design, and capacity planning. Previous

Tuncay Bayrak

330

Physics and forensics  

SciTech Connect

This popular article in Physics World reviews the application of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectromicroscopy to Forensics, and predicts further applications due to the high inherent signal to noise available for FTIR microscopy at synchrotron sources.

Wilkinson, T.J.; Perry, D.L.; Martin, M.C.; McKinney, W.R.

2001-12-15

331

Forensics Science Classroom Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These classroom activities on forensics science from the University of Colorado at Boulder were designed to help students understand the process of scientific investigation and develop better laboratory and data-collection techniques.

Leslie Leinwand (University of Colorado at Boulder;)

2010-05-28

332

Forensic Chemistry Lab Manual  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Any aspect of forensic science can be quite tricky, and educators will be delighted to learn about this helpful educational resource designed just for them. Created by Professor Robert Thompson of Oberlin College this online forensic chemistry lab manual is designed to help chemistry faculty in developing forensic chemistry project laboratories for both undergraduate and graduate courses. In this manual, visitors will find sample preparations, procedural details, instructions for students, and typical results in a variety of formats. Along the left-hand side of the homepage, visitors can look through the forensic chemistry analyses, which include explosives, fabric, glass, and arson. The site is rounded out by a selection of "Stories", which are meant to provide the background for chemical analyses of crime scene samples.

Thompson, Robert

333

Forensic Facial Reconstruction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a background of forensic facial reconstruction with a process description on how to give students a reliable laboratory experience from which to learn the origins and insertions of the muscles of facial expression.

Sarah Cooper (Arcadia University)

2008-07-01

334

A time-series analysis of flood disaster around Lena river using Landsat TM/ETM+  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landsat satellite has provided a continuous record of earth observation since 1972, gradually improving sensors (i.e. MSS, TM and ETM+). Already processed archives of Landsat image are now available free of charge from the internet. The Landsat image of 30 m spatial resolution with multiple spectral bands between 450 and 2350 nm is appropriate for detailed mapping of natural resource at wide geographical areas. However, one of the biggest concerns in the use of Landsat image is the uncertainty in the timing of acquisitions. Although detection of land cover change usually requires acquisitions before and after the change, the Landsat image is often unavailable because of the long-term intervals (16 days) and variation in atmosphere. Nearly cloud-free image is acquired at least once per year (total of 22 or 23 scenes per year). Therefore, it may be difficult to acquire appropriate images for monitoring natural disturbances caused at short-term intervals (e.g., flood, forest fire and hurricanes). Our objectives are: (1) to examine whether a time-series of Landsat image is available for monitoring a flood disaster, and (2) to evaluate the impact and timing of the flood disaster around Lena river in Siberia. A set of Landsat TM/ETM+ satellite images was used to enable acquisition of cloud-free image, although Landsat ETM+ images include failure of the Scan Line Corrector (SLC) from May 2003. The overlap area of a time series of 20 Landsat TM/ETM+ images (path 120-122, row 17) from April 2007 to August 2007 was clipped (approximately 33 km × 90 km), and the other area was excluded from the analyses. Image classification was performed on each image separately using an unsupervised ISODATA method, and each Landsat TM/ETM+ image was classified into three land cover types: (1) ice, (2) water, and (3) land. From three land cover types, the area of Lena river was estimated. The area of Lena river dramatically changed after spring breakup. The middle part of Lena river around Tabaga (61.83°N, 129.60°E) was frozen hard until early May 2007. River-ice breakup began in patches on 13 May 2007. Then, the area of Lena river rapidly increased due to overhead flooding on 14 May 2007, and reached the peak on 15 May 2007. In the brief period of one or two days, the area of Lena river was more than twice. After this, the area of Lena river exponentially decreased over three months, and it was quite stable in late August 2007. A time-series of Landsat TM/ETM+ images could detect these large temporal variations. In addition, the temporal variations in the area of Lena river synchronized with water stage measured in the field. These results indicate that a time-series of Landsat TM/ETM+ images enables to monitor natural disturbances caused at short-term intervals, although significantly limited to local scales. The requirement of spatial and temporal resolution is often application specific in the context of the desired measurement goals. This type of research and resultant information is critical for the utilization of remote sensing data to the fullest extent.

Sakai, Toru; Hatta, Shigemi; Okumura, Makoto; Takeuchi, Wataru; Hiyama, Tetsuya; Inoue, Gen

2010-05-01

335

Do Natural Disasters Promote Long-Run Growth?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we investigate the long-run relationships among disasters, capital accumulation, total factor productivity, and economic growth. The cross-country empirical analysis demonstrates that higher frequencies of climatic disasters are correlated with higher rates of human capital accumulation, increases in total factor productivity, and economic growth. Though disaster risk reduces the expected rate of return to physical capital, risk also

Mark Skidmore; Hideki Toya

2002-01-01

336

Web Information and Social Impacts of Disasters in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding disasters' social impacts is a key issue for efficient disaster management. This article proposes a framework to assess disasters' social impacts based on network information resources. The proposed approach is validated using statistical analysis. Key factors that change social impacts are also identified for useful decision-making.

Jiuchang Wei; Dingtao Zhao; Desheng Dash Wu; Shasha Lv

2009-01-01

337

Federal Building and Fire Safety Investigation of the World Trade Center Disaster: Baseline Structural Performance and Aircraft Impact Damage Analysis of the World Trade Center Towers. NIST NCSTAR 1-2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The baseline structural performance and aircraft impact damage analysis of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Investigation of the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster had two primary tasks: (1) to develop reference structural models o...

F. Sadek

2005-01-01

338

Gold is going forensic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Not long ago, forensic science was mainly focused on fingerprint detection. With the advance in science and technology, forensics\\u000a has become an increasingly interesting scientific field to explore, and gold is playing an increasingly important role in\\u000a this area. Gold compounds and gold nanoparticles contribute to fingerprint detection and illicit drug testing. Fingerprints\\u000a can be detected on diverse suspected articles

Ahmed A. Mohamed

339

Internet and forensic science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Internet is a very powerful and inexpensive tool that was created for the free distribution of knowledge and information. The Internet is a learning tool, a research tool, a virtual library without borders and membership requirements, a journal with instant publication, a help desk, and a newspaper/journal with current information. Very soon, when live audio and video transmission is perfected, the Internet also will be a live classroom and everyday conference. Forensic scientists, laboratories and colleges should make use of information already available on the Internet. They also should actively participate and contribute. Very few forensic scientists and laboratories have made their presence felt by setting up their home pages/web pages. But, there is tremendous growth during the past year. Immense benefits from Internet to forensic community are discussed along with the author's personal experience. Creating on-line searchable data bases in all specialties of forensic science is an urgent need. Leading forensic journals should take a lead and create on-line searchable indexes with abstracts. On line electronic publishing, collaborative research/paper publishing or editing is easy, fast, economical and convenient through the use of the Internet. Creation of Internet repositories of unpublished papers is an idea worth looking into. Internet also can be used to give training, re-training or advanced training to students/forensic scientists.

Chamakura, Reddy P.

1997-02-01

340

Deciding Who's News: A Content Analysis of Disaster, National and International News in Two Elite Newspapers from 1885 through 1989.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study analyses the relationship between international news references and disaster news references in the New York Times and the Los Angeles Times. The American media receive frequent criticism for inadequate coverage of news from other nations. Both...

C. L. Sito

1990-01-01

341

DNA Fingerprinting in a Forensic Teaching Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an experiment designed to provide students, in a classroom laboratory setting, a hands-on demonstration of the steps used in DNA forensic analysis by performing DNA extraction, DNA fingerprinting, and statistical analysis of the data. This experiment demonstrates how DNA fingerprinting is performed and how long it takes. It…

Wagoner, Stacy A.; Carlson, Kimberly A.

2008-01-01

342

NOAA's Improved Fire and Smoke Analysis, A Global Disaster Information Network Initiative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) of The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) produces a smoke and fire monitoring product based on environmental satellite data. In response to an initiative by NOAA's Global Disaster Information Network (GDIN), NESDIS is in the process of enhancing this product to better serve the needs of its customers. Environmental satellitescan detect and monitor hot spots and smoke associated with wildfires. Infrared and visible band sensors on NESDIS' Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES)and Polar Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) can delineate hot spots and smoke, respectively, resulting from fire activity. In response to requirements of the Fire Weather Program of the National Weather Service (NWS), NESDIS currently twice per day produces a product delineating hot spots and smoke for selected limited geographic areas of the Continental United States (CONUS). GOES and POES imagery is analyzed on an image display system, and a graphical depiction of smoke and hot spot areas is drawn by the analyst. The product is disseminated as imagery via the Internet, and is utilized by Incident Meteorologists, SPC personnel, and U.S. Forest Service fire managers. In response to formally expressed requirements of the NWS, and informal requests from many other users, including federal, state, and local fire management agencies, for a more frequent, spatially accurate product covering all of CONUS and Alaska, GDIN has initiated a program to enhance NOAA's smoke and fire products. The Satellite Services Division (SSD) of NESDIS' Office of Satellite Data Processing and Distribution is developing the Hazard Mapping System (HMS) based on these requirements. It will use data from GOES, POES, and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's (DMSP) On Line Scanner, which can detect hot spots at night. Automated hot spot and smoke detections will be provided by the Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (ABBA) and the Fire Identification, Mapping and Monitoring Algorithm (FIMMA), developed by NESDIS' Office of Research and Applications (ORA). Smoke trajectories will be calculated by the HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT), developed by NOAA's Air Resources Laboratory. Satellite imagery and model outputs will be displayable as multiple data layers in the HMS updated half hourly, and analysts will generate a composite image and graphic product disseminated on the Internet. The product will be geolocated and be compatible for display by commonly used Geographic Information Systems. Users will be able to choose geographic areas displayed. An operational demonstration is scheduled for early Summer, 2001, with subsequent further development, including the possible incorporation of data from the NASA's MODIS instrument and satellite derived vegetation index and fire potential maps.

Stephens, G.; McNamara, D. P.; Fennimore, R.; Ramsay, B. H.; Ruminski, M.; Ruminski, M.

2001-05-01

343

Current and future directions of DNA in wildlife forensic science.  

