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1

Real-time Forensic Disaster Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM, www.cedim.de) - an interdisciplinary research center founded by the German Research Centre for Geoscience (GFZ) and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) - has embarked on a new style of disaster research known as Forensic Disaster Analysis. The notion has been coined by the Integrated Research on Disaster Risk initiative (IRDR, www.irdrinternational.org) launched by ICSU in 2010. It has been defined as an approach to studying natural disasters that aims at uncovering the root causes of disasters through in-depth investigations that go beyond the reconnaissance reports and case studies typically conducted after disasters. In adopting this comprehensive understanding of disasters CEDIM adds a real-time component to the assessment and evaluation process. By comprehensive we mean that most if not all relevant aspects of disasters are considered and jointly analysed. This includes the impact (human, economy, and infrastructure), comparisons with recent historic events, social vulnerability, reconstruction and long-term impacts on livelihood issues. The forensic disaster analysis research mode is thus best characterized as "event-based research" through systematic investigation of critical issues arising after a disaster across various inter-related areas. The forensic approach requires (a) availability of global data bases regarding previous earthquake losses, socio-economic parameters, building stock information, etc.; (b) leveraging platforms such as the EERI clearing house, relief-web, and the many sources of local and international sources where information is organized; and (c) rapid access to critical information (e.g., crowd sourcing techniques) to improve our understanding of the complex dynamics of disasters. The main scientific questions being addressed are: What are critical factors that control loss of life, of infrastructure, and for economy? What are the critical interactions between hazard - socio-economic systems - technological systems? What were the protective measures and to what extent did they work? Can we predict pattern of losses and socio-economic implications for future extreme events from simple parameters: hazard parameters, historic evidence, socio-economic conditions? Can we predict implications for reconstruction from simple parameters: hazard parameters, historic evidence, socio-economic conditions? The M7.2 Van Earthquake (Eastern Turkey) of 23 Oct. 2011 serves as an example for a forensic approach.

Wenzel, F.; Daniell, J.; Khazai, B.; Mühr, B.; Kunz-Plapp, T.; Markus, M.; Vervaeck, A.

2012-04-01

2

Current genetic methodologies in the identification of disaster victims and in forensic analysis.  

PubMed

This review presents the basic problems and currently available molecular techniques used for genetic profiling in disaster victim identification (DVI). The environmental conditions of a mass disaster often result in severe fragmentation, decomposition and intermixing of the remains of victims. In such cases, traditional identification based on the anthropological and physical characteristics of the victims is frequently inconclusive. This is the reason why DNA profiling became the gold standard for victim identification in mass-casualty incidents (MCIs) or any forensic cases where human remains are highly fragmented and/or degraded beyond recognition. The review provides general information about the sources of genetic material for DNA profiling, the genetic markers routinely used during genetic profiling (STR markers, mtDNA and single-nucleotide polymorphisms [SNP]) and the basic statistical approaches used in DNA-based disaster victim identification. Automated technological platforms that allow the simultaneous analysis of a multitude of genetic markers used in genetic identification (oligonucleotide microarray techniques and next-generation sequencing) are also presented. Forensic and population databases containing information on human variability, routinely used for statistical analyses, are discussed. The final part of this review is focused on recent developments, which offer particularly promising tools for forensic applications (mRNA analysis, transcriptome variation in individuals/populations and genetic profiling of specific cells separated from mixtures). PMID:22002120

Zi?tkiewicz, Ewa; Witt, Magdalena; Daca, Patrycja; Zebracka-Gala, Jadwiga; Goniewicz, Mariusz; Jarz?b, Barbara; Witt, Micha?

2011-10-15

3

Near-real-time Forensic Disaster Analysis: experiences from hurricane Sandy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hurricane Sandy was the last tropical cyclone of the 2012 Northern Atlantic Hurricane season that made landfall. It moved on an unusual track from the Caribbean to the East Coast of the United States from 24 to 30 October as a Category 1 and 2 Hurricane according to the Saffir-Simpson Scale. Along its path, the severe storm event caused widespread damage including almost 200 fatalities. In the early hours of 30 October, Sandy made landfall near Atlantic City, N.J. Sandy was an extraordinary event due to its multihazard nature and several cascading effects in the aftermath. From the hydro-meteorological perspective, most unusual was the very large spatial extent of up to 1,700 km. High wind speeds were associated with record breaking storm surges at the U.S. Mid- Atlantic and New England Coast during high (astronomical) tide, leading to widespread flooding. Though Sandy was not the most severe storm event in terms of wind speed and precipitation, the impact in the U.S. was enormous with total damage estimates of up to 90 billion US (own estimate from Dec. 2012). Although much better data emerge weeks after such an event, the Forensic Disaster Analysis (FDA) Task Force of the Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM) made an effort to obtain a comprehensive and holistic overview of the causes, hazardous effects and consequences associated with Sandy immediately after landfall at the U.S. coast on 30 October 2012. This was done in an interdisciplinary way by collecting and compiling scattered and distributed information from available databases and sources via the Internet, by applying own methodologies and models for near-real time analyses developed in recent years, and by expert knowledge. This contribution gives an overview about the CEDIM-FDA analyses' results. It describes the situation that led to the extraordinary event, highlights the interaction of the tropical cyclone with other hydro-meteorological events, and examines the impacts such as social and economic losses including cascading effects, for example, due to power outages. It is examined how Sandy compares to historic hurricane events in the U.S., both from the hydro-meteorological and impact perspective. Direct and indirect losses are estimated by comparison with past events and with the help of an economic loss model that describes the interdependencies between various economic sectors (input-output approach) combined with an assessment of the industrial vulnerability against indirect damages.

Kunz, Michael; Mühr, Bernhard; Schröter, Kai; Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Daniell, James; Khazai, Bijan; Wenzel, Friedemann; Vannieuwenhuyse, Marjorie; Comes, Tina; Münzberg, Thomas; Elmer, Florian; Fohringer, Joachim; Lucas, Christian; Trieselmann, Werner; Zschau, Jochen

2013-04-01

4

Role of forensic pathologists in mass disasters.  

PubMed

The forensic pathologist has always had a central role in the identification of the dead in every day practice, in accidents, and in disasters involving hundreds or thousands of victims. This role has changed in recent years, as advances in forensic odontology, genetics and anthropology have improved the chances of identifying victims beyond recognition. According to the Interpol DVI Guide, fingerprints, dental examination and DNA are the primary identifiers, and this has given new emphasis to the role of the forensic pathologist as the leader of a multidisciplinary team of experts in a disaster situation, based on his or her qualifications and the experience gained from doing the same work in the everyday situation of an institute of forensic medicine. PMID:22160735

Schuliar, Yves; Knudsen, Peter Juel Thiis

2011-12-13

5

Integrating forensic anthropology into Disaster Victim Identification.  

PubMed

This paper will provide mass fatality emergency planners, police, medical examiners, coroners and other Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) personnel ways to integrate forensic anthropologists into DVI operations and demonstrate how anthropological contributions have improved DVI projects. In mass disaster situations, anthropologists have traditionally been limited to developing biological profiles from skeletal remains. Over the past decade, however, anthropologists' involvement in DVI has extended well beyond this traditional role as they have taken on increasingly diverse tasks and responsibilities. Anthropological involvement in DVI operations is often dictated by an incident's specific characteristics, particularly events involving extensive fragmentation, commingling, or other forms of compromised remains. This paper will provide examples from recent DVI incidents to illustrate the operational utility of anthropologists in the DVI context. The points where it is most beneficial to integrate anthropologists into the DVI process include: (1) during recovery at the disaster scene; (2) at the triage station as remains are brought into the mortuary; and (3) in conducting the reconciliation process. Particular attention will be paid to quality control and quality assurance measures anthropologists have developed and implemented for DVI projects. Overall, this paper will explain how anthropological expertise can be used to increase accuracy in DVI while reducing the project's cost and duration. PMID:21877297

Mundorff, Amy Z

2011-08-30

6

Forensic odontology in the disaster victim identification process.  

PubMed

Disaster victim identification (DVI) is an intensive and demanding task involving specialists from various disciplines. The forensic dentist is one of the key persons who plays an important role in the DVI human identification process. In recent years, many disaster incidents have occurred that challenged the DVI team with various kinds of difficulties related to disaster management and unique situations in each disaster. New technologies have been developed to make the working process faster and more effective and the different DVI protocols have been evaluated and improved. The aim of this article is to collate all information regarding diagnostic tools and methodologies pertaining to forensic odontological DVI, both current and future. It can be concluded that lessons learned from previous disaster incidents have helped to optimize working protocols and to develop new tools that can be applied in future DVI operation. The working procedures have been greatly improved by newly developed technologies. PMID:23000806

Pittayapat, P; Jacobs, R; De Valck, E; Vandermeulen, D; Willems, G

2012-07-01

7

Forensic aspects of the 2009 Victorian Bushfires Disaster.  

PubMed

The 2009 Victorian Bushfires Disaster started on a record hot day in February 2009 and resulted in over 300 separate fires with a death toll of 173 and over 400 presentations to hospital emergency departments. This occurred a little over a week after a heat wave in which over 400 people were thought to have died prematurely in southeastern Australia. The Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine in collaboration with the police force and the State Coroner's Office and over 100 colleagues from all over Australia, Indonesia, New Zealand and Japan implemented a DVI process based on Interpol guidelines to identify the deceased persons. CT scanning was conducted on all remains collected and played a pivotal role in the identification processes in conjunction with experts in pathology, anthropology, forensic odontology and molecular biology. This paper outlines the scale of the disaster and the work, from a forensic medical perspective, to identify the deceased. PMID:20832958

Cordner, Stephen M; Woodford, Noel; Bassed, Richard

2010-09-15

8

Forensic DNA analysis.  

PubMed

Before the routine use of DNA profiling, blood typing was an important forensic tool. However, blood typing was not very discriminating. For example, roughly 30% of the United States population has type A-positive blood. Therefore, if A-positive blood were found at a crime scene, it could have come from 30% of the population. DNA profiling has a much better ability for discrimination. Forensic laboratories no longer routinely determine blood type. If blood is found at a crime scene, DNA profiling is performed. From Jeffrey's discovery of DNA fingerprinting to the development of PCR of STRs to the formation of DNA databases, our knowledge of DNA and DNA profiling have expanded greatly. Also, the applications for which we use DNA profiling have increased. DNA profiling is not just used for criminal case work, but it has expanded to encompass paternity testing, disaster victim identification, monitoring bone marrow transplants, detecting fetal cells in a mother's blood, tracing human history, and a multitude of other areas. The future of DNA profiling looks expansive with the development of newer instrumentation and techniques. PMID:22693781

McDonald, Jessica; Lehman, Donald C

2012-01-01

9

Nuclear Forensics Analysis Center: Forensic Analysis to Data Interpretation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Nuclear Forensics Analysis Center (NFAC) is part of Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and is one of only two USG National Laboratories accredited to perform nuclear forensic analyses to the requirements of ISO 17025. SRNL NFAC is capable of an...

T. F. Nichols

2010-01-01

10

NUCLEAR FORENSICS ANALYSIS CENTER FORENSIC ANALYSIS TO DATA INTERPRETATION  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Forensics Analysis Center (NFAC) is part of Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and is one of only two USG National Laboratories accredited to perform nuclear forensic analyses to the requirements of ISO 17025. SRNL NFAC is capable of analyzing nuclear and radiological samples from bulk material to ultra-trace samples. NFAC provides analytical support to the FBI's Radiological Evidence Examination Facility (REEF), which is located within SRNL. REEF gives the FBI the capability to perform traditional forensics on material that is radiological and/or is contaminated. SRNL is engaged in research and development efforts to improve the USG technical nuclear forensics capabilities. Research includes improving predictive signatures and developing a database containing comparative samples.

Nichols, T.

2011-02-07

11

The role of forensic anthropology in the examination of the Daegu subway disaster (2003, Korea).  

PubMed

Meticulous recovery of victims in the Daegu subway disaster was possible, because charred and fragmented victims were left in situ. Because bodies were piled one over another within the train, appropriate methodology during the recovery was critical to identifying the victims. The disaster area was thoroughly documented with notes, photographs, and schematic drawings of the various locations. The recovery team, comprising two medical examiners and one forensic anthropologist, decided when charred body parts and cremated bones were linked to the same individual based on the anatomy and forensic anthropological examination. Without these recovery procedures, it would not have been possible to efficiently harvest representative DNA sample from most of the victims' body parts. After the entire process of identification, 136 victims were positively identified, and six victims remained unidentified. This study supports the crucial role of forensic anthropologists in the recovery of victims, especially in fire scenes. PMID:19432735

Park, Dae-Kyoon; Park, Kyung-Ho; Ko, Jeong-Sik; Kim, Yi-Suk; Chung, Nak-Eun; Ahn, Yong-Woo; Han, Seung-Ho

2009-05-01

12

Bovine and equine forensic DNA analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal forensic DNA analysis is being used for human criminal investigations (e.g traces from cats and dogs), wildlife management, breeding and food safety. The most common DNA markers used for such forensic casework are short tandem repeats (STR). Rules and guidelines concerning quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) have been well established for human forensic STR DNA testing, which

L. H. P. van de Goor

2011-01-01

13

Weaving ontologies to support digital forensic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous challenges currently face digital forensic analysis. Although a variety of techniques and tools exist to assist with the analysis of digital evidence, they inadequately address key problems. We consider the applicability and usefulness of weaving ontologies to address some of these problems. We introduce an ontological approach leading to future development of an automated digital forensic analysis tool.

Allyson M. Hoss; Doris L. Carver

2009-01-01

14

Forensic Psychotherapy and Group Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic Psychotherapy is a new discipline, the offspring of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychoanalytical Psychotherapy. Its aim is the psychodynamic understanding of offenders and their consequent treatment, regardless of the seriousness of the offence. It involves the understanding of the unconscious as well as the conscious motivations of the criminal mind, and of particular offence behaviour. It does not seek to

Estela V. Welldon

1993-01-01

15

Fimag: the United Kingdom disaster victim/forensic identification imaging system.  

PubMed

Imaging is an integral diagnostic tool in mass fatality investigations undertaken traditionally by plain X-rays, fluoroscopy, and dental radiography. However, little attention has been given to appropriate image reporting, secure data transfer and storage particularly in relation to the need to meet stringent judicial requirements. Notwithstanding these limitations, it is the risk associated with the safe handling and investigation of contaminated fatalities which is providing new challenges for mass fatality radiological imaging. Mobile multi-slice computed tomography is an alternative to these traditional modalities as it provides a greater diagnostic yield and an opportunity to address the requirements of the criminal justice system. We present a new national disaster victim/forensic identification imaging system--Fimag--which is applicable for both contaminated and non-contaminated mass fatality imaging and addresses the issues of judicial reporting. We suggest this system opens a new era in radiological diagnostics for mass fatalities. PMID:19804521

Rutty, Guy N; Robinson, Claire; Morgan, Bruno; Black, Sue; Adams, Catherine; Webster, Philip

2009-10-05

16

Forensic Analysis of Xbox Consoles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsoft’s Xbox game console can be modified to run additional operating systems, enabling it to store gigabytes of non-game\\u000a related files and run various computer services. Little has been published, however, on procedures for determining whether\\u000a or not an Xbox console has been modified, for creating a forensic duplicate, and for conducting a forensic investigation.\\u000a Given the growing popularity of

Paul Burke; Philip Craiger

2007-01-01

17

(Environmental and disaster management risk analysis)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler attended workshops on Environmental and Disaster Management Risk Analysis in New Delhi and Jaipur, India. The objective of the workshops was to provide technical knowledge to Indians in the areas of environmental planning, industrial hazards, risk analysis, and disaster management. Conference participants identified the following top priorities to aid in the development of environmental and disaster management in India: (1) technology transfer in the area of atmospheric dispersion modelling, (2) increased training of scientific personnel to effectively deal with environmental problems, and (3) access to data bases on toxicological properties of chemicals.

Travis, C.C.

1990-01-03

18

Analysis of Linux RAM Forensics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During a forensic investigation of a computer system, the ability to retrieve volatile information can be of critical importance. The contents of RAM could reveal malicious code running on the system that has been deleted from the hard drive or, better ye...

J. M. Urrea

2006-01-01

19

DNA analysis in Disaster Victim Identification.  

PubMed

DNA profiling and matching is one of the primary methods to identify missing persons in a disaster, as defined by the Interpol Disaster Victim Identification Guide. The process to identify a victim by DNA includes: the collection of the best possible ante-mortem (AM) samples, the choice of post-mortem (PM) samples, DNA-analysis, matching and statistical weighting of the genetic relationship or match. Each disaster has its own scenario, and each scenario defines its own methods for identification of the deceased. PMID:22009165

Montelius, Kerstin; Lindblom, Bertil

2011-10-19

20

Forensic Analysis using Geological and Geochemical Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the globalisation of legal (and illegal) trade there is an increasing demand for techniques which can verify the geographical origin and transfer routes of many legal and illegal commodities and products. Although geological techniques have been used in forensic investigations since the emergence of forensics as a science in the late eighteen hundreds, the last decade has seen a marked increase in geo-scientists initiating concept studies using the latest analytical techniques, including studying natural abundance isotope variations, micro analysis with laser ablation ICPMS and geochemical mapping. Most of the concept studies have shown a good potential but uptake by the law enforcement and legal community has been limited due to concerns about the admissibility of the new methods. As an introduction to the UGU2009 session "Forensic Provenancing using Geological and Geochemical Techniques" I will give an overview of the state of the art of forensic geology and the issues that concern the admissibility of geological forensic evidence. I will use examples from the NITECRIME and FIRMS networks, the EU TRACE project and other projects and literature to illustrate the important issues at hand.

Hoogewerff, J.

2009-04-01

21

Knowledge discovery and experience modeling in computer forensics media analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is presented to identify research goals for the modeling of experiences, lessons learned, and knowledge discovered during the analysis of digital evidence in a forensic investigation. Additionally this paper suggests how such models might be used to facilitate automated computer forensics media analysis tools. The scope of this paper, with respect to computer forensics, is limited to the

A. Chris Bogen; David A. Dampier

2004-01-01

22

Computer Forensic Analysis in a Virtual Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we discuss the potential role of virtual environments in the analysis phase of computer forensics investigations. General concepts of virtual environments and software tools are presented and discussed. Further we identify the limitations of virtual environments leading to the conclusion that this method can not be considered to be a replacement for conventional techniques of computer evidence

Derek Bem; Ewa Huebner

2007-01-01

23

A forensic application of PIXE analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PIXE measurements were performed on various calcareous materials including identified bone residues, human cremains, and samples of disputed origin. In a forensic application, the elemental analysis suggests that the origin of a sample suspectly classified as human cremains can tentatively be identified as a mixture of sandy soil and dolomitic limestone. .

Kravchenko, I. I.; Dunnam, F. E.; van Rinsvelt, H. A.; Warren, M. W.; Falsetti, A. B.

2001-07-01

24

Forensic analysis of black coral (Order Antipatharia).  

PubMed

Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), discriminate analysis, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), and stereoscopic microscopy were used to separate black coral forensic evidence items from similarly appearing items manufactured from plastics, bovid keratin, and mangrove wood. In addition, novel observations were made of bromine and iodine relationships in black coral that have not been previously reported. PMID:21925814

Espinoza, Edgard O; Scanlan, Michael D; McClure, Pamela J; Baker, Barry W

2011-09-17

25

Forensic DNA analysis in Europe: current situation and standardization efforts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present position in Europe concerning DNA profiling in forensics is described including the methods and genetic systems currently used in casework in the European forensic laboratories. The need for standards and the type of standards required for forensic DNA analysis are explained. Standardization efforts in Europe as well as the results of the standardization groups are described.

Angel Carracedo; Mar??a Sol Rodriguez-Calvo; Carmela Pestoni; Mar??a Victoria Lareu; Susana Bellas; Antonio Salas; Francisco Barros

1997-01-01

26

Disasters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Whether caused by acts of nature, human error or even malevolence, disasters are an increasingly costly threat. The National Science Foundation works with the Administration and other federal agencies in a coordinated effort to anticipate disasters and minimize their effects. Research projects provide information on understanding the causes and predicting natural disasters, disaster preparation in the form of stronger buildings, infrastructure and cybersecurity, and disaster response.

27

Statistical Tools for Forensic Analysis of Toolmarks  

SciTech Connect

Recovery and comparison of toolmarks, footprint impressions, and fractured surfaces connected to a crime scene are of great importance in forensic science. The purpose of this project is to provide statistical tools for the validation of the proposition that particular manufacturing processes produce marks on the work-product (or tool) that are substantially different from tool to tool. The approach to validation involves the collection of digital images of toolmarks produced by various tool manufacturing methods on produced work-products and the development of statistical methods for data reduction and analysis of the images. The developed statistical methods provide a means to objectively calculate a ''degree of association'' between matches of similarly produced toolmarks. The basis for statistical method development relies on ''discriminating criteria'' that examiners use to identify features and spatial relationships in their analysis of forensic samples. The developed data reduction algorithms utilize the same rules used by examiners for classification and association of toolmarks.

David Baldwin; Max Morris; Stan Bajic; Zhigang Zhou; James Kreiser

2004-04-22

28

Forensic analysis of dyed textile fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Textile fibers are a key form of trace evidence, and the ability to reliably associate or discriminate them is crucial for\\u000a forensic scientists worldwide. While microscopic and instrumental analysis can be used to determine the composition of the\\u000a fiber itself, additional specificity is gained by examining fiber color. This is particularly important when the bulk composition\\u000a of the fiber is

John V. Goodpaster; Elisa A. Liszewski

2009-01-01

29

Digital forensics: forensic analysis of an iPod shuffle  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a discussion of the forensics of an iPod shuffle is presented. Due to the rapid rate at which technology is constantly advancing, digital music devices have evolved from simple devices capable of storing and playing a few songs, to devices capable of storing hundreds of songs, as well as other kinds of data. Apple's range of iPod

Iyatiti Mokube

2008-01-01

30

Forensic DNA testing.  

PubMed

Forensic DNA testing has a number of applications, including parentage testing, identifying human remains from natural or man-made disasters or terrorist attacks, and solving crimes. This article provides background information followed by an overview of the process of forensic DNA testing, including sample collection, DNA extraction, PCR amplification, short tandem repeat (STR) allele separation and sizing, typing and profile interpretation, statistical analysis, and quality assurance. The article concludes with discussions of possible problems with the data and other forensic DNA testing techniques. PMID:22135660

Butler, John M

2011-12-01

31

Economic Modeling for Disaster Impact Analysis: Past, Present, and Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyzing economic impacts of disasters has attracted interest from a wide audience in recent years, not only because of the frequent occurrence of large natural disasters worldwide but also because of the spread of terrorism to a global scale. This paper reviews past modeling studies for economic impact analysis of disasters, focusing especially on the input–output model and related modeling

Yasuhide Okuyama

2007-01-01

32

Forensic science and criminal justice: An analysis of curricular models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multi-disciplinary field of forensic science frequently finds its academic home within criminal justice programs. After\\u000a examining the reasons for this academic linkage, an analysis of criminal justice curricular models and courses was undertaken\\u000a to assess their applicability to forensic science education and careers. The authors concluded that the relationship between\\u000a criminal justice and forensic science can be mutually beneficial;

Charles A. Lindquist; Frederick P. Smith

1982-01-01

33

Historical development of expertise in forensic chemical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of forensic chemical analysis shows a development from the mere quotation of a concentration value to an expert\\u000a opinion which helps to explain manifold circumstances of the case under consideration. The development of forensic expertises\\u000a on chemical problems connected to forensic medicine reveals two essential stages: 1. A period, when sensual perceptions were\\u000a the only means of investigation

W. Vycudilik

2000-01-01

34

A second generation computer forensic analysis system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The architecture of existing – first generation – computer forensic tools, including the widely used EnCase and FTK products, is rapidly becoming outdated. Tools are not keeping pace with increased complexity and data volumes of modern investigations. This paper discuses the limitations of first generation computer forensic tools. Several metrics for measuring the efficacy and performance of computer forensic tools

Daniel Ayers

2009-01-01

35

Gait analysis in forensic medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have combined the basic human ability to recognize other individuals with functional anatomical and biomechanical knowledge, in order to analyze the gait of perpetrators as recorded on surveillance video. The perpetrators are then compared with similar analyses of suspects. At present we give a statement to the police as to whether the perpetrator has a characteristic gait pattern compared to normal gait, and if a suspect has a comparable gait pattern. We have found agreements such as: limping, varus instability in the knee at heel strike, larger lateral flexion of the spinal column to one side than the other, inverted ankle during stance, pronounced sagittal head-movements, and marked head-shoulder posture. Based on these characteristic features, we state whether suspect and perpetrator could have the same identity but it is not possible to positively identify the perpetrator. Nevertheless, we have been involved in several cases where the court has found that this type of gait analysis, especially combined with photogrammetry, was a valuable tool. The primary requisites are surveillance cameras recording with sufficient frequency, ideally about 15 Hz, which are positioned in frontal and preferably also in profile view.

Larsen, Peter K.; Simonsen, Erik B.; Lynnerup, Niels

2007-01-01

36

Forensic analysis of dyed textile fibers.  

PubMed

Textile fibers are a key form of trace evidence, and the ability to reliably associate or discriminate them is crucial for forensic scientists worldwide. While microscopic and instrumental analysis can be used to determine the composition of the fiber itself, additional specificity is gained by examining fiber color. This is particularly important when the bulk composition of the fiber is relatively uninformative, as it is with cotton, wool, or other natural fibers. Such analyses pose several problems, including extremely small sample sizes, the desire for nondestructive techniques, and the vast complexity of modern dye compositions. This review will focus on more recent methods for comparing fiber color by using chromatography, spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. The increasing use of multivariate statistics and other data analysis techniques for the differentiation of spectra from dyed fibers will also be discussed. PMID:19543886

Goodpaster, John V; Liszewski, Elisa A

2009-06-20

37

Laser capture microdissection for forensic DNA analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser capture microdissection (LCM) is a unique tool for precise separation of target cells from forensic mixtures. Cells isolated by LCM can subsequently be used for the generation of pure DNA profiles. Although mainly used in sexual assault cases, LCM offers tremendous advantages for many different forensic applications.

Mado Vandewoestyne; Dieter Deforce

38

Forensic Learning Disability Nursing Role Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article reports on a study carried out on the role constructs of forensic and nonforensic Learning Disability Nursing in relation to six binary themes. The aims were to identify if there were differences in perceptions of forensic learning disability nurses and nonforensic learning disability nurses in relation to the six binary themes of…

Mason, Tom; Phipps, Dianne; Melling, Kat

2011-01-01

39

Uses of software in digital image analysis: a forensic report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forensic image analysis is required an expertise to interpret the content of an image or the image itself in legal matters. Major sub-disciplines of forensic image analysis with law enforcement applications include photo-grammetry, photographic comparison, content analysis and image authentication. It has wide applications in forensic science range from documenting crime scenes to enhancing faint or indistinct patterns such as partial fingerprints. The process of forensic image analysis can involve several different tasks, regardless of the type of image analysis performed. Through this paper authors have tried to explain these tasks, which are described in to three categories: Image Compression, Image Enhancement & Restoration and Measurement Extraction. With the help of examples like signature comparison, counterfeit currency comparison and foot-wear sole impression using the software Canvas and Corel Draw.

Sharma, Mukesh; Jha, Shailendra

2010-02-01

40

FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF WINDOWS® VIRTUAL MEMORY INCORPORATING THE SYSTEMS PAGEFILE; COUNTERINTELLIGENCE THROUGH MALICIOUS CODE ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF WINDOWS® VIRTUAL MEMORY INCORPORATING THE SYSTEMS PAGEFILE;\\u000aComputer Forensics is concerned with the use of computer investigation and analysis techniques in order to collect evidence suitable for presentation in court. The examination of volatile memory is a relatively new but important area in computer forensics. More recently criminals are becoming more forensically aware and are now able

Jared Stimson; Edward Murphy

2007-01-01

41

Statistical Tools for Forensic Analysis of Toolmarks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recovery and comparison of toolmarks, footprint impressions, and fractured surfaces connected to a crime scene are of great importance in forensic science. The purpose of this project is to provide statistical tools for the validation of the proposition t...

D. Baldwin M. Morris S. Bajic Z. Zhou M. J. Kreiser

2004-01-01

42

Forensic STR analysis using massive parallel sequencing.  

PubMed

We explore the applicability of second generation sequencing (SGS) to sequence multiplexed forensic STR amplicons, both in a single contributor sample as in multiple-person mixtures with different ratios. We compare the results of a commercial STR profiling kit (Applied Biosystems AmpFlSTR(®) Profiler Plus(®)), analyzed both with capillary electrophoresis and with Roche GS FLX sequencing. An easy to use open-source software pipeline is provided, chaining together the different steps needed to start the analysis from a GS FLX FASTA file, resulting in a FASTA file containing the called and quantified alleles present in the data. Sequencing of multiplexed STR amplicons using Roche GS FLX titanium technology is technically feasible but the technology is not ideal for this purpose. The fraction of full length reads is small and the homopolymer sequencing error rate is high. The pipeline compresses the homopolymers to a single base to avoid false results caused by these homopolymers. The qualitative and quantitative results from the SGS STR analysis pipeline are comparable to the electrophoresis method. Additionally, the SGS method provides extra information and is able to call allele subtypes based on STR sequences in a database. In mixed samples, all alleles were reported from individuals that contributed at least 10% to the mixture. PMID:22503403

Van Neste, Christophe; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Van Hoofstat, David; Deforce, Dieter

2012-04-13

43

Joint Bayesian analysis of forensic mixtures.  

PubMed

Evaluation of series of PCR experiments referring to the same evidence is not infrequent in a forensic casework. This situation is met when 'series of results in mixture' (EPGs produced by reiterating PCR experiments over the same DNA mixture extract) have to be interpreted or when 'potentially related traces' (mixtures that can have contributors in common) require a combined interpretation. In these cases, there can be uncertainty on the genotype assignment, since: (a) more than one genotype combination fall under the same peak profile; (b) PCR preferential amplification alters pre-PCR allelic proportions; (c) other, more unpredictable technical problems (dropouts/dropins, etc.) take place. The uncertainty in the genotype assignment is in most cases addressed by empirical methods (selection of just one particular profile; extraction of consensual or composite profiles) that disregard part of the evidence. Genotype assignment should conversely take advantage from a joint Bayesian analysis (JBA) of all STRs peak areas generated at each experiment. This is the typical case of Bayesian analysis in which adoption of object-oriented Bayesian networks (OOBNs) could be highly helpful. Starting from experimentally designed mixtures, we created typical examples of 'series of results in mixture' of 'potentially related traces'. JBA was some administered to the whole peak area evidence, by specifically tailored OOBNs models, which enabled genotype assignment reflecting all the available evidence. Examples of a residual ambiguity in the genotype assignment came to light at assumed genotypes with partially overlapping alleles (for example: AB+AC?ABC). In the 'series of results in mixture', this uncertainty was in part refractory to the joint evaluation. Ambiguity was conversely dissipated at the 'potentially related' trace example, where the ABC allelic scheme at the first trace was interpreted together with other unambiguous combinations (ABCD; AB) at the related trace. We emphasize the need to carry out extensive, blind sensitivity tests specifically addressing the residual ambiguity that arises from overlapping results mixed at various quantitative ratios. PMID:22948016

Pascali, Vince L; Merigioli, Sara

2012-09-01

44

Towards Automating Analysis in Computer Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In the recent past, the number of attacks on computer systems that are moti- vated by profit has increased significantly, and such “cybercrime” is expected to dominate the threat landscape in the future. With criminal acts becoming more common in computer related incidents, the need for Computer Forensic experts to provide admissible evidence for these crimes also rises. Since

Bastian Schwittay

45

Forensic physical memory analysis: an overview of tools and techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic physical memory analysis has gradually evolved from basic techniques such as string searching to more com- plex methods. As computer malware becomes more sophis- ticated, tools and techniques for memory analysis suffer in- adequacies. Given this, it is essential to examine tools and techniques for physical memory analysis. By understanding their behaviour, limitations and advantages it is possible then

Gabriela Limon Garcia

46

Forensic Analysis of Instant Messenger Applications on Android Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper focuses on conducting forensic data analysis of 2 widely used IMs applications on Android phones WhatsApp and Viber. The tests and analysis were performed with the aim of determining what data and information can be found on the devices internal memory for instant messengers eg chat messaging logs and history send & received image or video files etc. The experiments and results show that heavy amount of potential evidences and valuable data can be found on Android phones by forensic investigators.

Mahajan, Aditya; S. Dahiya, M.; P. Sanghvi, H.

2013-04-01

47

FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF EXPLOSIVE RESIDUES FROM HAND SWABS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the forensic examination of physical evidence for organic explosives, cotton swabs are often used to collect residue from surfaces, such as skin and post-blast debris. A preliminary study has been conducted to develop extraction method of a common energetic compound, pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) from hand swabs followed by direct analysis of the resulting extract solution using high-performance liquid chromatography

Umi K. Ahmad; Sumathy Rajendran; Syahidah Abu Hassan

48

Ethical issues in the forensic applications of DNA analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attitudes towards forensic applications of DNA analysis vary. But two archetypal opposed viewpoints may be constructed—“Camp Enthusiastic” and “Camp Hostile”. Section 2characterises these two camps and analyses their opposition as reflecting (i) different models of criminal justice and different views in ethical theory about the normative relationship between the individual and society; or (ii) the agenda of different social or

Deryck Beyleveld

1997-01-01

49

Forensic Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic chemistry” is a broad term that, if taken literally, would encompass most of the functions within a crime laboratory.\\u000a Techniques used in forensic chemistry are also used by the toxicology and trace analysis sections. However, forensic chemistry\\u000a generally refers to controlled substance or drug analysis.

Donnell Christian

50

Forensic document analysis using scanning microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authentication and identification of the source of a printed document(s) can be important in forensic investigations involving a wide range of fraudulent materials, including counterfeit currency, travel and identity documents, business and personal checks, money orders, prescription labels, travelers checks, medical records, financial documents and threatening correspondence. The physical and chemical characterization of document materials - including paper, writing inks and printed media - is becoming increasingly relevant for law enforcement agencies, with the availability of a wide variety of sophisticated commercial printers and copiers which are capable of producing fraudulent documents of extremely high print quality, rendering these difficult to distinguish from genuine documents. This paper describes various applications and analytical methodologies using scanning electron miscoscopy/energy dispersive (x-ray) spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and related technologies for the characterization of fraudulent documents, and illustrates how their morphological and chemical profiles can be compared to (1) authenticate and (2) link forensic documents with a common source(s) in their production history.

Shaffer, Douglas K.

2009-05-01

51

A Model of Computer Live Forensics Based on Physical Memory Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a look at some of the shortcomings of current approaches to live forensics. On this basis, a model of computer live forensics based on physical memory analysis is proposed. The model can be used to effectively address many of the challenges facing the conventional live forensics. Then taking the credibility of digital evidence as a starting point,

Lianhai Wang; Ruichao Zhang; Shuhui Zhang

2009-01-01

52

The contribution of forensic science to crime analysis and investigation: Forensic intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The debate in forensic science concentrates on issues such as standardisation, accreditation and de-contextualisation, in a legal and economical context, in order to ensure the scientific objectivity and efficiency that must guide the process of collecting, analysing, interpreting and reporting forensic evidence. At the same time, it is recognised that forensic case data is still poorly integrated into the investigation

Olivier Ribaux; Simon J. Walsh; Pierre Margot

2006-01-01

53

Live and Trustworthy Forensic Analysis of Commodity Production Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We present HyperSleuth, a framework that leverages the virtualization extensions provided by commodity hardware to securely perform live forensic\\u000a analysis of potentially compromised production systems. HyperSleuth provides a trusted execution environment that guarantees four fundamental properties. First, an attacker controlling the\\u000a system cannot interfere with the analysis and cannot tamper the results. Second, the framework can be installed as the

Lorenzo Martignoni; Aristide Fattori; Roberto Paleari; Lorenzo Cavallaro

2010-01-01

54

Satellite Image Analysis for Disaster and Crisis-Management Support  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes how multisource satellite data and efficient image analysis may successfully be used to conduct rapid-mapping tasks in the domain of disaster and crisis-management support. The German Aerospace Center (DLR) has set up a dedicated crosscutting service, which is the so-called \\

Stefan Voigt; Thomas Kemper; Torsten Riedlinger; Ralph Kiefl; Klaas Scholte; Harald Mehl

2007-01-01

55

A Cybercrime Forensic Method for Chinese Web Information Authorship Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing popularization of the Internet, Internet services used as illegal purposes have become a serious problem.\\u000a How to prevent these phenomena from happening has become a major concern for society. In this paper, a cybercrime forensic\\u000a method for Chinese illegal web information authorship analysis was described. Various writing-style features including linguistic\\u000a features and structural features were extracted. To

Jianbin Ma; Guifa Teng; Yuxin Zhang; Yueli Li; Ying Li

2009-01-01

56

Towards an integrated e-mail forensic analysis framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to its simple and inherently vulnerable nature, e-mail communication is abused for numerous illegitimate purposes. E-mail spamming, phishing, drug trafficking, cyber bullying, racial vilification, child pornography, and sexual harassment are some common e-mail mediated cyber crimes. Presently, there is no adequate proactive mechanism for securing e-mail systems. In this context, forensic analysis plays a major role by examining suspected

Rachid Hadjidj; Mourad Debbabi; Hakim Lounis; Farkhund Iqbal; Adam Szporer; Djamel Benredjem

2009-01-01

57

Forensic webwatch: Forensic computing.  

PubMed

With the rapid and continuous development of information technology, policing faces new challenges. As computer equipments are becoming cheaper and the internet more readily available, computer crime and criminal exploitation is on the increase. Investigating such crimes requires identification, preservation, analysis and presentation of digital evidence, the key elements of forensic computing. This is helped by the fact that Locard's principle is applicable to this branch of science as much as in other areas of forensic science. This webwatch considers the ever evolving area of Forensic Computing. PMID:15763691

Bouhaidar, R

2005-02-01

58

Forensic Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is incorporating a broader spectrum of chemical sciences. Existing forensic practices are being revisited as the purview of forensic chemistry extends outward from drug analysis and toxicology into such diverse areas as combustion chemistry, materials science, and pattern evidence.

Bell, Suzanne

2009-07-01

59

Forensic analysis of print using digital image analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this investigation is to establish whether it is possible to produce a practical forensic tool that can identify the production sources of printed text from different digital print engines. The identification of print using an automated machine system is important because although expert observers can be employed for this task, there are cases when they make mistakes or do not possess the required knowledge. Therefore the development of an automated print identification system is under consideration. It is envisaged that the system will be useful in solving criminal cases involving the analysis of fraudulent replication of official documents, threatening letters and the counterfeiting of consumer products. The methodology used in this investigation employed a digital image analysis system and specially developed software to measure the shape characteristics of text characters. The information about the shapes of the text characters can be stored in a database along with the corresponding data about the print engines that produced them. A database search engine can then be used to classify text characters of unknown origin. The paper will report on the methodology and techniques used in the investigation and the latest experimental results for the project.

Tchan, Jack

2003-06-01

60

Forensic Analysis of Risks in Enterprise Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concepts of vulnerability assessment and penetration testing as methods of risk analysis have been a staple of the practice of information security. The seminal paper by Farmer and Venema (FV92) introduced the concept of performing penetration tests as a method of vulnerability assessment. Since the early 1990s the practices of vulnerability assessment and risk analysis have alternately converged and

Peter Stephenson

2004-01-01

61

On probability in risk analysis of natural disasters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to show how the common practice of applying the frequency interpretation of probability in risk analysis of so-called low-probability and high-consequence disasters can prove to be flawed, and to present a possible remedy. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The common practice is reviewed by using the Åknes case from Norway where an up to 100

Jan Emblemsvåg

2008-01-01

62

Are these liquids explosive? Forensic analysis of confiscated indoor fireworks.  