PubMed

Wildlife forensic science may not have attained the profile of human identification, yet the scale of criminal activity related to wildlife is extensive by any measure. Service delivery in the arena of wildlife forensic science is often ad hoc, unco-ordinated and unregulated, yet many of those currently dedicated to wildlife conservation and the protection of endangered species are striving to ensure that the highest standards are met. The genetic markers and software used to evaluate data in wildlife forensic science are more varied than those in human forensic identification and are rarely standardised between species. The time and resources required to characterise and validate each genetic maker is considerable and in some cases prohibitive. Further, issues are regularly encountered in the construction of allelic databases and allelic ladders; essential in human identification studies, but also applicable to wildlife criminal investigations. Accreditation and certification are essential in human identification and are currently being strived for in the forensic wildlife community. Examples are provided as to how best practice can be demonstrated in all areas of wildlife crime analysis and ensure that this field of forensic science gains and maintains the respect it deserves. This review is aimed at those conducting human identification to illustrate how research concepts in wildlife forensic science can be used in the criminal justice system, as well as describing the real importance of this type of forensic analysis. PMID:24680123

Johnson, Rebecca N; Wilson-Wilde, Linzi; Linacre, Adrian

2014-05-01

344

Cross-validation and evaluation of the performance of methods for the elemental analysis of forensic glass by ?-XRF, ICP-MS, and LA-ICP-MS.  

PubMed

Elemental analysis of glass was conducted by 16 forensic science laboratories, providing a direct comparison between three analytical methods [micro-x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (?-XRF), solution analysis using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry]. Interlaboratory studies using glass standard reference materials and other glass samples were designed to (a) evaluate the analytical performance between different laboratories using the same method, (b) evaluate the analytical performance of the different methods, (c) evaluate the capabilities of the methods to correctly associate glass that originated from the same source and to correctly discriminate glass samples that do not share the same source, and (d) standardize the methods of analysis and interpretation of results. Reference materials NIST 612, NIST 1831, FGS 1, and FGS 2 were employed to cross-validate these sensitive techniques and to optimize and standardize the analytical protocols. The resulting figures of merit for the ICP-MS methods include repeatability better than 5% RSD, reproducibility between laboratories better than 10% RSD, bias better than 10%, and limits of detection between 0.03 and 9 ?g g(-1) for the majority of the elements monitored. The figures of merit for the ?-XRF methods include repeatability better than 11% RSD, reproducibility between laboratories after normalization of the data better than 16% RSD, and limits of detection between 5.8 and 7,400 ?g g(-1). The results from this study also compare the analytical performance of different forensic science laboratories conducting elemental analysis of glass evidence fragments using the three analytical methods. PMID:23673570

Trejos, Tatiana; Koons, Robert; Becker, Stefan; Berman, Ted; Buscaglia, JoAnn; Duecking, Marc; Eckert-Lumsdon, Tiffany; Ernst, Troy; Hanlon, Christopher; Heydon, Alex; Mooney, Kim; Nelson, Randall; Olsson, Kristine; Palenik, Christopher; Pollock, Edward Chip; Rudell, David; Ryland, Scott; Tarifa, Anamary; Valadez, Melissa; Weis, Peter; Almirall, Jose

2013-06-01

345

Natural Disaster Operations Planning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research was concerned with development of a general concept of emergency operations for natural disaster situations and a prototype natural diaster operations plan (NADOP). The concept is based on classifying the several types of disaster agents acc...

C. T. Rainey

1972-01-01

346

Disaster Recovery Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Every school needs an effective disaster recovery plan that is flexible, comprehensive and designed to take into account unexpected disasters. Presents guidelines for preparing such a plan, with immediate and long-range recovery procedures. (MD)

Wilkins, Jeannine W.

1985-01-01

347

Factors Influencing Collaborative Activities between Non-Professional Disaster Volunteers and Victims of Earthquake Disasters  

PubMed Central

Background Assistance from non-professional disaster volunteers (hereinafter, volunteers) is essential for disaster victims to recover physically and rebuild their lives; however, disaster victims in some areas are reluctant to accept assistance from volunteers. This study explored factors that may influence collaborative activities between volunteers and victims of earthquake disasters. Methods From July to September 2008, a self-reporting questionnaire survey was conducted with all 302 leaders of neighborhood associations in a city within Niigata Prefecture at the time of the Niigataken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake in 2007. Each factor was determined based on the Health Belief Model. Multiple regression analysis was conducted, using collaborative activities as the objective variable. Results From 261 valid responses received (response rate 86.4%), 41.3% of leaders collaborated with volunteers, and 60.2% of associations had residents who collaborated with volunteers. Collaboration with volunteers was significantly and positively related to perceived severity of an earthquake disaster (standardized partial regression coefficient ??=?0.224, p<0.001) and neighborhood association activities during the earthquake disaster (??=?0.539, p<0.001). A positive and marginally significant relation was found between such collaboration and sense of coherence within a community (??=?0.137, p?=?0.06), social capital (??=?0.119, p?=?0.08), and perceived benefits (??=?0.116, p?=?0.09). Conclusion Collaboration between disaster victims and volunteers during the response to an earthquake may require the preemptive estimation of damage by residents during normal times and the enhancement of neighborhood association activities during a disaster. For residents to have such estimation abilities, public institutions should provide information related to anticipated disaster damage and appropriate disaster prevention training and education. In addition, residents should create a disaster prevention map with other residents. Lastly, promoting neighborhood association activities may require the participation of many residents in disaster drills and education as well as a preemptive discussion of neighborhood activities during a disaster.

Haraoka, Tomoko; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Murata, Chiyoe; Hayasaka, Shinya

2012-01-01

348

World Trade Center Disaster Exposure-Related Probable Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Responders and Civilians: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

The World Trade Center (WTC) disaster on September 11, 2001 was an unprecedented traumatic event with long-lasting health consequences among the affected populations in the New York metropolitan area. This meta-analysis aimed to estimate the risk of probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) associated with specific types of WTC exposures. Meta-analytical findings from 10 studies of 3,271 to 20,294 participants yielded 37 relevant associations. The pooled summary odds ratio (OR) was 2.05 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.82, 2.32), with substantial heterogeneity linked to exposure classification, cohort type, data source, PTSD assessment instrument/criteria, and lapse time since 9/11. In general, responders (e.g. police, firefighters, rescue/recovery workers and volunteers) had a lower probable PTSD risk (OR?=?1.61; 95% CI: 1.39, 1.87) compared to civilians (e.g. residents, office workers, and passersby; OR?=?2.71, 95% CI: 2.35, 3.12). The differences in ORs between responders and civilians were larger for physical compared to psychosocial exposure types. We also found that injury, lost someone, and witnessed horror were the three (out of six) most pernicious exposures. These findings suggest that these three exposures should be a particular focus in psychological evaluation and treatment programs in WTC intervention and future emergency preparedness efforts.

Liu, Bian; Tarigan, Lukman H.; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Kim, Hyun

2014-01-01

349

Evaluating the latent structure of the MMPI-2 F(p) scale in a forensic sample: a taxometric analysis.  

PubMed

P. A. Arbisi and Y. S. Ben-Porath (1995) originally proposed that the Infrequency Psychopathology scale, F(p), be used as the final step in an algorithm to determine the validity of a Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) protocol. The current study used taxometric procedures to determine the latent structure of F(p) among examinees with profiles that would necessitate the interpretation of F(p) when using Arbisi and Ben-Porath's proposed algorithm. Participants included a subsample of 289 consecutively referred pretrial forensic examinees adjudicated incompetent to stand trial with high Infrequency (F) scale scores, thereby providing a sample that would be expected to have a high base rate of persons with bona fide psychopathology and persons with incentive to overreport psychopathology. Using MAMBAC and MAXEIG, F(p) produced a taxonic latent structure within the subgroup of examinees who obtained raw scores on F of greater than 17. These results support Arbisi and Ben-Porath's original proposal to use F(p) to identify a distinct subgroup of overreported MMPI-2 protocols within forensic psychiatric examinees with high elevations on F. Implications and suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:16953728

Strong, David R; Glassmire, David M; Frederick, Richard I; Greene, Roger L

2006-09-01

350

Disaster Planning in Libraries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Disaster preparedness is an important issue in library management today. This article presents a general overview of the theoretical aspects of disaster planning in libraries. The stages of disaster planning are a circular process of planning, prevention, response, recovery, preparedness, and training.

Wong, Yi Ling; Green, Ravonne

2006-01-01

351

Serving through Disaster  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Disaster planning focuses on future function and recovery, on helping libraries expeditiously return to their original states of operation. It all but ignores the concept of continuous function throughout a disaster. This is not true in the private and government sectors, however, which have managed to cover a wider load of disaster response…

Kuzyk, Raya

2007-01-01

352

Disaster: Planning, Preparation, Prevention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses causes of library disasters and provides several examples of disasters. Emphasis is on the importance of awareness, insurance protection, a written disaster plan, cooperation with the fire marshall and insurance agent in planning, and staff training. Several elements of the written plan are listed. (22 references) (MES)

Rutherford, Christine

1990-01-01

353

Disasters and Decision Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most important topics in hazard and disaster related research is the effective reduction of vulnerability. Despite the fact that our knowledge about several physical and human dimensions of disasters has grown rapidly in recent decades, there is ample evidence that casualties and damages due to natural disasters have grown even faster. Apparently, there is no such formula

Carsten Felgentreff

2006-01-01

354

Understanding disaster warning responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

When threatened with some type of disaster, how do people respond? What are the social factors that constrain their responses? Receiver characteristics, message characteristics, and social contexts are explained and related to variations in disaster warning responses. Finally, two components of a vision for the future are described: (1) disaster event taxonomies, and (2) implemented social policies.