PubMed

Complete forensic analysis of several confiscated liquids and gels putatively used as firework components was achieved by combining Raman, FTIR spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy combined with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The chemical composition of the liquids was consistent with their use as indoor fireworks. Alcohols (methanol and isopropyl alcohol) were used to solubilise compounds producing coloured flames. Boric acid, recently introduced in the list of Substances of Very High Concern (SVHC) for the REACH Regulation of the European Union, was found in one of the samples. PMID:21533802

Castro, Kepa; Fdez-Ortiz de Vallejuelo, Silvia; Astondoa, Izaskun; Goñi, Félix M; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

2011-05-01

63

Forensic analysis of autosomal STR markers using Pyrosequencing.  

PubMed

Short tandem repeats (STRs) are highly variable, and therefore routinely used in forensic investigations for a DNA-based individual identification. The routine assay is commonly performed by size separation using capillary electrophoresis, but alternative technologies can also be used. In this study, a Pyrosequencing assay was developed for analysis of STR markers useful in forensic DNA analysis. The assay was evaluated for 10 different STR loci (CSF1PO, TH01, TPOX, D3S1358, D5S818, D7S820, D8S1179, D13S317, D16S539 and Penta E) and a total of 114 Swedish individuals were genotyped. This genotyping strategy reveal the actual sequence and variant alleles were seen at several loci, providing additional information compared to fragment size analysis. At the D13S317 locus a T/A SNP located in the last repeat unit was observed in 92% of the genotypes. Moreover, an upstream flanking SNP at locus D7S820, a SNP within the repeats at D3S1358 and D8S1179 and a deletion in the flanking region at locus D5S818 were observed. The Pyrosequencing method was first developed for SNP typing and sequencing of shorter DNA fragments but the method also provides an alternative method for STR analysis of less complex repeats. This assay is suitable for investigation of new markers, a rapid compilation of population data and for confirmation of variant and new alleles. PMID:20129471

Divne, Anna-Maria; Edlund, Hanna; Allen, Marie

2009-08-19

64

Flow Injection, Overlooked Techniques in Forensic Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since their introduction in the mid-1970s, flow injection (FI) techniques have gained a world-wide popularity. FI techniques are automated, miniaturized, versatile, and inexpensive analytical tools for handling reagents and samples and consequently for conducting procedures related to wet chemical analysis. Due to their tremendous benefits, FI techniques have proven to be significant applications to such analytical fields as pharmaceutical, environmental,

Abubakr M. Idris

2010-01-01

65

Forensic Analysis Demonstration via Hawaii Five-O  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Forensics," in its most universal sense, is defined as the use of science or technology in the investigation and establishment of facts or evidence for determining identity or relatedness. Most forensic reasoning is used for arguing legal matters. However, forensic studies are also used in agronomy, biology, chemistry, geology, and physics to…

Shmaefsky, Brian R.

2006-01-01

66

Countering Hostile Forensic Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital forensic investigations can be subverted by hostile forensic techniques and tools. This paper examines various hostile forensic techniques, including the exploitation of vulnerabilities in standard forensic procedures and denial of service attacks on forensic tools during imaging and analysis. Several techniques for concealing evidence within file systems and external to file systems are highlighted. In addition, strategies for countering hostile forensic techniques and tools are discussed.

Piper, Scott; Davis, Mark; Shenoi, Sujeet

67

Use of Stable Isotopes in Forensic Analysis of Microorganisms  

SciTech Connect

The use of isotopic signatures for forensic analysis of biological materials is well-established, and the same general principles that apply to interpretation of stable isotope content of C, N, O, and H apply to the analysis of microorganisms. Heterotrophic microorganisms derive their isotopic content from their growth substrates, which are largely plant and animal products, and the water in their culture medium. Thus the isotope signatures of microbes are tied to their growth environment. The C, N, O, and H isotope ratios of spores have been demonstrated to constitute highly discriminating signatures for sample matching. They can rule out specific samples of media and/or water as possible production media, and can predict isotope ratio ranges of the culture media and water used to produce a given sample. These applications have been developed and tested through analyses of approximately 250 samples of Bacillus subtilis spores and over 500 samples of culture media, providing a strong statistical basis for data interpretation. A Bayesian statistical framework for integrating stable isotope data with other types of signatures derived from microorganisms has been able to characterize the culture medium used to produce spores of various Bacillus species, leveraging isotopic differences in different medium types and demonstrating the power of data integration for forensic investigations.

Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.; Hegg, Eric L.

2012-01-18

68

Age estimation in forensic sciences: Application of combined aspartic acid racemization and radiocarbon analysis  

SciTech Connect

Age determination of unknown human bodies is important in the setting of a crime investigation or a mass disaster, since the age at death, birth date and year of death, as well as gender, can guide investigators to the correct identity among a large number of possible matches. Traditional morphological methods used by anthropologists to determine age are often imprecise, whereas chemical analysis of tooth dentin, such as aspartic acid racemization has shown reproducible and more precise results. In this paper we analyze teeth from Swedish individuals using both aspartic acid racemization and radiocarbon methodologies. The rationale behind using radiocarbon analysis is that above-ground testing of nuclear weapons during the cold war (1955-1963) caused an extreme increase in global levels of carbon-14 ({sup 14}C) which have been carefully recorded over time. Forty-four teeth from 41 individuals were analyzed using aspartic acid racemization analysis of tooth crown dentin or radiocarbon analysis of enamel and ten of these were split and subjected to both radiocarbon and racemization analysis. Combined analysis showed that the two methods correlated well (R2=0.66, p < 0.05). Radiocarbon analysis showed an excellent precision with an overall absolute error of 0.6 {+-} 04 years. Aspartic acid racemization also showed a good precision with an overall absolute error of 5.4 {+-} 4.2 years. Whereas radiocarbon analysis gives an estimated year of birth, racemization analysis indicates the chronological age of the individual at the time of death. We show how these methods in combination can also assist in the estimation of date of death of an unidentified victim. This strategy can be of significant assistance in forensic casework involving dead victim identification.

Alkass, K; Buchholz, B A; Ohtani, S; Yamamoto, T; Druid, H; Spalding, S L

2009-11-02

69

Age estimation in forensic sciences: application of combined aspartic acid racemization and radiocarbon analysis.  

PubMed

Age determination of unknown human bodies is important in the setting of a crime investigation or a mass disaster because the age at death, birth date, and year of death as well as gender can guide investigators to the correct identity among a large number of possible matches. Traditional morphological methods used by anthropologists to determine age are often imprecise, whereas chemical analysis of tooth dentin, such as aspartic acid racemization, has shown reproducible and more precise results. In this study, we analyzed teeth from Swedish individuals using both aspartic acid racemization and radiocarbon methodologies. The rationale behind using radiocarbon analysis is that aboveground testing of nuclear weapons during the cold war (1955-1963) caused an extreme increase in global levels of carbon-14 ((14)C), which has been carefully recorded over time. Forty-four teeth from 41 individuals were analyzed using aspartic acid racemization analysis of tooth crown dentin or radiocarbon analysis of enamel, and 10 of these were split and subjected to both radiocarbon and racemization analysis. Combined analysis showed that the two methods correlated well (R(2) = 0.66, p < 0.05). Radiocarbon analysis showed an excellent precision with an overall absolute error of 1.0 +/- 0.6 years. Aspartic acid racemization also showed a good precision with an overall absolute error of 5.4 +/- 4.2 years. Whereas radiocarbon analysis gives an estimated year of birth, racemization analysis indicates the chronological age of the individual at the time of death. We show how these methods in combination can also assist in the estimation of date of death of an unidentified victim. This strategy can be of significant assistance in forensic casework involving dead victim identification. PMID:19965905

Alkass, Kanar; Buchholz, Bruce A; Ohtani, Susumu; Yamamoto, Toshiharu; Druid, Henrik; Spalding, Kirsty L

2009-12-04

70

Forensic Anthropology and Forensic Pathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter presents a critical analysis of forensic anthropology. An evaluation of the conception of forensic anthropology\\u000a across European and American countries is attempted. Furthermore, the authors set out to identify the growing fields in which\\u000a the anthropologist is involved, alone or together with forensic pathologists.\\u000a \\u000a Certification, training requirements, and teaching are rather heterogeneous across the several countries analyzed. Yet,

Eugénia Cunha; Cristina Cattaneo

71

Visible and near-infrared chemical imaging methods for the analysis of selected forensic samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated various chemical imaging methods for the forensic analysis of paints, tapes and adhesives, inks and firearm propellants (absorption and photoluminescence in the UV–vis–NIR regions). Results obtained using chemical imaging technology were compared with those obtained using traditional techniques. The results show that chemical imaging offers significant advantages in the forensic context, for example the ability to display

Gemma Payne; Christie Wallace; Brian Reedy; Chris Lennard; Rebecca Schuler; David Exline; Claude Roux

2005-01-01

72

Automated Forensic DNA Purification Optimized for FTA Card Punches and Identifiler STR-based PCR Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic labs globally face the same problem—a growing need to process a greater number and wider variety of samples for DNA analysis. The same forensic lab can be tasked all at once with processing mixed casework samples from crime scenes, convicted offender samples for database entry, and tissue from tsunami victims for identification. Besides flexibility in the robotic system chosen

Lois C. Tack; Michelle Thomas; Karl Reich

2005-01-01

73

On statistical analysis of forensic DNA: Theory, methods and computer programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistics plays an important role in evaluating the evidential weight of forensic DNA. In this paper, general statistical principles for forensic DNA analysis are presented. We introduce the theory and methods for the statistical assessment in kinship determination and DNA mixture evaluation. In particular, analytical formulas for testing for biological relationship among three individuals and for assessing the DNA mixture

Wing K. Fung; Yue-Qing Hu; Yuk-Ka Chung

2006-01-01

74

Analysis of Seismic Disaster of Masonry Pagodas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many strong earthquakes happened in the past in China and numerous houses were destructed heavily by earthquakes. As ancient\\u000a high-rise buildings, the existent masonry pagodas suffered from earthquakes seriously too. They can provide a lot of information\\u000a to study the historical earthquakes and seismic mechanics of masonry high-rise buildings. In light of seismic calculation\\u000a by model analysis method, the capacity

Junlong Lu; Yin Zhang; Qianfeng Yao

75

Forensic analysis of wooden safety matches -- a case study.  

PubMed

In this case, an individual was suspected of attempting to burn materials potentially relating to a murder case. A number of spent and unspent matches were seized at the scene by police for forensic examination. Coincidentally, a police raid at the suspect's house revealed a number of matchboxes, all of the same brand, containing matches that had a visual similarity to those recovered at the scene. Stable Isotope Profiling (SIP) was used to assess whether matches could either be distinguished or shown to be indistinguishable by 13C and 2H isotopic composition. These results were then compared to those from the X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of match heads and microscopy of the wood. SIP showed the scene matches and seized matches to be different, which was confirmed by XRD and microscopy analyses. PMID:17941328

Farmer, N L; Ruffell, A; Meier-Augenstein, W; Meneely, J; Kalin, R M

2007-09-01

76

Forensic analysis of hydraulic props in longwall workings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic mining engineering tackles the application of mining engineering principles and methodologies to determine the causes of deficient performance in a given excavation or support, elaborating conclusions in the shape of expert opinions.Study of real cases, as well as development of campaigns for in-mine measurement and instrumentation, constitutes an element of unquestionable interest for forensic engineers. For that reason, the

R. Juárez-Ferreras; C. González-Nicieza; A. Menéndez-Díaz; A. E. Álvarez-Vigil; M. I. Álvarez-Fernández

2009-01-01

77

The future of computer forensics: a needs analysis survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study was a pilot study and attempted to add to the growing body of knowledge regarding inherent issues in computer forensics. The study consisted of an Internet based survey that asked respondents to identify the top five issues in computer forensics. 60 respondents answered the survey using a free form text field. The results indicated that education\\/training and

Marcus K. Rogers; Kate Seigfried

2004-01-01

78

Favorite Demonstration: Forensic Analysis Demonstration via Hawaii Five-O  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The interdisciplinary nature of a forensics-based demonstration encourages science majors to move beyond their own narrow fields of study. The demonstration described in this column emphasizes the interconnectedness of biology, chemistry, and geology. Forensic-based demonstrations such as this can also be used to introduce the protocols governing the application of discipline specific information to other fields of study.

Shmaefsky, Brian R.

2006-09-01

79

[The analysis of the unfavourable outcomes of dental care based on the materials of forensic medical examinations carried out by the Bureau of Forensic Medical Expertise, Moscow Department of Health].  

PubMed

The analysis of the unfavourable outcomes of dental care based on the materials of forensic medical examinations carried out by the Bureau of Forensic Medical Expertise, Moscow Department of Health. PMID:22686052

Pigolkin, Iu I; Murzova, T V; Zharov, V V; Za?tsev, V V; Mirzoev, Kh M

80

Analysis of the Columbia Shuttle Disaster—Anatomy of a Flawed Investigation in a Pathological Organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten days after the Columbia shuttle disaster, the members of two of my classes were assembled to do an analysis of the event. One of the classes was studying Creative Problem Solving and the other Incident Investigation. The shuttle disaster provided an opportunity to relate our studies to a current real-world event. The excitement and energy in the two sessions

JOHN P. MACLEAN; GORDON CAMPBELL; SCOTT SEALS

81

Analysis of clinical forensic examination reports on sexual assault  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical-forensic examination of sexual assault victims and alleged offenders is a common task of many forensic institutes.\\u000a In the current study, the results from samples taken at the Institute of Legal Medicine, Hanover Medical School, during a\\u000a period from 2005 to 2007 were retrospectively evaluated. In total, 292 victims (283 females and nine males) and 88 suspects\\u000a were examined. At

Stefanie Jänisch; Hildrun Meyer; Tanja Germerott; Urs-Vito Albrecht; Yvonne Schulz; Anette Solveig Debertin

2010-01-01

82

A Process Model for Forensic Analysis of Symbian Smart Phones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The smartphone segment has been witnessed the fastest growth in the handset market.Traditional phones will be replaced by\\u000a smart phones. At the same time, smart phones may be used for fraud, forgery and defamation and other criminal activities.Symbian\\u000a smartphones forensics is relatively a new field of interest among scientific and law enforcement.There are various mobile\\u000a phones forensics process models now.

Xian Yu; Lie-Hui Jiang; Hui Shu; Qing Yin; Tie-Ming Liu

83

Development of a novel forensic STR multiplex for ancestry analysis and extended identity testing.  

PubMed

There is growing interest in developing additional DNA typing techniques to provide better investigative leads in forensic analysis. These include inference of genetic ancestry and prediction of common physical characteristics of DNA donors. To date, forensic ancestry analysis has centered on population-divergent SNPs but these binary loci cannot reliably detect DNA mixtures, common in forensic samples. Furthermore, STR genotypes, forming the principal DNA profiling system, are not routinely combined with forensic SNPs to strengthen frequency data available for ancestry inference. We report development of a 12-STR multiplex composed of ancestry informative marker STRs (AIM-STRs) selected from 434 tetranucleotide repeat loci. We adapted our online Bayesian classifier for AIM-SNPs: Snipper, to handle multiallele STR data using frequency-based training sets. We assessed the ability of the 12-plex AIM-STRs to differentiate CEPH Human Genome Diversity Panel populations, plus their informativeness combined with established forensic STRs and AIM-SNPs. We found combining STRs and SNPs improves the success rate of ancestry assignments while providing a reliable mixture detection system lacking from SNP analysis alone. As the 12 STRs generally show a broad range of alleles in all populations, they provide highly informative supplementary STRs for extended relationship testing and identification of missing persons with incomplete reference pedigrees. Lastly, mixed marker approaches (combining STRs with binary loci) for simple ancestry inference tests beyond forensic analysis bring advantages and we discuss the genotyping options available. PMID:23400880

Phillips, Chris; Fernandez-Formoso, Luis; Gelabert-Besada, Miguel; Garcia-Magariños, Manuel; Santos, Carla; Fondevila, Manuel; Carracedo, Angel; Lareu, Maria Victoria

2013-03-18

84

Genetic analysis of sudden cardiac death victims: a survey of current forensic autopsy practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autopsy-negative sudden cardiac deaths (SCD) seen in forensic practice are most often thought to be the result of sudden arrhythmic\\u000a death syndrome. Postmortem genetic analysis is recommended in such cases, but is currently performed in only a few academic\\u000a centers. In order to determine actual current practice, an on-line questionnaire was sent by e-mail to members of various\\u000a forensic medical

Katarzyna Michaud; Patrice Mangin; Bernice S. Elger

2011-01-01

85

Mutations at Y-STR loci: implications for paternity testing and forensic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge about mutation rates and the mutational process of Y-chromosomal short-tandem-repeat (STR) or microsatellite loci used in paternity testing and forensic analysis is crucial for the correct interpretation of resulting genetic profiles. Therefore, we recently analysed a total of 4999 male germline transmissions from father\\/son pairs of confirmed paternity (probability?99.9%) at 15 Y-STR loci which are commonly applied to forensics.

Manfred Kayser; Antti Sajantila

2001-01-01

86

Stable Isotope Ratios and the Forensic Analysis of Microorganisms  

SciTech Connect

In the aftermath of the anthrax letters of 2001, researchers have been exploring various analytical signatures for the purpose of characterizing the production environment of microorganisms. One such signature is stable isotope ratios, which in heterotrophs are a function of nutrient and water sources. Here we discuss the use of stable isotope ratios in microbe forensics, using as a database the carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope ratios of 247 separate cultures of B. subtilis 6051 spores produced on a total of 32 different culture media. In the context of using stable isotope ratios as a signature for sample matching, we present an analysis of variation between individual samples, between cultures produced in tandem, and between cultures produced in the same medium but at different times. Additionally, we correlate the stable isotope ratios of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen for growth medium nutrients or water with those of spores and show examples of how these relationships can be used to exclude nutrient or water samples as possible growth substrates for specific cultures.

Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.; Jarman, Kristin H.

2007-06-01

87

Stable Isotope Ratios and Forensic Analysis of Microorganisms?  

PubMed Central

In the aftermath of the anthrax letters of 2001, researchers have been exploring various analytical signatures for the purpose of characterizing the production environment of microorganisms. One such signature is stable isotope ratios, which in heterotrophs, are a function of nutrient and water sources. Here we discuss the use of stable isotope ratios in microbial forensics, using as a database the carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen stable isotope ratios of 247 separate cultures of Bacillus subtilis 6051 spores produced on a total of 32 different culture media. In the context of using stable isotope ratios as a signature for sample matching, we present an analysis of variations between individual samples, between cultures produced in tandem, and between cultures produced in the same medium but at different times. Additionally, we correlate the stable isotope ratios of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen for growth medium nutrients or water with those of spores and show examples of how these relationships can be used to exclude nutrient or water samples as possible growth substrates for specific cultures.

Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.; Jarman, Kristin H.

2007-01-01

88

Forensic odontology identification using smile photograph analysis--case reports.  

PubMed

The identification of unknown human by smile photographs that show specific characteristics of each individual has found wide acceptance all over the world. Therefore this paper shows this situation reporting different cases which smile photograph analysis were crucial to determine the positive identification of unidentified human bodies. All the cases were subjected to personal identification by photographs of smile including one adult male found in an advanced stage of decomposition, one adult female disappeared during an ecotourism trip, and one carbonized body of a male individual found in a forest region. During the autopsy the photographs of the smile were used by comparison of the ante and postmortem images gave accurate and useful information not only about dental state but also the anatomical features surrounding the upper and lower anterior dental arches. This method is not time-consuming and also has the advantage of allowing extraoral dental examination. It is also recommended when there is a need to provide quantitative data for a forensic identification based on these structures. PMID:22689352

Silva, R F; Pereira, S D; Prado, F B; Daruge, E; Daruge, E

2008-06-01

89

Role of deoxyribonucleic acid technology in forensic dentistry  

PubMed Central

In the last few years, Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) analysis methods have been applied to forensic cases. Forensic dental record comparison has been used for human identification in cases where destruction of bodily tissues or prolonged exposure to the environment has made other means of identification impractical, that is, after fire exposure or mass disaster. Teeth play an important role in identification and criminology, due to their unique characteristics and relatively high degree of physical and chemical resistance. The use of a DNA profile test in forensic dentistry offers a new perspective in human identification. The DNA is responsible for storing all the genetic material and is unique to each individual. The currently available DNA tests have high reliability and are accepted as legal proofs in courts. This article gives an overview of the evolution of DNA technology in the last few years, highlighting its importance in cases of forensic investigation.

Datta, Pankaj; Datta, Sonia Sood

2012-01-01

90

Environmental and disaster management risk analysis. Foreign trip report, December 9, 1989-December 22, 1989.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The traveler attended workshops on Environmental and Disaster Management Risk Analysis in New Delhi and Jaipur, India. The objective of the workshops was to provide technical knowledge to Indians in the areas of environmental planning, industrial hazards,...

C. C. Travis

1990-01-01

91

The impact of chimerism in DNA-based forensic sex determination analysis  

PubMed Central

Sex determination is the most important step in personal identification in forensic investigations. DNA-based sex determination analysis is comparatively more reliable than the other conventional methods of sex determination analysis. Advanced technology like real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) offers accurate and reproducible results and is at the level of legal acceptance. But still there are situations like chimerism where an individual possess both male and female specific factors together in their body. Sex determination analysis in such cases can give erroneous results. This paper discusses the phenomenon of chimerism and its impact on sex determination analysis in forensic investigations.

George, Renjith; Donald, Preethy Mary; Nagraj, Sumanth Kumbargere; Idiculla, Jose Joy; Hj Ismail, Rashid

2013-01-01

92

The impact of chimerism in DNA-based forensic sex determination analysis.  

PubMed

Sex determination is the most important step in personal identification in forensic investigations. DNA-based sex determination analysis is comparatively more reliable than the other conventional methods of sex determination analysis. Advanced technology like real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) offers accurate and reproducible results and is at the level of legal acceptance. But still there are situations like chimerism where an individual possess both male and female specific factors together in their body. Sex determination analysis in such cases can give erroneous results. This paper discusses the phenomenon of chimerism and its impact on sex determination analysis in forensic investigations. PMID:23785258

George, Renjith; Donald, Preethy Mary; Nagraj, Sumanth Kumbargere; Idiculla, Jose Joy; Hj Ismail, Rashid

2013-01-01

93

The use of grain size distribution analysis of sediments and soils in forensic enquiry.  

PubMed

The use of grain size distribution analysis in forensic enquiry was investigated with reference to four forensic case studies which contained the type of sample restraints and limitations often encountered in criminal case work. The problems of the comparison of trace and bulk samples are outlined and the need for multiple sample analysis is highlighted. It was found that the problems of soil analysis, particularly when the soil was recovered from anthropogenic sources, focused on the lack of identification of pre-, syn- and post-forensic event mixing of materials, thus obscuring the recognition of false-negative or false-positive exclusions between samples. It was found that grain size distribution analysis was a useful descriptive tool but it was concluded that if it were to be used in any other manner the derived results should be treated with great caution. The statistical analyses of these data did not improve the quality of the interpretation of the results. PMID:18051034

Morgan, R M; Bull, P A

2007-11-01

94

Legal Aspects of Obtaining Evidence for Analysis by Forensic Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Through the examination of trace evidence, many forensic techniques can establish a link between a suspect and the scene of a crime. Blood, saliva, semen, hairs, fibers, soils, glass, and fingerprints have all been used in this manner. All these methods r...

P. C. Gianelli

1973-01-01

95

Paint Analysis Using Visible Reflectance Spectroscopy: An Undergraduate Forensic Lab  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study of forensic science is found throughout undergraduate programs in growing numbers, both as stand-alone courses as well as specific examples within existing courses. Part of the driving force for this trend is the ability to apply common chemistry techniques to everyday situations, all couched in the context of a mystery that must be…

Hoffman, Erin M.; Beussman, Douglas J.

2007-01-01

96

Model-based analysis of striation patterns in forensic science  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new image processing strategy that enables an automated extraction of signatures from striation patterns. To this end, a signal model is proposed that allows a suitable description of the interesting features of forensically relevant striation marks. To provide for a high image quality, several images of the same surface area are recorded under systematically varying conditions. The

M. Heizmann

2000-01-01

97

Automated Analysis for Digital Forensic Science: Semantic Integrity Checking  

Microsoft Academic Search

When computer security violations are detected, com- puter forensic analysts attempting to determine the relevant causes and effects are forced to perform the tedious tasks of finding and preserving useful clues in large networks of op- erational machines. To augment a computer crime investi- gator's efforts, the approach presented in this paper is an expert system with a decision tree

Tye Stallard; Karl N. Levitt

2003-01-01

98

[Significance of mitochondrial DNA for forensic stain analysis, identification and forensic lineage determination].  

PubMed

DNA testing using conventional STR systems may produce insufficient results, if the genomic DNA in the specimen is either highly degraded or the available quantity is very small (e.g. skin particles, hair shafts or ancient bones). In some of these cases the examination of mitochondrial DNA, which is present in considerably larger copy numbers in the cytoplasm, is more successful than that of nuclear DNA. Identification of unknown corpses by conventional DNA typing sometimes remains doubtful, if only samples from presumably distant relatives or putative brothers or sisters are available for comparison. Since mitochondrial DNA is generally transmitted in maternal lineages, its sequence pattern can be directly compared with those of other individuals and, in case of the same maternal lineage, corresponding sequence chromatograms are to be expected. In connection with nuclear DNA typing methods certain sequence motives may furnish clues to ethnic groups. The report presents three cases illustrating the application possibilities of mtDNA typing in forensic practice. PMID:11006826

Lutz, S; Weisser, H J; Meier, V; Amberg, R

99

Ambient pressure thermal desorption ionization mass spectrometry for the analysis of substances of forensic interest.  

PubMed

The large backlog of forensic samples needing chemical analysis requires new tools with high specificity, throughput, and reliability. Mass spectrometric techniques have the specificity and reliability necessary for identification, but often require sample preparation before analysis. The growth of ambient pressure ionization techniques has the capability to reduce the need for lengthy preparation. This report presents one possible technique, ambient pressure thermal desorption ionization mass spectrometry, which could prove to be useful to the forensic science community. Example mass spectra for several explosive compounds and illicit drugs obtained from liquid and bulk samples with almost no sample preparation are presented. The use of the technique for quantitative analysis is also addressed. PMID:23869379

Demoranville, Leonard T; Brewer, Tim M

2013-07-19

100

Scenario-based impact analysis of disaster risks exploring potential implications for disaster prevention strategies in spatial and urban planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The project deals with scenario techniques to assess, estimate, and communicate the potential consequences of natural disasters on risk governance arrangements. It aims to create a methodology which allows the development of disaster scenarios for different types of natural hazards. This enables relevant stakeholders to derive planning strategies to prevent harmful damage to the community through adequate adaptation. Some main questions in the project are: - How do changing boundary conditions in economic, social and ecological systems influence the significance and the benefit of existent risk analysis as a basis for spatial planning decisions? - Which factors represent or influence the forecast uncertainty of existent extrapolations within the scope of risk analysis? Which of these uncertainties have spatial relevance? (Which go beyond sectoral considerations of risk? Which refer to reservations concerning spatial development? Which influence a community as a whole?) - How can we quantify these uncertainties? Do they change according to altered hazards or vulnerabilities? - How does the explored risk vary, once quantified uncertainties are integrated into current extrapolations? What are the implications for spatial planning activities? - Which software application is suitable to visualize and communicate the scenario methodology? The work is mainly based on existing results of previous hazard analysis and vulnerability studies which have been carried out by the Center of Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM) for the federal state of Baden-Württemberg. Existing data concern the risk of damages on residential buildings, industrial and traffic infrastructure, social and economic vulnerability. We will link this data with various assumptions of potentially changing economic, social and built environments and visualize those using Geographical Information Systems (GIS). Although the scenario methodology is conceived as a multi-hazard oriented and transferable instrument, it may be helpful to demonstrate the methodology for one hazard (e.g. flooding hazards) and with special local conditions in Baden-Württemberg.

Lüke, J.; Wenzel, F.; Vogt, J.

2009-04-01

101

Image data integration and analysis for natural disaster decision support systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural disasters have a major impact, globally and within the United States causing injury and loss of life, as well as economic losses. To better address disaster response needs, a task force has been established to leverage technological capabilities to improve disaster response management. Web based geospatial analysis is one of these important capabilities. Samples of geospatial technologies applicable to disaster management are presented. These include 3D visualization, hyperspectral imagery, LIDAR, use of spectral libraries, digital multispectral video, radar imaging systems, photogeologic analysis and geographic information systems. An example scenario of a hurricane with landfall at Mobile, Alabama is used to demonstrate the interoperable use of web-based geospatial information to support decision support systems and assist public information communication.

Roper, William E.

2001-06-01

102

A Simple Cost-Effective Framework for iPhone Forensic Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Apple iPhone has made significant impact on the society both as a handheld computing device and as a cellular phone. Due to the unique hardware system as well as storage structure, iPhone has already attracted the forensic community in digital investigation of the device. Currently available commercial products and methodologies for iPhone forensics are somewhat expensive, complex and often require additional hardware for analysis. Some products are not robust and often fail to extract optimal evidence without modifying the iPhone firmware which makes the analysis questionable in legal platforms. In this paper, we present a simple and inexpensive framework (iFF) for iPhone forensic analysis. Through experimental results using real device, we have shown the effectiveness of this framework in extracting digital evidence from an iPhone.

Husain, Mohammad Iftekhar; Baggili, Ibrahim; Sridhar, Ramalingam

103

The return period analysis of natural disasters with statistical modeling of bivariate joint probability distribution.  

PubMed

New features of natural disasters have been observed over the last several years. The factors that influence the disasters' formation mechanisms, regularity of occurrence and main characteristics have been revealed to be more complicated and diverse in nature than previously thought. As the uncertainty involved increases, the variables need to be examined further. This article discusses the importance and the shortage of multivariate analysis of natural disasters and presents a method to estimate the joint probability of the return periods and perform a risk analysis. Severe dust storms from 1990 to 2008 in Inner Mongolia were used as a case study to test this new methodology, as they are normal and recurring climatic phenomena on Earth. Based on the 79 investigated events and according to the dust storm definition with bivariate, the joint probability distribution of severe dust storms was established using the observed data of maximum wind speed and duration. The joint return periods of severe dust storms were calculated, and the relevant risk was analyzed according to the joint probability. The copula function is able to simulate severe dust storm disasters accurately. The joint return periods generated are closer to those observed in reality than the univariate return periods and thus have more value in severe dust storm disaster mitigation, strategy making, program design, and improvement of risk management. This research may prove useful in risk-based decision making. The exploration of multivariate analysis methods can also lay the foundation for further applications in natural disaster risk analysis. PMID:22616629

Li, Ning; Liu, Xueqin; Xie, Wei; Wu, Jidong; Zhang, Peng

2012-05-22

104

A relative vulnerability estimation of flood disaster using data envelopment analysis in the Dongting Lake region of Hunan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vulnerability to flood disaster is addressed by a number of studies. It is of great importance to analyze the vulnerability of different regions and various periods to enable the government to make policies for distributing relief funds and help the regions to improve their capabilities against disasters, yet a recognized paradigm for such studies seems missing. Vulnerability is defined and evaluated through either physical or economic-ecological perspectives depending on the field of the researcher concerned. The vulnerability, however, is the core of both systems as it entails systematic descriptions of flood severities or disaster management units. The research mentioned often has a development perspective, and in this article we decompose the overall flood system into several factors: disaster driver, disaster environment, disaster bearer, and disaster intensity, and take the interaction mechanism among all factors as an indispensable function. The conditions of flood disaster components are demonstrated with disaster driver risk level, disaster environment stability level and disaster bearer sensitivity, respectively. The flood system vulnerability is expressed as vulnerability = f(risk, stability, sensitivity). Based on the theory, data envelopment analysis method (DEA) is used to detail the relative vulnerability's spatiotemporal variation of a flood disaster system and its components in the Dongting Lake region. The study finds that although a flood disaster system's relative vulnerability is closely associated with its components' conditions, the flood system and its components have a different vulnerability level. The overall vulnerability is not the aggregation of its components' vulnerability. On a spatial scale, zones central and adjacent to Dongting Lake and/or river zones are characterized with very high vulnerability. Zones with low and very low vulnerability are mainly distributed in the periphery of the Dongting Lake region. On a temporal scale, the occurrence of a vibrating flood vulnerability trend is observed. A different picture is displayed with the disaster driver risk level, disaster environment stability level and disaster bearer sensitivity level. The flood relative vulnerability estimation method based on DEA is characteristic of good comparability, which takes the relative efficiency of disaster system input-output into account, and portrays a very diverse but consistent picture with varying time steps. Therefore, among different spatial and time domains, we could compare the disaster situations with what was reflected by the same disaster. Additionally, the method overcomes the subjectivity of a comprehensive flood index caused by using an a priori weighting system, which exists in disaster vulnerability estimation of current disasters.

Li, C.-H.; Li, N.; Wu, L.-C.; Hu, A.-J.

2013-07-01

105

Characterization of background and pyrolysis products that may interfere with the forensic analysis of fire debris  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important aspect of an investigation of a suspected arson case involves the chemical analysis of the debris remaining after the fire. Forensic chemists apply the tools of analytical chemistry for the extraction, isolation and analysis of the target compounds that characterize ignitable liquid residues (ILR). Complex organic mixtures such as automobile gasoline, diesel fuel and other volatile mixtures that

José R Almirall; Kenneth G Furton

2004-01-01

106

The ‘relics of Joan of Arc’: A forensic multidisciplinary analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Archaeological remains can provide concrete cases, making it possible to develop, refine or validate medico-legal techniques.In the case of the so-called ‘Joan of Arc's relics’ (a group of bone and archaeological remains known as the ‘Bottle of Chinon’), 14 specialists analysed the samples such as a cadaver X of carbonised aspect: forensic anthropologist, medical examiners, pathologists, geneticists, radiologist, biochemists, palynologists,

P. Charlier; J. Poupon; A. Eb; P. De Mazancourt; T. Gilbert; I. Huynh-Charlier; Y. Loublier; A. M. Verhille; C. Moulheirat; M. Patou-Mathis; L. Robbiola; R. Montagut; F. Masson; A. Etcheberry; L. Brun; E. Willerslev; G. Lorin de la Grandmaison; M. Durigon

2010-01-01

107

Application of Material Characterization Techniques to Electrical Forensic Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The application of forensic science techniques to electrical equipment failure investigation has not been widely documented in the engineering world. This paper is intended to share an example of using material characterization techniques to support an initial cause determination of an electrical component failure event. The resulting conclusion supported the initial cause determination and ruled out the possibility of design deficiencies. Thus, the qualification testing of the equipment was allowed to continue to successful completion.

Mills, T.D.

2003-03-11

108

Forensic comparative glass analysis by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glass samples of four types commonly encountered in forensic examinations have been analyzed by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the purpose of discriminating between samples originating from different sources. Some of the glass sets were also examined by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Refractive index (RI) measurements were also made on all glass samples and the refractive index data

Candice M. Bridge; Joseph Powell; Katie L. Steele; Michael E. Sigman

2007-01-01

109

[The concept of "forensic medicine"].  

PubMed

The analysis of the definition of forensic medicine and its evolution during the past 300 years is presented. The special character of forensic medicine, its subject-matter, scope of research, procedures, goals and targeted application of forensic medical knowledge are discussed. The original definition of the notion of "forensic medicine" is proposed. PMID:23888497

Popov, V L

110

Forensic DNA typing in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the field of forensic genetics, essential developmental impulses come from the advances of the molecular biology and human genome projects. This paper overviews existing technologies for forensic genetics in China and gives a perspective of forensic DNA analysis. In China, work has been done in the development of blood group serology of the conventional markers. Forensic scientists in China

Y. P. Hou

2009-01-01

111

The Vulnerable System: An Analysis of the Tenerife Air Disaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tenerife air disaster, in which a KLM 747 and a Pan Am 747 collided with a loss of 583 lives, is examined as a prototype of system vulnerability to crisis. It is concluded that the combination of interruption of important routines among interdependent systems, interdependencies that become tighter, a loss of cognitive efficiency due to autonomic arousal, and a

Karl E. Weick

1990-01-01

112

Critical Infrastructure Analysis of Telecom for Natural Disasters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critical national infrastructures for power, emergency services, finance, and other basic industries rely heavily on information and telecommunications networks (voice, data, Internet) to provide services and conduct business. While these networks tend to be highly reliable, severe, large scale outages do occur, especially at times of unfolding disasters, which can lead to cascading effects on other dependent infrastructures. This paper

Gerard O'Reilly; Ahmad Jrad; Ramesh Nagarajan; Theresa Brown; Stephen Conrad

2006-01-01

113

GC-MS Analysis of [gamma]-Hydroxybutyric Acid Analogs: A Forensic Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An upper-division forensic chemistry experiment is described. It involves using glycolic acid and sodium glycolate as analogs of [gamma]-hydroxybutyric acid and its sodium salt. The experiment shows the use of silylation in GC-MS analysis and gives students the opportunity to work with a commonly used silylating reagent,…

Henck, Colin; Nally, Luke

2007-01-01

114

Cross-entropy Analysis of the Information in Forensic Speaker Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we analyze the average information supplied by a forensic speaker recognition system in an information- theoretical way. The objective is the transparent reportin g of the performance of the system in terms of information, ac- cording to the needs of transparency and testability in fore nsic science. This analysis allows the derivation of a proper mea- sure

Daniel Ramos; Joaquin Gonzalez-Rodriguez

2008-01-01

115

FORENSIC ANALYSIS AND SOURCE PARTITIONING OF ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBON CONTAMINATION IN LAKE MARUIT AQUATIC SEDIMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations of natural and\\/or engineered environmental systems require achieving a comprehensive characterization and identification of contaminants of concern. The differentiation of contaminant molecular markers (MMs) that originate from various sources is difficult when simply based only on their chemical compositions. Thus, a comprehensive forensic analysis coupled with source partitioning modeling is needed for characterizing contaminant compositions, predicting their possible transport,

TAREK A. KASSIM

116

The 'relics of Joan of Arc': a forensic multidisciplinary analysis.  

PubMed

Archaeological remains can provide concrete cases, making it possible to develop, refine or validate medico-legal techniques. In the case of the so-called 'Joan of Arc's relics' (a group of bone and archaeological remains known as the 'Bottle of Chinon'), 14 specialists analysed the samples such as a cadaver X of carbonised aspect: forensic anthropologist, medical examiners, pathologists, geneticists, radiologist, biochemists, palynologists, zoologist and archaeologist. Materials, methods and results of this study are presented here. This study aims to offer an exploitable methodology for the modern medico-legal cases of small quantities of human bones of carbonised aspect. PMID:19913375

Charlier, P; Poupon, J; Eb, A; De Mazancourt, P; Gilbert, T; Huynh-Charlier, I; Loublier, Y; Verhille, A M; Moulheirat, C; Patou-Mathis, M; Robbiola, L; Montagut, R; Masson, F; Etcheberry, A; Brun, L; Willerslev, E; de la Grandmaison, G Lorin; Durigon, M

2009-11-12

117

Forensic trace DNA: a review.  

PubMed

DNA analysis is frequently used to acquire information from biological material to aid enquiries associated with criminal offences, disaster victim identification and missing persons investigations. As the relevance and value of DNA profiling to forensic investigations has increased, so too has the desire to generate this information from smaller amounts of DNA. Trace DNA samples may be defined as any sample which falls below recommended thresholds at any stage of the analysis, from sample detection through to profile interpretation, and can not be defined by a precise picogram amount. Here we review aspects associated with the collection, DNA extraction, amplification, profiling and interpretation of trace DNA samples. Contamination and transfer issues are also briefly discussed within the context of trace DNA analysis. Whilst several methodological changes have facilitated profiling from trace samples in recent years it is also clear that many opportunities exist for further improvements. PMID:21122102

van Oorschot, Roland Ah; Ballantyne, Kaye N; Mitchell, R John

2010-12-01

118

Catastrophic Shocks and Capital Markets: A Comparative Analysis by Disaster and Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an analysis of the impact of natural, industrial and terrorist disasters on the Australian capital market using the Box and Tiao intervention analysis and the data on daily returns in the following 10 market sectors: consumer discretionary, consumer staples, energy, financial, healthcare, industrial, information technology, materials, telecommunication services and utilities. Inter alia, it was found that the

Andrew Worthington; Abbas Valadkhani

2005-01-01

119

Decomposed Photo Response Non-Uniformity for Digital Forensic Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last few years have seen the applications of Photo Response Non-Uniformity noise (PRNU) - a unique stochastic fingerprint of image sensors, to various types of digital forensic investigations such as source device identification and integrity verification. In this work we proposed a new way of extracting PRNU noise pattern, called Decomposed PRNU (DPRNU), by exploiting the difference between the physical andartificial color components of the photos taken by digital cameras that use a Color Filter Array for interpolating artificial components from physical ones. Experimental results presented in this work have shown the superiority of the proposed DPRNU to the commonly used version. We also proposed a new performance metrics, Corrected Positive Rate (CPR) to evaluate the performance of the common PRNU and the proposed DPRNU.

Li, Yue; Li, Chang-Tsun

120

Forensic microbiology.  

PubMed

The field of forensic microbiology is fairly new and still evolving. With a threat of bioterror and biocrime, the rapid identification and subtyping of infectious agents is of upmost importance. Microbial genetic analysis is a valuable tool in this arena. The cost to sequence a microbial genome has fallen dramatically in recent years making this method more widely available. Surveillance and vigilance are important as is further research. The United States Department of Homeland Security established the Bioforensics Analysis Center to become the foremost U.S. biodefense research institution involved with bioforensics. Many countries are better prepared for biologic events than ever before, but more work is needed. Most medical laboratory scientists are not familiar with forensic principles or testifying in court. Demonstrating chain of custody and quality assurance are critical so that test results will be admissible in a court of law. The Scientific Working Group on Microbial Genetics and Forensics has published guidelines for forensic microbiology laboratories. Incorporating these guidelines help to provide test results that are useful in legal proceedings. If a laboratory scientist suspects bioterror or biocrime, or other legal case, law enforcement agents must be notified and diagnostic samples preserved. Additional sample testing might be necessary in court cases. PMID:22693782

Lehman, Donald C

2012-01-01

121

The estimation of pig bone age for forensic application using thermogravimetric analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An accurate means of determining bone age is a goal for forensic scientists. In this study, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)\\u000a has been used to examine pig bone specimens of different post-mortem age. Analysis of bone in both air and nitrogen atmospheres\\u000a reveals a decrease in total mass loss as the bones age. Two mass loss steps due to the decomposition of

S. Raja; P. S. Thomas; B. H. Stuart; J. P. Guerbois; C. O’Brien

2009-01-01

122

Real-time forensic DNA analysis at a crime scene using a portable microchip analyzer  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated lab-on-a-chip system has been developed and successfully utilized for real-time forensic short tandem repeat (STR) analysis. The microdevice comprises a 160-nL polymerase chain reaction reactor with an on-chip heater and a temperature sensor for thermal cycling, microvalves for fluidic manipulation, a co-injector for sizing standard injection, and a 7-cm-long separation channel for capillary electrophoretic analysis. A 9-plex autosomal

Peng Liu; Stephanie H. I. Yeung; Karin A. Crenshaw; Cecelia A. Crouse; James R. Scherer; Richard A. Mathies

2008-01-01

123

Epidemiologic analysis of an environmental disaster: The Schweizerhalle Experience  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the results of a fire in a Sandoz Chemical Company storehouse near Basel, Switzerland. In particular, an attempt is made to describe the impact the fire might have had on the health of the local population. When water came in contact with the fire, a foul-smelling cloud developed that was carried into the city of Basel. The psychological strain on the population was considerable and may have led to an increase in symptoms, either felt or reported. The authors emphasize the need to plan for environmental disasters; to promote legislation that promotes accident prevention as well as pollution containment; and to initiate epidemiological studies once an event occurs.

Ackermann-Liebrich, U.A.; Braun, C.; Rapp, R.C. (Univ. of Basel (Switzerland))

1992-06-01

124

Application of the Origen Fallout Analysis Tool and the Delfic Falout Planning Tool to National Technical Nuclear Forensics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this project was to provide a robust fallout analysis and planning tool for the National Technical Nuclear Forensics interagency ground sample collection team. Their application called for a fast-running, portable mission-planning tool fo...

D. E. Peplow J. P. Lefebvre R. W. Lee V. J. Jodoin

2013-01-01

125

Validation of the direct analysis in real time source for use in forensic drug screening.  

PubMed

The Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART) ion source is a relatively new mass spectrometry technique that is seeing widespread use in chemical analyses world-wide. DART studies include such diverse topics as analysis of flavors and fragrances, melamine in contaminated dog food, differentiation of writing inks, characterization of solid counterfeit drugs, and as a detector for planar chromatography. Validation of this new technique for the rapid screening of forensic evidence for drugs of abuse, utilizing the DART source coupled to an accurate mass time-of-flight mass spectrometer, was conducted. The study consisted of the determination of the lower limit of detection for the method, determination of selectivity and a comparison of this technique to established analytical protocols. Examples of DART spectra are included. The results of this study have allowed the Virginia Department of Forensic Science to incorporate this new technique into their analysis scheme for the screening of solid dosage forms of drugs of abuse. PMID:19302399

Steiner, Robert R; Larson, Robyn L

2009-03-03

126

Forensic Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a review of articles appealing to forensic practitioners. Topics include: drugs and poisons, forensic biochemistry, and trace evidence. Lists noteworthy books published on forensic science topics since 1986. (MVL)|

Brettell, T. A.; Saferstein, R.

1989-01-01

127

Microbial forensics: the next forensic challenge.  

PubMed

Pathogens and toxins can be converted to bioweapons and used to commit bioterrorism and biocrime. Because of the potential and relative ease of an attack using a bioweapon, forensic science needs to be prepared to assist in the investigation to bring perpetrators to justice and to deter future attacks. A new subfield of forensics--microbial forensics--has been created, which is focused on characterization of evidence from a bioterrorism act, biocrime, hoax, or an inadvertent release. Forensic microbiological investigations are essentially the same as any other forensic investigation regarding processing. They involve crime scene(s) investigation, chain of custody practices, evidence collection, handling and preservation, evidence shipping, analysis of evidence, interpretation of results, and court presentation. In addition to collecting and analyzing traditional forensic evidence, the forensic investigation will attempt to determine the etiology and identity of the causal agent, often in a similar fashion as in an epidemiologic investigation. However, for attribution, higher-resolution characterization is needed. The tools for attribution include genetic- and nongenetic-based assays and informatics to attempt to determine the unique source of a sample or at least eliminate some sources. In addition, chemical and physical assays may help determine the process used to prepare, store, or disseminate the bioweapon. An effective microbial forensics program will require development and/or validation of all aspects of the forensic investigative process, from sample collection to interpretation of results. Quality assurance (QA) and QC practices, comparable to those used by the forensic DNA science community, are being implemented. Lastly, partnerships with other laboratories will be requisite, because many of the necessary capabilities for analysis will not reside in the traditional forensic laboratory. PMID:15821943

Budowle, Bruce; Murch, Randall; Chakraborty, Ranajit

2005-04-09

128

Ontogenetic study of three Calliphoridae of forensic importance through cuticular hydrocarbon analysis.  

PubMed

The ontogeny of the cuticular hydrocarbons of three dipterans of importance to forensic entomology, Calliphora vomitoria (Linné), Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy) and Protophormia terraenovae (Robineau-Desvoidy) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), was explored using gas chromatography analysis. The stages examined ranged from eggs to 8-day-old adults. Cuticular hydrocarbon profiles revealed that odd linear alkanes dominate in all three species. Short-chain carbon compounds in larvae and post-feeding larvae were seen to evolve to long-chain carbon compounds in pupae and adults. Discriminant analysis of cuticular hydrocarbon profiles showed a clear differentiation among the different stages (larvae, post-feeding larvae, pupae and adults) and within stages, according to the age of individuals. This study concluded that the postmortem interval can be determined from the composition of cuticular waxes in Calliphoridae in forensic situations. PMID:19120957

Roux, O; Gers, C; Legal, L

2008-12-01

129

Analytical thresholds and sensitivity: establishing RFU thresholds for forensic DNA analysis.  

PubMed

Determining appropriate analytical thresholds (ATs) for forensic DNA analysis is critical to maximize allele detection. In this study, six methods to determine ATs for forensic DNA purposes were examined and compared. Four of the methods rely on analysis of the baseline noise of a number of negatives, while two utilize the relationship between relative fluorescence unit signal and DNA input in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) derived from a dilution series ranging from 1 to 0.06 ng. Results showed that when a substantial mass of DNA (i.e., >1 ng) was amplified, the baseline noise increased, suggesting the application of an AT derived from negatives should only be applied to samples with low levels of DNA. Further, the number and intensity of these noise peaks increased with increasing injection times, indicating that to maximize the ability to detect alleles, ATs should be validated for each post-PCR procedure employed. PMID:23130820

Bregu, Joli; Conklin, Danielle; Coronado, Elisse; Terrill, Margaret; Cotton, Robin W; Grgicak, Catherine M

2012-11-06

130

An STR melt curve genotyping assay for forensic analysis employing an intercalating dye probe FRET.  

PubMed

The most common markers used in forensic genetics are short tandem repeats (STRs), the alleles of which are separated and analyzed by length using capillary electrophoresis (CE). In this work, proof of concept of a unique STR genotyping approach has been demonstrated using asymmetric PCR and a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based hybridization analysis that combines fluorophore-labeled allele-specific probes and a DNA intercalating dye (dpFRET) in a melt match/mismatch analysis format. The system was successfully tested against both a simple (TPOX) and a complex (D3S1358) loci, demonstrated a preliminary detection limit of <10 genomic equivalents with no allelic dropout and mixture identification in both laboratory-generated and clinical samples. With additional development, this approach has the potential to contribute to advancing the use of STR loci for forensic applications and related fields. PMID:20840288

Halpern, Micah D; Ballantyne, Jack

2010-09-14

131

Forensic Psychology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Introduction to forensic psychology; Psychological structure of the administration of justice; The methods of forensic psychology; Psychological fundamentals of preliminary investigation; Psychological fundamentals of court proceedings; Psycholo...

A. V. Dulov

1976-01-01

132

Recent significant U.S. court cases involving forensic activation analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first U.S. court case involving forensic activation analysis (FAA) took place in March of 1964. During the subsequent\\u000a five years, many other cases involving FAA results went to trial in the U.S., but these seldom involved any serious attempts\\u000a by the defense to challenge the FAA testimony presented by the prosecution. During roughly the last three years, however,\\u000a there

V. P. Guinn

1973-01-01

133

A study of storage conditions and treatments for forensic bone specimens using thermogravimetric analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone provides an important source of forensic evidence. The storage conditions of bone have been recognised as a factor in\\u000a maintaining the integrity of such evidence. Thermogravimetric analysis (TG) has been employed to examine the effects of storage\\u000a environments and preparation methods on the structural properties of pig bones. A comparison of oven and freeze drying has\\u000a been made to

S. Raja; P. S. Thomas; B. H. Stuart

2010-01-01

134

Meta-Analysis of the MMPI2 Fake Bad Scale: Utility in Forensic Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some clinical researchers disagree regarding the clinical utility of the MMPI-2 Fake Bad scale (FBS ) within forensic and clinical settings. The present meta-analysis summarizes weighted effect size differences among the FBS and other commonly used validity scales (L, F, K, Fb, Fp, F-K, O-S, Ds2, Dsr2 ) in symptom overreporting and comparison groups. Forty studies that included FBS were

Nathaniel W. Nelson; Jerry J. Sweet; George J. Demakis

2006-01-01

135

Automated Forensic Fingerprint Analysis: A Novel Generic Process Model and Container Format  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The automated forensic analysis of latent fingerprints poses a new challenge. While for the pattern recognition aspects involved,\\u000a the required processing steps can be related to fingerprint biometrics, the common biometric model needs to be extended to\\u000a face the variety of characteristics of different surfaces and image qualities and to keep the chain of custody. Therefore,\\u000a we introduce a framework

Tobias Kiertscher; Claus Vielhauer; Marcus Leich

2011-01-01

136

Integrated sample cleanup and capillary array electrophoresis microchip for forensic short tandem repeat analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A twelve-lane capillary array electrophoresis (CAE) microsystem is developed that utilizes an efficient inline capture injection process together with the classical radial microfabricated capillary array electrophoresis (?CAE) format for high-sensitivity forensic short tandem repeat (STR) analysis. Biotin-labeled 9-plex STR amplicons are captured in a photopolymerized gel plug via the strong binding of streptavidin and biotin, followed by efficient washing and

Peng Liu; James R. Scherer; Susan A. Greenspoon; Thomas N. Chiesl; Richard A. Mathies

2011-01-01

137

Identification of forensically important blowfly species (Diptera: Calliphoridae) by high-resolution melting PCR analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe here the successful coupling of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis\\u000a to rapidly identify 15 forensically important species of blowfly from the family Calliphoridae (Diptera), which occur in Poland.\\u000a Two short regions (119 and 70 base pairs, respectively) of cytochrome oxidase gene subunit I with sufficient sequence diversity\\u000a were selected. In the case of

Tadeusz Malewski; Agnieszka Draber-Mo?ko; Jan Pomorski; Marta ?o?; Wies?aw Bogdanowicz

2010-01-01

138

Application of mass spectrometry to hair analysis for forensic toxicological investigations.  

PubMed

The increasing role of hair analysis in forensic toxicological investigations principally owes to recent improvements of mass spectrometric instrumentation. Research achievements during the last 6 years in this distinctive application area of analytical toxicology are reviewed. The earlier state of the art of hair analysis was comprehensively covered by a dedicated book (Kintz, 2007a. Analytical and practical aspects of drug testing in hair. Boca Raton: CRC Press and Taylor & Francis, 382 p) that represents key reference of the present overview. Whereas the traditional organization of analytical methods in forensic toxicology divided target substances into quite homogeneous groups of drugs, with similar structures and chemical properties, the current approach often takes advantage of the rapid expansion of multiclass and multiresidue analytical procedures; the latter is made possible by the fast operation and extreme sensitivity of modern mass spectrometers. This change in the strategy of toxicological analysis is reflected in the presentation of the recent literature material, which is mostly based on a fit-for-purpose logic. Thus, general screening of unknown substances is applied in diverse forensic contexts than drugs of abuse testing, and different instrumentation (triple quadrupoles, time-of-flight analyzers, linear and orbital traps) is utilized to optimally cope with the scope. Other key issues of modern toxicology, such as cost reduction and high sample throughput, are discussed with reference to procedural and instrumental alternatives. PMID:23165962

Vincenti, Marco; Salomone, Alberto; Gerace, Enrico; Pirro, Valentina

2012-11-19

139

Towards collaborative forensics: Preliminary framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital forensic analysis techniques have been significantly improved and evolved in past decade but we still face a lack of effective forensic analysis tools to tackle diverse incidents caused by emerging technologies and the advances in cyber crime. In this paper, we propose a comprehensive framework to address the efficacious deficiencies of current practices in digital forensics. Our framework, called

Mike Mabey; Gail-Joon Ahn

2011-01-01

140

Monte Carlo analysis of thermochromatography as a fast separation method for nuclear forensics  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear forensic science has become increasingly important for global nuclear security, and enhancing the timeliness of forensic analysis has been established as an important objective in the field. New, faster techniques must be developed to meet this objective. Current approaches for the analysis of minor actinides, fission products, and fuel-specific materials require time-consuming chemical separation coupled with measurement through either nuclear counting or mass spectrometry. These very sensitive measurement techniques can be hindered by impurities or incomplete separation in even the most painstaking chemical separations. High-temperature gas-phase separation or thermochromatography has been used in the past for the rapid separations in the study of newly created elements and as a basis for chemical classification of that element. This work examines the potential for rapid separation of gaseous species to be applied in nuclear forensic investigations. Monte Carlo modeling has been used to evaluate the potential utility of the thermochromatographic separation method, albeit this assessment is necessarily limited due to the lack of available experimental data for validation.

Hall, Howard L [ORNL

2012-01-01

141

Parallel digital forensics infrastructure.  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the architecture and implementation of a Parallel Digital Forensics infrastructure. This infrastructure is necessary for supporting the design, implementation, and testing of new classes of parallel digital forensics tools. Digital Forensics has become extremely difficult with data sets of one terabyte and larger. The only way to overcome the processing time of these large sets is to identify and develop new parallel algorithms for performing the analysis. To support algorithm research, a flexible base infrastructure is required. A candidate architecture for this base infrastructure was designed, instantiated, and tested by this project, in collaboration with New Mexico Tech. Previous infrastructures were not designed and built specifically for the development and testing of parallel algorithms. With the size of forensics data sets only expected to increase significantly, this type of infrastructure support is necessary for continued research in parallel digital forensics. This report documents the implementation of the parallel digital forensics (PDF) infrastructure architecture and implementation.

Liebrock, Lorie M. (New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM); Duggan, David Patrick

2009-10-01

142

Forensic applications of mitochondrial DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human mitochondrial DNA has become a useful tool in forensic investigations. Its polymorphic nature and maternal inheritance are characteristics that have, combined with its sequence information, enabled investigators to identify missing persons, war casualties and individuals involved in mass disasters and criminal cases. Various screening procedures have been developed to reduce the need to sequence samples that do not match,

John M Butler; Barbara C Levin

1998-01-01

143

Comparative analysis of LWR and FBR spent fuels for nuclear forensics evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Some interesting issues are attributed to nuclide compositions of spent fuels from thermal reactors as well as fast reactors such as a potential to reuse as recycled fuel, and a possible capability to be manage as a fuel for destructive devices. In addition, analysis on nuclear forensics which is related to spent fuel compositions becomes one of the interesting topics to evaluate the origin and the composition of spent fuels from the spent fuel foot-prints. Spent fuel compositions of different fuel types give some typical spent fuel foot prints and can be estimated the origin of source of those spent fuel compositions. Some technics or methods have been developing based on some science and technological capability including experimental and modeling or theoretical aspects of analyses. Some foot-print of nuclear forensics will identify the typical information of spent fuel compositions such as enrichment information, burnup or irradiation time, reactor types as well as the cooling time which is related to the age of spent fuels. This paper intends to evaluate the typical spent fuel compositions of light water (LWR) and fast breeder reactors (FBR) from the view point of some foot prints of nuclear forensics. An established depletion code of ORIGEN is adopted to analyze LWR spent fuel (SF) for several burnup constants and decay times. For analyzing some spent fuel compositions of FBR, some coupling codes such as SLAROM code, JOINT and CITATION codes including JFS-3-J-3.2R as nuclear data library have been adopted. Enriched U-235 fuel composition of oxide type is used for fresh fuel of LWR and a mixed oxide fuel (MOX) for FBR fresh fuel. Those MOX fuels of FBR come from the spent fuels of LWR. Some typical spent fuels from both LWR and FBR will be compared to distinguish some typical foot-prints of SF based on nuclear forensic analysis.

Permana, Sidik; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Su'ud, Zaki [Department of Science and Technology for Nuclear Material Management (STNM), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 2-4 Shirane, Shirakata, Tokai Mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 Nuclear Physics and Bio (Indonesia); Department of Science and Technology for Nuclear Material Management (STNM), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 2-4 Shirane, Shirakata, Tokai Mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Nuclear Physics and Bio Physics Research Group, Department of Physics, Bandung Institute of Technology, Gedung Fisika, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

2012-06-06

144

Enhancement of Forensic Computing Investigations through Memory Forensic Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of memory forensic techniques has the potential to enhance computer forensic investigations. The analysis of digital evidence is facing several key challenges; an increase in electronic devices, network connections and bandwidth, the use of anti-forensic technologies and the development of network centric applications and technologies has lead to less potential evidence stored on static media and increased amounts

Matthew Simon; Jill Slay

2009-01-01

145

Forensic genetic analysis of nine miniSTR loci in the Korean population.  

PubMed

Nine miniSTR loci were analyzed in 191 unrelated individuals from Korea using three multiplex PCR systems (multiplex I: D1S1677, D2S441 and D4S2364; multiplex II: D10S1248, D14S1434 and D22S1045; multiplex III: D12S391, D16S3253 and D20S161). Due to the short PCR amplicons (< 145 bp), miniSTR systems can effectively be used in forensic analysis with highly degraded DNAs. Allele frequencies and forensic parameters were calculated to evaluate their usefulness in forensic casework. The Exact Test demonstrated that all loci surveyed here were found to be no deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, except two miniSTR markers (D4S2364 and D16S3253). When we compared the distribution of genetic variation of six miniSTR markers (D1S1677, D2S441, D4S2364, D10S1248, D14S1434 and D22S1045), the Exact Test revealed significant differences (P < 0.05) between the Korean sample studied here and almost all of other samples of East Asian and European populations. The combined probability of match calculated from nine miniSTR loci was 1.28 x 10(-8), which is high degree of polymorphism. Thus, the miniSTR system, combined with other valuable miniSTR markers, may be suitable for recovering useful information in analyzing degraded DNA samples. PMID:19423379

Han, Myun Soo; Kim, Yang Seop; Jin, Han Jun; Kim, Jong Jin; Kwak, Kyoung Don; Lee, Jong Eun; Song, Joon Myong; Kim, Wook

2009-05-06

146

Analysis on the spatial-temporal change characteristics of flood and drought disasters in China during 1950-2005  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper is intended to analyze the temporal change and spatial distribution of flood and drought disasters during the period from 1950 to 2005 in China based on the GIS (Geographic Information System) spatial analysis methods. The data for the analysis includes statistical data of the flood and drought disasters which are suffering area and affected area and spatial geographical data of China which are 1:1000 000 province boundary vector map. The spatial data obtained from National Natural atlas published by Institute of Geographical sciences and Nature resources research, CAS. The flood disaster data are gathered from China Hazard Report in 1949-1995 and China Statistical Yearbook compiled by National Bureau of Statistics of China. By analysis of the temporal change and spatial distribution of flood and drought disasters, it can be seen that Flood and drought disasters increased in the research period. Before the middle of 1980s flood and drought disasters had lower and influenced area increased evidently after the middle of 1980s.The indicated that China flood and drought were expanded on the whole situation and stabilizing, this demonstrates China floods and droughts continued on the trend of expansion. China's major flood occurred in the South, the North and floods occurred in both the frequency or intensity was much smaller than the South, China's major drought occurred in the north. The affected rate and suffered rate for flood and drought disasters are positive correlative. This indicates the resistance capacity of agriculture system in China is faintish in general.

Zou, Xiuping; Chen, Shaofeng; Xu, Zengrang; Ning, Miao

2008-10-01

147

The forensic analysis of soils and sediment taken from the cast of a footprint.  

PubMed

The routine production of a cast of a shoe-print taken in soil provides information other than shoe size and gait. Material adhering to the surface of the cast represents the preservation of the moment of footprint impression. The analysis of the interface between the cast and soil is therefore a potentially lucrative source of information for forensic reconstruction. These principles are demonstrated with reference to a murder case which took place in the English Midlands. The cast of a footprint provided evidence of a two-way transfer of material between the sole of a boot and the soil of a recently ploughed field. Lumps of soil, which had dried on a boot, were deposited on the field as the footprints were made. Pollen analysis of these lumps of soil indicated that the perpetrator of the imprint had been standing recently in a nearby stream. Fibre analysis together with physical and chemical characteristics of the soil suggested a provenance for contamination of this mud prior to deposition of the footprint. Carbon/nitrogen ratios of the water taken from the cast showed that distilled water had been used thus excluding the possibility of contamination of the boot-soil interface. It was possible to reconstruct three phases of previous activity of the wearer of the boot prior to leaving the footprint in the field after the murder had taken place. This analysis shows the power of integrating different independent techniques in the analysis of hitherto unrecognised forensic materials. PMID:16919902

Bull, Peter A; Parker, Adrian; Morgan, Ruth M

2006-08-17

148

Analysis of patients treated during four Disaster Medical Assistance Team deployments  

Microsoft Academic Search

To aid disaster planning, a retrospective review of patients seen by New Mexico 1 Disaster Medical Assistance Team (NM-1 DMAT) after four disasters was conducted. Data analyzed included age, gender, past medical history, chief complaint, diagnosis, diagnostic testing, treatment, triage category, disposition, and time to presentation after the disaster. Data were analyzed for differences between patients presenting early vs. late

Kevin E. Nufer; Gina Wilson-Ramirez; Mark B. Shah; Christopher E. Hughes; Cameron S. Crandall

2006-01-01

149

High-resolution remote sensing image disaster emergency investigation and analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A strong earthquake will cause a large number of residential damage, casualties, severely holding back regional economic development. Rapid extraction of information on disasters is critical to acquire the disaster index and disaster assessment, and emergency rapid response can be effective in reducing seismic disaster losses and casualties. Beijing April 14, 2010,Yushu County, Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Qinghai Province,

Dongjian Xue; Zhengwei He; Shu Tao

2011-01-01

150

Forensic discrimination of dyed hair color: II. Multivariate statistical analysis.  

PubMed

This research is intended to assess the ability of UV-visible microspectrophotometry to successfully discriminate the color of dyed hair. Fifty-five red hair dyes were analyzed and evaluated using multivariate statistical techniques including agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC), principal component analysis (PCA), and discriminant analysis (DA). The spectra were grouped into three classes, which were visually consistent with different shades of red. A two-dimensional PCA observations plot was constructed, describing 78.6% of the overall variance. The wavelength regions associated with the absorbance of hair and dye were highly correlated. Principal components were selected to represent 95% of the overall variance for analysis with DA. A classification accuracy of 89% was observed for the comprehensive dye set, while external validation using 20 of the dyes resulted in a prediction accuracy of 75%. Significant color loss from successive washing of hair samples was estimated to occur within 3 weeks of dye application. PMID:20854362

Barrett, Julie A; Siegel, Jay A; Goodpaster, John V

2010-09-20

151

Discriminant Analysis of Raman Spectra for Body Fluid Identification for Forensic Purposes  

PubMed Central

Detection and identification of blood, semen and saliva stains, the most common body fluids encountered at a crime scene, are very important aspects of forensic science today. This study targets the development of a nondestructive, confirmatory method for body fluid identification based on Raman spectroscopy coupled with advanced statistical analysis. Dry traces of blood, semen and saliva obtained from multiple donors were probed using a confocal Raman microscope with a 785-nm excitation wavelength under controlled laboratory conditions. Results demonstrated the capability of Raman spectroscopy to identify an unknown substance to be semen, blood or saliva with high confidence.

Sikirzhytski, Vitali; Virkler, Kelly; Lednev, Igor K.

2010-01-01

152

The potential of forensic analysis on human bones found in riverine environment.  

PubMed

Human remains found in aquatic contexts are frequently recovered incomplete and badly decomposed, and therefore present a challenge for medico-legal institutes as their possibilities of analysis for identification and investigation of cause and manner of death are limited. This article aims to demonstrate the potential of forensic examination and analyses (DNA, toxicology, diatoms and entomology) on a set of bones recovered from a river in Strasbourg and the possibility to trigger identification of the victim and circumstances of death despite the state of decomposition and incompleteness of remains. PMID:23562147

Delabarde, Tania; Keyser, Christine; Tracqui, Antoine; Charabidze, Damien; Ludes, Bertrand

2013-04-03

153

Discriminant analysis of Raman spectra for body fluid identification for forensic purposes.  

PubMed

Detection and identification of blood, semen and saliva stains, the most common body fluids encountered at a crime scene, are very important aspects of forensic science today. This study targets the development of a nondestructive, confirmatory method for body fluid identification based on Raman spectroscopy coupled with advanced statistical analysis. Dry traces of blood, semen and saliva obtained from multiple donors were probed using a confocal Raman microscope with a 785-nm excitation wavelength under controlled laboratory conditions. Results demonstrated the capability of Raman spectroscopy to identify an unknown substance to be semen, blood or saliva with high confidence. PMID:22319277

Sikirzhytski, Vitali; Virkler, Kelly; Lednev, Igor K

2010-03-29

154

Advanced Signal Analysis for Forensic Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar  

SciTech Connect

Ground penetrating radar (GPR) systems have traditionally been used to image subsurface objects. The main focus of this paper is to evaluate an advanced signal analysis technique. Instead of compiling spatial data for the analysis, this technique conducts object recognition procedures based on spectral statistics. The identification feature of an object type is formed from the training vectors by a singular-value decomposition procedure. To illustrate its capability, this procedure is applied to experimental data and compared to the performance of the neural-network approach.

Steven Koppenjan; Matthew Streeton; Hua Lee; Michael Lee; Sashi Ono

2004-06-01

155

Forensic Mitochondrial DNA Analysis of 691 Casework Hairs  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: A five year retrospective review of mitochondrial,DNA (mtDNA) analysis on 691 casework,hairs was carried out. A full or partial mtDNA profile was obtained for >92% of hairs. With increasing age of the hair, the likelihood of obtaining a full profile decreased, although “mini-primer sets” could often be used to capture a partial profile. With increasing color and diameter of

Terry Melton; Gloria Dimick; M. s. Bonnie Higgins; M. s. Lynn Lindstrom

156

Forensic Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Summarizes the type of work carried out by forensic chemists and the minimum qualification needed for appointment. Indicates that there are eight Home Office regional forensic science laboratories in addition to the Central Research Establishment at Aldermaston. (CC)|

Cobb, P. G. W.

1973-01-01

157

Biocatalytic analysis of biomarkers for forensic identification of ethnicity between Caucasian and African American groups.  

PubMed

A new biocatalytic assay analyzing the simultaneous presence of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was developed aiming at the recognition of biofluids of different ethnic origins for forensic applications. Knowing the difference in the concentrations of CK and LDH in the blood of healthy adults of two ethnical groups, Caucasian (CA) and African American (AA), and taking into account the distribution pattern, we mimicked the samples of different ethnic origins with various CK-LDH concentrations. The analysis was performed using a multi-enzyme/multi-step biocatalytic cascade where the differences in both included enzymes resulted in an amplified difference in the final analytical response. The statistically established analytical results confirmed excellent probability to distinguish samples of different ethnic origins (CA vs. AA). The standard enzymatic assay routinely used in hospitals for the analysis of CK, performed for comparison, was not able to distinguish the difference in samples mimicking blood of different ethnic origins. The robustness of the proposed assay was successfully tested on dried/aged serum samples (up to 24 h) - in order to mimic real forensic situations. The results obtained on the model solutions were confirmed by the analysis of real serum samples collected from human subjects of different ethnic origins. PMID:24003440

Kramer, Friederike; Halámková, Lenka; Poghossian, Arshak; Schöning, Michael J; Katz, Evgeny; Halámek, Jan

2013-09-30

158

Chiral drug analysis using mass spectrometric detection relevant to research and practice in clinical and forensic toxicology.  

PubMed

This paper reviews analytical approaches published in 2002-2012 for chiral drug analysis and their relevance in research and practice in the field of clinical and forensic toxicology. Separation systems such as gas chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, capillary electromigration, and supercritical fluid chromatography, all coupled to mass spectrometry, are discussed. Typical applications are reviewed for relevant chiral analytes such as amphetamines and amphetamine-derived designer drugs, methadone, tramadol, psychotropic and other CNS acting drugs, anticoagulants, cardiovascular drugs, and some other drugs. Usefulness of chiral drug analysis in the interpretation of analytical results in clinical and forensic toxicology is discussed as well. PMID:22858363

Schwaninger, Andrea E; Meyer, Markus R; Maurer, Hans H

2012-07-24

159

Forensic Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is

Suzanne Bell

2009-01-01

160

Disasters of endoscopic surgery and how to avoid them: error analysis.  

PubMed

For every innovation there are two sides to consider. For endoscopic surgery the positive side is more comfort for the patient, and the negative side is new complications, even disasters, such as injuries to organs (e.g., the bowel), vessels, and the common bile duct. These disasters are rare and seldom reported in the scientific world, as at conferences, at symposiums, and in publications. Today there are many methods for testing an innovation (controlled clinical trials, consensus conferences, audits, and confidential inquiries). Reporting "complications," however, does not help to avoid them. We need real methods for avoiding negative failures. The failure analysis is the method of choice in industry. If an airplane crashes, error analysis starts immediately. Humans make errors, and making errors means punishment. Failure analysis means rigorously and objectively investigating a clinical situation to find clinical relevant information for avoiding these negative events in the future. Error analysis has four important steps: (1) What was the clinical situation? (2) What has happened? (3) Most important: Why did it happen? (4) How do we avoid the negative event or disaster in the future. Error analysis has decisive advantages. It is easy to perform; it supplies clinically relevant information to help avoid it; and there is no need for money. It can be done everywhere; and the information is available in a short time. The other side of the coin is that error analysis is of course retrospective, it may not be objective, and most important it will probably have legal consequences. To be more effective in medicine and surgery we must handle our errors using a different approach. According to Sir Karl Popper: "The consituation is that we have to learn from our errors. To cover up failure is therefore the biggest intellectual sin. PMID:10415211

Troidl, H

1999-08-01

161

DNA degradation and genetic analysis of empty puparia: genetic identification limits in forensic entomology.  

PubMed

Puparial cases are common remnants of necrophagous flies in crime investigations. They usually represent the longest developmental time and, therefore, they can be very useful for the estimation of the post-mortem interval (PMI). However, before any PMI estimate, it is crucial to identify the species of fly eclosed from each puparium associated with the corpse. Morphological characteristics of the puparium are often distinctive enough to permit a species identification. But, even an accurate morphological analysis of empty puparia cannot discriminate among different species of closely related flies. Furthermore, morphological identification may be impossible if the fly puparia are poorly preserved or in fragments. This study explores the applicability of biomolecular techniques on empty puparia and their fragments for identification purposes. A total of 63 empty puparia of necrophagous Diptera resulting from forensic casework were examined. Samples were divided into three groups according to size, type and time of eclosion in order to verify whether the physical characteristics and puparia weathering can influence the amount of DNA extraction. The results suggest that a reliable genetic identification of forensically important flies may also be performed from empty puparia and/or their fragments. However, DNA degradation can deeply compromise the genetic analysis since the older the fly puparia, the smaller are the amplified fragments. PMID:20031351

Mazzanti, Morena; Alessandrini, Federica; Tagliabracci, Adriano; Wells, Jeffrey D; Campobasso, Carlo P

2010-01-19

162

Violent behaviour in a forensic psychiatric hospital in Finland: an analysis of violence incident reports.  

PubMed

ACCESSIBLE SUMMARY: Over half of the violent incidents considered in this study were unexplained. The risk for violent behaviour inside the hospital was the highest for civil patients. The risk rate in this group was 12 compared to criminal patients' risk rate of one. ABSTRACT: The aim of this paper was to explore the frequency and provocation of physically violent incidents in a Finnish forensic psychiatric hospital. Three years (2007-2009) of violent incident reports were analysed retrospectively. The data were analysed by content analysis, and statistically by Poisson regression analysis. During the study period a total of 840 incidents of physical violence occurred. Six main categories were found to describe the provocation of violence where three of these categories seemed to be without a specified reason (61%), and three represented a reaction to something (36%). The risk for violent behaviour was highest for the civil patients (RR = 11.96; CI 95% 9.43-15.18; P < 0.001), compared to criminal patients (RR = 1). The civil patients represented 36.7% of the patients, and in 43.6% of the studied patient days, they caused 89.8% of the reported violence incidents. Patients undergoing a forensic mental examination did not frequently behave aggressively (RR = 1.97; CI 95% 0.91-4.28). These results can be used in the reorganization of health-care practices and the allocation of resources. PMID:23634912

Kuivalainen, S; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, K; Putkonen, A; Louheranta, O; Tiihonen, J

2013-05-01

163

The development of a tool for assessing the quality of closed circuit camera footage for use in forensic gait analysis.  

PubMed

Gait analysis from closed circuit camera footage is now commonly used as evidence in criminal trials. The biomechanical analysis of human gait is a well established science in both clinical and laboratory settings. However, closed circuit camera footage is rarely of the quality of that taken in the more controlled clinical and laboratory environments. The less than ideal quality of much of this footage for use in gait analysis is associated with a range of issues, the combination of which can often render the footage unsuitable for use in gait analysis. The aim of this piece of work was to develop a tool for assessing the suitability of closed circuit camera footage for the purpose of forensic gait analysis. A Delphi technique was employed with a small sample of expert forensic gait analysis practitioners, to identify key quality elements of CCTV footage used in legal proceedings. Five elements of the footage were identified and then subdivided into 15 contributing sub-elements, each of which was scored using a 5-point Likert scale. A Microsoft Excel worksheet was developed to calculate automatically an overall score from the fifteen sub-element scores. Five expert witnesses experienced in using CCTV footage for gait analysis then trialled the prototype tool on current case footage. A repeatability study was also undertaken using standardized CCTV footage. The results showed the tool to be a simple and repeatable means of assessing the suitability of closed circuit camera footage for use in forensic gait analysis. The inappropriate use of poor quality footage could lead to challenges to the practice of forensic gait analysis. All parties involved in criminal proceedings must therefore understand the fitness for purpose of any footage used. The development of this tool could offer a method of achieving this goal, and help to assure the continued role of forensic gait analysis as an aid to the identification process. PMID:24112345

Birch, Ivan; Vernon, Wesley; Walker, Jeremy; Saxelby, Jai

2013-08-24

164

Characterization and forensic analysis of soil samples using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).  

PubMed

A method for the quantitative elemental analysis of surface soil samples using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was developed and applied to the analysis of bulk soil samples for discrimination between specimens. The use of a 266 nm laser for LIBS analysis is reported for the first time in forensic soil analysis. Optimization of the LIBS method is discussed, and the results compared favorably to a laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) method previously developed. Precision for both methods was <10% for most elements. LIBS limits of detection were <33 ppm and bias <40% for most elements. In a proof of principle study, the LIBS method successfully discriminated samples from two different sites in Dade County, FL. Analysis of variance, Tukey's post hoc test and Student's t test resulted in 100% discrimination with no type I or type II errors. Principal components analysis (PCA) resulted in clear groupings of the two sites. A correct classification rate of 99.4% was obtained with linear discriminant analysis using leave-one-out validation. Similar results were obtained when the same samples were analyzed by LA-ICP-MS, showing that LIBS can provide similar information to LA-ICP-MS. In a forensic sampling/spatial heterogeneity study, the variation between sites, between sub-plots, between samples and within samples was examined on three similar Dade sites. The closer the sampling locations, the closer the grouping on a PCA plot and the higher the misclassification rate. These results underscore the importance of careful sampling for geographic site characterization. PMID:21461623

Jantzi, Sarah C; Almirall, José R

2011-04-02

165

Crime Scene Intelligence: An Experiment in Forensic Entomology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

LT Albert Cruz's forensic entomology/explosive (E2) scientific project proved to be cutting edge and groundbreaking science in the forensic community. His thorough research and original analysis included a newly found forensic/intelligence analytical tool...