Thomas E Drabek

1999-01-01

355

Scientists and disaster management  

Microsoft Academic Search

When disasters, even natural ones, have a chemical or nuclear dimension, scientists play a major role in their management. Presents the results of research on Canadian disasters, and includes other cases of disasters that occurred around the world. Discusses the experts? role in decisions related to the response: how to identify a specific product, its impact on health, for example,

Hélène Denis

1995-01-01

356

Conservation of resources and coping self-efficacy predicting distress following a natural disaster: A causal model analysis where the environment meets the mind  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disaster research has increasingly examined how personal characteristics mediate emotional recovery following disaster exposure. We investigated the importance of lost resources, coping self-efficacy, and coping behavior as important variables in acute disaster reaction and medium range disaster recovery following Hurricane Andrew. One hundred and eighty participants living in southern Dade county completed the initial phase of the study (1–4 months

Charles C. Benight; Gail Ironson; Kelli Klebe; Charles S. Carver; Christina Wynings; Kent Burnett; Debra Greenwood; Andrew Baum; Neil Schneiderman

1999-01-01

357

Design and construction of GIS-based China Major Natural Disaster Integrated Assessment System  

Microsoft Academic Search

China is one of the counties in the world that suffers the most natural disasters. Geographic Information System (GIS) plays a significant part in different stages of disaster prevention and reduction. However, current systems existing for disaster reduction in various sectors mainly serve for single kind of disaster and usually have their own special data formats for input and analysis

Hongliang. Liu; Ronggao. Liu

2010-01-01

358

A CONCEPT FOR NATIONAL NUCLEAR FORENSIC LIBRARIES  

SciTech Connect

The interpretation of data from the nuclear forensic analysis of illicit nuclear material of unknown origin requires comparative data from samples of known origin. One way to provide such comparative data is to create a system of national nuclear forensics libraries, in which each participating country stores information about nuclear or other radioactive material that either resides in or was manufactured by that country. Such national libraries could provide an authoritative record of the material located in or produced by a particular country, and thus forms an essential prerequisite for a government to investigate illicit uses of nuclear or other radioactive material within its borders. We describe the concept of the national nuclear forensic library, recommendations for content and structure, and suggested querying methods for utilizing the information for addressing nuclear smuggling.

Wacker, John F.; Curry, Michael

2010-08-11

359

[Analysis of deaths caused by rail-vehicles in the materials collected by the Department of Forensic Medicine in Bydgoszcz in the years 1992-2002].  

PubMed

The analysis focused on cases of death following accidents involving rail-vehicles, in which autopsies were performed at the Department of Forensic Medicine in Bydgoszcz in the years 1992-2002. Sixty-five individuals died in train accidents (80%), 16 people (20%) were victims of tram accidents (20%). Males constituted 86% of the material, while females accounted for 14%. The highest number of rail-vehicle accidents was observed in 1992. The most common reason of death was multiorgan injury. In the subgroup of tram accidents, the authors noted no injuries of the highest severity, such as limb amputations, amputations or crushing of the head, or fragmentation or rupturing of the trunk. On the other hand, in railroad accidents, the percentage of the above injuries was 26%, 44% and 24.5%, respectively. The most severe injuries were noted in the group of people hit by a train while in prone position. PMID:17131763

Bloch-Bogus?awska, Elzbieta; Engelgardt, Piotr; Wolska, Ewa; Paradowska, Agnieszka

2006-01-01

360

Identification of a forensic case using microscopy and forensically informative nucleotide sequencing (FINS): A case study of small Indian civet ( Viverricula indica)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exhibits obtained in wildlife offence cases quite often present a challenging situation for the forensic expert. The selection of proper approach for analysis is vital for a successful analysis. A generalised forensic analysis approach should proceed from the use of non-destructive techniques (morphological and microscopic examination) to partially destructive and finally destructive techniques (DNA analysis). The findings of non-destructive

Vivek Sahajpal; S. P. Goyal

2010-01-01

361

Forensics on a Shoestring Budget  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, forensic science has gained popularity thanks in part to high-profile court cases and television programs. Although the cost of forensic equipment and supplies may initially seem too expensive for the typical high school classroom, the author developed an activity that incorporates forensics into her 10th-grade biology curriculum…

Greco, Joseph A.

2005-01-01

362

[Incest--forensic genetic approach].  

PubMed

The paper presents intimate relationships between biologically and legally close relatives, complicated in the social, culture and religion perspective. (art. 201 of the Penal Code), but it chiefly addresses problems associated with giving opinion on the fatherhood towards the incestuous child. The report calls for a broader interest in this issue from expert witnesses in forensic genetics, as well as encourages them to publish examples taken from their own professional experience that may unquestionably be helpful to other practitioners in this field and above all will lead to extending educational methods related to widely understood DNA analysis in giving an opinion on arguable fatherhood. PMID:23424940

Raczek, Ewa

2012-01-01

363

Forensic Proteomics of Poxvirus Production  

SciTech Connect

The field of microbial forensics has recently sought to develop methods to discern biological signatures to indicate production methods for biological agents. Viral agents have received less attention to date. Their obligate propagation in living cells makes purification from cellular material a challenge. This leads to potential carryover of protein-rich signature of their production system. Here we have explored a proteomic analysis of Vaccinia virus as a model poxvirus system in which to compare samples of virus propagated in different cell lines and subjected to different purification schemes. The proteomic data sets indicated viral, host cell and culture medium proteins, and several layers of data analysis were applied to build confidence in the peptide identification and capture information on the taxonomic utility of each. The analysis showed clear shifts in protein profiles with virus purification, with successive gradient purification steps showing different levels of viral protein enrichment. Peptides from cellular proteins, including those present in purified virus preparations, provided signatures which enabled discrimination of cell line substrates, including distinguishing between cells derived from different primate species. The ability to discern multiple aspects of viral production demonstrates the potential value of proteomic analysis as tool for microbial forensics.

Wunschel, David S.; Tulman, Edan; Engelmann, Heather E.; Clowers, Brian H.; Geary, Steven J.; Robinson, Aaron C.; Liao, Xiaofen

2013-08-27

364

Forensic proteomics of poxvirus production.  

PubMed

The field of microbial forensics has recently sought to develop methods to discern biological signatures to indicate production methods for biological agents. Viral agents have received less attention to date. Their obligate propagation in living cells makes purification from cellular material a challenge. This leads to potential carryover of protein-rich signatures of their production system. Here we have explored a proteomic analysis of vaccinia virus as a model poxvirus system in which to compare samples of virus propagated in different cell lines and subjected to different purification schemes. The proteomic data sets indicated viral, host cell and culture medium proteins. Several layers of data analysis were applied to build confidence in the peptide identification and capture information on the taxonomic utility of each. The analysis showed clear shifts in protein profiles with virus purification, with successive gradient purification steps showing different levels of viral protein enrichment. Peptides from cellular proteins, including those present in purified virus preparations, provided signatures which enabled discrimination of cell line substrates, including distinguishing between cells derived from different primate species. The ability to discern multiple aspects of viral production demonstrates the potential value of proteomic analysis as tool for microbial forensics. PMID:23979794

Wunschel, David; Tulman, Edan; Engelmann, Heather; Clowers, Brian H; Geary, Steven; Robinson, Aaron; Liao, Xiaofen

2013-11-01

365

Electron microscopy and forensic practice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron microanalysis in forensic practice ranks among basic applications used in investigation of traces (latents, stains, etc.) from crime scenes. Applying electron microscope allows for rapid screening and receiving initial information for a wide range of traces. SEM with EDS/WDS makes it possible to observe topography surface and morphology samples and examination of chemical components. Physical laboratory of the Institute of Criminalistics Prague use SEM especially for examination of inorganic samples, rarely for biology and other material. Recently, possibilities of electron microscopy have been extended considerably using dual systems with focused ion beam. These systems are applied mainly in study of inner micro and nanoparticles , thin layers (intersecting lines in graphical forensic examinations, analysis of layers of functional glass, etc.), study of alloys microdefects, creating 3D particles and aggregates models, etc. Automated mineralogical analyses are a great asset to analysis of mineral phases, particularly soils, similarly it holds for cathode luminescence, predominantly colour one and precise quantitative measurement of their spectral characteristics. Among latest innovations that are becoming to appear also at ordinary laboratories are TOF - SIMS systems and micro Raman spectroscopy with a resolution comparable to EDS/WDS analysis (capable of achieving similar level as through EDS/WDS analysis).

Kotrlý, Marek; Turková, Ivana

2013-05-01

366

Authentication of forensic DNA samples.  

PubMed

Over the past twenty years, DNA analysis has revolutionized forensic science, and has become a dominant tool in law enforcement. Today, DNA evidence is key to the conviction or exoneration of suspects of various types of crime, from theft to rape and murder. However, the disturbing possibility that DNA evidence can be faked has been overlooked. It turns out that standard molecular biology techniques such as PCR, molecular cloning, and recently developed whole genome amplification (WGA), enable anyone with basic equipment and know-how to produce practically unlimited amounts of in vitro synthesized (artificial) DNA with any desired genetic profile. This artificial DNA can then be applied to surfaces of objects or incorporated into genuine human tissues and planted in crime scenes. Here we show that the current forensic procedure fails to distinguish between such samples of blood, saliva, and touched surfaces with artificial DNA, and corresponding samples with in vivo generated (natural) DNA. Furthermore, genotyping of both artificial and natural samples with Profiler Plus((R)) yielded full profiles with no anomalies. In order to effectively deal with this problem, we developed an authentication assay, which distinguishes between natural and artificial DNA based on methylation analysis of a set of genomic loci: in natural DNA, some loci are methylated and others are unmethylated, while in artificial DNA all loci are unmethylated. The assay was tested on natural and artificial samples of blood, saliva, and touched surfaces, with complete success. Adopting an authentication assay for casework samples as part of the forensic procedure is necessary for maintaining the high credibility of DNA evidence in the judiciary system. PMID:20129467

Frumkin, Dan; Wasserstrom, Adam; Davidson, Ariane; Grafit, Arnon

2010-02-01

367

Forensic psychiatry in iran.  

PubMed

In Iran, department of forensic psychiatry is one of the special units of Legal Medicine Organization concerned with individuals who demonstrate psychological and psychiatric problems. The duties of forensic psychiatrists in the department are, performing psychiatric examinations and determining mental competence of two major groups of referrals: Individuals who are involved in a legal problem related to civil law and individuals who are involved in criminal responsibility and/or forbearance of punishment such as offenders and prisoners. One of the worries of the Iran jurisdiction system is the absence of a secure mental hospital devoted to the irresponsible mentally ill criminals. In fact, there is no forensic inpatient unit available in the country. PMID:24644492

Saberi, Seyed Mehdi; Mirsepassi, Gholam Reza

2013-01-01

368

Forensic Psychiatry in Iran  

PubMed Central

In Iran, department of forensic psychiatry is one of the special units of Legal Medicine Organization concerned with individuals who demonstrate psychological and psychiatric problems. The duties of forensic psychiatrists in the department are, performing psychiatric examinations and determining mental competence of two major groups of referrals: Individuals who are involved in a legal problem related to civil law and individuals who are involved in criminal responsibility and/or forbearance of punishment such as offenders and prisoners. One of the worries of the Iran jurisdiction system is the absence of a secure mental hospital devoted to the irresponsible mentally ill criminals. In fact, there is no forensic inpatient unit available in the country.