A. M. Cruz

2006-01-01

166

[The role of the dentist in modern forensic age determination].  

PubMed

The increase of international movements has led to a greater demand for forensic age estimation of foreigners without valid identification documents. Age estimation on living individuals is part of asylum and criminal proceedings. Age estimation has become also important within identification of victims, because of the fact of increasing natural disasters and events of terrorism. Therefore dentists are more and more appointed to this job. There are varieties of methods in age estimation. Dental examination and analysis of panoramic x-ray are usually used for dental age estimation. PMID:19066157

Berndt, Dorothea C; Despotovic, Tatjana; Mund, Michael T; Filippi, Andreas

2008-01-01

167

Complementary use of capillary zone electrophoresis and micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography for mutual confirmation of results in forensic drug analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work was to compare different CE separation modes, namely capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC), for the analysis of drugs of forensic interest in order to assess the mutual degree of independence and consequently the possibility of complementary use for mutual confirmation of results. A panel of drugs including caffeine, morphine, barbital,

F. Tagliaro; F. P. Smith; S. Turrina; V. Equisetto; M. Marigo

1996-01-01

168

Evaluation of circular DNA substrates for whole genome amplification prior to forensic analysis.  

PubMed

Forensic biological evidence often contains low quantities of DNA or substantially degraded DNA which makes samples refractory to genotype analysis. One approach that shows promise to overcome the limited quantity of DNA is whole genome amplification (WGA). One WGA technique, termed rolling circle amplification (RCA), involves the amplification of circular DNA fragments and this study evaluates a single-stranded (ss) DNA ligase enzyme for generating circular DNA templates for RCA WGA. Fast, efficient ligation of several sizes of ssDNA templates was achieved. The enzyme also ligated double-stranded (ds) DNA templates, a novel activity not previously reported. Adapter sequences containing optimal terminal nucleotide ends for increased ligation efficiency were designed and ligation of adapters to template DNA was optimized. Increased amplification of DNA templates was observed following WGA; however, no amplification advantage for ssDNA ligase treatment of templates was evident compared to linear templates. A multi-step process to utilize ssDNA ligase prior to WGA was developed and short tandem repeat (STR) analysis of simulated low template (LT) and fragmented DNA was evaluated. The process resulted in the loss of template DNA and failed STR analysis whereas input of linear genomic DNA template directly into WGA prior to STR analysis improved STR genotyping results compared to non-WGA treated samples. Inclusion of an extreme thermostable single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB) during WGA also increased DNA yields. While STR artifacts such as peak imbalance, drop-in, and dropout persisted, WGA shows potential for successful genetic profiling of LT and fragmented DNA samples. Further research and development is warranted prior to use of WGA in forensic casework. PMID:21570374

Tate, Courtney M; Nuñez, Ada N; Goldstein, Cori A; Gomes, Iva; Robertson, James M; Kavlick, Mark F; Budowle, Bruce

2011-05-12

169

The contribution of DNA to the disaster victim identification (DVI) effort.  

PubMed

As part of the disaster victim identification (DVI) response to the 2009 Victorian bushfires disaster, a number of scientific disciplines contributed to the human identification process--forensic pathology, anthropology and odontology, as well as fingerprinting and DNA profiling. The DNA laboratory received 182 post-mortem (PM) samples from 120 DVI cases and 236 reference samples corresponding to 163 missing persons (and two non-DVI cases). DNA analysis yielded full DNA profiles for 102 DVI cases and 190 ante-mortem (AM) samples (relating to all 163 missing persons), respectively. Subsequent comparison of DNA profiles, through direct and kinship matching, resulted in the submission of 76 DNA reports to the DVI Reconciliation Centre which assisted in the identification of 67 deceased. This paper describes the contribution of DNA analysis towards the DVI response to the 2009 Victorian bushfires disaster. PMID:21106312

Hartman, D; Drummer, O; Eckhoff, C; Scheffer, J W; Stringer, P

2010-11-23

170

Resources Allocation Problem for Local Reserve Depots in Disaster Management Based on Scenario Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resource allocation problem for local reserve depots in disaster management is consid- ered in this paper. In order to prepare for natural and manmade disasters of various scales, local government need to decide what kinds of and how much amount of commodities should be main- tained in local reserve depots in order to cope with slight disasters, while cooperating with

Jianming Zhu; Jun Huang; Degang Liu; Jiye Han

2008-01-01

171

Historical analysis of a near disaster: Anopheles gambiae in Brazil.  

PubMed

Attributed to human-mediated dispersal, a species of the Anopheles gambiae complex invaded northeastern Brazil in 1930. This event is considered unique among the intercontinental introductions of disease vectors and the most serious one: "Few threats to the future health of the Americas have equalled that inherent in the invasion of Brazil, in 1930, by Anopheles gambiae." Because it was only in the 1960s that An. gambiae was recognized as a species complex now including seven species, the precise species identity of the Brazilian invader remains a mystery. Here we used historical DNA analysis of museum specimens, collected at the time of invasion from Brazil, and aimed at the identification of the Brazilian invader. Our results identify the arid-adapted Anopheles arabiensis as being the actual invading species. Establishing the identity of the species, in addition to being of intrinsic historical interest, can inform future threats of this sort especially in a changing environment. Furthermore, these results highlight the potential danger of human-mediated range expansions of insect disease vectors and the importance of museum collections in retrieving historical information. PMID:18187802

Parmakelis, Aristeidis; Russello, Michael A; Caccone, Adalgisa; Marcondes, Carlos Brisola; Costa, Jane; Forattini, Oswaldo P; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb; Wilkerson, Richard C; Powell, Jeffrey R

2008-01-01

172

A model for data analysis of microRNA expression in forensic body fluid identification.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs, 18-25 bases in length) are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. MiRNA expression patterns, including presence and relative abundance of particular miRNA species, provide cell- and tissue-specific information that can be used for body fluid identification. Recently, two published studies reported that a number of body fluid-specific miRNAs had been identified. However, the results were inconsistent when different technology platforms and statistical methods were applied. To further study the role of miRNAs in identification of body fluids, this study sets out to develop an accurate and reliable model for data analysis of miRNA expression. To that end, the relative expression levels of three miRNAs were studied using the mirVana™ miRNA Isolation Kit, high-specificity stem-loop reverse transcription (RT) and high-sensitivity hydrolysis probes (TaqMan) quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in forensically relevant biological fluids, including venous blood, vaginal secretions, menstrual blood, semen and saliva. Accurate quantification of miRNAs requires not only a highly sensitive and specific detection platform for experiment operation, but also a reproducible methodology with an adequate model for data analysis. In our study, the efficiency-calibrated model that incorporated the impact of the quantification cycle (Cq) values and PCR efficiencies of target and reference genes was developed to calculate the relative expression ratio of miRNAs in forensically relevant body fluids. Our results showed that venous blood was distinguished from other body fluids according to the relative expression ratio of miR16 using as little as 50pg of total RNA, while the expression level of miR658 was unstable and that of miR205 was nonspecific among different body fluids. Collectively, the findings may constitute a basis for future miRNA-based research on body fluid identification and show miRNAs as a promising biomarker in forensic identification of body fluids. PMID:21903498

Wang, Zheng; Luo, Haibo; Pan, Xiongfei; Liao, Miao; Hou, Yiping

2011-09-07

173

Analysis of mRNA from human heart tissue and putative applications in forensic molecular pathology.  

PubMed

The usefulness of post-mortem mRNA analysis and its potential applications in forensic casework is currently of interest, especially because of several factors affecting the quality of RNA samples that are not practically predictable. In fact, post-mortem RNA degradation is a complex process that has not been studied systematically. The purpose of this work is to establish whether RNA analysis from post-mortem heart tissue could be used as a forensic tool to investigate the cause of death, with special regard to those cases where a cardiac disease is suspected as the manner of death. We analysed heart tissue from 16 individuals with normal cardiac function, 9 with long post-mortem intervals (L-PMI) and 7 from organ donors with very short PMIs (S-PMIs). Right ventricle tissue was homogenised, and the RNA was isolated and reverse transcribed. The resulting cDNA was used in real-time PCR reactions to quantify the gene expression of beta-glucuronidase (GUSB), Nitric Oxide Synthase 3 (NOS3), Collagen 1 (COL1A1) and Collagen 3 (COL3A1). The percentage of samples with high-quality RNA was higher in samples with S-PMI (7 out of 7) than in samples with L-PMI (4 out of 9, p<0.05). No differences in PMI time or cause of exitus were found between samples with degraded or non-degraded RNA in the L-PMI group. When comparing mRNA levels in samples with non-degraded RNA, we found similar values between the L-PMI and S-PMI groups for GUSB, COL1A1 and COL3A1. The NOS3 gene expression in the L-PMI subgroup was less than half that in the S-PMI. These results suggest that high-quality mRNA can be extracted from post-mortem human hearts only in some cases. Moreover, our data show that mRNA levels are independent from the PMI, even though there are mRNAs in which the expression levels are very susceptible to ischemia times. Clear knowledge about the relationship between mRNA integrity and expression and PMI could allow the use of several mRNAs as forensic tools to contribute to the determination of the cause of death with special regard to cardiovascular diseases. PMID:20705404

Partemi, Sara; Berne, Paola M; Batlle, Montserrat; Berruezo, Antonio; Mont, Luis; Riuró, Helena; Ortiz, José T; Roig, Eulalia; Pascali, Vincenzo L; Brugada, Ramon; Brugada, Josep; Oliva, Antonio

2010-08-12

174

Forensic analysis of inks by imaging desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) is employed in the forensic analysis of documents. Blue ballpoint pen inks applied to ordinary writing paper are examined under ambient conditions without any prior sample preparation. When coupled to an automated moving stage, two-dimensional molecular images are generated. Proof-of-principle experiments include characterization of a simulated forged number and examination of older written records. This application of DESI has advantages over extractive techniques in terms of speed and sample preservation. The effects of the desorbing solvent composition, in this case a mixture of methanol and water, and of flow rate, are evaluated. Results suggest that the solubility of the analyte (dyes Basic Blue 7, Basic Violet 3 and Solvent Blue 26) plays an important role in desorption from the paper surface. PMID:17471393

Ifa, D R; Gumaelius, L M; Eberlin, L S; Manicke, N E; Cooks, R G

2007-03-30

175

Efficacy of forensic statement analysis in distinguishing truthful from deceptive eyewitness accounts of highly stressful events.  

PubMed

Laboratory-based detecting deception research suggests that truthful statements differ from those of deceptive statements. This nonlaboratory study tested whether forensic statement analysis (FSA) methods would distinguish genuine from false eyewitness accounts about exposure to a highly stressful event. A total of 35 military participants were assigned to truthful or deceptive eyewitness conditions. Genuine eyewitness reported truthfully about exposure to interrogation stress. Deceptive eyewitnesses studied transcripts of genuine eyewitnesses for 24 h and falsely claimed they had been interrogated. Cognitive Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and assessed by FSA raters blind to the status of participants. Genuine accounts contained more unique words, external and contextual referents, and a greater total word count than did deceptive statements. The type-token ratio was lower in genuine statements. The classification accuracy using FSA techniques was 82%. FSA methods may be effective in real-world circumstances and have relevance to professionals in law enforcement, security, and criminal justice. PMID:21854383

Morgan, Charles A; Colwell, Kevin; Hazlett, Gary A

2011-08-19

176

The Exploration & Forensic Analysis of Computer Usage Data in the Elderly  

PubMed Central

Unobtrusive in-home computer monitoring could one day be used to deliver cost-effective diagnostic information about the cognitive abilities of the elderly. This could allow for early detection of cognitive impairment and would additionally be coupled with the cost advantages that are associated with a semi-automated system. Before using the computer usage data to draw conclusions about the participants, we first needed to investigate the nature of the data that was collected. This paper represents a forensics style analysis of the computer usage data that is being collected as part of a larger study of cognitive decline, and focuses on the isolation and removal of non user-generated activities that were recorded by our computer monitoring software (CMS).

Hatt, William J.; VanBaak, Edward A.; Jimison, Holly B.; Hagler, Stuart; Hayes, Tamara L.; Pavel, Misha; Kaye, Jeffery

2010-01-01

177

Measurement and analysis of diastereomer ratios for forensic characterization of brodifacoum  

SciTech Connect

The highly toxic organic compound brodifacoum exists as two diastereomers. The diasteromer ratio in a sample depends on the methods and conditions used for synthesis and purification, and may vary over time due to differential stability of the diastereomers. The stereoisomer distribution may thus be viewed as a chemical forensic signature, containing information about the production and history of unknown samples, and providing a basis of comparison between samples. A determination of diastereomer ratios can be performed by a number of techniques, notably gas or liquid chromatography or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. An analysis of a cross-section of U.S.-made commercial technical grade brodifacoum material shows that there are detectable manufacturer-to-manufacturer and batch-to-batch variations in diastereomer ratios. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

Cort, John R.; Alperin, Paul J.; Cho, Herman M.

2012-01-10

178

Mine Disasters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Introduction-Timeline; Legislative History; Mining Disaster Facts; Disasters: 1900-Scofield M ines No. 1 & 4, Carbon County, UT; 1907-Monongah No. 6 & 7, South of Fairmont, WV; 1910-Cherry Mine, Cherry, IL; 1911-Banner Mine, Littleton, AL; 1912-...

2000-01-01

179

Disaster types  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to provide graduate students, researchers, and government and independent agencies with an overview of disaster types. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Disaster types have been the subject of research by and concern to academicians and to government and independent agencies. The paper summarizes the views of researchers and agencies. Disaster types are collected from several sources such as

Ibrahim Mohamed Shaluf

2007-01-01

180

FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF WINDOW’S® VIRTUAL MEMORY INCORPORATING THE SYSTEM’S PAGEFILE COUNTERINTELLIGENCE THROUGH MALICIOUS CODE ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF WINDOW’S® VIRTUAL MEMORY INCORPORATING THE SYSTEM’S PAGEFILE Computer Forensics is concerned with the use of computer investigation and analysis techniques in order to collect evidence suitable for presentation in court. The examination of volatile memory is a relatively new but important area in computer forensics. More recently criminals are becoming more forensically aware and are now able to compromise computers without accessing the hard disk of the target computer. This means that traditional incident response practice of pulling the plug will destroy the only evidence of the crime. While some techniques are available for acquiring the contents of main memory, few exist which can analyze these data in a meaningful way. One reason for this is how memory is managed by the operating system. Data belonging to one process can be distributed arbitrarily across physical memory or the hard disk, making it very difficult to recover useful information. This report will focus on how these disparate sources of information can be combined to give a single, contiguous address space for each process. Using address translation a tool is developed to reconstruct the virtual address space of a process by combining a physical memory dump with the page-file on the hard disk. COUNTERINTELLIGENCE THROUGH MALICIOUS CODE ANALYSIS As computer network technology continues to grow so does the reliance on this technology for everyday business functionality. To appeal to customers and employees alike, businesses are seeking an increased online prescience, and to increase productivity the same businesses are computerizing their day-to-day operations. The combination of a publicly accessible interface to the businesses network, and the increase in the amount of intellectual property present on these networks presents serious risks. All of this intellectual property now faces constant attacks from a wide variety of malicious software that is intended to uncover company and government secrets. Every year billions of dollars are invested in preventing and recovering from the introduction of malicious code into a system. However, there is little research being done on leveraging these attacks for counterintelligence opportunities. With the ever-increasing number of vulnerable computers on the Internet the task of attributing these attacks to an organization or a single person is a daunting one. This thesis will demonstrate the idea of intentionally running a piece of malicious code in a secure environment in order to gain counterintelligence on an attacker.

Jared Stimson Edward Murphy

2007-06-01

181

Capabilities of laser ablation—inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for (trace) element analysis of car paints for forensic purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capabilities of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) for depth profiling analysis of car paints were explored and the use of the signal profiles thus obtained for forensic purposes—identification of the vehicle involved in a hit-and-run accident— evaluated. Depth profiling analysis of car paint samples provided detailed information on the elemental composition of the individual layers (clear

Isolde Deconinck; Christopher Latkoczy; Detlef Gunther; Filip Govaert; Frank Vanhaecke

2006-01-01

182

Computer Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence gathered from computers is increasingly important in criminal investigations, and forensic examination of computer and other digital data has become an indispensable tool for law enforcement, corporate security, and intelligence gathering. This columns presents an overview of the processes and problems related to computer forensics.

William H. Allen

2005-01-01

183

Forensic Phonetics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines, with skepticism, the history and development of forensic phonetics in response to the publication of "Forensic Phonetics" by J. Baldwin and P. French (1990). Three issues are specifically explored: (1) whether voices are unique, (2) whether a purely auditory approach is adequate, and (3) whether legally sufficient conclusions about…

Nolan, Francis

1991-01-01

184

Integrated sample cleanup and capillary array electrophoresis microchip for forensic short tandem repeat analysis.  

PubMed

A twelve-lane capillary array electrophoresis (CAE) microsystem is developed that utilizes an efficient inline capture injection process together with the classical radial microfabricated capillary array electrophoresis (?CAE) format for high-sensitivity forensic short tandem repeat (STR) analysis. Biotin-labeled 9-plex STR amplicons are captured in a photopolymerized gel plug via the strong binding of streptavidin and biotin, followed by efficient washing and thermal release for CE separation. The analysis of 12 STR samples is completed in 30 min without any manual process intervention. A comparison between capture inline injection and conventional cross injection demonstrated at least 10-fold improvement in sensitivity. The limit-of-detection of the capture-CAE system was determined to be 35 haploid copies (17-18 diploid copies) of input DNA; this detection limit approaches the theoretical limits calculated using Poisson statistics and the spectral sensitivity of the instrument. To evaluate the capability of this microsystem for low-copy-number (LCN) analysis, three touch evidence samples recovered from unfired bullet cartridges in a pistol submerged in water for an hour were successfully analyzed, providing 53, 71, and 59% of the DNA profile. The high-throughput capture-CAE microsystem presented here provides a more robust and more sensitive platform for conventional as well as LCN and degraded DNA analysis. PMID:21071298

Liu, Peng; Scherer, James R; Greenspoon, Susan A; Chiesl, Thomas N; Mathies, Richard A

2010-11-10

185

[Development of forensic thanatology through the prism of analysis of postmortem protocols collected at the Department of Forensic Medicine, Jagiellonian University].  

PubMed

When assessed based on the analysis of postmortem protocols, the successes of forensic thanatology appear to differ from those that might be assumed using as the foundation a review of publications and textbooks. The greatest achievements date back to as early as the 18th and 19th centuries, when the morphological changes observed in the majority of types of deaths resulting from disease-associated and traumatic causes were described. Within the past 130 years, however, or in other words, in the period when autopsy protocols were written that are today collected in the archives of the Krakow Department of Forensic Medicine, the causes and mechanisms of death became understood even when the said factors were associated with discrete postmortem changes only or no no such changes whatsoever were left. At the end of the 19th century and for a long time afterwards, a difficult problem was posed by sudden deaths, where the postmortem examinations demonstrated solely atherosclerosis and the cause of death was described as "heart palsy". As it turned out, a great portion of such deaths represented individuals with myocardial infarction; in spite of its evident macroscopic presentation, the diagnostic management of the disease was progressing very slowly. Myocardial infarction, known at least since 1912, was associated by forensic medicine with the phenomenon of sudden death only in the forties, and the ability to detect myocardial infarction in practice developed only in the fifties of the last century. The achievement of the present dissertation is the formulation of a theory ascribing such a long delay in macroscopic diagnostics of myocardial infarction to forensic medicine specialists being attached to and fond of employing the "in situ" autopsy technique, which was unfavorable from the viewpoint of heart examination, since the organ was not dissected free and removed from the body in the course of a postmortem examination. When autopsies started to concentrate on hearts dissected free from large vessels, within several years, the number of diagnosed myocardial infarctions increased several times, what gave rise to a theory of a myocardial infarction epidemics formulated in some centers. A proof supporting the theory postulated by the author is a sudden increase in the number of deaths resulting from pulmonary embolism observed in the same several-year period; this diagnosis was also not facilitated by the "in situ" autopsy technique. Another cause of death, which - although undoubtedly common - was for years interpreted as "heart palsy" was alcohol poisoning. Evolution of methods used in chemical examinations for the presence of alcohol, and especially the use of blood tests rather than gastric contents tests allowed in time for determining alcohol poisoning as the cause of death and demonstrated the true extent of the phenomenon. Here, a milestone was the introduction of the Widmark method, what in turn resulted in changes in the toxicology theory, such as for example the use of a new term of "lethal concentration" in addition to the formerly employed notion of a "lethal dose", which is useless in the case of alcohol. Of lesser importance with respect to the number of cases, but of much greater significance in view of its association with homicides were the achievements in diagnostic management of strangulation. Choking and strangulation, as well as hanging--in spite of the fact that their fundamental features were known as early as in the 19th century--were really understood and the ability to diagnose these phenomena was achieved only in the interwar period. Such a long delay resulted from the autopsy technique that did not include examination of the organs situated in the neck, as well as from difficulties in acquiring experience in examining the type of homicide that was very uncommon. On the other hand, for many years, the erroneous theory of the fluidity of blood in a corpse as an indicator of violent strangulation resulted in dubious opinions on strangling b

Konopka, Tomasz

186

Disaster Research and Social Network Analysis: Examples of the Scientific Understanding of Human Dynamics at the National Science Foundation  

Microsoft Academic Search

How can knowledge about human behavior be accumulated effectively? How does the funding agency best assure that scientific research is effectively organized? This paper was stimulated by a meeting of nine researchers who received small grants from NSF to conduct empirical analysis of individuals affected by the hurricane disasters (Katrina and Rita) of 2005. Two of the authors are NSF

Larry Suter; Thomas Birkland; Raima Larter

2009-01-01

187

Forensic identification reporting using automatic speaker recognition systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show how any speaker recognition system can be adapted to provide its results according to the Bayesian approach for evidence analysis and forensic reporting. This approach, firmly established in other forensic areas as fingerprint, DNA or fiber analysis, suits the needs of both the court and the forensic scientist. We show the inadequacy of the classical approach to forensic

J. Gonzalez-Rodriguez; J. Fierrez-Aguilar; J. Ortega-Garcia

2003-01-01

188

Forensic Web Watch Forensic Podiatry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A search for forensic podiatry sites on the Internet revealed thousands of ‘hits’, of which very few were of any educational merit. Following extensive sifting of these addresses, it was found that only a few of the associations for human identification included any information on forensic podiatry methods. The search was also made difficult by many websites failing to make

T Brown; G. N Rutty

2003-01-01

189

Isotopic Analysis of the Explosive Urea Nitrate and Its Component Ions for Forensic Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urea nitrate (UN) is an explosive used in improvised explosive devices. UN (CH5N2O+NO3-) can be synthesized from readily available chemicals and was the main explosive used in the 1993 bombing of the World Trade Center. Isotopic analysis of this explosive has the potential to elucidate the isotopic ratios of the starting materials and geographic information on the location of synthesis. However, depending on the synthesis of the explosive, variable amounts of residual nitric acid may remain, yielding differing contributions of the components to the bulk UN ?15N values. Since ?15N nitrate values cannot be extrapolated from a single component and the bulk value, it is critical to separate the explosive into urea° and potassium nitrate. Therefore, we developed a method to isolate the components of UN for isotopic analysis through the neutralization of urea and separation via methanol washes. The urea in the explosive is neutralized with a 1.1:1 mole ratio of potassium hydroxide:urea in water resulting in urea° and potassium nitrate. The solution is then dried and the urea and potassium nitrate are separated using methanol. Urea and nitrate were isolated from samples of pre-blast UN and the completeness of the extraction was confirmed with a urease assay and a nitrate detection assay on the appropriate components. Isotopic analysis of the isolated urea and potassium nitrate were performed using an EA-IRMS, with the addition of sucrose to the potassium nitrate to aid combustion. For samples of relatively pure UN, the bulk UN ?15N value is stoichiometrically equivalent to the measured ?15N values of the isolated urea and nitrate in a 2:1 ratio. However, some explosive samples contained an excess of nitric acid due to poor preparation. As a result, the bulk UN ?15N values were biased towards the ?15N value of the nitrate. We are conducting experiments to compare the isotopic values of the initial starting reactants in the UN synthesis and the isotopic composition of the end products in order to test the forensic utility for linking the starting reactants to recovered UN. We are also investigating the extent of oxygen isotope exchange of nitrate and water during UN synthesis. This may provide constraints on the location of UN production, which will be useful in a forensic investigation.

Aranda, R.; Stern, L. A.; McCormick, M. C.; Mothershead, R. F.; Barrow, J. A.

2008-12-01

190

Probabilistic cost-benefit analysis of disaster risk management in a development context.  

PubMed

Limited studies have shown that disaster risk management (DRM) can be cost-efficient in a development context. Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is an evaluation tool to analyse economic efficiency. This research introduces quantitative, stochastic CBA frameworks and applies them in case studies of flood and drought risk reduction in India and Pakistan, while also incorporating projected climate change impacts. DRM interventions are shown to be economically efficient, with integrated approaches more cost-effective and robust than singular interventions. The paper highlights that CBA can be a useful tool if certain issues are considered properly, including: complexities in estimating risk; data dependency of results; negative effects of interventions; and distributional aspects. The design and process of CBA must take into account specific objectives, available information, resources, and the perceptions and needs of stakeholders as transparently as possible. Intervention design and uncertainties should be qualified through dialogue, indicating that process is as important as numerical results. PMID:23551288

Kull, Daniel; Mechler, Reinhard; Hochrainer-Stigler, Stefan

2013-04-02

191

New perspectives in forensic anthropology.  

PubMed

A critical review of the conceptual and practical evolution of forensic anthropology during the last two decades serves to identify two key external factors and four tightly inter-related internal methodological advances that have significantly affected the discipline. These key developments have not only altered the current practice of forensic anthropology, but also its goals, objectives, scope, and definition. The development of DNA analysis techniques served to undermine the classic role of forensic anthropology as a field almost exclusively focused on victim identification. The introduction of the Daubert criteria in the courtroom presentation of scientific testimony accompanied the development of new human comparative samples and tools for data analysis and sharing, resulting in a vastly enhanced role for quantitative methods in human skeletal analysis. Additionally, new questions asked of forensic anthropologists, beyond identity, required sound scientific bases and expanded the scope of the field. This environment favored the incipient development of the interrelated fields of forensic taphonomy, forensic archaeology, and forensic trauma analysis, fields concerned with the reconstruction of events surrounding death. Far from representing the mere addition of new methodological techniques, these disciplines (especially, forensic taphonomy) provide forensic anthropology with a new conceptual framework, which is broader, deeper, and more solidly entrenched in the natural sciences. It is argued that this new framework represents a true paradigm shift, as it modifies not only the way in which classic forensic anthropological questions are answered, but also the goals and tasks of forensic anthropologists, and their perception of what can be considered a legitimate question or problem to be answered within the field. PMID:19003882

Dirkmaat, Dennis C; Cabo, Luis L; Ousley, Stephen D; Symes, Steven A

2008-01-01

192

HPLC analysis of anti-malaria agent, chloroquine in blood and tissue from forensic autopsy cases in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

HPLC analysis of anti-malaria agent, chloroquine (CQ) in blood and tissues with a simple HCl back extraction method was applied to three forensic autopsy cases in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. CQ concentrations in femoral vein blood were 8.5, 48.4 and 43.8?g\\/ml in three cases, respectively, which were high enough to attribute the cause of deaths to an acute CQ poisoning.

Kosei Yonemitsu; Ako Koreeda; Kazuhiko Kibayashi; Paul Ng'walali; Martin Mbonde; James Kitinya; Shigeyuki Tsunenari

2005-01-01

193

A selection of some of Dr. McCrone's high and low profile cases in the forensic analysis of art.  

PubMed

Throughout Dr. McCrone's active professional career of over 60 years, he worked on many cases involving the forensic analysis of art. This is an overview of a small portion of these cases. Included (exposed as fakes) are the Shroud of Turin, the Vinland Map, Mayan pottery illustrations and Larionov pastels. Also included, with strong support for authentication, are three paintings attributed to Manet, Giorgione, and Leonardo da Vinci. PMID:15027547

Stoney, David A

2004-03-01

194

Application of the ORIGEN Fallout Analysis Tool and the DELFIC Fallout Planning Tool to National Technical Nuclear Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this project was to provide a robust fallout analysis and planning tool for the National Technical Nuclear Forensics interagency ground sample collection team. Their application called for a fast-running, portable mission-planning tool for use in response to emerging improvised nuclear device (IND) post-detonation situations. The project met those goals by research and development of models to predict

Vincent J Jodoin; Ronald W Lee; Douglas E. Peplow; Jordan P Lefebvre

2011-01-01

195

Reverse engineering--rapid prototyping of the skull in forensic trauma analysis.  

PubMed

Rapid prototyping (RP) comprises a variety of automated manufacturing techniques such as selective laser sintering (SLS), stereolithography, and three-dimensional printing (3DP), which use virtual 3D data sets to fabricate solid forms in a layer-by-layer technique. Despite a growing demand for (virtual) reconstruction models in daily forensic casework, maceration of the skull is frequently assigned to ensure haptic evidence presentation in the courtroom. Owing to the progress in the field of forensic radiology, 3D data sets of relevant cases are usually available to the forensic expert. Here, we present a first application of RP in forensic medicine using computed tomography scans for the fabrication of an SLS skull model in a case of fatal hammer impacts to the head. The report is intended to show that this method fully respects the dignity of the deceased and is consistent with medical ethics but nevertheless provides an excellent 3D impression of anatomical structures and injuries. PMID:21470229

Kettner, Mattias; Schmidt, Peter; Potente, Stefan; Ramsthaler, Frank; Schrodt, Michael

2011-04-06

196

The development and practice of forensic podiatry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic podiatry a small, but potentially useful specialty using clinical podiatric knowledge for the purpose of person identification. The practice of forensic podiatry began in the early 1970s in Canada and the UK, although supportive research commenced later in the 1990s. Techniques of forensic podiatry include identification from podiatry records, the human footprint, footwear, and the analysis of gait forms

Wesley Vernon

2006-01-01

197

When is Digital Evidence Forensically Sound?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensically sound” is a term used extensively in the digital forensics community to qualify and, in some cases, to justify\\u000a the use of a particular forensic technology or methodology. Indeed, many practitioners use the term when describing the capabilities\\u000a of a particular piece of software or when describing a particular forensic analysis approach. Such a wide application of the\\u000a term

Rodney Mckemmish

2008-01-01

198

Forensic analysis of Salvia divinorum using multivariate statistical procedures. Part I: discrimination from related Salvia species.  

PubMed

Salvia divinorum is a hallucinogenic herb that is internationally regulated. In this study, salvinorin A, the active compound in S. divinorum, was extracted from S. divinorum plant leaves using a 5-min extraction with dichloromethane. Four additional Salvia species (Salvia officinalis, Salvia guaranitica, Salvia splendens, and Salvia nemorosa) were extracted using this procedure, and all extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Differentiation of S. divinorum from other Salvia species was successful based on visual assessment of the resulting chromatograms. To provide a more objective comparison, the total ion chromatograms (TICs) were subjected to principal components analysis (PCA). Prior to PCA, the TICs were subjected to a series of data pretreatment procedures to minimize non-chemical sources of variance in the data set. Successful discrimination of S. divinorum from the other four Salvia species was possible based on visual assessment of the PCA scores plot. To provide a numerical assessment of the discrimination, a series of statistical procedures such as Euclidean distance measurement, hierarchical cluster analysis, Student's t tests, Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, and Pearson product moment correlation were also applied to the PCA scores. The statistical procedures were then compared to determine the advantages and disadvantages for forensic applications. PMID:22038586

Willard, Melissa A Bodnar; McGuffin, Victoria L; Smith, Ruth Waddell

2011-10-29

199

Historiography and forensic analysis of the Fort King George "skull": craniometric assessment using the specific population approach.  

PubMed

In this article, we evaluate the association between the Fort King George "skull" and two Franciscans who were killed during a Guale revolt in 1597 and whose remains were never recovered (Pedro de Corpa and Francisco de Veráscola). The history and historiography of the revolt is summarized to generate a forensic profile for the individuals. The calvaria is described in terms of preservation, taphonomy, possible trauma, age, and sex. Because these factors are consistent with the individuals in question, population affinity is assessed using comparative craniometric analysis. In response to recent criticism of the typological nature of forensic population affinity assessment, we use a population specific approach, as advocated by Alice Brues (1992). Archaeological and historical data inform the occupation history of the site, and data from those specific populations are used in the comparative analysis. Results of linear discriminant function analysis indicate a low probability that the calvaria is a Guale (the precontact inhabitants of southeastern Georgia) or an individual of African descent. Comparison among European and Euro-American populations indicated poor discriminatory resolution; however, the closest match suggests a New World affinity rather than an Old World English, Scottish, or Iberian affinity for the specimen. Future analyses that will provide greater resolution about the identity of the calvaria are outlined. The case highlights the unique challenges of historical forensics cases relative to those of traditional jurisprudence, as well as the potential for using historiography to overcome those challenges in future analyses. PMID:19373845

Stojanowski, Christopher M; Duncan, William N

2009-10-01

200

Adaptation and evaluation of the PrepFiler™ DNA extraction technology in an automated forensic DNA analysis process with emphasis on DNA yield, inhibitor removal and contamination security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the initial step of the forensic DNA analysis process, the DNA extraction efficiency and especially the removal of potential PCR inhibitors is crucial for subsequent steps, e.g. quantification by real-time PCR and amplification of short tandem repeats (STRs). The protocol of the PrepFiler™ Forensic DNA Extraction Kit was optimized for the application on a Tecan liquid handling workstation Freedom

Peter Zimmermann; Kai Vollack; Barbara Haak; Michelle Bretthauer; Andrea Jelinski; Marga Kugler; Jessica Loidl; Werner Pflug

2009-01-01

201

Analysis of 155 consecutive forensic exhumations with emphasis on undetected homicides.  

PubMed

A total of 155 consecutive forensic exhumations performed in Münster, Germany from 1967 to 2001 were evaluated retrospectively on the basis of the autopsy report, the police report and the death certificate. Histology and toxicology were performed in most cases. The postmortem intervals varied from 8 days to 8 years. Compared to other countries, the autopsy rate was low (1.2-1.4%) and the exhumation rate high (0.016%): principle of reciprocity. The cause of death could be clearly determined in 103 cases (66.5%) and histology or toxicology were decisive in 40%. Some findings were discernable using immunohistochemistry after considerable postmortem intervals, such as acute myocardial infarction after 1 year and pneumonia after 2 years and a diazepam intoxication was determined after 4.5 years. Major deviations between the cause of death as stated on the death certificate and as diagnosed after autopsy existed in 57 cases (37%). A more detailed analysis revealed five subgroups. 1. primary suspicion of intoxication (n=18) confirmed in 6 cases including 3 homicides (with parathion, clozapin, diazepam) which are described in more detail. 2. primary suspicion of homicide other than poisoning (n=51) confirmed in 19 cases. There was a serial killing of 15 patients by injection of air. In the remaining 4 cases, a shaken infant, craniocerebral injuries from blows with beer bottles, a craniocerebral gunshot and a multiplicity of blunt force injuries were diagnosed. The latter two cases are described in more detail. Superficial external examinations and the low autopsy rate were 2 common reasons for the occurrence of "buried homicides" (n=22)-not a single forensic autopsy had been performed directly after the death of the victims. 3. primary suspicion of medical malpractice (n=39). 4. accidents including traffic accidents (n=30). 5. clarification of the cause of death, circumstances or identity (n=17). Exhumations were frequently successful for recovering evidence which should better have been collected immediately after the death of an individual. Exhumations can also be regarded as an instrument to evaluate the quality of death certificates and death investigations. PMID:14986016

Karger, B; Lorin de la Grandmaison, G; Bajanowski, T; Brinkmann, B

2004-02-20

202

Forensic Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A course is described, which was given during an interim, with an enrollment of 41 students. The course involved an in-depth study of forensic science, involving students with the methodology of science. (DF)|

Berry, Keith O.; Nigh, W. G.

1973-01-01

203

Forensic analysis of Salvia divinorum using multivariate statistical procedures. Part II: association of adulterated samples to S. divinorum.  

PubMed

Salvia divinorum is a plant material that is of forensic interest due to the hallucinogenic nature of the active ingredient, salvinorin A. In this study, S. divinorum was extracted and spiked onto four different plant materials (S. divinorum, Salvia officinalis, Cannabis sativa, and Nicotiana tabacum) to simulate an adulterated sample that might be encountered in a forensic laboratory. The adulterated samples were extracted and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the resulting total ion chromatograms were subjected to a series of pretreatment procedures that were used to minimize non-chemical sources of variance in the data set. The data were then analyzed using principal components analysis (PCA) to investigate association of the adulterated extracts to unadulterated S. divinorum. While association was possible based on visual assessment of the PCA scores plot, additional procedures including Euclidean distance measurement, hierarchical cluster analysis, Student's t tests, Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, and Pearson product moment correlation were also applied to the PCA scores to provide a statistical evaluation of the association observed. The advantages and limitations of each statistical procedure in a forensic context were compared and are presented herein. PMID:22160202

Willard, Melissa A Bodnar; McGuffin, Victoria L; Smith, Ruth Waddell

2011-12-10

204

Forensic Ballistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Forensic ballistics is the application of ballistics for forensic purposes. The basis is formed by wound ballistics. Two main\\u000a mechanisms of injury are differentiated: the crush-mechanism resulting in the permanent cavity and the stretch-mechanism resulting\\u000a in the temporary cavity. The missile-tissue interactions such as yawing, deformation, fragmentation, and bone contact are\\u000a explained here and it is shown why the energy

Bernd Karger

205

Forensic toxicology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Forensic toxicology has developed as a forensic science in recent years and is now widely used to assist in death investigations,\\u000a in civil and criminal matters involving drug use, in drugs of abuse testing in correctional settings and custodial medicine,\\u000a in road and work-place safety, in matters involving environmental pollution, as well as in sports doping. Drugs most commonly\\u000a targeted

Olaf H. Drummer

206

Unifying Computer Forensics Modeling Approaches: A Software Engineering Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an effort to introduce formalism into computer forensics, researchers have presented various modeling techniques for planning, analysis, and documentation of forensics activities. These modeling techniques provide representations of various forensics subjects such as investigative processes, chain of events, and evidence tests. From a software engineering perspective, it seems that several of these computer forensics modeling approaches may be unified

A. Chris Bogen; David A. Dampier

2005-01-01

207

A model for forensic dental education in the predoctoral dental school curriculum.  

PubMed

Forensic odontologists play an important role locally and nationally in assisting in the identification of the victims of mass fatality incidents, whether natural or human-made. With the recent passage of legislation by Congress identifying dentists as a first-responder resource, knowledge of their expanding role in disaster response is particularly important. The purpose of this article is to describe the forensic dental course being taught at Creighton University School of Dentistry in Omaha, Nebraska, as a model for providing a fundamental education in forensic dentistry and disaster preparedness at the predoctoral dental level. This model is designed to 1) provide students with a broad view of forensic odontology; 2) give them a functional knowledge of the tools and techniques of the modern forensic dentist; 3) provide basic knowledge of their potential role in disaster preparedness and response; and 4) encourage students to pursue further forensic education, become active in national forensic organizations, and get involved in disaster preparedness/response in their home communities following graduation. This article includes lecture topics, demonstrations, and hands-on exercises being used at Creighton to teach students the fundamentals of forensic odontology and disaster preparedness. PMID:22550101

Hermsen, Kenneth P; Johnson, J Dane

2012-05-01

208

Computer Forensics Today  

Microsoft Academic Search

When people hear the word “forensics,” it often generates a mental image of the movie series with Jack Klugman as a medical examiner named Quincy. The fact is that there are as many as 25 separate forensic disciplines. They run from forensic accounting to forensic medicine and forensic pathology. The word forensics literally means “a science that deals with the

Kelly J. Kuchta

2000-01-01

209

Evaluation of particle-induced X-ray emission and particle-induced ?-ray emission of quartz grains for forensic trace sediment analysis.  

PubMed

The independent verification in a forensics context of quartz grain morphological typing by scanning electron microscopy was demonstrated using particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and particle-induced ?-ray emission (PIGE). Surface texture analysis by electron microscopy and high-sensitivity trace element mapping by PIXE and PIGE are independent analytical techniques for identifying the provenance of quartz in sediment samples in forensic investigations. Trace element profiling of the quartz grain matrix separately from the quartz grain inclusions served to differentiate grains of different provenance and indeed went some way toward discriminating between different quartz grain types identified in a single sample of one known forensic provenance. These results confirm the feasibility of independently verifying the provenance of critical samples from forensic cases. PMID:22242935

Bailey, M J; Morgan, R M; Comini, P; Calusi, S; Bull, P A

2012-02-09

210

2H stable isotope analysis of human tooth enamel: a new tool for forensic human provenancing?  

PubMed

Stable isotope analysis of biogenic tissues such as tooth enamel and bone mineral has become a well-recognised and increasingly important method for determining the provenance of human remains, and it has been used successfully in bio-archaeological studies as well as forensic investigations. In particular, (18)O and (2)H stable isotope signatures of bone and hair, respectively, are well-established proxies of climate (temperature) and source water and are therefore considered as indicators of geographic life trajectories of animals and humans. While the methodology for (2)H analysis of human hair, fingernails, and bone collagen is currently used to determine human provenance, i.e. geographic origin and identify possible migration patterns, studies involving the analysis of (2)H in tooth enamel appear to be nonexistent in the scientific literature. Ground tooth enamel was analysed by continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) coupled on-line to a high-temperature conversion elemental analyser (TC/EA). An array of tooth enamel samples from archaeological and modern teeth has been analysed under different experimental conditions, and the results of this proof-of-concept study are presented. While no significant differences in (2)H abundance were noted as a result of H exchange studies or different sample preparation protocols, no significant differences or trends in measured ?(2)H-values were observed either with regard to known differences in geographical provenance. We concluded that the ?(2)H-values obtained from tooth enamel could not be used as proxy for a person's geographical origin during adolescence. PMID:21416527

Holobinko, A; Meier-Augenstein, W; Kemp, H F; Prowse, T; Ford, S M

2011-03-14

211

The Development of a Generic Framework for the Forensic Analysis of SCADA and Process Control Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is continuing interest in researching generic security architectures and strategies for managing SCADA and process control systems. Documentation from various countries on IT security does now begin to recommendations for security controls for (federal) information systems which include connected process control systems. Little or no work exists in the public domain which takes a big picture approach to the issue of developing a generic or generalisable approach to SCADA and process control system forensics. The discussion raised in this paper is that before one can develop solutions to the problem of SCADA forensics, a good understanding of the forensic computing process, and the range of technical and procedural issues subsumed with in this process, need to be understood, and also agreed, by governments, industry and academia.

Slay, Jill; Sitnikova, Elena

212

Forensic utility of isotope ratio analysis of the explosive urea nitrate and its precursors.  

PubMed

Urea nitrate (UN) is an improvised explosive made from readily available materials. The carbon and nitrogen isotope composition of UN and its component ions, urea and nitrate, could aid in a forensic investigation. A method was developed to separate UN into its component ions for ?(15)N measurements by dissolving the sample with KOH, drying the sample, followed by removal of the urea by dissolution into 100% methanol. UN was synthesized to assess for preservation of the carbon and nitrogen isotope compositions of reactants (urea and nitric acid) and product UN. Based on nitrogen isotope mass balance, all UN samples contained varying amounts of excess nitric acid, making the ionic separation an essential step in the nitrogen isotope analysis. During UN synthesis experiments, isotopic composition of the reactants is preserved in the product UN, but the urea in the product UN is slightly enriched in (15)N (<1‰) relative to the reactant urea. Published isotopic compositions of UN reactants, urea and nitric acid, have large ranges (urea ?(15)N = -10.8 to +3.3‰; urea ?(13)C = -18.2 to -50.6‰; and nitric acid ?(15)N = -1.8 to +4.0‰). The preservation of isotopic composition of reactants in UN, along with a significant variability in isotopic composition of reactants, indicates that isotope ratio analysis may be used to test if urea or nitric acid collected during an investigation is a possible reactant for a specific UN sample. The carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios differ significantly between two field-collected UN samples, as well as the lab-synthesized UN samples. These observed variations suggest that this approach is useful for discriminating between materials which are otherwise chemically identical. PMID:20729019

Aranda, Roman; Stern, Libby A; Dietz, Marianne E; McCormick, Meghan C; Barrow, Jason A; Mothershead, Robert F

2010-08-21

213

Grief Reporting: A Print Media Content Analysis of the Gander, Newfoundland Air Disaster.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

When reporting grief, the media are often regarded as an insensitive monolith. This study of grief reporting shows that print media reports of a shocked, angry and saddened society in the aftermath of a disaster correspond with predictable human responses...

B. A. Goodno

1988-01-01

214

[Gunshot wounds: forensic pathology].  

PubMed

Gunshot wounds are among the most complex traumatic lesions encountered in forensic pathology. At the time of autopsy, careful scrutiny of the wounds is essential for correct interpretation of the lesions. Complementary pathological analysis has many interests: differentiation between entrance and exit wounds, estimation of firing distance, differentiation between vital and post mortem wounds and wounds dating. In case of multiple headshots, neuropathological examination can provide arguments for or against suicide. Sampling of gunshot wounds at autopsy must be systematic. Pathological data should be confronted respectively to autopsy and death scene investigation data and also ballistic studies. Forensic pathologist must be aware of the limits of optic microscopy. PMID:22325312

Lorin de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy

2012-01-17

215

[Advances of forensic entomology in China].  

PubMed

Forensic entomology is a branch of forensic medicine, which applies studies of insects and arthropods to getting evidence for court and has an analogous advantage in the estimation of the postmortem interval (PMI) and other questions of forensic relevance. The paper expounds its definition and contents and reviews some progress of the studies in some aspects in China such as the constitution and succession of insect community on the different cadavers, the applications of morphological features of insects and the technology of analysis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in forensic entomology, and forensic entomological toxicology etc. PMID:17285870

Lan, Ling-mei; Liao, Zhi-gang; Chen, Yao-qing; Yao, Yue; Li, Jian-bo; Li, Mao-yang; Cai, Ji-feng

2006-12-01

216

Hazard Analysis and Disaster Preparedness in the Fairbanks North Star Borough, Alaska using Hazard Simulations, GIS, and Network Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fairbanks North Star Borough (FNSB) lies in interior Alaska, an area that is dominated by semiarid, boreal forest climate. FNSB frequently witnesses flooding events, wild land fires, earthquakes, extreme winter storms and other natural and man-made hazards. Being a large 19,065 km2 area, with a population of approximately 97,000 residents, providing emergency services to residents in a timely manner is a challenge. With only four highways going in and out of the borough, and only two of those leading to another city, most residents do not have quick access to a main road. Should a major disaster occur and block one of the two highways, options for evacuating or getting supplies to the area quickly dwindle. We present the design of a Geographic Information System (GIS) and network analysis based decision support tool that we have created for planning and emergency response. This tool will be used by Emergency Service (Fire/EMS), Emergency Management, Hazardous Materials Team, and Law Enforcement Agencies within FNSB to prepare and respond to a variety of potential disasters. The GIS combines available road and address networks from different FNSB agencies with the 2010 census data. We used ESRI's ArcGIS and FEMA's HAZUS-MH software to run multiple disaster scenarios and create several evacuation and response plans. Network analysis resulted in determining response time and classifying the borough by response times to facilitate allocation of emergency resources. The resulting GIS database can be used by any responding agency in FNSB to determine possible evacuation routes, where to open evacuation centers, placement of resources, and emergency response times. We developed a specific emergency response plan for three common scenarios: (i) major wildfire threatening Fairbanks, (ii) a major earthquake, (iii) loss of power during flooding in a flood-prone area. We also combined the network analysis results with high resolution imagery and elevation data to determine 'one-way out' areas. These are areas that have only one road going in or out and if that road where to get shut down the residents would have no other way of evacuating.

Schaefer, K.; Prakash, A.; Witte, W.

2011-12-01

217

An integrated system of ABO typing and multiplex STR testing for forensic DNA analysis.  

PubMed

A new amplification system for ABO and STR genotyping in a single reaction has been successfully developed. Two types of information can be obtained from a biological sample at one time. One is the classical information of ABO blood group typing for screening suspects and the other is STR information for individual identification. The system allows for the simultaneous detection of 15 autosomal STR loci (containing all CODIS STR loci as well as Penta D and Penta E), six ABO genotypes (O/O, B/B, A/A, A/O, A/B, and B/O) and the gender-determining locus Amelogenin. Primers are designed so that the amplicons are distributed ranging from 75bp to 500bp within a four-dye fluorescent design, leaving a fourth dye for the internal size standard. With 30 cycles, the results showed that the optimal amount of DNA template for this multiplex ranges from 250pg to 2ng and the lowest detection threshold is 125pg (as low as 63pg for ABO loci). For the DNA template outside the optimal detection range, we could adjust the number of cycles to obtain the robust profiles. Mixture studies showed that over 83% of minor alleles were detected at 1:9 ratios. The full profiles were still observed when 4ng of degraded DNA was digested by DNase I and 1ng undegraded DNA was added to 40?M haematin. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based conditions including the concentrations of primers, magnesium and the Taq polymerase as well as volume, cycle numbers and annealing temperature were examined and optimised. In addition, the system was validated by 364 bloodstain samples and 32 common casework samples. According to the Chinese National Standards and Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM) guidelines, our system demonstrates good detection performance and is an ideal tool for forensic DNA typing with potential application. PMID:22516188

Jiang, Xianhua; He, Juan; Jia, Fei; Shen, Hongying; Zhao, Jinling; Chen, Chuguang; Bai, Liping; Liu, Feng; Hou, Guangwei; Guo, Faye

2012-04-18

218

An analysis of Japan Disaster Medical Assistance Team (J-DMAT) deployments in comparison with those of J-DMAT's counterpart in the United States (US-DMAT).  

PubMed

Lessons learned from the Great Hanshin-Awaji earthquake of 1995 underscored the necessity of establishing Disaster Medical Assistance Teams (DMATs) in Japan, and in 2005, the Japanese government's Central Disaster Prevention Council revised its Basic Disaster Management Plan to include full deployment of DMATs in disaster areas. Defining a DMAT as a trained, mobile, self-contained medical team that can act in the acute phase of a disaster (48 to 72 hours after its occurrence) to provide medical treatment in the devastated area, the revised plan called for the training of DMAT personnel for rapid deployment to any area of the country hit by a disaster. This paper presents descriptive data on the number and types of missions carried out by Japan DMAT (J-DMAT) in its first 5 years, and clarifies how J-DMAT differs from its counterpart in the United States (US-DMAT). The DMAT that the present authors belong to has been deployed for 2 natural disasters and 1 man-made disaster, and the operations carried out during these deployments are analyzed. Reports on J-DMAT activities published from 2004 through 2009 by the Japanese Association for Disaster Medicine are also included in the analysis. After training courses for J-DMAT personnel started in fiscal 2004, J-DMATs were deployed for 8 disasters in a period of 4 years. Five of these were natural disasters, and 3 man-made. Of the 5 natural disasters, 3 were earthquakes, and of the 3 man-made disasters, 2 were derailment accidents. Unlike in the United States, where hurricanes and floods account for the greatest number of DMAT deployments, earthquakes cause the largest number of disasters in Japan. Because Japan is small in comparison with the US (Japan has about 1/25 the land area of the US), most J-DMATs head for devastated areas by car from their respective hospitals. This is one reason why J-DMATs are smaller and more agile than US-DMATs. Another difference is that J-DMATs' activities following earthquakes involve providing treatment in confined spaces, triage, and stabilization of injuries: these services are required in the acute phase of a disaster, but the critical period is over in a much shorter time than in the case of water-related disasters. In response the kind of man-made disasters that occur in Japan-mainly transportation accidents, and occasional cases of random street violence-J-DMATs need to be deployed as soon as possible to provide medical services at the scene at the critical stage of the disaster. This means that J-DMATs have to be compact. The fact that J-DMATs are smaller and more agile than US-DMATs is a result of the types of disaster that hit Japan and the relatively small size of the country. PMID:21206145

Fuse, Akira; Yokota, Hiroyuki

2010-12-01

219

Forensic archaeology and anthropology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic archaeology is an extremely powerful investigative discipline and, in combination with forensic anthropology, can\\u000a provide a wealth of evidentiary information to police investigators and the forensic community. The re-emergence of forensic\\u000a archaeology and anthropology within Australia relies on its diversification and cooperation with established forensic medical\\u000a organizations, law enforcement forensic service divisions, and national forensic boards. This presents a

Kate Oakley

2005-01-01

220

Intrinsic sensor noise features for forensic analysis on scanners and scanned images  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large portion of digital images available today are acquired using digital cameras or scanners. While cameras provide digital reproduction of natural scenes, scanners are often used to capture hard-copy art in a more controlled environment. In this paper, new techniques for nonintrusive scanner forensics that utilize intrinsic sensor noise features are proposed to verify the source and integrity of

Hongmei Gou; Ashwin Swaminathan; Min Wu

2009-01-01

221

Analysis of forensically used autosomal short tandem repeat markers in Polish and neighboring populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the homogeneity of Polish populations with respect to STRs chosen as core markers of the Polish Forensic National DNA Intelligence Database, and to provide reference allele frequencies and to explore the genetic interrelationship between Poland and neighboring countries. The allele frequency distribution of 10 STRs included in the SGMplus kit was analyzed

Ireneusz Soltyszewski; Andrzej Plocienniczak; Hans Åke Fabricius; Igor Kornienko; Dmitrij Vodolazhsky; Walther Parson; Roman Hradil; Hermann Schmitter; Pavel Ivanov; Piotr Kuzniar; Boris A. Malyarchuk; Tomasz Grzybowski; Marcin Wo?niak; J?rgen Henke; Lotte Henke; Sergiv Olkhovets; Vladimir Voitenko; Vita Lagus; Andrej Ficek; Gabriel Minárik; Peter de Knijff; Krzysztof R?ba?a; Joanna Wysocka; Ewa Kapi?ska; Lidia Cybulska; Alexei I. Mikulich; Iosif S. Tsybovsky; Zofia Szczerkowska; Pawe? Krajewski; Rafa? Ploski

2008-01-01

222

The forensic luminol test for blood: unwanted interference and the effect on subsequent analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

When no bloodstains are found by visual inspection in crime scene investigations the chemilumine- scence (CL) produced in the luminol test for blood is a useful aid. The complex reactions that give rice to the blue- green CL are facilitated by the catalytical activity of the hemoglobin in blood. The luminol test has a high sensitivity compared to other forensic

Anders Nilsson

223

A review of the methodological aspects of aspartic acid racemization analysis for use in forensic science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate age determination of adult cadavers and human remains is a key requirement in forensic practice. The current morphological methods lack accuracy and precision, require specialist training and are costly. The use of aspartic acid racemization (AAR) in human dentine provides a simple, cost-effective solution and the method can achieve accuracies of ±3 years at best. Currently, there are differences

E. R Waite; M. J Collins; S Ritz-Timme; H-W Schutz; C Cattaneo; H. I. M Borrman

1999-01-01

224

Disaster Math  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site will help you to practice math while reviewing science! Disaster math has five great mathematical problems that discuss the effects and aftermath of earthquakes. When you are finished attempting the problems you can check your score!

2010-01-01

225

Forensic odontology: A prosthodontic view.  

PubMed

The most common role of the forensic dentist is the identification of deceased individuals. Dental identifications have always played a key role in natural and manmade disaster situations, and in particular, the mass casualties normally associated with aviation disasters. Because of the lack of a comprehensive fingerprint database, dental identification continues to be crucial in the world. An all-acrylic resin appliance such as a full denture or an all-acrylic partial denture (or orthodontic appliance), prior to delivery, could be inscribed with the patient's full name on a substrate (paper, metal) and sealed inconspicuously into the surface of a denture by various processes. It has been noted by several authors that in many cases of air disaster where the limbs are completely burnt off, some denture materials survive, especially the posterior part of acrylic dentures and metal-based dentures. Thus, marked dental prostheses (full and partial dentures, mouthguards and removal orthodontic appliances) would lead to rapid identification in the event of accidents and disaster. PMID:23087581

Gosavi, Sulekha; Gosavi, Siddharth

2012-01-01

226

Forensic odontology: A prosthodontic view  

PubMed Central

The most common role of the forensic dentist is the identification of deceased individuals. Dental identifications have always played a key role in natural and manmade disaster situations, and in particular, the mass casualties normally associated with aviation disasters. Because of the lack of a comprehensive fingerprint database, dental identification continues to be crucial in the world. An all-acrylic resin appliance such as a full denture or an all-acrylic partial denture (or orthodontic appliance), prior to delivery, could be inscribed with the patient's full name on a substrate (paper, metal) and sealed inconspicuously into the surface of a denture by various processes. It has been noted by several authors that in many cases of air disaster where the limbs are completely burnt off, some denture materials survive, especially the posterior part of acrylic dentures and metal-based dentures. Thus, marked dental prostheses (full and partial dentures, mouthguards and removal orthodontic appliances) would lead to rapid identification in the event of accidents and disaster.

Gosavi, Sulekha; Gosavi, Siddharth

2012-01-01

227

Natural Disasters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website is provided by ThinkQuest, a global network of students, teachers, parents, and technologists dedicated to youth-centered learning on the internet. This site highlights the following natural disasters: famine, cyclones, brushfires, drought, volcanoes, earthquakes, and tsunamis. Information provided about these disasters includes where they occur, how they occur, and case studies of each type. A worksheet is included for students to fill out as they navigate the site.

228

Plant genetics for forensic applications.  

PubMed

An emerging application for plant DNA fingerprinting and barcoding involves forensic investigations. Examples of DNA analysis of botanical evidence include crime scene analysis, identifying the source of commercial plant products, and investigation of trade in illicit drugs. Here, we review real and potential applications of DNA-based forensic botany and provide a protocol for microsatellite genotyping of leaf material, a protocol that could be used to link a suspect to a victim or to a crime scene. PMID:22419487

Zaya, David N; Ashley, Mary V

2012-01-01

229

Multimedia Forensics Is Not Computer Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent popularity of research on topics of multimedia forensics justifies reflections on the definition of the field.\\u000a This paper devises an ontology that structures forensic disciplines by their primary domain of evidence. In this sense, both\\u000a multimedia forensics and computer forensics belong to the class of digital forensics, but they differ notably in the underlying\\u000a observer model that defines

Rainer Böhme; Felix C. Freiling; Thomas Gloe; Matthias Kirchner

2009-01-01

230

Forensic dentistry in a terrorist world.  

PubMed

While body identification by dental means has not changed substantially since 9/11, or even since the bombing of the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City in 1995, the conditions and potential risks of a bioterrorism action to the dental personnel is new. The purpose of this article is to review general forensic dentistry disaster responses and to address the impact a bioterrorism action might have on primary, secondary and tertiary dental responders. It will also examine the triage role that dental offices might play in the event of such a disaster. PMID:16013679

Glass, R Thomas

2005-04-01

231

Perievent Panic Attack and Depression after the World Trade Center Disaster: A Structural Equation Model Analysis  

PubMed Central

Research suggests that perievent panic attacks – panic attacks in temporal proximity to traumatic events – are predictive of later mental health status, including the onset of depression. Using a community sample of New York City residents interviewed 1 year and 2 years after the World Trade Center Disaster, we estimated a structural equation model (SEM) using pre-disaster psychological status and post-disaster life events, together with psychosocial resources, to assess the relationship between perievent panic and later onset depression. Bivariate results revealed a significant association between perievent panic and both year-1 and year-2 depression. Results for the SEM, however, showed that perievent panic was predictive of year-1 depression, but not year-2 depression, once potential confounders were controlled. Year-2 stressors and year-2 psychosocial resources were the best predictors of year-2 depression onset. Pre-disaster psychological problems were directly implicated in year-1 depression, but not year-2 depression. We conclude that a conceptual model that includes pre- and post-disaster variables best explains the complex causal pathways between psychological status, stressor exposure, perievent panic attacks, and depression onset two years after the World Trade Center attacks.

Adams, Richard E.; Boscarino, Joseph A.

2011-01-01

232

Perievent panic attack and depression after the World Trade Center disaster: a structural equation model analysis.  

PubMed

Research suggests that perievent panic attacks--panic attacks in temporal proximity to traumatic events--are predictive of later mental health status, including the onset of depression. Using a community sample of New York City residents interviewed 1 year and 2 years after the World Trade Center Disaster, we estimated a structural equation model (SEM) using pre-disaster psychological status and post-disaster life events, together with psychosocial resources, to assess the relationship between perievent panic and later onset depression. Bivariate results revealed a significant association between perievent panic and both year-1 and year-2 depression. Results for the SEM, however showed that perievent panic was predictive of year-1 depression, but not year-2 depression, once potential confounders were controlled Year-2 stressors and year-2 psychosocial resources were the best predictors of year-2 depression onset. Pre-disaster psychological problems were directly implicated in year-1 depression, but not year-2 depression. We conclude that a conceptual model that includes pre- and post-disaster variables best explains the complex causal pathways between psychological status, stressor exposure, perievent panic attacks, and depression onset two years after the World Trade Center attacks. PMID:21957721

Adams, Richard E; Boscarino, Joseph A

2011-01-01

233

Forensic Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citation: Brigham, J., & Grisso, T. (2003). Forensic Psychology. In D.K. Friedheim & I.B. Weiner (eds.), Comprehensive handbook of psychology. Vol. 1: The history of psychology, (pp. 391-411). New York: John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 0471383201, 9780471383208.\\u000aLimited preview available via Google Books.

John C. Brigham; Thomas Grisso

2003-01-01

234

Concepts and possibilities in forensic intelligence.  

PubMed

Forensic intelligence can be viewed as comprising two parts, one directly concerning intelligence delivery in forensic casework, the other considering performance aspects of forensic work, loosely termed here as business intelligence. Forensic casework can be viewed as processes that produce an intelligence product useful to police investigations. Traditionally, forensic intelligence production has been confined to discipline-specific activity. This paper examines the concepts, processes and intelligence products delivered in forensic casework, the information repositories available from forensic examinations, and ways to produce within- and across-discipline casework correlations by using information technology to capitalise on the information sets available. Such analysis presents opportunities to improve forensic intelligence services as well as challenges for technical solutions to deliver appropriate data-mining capabilities for available information sets, such as digital photographs. Business intelligence refers primarily to examination of efficiency and effectiveness of forensic service delivery. This paper discusses measures of forensic activity and their relationship to crime outcomes as a measure of forensic effectiveness. PMID:16893621

Bell, Chris

2006-08-07

235

Can clinical CT data improve forensic reconstruction?  

PubMed

In accidents resulting in severe injuries, a clinical forensic examination is generally abandoned in the initial phase due to high-priority clinical needs. However, in many cases, data from clinical computed tomography (CT) examinations are available. The goals of this prospective study were (a) to evaluate clinical CT data as a basis for forensic reconstruction of the sequence of events, (b) to assess if forensic radiological follow-up reading improves the forensic diagnostic benefit compared to the written clinical radiological reports, and (c) to evaluate if full data storage including additional reconstructed 0.6-mm slices enhances forensic analysis. Clinical CT data of 15 living individuals with imaging of at least the head, thorax, and abdomen following polytrauma were examined regarding the forensic evaluation of the sequence of events. Additionally, 0.6-mm slices and 3D images were reconstructed for forensic purposes and used for the evaluation. At the forensic radiological readings, additional traumatic findings were observed in ten of the 15 patients. The main weakness of the clinical reports was that they were not detailed enough, particularly regarding the localization of injuries and description of wound morphology. In seven cases, however, forensic conclusions were possible on the basis of the written clinical reports, whereas in five cases forensic reconstruction required specific follow-up reading. The additional 0.6-mm slices were easily available and with improved 3D image quality and forensic diagnostics. In conclusion, the use of clinical CT data can considerably support forensic expertise regarding reconstruction issues. Forensic follow-up reading as well as the use of additional thin slices for 3D analysis can further improve its benefit for forensic reconstruction purposes. PMID:23412132

Schuh, P; Scheurer, E; Fritz, K; Pavlic, M; Hassler, E; Rienmüller, R; Yen, K

2013-02-15

236

The value of radiocarbon analysis in determining the forensic interest of human skeletal remains found in unusual circumstances.  

PubMed

The case under analysis refers to the remains of a young adult female found in a shallow grave during the construction work of a hospital in Northern Portugal. The forensic interest of the finding could not be ruled out since distinguishing features pointing to an archaeological grave were lacking. For example, absence of archaeological artefacts could not establish its forensic significance with certainty, together with the absence of modern objects, such as remnants of clothing or personal objects. In addition, although the remains were badly preserved, the condition may not have resulted from a long post-depositional period, but instead could be explained by the geology of the site and the presence of plant roots. The radiocarbon analysis of the remains was meant to establish the death of the individual to before or after the mid-1950s, from comparison with bomb-curve content values. A value of 0.9789 ± 0.0044 for F(14)C (pmC = 97.19 ± 0.44% Modern or ?(14)C = -28.1 ± 4.4‰) was obtained, which placed the death of the individual in the pre-mod-1950s period. This report illustrates the use of radiocarbon analysis in establishing whether the human remains are contemporary or not and describes evidence for what appears to be an historic clandestine grave. PMID:22281219

Cardoso, Hugo F V; Puentes, Katerina; Soares, António Monge; Santos, Agostinho; Magalhães, Teresa

2011-10-05

237

Application of the ORIGEN Fallout Analysis Tool and the DELFIC Fallout Planning Tool to National Technical Nuclear Forensics  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to provide a robust fallout analysis and planning tool for the National Technical Nuclear Forensics interagency ground sample collection team. Their application called for a fast-running, portable mission-planning tool for use in response to emerging improvised nuclear device (IND) post-detonation situations. The project met those goals by research and development of models to predict the physical, chemical, and radiological properties of fallout debris. ORNL has developed new graphical user interfaces for two existing codes, the Oak Ridge Isotope Generation (ORIGEN) code and the Defense Land Fallout Interpretive Code (DELFIC). ORIGEN is a validated, radionuclide production and decay code that has been implemented into the Fallout Analysis Tool to predict the fallout source term nuclide inventory after the detonation of an IND. DELFIC is a validated, physics-based, research reference fallout prediction software package. It has been implemented into the Fallout Planning Tool and is used to predict the fractionated isotope concentrations in fallout, particle sizes, fractionation ratios, dose rate, and integrated dose over the planned collection routes - information vital to ensure quality samples for nuclear forensic analysis while predicting dose to the sample collectors. DELFIC contains a particle activity module, which models the radiochemical fractionation of the elements in a cooling fireball as they condense into and onto particles to predict the fractionated activity size distribution for a given scenario. This provides the most detailed physics-based characterization of the fallout source term phenomenology available in an operational fallout model.

Jodoin, Vincent J [ORNL; Lee, Ronald W [ORNL; Peplow, Douglas E. [ORNL; Lefebvre, Jordan P [ORNL

2011-01-01

238

DNA Microarray Analysis of the Mouse Adrenal Gland for the Detection of Hypothermia Biomarkers: Potential Usefulness for Forensic Investigation.  

PubMed

We analyzed the adrenal gland transcriptome of mice killed by hypothermia using DNA microarray technology. A total of 4051 significantly expressed genes were identified; 2015 genes were upregulated and 2036 were downregulated. The FBJ osteosarcoma oncogene was the most upregulated, whereas stearoyl coenzyme A desaturase 3 was the most downregulated. Validation by quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that results obtained by both methods were consistent. In the gene set analysis, significant variations were found in nine pathways, and we suggest that transforming growth factor ? and tumor necrosis factor ? would be involved in the pathogenesis of hypothermia. Gene functional category analysis demonstrated the most overexpressed categories in upregulated and downregulated genes were cellular process in biological process, binding in molecular function, and cell and cell part in cellular component. The present study demonstrated acute adrenal responses in hypothermia, and we suggest that understanding adrenal mRNA expression would be useful for hypothermia diagnosis. Furthermore, the present microarray data may also facilitate development of immunohistochemical analysis of human cases. In forensic practice, the combination of macroscopic and microscopic observations with molecular biological analyses would be conducive to more accurate diagnosis of hypothermia. Although this study is aimed at forensic practice, the present data regarding more than 20,000 genes of the adrenal gland would be beneficial to inform future clinical hypothermia research. From the viewpoint of adrenal gene activity, they could contribute to elucidating the pathophysiology of hypothermia. PMID:23781398

Takamiya, Masataka; Saigusa, Kiyoshi; Dewa, Koji

2013-06-01

239

Geospatial analysis of spaceborne remote sensing data for assessing disaster impacts and modeling surface runoff in the built-environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Every year, coastal disasters such as hurricanes and floods claim hundreds of lives and severely damage homes, businesses, and lifeline infrastructure. This research was motivated by the 2005 Hurricane Katrina disaster, which devastated the Mississippi and Louisiana Gulf Coast. The primary objective was to develop a geospatial decision-support system for extracting built-up surfaces and estimating disaster impacts using spaceborne remote sensing satellite imagery. Pre-Katrina 1-m Ikonos imagery of a 5km x 10km area of Gulfport, Mississippi, was used as source data to develop the built-up area and natural surfaces or BANS classification methodology. Autocorrelation of 0.6 or higher values related to spectral reflectance values of groundtruth pixels were used to select spectral bands and establish the BANS decision criteria of unique ranges of reflectance values. Surface classification results using GeoMedia Pro geospatial analysis for Gulfport sample areas, based on BANS criteria and manually drawn polygons, were within +/-7% of the groundtruth. The difference between the BANS results and the groundtruth was statistically not significant. BANS is a significant improvement over other supervised classification methods, which showed only 50% correctly classified pixels. The storm debris and erosion estimation or SDE methodology was developed from analysis of pre- and post-Katrina surface classification results of Gulfport samples. The SDE severity level criteria considered hurricane and flood damages and vulnerability of inhabited built-environment. A linear regression model, with +0.93 Pearson R-value, was developed for predicting SDE as a function of pre-disaster percent built-up area. SDE predictions for Gulfport sample areas, used for validation, were within +/-4% of calculated values. The damage cost model considered maintenance, rehabilitation and reconstruction costs related to infrastructure damage and community impacts of Hurricane Katrina. The developed models were implemented for a study area along I-10 considering the predominantly flood-induced damages in New Orleans. The BANS methodology was calibrated for 0.6-m QuickBird2 multispectral imagery of Karachi Port area in Pakistan. The results were accurate within +/-6% of the groundtruth. Due to its computational simplicity, the unit hydrograph method is recommended for geospatial visualization of surface runoff in the built-environment using BANS surface classification maps and elevations data. Key words. geospatial analysis, satellite imagery, built-environment, hurricane, disaster impacts, runoff.

Wodajo, Bikila Teklu

240

Statistical data analysis of bacterial t-RFLP profiles in forensic soil comparisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil can play an important role in forensic investigations in linking suspects or objects to a crime scene. Bacterial populations are one of the biotic parameters in soil which can be used for comparisons. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (t-RFLP) is used to visualize these populations. Here we present a method to compare soil t-RFLP profiles based on Bray-Curtis distances.

Frederike C. A. Quaak; Irene Kuiper

2011-01-01

241

Automated SEM-EDS (QEMSCAN®) Mineral Analysis in Forensic Soil Investigations: Testing Instrumental Reproducibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complex mix of organic and inorganic components present in urban and rural soils and sediments potentially enable them\\u000a to provide highly distinctive trace evidence in both criminal and environmental forensic investigations. Organic components\\u000a might include macroscopic or microscopic plants and animals, pollen, spores, marker molecules, etc. Inorganic components comprise\\u000a naturally derived minerals, mineralloids and man-made materials which may also

Duncan Pirrie; Matthew R. Power; Gavyn K. Rollinson; Patricia E. J. Wiltshire; Julia Newberry; Holly E. Campbell

242

Forensic DNA Analysis of Pacific Salmonid Samples for Species and Stock Identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of salmonid tissue samples to species or population of origin has been conducted for over 20 forensic cases\\u000a in British Columbia. Species identification is based on published sequence variation in exon and intron regions of coding\\u000a genes. Identification of source populations or regions is carried out using microsatellite and major histocompatibility complex\\u000a allele frequency data collected from populations throughout

Ruth E. Withler; John R. Candy; Terry D. Beacham; Kristina M. Miller

2004-01-01

243

Precision studies using the ABI Prism 3100 Genetic Analyzer for forensic DNA analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precision studies using the ABI Prism 3100 Genetic Analyzer have been conducted by performing multiple runs of the AmpFSTR Identifiler allelic ladder, 9947A kit positive control DNA and the 250-base-pair fragment from the internal size standard (GeneScan LIZ-500). Intra-run and inter-run precision data demonstrates the sizing reproducibility of the 3100 instrument for forensic applications. This precision data is utilized to assist in

Joanne B. Sgueglia; Stephana Geiger; Jeffrey Davis

2003-01-01

244

State-of-the-art of bone marrow analysis in forensic toxicology: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although blood is the reference medium in the field of forensic toxicology, alternative matrices are required in case of limited,\\u000a unavailable or unusable blood samples. The present review investigated the suitability of bone marrow (BM) as an alternative\\u000a matrix to characterize xenobiotic consumption and its influence on the occurrence of death. Basic data on BM physiology are\\u000a reported in order

Nathalie Cartiser; Fabien Bévalot; Laurent Fanton; Yvan Gaillard; Jérôme Guitton

2011-01-01

245

Human tissue preservation for disaster victim identification (DVI) in tropical climates.  

PubMed

Disaster victim identification (DVI) poses unique challenges for forensic personnel. Typical scenarios may involve many bodies or body parts to identify in remote locations with limited access to laboratory facilities and in extreme temperatures. Transportation of tissue samples to a forensic laboratory for DNA profiling can take weeks without refrigeration. As well as protecting DNA for subsequent analysis, tissue preservation methods ideally should be safe, readily available and easy to transport to the scene at relatively low cost. We examined eight tissue preservatives (salt, DMSO, ethanol, ethanol with EDTA, TENT buffer, RNAlater(®), DNA Genotek Tissue Stabilising Kit and DNAgard(®)) and compared the quantity and quality of DNA recovered from human tissue and preservative solution stored at 35°C. Salt, DMSO, ethanol solutions, DNA Genotek and DNAgard(®) produced full Identifiler(®) genotypes up to one month from DNA extracts. In addition, DMSO, DNA Genotek and DNAgard(®) produced full profiles from aliquots of the liquid preservative. PMID:22269964

Allen-Hall, A; McNevin, D

2012-01-24

246

[The dentist as an expert in disasters: dental identification in the disaster with the Zeebruge ferry. 1990].  

PubMed

The Herald of Free Enterprise Disaster on the 6th of March 1987 just outside Zeebrugge harbour was without any doubt a disaster of major proportions. The ferry disaster highlighted different approaches in major incident procedures in both countries involved but nevertheless the identification team which was composed of both British and Belgian specialists did perform good work. The identification of the victims had to be done in three phases each of them with its own specific work and problems. As the process of identification of bodies is an exacting science, and forensic odontology is known to be among the most reliable scientific methods in mass disasters, it is easily understood that forensic odontology took an active part in all three phases of the identification process. PMID:20178171

De Valck, Eddy

247

RNA in forensic science  

Microsoft Academic Search

RNA analysis offers insight into diseases and mechanisms leading to death and could develop into a valuable tool for diagnosis of the cause of death in forensic pathology. Other possible applications include the determination of the age of wounds and injuries and of the post-mortem interval. The molecular identification of body fluids by analysis of cell-specific mRNA expression already represents

M. Bauer

2007-01-01

248

How to Improve Forensic Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some institutional structures for inquiry produce better approximations to truth than others. The current institutional structure\\u000a of police forensics gives each lab a monopoly in the analysis of the police evidence it receives. Forensic workers have inadequate\\u000a incentives to produce reliable analyses of police evidence. Competition would create such incentives. I outline a system of\\u000a “competitive self regulation” for police

Roger Koppl

2005-01-01

249

Tailoring Disaster Mental Health Services to Diverse Needs: An Analysis of 36 Crisis Counseling Projects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The federal Crisis Counseling Program (CCP) funds states' delivery of mental health services after disasters. These services are provided by social workers, other mental health professionals, and paraprofessionals from the local community. The present study examined whether CCP grant recipients that reported more tailoring of their interventions…

Rosen, Craig S.; Greene, Carolyn J.; Young, Helena E.; Norris, Fran H.

2010-01-01

250

Measuring the impact of natural disasters on capital markets: An empirical application using intervention analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the impact of natural disasters on the Australian equity market. The data set employed consists of daily price and accumulation returns over the period 31 December 1982 to 1 January 2002 for the All Ordinaries Index (AOI) and a record of forty-two severe storms, floods, cyclones, earthquakes and bushfires (wildfires) during this period with an insured loss

Andrew Worthington; Abbas Valadkhani

2003-01-01

251

Measuring the impact of natural disasters on capital markets: an empirical application using intervention analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of natural disasters on the Australian equity market is examined. The data set employed consists of daily price and accumulation returns over the period 31 December 1982–1 January 2002 for the All Ordinaries Index (AOI) and a record of 42 severe storms, floods, cyclones, earthquakes and bushfires (wildfires) during this period with an insured loss in excess of

Andrew Worthington; Abbas Valadkhani

2004-01-01

252

Resourcing challenges for post-disaster housing reconstruction: a comparative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-disaster housing reconstruction is likely to suffer project deficiencies in relation to the availability of resources. Inefficiencies in dealing with resource shortages in the aftermath of a catastrophe can trigger economic and environmental impacts on the affected areas. Based on data collected from field research in China, Indonesia, and Australia, three types of resource-led reconstruction strategies are compared: government driven,

Yan Chang; Suzanne Wilkinson; Regan Potangaroa; Erica Seville

2010-01-01

253

Ideas about Earthquakes after Experiencing a Natural Disaster in Taiwan: An Analysis of Students' Worldviews.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explores students' worldviews as revealed by their ideas about the causality of earthquakes after experiencing the natural disaster. Finds that students accept scientific ideas and abandon their original worldviews, accept scientific ideas and retain their original worldviews, or retain their original worldviews and ignore the scientific…

Tsai, Chin-Chung

2001-01-01

254

New cell separation technique for the isolation and analysis of cells from biological mixtures in forensic caseworks  

PubMed Central

Aim To isolate mucosal cells of the perpetrator in a sexual assault case from a complex mixture of his mucosal cells and the victim’s skin by micromanipulation prior to genomic analysis. Methods To capture and analyze mucosal cells we used the micromanipulation with on-chip low volume polymerase chain reaction (LV-PCR). Consensus DNA profiles were generated from 5 replicate experiments. Results and conclusions We validated the use of micromanipulation with on-chip LV-PCR for genomic analysis of complex biological mixtures in a fatal rape case. The perpetrator’s mucosal cells were captured from nipple swabs of the victim, and a single-source DNA profile was generated from cell mixtures. These data suggest that micromanipulation with on-chip LV-PCR is an effective forensic tool for the analysis of specific cells from complex samples.