Saberi, Seyed Mehdi; Mirsepassi, Gholam Reza

2013-01-01

369

Advances in chemistry applied to forensic science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acts of terrorism, an increase in the use of firearms, drug abuse, the use of so-called date-rape drugs, and driving whilst under the influence of drugs, are just some of the subjects frequently in the news. In the absence of fingermarks and of material leading to the recovery of DNA, the forensic scientist has to rely upon chemical analysis of

David F. Rendle

2005-01-01

370

Forensic discrimination of blue ballpoint pens on documents by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and multivariate analysis.  

PubMed

The differentiation of blue ballpoint pen inks written on documents through an LA-ICP-MS methodology is proposed. Small common office paper portions containing ink strokes from 21 blue pens of known origin were cut and measured without any sample preparation. In a first step, Mg, Ca and Sr were proposed as internal standards (ISs) and used in order to normalize elemental intensities and subtract background signals from the paper. Then, specific criteria were designed and employed to identify target elements (Li, V, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Zr, Sn, W and Pb) which resulted independent of the IS chosen in a 98% of the cases and allowed a qualitative clustering of the samples. In a second step, an elemental-related ratio (ink ratio) based on the targets previously identified was used to obtain mass independent intensities and perform pairwise comparisons by means of multivariate statistical analyses (MANOVA, Tukey's HSD and T2 Hotelling). This treatment improved the discrimination power (DP) and provided objective results, achieving a complete differentiation among different brands and a partial differentiation within pen inks from the same brands. The designed data treatment, together with the use of multivariate statistical tools, represents an easy and useful tool for differentiating among blue ballpoint pen inks, with hardly sample destruction and without the need for methodological calibrations, being its use potentially advantageous from a forensic-practice standpoint. To test the procedure, it was applied to analyze real handwritten questioned contracts, previously studied by the Department of Forensic Document Exams of the Criminalistics Service of Civil Guard (Spain). The results showed that all questioned ink entries were clustered in the same group, being those different from the remaining ink on the document. PMID:23597731

Alamilla, Francisco; Calcerrada, Matías; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Torre, Mercedes

2013-05-10

371

Handbook of Forensic Services  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Curious about the procedures used in documenting a crime scene and gathering evidence? Look no further than the official handbook of the FBI Laboratory, "one of the largest and most comprehensive forensic laboratories in the world." The full text of the handbook may be read online in HTML format, divided by chapter. Topics discussed include guidelines for conducting a crime scene search, crime scene safety, guidelines for various types of evidence, and how to pack and ship evidence, among others. Also included at the site are links to the full text of the journal, Forensic Science Communications and to the official sites of the FBI Lab and Library.

2005-11-01

372

Handbook of Forensic Sciences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Curious about the procedures used in documenting a crime scene and gathering evidence? Look no further than the official handbook of the FBI Laboratory, "one of the largest and most comprehensive forensic laboratories in the world." The full text of the handbook may be read online in HTML format, divided by chapter. Topics discussed include guidelines for conducting a crime scene search, crime scene safety, guidelines for various types of evidence, and how to pack and ship evidence, among others. Also included at the site are links to the full text of the journal, Forensic Science Communications and to the official sites of the FBI Lab and Library.

1999-01-01

373

Applications of Social Network Analysis for Building Community Disaster Resilience. Workshop Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Social Network Analysis (SNA) is the identification of the relationships and attributes of members, key actors, and groups that social networks comprise. The National Research Council (NRC), at the request of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), for...

2008-01-01

374

Regional Computer Forensic Laboratory Program, Fiscal Year 2007.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the Fiscal Year 2007 publication of the RCFL National Program. Digital forensics is the application of science and engineering to the recovery of digital evidence in a legally acceptable method. Examiners use digital investigation and analysis tec...

2007-01-01

375

Regional Computer Forensic Laboratory Program, Fiscal Year 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the Fiscal Year 2006 publication of the RCFL National Program. Digital forensics is the application of science and engineering to the recovery of digital evidence in a legally acceptable method. Examiners use digital investigation and analysis tec...

2006-01-01

376

Regional Computer Forensic Laboratory Program, Fiscal Year 2003.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Digital forensics is the application of science and engineering to the recovery of digital evidence in a legally acceptable method. Examiners use digital investigation and analysis techniques to determine potential legal evidence by applying their skills ...

2003-01-01

377

Regional Computer Forensic Laboratory Program, Fiscal Year 2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the Fiscal Year 2005 publication of the RCFL National Program. Digital forensics is the application of science and engineering to the recovery of digital evidence in a legally acceptable method. Examiners use digital investigation and analysis tec...

2005-01-01

378

Regional Computer Forensic Laboratory Program, Fiscal Year 2008.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the Fiscal Year 2008 publication of the RCFL National Program. Digital forensics is the application of science and engineering to the recovery of digital evidence in a legally acceptable method. Examiners use digital investigation and analysis tec...

2008-01-01

379

Regional Computer Forensic Laboratory Program, Fiscal Year 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the Fiscal Year 2009 publication of the RCFL National Program. Digital forensics is the application of science and engineering to the recovery of digital evidence in a legally acceptable method. Examiners use digital investigation and analysis tec...

2009-01-01

380

Regional Computer Forensic Laboratory Program, Fiscal Year 2004.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the Fiscal Year 2004 publication of the RCFL National Program. Digital forensics is the application of science and engineering to the recovery of digital evidence in a legally acceptable method. Examiners use digital investigation and analysis tec...

2004-01-01

381

Laser mass spectrometry for DNA fingerprinting for forensic applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The application of DNA fingerprinting has become very broad in forensic analysis, patient identification, diagnostic medicine, and wildlife poaching, since every individual's DNA structure is identical within all tissues of their body. DNA fingerprinting ...

C. H. Chen K. Tang N. I. Taranenko S. L. Allman L. Y. Chang

1994-01-01

382

Forensic DNA databases in Western Balkan region: retrospectives, perspectives, and initiatives  

PubMed Central

The European Network of Forensic Science Institutes (ENFSI) recommended the establishment of forensic DNA databases and specific implementation and management legislations for all EU/ENFSI members. Therefore, forensic institutions from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, and Macedonia launched a wide set of activities to support these recommendations. To assess the current state, a regional expert team completed detailed screening and investigation of the existing forensic DNA data repositories and associated legislation in these countries. The scope also included relevant concurrent projects and a wide spectrum of different activities in relation to forensics DNA use. The state of forensic DNA analysis was also determined in the neighboring Slovenia and Croatia, which already have functional national DNA databases. There is a need for a ‘regional supplement’ to the current documentation and standards pertaining to forensic application of DNA databases, which should include regional-specific preliminary aims and recommendations.

Marjanovic, Damir; Konjhodzic, Rijad; Butorac, Sara Sanela; Drobnic, Katja; Merkas, Sinisa; Lauc, Gordan; Primorac, Damir; An?elinovic, Simun; Milosavljevic, Mladen; Karan, Zeljko; Vidovic, Stojko; Stojkovic, Oliver; Panic, Bojana; Vucetic Dragovic, An?elka; Kovacevic, Sandra; Jakovski, Zlatko; Asplen, Chris; Primorac, Dragan

2011-01-01

383

Post-disaster assessment of landslides in southern Taiwan after 2009 Typhoon Morakot using remote sensing and spatial analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 8 August 2009, the extreme rainfall of Typhoon Morakot triggered enormous landslides in mountainous regions of southern Taiwan, causing catastrophic infrastructure and property damages and human casualties. A comprehensive evaluation of the landslides is essential for the post-disaster reconstruction and should be helpful for future hazard mitigation. This paper presents a systematic approach to utilize multi-temporal satellite images and

F. Tsai; J.-H. Hwang; L.-C. Chen; T.-H. Lin

2010-01-01

384

Forensic importance of jealousy.  

PubMed

The aim of the investigation is to define as clearly as possible specific forensic psychiatric characteristics of persons who committed homicide and or attempted due to jealousy (the nature and severity of psychopathology, the level of responsibility, danger for the community, intensity and nature of aggression, the victimologic dimension, the relation of alcohol and jealousy). A retrospective method based on forensic psychiatric expertises in the period 1975-1999 was used. They encompassed 200 examinees that committed murder or attempted it. The results show the connection of psychotic jealousy with the highest degree of danger in diagnostic categories of paranoid psychosis and paranoid schizophrenia. The time span from the first manifestations of jealousy until the actual commitment of a crime is the longest in personality disorders and the shortest in schizophrenia. Exogenous provoking situations were dominant for committing homicide due to jealousy in personality disorders. Acute alcohol intoxication has a specific significance in crime due to jealousy in the same diagnostic category. Clear criteria were designed for forensic psychiatric evaluation of murder and attempts of homicide caused by jealousy, which will be of help in everyday practice in the field forensic work and treatment. PMID:12974159

Muzini?, Lana; Goreta, Miroslav; Juki?, Vlado; Dordevi?, Veljko; Koi?, Elvira; Herceg, Miroslav

2003-06-01

385

Nanoparticles in forensic science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanoparticles appear in several areas of forensic science including security documents, paints, inks, and reagents that develop latent prints. One reagent (known as the silver physical developer) that visualizes the water insoluble components of latent print residue is based on the formation of highly charged silver nanoparticles. These attach to and grow on the residue and generate a silver image.

Antonio A. Cantu

2008-01-01

386

Forensic Case Formulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formulation is the process or product of gathering and integrating diverse information to develop a concise account of the nature and etiology of the problems affecting a person's mental health to guide idiographic treatment design and other decision-making. Formulation is a core competency in mental health practice, including forensic mental health; however, there is no agreement concerning the details of

Stephen Hart; Peter Sturmey; Caroline Logan; Mary McMurran

2011-01-01

387

Forensically relevant SNP classes.  