Li, Cai-xia; Wang, Gui-qiang; Li, Wan-shui; Huang, Jiang-ping; Ji, An-quan; Hu, Lan

2011-01-01

255

Forensic Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Technology is rapidly changing the speed and manner in which people interact with each other and with the world. As technology\\u000a helps criminals to operate more easily and quickly across borders, so law enforcement capability must continuously improve\\u000a to keep one step ahead. Computer forensics has become a specialized and accepted investigative technique with its own tools\\u000a and legal precedents

Xiang Li; Jennifer Seberry

2003-01-01

256

Xbox Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsoft's Xbox game console is little more than a low-end personal computer; with a small amount of effort it can be modified to run additional operating systems, enabling it to store gigabytes worth of non-game-related files in addition to allowing it to run various computer services. Little has been published, however, on the proper forensic procedures to determine whether an

Paul K. Burke; Philip Craiger

2006-01-01

257

Forensic Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic assessment has grown and advanced significantly during the last twenty years in particular. The present chapter has\\u000a reviewed and critically analyzed conceptual and empirical developments, as well as the addition of a variety of FAIs and FRIs\\u000a that are relevant to the legal decision-making process. Despite the important advances that we have described in this chapter,\\u000a however, there is

Kirk Heilbrun; Richard Rogers; Randy K. Otto

258

Collection and recording of radiological information for forensic purposes.  

PubMed

Forensic odontology is the application of dental expertise to legal issues. Commonly, it involves the comparison of dental records of a missing person with a deceased individual for the purposes of forensic personal identification, either in a single case, or as part of the response to an event involving multiple simultaneous fatalities (Disaster Victim Identification, or DVI). It may also involve studies to determine the age of an individual, which may be required as part of a forensic identification process, or for another legal purpose such as the determination of legal responsibility, or in connection with immigration. This report examines the types of radiological information currently used in such forensic studies, and discusses how this information may be accessed or recorded, as well as the techniques that are commonly applied to the radiological data to reach a satisfactory outcome for application in forensic casework. PMID:22376094

Forrest, Alexander S

2012-03-01

259

Forensic DNA-typing technologies: a review.  

PubMed

Since the discovery of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) profiling in 1985, forensic genetics has experienced a continuous technical revolution, both in the type of DNA markers used and in the methodologies or its detection. Highly informative and robust DNA-typing systems have been developed that have proven to be very effective in the individualization of biological material of human origin. DNA analysis has become the standard method in forensic genetics used by laboratories for the majority of forensic genetic expertise and especially in criminal forensic casework (stain analysis and hairs) and identification. PMID:15570096

Carracedo, Angel; Sánchez-Diz, Paula

2005-01-01

260

Forensic Analysis by Comprehensive Rapid Detection of Pathogens and Contamination Concentrated in Biofilms in Drinking Water Systems for Water Resource Protection and Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clean fresh water is becoming an increasingly critical resource that will become evermore precious as more societies industrialize and population pressure increases. The critical nature of the water resource expands the vulnerability of the water supply to political and terrorist activities. With this expanded vulnerability, the importance of forensic analysis in management of water resources and protection from contamination increases.

David C. White; Julia S. Gouffon; Aaron D. Peacock; Roland Geyer; Anita Biernacki; Greg A. Davis; Marsha Pryor; Mary Beth Tabacco; Kerry L. Sublette

2003-01-01

261

Matching an oil spill with its source requires methods that take into account the weathering of oil in the spill. [Forensic chemical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analytical approach to the identification of the source of an oil spill is discussed. Since the identification of the source of an oil spill requires a forensic chemical analysis, several different types of analyses are used, namely, thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, low-temperature luminescence, infrared spectroscopy, and emission spectroscopy. The application of these methods to the process of

Bentz

1978-01-01

262

Development of a one-tube extraction and amplification method for DNA analysis of sperm and epithelial cells recovered from forensic samples by laser microdissection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser microdissection can be used in forensic casework to isolate specific cell types from mixtures of biological samples. Extraction of DNA from selected cells is still required prior to STR amplification. Because of the relatively pristine nature of the recovered cells, laser microdissection is more sensitive than more traditional methods of DNA analysis, theoretically resulting in DNA profiles from less

Melanie Meredith; Jo-Anne Bright; Sarah Cockerton; Sue Vintiner

263

THE CASE FOR TEACHING NETWORK PROTOCOLS TO COMPUTER FORENSICS EXAMINERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most computer forensics experts are well-versed in basic computer hardware technology, operating systems, common software applications, and computer forensics tools. And while many have rudimentary knowledge about the Internet and simple network-lookup tools, they are not trained in the analysis of network communication protocols and the use of packet sniffers. This paper describes digital forensics applications for network analysis and

Gary C. Kessler; Matt Fasulo

264

The role of forensic geoscience in wildlife crime detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increase in both automation and precision in the analysis of geological materials has had significant impact upon forensic investigations in the last 10 years. There is however, a fundamental philosophical difference between forensic and geological enquiry. This paper presents the results of forensic geoscientific investigations of three cases of wildlife crime. Two cases involve the analysis of soils recovered

Ruth M. Morgan; Patricia Wiltshire; Adrian Parker; Peter A. Bull

2006-01-01

265

[Analysis with the Combur-Test--special aspects in forensic trace examination].  

PubMed

The Combur Test is a ready-made and easy-to-use pretest for blood. It is based on the oxidation of tetramethylbenzidine (TMB), which is catalysed by haemoglobin and its derivatives. Despite its high sensitivity, there are many known substances which are responsible for false positive and false negative test results. On the basis of experiments of our own, case reports and the pertinent literature special aspects of the application of the Combur Test in the forensic routine case work are discussed. PMID:22834362

Laberke, Patrick J; Hausmann, Roland; Wiprächtiger, Nadine; Briellmann, Thomas; Balitzki, Beate

266

Investigating the implications of virtual forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer Forensic process consists of Preparation, Acquisition, Preservation, Examination and Analysis, and Reporting. With the booming of the virtualization technology and the popularity of virtual machines for end users to deal with daily works, the probability of using virtual machines for malicious purposes keeps increasing. In this paper we propose a methodology by using virtual forensics for malware analysis and

Harshit Sharma; Nitish Sabharwal

2012-01-01

267

Surviving Disasters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Schools play a unique role in communities when disaster strikes. They serve as shelter for evacuees and first responders; they are a trusted source of information; and once danger has passed, the district, as employer and community center, often serves as a foundation for recovery. Technology plays a key role in a school district's ability to…

Henke, Karen Greenwood

2008-01-01

268

Forensic entomology: a template for forensic acarology?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insects are used in a variety of ways in forensic science and the developing area of forensic acarology may have a similar\\u000a range of potential. This short account summarises the main ways in which entomology currently contributes to forensic science\\u000a and discusses to what extent acarology might also contribute in these areas.

Bryan Turner

2009-01-01

269

Forensic entomology: a template for forensic acarology?  

PubMed

Insects are used in a variety of ways in forensic science and the developing area of forensic acarology may have a similar range of potential. This short account summarises the main ways in which entomology currently contributes to forensic science and discusses to what extent acarology might also contribute in these areas. PMID:19548095

Turner, Bryan

2009-06-23

270

Microbial forensics: the next forensic challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathogens and toxins can be converted to bioweapons and used to commit bioterrorism and biocrime. Because of the potential and relative ease of an attack using a bioweapon, forensic science needs to be prepared to assist in the investigation to bring perpetrators to justice and to deter future attacks. A new subfield of forensics—microbial forensics—has been created, which is focused

Bruce Budowle; Randall Murch; Ranajit Chakraborty

2005-01-01

271

Maintaining dental records: Are we ready for forensic needs?  

PubMed Central

Context: Dental remains are usually the last to get destroyed among body parts after death. They may be useful for personal identification in cases of mass disasters and decomposed unidentified bodies. Dental records may help in the identification of suspects in criminal investigations and in medicolegal cases. Maintenance of dental records is legally mandatory in most of the European and American countries. Unfortunately, the law is not very clear in India, and the awareness is very poor. Aims: To assess the awareness regarding the dental record maintenance among dentists in Rajasthan, to deduce the quality of average dental records kept by them and to evaluate the potential use of their maintained records, in any of forensic or medicolegal cases. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 100 dental practitioners of different cities in Rajasthan, India. Materials and Methods: Data were collected through a structured questionnaire, which was responded by the study population in the course of a telephonic interview. The questionnaire addressed on the mode of maintaining dental records in their regular practice. Statistical Analysis Used: The data so gathered were subjected for descriptive analysis. Results: As for knowledge or awareness about maintaining dental records, surprisingly a very low percentile (about 38%) of surveyed dentists maintained records. Sixty-two percent of the dentists were maintaining no records at all. Conclusion: Nonmaintenance or poor quality of records maintained indicates that the dentists in Rajasthan are not prepared for any kind of forensic and medicolegal need if it arises.

Astekar, Madhusudan; Saawarn, Swati; Ramesh, Gayathri; Saawarn, Nisheeth

2011-01-01

272

Effective strategies for forensic analysis in the mitochondrial DNA coding region.  

PubMed

Recently, it has been recognized that accessing information in the mtDNA coding region can provide additional forensic discrimination with respect to the standard typing of the D-loop region, augmenting the sometimes rather limited forensic power of mtDNA testing. Here, we discuss considerations relating to maximally effective approaches for recovering additional discrimination in the coding region, bearing in mind that (1) DNA quality and quantity in typical mtDNA casework usually restrict the amount of additional sequence that can be obtained, and (2) the need for additional discrimination primarily arises when common HV1/HV2 types are encountered. Most investigators have sought additional discrimination by sequencing short segments of coding region that are thought to be particularly variable. Unfortunately, efforts in this regard have generally failed to appreciate that most variation in the coding region is redundant with information already present in HV1/HV2 and have therefore overvalued the potential of this approach for providing additional discrimination. An alternative single nucleotide polymorphism-based approach [Int J Legal Med 118:137-146, 2004] has been to identify specific bases that provide resolution in specific common HV1/HV2 types (and related sequences). We investigate several highly relevant data sets wherein the latter approach performs appreciably better than sequencing selected short portions of the coding region. This is true even when only synonymous variation is targeted to minimize the potential for problems arising from discovery of mutations that have reportedly been related to disease. PMID:16261373

Coble, Michael D; Vallone, Peter M; Just, Rebecca S; Diegoli, Toni M; Smith, Brion C; Parsons, Thomas J

2005-10-28

273

Research data sharing: Lessons from forensic genetics.  

PubMed

In this study, we present an empirical assessment of the extent and way in which data are shared in forensic genetic papers. The analysis is based on the scrutiny of datasets published between 2008 and 2011. The elevated sharing rate of forensic genetic datasets (86.06%), is discussed in relation to: (i) the editorial policies of the two main journals in the field (Forensic Science International: Genetics and International Journal of Legal Medicine); (ii) the cooperative efforts to develop common standards and achieve full reproducibility of genotyping techniques in the forensic genetic community. PMID:23972948

Anagnostou, P; Capocasa, M; Milia, N; Bisol, G Destro

2013-08-02

274

Forensic investigation of brick stones using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF).  

PubMed

Brick stones collected from different production facilities were studied for their elemental compositions under forensic aspects using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF). The aim of these examinations was to assess the potential of these methods in forensic comparison analyses of brick stones. The accuracy of the analysis methods was evaluated using NIST standard reference materials (679, 98b and 97b). In order to compare the stones to each other, multivariate data analysis was used. The evaluation of the INAA results (based on the concentrations of V, Na, K, Sm, U, Sc, Fe, Co, Rb and Cs) using principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis is presented as an example. The results derived from the different analytical methods are consistent. It was shown that elemental analysis using the described methods is a valuable tool for forensic examinations of brick stones. PMID:19535257

Scheid, Nicole; Becker, Stefan; Dücking, Marc; Hampel, Gabriele; Volker Kratz, Jens; Watzke, Peter; Weis, Peter; Zauner, Stephan

2009-05-27

275

Forensic aspects of insulin.  

PubMed

Insulin or, more appropriately, hypoglycaemia gives rise to a wide variety of interactions with the law. In most cases its role is not seriously open to question occasionally however, it is. This is especially true of situations in which insulin is suspected of having been used inappropriately or maliciously. The major differences between investigation of hypoglycaemia in clinical and forensic situation are that in the latter the history is often unreliable, appropriate samples for analysis were not collected, preserved or labelled correctly and analytical results are likely to be challenged on grounds of specificity, accuracy and interpretation. Immunoassay remains the mainstay of clinical investigation of hypoglycaemia but likely to become displaced by mass-spectrometry in the forensic situation especially now that human insulin is being replaced by synthetic insulin analogues for the treatment of diabetes. PMID:23751444

Marks, Vincent; Wark, Gwen

2013-06-01

276

Toxicogenetics--cytochrome P450 microarray analysis in forensic cases focusing on morphine/codeine and diazepam.  

PubMed

Genetic polymorphisms in cytochrome P 450 (CYP) enzymes could lead to a phenotype with altered enzyme activity. In pharmacotherapy, genotype-based dose recommendations achieved great importance for several drugs. In our pilot study, we ask if these genetic tests should be applied to forensic problems as a matter of routine. Starting from 2004 through 2008, we screened routine cases for samples where the relation of parent compound to metabolite(s) (P/M ratio), particularly morphine to codeine ratios and diazepam to its metabolites, was noticeable or not consistent with the information provided by the defendants. We found 11 samples with conspicuous results. These were analyzed for polymorphisms of the CYP 2D6 and 2C19 genes using the Roche AmpliChip Cytochrome P450 Genotyping test. If not previously conducted, a general unknown analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was additionally carried out. For CYP 2D6, we found two cases with the genotype poor metabolizer (PM), three cases with heterozygote extensive metabolizer genotype classified as an intermediate metabolizer (IM) with probably reduced enzyme activities, but no ultrarapid metabolizer genotype. For CYP 2C19, two cases were characterized as IM phenotypes, with no PM found. Once we achieved no appropriate amounts of DNA, one case was excluded after GC/MS analysis. Only in one case could the polymorphism clearly explain the changes in drug metabolism. More frequently, a drug-drug interaction was thought to have a stronger impact. Additionally, our results suggest that IM genotypes may be more relevant than previously suspected. With respect to the small number of cases in which we thought a genotyping would be helpful, we conclude that the overall relevance of toxicogenetics in forensic problems is moderate. However, in some individual cases, a genotyping may provide new insight. PMID:22899355

Andresen, H; Augustin, C; Streichert, T

2012-08-17

277

Examining the state of preparedness of Information Technology management in New Zealand for events that may require forensic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer security is of concern to those in IT (Information Technology) and forensic readiness (being prepared to deal effectively with events that may require forensic investigation) is a growing issue. Data held only on magnetic or other transient media require expert knowledge and special procedures to preserve and present it as valid in a criminal or employment court. Staff required

Spike Quinn

2005-01-01

278

Detection Strategies for Malingering with the Miller Forensic Assessment of Symptoms Test: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Its Underlying Dimensions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two of the most widely used measures for the assessment of malingering in forensic populations are the Miller Forensic Assessment of Symptoms Test (M-FAST) and the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS). The underlying dimensions of the SIRS have been well established in the literature, but the structure of the M-FAST remains relatively…

Vitacco, Michael J.; Jackson, Rebecca L.; Rogers, Richard; Neumann, Craig S.; Miller, Holly A.; Gabel, Jason

2008-01-01

279

Biomedical and Forensic Applications of Combined Catalytic Hydrogenation-Stable Isotope Ratio Analysis  

PubMed Central

Studies of biological molecules such as fatty acids and the steroid hormones have the potential to benefit enormously from stable carbon isotope ratio measurements of individual molecules. In their natural form, however, the body’s molecules interact too readily with laboratory equipment designed to separate them for accurate measurements to be made. Some methods overcome this problem by adding carbon to the target molecule, but this can irreversibly overprint the carbon source ‘signal’. Hydropyrolysis is a newly-applied catalytic technique that delicately strips molecules of their functional groups but retains their carbon skeletons and stereochemistries intact, allowing precise determination of the carbon source. By solving analytical problems, the new technique is increasing the ability of scientists to pinpoint molecular indicators of disease, elucidate metabolic pathways and recognise administered substances in forensic investigations.

Sephton, Mark A.; Meredith, Will; Sun, Cheng-Gong; Snape, Colin E.

2007-01-01

280

Validation of Inverse Methods Applied to Forensic Analysis of Spent Fuel  

SciTech Connect

Inverse depletion/decay methods are useful tools for application to nuclear forensics. Previously, inverse methods were applied to the generic case of predicting the burnup, initial enrichment, and cooling time for selected spent nuclear fuels based on measured actinide and fission product concentrations. These existing measurements were not developed or optimized for use by these inverse techniques, and hence previous work demonstrated the prediction of only the fuel burnup, initial enrichment, and cooling time. Previously, nine spent fuel samples from an online data compilation were randomly selected for study. This work set out to demonstrate the full prediction capabilities using measured isotopic data, but with a more deliberate selection of fuel samples. The current approach is to evaluate nuclides within the same element to see if complementary information can be obtained in addition to the reactor burnup, enrichment, and cooling. Specifically, the reactor power and the fuel irradiation time values are desired to achieve the maximum prediction capabilities of these techniques.

Broadhead, Bryan L [ORNL; Weber, Charles F [ORNL

2010-01-01

281

In vitro metabolism studies on mephedrone and analysis of forensic cases.  

PubMed

The stimulant designer drug mephedrone is a derivative of cathinone - a monoamine alkaloid found in khat - and its effect resembles that of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Abuse of mephedrone has been documented since 2007; it was originally a 'legal high' drug, but it has now been banned in most Western countries. Using cDNA-expressed CYP enzymes and human liver microsomal preparations, we found that cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) was the main responsible enzyme for the in vitro Phase I metabolism of mephedrone, with some minor contribution from other NAPDH-dependent enzymes. Hydroxytolyl-mephedrone and nor-mephedrone were formed in vitro, and the former was purified and identified by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). In four forensic traffic cases where mephedrone was detected, we identified hydroxytolyl-mephedrone and nor-mephedrone again; as well as 4-carboxy-dihydro-mephedrone, which has been previously described; and two new metabolites: dihydro-mephedrone and 4-carboxy-mephedrone. Fragmentation patterns for all detected compounds were determined by a UPLC-QTOF/MS(E) system, and a fragmentation pathway via a conjugated indole structure was proposed for most of the metabolites. Blood concentrations in the forensic traffic cases ranged from 1 to 51?µg/kg for mephedrone, and from not detected to 9?µg/kg for hydroxytolyl-mephedrone. In one case, urine concentrations were also determined to be 700?µg/kg for mephedrone and 190?µg/kg for hydroxytolyl-mephedrone. All compounds were detected or quantified with an ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) system and an ultra performance liquid chromatography-time of flight/mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOF/MS) system. PMID:22573603

Pedersen, Anders Just; Reitzel, Lotte Ask; Johansen, Sys Stybe; Linnet, Kristian

2012-05-09

282

Review The development and practice of forensic podiatry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic podiatry a small, but potentially useful specialty using clinical podiatric knowledge for the purpose of person identification. The practice of forensic podiatry began in the early 1970s in Canada and the UK, although supportive research commenced later in the 1990s. Techniques of forensic podiatry include identification from podiatry records, the human footprint, footwear, and the analysis of gait forms

Wesley Vernon

283

Computer Forensics: An Essential Ingredient for Cyber Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer forensics uses computer investigation and analysis techniques to collect evidence regarding what happened on a computer that is admissible in a court of law. Computer forensics requires a well- balanced combination of technical skills, legal acumen, and ethical conduct. Computer forensics specialists use powerful software tools to uncover data to be sorted through, and then must figure out the

Richard Bassett; Linda Bass; Paul O'Brien

284

Applications of capillary electrophoresis in forensic analytical chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past decade, capillary-electrophoresis (CE) techniques have been demonstrated to offer promising, effective and economic approaches for the separation of a large variety of substances, including those encountered in forensic analysis. Reliable, automated CE instruments have become commercially available and have advanced methods in forensic sciences. This article reviews applications of CE in the field of forensic analytical chemistry,

C. Cruces-Blanco; A. M. García-Campaña

2007-01-01

285

Human tandem repeat sequences in forensic DNA typing  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been 20 years since the first development of DNA fingerprinting and the start of forensic DNA typing. Ever since, human tandem repeat DNA sequences have been the main targets for forensic DNA analysis. These repeat sequences are classified into minisatellites (or VNTRs) and microsatellites (or STRs). In this brief review, we discuss the historical and current forensic applications

Keiji Tamaki; Alec J. Jeffreys

2005-01-01

286

Factors Predicting Organizational Identification with Intercollegiate Forensics Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines the relationship between intercollegiate forensics competitors' organizational identification and organizational culture. Through a survey analysis of 314 intercollegiate forensics students, this study reports three major findings. First, this study found male competitors identify with forensics programs more than female…

Croucher, Stephen M.; Long, Bridget L.; Meredith, Michael J.; Oommen, Deepa; Steele, Emily L.

2009-01-01

287

What can multiwave studies teach us about disaster research: an analysis of low-income Hurricane Katrina survivors.  

PubMed

Previous research on natural disasters has been limited by a lack of predisaster data and statistical analyses that do not adequately predict change in psychological symptoms. In the current study, we addressed these limitations through analysis of 3 waves of data from a longitudinal investigation of 313 low-income, African American mothers who were exposed to Hurricane Katrina. Although postdisaster cross-sectional estimates of the impact of traumatic stress exposure and postdisaster social support on postdisaster psychological distress were somewhat inflated, the general trends persisted when controlling for predisaster data (B = 0.88 and -0.33, vs. B = 0.81 and -0.27, respectively). Hierarchical linear modeling of the 3 waves of data revealed that lower predisaster social support was associated with higher psychological distress at the time of the disaster (? = -.16), and that higher traumatic stress exposure was associated with greater increases in psychological distress after the storm (? = .86). Based on the results, we suggest that the impact of traumatic stress on psychological trajectories cannot be accounted for solely by preexisting risk, and recommend more complex research designs to further illuminate the complex, dynamic relationships between psychological distress, traumatic stress exposure, and social support. PMID:22684676

Green, Gillian; Lowe, Sarah R; Rhodes, Jean E

2012-06-08

288

What Can Multiwave Studies Teach Us About Disaster Research: An Analysis of Low-Income Hurricane Katrina Survivors  

PubMed Central

Previous research on natural disasters has been limited by a lack of predisaster data and statistical analyses that do not adequately predict change in psychological symptoms. In the current study, we addressed these limitations through analysis of 3 waves of data from a longitudinal investigation of 313 low-income, African American mothers who were exposed to Hurricane Katrina. Although postdisaster cross-sectional estimates of the impact of traumatic stress exposure and postdisaster social support on postdisaster psychological distress were somewhat inflated, the general trends persisted when controlling for predisaster data (B = 0.88 and ?0.33, vs. B = 0.81 and ?0.27, respectively). Hierarchical linear modeling of the 3 waves of data revealed that lower predisaster social support was associated with higher psychological distress at the time of the disaster (? = ?.16), and that higher traumatic stress exposure was associated with greater increases in psychological distress after the storm (? = .86). Based on the results, we suggest that the impact of traumatic stress on psychological trajectories cannot be accounted for solely by preexisting risk, and recommend more complex research designs to further illuminate the complex, dynamic relationships between psychological distress, traumatic stress exposure, and social support.

Green, Gillian; Lowe, Sarah R.; Rhodes, Jean E.

2013-01-01

289

Ecological Disaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a On September 11, 2001, as this book was on its way to press, disaster struck once again. Two hijacked airplanes, fully loaded\\u000a with passengers and fuel crashed into the World Trade Center in New York and another into the Pentagon in Washington, D.C.\\u000a A fourth airplane crashed into the countryside of Pennsylvania, apparently missing its intended target, but nevertheless killing

Johan M. Havenaar

290

Digital Forensics Tools: The Next Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital forensics investigators have access to a wide variety of tools, both commercial and open source, which assist in the preservation and analysis of digital evidence. Unfortunately, most current digital forensics tools fall short in several ways. First, they are unable to cope with the ever-increasing storage capacity of target devices. As these storage capacities creep into hundreds of gigabytes

Golden G. Richard III

291

Investigating the Worldwide Popularity of Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The popularity of forensic science has increased dramatically over the past decade throughout the United States. However, has this popularity spread to other countries around the world and to what extent? In the United States, there are numerous television shows focusing on the law and crime scene analysis, including “CSI,” “Law and Order,” “24,” “Crossing Jordan,” and “Forensic Files,” just

Heather Stankiewicz

2007-01-01

292

Cluster analysis of a forensic population with antisocial personality disorder regarding PCL-R scores: Differentiation of two patterns of criminal profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty six cases of a forensic population were submitted to a cluster analysis to observe the aglomerative behavior in relation to the total scores of the items comprising the PCL-R Psychopathy Checklist Revised [R.D. Hare, Manual for the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised, Multi-Health System, Toronto, 1991]. The analysis indicated two independent types of antisocial personality disorders, not identified in the PCL-R

Hilda Clotilde Penteado Morana; Fernando Portela Câmara; Julio Arboleda-Flórez

2006-01-01

293

Forensic analysis of 10 barbiturates in human biological samples using a new reversed-phase chromatographic column packed with 2micrometre porous microspherical silica-gel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the forensic analysis of 10 frequently used barbiturates (BARs) (allobarbital, amobarbital, barbital, cyclobarbital, hexobarbital, metharbital, pentobarbital, phenobarbital, secobarbital and thiopental) using a recently developed reversed-phase column packed with 2-?m particles. The results show that the new ODS column packing gives higher sensitivity and a shorter analysis time than the conventional ODS

Einosuke Tanaka; Masaru Terada; Kozo Tanno; Shogo Misawa; Choei Wakasugi

1997-01-01

294

An Analysis of Disaster Management by the Chinese Government in the Market Rejuvenation of the Tourism Industry From the Severe Snowstorms in 2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article systematically examines the market rejuvenation efforts of the tourism industry by the national tourism authorities of China from the disasters of severe snowstorms in early 2008. A content analysis is conducted of the policies issued by Chinese central tourism authorities in response to the snowstorms. The results demonstrate the comprehensiveness of the tourism market rejuvenation measures of the

Hanqin Qiu Zhang; Qi Yan

2012-01-01

295

Multicriteria Analysis for Disaster Risk Reduction in Virginia, USA: A Policy-Focused Approach to Oil and Gas Drilling in the Outer Continental Shelf  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple Criteria Analysis (MCA) is a collection of methodologies to compare, select, or rank multiple alternatives that typically involve incommensurate attributes. MCA is well-suited for eliciting and modeling the disaster management preferences of stakeholders and for improving the coordination among emergency response agencies, organizations and affected citizens. Many Americans favour new drilling for oil and gas in the Outer Continental

Jason K. Levy; Chennat Gopalakrishnan

2009-01-01

296

From sample to PCR product in under 45 minutes: a polymeric integrated microdevice for clinical and forensic DNA analysis.  

PubMed

The extraction and amplification of DNA from biological samples is laborious and time-consuming, requiring numerous instruments and sample handling steps. An integrated, single-use, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microdevice for DNA extraction and amplification would benefit clinical and forensic communities, providing a completely closed system with rapid sample-in-PCR-product-out capability. Here, we show the design and simple flow control required for enzyme-based DNA preparation and PCR from buccal swabs or liquid whole blood samples with an ~5-fold reduction in time. A swab containing cells or DNA could be loaded into a novel receptacle together with the DNA liberation reagents, heated using an infrared heating system, mixed with PCR reagents for one of three different target sets under syringe-driven flow, and thermally-cycled in less than 45 min, an ~6-fold reduction in analysis time as compared to conventional methods. The 4 : 1 PCR reagents : DNA ratio required to provide the correct final concentration of all PCR components for effective amplification was verified using image analysis of colored dyes in the PCR chamber. Novel single-actuation, 'normally-open' adhesive valves were shown to effectively seal the PCR chamber during thermal cycling, preventing air bubble expansion. The effectiveness of the device was demonstrated using three target sets: the sex-typing gene Amelogenin, co-amplification of the ?-globin and gelsolin genes, and the amplification of 15 short tandem repeat (STR) loci plus Amelogenin. The use of the integrated microdevice was expanded to the analysis of liquid blood samples which, when incubated with the DNA liberation reagents, form a brown precipitate that inhibits PCR. A simple centrifugation of the integrated microchips (on a custom centrifuge), mobilized the precipitate away from the microchannel entrance, improving amplification of the ?-globin and gelsolin gene fragments by ~6-fold. This plastic integrated microdevice represents a microfluidic platform with potential for evolution into point-of-care prototypes for application to both clinical and forensic analyses, providing a 5-fold reduction from conventional analysis time. PMID:23389252

Lounsbury, Jenny A; Karlsson, Anne; Miranian, Daniel C; Cronk, Stephen M; Nelson, Daniel A; Li, Jingyi; Haverstick, Doris M; Kinnon, Paul; Saul, David J; Landers, James P

2013-04-01

297

TTPIXE analysis of Guadiamar river sediments collected before the environmental disaster of 1998  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thirteen sediment samples were collected along the Guadiamar riverbed (SW of Spain) in the spring of 1996 for the determination of their composition by thick target proton induced X-ray emission (TTPIXE), using the accelerator of the ITN (Portugal). Our results indicate a S, Cu, Zn, As and Pb contamination along the riverbed due to the mining activity developed around the beginning of the Guadiamar river. The obtained results will serve, in first place, as reference levels to show the situation of the riverbed before the environmental disaster of mining origin occurred in April 1998, and in second place, to evaluate properly in the future the works carried out for the cleaning and restoration of the affected areas.

Martín, J. E.; García-Tenorio, R.; Ontalba-Salamanca, M. A.; Respaldiza, M. A.; da Silva, M. F.

2000-03-01

298

In-Depth Analysis of the Cold Boot Attack: Can It Be Used for Sound Forensic Memory Acquisition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this technical memorandum is to examine the technical characteristics behind the cold boot attack technique and to understand when and how this technique should be applied to the field of computer forensic investigations. Upon thorough exam...

C. Bean M. Salois R. Carbone

2011-01-01

299

Integrating Forensic Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explains the implementation of forensic science in an integrated curriculum and discusses the advantages of this approach. Lists the forensic science course syllabi studied in three high schools. Discusses the unit on polymers in detail. (YDS)|

Funkhouser, John; Deslich, Barbara J.

2000-01-01

300

Automating the Coupling of ORIGEN with GADRAS via the Fallout Analysis Tool for National Technical Nuclear Forensics  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear forensic teams will be deployed to collect and evaluate fallout samples on the ground in the scenario of a low-yield nuclear detonation in a heavily populated area. Quick non-destructive methods of predicting the quality of the sample before it is analyzed in detail are essential for efficient post-event collections. In this work, the process of exporting Defense Land Fallout Interpretive Code (DELFIC) results into Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) has been automated within the Fallout Analysis Tool. This coupling allows for the simulation of detector responses to fallout samples with varying degrees of fractionation. The degree to which the samples are fractionated depends on the location of the samples in the fallout field. In the following study, this phenomenon is examined, as its understanding is important to the investigation of debris distribution. The simulated detector spectra from GADRAS can be used to compare peak ratios of volatile-refractory isotope pairs in order to determine the degree of fractionation. Simulated fractionated fallout samples from DELFIC for a 10 kt, pure 235U fission surface burst were modeled for distances ranging to 256 km out from ground zero, and for times up to 1 week from detonation. The fractionation ratios, also known as r values, from isotope concentrations, photon lines and peak areas of four volatile-refractory pairs were calculated and compared. Fractionation prediction via the peak areas method was evaluated for each pair by comparing the results with the simulated radionuclide inventory.

Monterial, Mateusz [ORNL; Jodoin, Vincent J [ORNL; Lefebvre, Jordan P [ORNL; Peplow, Douglas E. [ORNL; Hooper, David A [ORNL

2012-01-01

301

Vaginal microbial flora analysis by next generation sequencing and microarrays; can microbes indicate vaginal origin in a forensic context?  

PubMed

Forensic analysis of biological traces generally encompasses the investigation of both the person who contributed to the trace and the body site(s) from which the trace originates. For instance, for sexual assault cases, it can be beneficial to distinguish vaginal samples from skin or saliva samples. In this study, we explored the use of microbial flora to indicate vaginal origin. First, we explored the vaginal microbiome for a large set of clinical vaginal samples (n?=?240) by next generation sequencing (n?=?338,184 sequence reads) and found 1,619 different sequences. Next, we selected 389 candidate probes targeting genera or species and designed a microarray, with which we analysed a diverse set of samples; 43 DNA extracts from vaginal samples and 25 DNA extracts from samples from other body sites, including sites in close proximity of or in contact with the vagina. Finally, we used the microarray results and next generation sequencing dataset to assess the potential for a future approach that uses microbial markers to indicate vaginal origin. Since no candidate genera/species were found to positively identify all vaginal DNA extracts on their own, while excluding all non-vaginal DNA extracts, we deduce that a reliable statement about the cellular origin of a biological trace should be based on the detection of multiple species within various genera. Microarray analysis of a sample will then render a microbial flora pattern that is probably best analysed in a probabilistic approach. PMID:22282153

Benschop, Corina C G; Quaak, Frederike C A; Boon, Mathilde E; Sijen, Titia; Kuiper, Irene

2012-01-27

302

Computer Forensics in Forensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dierent users apply computer forensic systems, models, and terminology in very dierent ways. They often make incompatible assumptions and reach dierent conclusions about the validity and accuracy of the methods they use to log, audit, and present forensic data. In fact, it can be hard to say who, if anyone is right. We present several forensic systems and discuss situations

Sean Peisert; Matt Bishop; Keith Marzullo

2008-01-01

303

Computer forensics in forensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different users apply computer forensic systems, models, and terminology in very different ways. They often make incompatible assumptions and reach different conclusions about the validity and accuracy of the methods they use to log, audit, and present forensic data. In fact, it can be hard to say who, if anyone is right. We present several forensic systems and discuss situations

Sean Peisert; Matt Bishop; Keith Marzullo

2008-01-01

304

Resolution in forensic microbial genotyping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resolution is a key parameter for differentiating among the large number of strain typing methods that could be applied to pathogens involved in bioterror events or biocrimes. In this report we develop a first-principles analysis of strain typing resolution using a simple mathematical model to provide a basis for the rational design of microbial typing systems for forensic applications. We

Velsko

2005-01-01

305

Authentication of forensic DNA samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past twenty years, DNA analysis has revolutionized forensic science, and has become a dominant tool in law enforcement. Today, DNA evidence is key to the conviction or exoneration of suspects of various types of crime, from theft to rape and murder. However, the disturbing possibility that DNA evidence can be faked has been overlooked. It turns out that

Dan Frumkin; Adam Wasserstrom; Ariane Davidson; Arnon Grafit

2010-01-01

306

Dual-color bioluminescent bioreporter for forensic analysis: evidence of androgenic and anti-androgenic activity of illicit drugs.  

PubMed

Bioassays represent promising complementary techniques to conventional analytical approaches used in doping analysis to detect illicit drugs like anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS). The fact that all AAS share a common mechanism of action via the human androgen receptor (hAR) enables the use of bioassays, relying on the activation of hAR as antidoping screening tools. Previously, we developed a dual-color bioreporter based on yeast cells engineered to express hAR and androgen response elements driving the expression of the bioluminescent (BL) reporter protein Photinus pyralis luciferase. A second reporter protein, the red-emitting luciferase PpyRE8, was introduced in the bioreporter as internal viability control. Here, we report the first forensic application of a straightforward, accurate, and cost-effective bioassay, relying on spectral resolution of the two BL signals, in 96-microwell format. The bioreporter responds to dihydrotestosterone as reference androgen in a concentration-dependent manner from 0.08 to 1,000 nM with intra- and inter-assay variation coefficients of 11.4 % and 13.1 %, respectively. We also demonstrated the suitability of this dual-color bioreporter to assess (anti)-androgenic activity of pure AAS, mixtures of AAS, and other illicit drugs provided by the Scientific Police. Significant anti-androgenic activity was observed in samples labeled as marijuana and hashish, containing ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol as major constituent. PMID:23010847

Cevenini, Luca; Michelini, Elisa; D'Elia, Marcello; Guardigli, Massimo; Roda, Aldo

2012-09-26

307

Forensic analysis of anthraquinone, azo, and metal complex acid dyes from nylon fibers by micro-extraction and capillary electrophoresis.  

PubMed

The extraction and separation of dyes present on textile fibers offers the possibility of enhanced discrimination between forensic trace fiber evidence. An automated liquid sample handling workstation was programmed to deliver varying solvent combinations to acid-dyed nylon samples, and the resulting extracts were analyzed by an ultraviolet/visible microplate reader to evaluate extraction efficiencies at different experimental conditions. Combinatorial experiments using three-component mixture designs varied three solvents (water, pyridine, and aqueous ammonia) and were employed at different extraction temperatures for various extraction durations. The extraction efficiency as a function of the three solvents (pyridine/ammonia/water) was modeled and used to define optimum conditions for the extraction of three subclasses of acid dyes (anthraquinone, azo, and metal complex) from nylon fibers. The capillary electrophoresis analysis of acid dye extracts is demonstrated using an electrolyte solution of 15 mM ammonium acetate in acetonitrile/water (40:60, v/v) at pH 9.3. Excellent separations and discriminating diode array spectra are obtained even for dyes of similar color. PMID:19543716

Stefan, Amy R; Dockery, Christopher R; Nieuwland, Alexander A; Roberson, Samantha N; Baguley, Brittany M; Hendrix, James E; Morgan, Stephen L

2009-06-19

308

Forensic analysis of laser printed ink by X-ray fluorescence and laser-excited plume fluorescence.  

PubMed

We demonstrated a minimally destructive two-tier approach for multielement forensic analysis of laser-printed ink. The printed document was first screened using a portable-X-ray fluorescence (XRF) probe. If the results were not conclusive, a laser microprobe was then deployed. The laser probe was based on a two-pulse scheme: the first laser pulse ablated a thin layer of the printed ink; the second laser pulse at 193 nm induced multianalytes in the desorbed ink to fluoresce. We analyzed four brands of black toners. The toners were printed on paper in the form of patches or letters or overprinted on another ink. The XRF probe could sort the four brands if the printed letters were larger than font 20. It could not tell the printing sequence in the case of overprints. The laser probe was more discriminatory; it could sort the toner brands and reveal the overprint sequence regardless of font size while the sampled area was not visibly different from neighboring areas even under the microscope. In terms of general analytical performance, the laser probe featured tens of micrometer lateral resolution and tens to hundreds of nm depth resolution and atto-mole mass detection limits. It could handle samples of arbitrary size and shape and was air compatible, and no sample pretreatment was necessary. It will prove useful whenever high-resolution and high sensitivity 3D elemental mapping is required. PMID:23570307

Chu, Po-Chun; Cai, Bruno Yue; Tsoi, Yeuk Ki; Yuen, Ronald; Leung, Kelvin S Y; Cheung, Nai-Ho

2013-04-24

309

Accreditation standards for undergraduate forensic science programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Undergraduate forensic science programs are experiencing unprecedented growth in numbers of programs offered and, as a result, student enrollments are increasing. Currently, however, these programs are not subject to professional specialized accreditation. This study sought to identify desirable student outcome measures for undergraduate forensic science programs that should be incorporated into such an accreditation process. To determine desirable student outcomes, three types of data were collected and analyzed. All the existing undergraduate forensic science programs in the United States were examined with regard to the input measures of degree requirements and curriculum content, and for the output measures of mission statements and student competencies. Accreditation procedures and guidelines for three other science-based disciplines, computer science, dietetics, and nursing, were examined to provide guidance on accreditation processes for forensic science education programs. Expert opinion on outcomes for program graduates was solicited from the major stakeholders of undergraduate forensic science programs-forensic science educators, crime laboratory directors, and recent graduates. Opinions were gathered by using a structured Internet-based survey; the total response rate was 48%. Examination of the existing undergraduate forensic science programs revealed that these programs do not use outcome measures. Of the accreditation processes for other science-based programs, nursing education provided the best model for forensic science education, due primarily to the balance between the generality and the specificity of the outcome measures. From the analysis of the questionnaire data, preliminary student outcomes, both general and discipline-specific, suitable for use in the accreditation of undergraduate forensic science programs were determined. The preliminary results were reviewed by a panel of experts and, based on their recommendations, the outcomes identified were revised and refined. The results of this study were used to identify student outcomes and to suggest accreditation standards and an accreditation process for undergraduate forensic science programs based on those outcomes.

Miller, Marilyn Tebbs

310

Analysis of orthopedic injuries in an airplane landing disaster and a suggested mechanism of trauma.  

PubMed

Survival after an airplane disaster is rare. We describe the injuries of survivors of an airplane accident and present a common mechanism of trauma for victims. Descriptive data were gathered by interviews with patients, physical examination. Review of charts and patients X-ray films. Informations regarding the flight characteristics were obtained from Iran air safety board. All dead patients were clinically examined by legal medicine department. The suggested mechanism of trauma was established according to present knowledge of mechanism of fractures. From 105 passengers, 27 survived. There was no mortality during hospital course. Between dead passengers, lower extremity fractures were the most common followed by chest wall fractures. Among the survivors, neurosurgical help was needed only in one case for shunt application. Brain concussions and effusions and one hematoma managed conservatively. Two laparotomies were performed for one splenectomy and two hepatoraphy. One pelvic fracture and two femur fractures were occurred. Tibia fractures were the most common (17) followed by spine (14) fractures. Ten tibial fractures were open, and 15 were in distal third. All tibia fractures were fixed with IM locking nails or locking plates. Eight posterior instrumentations were applied for seven burst and two fracture-dislocations. In this landing accident, a combination of vertical loading along with deceleration force produced burst fractures of spine and distal leg fractures. PMID:23412285

Mirzatolooei, Fardin; Bazzazi, Amirmohammad

2012-03-30

311

Chaos theory, informational needs, and natural disasters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study applies chaos theory to a system-wide analysis of crisis communication in a natural disaster. Specifically, we analyze crisis communication during the 1997 Red River Valley flood in Minnesota and North Dakota. This flood, among the worst in modern American history, consumed entire metropolitan areas, displacing thousands of people. The conditions and decisions leading to the disaster, and the

Timothy L. Sellnow; Matthew W. Seeger; Robert R. Ulmer

2002-01-01

312

Temporal Forensics and Anti-Forensics for Motion Compensated Video  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the ease with which digital information can be altered, many digital forensic techniques have been developed to authenticate multimedia content. Similarly, a number of anti-forensic operations have recently been designed to make digital forgeries undetectable by forensic techniques. However, like the digital manipulations they are designed to hide, many anti-forensic operations leave behind their own forensically detectable traces.

Matthew C. Stamm; W. Sabrina Lin; K. J. Ray Liu

2012-01-01

313

Media disaster coverage over time: Methodological issues and results  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2000 disaster struck Enschede in The Netherlands. Due to explosions at a fireworks factory, 22 people were killed. This study aims to describe the developments in the media coverage of this disaster. Content analysis was performed on 4928 articles, derived from four distinct newspapers. After a period of intense coverage, media attention for the disaster declined. In this first

M. Kuttschreuter; J. M. Gutteling

314

Do Natural Disasters Promote Long-Run Growth?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we investigate the long-run relationships among disasters, capital accumulation, total factor productivity, and economic growth. The cross-country empirical analysis demonstrates that higher frequencies of climatic disasters are correlated with higher rates of human capital accumulation, increases in total factor productivity, and economic growth. Though disaster risk reduces the expected rate of return to physical capital, risk also

Mark Skidmore; Hideki Toya

2002-01-01

315

Application of DNA-based methods in forensic entomology.  

PubMed

A forensic entomological investigation can benefit from a variety of widely practiced molecular genotyping methods. The most commonly used is DNA-based specimen identification. Other applications include the identification of insect gut contents and the characterization of the population genetic structure of a forensically important insect species. The proper application of these procedures demands that the analyst be technically expert. However, one must also be aware of the extensive list of standards and expectations that many legal systems have developed for forensic DNA analysis. We summarize the DNA techniques that are currently used in, or have been proposed for, forensic entomology and review established genetic analyses from other scientific fields that address questions similar to those in forensic entomology. We describe how accepted standards for forensic DNA practice and method validation are likely to apply to insect evidence used in a death or other forensic entomological investigation. PMID:17685848

Wells, Jeffrey D; Stevens, Jamie R

2008-01-01

316

BICAPA case study of natural hazards that trigger technological disasters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial facilities are vulnerable to natural disasters. Natural disasters and technological accidents are not always singular or isolated events. The example in this paper show that they can occur in complex combinations and\\/or in rapid succession, known as NaTech disasters, thereby triggering multiple impacts. This analysis indicates that NaTech disasters have the potential to trigger hazmat releases and other types

Gabriela Boca; Alexandru Ozunu; Serban Nicolae Vlad

2010-01-01

317

Preparing an orthopedic practice to survive a natural disaster: a retrospective analysis of rebuilding after Hurricane Katrina.  

PubMed

In the aftermath of the biggest natural disaster to hit the United States, valuable lessons can be learned to prepare us for future disasters. Physicians and other care givers should become involved in every level of disaster management. Most emergency plans are focused on triaging patients; however, little attention is paid to the logistics in evacuating hospitals or maintaining operations without outside communications. The lack of coordination and the breakdown of traditional communication channels were the biggest hurdles to overcome on the road to recovery. PMID:17424692

Burger, Evalina; Canton, Carol

2007-04-01

318

[The organizational problems of forensic medical expertise in emergency situations].  

PubMed

The author analyzes cases of mass death of people in large-scale technologic disasters in Russia in the latest years, such as shipwreck in Novorossiisk in 1986, railway accidents in Arzamas in 1988 and in Bashkiria in 1989. Every focus of disaster was characterized by specific medicostrategic features determining different pattern of expert evaluation of those who suffered in accident. These data helped the author develop a universal model of forensic medical provision for liquidation of aftereffects of accidents with numerous deaths which may be recommended for practice. PMID:8378981

Tuchik, E S

319

Review of the Federal Bureau of Investigation Laboratory's Forensic DNA Case Backlog.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Forensic DNA casework testing involves the identification and evaluation of biological evidence using DNA technologies. Forensic DNA analysis is an important tool in law enforcement and counterterrorism investigations. DNA analysis can be used to implicat...

2010-01-01

320

Landslides: Risk Analysis and Sustainable Disaster Management Edited by K. Sassa, H. Fukuoka, F.W. Wang, G. Wang. 2005 XXX, 385 p. 417 illus. 3-540-28664-0. Berlin: Springer, 2005.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on contributions to the first General Assembly of the International Consortium on Landslides, this reference and status report emphasizes the mechanisms of different types of landslides, landslide risk analysis, and sustainable disaster management. It comprises the achievements of the ICL over the past three years, since the Kyoto assembly. It consists of three parts: research results of the International Programme on Landslides (IPL); contributions on landslide risk analysis; and articles on sustainable disaster management.

Sassa, Kyoji; Fukuoka, H.; Wang, F. W.; Wang, Gonghui

321

A time-series analysis of flood disaster around Lena river using Landsat TM/ETM+  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landsat satellite has provided a continuous record of earth observation since 1972, gradually improving sensors (i.e. MSS, TM and ETM+). Already processed archives of Landsat image are now available free of charge from the internet. The Landsat image of 30 m spatial resolution with multiple spectral bands between 450 and 2350 nm is appropriate for detailed mapping of natural resource at wide geographical areas. However, one of the biggest concerns in the use of Landsat image is the uncertainty in the timing of acquisitions. Although detection of land cover change usually requires acquisitions before and after the change, the Landsat image is often unavailable because of the long-term intervals (16 days) and variation in atmosphere. Nearly cloud-free image is acquired at least once per year (total of 22 or 23 scenes per year). Therefore, it may be difficult to acquire appropriate images for monitoring natural disturbances caused at short-term intervals (e.g., flood, forest fire and hurricanes). Our objectives are: (1) to examine whether a time-series of Landsat image is available for monitoring a flood disaster, and (2) to evaluate the impact and timing of the flood disaster around Lena river in Siberia. A set of Landsat TM/ETM+ satellite images was used to enable acquisition of cloud-free image, although Landsat ETM+ images include failure of the Scan Line Corrector (SLC) from May 2003. The overlap area of a time series of 20 Landsat TM/ETM+ images (path 120-122, row 17) from April 2007 to August 2007 was clipped (approximately 33 km × 90 km), and the other area was excluded from the analyses. Image classification was performed on each image separately using an unsupervised ISODATA method, and each Landsat TM/ETM+ image was classified into three land cover types: (1) ice, (2) water, and (3) land. From three land cover types, the area of Lena river was estimated. The area of Lena river dramatically changed after spring breakup. The middle part of Lena river around Tabaga (61.83°N, 129.60°E) was frozen hard until early May 2007. River-ice breakup began in patches on 13 May 2007. Then, the area of Lena river rapidly increased due to overhead flooding on 14 May 2007, and reached the peak on 15 May 2007. In the brief period of one or two days, the area of Lena river was more than twice. After this, the area of Lena river exponentially decreased over three months, and it was quite stable in late August 2007. A time-series of Landsat TM/ETM+ images could detect these large temporal variations. In addition, the temporal variations in the area of Lena river synchronized with water stage measured in the field. These results indicate that a time-series of Landsat TM/ETM+ images enables to monitor natural disturbances caused at short-term intervals, although significantly limited to local scales. The requirement of spatial and temporal resolution is often application specific in the context of the desired measurement goals. This type of research and resultant information is critical for the utilization of remote sensing data to the fullest extent.

Sakai, Toru; Hatta, Shigemi; Okumura, Makoto; Takeuchi, Wataru; Hiyama, Tetsuya; Inoue, Gen

2010-05-01

322

A Propensity Score Analysis of Brief Worksite Crisis Interventions after the World Trade Center Disaster  

PubMed Central

Background Postdisaster crisis interventions have been viewed by some as appropriate to enhance the mental health status of persons affected by large-scale traumatic events. However, studies and systematic reviews have challenged the effectiveness of these efforts. Objectives The focus of this study was to examine the impact of brief mental health interventions received by employees at the worksite after the World Trade Center disaster (WTCD) among workers in New York City (NYC). Research Design The data for the present study come from a prospective cohort study of 1121 employed adults interviewed by telephone in a household survey 1 year and 2 years after the WTCD. All study participants were living in NYC at the time of the attacks. For the current study, we used propensity scores to match intervention cases (n = 150) to nonintervention controls (n = 971) using a 1:5 matching ratio based on a bias-corrected nearest-neighbor algorithm. Results Approximately 7% of NYC adults (~425,000 persons) reported receiving employer-sponsored, worksite crisis interventions related to the WTCD provided by mental health professionals. In addition, analyses indicated that attending 1 to 3 brief worksite sessions was associated with positive outcomes up to 2 years after the WTCD across a spectrum of results, including reduced alcohol dependence, binge drinking, depression, PTSD severity, and reduced anxiety symptoms. Conclusions Although our study had limitations, it is one of the few to suggest that brief postdisaster crisis interventions may be effective for employees after mass exposure to psychologically traumatic events. The reasons for the effectiveness of these interventions are unclear at this time and warrant further investigation.

Boscarino, Joseph A.; Adams, Richard E.; Foa, Edna B.; Landrigan, Philip J.

2006-01-01

323

Deciding Who's News: A Content Analysis of Disaster, National and International News in Two Elite Newspapers from 1885 through 1989.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study analyses the relationship between international news references and disaster news references in the New York Times and the Los Angeles Times. The American media receive frequent criticism for inadequate coverage of news from other nations. Both...

C. L. Sito

1990-01-01

324

Laser Microdissection Separation of Pure Sprermatozoa Populations from Mixed Cell Samples for Forensic DNA Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Short Tandem Repeat (STR) analysis is a valuable tool in identifying the source of biological stains, particularly from the investigation of sexual assault crimes. Difficulties in analysis arise primarily in the interpretation of mixed genotypes when cell...

C. T. Sanders D. A. Peterson E. K. Reisenbigler

2007-01-01

325

The concept of vulnerability within the disaster management cycle - A geospatial perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper illustrates the concept of vulnerability within the disaster management cycle from a geospatial perspective. Disaster management is widely regarded as a cyclic multi-stage concept starting with (1) a response phase after a disaster strikes, followed by (2) risk analysis and (3) mitigation efforts to minimize the impacts of future disasters. Different types of hazards such as hurricanes, tsunamis,

Christoph Aubrecht; Sérgio Freire; Stefan Kienberger; Klaus Steinnocher; Peter Zeil

2010-01-01

326

Natural hazards as pre-conditions of technological disasters in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A database of Russian technological disasters (1992–2006) has been created for the first time. Using collected data the most important types of disasters for Russian federal regions were identified and classified; two types of natural hazards affecting them have been found. Factor analysis revealed two corresponding groups of technological disasters with similar temporal distribution. Twelve types of technological disasters resulting

E. Petrova

2008-01-01

327

Coping with Disasters  

MedlinePLUS

After surviving a disaster, people may feel dazed or even numb. They may also feel sad, helpless, or anxious. In spite of the ... places or people that remind you of the disaster. You might have trouble sleeping, eating, or paying ...

328

[Role of forensic medicine and forensic psychiatry in solving the problem of organized crime].  

PubMed

Term--organized crime is not satisfactorily defined todate neither in forensic sciences, nor in lexical formulations. It is necessary to come to grips with the criminalistic and social pathological meaning of three terms--individual crime, grouped and organized crime as well as participation of forensic sciences including forensic medicine on solving problems of organized crime. Forensic medicine and forensic psychology can help to solve this acute problem of present development of social life. It can help in criminalistic expertize and insider activity in profiliation of perpetrators and victims. Mainly it will be about searching and improving of methodical approaches in solving of incriminated cases and its analysis for investigative organs and courts. Important asset in this problem must be also preventive portion in preclusion of criminality. PMID:11269022

Kokavec, M; Dobrotka, G

2001-01-01

329

FaSTR DNA: A new expert system for forensic DNA analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The automation of DNA profile analysis of reference and crime samples continues to gain pace driven in part by a realisation by the criminal justice system of the positive impact DNA technology can have in aiding in the solution of crime and the apprehension of suspects. Expert systems to automate the profile analysis component of the process are beginning to

Timothy Power; Brendan McCabe; Sally Ann Harbison

2008-01-01

330

Conservation of resources and coping self-efficacy predicting distress following a natural disaster: A causal model analysis where the environment meets the mind  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disaster research has increasingly examined how personal characteristics mediate emotional recovery following disaster exposure. We investigated the importance of lost resources, coping self-efficacy, and coping behavior as important variables in acute disaster reaction and medium range disaster recovery following Hurricane Andrew. One hundred and eighty participants living in southern Dade county completed the initial phase of the study (1–4 months

Charles C. Benight; Gail Ironson; Kelli Klebe; Charles S. Carver; Christina Wynings; Kent Burnett; Debra Greenwood; Andrew Baum; Neil Schneiderman

1999-01-01

331

Forensic Chemistry\\/Controlled Substances  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter provides an overview of the operation of the forensic chemistry section, specifically, as applied to the analysis\\u000a of controlled substances. The first section walks the reader through the generic analytical process. The next section discusses\\u000a the different types of examination performed during the analysis of controlled substances, including botanical examinations,\\u000a wet chemical examinations, and instrumental examinations. The third

Donnell Christian

332

Developing a health system approach to disaster management: A qualitative analysis of the core literature to complement the WHO Toolkit for assessing health-system capacity for crisis management  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND The World Health Organisation's (WHO) sixty-fourth World Health Assembly in May 2011 adopted a resolution on ‘strengthening national health emergency and disaster management capacities and resilience of health systems’. Disaster management is a topical issue globally and countries are being encouraged to improve their disaster preparedness, along with growing international commitment to strengthening health systems. Lessons identified from disasters have not been effectively collated; essential experience is forgotten. METHODS This paper describes the analysis of the worldwide experience of disasters through a health systems approach. A systematic search of the core literature from January 2000 to November 2011 was conducted. Components drawn from the WHO’s Global assessment of national health sector emergency preparedness and response baseline survey were combined with WHO’s six health system building blocks (or levers) to act as the initial analysis anchors, with a further grounded theory qualitative analysis of the literature allowing the identification of emerging themes and insights. The priority areas identified by this literature review were then compared with the topics covered by the new expert-consensus-derived Toolkit for assessing health-system capacity for crisis management developed by the WHO Regional Office for Europe. FINDINGS 143 publications identified from a literature search were analysed and appraised. Themes and examples from the literature demonstrate how health system strengthening should contribute to disaster management. Priority areas under-represented in the WHO Toolkit and identified by the qualitative analysis are discussed. INTERPRETATION Collation and analysis of the disaster management literature identifies how health system strengthening can promote resilience and efficient recovery in the face of disasters. These findings support and complement the WHO Toolkit. Countries can use the literature evidence with the WHO Toolkit to assess their disaster management capacities and identify priorities for strengthening their health system. Citation: Bayntun C, Rockenschaub G, Murray V. Developing a health system approach to disaster management: A qualitative analysis of the core literature to complement the WHO Toolkit for assessing health-system capacity for crisis management. PLOS Currents Disasters. 2012 Aug 22. doi: 10.1371/5028b6037259a.

Bayntun, Claire; Rockenschaub, Gerald; Murray, Virginia

2012-01-01

333

Developing a health system approach to disaster management: A qualitative analysis of the core literature to complement the WHO Toolkit for assessing health-system capacity for crisis management.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND The World Health Organisation's (WHO) sixty-fourth World Health Assembly in May 2011 adopted a resolution on 'strengthening national health emergency and disaster management capacities and resilience of health systems'. Disaster management is a topical issue globally and countries are being encouraged to improve their disaster preparedness, along with growing international commitment to strengthening health systems. Lessons identified from disasters have not been effectively collated; essential experience is forgotten. METHODS This paper describes the analysis of the worldwide experience of disasters through a health systems approach. A systematic search of the core literature from January 2000 to November 2011 was conducted. Components drawn from the WHO's Global assessment of national health sector emergency preparedness and response baseline survey were combined with WHO's six health system building blocks (or levers) to act as the initial analysis anchors, with a further grounded theory qualitative analysis of the literature allowing the identification of emerging themes and insights. The priority areas identified by this literature review were then compared with the topics covered by the new expert-consensus-derived Toolkit for assessing health-system capacity for crisis management developed by the WHO Regional Office for Europe. FINDINGS 143 publications identified from a literature search were analysed and appraised. Themes and examples from the literature demonstrate how health system strengthening should contribute to disaster management. Priority areas under-represented in the WHO Toolkit and identified by the qualitative analysis are discussed. INTERPRETATION Collation and analysis of the disaster management literature identifies how health system strengthening can promote resilience and efficient recovery in the face of disasters. These findings support and complement the WHO Toolkit. Countries can use the literature evidence with the WHO Toolkit to assess their disaster management capacities and identify priorities for strengthening their health system. Citation: Bayntun C, Rockenschaub G, Murray V. Developing a health system approach to disaster management: A qualitative analysis of the core literature to complement the WHO Toolkit for assessing health-system capacity for crisis management. PLOS Currents Disasters. 2012 Aug 22. doi: 10.1371/5028b6037259a. PMID:23066520

Bayntun, Claire; Rockenschaub, Gerald; Murray, Virginia

2012-08-22

334

Validity of Rorschach Inkblot Scores for Discriminating Psychopaths from Nonpsychopaths in Forensic Populations: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Gacono and Meloy (2009) have concluded that the Rorschach Inkblot Test is a sensitive instrument with which to discriminate psychopaths from nonpsychopaths. We examined the association of psychopathy with 37 Rorschach variables in a meta-analytic review of 173 validity coefficients derived from 22 studies comprising 780 forensic participants. All…

Wood, James M.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Nezworski, M. Teresa; Garb, Howard N.; Allen, Keli Holloway; Wildermuth, Jessica L.

2010-01-01

335

Pathoanatomic findings and blood alcohol analysis at autopsy (BAC) in forensic diagnoses of undetermined suicide. A cross-cultural study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Sweden, ca. 25% of unnatural deaths ascribed to self-inflicted injury are finally recorded as ‘undetermined suicide’ (abbreviated UMSA), i.e. the forensic pathologist has not been able to establish whether the fatality was an accident or a suicide. In the present study, a series of UMSA cases was investigated with the aims to study the impact of immigrant status, and

Marcello Ferrada-Noli; Kari Ormstad; Marie Åsberg

1996-01-01

336

Anomalies in polycyanoacrylate formation studied by Raman spectroscopy: Implications for the forensic enhancement of latent fingerprints for spectral analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enhancement of latent fingerprints by controlled exposure to cyanoacrylate vapour in fuming cabinets is now an established technique for artefacts recovered from forensic crime-scene investigations. The basis of the method involves the deposition of the monomeric cyanoacrylate under warm, moist conditions onto the object following which the resulting polymerisation produces a white film which renders the fingerprint visible. In

Howell G. M. Edwards; Joanna S. Day

2006-01-01

337

Influence of the luminol chemiluminescence reaction on the confirmatory tests for the detection and characterization of bloodstains in forensic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary tests for the detection of stains at crime scenes aim to focus the police work making them more efficient in the combat of criminality. The application of the luminol chemiluminescence reaction (3-aminoftalhidrazida) in presumptive tests for the detection of bloodstains is known for more than 40 years in forensic science. This reaction is based on the emission of light

V. R. D. Santos; W. X. Paula; E. Kalapothakis

2009-01-01

338

Research article Using the new Phadebas1 Forensic Press test to find crime scene saliva stains suitable for DNA analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Phadebas1 Forensic Press test is a new product that detects saliva stains by reacting with amylase. When the paper is pressed against a saliva stain a blue spot occurs. To test the sensitivity of the paper, a set of dilution series of saliva down to 1:500 was prepared on cotton fabric. Blue spots could be seen for dilutions of

Johannes Hedman; Karin Gustavsson; Ricky Ansell

339

Toward an Integrated Microdevice for DNA Extraction and PCR Amplification in the Submicroliter Regime for Forensic DNA Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purification\\/extraction of DNA from evidentiary material and the amplification of target STR sequences in the purified DNA represent fundamental processes in forensic typing. Integrating these processes on a single microdevice is challenging as a result of the very distinct nature of these two processes. DNA purification, as accomplished by DNA solid phase extraction (SPE), is a chromatographic process carried

Michael G. Roper; Lindsay A. Legendre; Joan M. Bienvenue; Jerome P. Ferrance; James P. Landers

340

Using the new Phadebas ® Forensic Press test to find crime scene saliva stains suitable for DNA analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Phadebas® Forensic Press test is a new product that detects saliva stains by reacting with amylase. When the paper is pressed against a saliva stain a blue spot occurs. To test the sensitivity of the paper, a set of dilution series of saliva down to 1:500 was prepared on cotton fabric. Blue spots could be seen for dilutions of

Johannes Hedman; Karin Gustavsson; Ricky Ansell

2008-01-01

341

Trace elemental analysis of glass and paint samples of forensic interest by ICP-MS using laser ablation solid sample introduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance of small amounts of glass and paint evidence as a means to associate a crime event to a suspect or a suspect to another individual has been demonstrated in many cases. Glass is a fragile material that is often found at the scenes of crimes such as burglaries, hit-and-run accidents and violent crime offenses. Previous work has demonstrated the utility of elemental analysis by solution ICP-MS of small amounts of glass for the comparison between a fragment found at a crime scene to a possible source of the glass. The multi-element capability and the sensitivity of ICP-MS combined with the simplified sample introduction of laser ablation prior to ion detection provides for an excellent and relatively non-destructive technique for elemental analysis of glass fragments. The direct solid sample introduction technique of laser ablation (LA) is reported as an alternative to the solution method. Direct solid sampling provides several advantages over solution methods and shows great potential for a number of solid sample analyses in forensic science. The advantages of laser ablation include the simplification of sample preparation, thereby reducing the time and complexity of the analysis, the elimination of handling acid dissolution reagents such as HF and the reduction of sources of interferences in the ionization plasma. Direct sampling also provides for essentially "non-destructive" sampling due to the removal of very small amounts of sample needed for analysis. The discrimination potential of LA-ICP-MS is compared with previously reported solution ICP-MS methods using external calibration with internal standardization and a newly reported solution isotope dilution (ID) method. A total of ninety-one different glass samples were used for the comparison study using the techniques mentioned. One set consisted of forty-five headlamps taken from a variety of automobiles representing a range of twenty years of manufacturing dates. A second set consisted of forty-six automotive glasses (side windows and windshields) representing casework glass from different vehicle manufacturers over several years was also characterized by RI and elemental composition analysis. The solution sample introduction techniques (external calibration and isotope dilution) provide for excellent sensitivity and precision but have the disadvantages of destroying the sample and also involve complex sample preparation. The laser ablation method was simpler, faster and produced comparable discrimination to the EC-ICP-MS and ID-ICP-MS. LA-ICP-MS can provide for an excellent alternative to solution analysis of glass in forensic casework samples. Paints and coatings are frequently encountered as trace evidence samples submitted to forensic science laboratories. A LA-ICP-MS method has been developed to complement the commonly used techniques in forensic laboratories in order to better characterize these samples for forensic purposes. Time-resolved plots of each sample can be compared to associate samples to each other or to discriminate between samples. Additionally, the concentration of lead and the ratios of other elements have been determined in various automotive paints by the reported method. A sample set of eighteen (18) survey automotive paint samples have been analyzed with the developed method in order to determine the utility of LA-ICP-MS and to compare the method to the more commonly used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) method for elemental characterization of paint layers in forensic casework.

Almirall, Jose R.; Trejos, Tatiana; Hobbs, Andria; Furton, Kenneth G.

2003-09-01

342

Report to the Attorney General on Delays in Forensic DNA Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On August 21, 2001, Attorney General John Ashcroft directed the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) to assess the existing analysis delays of crime scene DNA evidence and develop recommendations to eliminate those delays. Specifically, the Attorney Genera...

2003-01-01

343

An overview on disasters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to provide graduate students, researchers, and government and independent agencies with an overview of disasters. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Disasters have been the subject of research and a source of concern to academicians and government and independent agencies. In this paper disaster types are collected from several sources such as technical, general articles, internet web sites, and

Ibrahim Mohamed Shaluf

2007-01-01

344

Serving through Disaster  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Disaster planning focuses on future function and recovery, on helping libraries expeditiously return to their original states of operation. It all but ignores the concept of continuous function throughout a disaster. This is not true in the private and government sectors, however, which have managed to cover a wider load of disaster response…

Kuzyk, Raya

2007-01-01

345

Scientists and disaster management  

Microsoft Academic Search

When disasters, even natural ones, have a chemical or nuclear dimension, scientists play a major role in their management. Presents the results of research on Canadian disasters, and includes other cases of disasters that occurred around the world. Discusses the experts? role in decisions related to the response: how to identify a specific product, its impact on health, for example,

Hélène Denis

1995-01-01

346

Planning for Disaster.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Disaster recovery planning need not be expensive nor complete to be effective. Systematic planning involves several crucial steps, including outlining the final plan, understanding the nature of a disaster's effects and the stages of disaster recovery, prioritizing appropriately, and learning how to test the plan in a practical way for the…

Lewis, Steven

1996-01-01

347

Vibrational spectroscopic analysis of an amber necklace—a forensic historical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vibrational infrared spectroscopic analysis of an important historical necklace of 102 beads that are purported to be\\u000a made of amber indicated strong signal characteristics of cellulose nitrate with dark green-coloured areas of a naphthylamine\\u000a dye. Confocal Raman depth-profiling spectroscopy using a 785-nm laser excitation, a novel application first applied here for\\u000a the analysis of inclusions in amber resin, confirmed

Howell G. M. Edwards

2010-01-01

348

[Considerations 20 years after the publication of the article "The dentist as an expert in disasters--dental identification in the disaster with the Zeebruge ferry"].  

PubMed

The Herald of Free Enterprise disaster on the 6th of March 1987 just outside Zeebrugge was the first major disaster that happened in Belgium after the federal authorities put together a DVI team. It was also the first time dental identification by forensic odontologists was used in a Belgian mass disaster. Although international cooperation and coordination through Interpol in cases of disasters with multinational victims hadn't reached today's level, the handling of the disaster and the cooperation between Belgian and British specialists within DVI teams was a prime example of today's Interpol DVI philosophy. The lessons learned from this disaster were reported at the Interpol DVI working group annual meeting and subsequently new guidelines were implemented in the DVI Guide and Forms. The experience gained from this major event definitely helped in the development and proficiency of the Belgian DVI team, which became very professional in the years to follow through its involvement in different mass disasters and major incidents within Belgium and abroad and contributed a whole lot to the development of forensic odontology in Belgium. PMID:20178172

De Valck, Eddy

349

Disaster Risk Management - The Kenyan Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keywords: natural disasters; man-made disasters; terrorist attacks; land slides; disaster policies and legislations; fire; earthquakes; hurricanes; soil erosion; disaster research policy; Preamble: \\

W. Nabutola

2009-01-01

350

Disaster Risk Management - The Kenyan Challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keywords: natural disasters; man-made disasters; terrorist attacks; land slides; disaster policies and legislations; fire; earthquakes; hurricanes; soil erosion; disaster research policy; Preamble: \\

W. Nabutola; S. Scheer

2009-01-01

351

[Forensic entomology exemplified by a homicide. A combined stain and postmortem time analysis].  

PubMed

The combined analysis of both ant and blow fly evidence recovered from a corpse, and from the boot of a suspect, suggested that an assumed scenario in a high profile murder case was likely to be true. The ants (Lasius fuliginous) were used as classical crime scene stains that linked the suspect to the scene. Blow fly maggots (Calliphora spec.) helped to determine the post mortem interval (PMI) with the calculated PMI overlapping with the assumed time of the killing. In the trial, the results of the medico-legal analysis of the insects was understood to be crucial scientific evidence, and the suspect was sentenced to 8 years in prison. PMID:10489592

Benecke, M; Seifert, B

352

Development of an Expert System for Automated Forensic Mitochondrial DNA Data Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With continued advancements in the laboratory processing of samples for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), sequence data are generated at a faster rate resulting in bottlenecks of mtDNA sequence analysis. The research goal of this project was to reduce the review...

J. L. Thomas M. L. Sprouse N. R. Phillips R. K. Roby

2012-01-01

353

Elemental analysis of forensic glasses by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flat glass is a common type of evidence collected from the scenes of crimes such as burglaries, vandalism, and hit-and- run accidents. The usefulness of such evidence lies in the ability to associate the glass from the scene (or a suspect) to the original source. Physical and chemical analysis of the glass can be used for discrimination between the possible

Jose R. Almirall; Douglas C. Duckworth; Charles K. Bayne; Shelby J. Morton; David H. Smith; Robert D. Koons; Kenneth G. Furton

1999-01-01

354

Inference structures for crime analysis and intelligence: the example of burglary using forensic science data  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been much work dedicated to crime analysis and intelligence in recent times. Independently, physical evidence has shown great potential for linking crimes and bringing solid informative data through the increased use of multiple databases. However, their informative potential is still often underestimated and has been poorly integrated into police information systems. We propose a framework that fully introduces

O. Ribaux; P. Margot

1999-01-01

355

Validation of forensic DNA analysis from bloodstains treated by presumptive test reagents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dilute bloodstains that cannot be seen by the eye may be detected at the crime scene using different presumptive tests.In this study, we tested the effect of two presumptive blood enhancement reagents (luminol and fluorescein) on the subsequent chemical and genetic analysis of fresh or aged bloodstains treated or not treated by soap.

A. Barbaro; P. Cormaci; A. Teatino

2004-01-01

356

Forensic Analysis of Canine DNA Samples in the Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recent advances in canine genomics have allowed the development of highly distinguishing methods of analysis for both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. We describe a laboratory exercise suitable for an undergraduate biochemistry course in which the polymerase chain reaction is used to amplify hypervariable regions of DNA from dog hair and saliva…

Carson, Tobin M.; Bradley, Sharonda Q.; Fekete, Brenda L.; Millard, Julie T.; LaRiviere, Frederick J.

2009-01-01

357

The American print news media 'construction' of five natural disasters.  

PubMed

In 1985, five international 'natural' disasters received prominent print news media coverage in the United States. Content analyses of selected print news media accounts of these five disasters were conducted. The purported evidence of alleged cause-effect relationships describing and explaining these disasters as 'objective' realities was evaluated in the light of the subjective selection of explanatory factors, themes, frameworks, and value assumptions which underlie the media's analysis and 'construction' of these events as 'natural' disasters. Analysis of the American print news media coverage of these disasters indicated an emphasis upon the dramatic, descriptive, climatological or geological qualities of these events rather than upon causal explanations emphasizing the role of human acts or omissions in the development of these disasters. The print news media 'constructed' these events as 'natural' disasters despite clear evidence of their hybrid, natural-human origins. PMID:8564455

Ploughman, P

1995-12-01

358

Taphonomic mycota: fungi with forensic potential.  

PubMed

Forensic archaeologists and criminal investigators employ many different techniques for the location, recovery, and analysis of clandestine graves. Many of these techniques are based upon the premise that a grave is an anomaly and therefore differs physically, biologically, or chemically from its surroundings. The work reviewed in this communication demonstrates how and why field mycology might provide a further tool towards the investigation of scenes of crime concealed in forest ecosystems. The fruiting structures of certain fungi, the ammonia and the postputrefaction fungi, have been recorded repeatedly in association with decomposed mammalian cadavers in disparate regions of the world. The ecology and physiology of these fungi are reviewed briefly with a view to their potential as a forensic tool. This application of mycology is at an interface with forensic archaeology and forensic taphonomy and may provide a means to detect graves and has the potential to estimate postburial interval. PMID:12570221

Carter, David O; Tibbett, Mark

2003-01-01

359

TG-MS analysis of the thermal decomposition of pig bone for forensic applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the potential of thermal analysis for the determination of post-mortem age, rib bone specimens were\\u000a collected from the remains of a number of slaughtered pigs that were allowed to decompose in the Australian bush in a controlled\\u000a site under a range of conditions for time periods ranging from 1 to 5 years. The bone specimens were

A. Onishi; P. S. Thomas; B. H. Stuart; J. P. Guerbois; S. L. Forbes

2008-01-01

360

Synergy between DNA polymerases increases polymerase chain reaction inhibitor tolerance in forensic DNA analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success rate of diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis is lowered by inhibitory substances present in the samples. Recently, we showed that tolerance to PCR inhibitors in crime scene saliva stains can be improved by replacing the standard DNA polymerase AmpliTaq Gold with alternative DNA polymerase–buffer systems (Hedman et al., BioTechniques 47 (2009) 951–958). Here we show that blending

Johannes Hedman; Anders Nordgaard; Charlotte Dufva; Birgitta Rasmusson; Ricky Ansell; Peter Rådström

2010-01-01

361

Swissair Flight 111 Disaster Response Impacts: Lessons Learned From the Voices of Disaster Volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative research study provides insight into the specific experiences, trauma, and needs of disaster volunteers as an understudied and marginalized sector of response and recovery personnel. Based on a qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews, the authors present the tasks, exposures, impacts, and search for meaning of the Swissair Flight 111 disaster volunteers who were exposed to human remains during

Terry L. Mitchell; William Walters; Sherry Stewart

2006-01-01

362

A dedicated automated system for extraction, quantification and STR amplification of forensic evidence samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic DNA analysis is a multi-step process involving extraction of DNA, quantification of human DNA in the extract, amplification using multiplex STR systems, separation of products, and data analysis. The backlog of forensic casework is increasing worldwide. Automation is one significant way to alleviate the bottleneck of sample processing in forensic labs. The HID EVOlution™ Combination System described here is

James Stray; Vivian T. Nguyen; Jacquelyn Benfield; Rixun Fang; Maxim Brevnov; Lynda Treat-Clemons; Greg Porter; Manohar R. Furtado; Jaiprakash G. Shewale

2009-01-01

363

Forensics in cyber-space: the legal challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

• The nature and impact of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) involve major challenges and opportunities for forensic analysis and legal regulation. The legal challenges for forensic analysis in cyber-space include: • global liability issues; • jurisdiction-based issues; • risk issues; • data and document retention issues; • response and regulatory issues; • independence, objectivity and expertise issues; • commercialization

Nigel Wilson

2008-01-01

364

New perspectives in the use of ink evidence in forensic science: Part I. Development of a quality assurance process for forensic ink analysis by HPTLC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The level of information provided by ink evidence to the criminal and civil justice system is limited. The limitations arise from the weakness of the interpretative framework currently used, as proposed in the ASTM 1422-05 and 1789-04 on ink analysis. It is proposed to use the likelihood ratio from the Bayes theorem to interpret ink evidence.Unfortunately, when considering the analytical

Cedric Neumann; Pierre Margot

2009-01-01

365

Vibrational spectroscopic analysis of an amber necklace--a forensic historical study.  

PubMed

The vibrational infrared spectroscopic analysis of an important historical necklace of 102 beads that are purported to be made of amber indicated strong signal characteristics of cellulose nitrate with dark green-coloured areas of a naphthylamine dye. Confocal Raman depth-profiling spectroscopy using a 785-nm laser excitation, a novel application first applied here for the analysis of inclusions in amber resin, confirmed that the beads were amber resin and that residues of cellulose nitrate, camphor plasticiser and a naphthylamine dyestuff were present in surface cracks and inclusions in the bead matrix. The bead stringing material was confirmed as cellulose, which was stained green in part with the dyestuff. Comparison of the Raman spectra of the amber beads with a resin database suggested that the amber was sourced from Northern England. The scientific evidence supports the stylistic opinion that the necklace is an important example that could date from the 19th Century and that efforts had been made to coat it with a synthetic dyed polymer; this provides a rather unusual example of the chemical masking of a genuine article--a procedure that renders the article of particular interest. PMID:20376434

Edwards, Howell G M

2010-04-08

366

Nuclear Forensic Materials and Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A short history and treatment of the various aspects of nuclear forensic analysis is followed by a discussion of the most common chemical procedures, including applications of tracers, radioisotopic generators, and sample chronometry. Analytic methodology discussed includes sample preparation, radiation detection, various forms of microscopy, and mass-spectrometric techniques. The chapter concludes with methods for the production and treatment of special nuclear materials and with a description of several actual case studies conducted at Livermore.

Hutcheon, I. D.; Grant, P. M.; Moody, K. J.

367

Complexity in Forensic Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic Science is an end-to-end process beginning at the scene and finishing in court. There are many opportunities for quality failures along the way. To limit the focus to the validity and robustness of the actual tests does not support the contribution of forensic science to the criminal justice system and risks compromising it. A particularly critical aspect of the

Stan Brown; Sheila Willis

2010-01-01

368

Flies as forensic indicators.  