PubMed

Forensic samples that contain too little template DNA or are too degraded require alternate genetic marker analyses or approaches to what is currently used for routine casework. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) offer promise to support forensic DNA analyses because of an abundance of potential markers, amenability to automation, and potential reduction in required fragment length to only 60-80 bp. The SNP markers will serve an important role in analyzing challenging forensic samples, such as those that are very degraded, for augmenting the power of kinship analyses and family reconstructions for missing persons and unidentified human remains, as well as for providing investigative lead value in some cases without a suspect (and no genetic profile match in CODIS). The SNPs for forensic analyses can be divided into four categories: identity-testing SNPs; lineage informative SNPs; ancestry informative SNPs; and phenotype informative SNPs. In addition to discussing the applications of these different types of SNPs, this article provides some discussion on privacy issues so that society and policymakers can be more informed. PMID:18474034

Budowle, Bruce; van Daal, Angela

2008-04-01

388

Forensic Identification of Anthropogenic and Naturally Occurring Sources of Perchlorate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perchlorate (ClO4 ) is an emerging contaminant whose presence and origin is of considerable environmental interest. This article discusses known sources of perchlorate and available forensic techniques to distinguish between naturally occurring and anthropogenic origins. Forensic techniques presented include stable isotopic analysis (Cl\\/Cl, Sr\\/Sr, O\\/O), surrogates analysis (nitrates, sodium, chlorides, phosphate, nitroglycerins, metals, strontium), historical information assessment (aerial photography, propellant

P. Brent Duncan; Robert D. Morrison; Emily Vavricka

2005-01-01

389

Virtual Tour of a Forensic Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual tour of a forensic laboratory has three floors. Each floor has a number of rooms devoted to a particular forensic specialty. Each room has a slide show of forensic scientists performing their work. All rooms have a video explanation detailing the forensic specialty being visited. Some rooms also have videos of forensic scientists demonstrating analytical techniques.

2012-09-28

390

Modelling the elements of country vulnerability to earthquake disasters.  

PubMed

Earthquakes have probably been the most deadly form of natural disaster in the past century. Diversity of earthquake specifications in terms of magnitude, intensity and frequency at the semicontinental scale has initiated various kinds of disasters at a regional scale. Additionally, diverse characteristics of countries in terms of population size, disaster preparedness, economic strength and building construction development often causes an earthquake of a certain characteristic to have different impacts on the affected region. This research focuses on the appropriate criteria for identifying the severity of major earthquake disasters based on some key observed symptoms. Accordingly, the article presents a methodology for identification and relative quantification of severity of earthquake disasters. This has led to an earthquake disaster vulnerability model at the country scale. Data analysis based on this model suggested a quantitative, comparative and meaningful interpretation of the vulnerability of concerned countries, and successfully explained which countries are more vulnerable to major disasters. PMID:18958916

Asef, M R

2008-09-01

391

Modeling economic costs of disasters and recovery involving positive effects of reconstruction: analysis using a dynamic CGE model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disaster damages have negative effects on economy, whereas reconstruction investments have positive effects. The aim of this study is to model economic causes of disasters and recovery involving positive effects of reconstruction activities. Computable general equilibrium (CGE) model is a promising approach because it can incorporate these two kinds of shocks into a unified framework and further avoid double-counting problem. In order to factor both shocks in CGE model, direct loss is set as the amount of capital stock reduced on supply side of economy; A portion of investments restore the capital stock in existing period; An investment-driven dynamic model is formulated due to available reconstruction data, and the rest of a given country's saving is set as an endogenous variable. The 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake is selected as a case study to illustrate the model, and three scenarios are constructed: S0 (no disaster occurs), S1 (disaster occurs with reconstruction investment) and S2 (disaster occurs without reconstruction investment). S0 is taken as business as usual, and the differences between S1 and S0 and that between S2 and S0 can be interpreted as economic losses including reconstruction and excluding reconstruction respectively. The study showed that output from S1 is found to be closer to real data than that from S2. S2 overestimates economic loss by roughly two times that under S1. The gap in economic aggregate between S1 and S0 is reduced to 3% in 2011, a level that should take another four years to achieve under S2.

Xie, W.; Li, N.; Wu, J.-D.; Hao, X.-L.

2013-11-01

392

These lives will not be lost in vain: organizational learning from disaster in US coal mining  

SciTech Connect

The stated purpose of the investigations that invariably follow industrial, transportation, and mining disasters is to learn from those tragedies to prevent future tragedies. But does prior experience with disaster make organizations more capable of preventing future disasters? Do organizations learn from disasters experienced by other organizations? Do organizations learn differently from rare disasters than they do from common minor accidents? In its present state, the organizational safety literature is poorly equipped to answer these questions. The present work begins to address this gap by empirically examining how prior organizational experience with disaster affects the likelihood that organizations will experience future disasters. It approaches the issue in the context of fatal U.S. coal mining accidents from 1983 to 2006. The analysis demonstrates that organizations do learn to prevent future disasters through both direct and vicarious experience with disaster. It also indicates that the mechanisms through which organizations learn from disasters differ from those through which they learn from minor accidents.

Madsen, P.M. [Brigham Young University, Provo, UT (United States). Marriott School Management

2009-09-15

393

Analysis of allelic drop-out using the Identifiler(®) and PowerPlex(®) 16 forensic STR typing systems.  

PubMed

Low-template (LT) DNA profiles continue to present interpretational challenges to the forensic community. Whether the LT contribution comprises the main profile, or whether it is present as the minor component of a mixture, ambiguity arises from the possibility that alleles present in the biological sample may not be detected in the resulting DNA profile. This phenomenon is known as allelic drop-out. This ambiguity complicates both the assessment of the potential number of contributors and estimation of the weight of the DNA evidence for or against specific propositions. One solution to estimating the weight of the evidence is to use a likelihood ratio (LR) that incorporates the probability of allelic drop-out P(DO) estimated for the specific evidence sample under consideration. However, although a vast repository of data exists, few empirical studies to determine allelic drop-out probabilities have been performed to date. Here we characterized patterns of allelic drop-out in single-source samples using both universal and run-specific analytical thresholds. Not surprisingly, we found fewer instances of apparent drop-out when using a lower (run-specific) detection threshold. Also, unsurprisingly, a positive correlation exists between allele drop-out and allele length, even in good quality samples. We used logistic regression to model the fraction of alleles that dropped out of a profile as a function of the average height of the detected peaks. The equation derived from the logistic regression model allowed us to estimate the expected drop-out probability for an evidentiary sample based on the average peak height of the profile. We show that the LRs calculated using the estimated drop-out probabilities were similar to those calculated using the benchmark drop-out probabilities, suggesting that the estimates of the drop-out probability are accurate and useful. This trend holds even when using the data from the PowerPlex(®) 16 typing system to estimate the drop-out probability for an Identifiler(®) profile, and vice versa. Thus we demonstrate that use of a LR that incorporates empirically estimated allelic drop-out probabilities provides a reliable means for extracting additional information from LT forensic DNA profiles. PMID:24841801

Lohmueller, Kirk E; Rudin, Norah; Inman, Keith

2014-09-01

394

On the Contribution of Raman Spectroscopy to Forensic Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman spectroscopy has only recently sparked interest from forensic laboratories. The Raman technique has demonstrated important advantages such as its nondestructive nature, its fast analysis time, and especially the possibility of performing microscopical in situ analyses. In forensic applications, it is a versatile technique that covers a wide spectrum of substances such as trace evidence, illicit drugs and inks. An overview of the recent developments of Raman spectroscopy in forensic science will be discussed. Also, the requirements for an analytical technique for the examination of physical evidence will be described. Examples of casework will be depicted.

Buzzini, Patrick; Massonnet, Genevieve

2010-08-01

395

Modeling imbalanced economic recovery following a natural disaster using input-output analysis.  

PubMed

Input-output analysis is frequently used in studies of large-scale weather-related (e.g., Hurricanes and flooding) disruption of a regional economy. The economy after a sudden catastrophe shows a multitude of imbalances with respect to demand and production and may take months or years to recover. However, there is no consensus about how the economy recovers. This article presents a theoretical route map for imbalanced economic recovery called dynamic inequalities. Subsequently, it is applied to a hypothetical postdisaster economic scenario of flooding in London around the year 2020 to assess the influence of future shocks to a regional economy and suggest adaptation measures. Economic projections are produced by a macro econometric model and used as baseline conditions. The results suggest that London's economy would recover over approximately 70 months by applying a proportional rationing scheme under the assumption of initial 50% labor loss (with full recovery in six months), 40% initial loss to service sectors, and 10-30% initial loss to other sectors. The results also suggest that imbalance will be the norm during the postdisaster period of economic recovery even though balance may occur temporarily. Model sensitivity analysis suggests that a proportional rationing scheme may be an effective strategy to apply during postdisaster economic reconstruction, and that policies in transportation recovery and in health care are essential for effective postdisaster economic recovery. PMID:23614394

Li, Jun; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Syddall, Mark; Guan, Dabo

2013-10-01

396

Preparing for Natural Disasters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How can you prepare for different natural disasters? Let's learn about different ways to prepare for natural disasters. Use classroom login for BrainPop Jr. Videos. Complete the Natural Disaster Chart as you learn from these websites and videos. First, watch the Earthquake Video Now scroll to page 5 of How to Prepare for Earthquakes. Next, watch the Flood Video Now scroll to page 4 of How to Prepare for Floods. Next, watch the Hurricane Video Now scroll ...

casey_piper

2012-04-05

397

Return or relocate? An inductive analysis of decision-making in a disaster.  

PubMed

This paper proposes an inductive analysis of the decision as to whether to return or to relocate by persons in the State of Louisiana, United States, who evacuated after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in August and September 2005, respectively. Drawing on interviews with evacuees in these events and extensive fieldwork in the impacted area, the paper seeks to identify the folk dimensions of the decision-making process, assess their arrangements, and situate the process in the larger context of risk and resilience in an advanced society. It suggests that, despite the material and emotional upheaval experienced by affected persons, the decision-making process is a rational endeavour combining a definite set of tightly interconnected factors, involving material dimensions and substantive values that can act in concert or in conflict. In addition, it indicates that there are significant variations by geographic areas, homeownership, and kind of decision. Some theoretical implications, practical measures, and suggestions for future research are examined. PMID:23278427

Henry, Jacques

2013-04-01

398

Mental health aspects of disasters.  

PubMed

Disaster preparations and responses are incomplete without addressing the mental health aspects of disasters. Unpleasant mental states can be a natural and even adaptive human response following a disaster; however, disasters also can contribute to the development of mental illnesses and substance use disorders or exacerbate existing disorders for disaster survivors, response personnel, and even families and close contacts of survivors and responders. Disaster-related psychopathology can mimic or negatively affect other disaster-related illnesses and can impair health professionals and others who must respond to catastrophic events; however, disasters also can encourage tremendous human coping, perseverance, and resilience and can even enhance personal and collective feelings of purpose, connection, and meaning. Integrating mental health promotion and care into disaster planning and response has the potential to mitigate psychiatric and medical consequences of a disaster and may preserve the mission readiness of disaster response personnel and promote healing among communities traumatized by disaster. PMID:23263326

Oldham, Robert L

2013-01-01

399

Relief Aid in a Disaster  

MedlinePLUS

... programs, volunteer organizations, and businesses. Disaster Application Centers (DAC) A widespread disaster that caused a lot of ... your area a major disaster, one or more DACs may open, usually in schools or other public ...

400

Current status of the use of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in forensic practices.  

PubMed

Forensic geneticists often use short tandem repeats (STRs) to solve cases. However, STRs can be insufficient when DNA samples are degraded due to environmental exposure and mass disasters, alleged and real relatives are genetically related in paternity or kinship analyses, or a suspect is lacking. In such cases, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can provide valuable information and thus should be seriously considered as a tool to help resolve challenging cases. In this review, the current status of SNP analyses in forensic applications and the comparative advantages and disadvantages of SNPs with other biomarkers are discussed. PMID:24754266

Canturk, Kemal Murat; Emre, Ramazan; K?noglu, Kubilay; Ba?p?nar, Bünyamin; Sahin, Feyzi; Ozen, Mustafa

2014-07-01

401

Vocal Forgery in Forensic Sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes techniques of vocal forgery able to affect automatic speaker recognition system in a forensic context. Vocal forgery covers two main aspects: voice transformation and voice conversion. Concerning voice transformation, this article proposes an automatic analysis of four specific disguised voices in order to detect the forgery and, for voice conversion, different ways to automatically imitate a target voice. Vocal forgery appears as a real and relevant question for forensic expertise. In most cases, criminals who make a terrorist claim or a miscellaneous call, disguise their voices to hide their identity or to take the identity of another person. Disguise is considered in this paper as a deliberate action of the speaker who wants to conceal or falsify his identity. Different techniques exist to transform one’s own voice. Some are sophisticated as software manipulation, some others are simpler as using an handkerchief over the mouth. In voice transformation, the presented work is dedicated to the study of disguise used in the most common cases. In voice conversion, different techniques will be presented, compared, and applied on an original example of the French President voice.

Perrot, Patrick; Morel, Mathieu; Razik, Joseph; Chollet, Gérard

402

Responding to international disasters.  

PubMed

Large-scale disasters attract broad coverage by the media and images of death and destruction circulate worldwide in minutes. This prompts the authorities in disaster-stricken areas to request external medical teams, and well-intentioned countries and aid organisations dispatch them to offer care for the victims (World Health Organization/Pan American Health Organization (WHO/PAHO) 2004a). This article provides information on disaster management for those with an interest in responding to international disasters such as the Indian Ocean tsunami in December 2004. PMID:15727016

Campbell, Susan

403

Visualizing disaster attitudes resulting from terrorist activities.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to analyze people's attitudes to disasters by investigating how people feel, behave and think during disasters. We focused on disasters induced by humans, such as terrorist attacks. Two types of textual information were collected - from Internet blogs and from research papers. The analysis enabled forecasting of attitudes for the design of proactive disaster advisory scheme. Text was analyzed using a text mining tool, Leximancer. The outcome of this analysis revealed core themes and concepts in the text concerning people's attitudes. The themes and concepts were sorted into three broad categories: Affect, Behaviour, and Cognition (ABC), and the data was visualized in semantic maps. The maps reveal several knowledge pathways of ABC for developing attitudinal ontologies, which describe the relations between affect, behaviour and cognition, and the sequence in which they develop. Clearly, terrorist attacks induced trauma and people became highly vulnerable. PMID:22944486

Khalid, Halimahtun M; Helander, Martin G; Hood, Nilwan A

2013-09-01

404

A phenomenological analysis of disaster-related experiences in fire and emergency medical services personnel.  

PubMed

This article explores the experiences of fire and Emergency Medical Services (EMS) personnel during and immediately after a technological event using a phenomenological approach. Personnel engaged in the rescue operations during and immediately after the Ghislenghien gas explosion reflected upon their experiences in their responses to a specially designed, self-reporting questionnaire that included open-ended questions. Firefighters reported more perceived threat and direct exposure to death than did EMS personnel. Qualitative analysis indicates that the central characteristics of this potentially traumatizing event were the suddenness and massiveness of the impact, and the fact that it involved young victims and/or multiple deaths. With regard to emotions, powerlessness, horror, fear, a sense of apocalypse, and grief were experienced by both firefighters and EMS personnel. Firefighters noted that the death of colleagues, the involvement of friends and family, the massive impact, and exposure to the burned victims were most shocking. Emergency Medical Services personnel and in-hospital staff reported the impact, the confrontation with death, the involvement of friends and family, and the pain, suffering, and screaming of burned victims as the most shocking aspects of this event. Qualitative differences in the lived experiences of firefighters, EMS personnel, and in-hospital staff might be explained by differences in life threat, contact with death, and various degrees of training. PMID:22587814

De Soir, Erik; Knarren, Marcia; Zech, Emmanuelle; Mylle, Jacques; Kleber, Rolf; van der Hart, Onno

2012-04-01

405

Role of forensic odontologist in post mortem person identification  

PubMed Central

The natural teeth are the most durable organs in the bodies of vertebrates, and humankind's understanding of their own past and evolution relies heavily upon remnant dental evidence found as fossils. The use of features unique to the human dentition as an aid to personal identification is widely accepted within the forensic field. Comparative dental identifications play a major role in identifying the victims of violence, disaster or other mass tragedies. The comparison of ante-mortem and postmortem dental records to determine human identity has long been established. Indeed, it is still a major identification method in criminal investigations, mass disasters, grossly decomposed or traumatized bodies, and in other situations where visual identification is neither possible nor desirable. This article has comprehensively described some of the methods, and additional factors aiding in postmortem person identification.

Pramod, Jahagirdar B.; Marya, Anand; Sharma, Vidhii

2012-01-01

406

Workforce management strategies in a disaster scenario.  

SciTech Connect

A model of the repair operations of the voice telecommunications network is used to study labor management strategies under a disaster scenario where the workforce is overwhelmed. The model incorporates overtime and fatigue functions and optimizes the deployment of the workforce based on the cost of the recovery and the time it takes to recover. The analysis shows that the current practices employed in workforce management in a disaster scenario are not optimal and more strategic deployment of that workforce is beneficial.

Kelic, Andjelka; Turk, Adam L.

2008-08-01

407

[Two anniversaries in Czech forensic medicine].  

PubMed

The authors commemorate the 100th anniversary of the publication of Slavíks textbook Forensic Pathology for Medical and Legal Students and the 125th anniversary of the 1st Czech forensic autopsy. They introduce professor V. Slavík and describe his personal qualities and expertise. The content of the textbook is described. The topicality of Slavíks explanations and the tradition of Czech forensic pathology are discussed. Key words: forensic pathology - history of Czech forensic pathology - textbooks of forensic pathology. PMID:23121041

Ne?as, P; Hejna, P

2012-10-01

408

Controversies in pediatric forensic pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pediatric forensic pathology is an emerging medical subspecialty that spans the area between pediatric and forensic pathology.\\u000a Advances in both of these fields have increased the sophistication of diagnoses, with overlap of disorders that might present\\u000a to either the pediatric or forensic pathologist, adding further layers of complexity. Not surprisingly, therefore, there are\\u000a important ethical and medical controversies in pediatric

Henry F. Krous; Roger W. Byard

2005-01-01

409

Patients' experiences of forensic psychotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In forensic psychotherapy there may be competing goals and agendas, influenced respectively by concerns about mental health and well-being, risk reduction and psychodynamically-significant change. There has, to date, been no published study of the goals and concerns of forensic patients undergoing therapy. Semi-structured interviews with ten patients considered by their therapists as having gained from forensic psychotherapy were analysed thematically.

Jessica Yakeley; Heather Wood

2011-01-01

410

Forensic or archaeological issue: is chemical analysis of dental restorations helpful in assessing time since death and identification of skeletonized human remains?  

PubMed

In 2011, small mass grave with completely skeletonized remains was discovered in Belgrade suburb. An eyewitness claimed that skeletons belonged to German soldiers killed in WWII. Anthropologists were engaged to investigate whether the skeletal remains correspond to the indicated German group or represent more recent case requiring court trial. Numerous dental restorations were noticed. Owing to the fact that different dental materials were used in dental practice at certain times, the aim of this study was to explore whether analysis of dental restorations could help in identification and estimation of time since death. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry revealed that dental fillings corresponded to copper amalgam, conventional silver amalgam, silicophosphate cement, and zinc phosphate cement. Chemical results combined with anthropological and historical facts suggest that the individuals lived before the 1960s in country with well-developed dental service at that time. Therefore, chemical analysis of dental fillings was useful to distinguish between skeletal remains that are too old to be of forensic interest and the remains relevant to legal investigations. PMID:23866008

Zelic, Ksenija; Djonic, Danijela; Neskovic, Olivera; Stoiljkovic, Milovan; Nikolic, Slobodan; Zivkovic, Vladimir; Djuric, Marija

2013-09-01

411

Use of X-linked markers for forensic purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In forensic science, X-chromosomal short tandem repeats (ChrX STRs) bear the potential to efficiently complement the analysis of other genetic markers (autosomal, Y-chromosomal or mitochondrial). We review the population genetic properties and forensic utility of selected ChrX markers, and discuss the problems and limitations arising with their practical use. Formulae required to assess the evidential power of individual markers in

R. Szibor; M. Krawczak; S. Hering; J. Edelmann; E. Kuhlisch; D. Krause

2003-01-01

412

Analysis of quazepam and its metabolites in human urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: application to a forensic case.  

PubMed

A sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of quazepam and two of its metabolites, 2-oxoquazepam and 3-hydroxy-2-oxoquazepam, in human urine was developed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with an Rtx-5MS capillary column. The quazepam and its metabolites were extracted from human urine using a simple solid-phase extraction Oasis(®) HLB cartridge column, and the 3-hydroxy-2-oxoquazepam was derivatised using BSTFA/1%TMCS and pyridine at 60 °C for 30 min. The mass spectrometric detection of the analytes was performed in the full scan mode, m/z 60-480, and selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode, m/z 386, for quazepam; m/z 342, for 2-oxoquazepam; m/z 429, for 3-hydroxy-2-oxoquazepam-TMS; and m/z 284, for alprazolam-d5 (internal standard), by electron ionization. The calibration curves of quazepam and its metabolites in urine showed good linearity in the concentration range of 2.5-500 ng/0.2 ml of urine. The average recoveries of quazepam and its metabolites from 0.2 ml of urine containing 500 ng and 50 ng of each drug were 71-83% and 88-90%, respectively. The limits of detection of quazepam, 2-oxoquazepam and 3-hydroxy-2-quazepam in urine by the selected ion monitoring mode were 0.096-0.37 ng/ml. This method would be applicable to other forensic biological materials containing low concentrations of quazepam and its metabolites. PMID:23290298

Terada, Masaru; Shinozuka, Tatsuo; Hasegawa, Chika; Tanaka, Einosuke; Hayashida, Makiko; Ohno, Youkichi; Kurosaki, Kunihiko

2013-04-10

413

Forensic Evaluation of Juveniles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citation: Grisso, T. (1998). Forensic evaluation of juveniles. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Press. ISBN 156887037X, 9781568870373\\u000aPublisher summary: In recent years, juvenile courts and juvenile attorneys have come to rely heavily on mental health professionals for evaluations of youths in delinquency cases. Evaluation questions include the youth's competence to stand trial, competence to waive Miranda rights prior to giving a

Thomas Grisso

1998-01-01

414

PREDICTION OF NATURAL DISASTERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past 30 plus years, we have been dealing with several fundamental problems in prediction science. We believe that “the science of human natural disasters” (natural disasters affecting mankind) is not well addressed by the classical theory of dynamical systems. It is argued that there exist problems, when the theory of dynamic systems is used, related to (1) measurement

OuYANG SHOUCHENG; YI LIN; WU YONG

2000-01-01

415

Eye Care Following Disasters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The needs of ophthalmologic casualties mirror these general patterns of casualty care following disasters. The number of ophthalmologic casualties, however, may be large. In humans, the eyes account for only 0.1 % of the total body surface area, yet during an explosion as many as 10% of survivors may suffer eye trauma (3). Acute eye injuries during a disaster often

Michael G Weddle

416

Recovering from Disaster  

MedlinePLUS

Recovering from a disaster is usually a gradual process. Safety is a primary issue, as are mental and physical well-being. If assistance ... some general advice on steps to take after disaster strikes in order to begin getting your home, ...

417

SAR for disaster management  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last couple of years, an indigenous airborne synthetic aperture radar for disaster management (DMSAR) has been under development at SAC \\/ ISRO, as a capacity building measure for evolving an effective disaster management support (DMS) system in India. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has an unique role to play in the mapping and monitoring of large areas affected by

Ritesh Kumar Sharma; B. Saravana Kumar; N. M. Desai; V. R. Gujraty

2008-01-01

418

Tattoos: forensic considerations.  

PubMed

Tattooing refers to marking of the skin by puncturing and introducing pigmented material. Although it derives from a Polynesian word, tautau, decorative tattooing has been found in most societies over many centuries. The purpose of tattooing has varied from simple decoration, to a marker of social rank, criminal and noncriminal group membership, or a particular rite of passage in tribal communities. Tattooing may be used in medicine to mark areas for radiotherapy, and may occur inadvertently associated with certain occupations such as coal mining. Forensically, tattoos may be very useful in assisting with body identification if facial features or fingers have been damaged or removed. Aspects of a decedent's history may also be deduced from certain tattoos such as military tattoos in service personnel, rudimentary line tattoos with antisocial and anti-police messages in ex-prisoners, and syringes, marihuana leaves or mushrooms in illicit drug users. Tattoos have become more common in recent years in younger individuals in the West and so should be expected to be found with increasing incidence at the time of forensic autopsy examinations. Increasing population movements also mean that less common tattoos may be encountered during forensic evaluations. PMID:23846907

Byard, Roger W

2013-12-01

419

Analysis of Ground-vibration induced by the sediment disaster on Izu Oshima, Tokyo in October 2013  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

October 2013, at the Mariana Islands, typhoon Wipha occurred. Wipha attacked Izu Ohshima of Japan and brought heavy rain. Izu Ohshima is part of Tokyo Metropolitan prefecture. Ohshima rain-gauge station of Japan Meteorological Agency showed 118.5 mm per hour and 824.0mm per 24hours. This 24 hour rainfall was about 2.5 times higher than the average rainfall for October (329.0mm / 24hour). And then, a lot of shallow landslides and debris flow has occurred. Thirty six people were killed and four people were missing by these sediment disaster. It is important to clarify that "When and where did disaster occur?". A lot of seismographs for volcano observation are installed in Izu Ohshima. And then, it is known that when sediment moved, ground-vibration occurred. We estimated time and location of disaster by analyzing ground-vibration in sediment moving. First, we estimated that the disaster occurred from 2:00 a.m. to 3:00 a.m. of October 16 by some newspaper reports. Second, we collected data of installed seismographs in Izu Ohshima and analyzed. And then, we caught that some wave data existed. These were different from earthquake data. We estimated that these showed ground-vibration data in sediment moving. Finally, we estimated hypocenter (location of sediment moving) by relationship between "distance between hypocenter and seismograph" and amplitude. Methods are as follows. Making envelope on basis of collected seismograph data and calculating maximum amplitude (y) Calculating amplitude (x) on basis of some assumed hypocenters Setting hypocenter (location of sediment moving) by minimum residual of y and x Comparing of set hypocenter and actual location of sediment moving. We found that distance of set hypocenter and actual location of sediment moving is close. Therefore, when sediment disaster occurs, by analyzing seismographs data, it may be possible to estimate that the location and timing of sediment moving. And, it may be possible to use as tools for people to evacuate.

Takahara, Teruyoshi; Kinoshita, Atsuhiko; Mizutani, Tasuku; Ishizuka, Tadanori; Ishida, Tetsuya; Kaihara, Soichi; Asahara, Hiroshi

2014-05-01

420

Natural Disaster and Technological Catastrophe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Against the backdrop of ever-expanding technological systems, the effects of accidents or breakdowns in human-made technology are examined and contrasted with those of natural disasters. A number of differences are identified, and research on these forms of cataclysmic events is reviewed. These data, as well as this analysis, suggest that technological catastrophes are more likely to have long-term effects, to

Andrew Baum; Raymond Fleming; Laura M. Davidson

1983-01-01

421

Large-Scale Disasters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Extreme" events - including climatic events, such as hurricanes, tornadoes, and drought - can cause massive disruption to society, including large death tolls and property damage in the billions of dollars. Events in recent years have shown the importance of being prepared and that countries need to work together to help alleviate the resulting pain and suffering. This volume presents a review of the broad research field of large-scale disasters. It establishes a common framework for predicting, controlling and managing both manmade and natural disasters. There is a particular focus on events caused by weather and climate change. Other topics include air pollution, tsunamis, disaster modeling, the use of remote sensing and the logistics of disaster management. It will appeal to scientists, engineers, first responders and health-care professionals, in addition to graduate students and researchers who have an interest in the prediction, prevention or mitigation of large-scale disasters.

Gad-El-Hak, Mohamed

422

National Science Foundation: Disasters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fine website from the National Science Foundation (NSF) addresses its subject thusly: "Whether caused by acts of nature, human errors or even malevolence, disasters are an increasingly costly threat." Released as part of their "Special Reports" series, this interactive site profiles the latest in disaster research from the NSF and the "Critical Role of Research". First-time visitors will want to start by clicking on the "Understanding Disasters" area. Here they can learn about the NSF's work on observing, modeling, identifying, studying, and analyzing various disasters. Each subarea here includes Flash videos, charts, and images which help give some visual armature to each topic. Moving on, the "NSF and 9/11" area features work done through NSF in and around Lower Manhattan and the Pentagon in the aftermath of those tragic events. The site is rounded out by the "Disaster News" area, which features profiles of their work related to California wildfires, major thunderstorms, and levee destruction.

423

Differences between Disaster Prediction and Risk Assessment in Natural Disasters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A clear distinction between disaster prediction and risk assessment is necessary for effective disaster reduction. Disaster prediction models objects that face hazard, damage, or loss, while risk assessment models the likelihoods of the scene in future adverse incidents. In terms of mathematics, a model for disaster prediction can be an explicit function, while a model for risk assessment might be

Chongfu Huang

2011-01-01

424

Significant genetic correlations among Caucasians at forensic DNA loci.  

PubMed

Although the effect of population differentiation on the forensic use of DNA profiles has been the subject of controversy for some years now, the debate has largely failed to focus on the genetical questions directly relevant to the forensic context. We re-analyse two published data sets and find that they convey much the same message for forensic inference, in contrast with the dramatically differing conclusions of the original authors. The analysis is likelihood-based and combines information across loci and across populations without assuming constant genetic differentiation. Our results suggest that the relevant genetic correlation coefficients are too large to be ignored in forensic work: although DNA profile evidence is typically very strong, the effect of genetic correlations can be important in some cases. Such correlations can, however, be accommodated in an appropriate assessment of evidential strength so that population genetic issues should not present a barrier to the efficient and fair use of DNA profile evidence. PMID:9203353

Balding, D J; Nichols, R A

1997-06-01

425

Development of a one-tube extraction and amplification method for DNA analysis of sperm and epithelial cells recovered from forensic samples by laser microdissection.  

PubMed

Laser microdissection can be used in forensic casework to isolate specific cell types from mixtures of biological samples. Extraction of DNA from selected cells is still required prior to STR amplification. Because of the relatively pristine nature of the recovered cells, laser microdissection is more sensitive than more traditional methods of DNA analysis, theoretically resulting in DNA profiles from less cellular material. A one-tube extraction and amplification method minimises loss of DNA through liquid transfers and reduces the potential for contamination events occurring. In this paper, the development of a one-tube method for the effective extraction of DNA from laser microdissected sperm and epithelial cells is described. The performance of the in-house method was compared to that of a commercial DNA extraction kit for extraction of DNA from sperm and the downstream compatibility with STR amplification was determined for both sperm and epithelial samples. Full Identifiler™ profiles after 28 amplification cycles were obtained from as few as 15 epithelial cells and 30 sperm. PMID:21411390

Meredith, Melanie; Bright, Jo-Anne; Cockerton, Sarah; Vintiner, Sue

2012-01-01

426

The forensic analysis of office paper using carbon isotope ratio mass spectrometry--part 2: method development, validation and sample handling.  

PubMed

This paper describes the development and validation of a method for the analysis of office papers by measuring carbon isotopes using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). The method development phase included testing protocols for storage, sample materials, set-up of the analytical run; and examining the effects of other paper examination procedures on IRMS results. A method validation was performed so that the Delta(plus) XP IRMS instrument (Thermo Finnigan, Bremen, Germany) with Flash EA™ 1112 could be used to measure document paper samples for forensic casework. A validation protocol that would meet international standards for laboratory accreditation (international standard ISO 17025) was structured so that the instruments performance characteristics could be observed. All performance characteristics measured were found to be within an acceptable range and an expanded measurement uncertainty for the measurement of carbon isotopes in paper was calculated at 0.26‰, with a coverage factor of 2. This method was utilized in a large-scale study, published as part one of this series, that showed that IRMS of document papers is useful as a chemical comparison technique for 80 gsm white office papers. PMID:23810570

Jones, Kylie; Benson, Sarah; Roux, Claude

2013-09-10

427

Forensic analysis of a single particle of partially burnt gunpowder by solid phase micro-extraction-gas chromatography-nitrogen phosphorus detector.  

PubMed

Solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) was adopted to extract organic gun shot residues (OGSRs) from a single particle of partially burnt gunpowder. The partially burnt particle samples were collected from gun shot residue (GSR) deposited near the target areas. OGSRs, such as diphenylamine (DPA), methyl centralite (MC), ethyl centralite (EC), from only one single particle of partially burnt gunpowder were successfully extracted by SPME and analyzed by a gas chromatography coupled to a nitrogen phosphorus detector (GC-NPD). The results confirmed that the new extraction procedure is capable of extracting trace amount of MC and EC as signature molecules for the identification of GSR. The method represents a solvent-free extraction as a complementary analytical procedure for the forensic analysis of GSR-related evidences. The new extraction scheme with the capability of analyzing single particle of partially burnt gunpowder can also be applied to the identification of explosive residues, such as in post-blast investigations of improvised explosive devices. PMID:19375082

Burleson, Garrett Lee; Gonzalez, Brittney; Simons, Kelsie; Yu, Jorn C C

2009-05-29

428

Resolution in forensic microbial genotyping  

SciTech Connect

Resolution is a key parameter for differentiating among the large number of strain typing methods that could be applied to pathogens involved in bioterror events or biocrimes. In this report we develop a first-principles analysis of strain typing resolution using a simple mathematical model to provide a basis for the rational design of microbial typing systems for forensic applications. We derive two figures of merit that describe the resolving power and phylogenetic depth of a strain typing system. Rough estimates of these figures-of-merit for MLVA, MLST, IS element, AFLP, hybridization microarrays, and other bacterial typing methods are derived from mutation rate data reported in the literature. We also discuss the general problem of how to construct a ''universal'' practical typing system that has the highest possible resolution short of whole-genome sequencing, and that is applicable with minimal modification to a wide range of pathogens.

Velsko, S P

2005-08-30

429

New developments in forensic psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Briefly introduces the concept of forensic psychology, looking at areas such as stalking behaviour, self-mutilation, and execution competency. Suggests that the forensic psychiatrist needs to remain up to date with recent sexual harassment legislation, the use of neuropsychological testing and the assessment of child abuse. Covers other subjects including hate crime on the Internet, and psychological autopsy. Concludes that to

Suzanne David; Brian H. Kleiner

2001-01-01

430

Forensic Practice: Pride and Prejudice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of forensic psychology and psychiatry has evolved rapidly and our research instruments and experts command growing respect among both the scientific community and lay audiences. We have, however, focused almost exclusively on assessment rather than treatment and, in doing this, have fostered the perception that most forensic clients are not amenable to treatment. The author discusses the role

Jay Adams

2003-01-01

431

What Is Forensic Psychology, Anyway?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issue of how “forensic psychology” is defined has taken on a new urgency in the context of an application to have forensic psychology designated a “specialty” by the American Psychological Association. To provide a historical perspective, I briefly review early attempts to apply psychological concepts to legal issues, beginning with the McNaughten trial in England in 1843. I then

John C. Brigham

1999-01-01

432

Evaluation of Forensic DNA Evidence.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1992 the National Research Council issued DNA Technology in Forensic Science, a book that documented the state of the art in this field. The Evaluation of Forensic DNA Evidence reports on developments in population genetics and statistics since the ori...

1996-01-01

433

Disaster Recovery Program guideline  

SciTech Connect

Business and government are dependent upon automatic data processing (ADP) to perform their missions and cannot afford to be without total, or possibly even partial, ADP capability for extended periods of time. The dependency on ADP and the large capital investment organizations are making in ADP equipment and services make implementation of a Disaster Recovery Program, with associated Continuity of Operations and Contingency Plans, essential based on a risk assessment. An effective Disaster Recovery Program can mitigate the losses from a disaster, reduce the amount of time that a customer or user is without mission-essential ADP support, and decrease the time necessary for restoration of normal ADP operations.

Not Available

1991-07-01

434

3. Framework for the longitudinal phases of disasters.  

PubMed

The longitudinal framework facilitates the analysis of disasters by providing a series of phases based on properties rather than on absolute times. This framework allows the comparison of similar phases of a disaster regardless of the hazard involved and the society impacted. The phases, which may overlap include the: (1) pre-event state; (2) event; (3) damage; (4) changes in societal functions; (5) relief interventions; and (6) recovery interventions. Development is not a phase of a disaster and is addressed separately. For research and evaluation purposes, assessments, plans, and interventions must be described in relation to only one of the longitudinal phases of a disaster. PMID:24785800

2014-05-01

435

Development of a simple and low-cost enzymatic methodology for quantitative analysis of carbamates in meat samples of forensic interest.  

PubMed

Foods contaminated with a granulated material similar to Temik (a commercial pesticide formulation containing the carbamate insecticide aldicarb) are often involved in accidental ingestion, suicides, and homicides in Brazil. We developed a simple technique to detect aldicarb. This technique is based on the inhibition of a stable preparation of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, and it is specially adapted for forensic purposes. It comprises an initial extraction step with the solvent methylene chloride followed by a colorimetric acetylcholinesterase assay. We propose that results of testing contaminated forensic samples be expressed in aldicarb equivalents because, even though all other carbamates are also potent enzyme inhibitors, aldicarb is the contaminant most frequently found in forensic samples. This method is rapid (several samples can be run in a period of 2 h) and low cost. This method also proved to be precise and accurate, detecting concentrations as low as 40 microg/kg of aldicarb in meat samples. PMID:20345797

Sabino, Bruno Duarte; Torraca, Tathiana Guilliod; Moura, Claudia Melo; Rozenbaum, Hannah Felicia; de Castro Faria, Mauro Velho

2010-05-01

436

Quality improvement of forensic mental health evaluations and reports of youth in the Netherlands.  

PubMed

Quality improvement of forensic mental health evaluations and reports is needed, but little information is available on how this can be attained, and relatively little conceptual analysis has been undertaken. The STAR, a standardized evaluation instrument of the quality of forensic mental health reports of youth, is developed on the basis of concept mapping to clarify the different perspectives on usability of these reports. Psychometric data are provided, demonstrating the reliability and supporting the validity of the STAR. The Dutch forensic context is described to better understand the development and psychometric properties of this standardized instrument. Quality improvement possibilities of forensic mental health evaluations and reports are discussed. PMID:23040679

Duits, Nils; van der Hoorn, Steven; Wiznitzer, Martin; Wettstein, Robert M; de Beurs, Edwin

2012-01-01

437

National Center for Nuclear Security: The Nuclear Forensics Project (F2012)  

SciTech Connect

These presentation visuals introduce the National Center for Nuclear Security. Its chartered mission is to enhance the Nation’s verification and detection capabilities in support of nuclear arms control and nonproliferation through R&D activities at the NNSS. It has three focus areas: Treaty Verification Technologies, Nonproliferation Technologies, and Technical Nuclear Forensics. The objectives of nuclear forensics are to reduce uncertainty in the nuclear forensics process & improve the scientific defensibility of nuclear forensics conclusions when applied to nearsurface nuclear detonations. Research is in four key areas: Nuclear Physics, Debris collection and analysis, Prompt diagnostics, and Radiochemistry.

Klingensmith, A. L.

2012-03-21

438

Bayesian Integrated Microbial Forensics  

SciTech Connect

In the aftermath of the 2001 anthrax letters, researchers have been exploring ways to predict the production environment of unknown source microorganisms. Different mass spectral techniques are being developed to characterize components of a microbe’s culture medium including water, carbon and nitrogen sources, metal ions added, and the presence of agar. Individually, each technique has the potential to identify one or two ingredients in a culture medium recipe. However, by integrating data from multiple mass spectral techniques, a more complete characterization is possible. We present a Bayesian statistical approach to integrated microbial forensics and illustrate its application on spores grown in different culture media.

Jarman, Kristin H.; Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.; Wunschel, David S.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Cliff, John B.; Petersen, Catherine E.; Colburn, Heather A.; Wahl, Karen L.

2008-06-01

439

Integrating the disaster cycle model into traditional disaster diplomacy concepts.  

PubMed

Disaster diplomacy is an evolving contemporary model that examines how disaster response strategies can facilitate cooperation between parties in conflict. The concept of disaster diplomacy has emerged during the past decade to address how disaster response can be leveraged to promote peace, facilitate communication, promote human rights, and strengthen intercommunity ties in the increasingly multipolar modern world. Historically, the concept has evolved through two camps, one that focuses on the interactions between national governments in conflict and another that emphasizes the grassroots movements that can promote change. The two divergent approaches can be reconciled and disaster diplomacy further matured by contextualizing the concept within the disaster cycle, a model well established within the disaster risk management community. In particular, access to available health care, especially for the most vulnerable populations, may need to be negotiated. As such, disaster response professionals, including emergency medicine specialists, can play an important role in the development and implementation of disaster diplomacy concepts. PMID:22490937

Callaway, David W; Yim, Eugene S; Stack, Colin; Burkle, Frederick M

2012-03-01

440

Natural Disaster Scenario Generator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this study, a computer system previously developed for generating nuclear damage scenarios (Dial-a-Scenario) was extended to produce natural disaster scenarios. The programs are implemented on both time-shared (remote terminal) and batch process modes....

J. Baca P. B. Bjorklund R. K. Laurino

1975-01-01