PubMed

Synanthropic flies, particularly calliphorids, are initiators of carrion decomposition and, as such, are the primary and most accurate forensic indicators of time of death. The relevant biology and forensic applications of the egg, larva, pupa, and young adult are discussed for various species, with emphasis on thermal history and age markers. PMID:1941921

Greenberg, B

1991-09-01

369

Forensic geology exhumed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic geology binds applied geology to the world of legal controversy and action. However, the term ``forensic'' is often misconstrued. Although even some attorneys apply it only to the marshalling of evidence in criminal cases, it has a much broader definition. One dictionary defines it as ``pertaining to, connected with, or used in courts of law or public discussion and

Joseph Didier Martinez

1991-01-01

370

Forensic dental identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of deceased persons is the most common role of the forensic dentist. Forensic physical comparison of antemortem and postmortem dental data is used to establish that a found body and a missing person are one and the same to a high degree of certainty. An overview of this role is presented as a review of dental identification.

David Sweet

2010-01-01

371

Forensic Science Technician  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Forensic science technicians, also called crime laboratory technicians or police science technicians, help solve crimes. They examine and identify physical evidence to reconstruct a crime scene. This article discusses everything students need to know about careers for forensic science technicians--wages, responsibilities, skills needed, career…

Tech Directions, 2010

2010-01-01

372

Forensic DNA and bioinformatics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of forensic science is increasingly based on biomolecular data and many European countries are establishing forensic databases to store DNA profiles of crime scenes of known offenders and apply DNA testing. The field is boosted by statistical and technological advances such as DNA microarray sequencing, TFT biosensors, machine learning algorithms, in particular Bayesian networks, which provide an effective

Lucia Bianchi; Pietro Liò

2007-01-01

373

Ultrafast amplification of DNA on plastic microdevices for forensic short tandem repeat analysis.  

PubMed

The majority of microfluidic devices used as a platform for low-cost, rapid DNA analysis are glass devices; however, microchip fabrication in glass is costly and laborious, enhancing the interest in polymeric substrates, such as poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), as an inexpensive alternative. Here, we report amplification in PMMA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) microchips providing full short tandem repeat profiles (16 of 16 loci) in 30-40 min, with peak height ratios and stutter percentages that meet literature threshold requirements. In addition, partial profiles (15 of 16 loci) were generated using an ultrafast PCR method in 17.1 min, representing a ~10-fold reduction in reaction time as compared to current amplification methods. Finally, a multichamber device was demonstrated to simultaneously amplify one positive, one negative, and five individual samples in 39 min. Although there were instances of loci dropout, this device represents a first step toward a microfluidic system capable of amplifying more than one sample simultaneously. PMID:23692541

Lounsbury, Jenny A; Landers, James P

2013-05-21

374

Disaster related stresses, depressive signs and symptoms, and suicidal ideation among a multi-racial/ethnic sample of adolescents: a longitudinal analysis.  

PubMed

Longitudinal findings are presented on the relationships between disaster related stresses, depression scores, and suicidal ideation among a multi-racial/ethnic sample of adolescents (N = 4,978) all of whom have been exposed to Hurricane Andrew. Regression analysis showed that being female, hurricane generated stresses, low levels of family support, pre-hurricane suicidal ideation, and post-hurricane depression scores were significant predictors of post-hurricane suicidal ideation. Path analysis revealed that being female, low socioeconomic status, pre- and post-hurricane depression, high stress scores, low family support, and pre-hurricane suicidal ideation had significant direct/indirect effects on post-hurricane suicidal ideation. PMID:8735443

Warheit, G J; Zimmerman, R S; Khoury, E L; Vega, W A; Gil, A G

1996-05-01

375

Quantitative analysis of Spanish university scientific output in the area of Legal and Forensic Medicine: International exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We set out to analyse and quantify the papers published (for an international readership) by Spanish universities in the field\\u000a of Legal and Forensic Medicine. For this, we used the MEDLINE data base, to analyse research articles in which a Spanish university\\u000a teacher (whose sole employment was with a university, as registered by the Ministry of Education in July 2005,

Javier Valles-Valenzuela; María D. Pérez-Cárceles; Eduardo Osuna; Aurelio Luna

2009-01-01

376

DNA Profiling and forensic dentistry – A review of the recent concepts and trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundTeeth are amongst the hardest structures of the human body which are resistant to adverse conditions such as incineration, immersion, trauma, mutilation, decomposition and hence, used in forensic investigations. It is also a valuable source of DNA as other parts of the body gets destroyed or degraded in mass disasters. The fast technological advancements in DNA research have revolutionized the

B. C. Manjunath; B. R. Chandrashekar; Melkundi Mahesh; R. M. Vatchala Rani

2011-01-01

377

Applications of Social Network Analysis for Building Community Disaster Resilience. Workshop Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Social Network Analysis (SNA) is the identification of the relationships and attributes of members, key actors, and groups that social networks comprise. The National Research Council (NRC), at the request of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), for...

2008-01-01

378

Analysis of pain management drugs, specifically fentanyl, in hair: application to forensic specimens.  

PubMed

This article discusses the immunoassay screening of pain management drugs, and the mass spectrometric confirmation of fentanyl in human hair. Hair specimens were screened for fentanyl, opiates (including oxycodone), tramadol, propoxyphene, carisoprodol, methadone, and benzodiazepines and any positive results were confirmed using gas chromatography or liquid chromatography with mass spectral detection. The specific focus of the work was the determination of fentanyl in hair, since autopsy specimens were also available for comparison with hair concentrations. Using two-dimensional gas chromatography with electron impact mass spectrometric detection, fentanyl was confirmed in four of nine hair specimens collected at autopsy. The accuracy of the assay at 10 pg/mg was 95.17% and the inter-day and intra-day precision was 5.04 and 13.24%, respectively (n=5). The assay was linear over the range 5-200 pg/mg with a correlation of r(2)>0.99. The equation of the calibration curve forced through the origin was y=0.0053x and the limit of quantitation of the assay was 5 pg/mg. The fentanyl concentrations detected were 12, 17, 490, and 1930 pg/mg and the results were compared with toxicology from routine post-mortem analysis. The screening of pain management drugs in hair is useful in cases where other matrices may not be available, and in routine testing of hair for abused drugs. PMID:18006260

Moore, C; Marinetti, L; Coulter, C; Crompton, K

2007-11-14

379

Forensic analysis of mesembrine alkaloids in Sceletium tortuosum by nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The consumption of legal and illegal drugs follows an organic trend comparable to the current trend in food consumption. The investigation of such drugs is therefore of interest to characterize the active ingredients of plants and drug preparations. A new method of nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry (NACE-MS) as a powerful tool for the separation of complex alkaloid mixtures in difficult matrices is presented in this study for the analysis of samples of Sceletium tortuosum and drug products called Kanna made thereof. The method was found to be suitable for the investigation of the alkaloid composition and relative quantification of the ingredients. It proved of value to separate a large number of isobaric compounds, most probably including diastereomers, double-bond isomers, and further structurally closely related compounds. A comparison of plant samples from different vendors, self-fermented samples, and products ready for consumption was made. The high separation power obtained allowed a better description of the chemotypic differences of plant samples as well as Kanna preparations compared to other methods presented in the literature so far. Thus, the use of the NACE-MS enables a new perspective on the alkaloid profile of Sceletium species. PMID:22736358

Roscher, Jörg; Posch, Tjorben Nils; Pütz, Michael; Huhn, Carolin

2012-06-01

380

These lives will not be lost in vain: organizational learning from disaster in US coal mining  

SciTech Connect

The stated purpose of the investigations that invariably follow industrial, transportation, and mining disasters is to learn from those tragedies to prevent future tragedies. But does prior experience with disaster make organizations more capable of preventing future disasters? Do organizations learn from disasters experienced by other organizations? Do organizations learn differently from rare disasters than they do from common minor accidents? In its present state, the organizational safety literature is poorly equipped to answer these questions. The present work begins to address this gap by empirically examining how prior organizational experience with disaster affects the likelihood that organizations will experience future disasters. It approaches the issue in the context of fatal U.S. coal mining accidents from 1983 to 2006. The analysis demonstrates that organizations do learn to prevent future disasters through both direct and vicarious experience with disaster. It also indicates that the mechanisms through which organizations learn from disasters differ from those through which they learn from minor accidents.

Madsen, P.M. [Brigham Young University, Provo, UT (United States). Marriott School Management

2009-09-15

381

Microbial Forensics: Applications in Bioterrorism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial forensics is a new discipline combining microbiology and forensic science. Unlike public health investigations, microbial forensics goes further to associate the source of the causative agent with a specific individual or group. Microbial forensics measures molecular variations between related microbial strains and their use to infer the origin, relationship, or transmission route of a particular microbial strain. Several advanced

Priyabrata Pattnaik; Asha Mukul Jana

2005-01-01

382

Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the past 50 years forensic psychological practice has expanded dramatically. Because the practice of forensic psychology differs in important ways from more traditional practice areas (Monahan, 1980) the "Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists" were developed and published in 1991 (Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic

American Psychologist, 2013

2013-01-01

383

The epidemiology of disasters.  

PubMed Central

Over the last few years there has been an increasing awareness that some kind of disaster management should be possible. The emphasis is now moving from post-disaster improvisation to predisaster preparedness. The League of Red Cross Societies has increasingly encouraged predisaster planning in countries at risk. A new United Nations agency - United Nations Disaster Relief Office (UNDRO)- has been set up with headquarters in Geneva. Coordination and exchange of information between agencies engaged in disaster relief are becoming the rule rather than the exception, and a number of groups have started with the specific objective of making professional expertise available to disaster management. A number of private initiatives have been taken, meetings have been organized, research centers set up, and research projects launched. The study of disasters needs to be approached on a multidisciplinary basis, the more so since the health component is only one part of the broad disaster problem and, perhaps not the major one. Social scientists, psychologists, administrators, economists, geographers, have been or are conducting a number of studies on natural disasters. These studies have provided new insights and have proved most useful in preparing for disasters and increasing the effectiveness and acceptance of relief operations. This is a vital and challenging field, wide open for research. It is now time for epidemiologists and community health scientists to enter the fray and provide much needed information on which a rational, effective and flexible policy for the management of disasters can be based.

Lechat, M. F.

1976-01-01

384

HIV legal precedent useful for microbial forensics.  

PubMed

The field of microbial forensics was formalized because of the need for attribution in events where a bioweapon has been used. Microbial forensics has its origins in traditional forensics, microbiology, and epidemiology. Microbial forensics can be defined as a scientific discipline dedicated to analyzing evidence for attribution purposes from a bioterrorism act, biocrime, hoax, or inadvertent microorganism/toxin release. This is a very challenging task, since there are myriad microorganisms that can pose a threat, and analytical methods need to be used reliably. The Scientific Working Group on Microbial Genetics and Forensics (SWGMGF) has addressed some quality assurance and control issues, and particularly validation criteria (focusing on preliminary validation) due to the dynamic nature of evolving investigations. Unique identification of a microorganism may never be possible. Yet, qualitative and/or quantitative assessments of the evidence can be made. One approach to provide direction on gaps in the microbial forensics effort is to perform an end-to-end retrospective analysis of past cases. As an example, the case of a gastroenterologist who was accused of second degree attempted murder of his paramour using HIV as the weapon was reviewed. The scientific evaluation involves epidemiology, molecular biology, phylogenetics, and legal deliberations. PMID:16100753

Budowle, Bruce; Harmon, Rockne

2005-08-01

385

LARGE SCALE DISASTER ANALYSIS AND MANAGEMENT: SYSTEM LEVEL STUDY ON AN INTEGRATED MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

The increasing intensity and scale of human activity across the globe leading to severe depletion and deterioration of the Earth's natural resources has meant that sustainability has emerged as a new paradigm of analysis and management. Sustainability, conceptually defined by the...

386

Cluster analysis of a forensic population with antisocial personality disorder regarding PCL-R scores: differentiation of two patterns of criminal profiles.  

PubMed

Fifty six cases of a forensic population were submitted to a cluster analysis to observe the aglomerative behavior in relation to the total scores of the items comprising the PCL-R Psychopathy Checklist Revised [R.D. Hare, Manual for the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised, Multi-Health System, Toronto, 1991]. The analysis indicated two independent types of antisocial personality disorders, not identified in the PCL-R in its standardized form, one of them being strongly associated with criminal conduct and the other with psychopathic personality. Such clusters were stable when the analysis was replicated with other hierarchical algorithms, and also, they were independently extracted via the k-means method without having previously fixed the value for k. One of the clusters concentrated the PCL-R highest scores, indicating that it is the prototypical psychopathic character determinant. PMID:16439084

Morana, Hilda Clotilde Penteado; Câmara, Fernando Portela; Arboleda-Flórez, Julio

2006-01-24

387

Sentinel markers for industrial disasters.  

PubMed

Workers, managers, and occupational health and safety inspectors can be trained to detect or recognize and promote action to correct sentinel markers for industrial disasters. A sentinel marker is defined as a pre-disaster warning sign of impending failure in prevention. Administrative sentinel markers are: a weak occupational health and safety program; lack of spontaneous access to top management; failure to accept responsibility for subcontractors; the absence of written disaster plans and drills for emergency response in the factory and the adjacent community; noninvestigation of prodromal leaks, exposures, spills or injuries; punishment of "troublesome" individuals reporting such prodromal events; nonuse or misuse of data on illness, injury and absenteeism; and suboptimal work conditions and supervision of shift workers. Information sentinel markers include absence of worker and community right-to-know programs, nonuse of data on earlier mishaps from similar technologies, and failure to provide toxicologic data to hospitals in the pre-disaster phase. Technological sentinel markers are: absence of fail-safe controls, interlocks and automated alarm systems driven by real-time monitoring. Transportation sentinel markers include suboptimal vehicle standards, and drink, drugs and fatigue in drivers. Preventive programs based on identification of all sentinel markers by workers are suggested to be more effective than selective action based on risk assessment analysis. PMID:1428806

Deutsch, P V; Adler, J; Richter, E D

388

Feasibility of contactless 3D optical measurement for the analysis of bone and soft tissue lesions: new technologies and perspectives in forensic sciences.  

PubMed

In forensic pathology and anthropology, a correct analysis of lesions on soft tissues and bones is of the utmost importance, in order to verify the cause and manner of death. Photographs, videos, and photogrammetry may be an optimal manner of immortalizing a lesion, both on cadavers and skeletal remains; however, none of these can supply a detailed three-dimensional (3D) modeling of the lesion. Up to now, only the use of casts has given us the possibility of studying deep lesions such as saw marks with an accurate and complete 3D reconstruction of bone structure. The present study aims at verifying the applicability of 3D optical contactless measurement for the accurate recording of soft tissue and bone lesions, in order to develop a unique and precise method of registering and analyzing lesions, both in forensic pathology and anthropology. Three cases were analyzed: the first, a car accident with blunt force skin injuries; the second, a murder with blunt force injury to the head applied with a metal rod; the third, a series of sharp force knife and saw lesions on bone. Results confirm that 3D optical digitizing technology is a crucial tool in the immortalization of wound morphology in the medico-legal context even on "difficult" substrates such as cut marks and saw marks on bone. PMID:19368623

Sansoni, Giovanna; Cattaneo, Cristina; Trebeschi, Marco; Gibelli, Daniele; Porta, Davide; Picozzi, Massimo

2009-05-01

389

Grand Challenges for Disaster Reduction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Despite significant progress in the application of science and technology to disaster reduction, communities are still challenged by disaster preparation, response, and recovery. We have reduced the number of lives lost each year to natural disasters, but...

2005-01-01

390

"Denture marking" as an aid to forensic identification.  

PubMed

"Identification through forensic science is an art of giving the corpse a name A real life detective work that would put even Sherlock Homes to shame." Forensic dentistry deals with proper handling and examination of dental evidence and proper evaluation and presentation of dental findings in interest of justice. Denture marking or labeling is not a new concept in either Prosthetic or Forensic dentistry and its routine practice has been urged by Forensic dentists internationally for many years. Denture marking is accepted as a means of identifying dentures and persons in geriatric institutions or post mortem during war, crimes, and civil unrest, natural and mass disasters. Prosthodontists are playing very important role in forensic dentistry as they are concerned with fabrication of various prostheses which can serve as an important tool for identification. Identification is essential requirement of any medico-legal investigation because a wrong identity may pose a problem in delivering justice. The main objective of this article is to discuss the various methods of denture marking and to emphasize the importance of denture marking for person identification in medico legal investigations. PMID:23997461

Mohan, Jayashree; Kumar, C Dhinesh; Simon, Paul

2012-06-27

391

Ethics and forensic psychiatry.  

PubMed

This article has attempted to outline some of the important ethical issues faced by the psychiatrist in the forensic role. Much of forensic psychiatry is practiced by general psychiatrists without specific forensic training who must thereby familiarize themselves with the problem areas likely to be encountered in this work. They should also be knowledgeable about the ethics guidelines prepared by forensic psychology and forensic psychiatry organizations that are subject to frequent modification. Ethical problems often occur when psychiatrists exceed their expertise, their role as contracted, or the actual facts in the case. Psychiatric experts usually represent just a small part of most litigation, and an attitude of humility rather than grandiosity is appropriate. Expert witnesses serve as educators rather than decision makers in the case [21]. Given the complexity and uncertainty of medical decision making generally, whether in clinical or forensic medicine, forensic psychiatric opinions should be appropriately qualified by their limitations, acknowledged affirmatively rather than only on cross-examination. Expert witnesses commonly take an oath to "tell the truth, the whole truth." Forensic psychiatrists are not experts in moral matters and should not be rendering moral judgments or misusing their authority as psychiatrists to advance their own political or social ideology [19]. Testimony should be based on data and theory generally accepted in the profession, recognizing that there will always be minority views. Psychiatrists, however, should not be testifying based upon idiosyncratic views unsupported by at least a respectable minority of the profession. As in clinical psychiatry, complex or challenging forensic cases often require consultation from a knowledgeable colleague. PMID:12232975

Wettstein, Robert M

2002-09-01

392

Forensic Pavement Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study proposed to use portable weigh-in-motion systems to collect sample truck data throughout the State of Arizona in lieu of standard loadometer testing. The primary purpose of data collection was to provide a large quantity of useful data for input...

M. De Nicholas

1990-01-01

393

Modeling imbalanced economic recovery following a natural disaster using input-output analysis.  

PubMed

Input-output analysis is frequently used in studies of large-scale weather-related (e.g., Hurricanes and flooding) disruption of a regional economy. The economy after a sudden catastrophe shows a multitude of imbalances with respect to demand and production and may take months or years to recover. However, there is no consensus about how the economy recovers. This article presents a theoretical route map for imbalanced economic recovery called dynamic inequalities. Subsequently, it is applied to a hypothetical postdisaster economic scenario of flooding in London around the year 2020 to assess the influence of future shocks to a regional economy and suggest adaptation measures. Economic projections are produced by a macro econometric model and used as baseline conditions. The results suggest that London's economy would recover over approximately 70 months by applying a proportional rationing scheme under the assumption of initial 50% labor loss (with full recovery in six months), 40% initial loss to service sectors, and 10-30% initial loss to other sectors. The results also suggest that imbalance will be the norm during the postdisaster period of economic recovery even though balance may occur temporarily. Model sensitivity analysis suggests that a proportional rationing scheme may be an effective strategy to apply during postdisaster economic reconstruction, and that policies in transportation recovery and in health care are essential for effective postdisaster economic recovery. PMID:23614394

Li, Jun; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Syddall, Mark; Guan, Dabo

2013-04-24

394

Forensic palynology in Canada: An overview with emphasis on archaeology and anthropology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palynological analysis is shown from published and unpublished Canadian examples to be a useful tool in forensic investigation, although the technique is almost unknown and therefore under-utilized by forensic investigators. The techniques of pollen and spore identification and interpretation are continually improving, indicating that the potential for forensic applications is real. Focus in this paper is on an updated interpretation

Rolf W. Mathewes

2006-01-01

395

Managing Performance in the Forensic Sciences: Expectations in Light of Limited Budgets  

Microsoft Academic Search

For forensic service providers worldwide, the demand for high-quality services greatly outpaces available resources to meet those requests. The gap between the demand for services and the resource-restricted supply of those services has implications for managing performance: the effectiveness and efficiency of forensic science. The effectiveness of forensic science is directly related to the quality of the scientific analysis and

Hilton Kobus; Max Houck; Paul Speaker; Richard Riley; Tom Witt

2011-01-01

396

Forensic Biometrics from Images and Video at the Federal Bureau of Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic examiners within FBI's Forensic Audio, Video and Image Analysis Unit(FAVIAU) perform forensic examinations such as human identification (from image and video) including facial comparison, ear comparison, hand comparison, and height determination. Examinations are performed without the assistance of automated biometric applications.Due to the high volume of casework, it is anticipated that automated biometrics could enhance the examination workflow to

Nicole A. Spaun

2007-01-01

397

The imported forensic expert  

SciTech Connect

A review of the experiences of one of the pioneer forensic pathologists in the United States offers an interesting insight into the possibilities of private forensic pathology in America. The author's experience includes serving as President of the National Boxing Association and the International Boxing Association, during which time he made many improvements in ring safety. His research into several areas of cases of product liability offer an insight to the wide scope of the potential of the forensic expert. This presentation reviews his activities in realms widely afield from medicine.

Larson, C.P.

1980-09-01

398

Developing a computer forensics program in police higher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

By the analysis and comparison of the application of domestic and overseas computer forensics education, combining with the demand of the industry, the characteristics of subjects and the aim of police education in China, an innovative program in computer forensics has been developed and begun in fall 2007. This four-year program consists of courses in general education, major (computer crime

Liu Zhijun; Wang Ning

2009-01-01

399

Nonintrusive Component Forensics of Visual Sensors Using Output Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid technology development and the widespread use of visual sensors have led to a number of new problems related to protecting intellectual property rights, handling patent infringements, authenticating acquisition sources, and identifying content manipulations. This paper introduces nonintrusive component forensics as a new methodology for the forensic analysis of visual sensing information, aiming to identify the algorithms and parameters employed

Ashwin Swaminathan; Min Wu; K. J. Ray Liu

2007-01-01

400

Nature and place of crime scene management within forensic sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This short paper presents the preliminary results of a recent study aimed at appreciating the relevant parameters required to qualify forensic science as a science through an epistemological analysis. The reader is invited to reflect upon references within a historical and logical framework which assert that forensic science is based upon two fundamental principles (those of Locard and Kirk). The

Frank Crispino

2008-01-01

401

Applications of supercritical fluid extraction and chromatography in forensic science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical fluid technology is a rapidly expanding analytical technique. Here we give a brief insight into the background of supercritical fluid technology and how supercritical fluid extraction and supercritical fluid chromatography work in analysis. The applications of these two techniques in forensic science are known to be important. The main area of forensic use of supercritical fluid technology is in

Charlotte Radcliffe; Kristie Maguire; Brian Lockwood

2000-01-01

402

Fear and Loathing in Forensics: The View from Postmodern Suburbia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report attempts to construct a postmodern framework to provide for an analysis of Intercollegiate Forensics. It isolates the major theoretical constructs of postmodernism, applies them to Intercollegiate Forensics, and draws conclusions. The paper maintains that linguistic-based postmodernism consists of four theoretical areas: (1)…

Murphy, B. Keith

403

Workforce management strategies in a disaster scenario.  

SciTech Connect

A model of the repair operations of the voice telecommunications network is used to study labor management strategies under a disaster scenario where the workforce is overwhelmed. The model incorporates overtime and fatigue functions and optimizes the deployment of the workforce based on the cost of the recovery and the time it takes to recover. The analysis shows that the current practices employed in workforce management in a disaster scenario are not optimal and more strategic deployment of that workforce is beneficial.

Kelic, Andjelka; Turk, Adam L.

2008-08-01

404

[Certain topical aspects of the practical application of the laser microdissection technology for the purpose of forensic molecular-genetic analysis].  

PubMed

Experiments with the use of the laser capture microdissection (LCM) technology for the purpose of forensic molecular-genetic analysis carried out on real objects revealed a number of specific aspects of practical LCM application. Some of these problems have been investigated in the present work with special reference to the characteristics of the cells of interest and their physical properties in study objects. The data obtained give reason to conclude that a failure of genotyping of individual cells obtained by the LCM technique may be due to the lack of genetic material suitable for analysis. Another important cause is poor availability of the genetic material for PCR attributable to the resistance of cells subjected to the prolonged influence of environmental factors to thermal destruction. In order to obviate this difficulty, we developed a highly efficacious system with the use of PCR lysis reagents having the advantage of combination of proteolysis and the use of detergents compatible with PCR. PMID:23405463

Ivanov, P L; Leonov, S N; Zemskova, E Iu

405

A phenomenological analysis of disaster-related experiences in fire and emergency medical services personnel.  

PubMed

This article explores the experiences of fire and Emergency Medical Services (EMS) personnel during and immediately after a technological event using a phenomenological approach. Personnel engaged in the rescue operations during and immediately after the Ghislenghien gas explosion reflected upon their experiences in their responses to a specially designed, self-reporting questionnaire that included open-ended questions. Firefighters reported more perceived threat and direct exposure to death than did EMS personnel. Qualitative analysis indicates that the central characteristics of this potentially traumatizing event were the suddenness and massiveness of the impact, and the fact that it involved young victims and/or multiple deaths. With regard to emotions, powerlessness, horror, fear, a sense of apocalypse, and grief were experienced by both firefighters and EMS personnel. Firefighters noted that the death of colleagues, the involvement of friends and family, the massive impact, and exposure to the burned victims were most shocking. Emergency Medical Services personnel and in-hospital staff reported the impact, the confrontation with death, the involvement of friends and family, and the pain, suffering, and screaming of burned victims as the most shocking aspects of this event. Qualitative differences in the lived experiences of firefighters, EMS personnel, and in-hospital staff might be explained by differences in life threat, contact with death, and various degrees of training. PMID:22587814

De Soir, Erik; Knarren, Marcia; Zech, Emmanuelle; Mylle, Jacques; Kleber, Rolf; van der Hart, Onno

2012-05-16

406

Cross-validation and evaluation of the performance of methods for the elemental analysis of forensic glass by ?-XRF, ICP-MS, and LA-ICP-MS.  

PubMed

Elemental analysis of glass was conducted by 16 forensic science laboratories, providing a direct comparison between three analytical methods [micro-x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (?-XRF), solution analysis using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry]. Interlaboratory studies using glass standard reference materials and other glass samples were designed to (a) evaluate the analytical performance between different laboratories using the same method, (b) evaluate the analytical performance of the different methods, (c) evaluate the capabilities of the methods to correctly associate glass that originated from the same source and to correctly discriminate glass samples that do not share the same source, and (d) standardize the methods of analysis and interpretation of results. Reference materials NIST 612, NIST 1831, FGS 1, and FGS 2 were employed to cross-validate these sensitive techniques and to optimize and standardize the analytical protocols. The resulting figures of merit for the ICP-MS methods include repeatability better than 5% RSD, reproducibility between laboratories better than 10% RSD, bias better than 10%, and limits of detection between 0.03 and 9 ?g g(-1) for the majority of the elements monitored. The figures of merit for the ?-XRF methods include repeatability better than 11% RSD, reproducibility between laboratories after normalization of the data better than 16% RSD, and limits of detection between 5.8 and 7,400 ?g g(-1). The results from this study also compare the analytical performance of different forensic science laboratories conducting elemental analysis of glass evidence fragments using the three analytical methods. PMID:23673570

Trejos, Tatiana; Koons, Robert; Becker, Stefan; Berman, Ted; Buscaglia, JoAnn; Duecking, Marc; Eckert-Lumsdon, Tiffany; Ernst, Troy; Hanlon, Christopher; Heydon, Alex; Mooney, Kim; Nelson, Randall; Olsson, Kristine; Palenik, Christopher; Pollock, Edward Chip; Rudell, David; Ryland, Scott; Tarifa, Anamary; Valadez, Melissa; Weis, Peter; Almirall, Jose

2013-05-15

407

Research in Computer Forensics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Computer Forensics involves the preservation, identification, extraction and documentation of computer evidence stored in the form of magnetically encoded information. With the proliferation of E-commerce initiatives and the increasing criminal activities...

H. C. Wai

2002-01-01

408

Physics and forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This popular article in Physics World reviews the application of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectromicroscopy to Forensics, and predicts further applications due to the high inherent signal to noise available for FTIR microscopy at synchrotron sources.

T. J. Wilkinson; D. L. Perry; M. C. Martin; W. R. McKinney

2001-01-01

409

Physics and forensics  

SciTech Connect

This popular article in Physics World reviews the application of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectromicroscopy to Forensics, and predicts further applications due to the high inherent signal to noise available for FTIR microscopy at synchrotron sources.

Wilkinson, T.J.; Perry, D.L.; Martin, M.C.; McKinney, W.R.

2001-12-15

410

Forensic Science: Hair Identification.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is an activity in which students use a microscope to do a forensic hair comparative study and a medullary classification. Mounting methods, medulla types, hair photographs, and activities are described. (DS)

Keller, Elhannan L.

1980-01-01

411

Three parts natural, seven parts man-made: Bayesian analysis of China’s Great Leap Forward demographic disaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

The millions of deaths that occurred during China’s great famine of 1959–1961 were the result of one of the world’s greatest civil demographic disasters. Two primary hypotheses have been advanced to explain the famine. One is that China experienced three consecutive years of bad weather while the other is that national policies were wrong in that they reduced and misallocated

Daniel Houser; Barbara Sands; Erte Xiao

2009-01-01

412

SEM in forensic science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic investigation traces of crime scenes are very popular in current TV serial stories. But demonstration of forensic\\u000a scientist’s work is very schematic and authors mix a lot of special fields of examinations together. All equipment has a special\\u000a effect and it is possible to be used for special determination samples. SEM with EDS\\/WDS makes is possible to observe topography

I. Turkova; M. Kotrly

413

DNA Fingerprinting in a Forensic Teaching Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents an experiment designed to provide students, in a classroom laboratory setting, a hands-on demonstration of the steps used in DNA forensic analysis by performing DNA extraction, DNA fingerprinting, and statistical analysis of the data. This experiment demonstrates how DNA fingerprinting is performed and how long it takes. It…

Wagoner, Stacy A.; Carlson, Kimberly A.

2008-01-01

414

Specialty guidelines for forensic psychology.  

PubMed

In the past 50 years forensic psychological practice has expanded dramatically. Because the practice of forensic psychology differs in important ways from more traditional practice areas (Monahan, 1980) the "Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists" were developed and published in 1991 (Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists, 1991). These Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology were developed by the American Psychology-Law Society (Division 41 of the American Psychological Association [APA]) and the American Academy of Forensic Psychology. They were adopted by the APA Council of Representatives on August 3, 2011. PMID:23025747

2012-10-01

415

Disaster Preparedness Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prepared for use by the staff of a community college library, this manual describes the natural, building, and human hazards which can result in disaster in a library and outlines a set of disaster prevention measures and salvage procedures. A list of salvage priorities, floor plans for all three levels of Bourke Memorial Library, and staff duties…

Michael, Douglas O.

416

Disaster Planning and Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent events such as hurricanes, tsunamis, earthquakes, power outages, and the threat of pandemics have highlighted our vulnerability to natural disasters. This vulnerability is exacerbated by many organizations' increasing dependence on computer, telecommunications, and other technologies, and trends toward integrating suppliers and business partners into everyday business operations. In response many organizations are implementing disaster recovery planning processes. In this

Holmes E. Miller; Kurt J. Engemann; Ronald R. Yager

417

PREDICTION OF NATURAL DISASTERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past 30 plus years, we have been dealing with several fundamental problems in prediction science. We believe that “the science of human natural disasters” (natural disasters affecting mankind) is not well addressed by the classical theory of dynamical systems. It is argued that there exist problems, when the theory of dynamic systems is used, related to (1) measurement

OuYANG SHOUCHENG; YI LIN; WU YONG

2000-01-01

418

Natural Disaster and Technological Catastrophe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Against the backdrop of ever-expanding technological systems, the effects of accidents or breakdowns in human-made technology are examined and contrasted with those of natural disasters. A number of differences are identified, and research on these forms of cataclysmic events is reviewed. These data, as well as this analysis, suggest that technological catastrophes are more likely to have long-term effects, to

Andrew Baum; Raymond Fleming; Laura M. Davidson

1983-01-01

419

Large-Scale Disasters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Extreme" events - including climatic events, such as hurricanes, tornadoes, and drought - can cause massive disruption to society, including large death tolls and property damage in the billions of dollars. Events in recent years have shown the importance of being prepared and that countries need to work together to help alleviate the resulting pain and suffering. This volume presents a review of the broad research field of large-scale disasters. It establishes a common framework for predicting, controlling and managing both manmade and natural disasters. There is a particular focus on events caused by weather and climate change. Other topics include air pollution, tsunamis, disaster modeling, the use of remote sensing and the logistics of disaster management. It will appeal to scientists, engineers, first responders and health-care professionals, in addition to graduate students and researchers who have an interest in the prediction, prevention or mitigation of large-scale disasters.

Gad-El-Hak, Mohamed

420

National Science Foundation: Disasters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fine website from the National Science Foundation (NSF) addresses its subject thusly: "Whether caused by acts of nature, human errors or even malevolence, disasters are an increasingly costly threat." Released as part of their "Special Reports" series, this interactive site profiles the latest in disaster research from the NSF and the "Critical Role of Research". First-time visitors will want to start by clicking on the "Understanding Disasters" area. Here they can learn about the NSF's work on observing, modeling, identifying, studying, and analyzing various disasters. Each subarea here includes Flash videos, charts, and images which help give some visual armature to each topic. Moving on, the "NSF and 9/11" area features work done through NSF in and around Lower Manhattan and the Pentagon in the aftermath of those tragic events. The site is rounded out by the "Disaster News" area, which features profiles of their work related to California wildfires, major thunderstorms, and levee destruction.

421

Evaluation of principal components analysis with high-performance liquid chromatography and photodiode array detection for the forensic differentiation of ballpoint pen inks.  

PubMed

Inks from seven black and eight blue ballpoint pens were separated by a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method utilizing a photodiode array detection (PDA). A classifier flowchart was designed for the chromatographic data based on the presence or absence of certain peaks at different wavelengths to qualitatively discriminate between the inks. The same data were quantitatively classified by principal components analysis (PCA) to estimate the separation between a pair of classes of ink samples. It was found that the black ballpoint pen inks were discriminated satisfactorily utilizing two-dimensional data of the peak areas and retention times at the optimum wavelengths. The blue pens were discriminated by analyzing the chromatographic data at four different wavelengths simultaneously with a cross-validated PCA. The results of this study indicated that HPLC-PDA coupled with chemometrics could make a powerful discriminating tool for the forensic chemist, especially when analyzing extensive and/or complex data. PMID:11451070

Kher, A A; Green, E V; Mulholland, M I

2001-07-01

422

[Analysis of deaths caused by rail-vehicles in the materials collected by the Department of Forensic Medicine in Bydgoszcz in the years 1992-2002].  

PubMed

The analysis focused on cases of death following accidents involving rail-vehicles, in which autopsies were performed at the Department of Forensic Medicine in Bydgoszcz in the years 1992-2002. Sixty-five individuals died in train accidents (80%), 16 people (20%) were victims of tram accidents (20%). Males constituted 86% of the material, while females accounted for 14%. The highest number of rail-vehicle accidents was observed in 1992. The most common reason of death was multiorgan injury. In the subgroup of tram accidents, the authors noted no injuries of the highest severity, such as limb amputations, amputations or crushing of the head, or fragmentation or rupturing of the trunk. On the other hand, in railroad accidents, the percentage of the above injuries was 26%, 44% and 24.5%, respectively. The most severe injuries were noted in the group of people hit by a train while in prone position. PMID:17131763

Bloch-Bogus?awska, Elzbieta; Engelgardt, Piotr; Wolska, Ewa; Paradowska, Agnieszka

423

Forensic and legal issues in oral diagnosis.  

PubMed

The forensic odontologist has assumed a more visible role in the last decade, having been called upon repeatedly to assist both law enforcement agencies and the judicial system. It has become quite common for dentists to establish the identity of unknown bodies; to quickly and positively identify the victims of mass disasters such as airliner crashes, floods, and earthquakes; as well as to provide testimony in court concerning bite marks or other matters that require dental expertise. Litigation directed at dental defendants for failure to diagnose, properly treat, or obtain valid consent from plaintiff patients is also on the rise. In each of these fields, dentists who have been specially trained in or who have devoted their practices to the dental diagnostic sciences have been looked to widely as experts. This article discusses in detail these areas and others that affect the dental diagnostician. PMID:8416822

Barsley, R E

1993-01-01

424

Role of the forensic psychiatric nurse.  

PubMed

Abstract The article clarifies the role of the forensic psychiatric nurse (FPN) and challenges interchangeable terms confusing forensic and correctional nursing. It addresses the varied venues where the FPN may assess the patient (victim or perpetrator) and gather evidence that may influence conviction, sentencing, recidivism, treatment, and prevention. In depth knowledge of medical and psychiatric nursing as well as the criminal justice system is germane to competent advanced practice forensic nursing. An analogy is drawn between the forensic assessment for risk of violence which is commonly performed by psychiatric nurses in Emergency Departments and the collection and preservation of evidence by medical nurses in Emergency Departments. Both instances require evidence-based techniques and a familiarity with forensic procedures and are often performed by nurses who are not specifically trained in these areas. A case analysis demonstrates the value of an in depth and broad assessment of victim and perpetrator. Evidence based training and the application of structured clinical judgment used in the evaluation of victims and perpetrators make it possible for the FNP to provide expert testimony and to make recommendations for treatment. PMID:19222692

Lyons, Tamsen

2009-01-01

425

Cases of fatal poisoning in post-mortem examinations at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Greifswald—analysis of five decades of post-mortems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparently, fatal poisoning as cause of death are still rarely found in unnatural deaths investigated in the institutes of forensic medicine. In the Institute of Forensic Medicine at the University of Greifswald, 10–15% of the post-mortem autopsies displayed an intoxication during the last several decades with a possible decreasing tendency. Thirteen thousand eight hundred and nineteen autopsies were carried out

Eberhard Lignitz

2003-01-01

426

Natural disasters and the lung.  

PubMed

As the world population expands, an increasing number of people are living in areas which may be threatened by natural disasters. Most of these major natural disasters occur in the Asian region. Pulmonary complications are common following natural disasters and can result from direct insults to the lung or may be indirect, secondary to overcrowding and the collapse in infrastructure and health-care systems which often occur in the aftermath of a disaster. Delivery of health care in disaster situations is challenging and anticipation of the types of clinical and public health problems faced in disaster situations is crucial when preparing disaster responses. In this article we review the pulmonary effects of natural disasters in the immediate setting and in the post-disaster aftermath and we discuss how this could inform planning for future disasters. PMID:21244570

Robinson, Bruce; Alatas, Mohammad Fahmi; Robertson, Andrew; Steer, Henry

2011-04-01

427

Establishing network computer forensics classes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the deployment of computer forensics classes at undergraduate and graduate levels in a shared classroom\\/lab environment. The course content combined broad-based computer forensics theory and practice with hands-on forensics tools, including networked EnCase Enterprise forensics software. Our discussion covers teaching and learning issues from the perspectives of the instructors and the graduate and undergraduate students. Lessons learned

Louise L. Soe; Dan Manson; Marcy Wright

2004-01-01

428

Face Recognition in Forensic Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter, we will first explain the current means of comparing faces used by forensic science laboratories. It is a\\u000a nonautomated process performed by forensic examiners and has been referred to as facial “photographic comparison” or forensic\\u000a facial identification. Next, we will outline the innovative ways in which facial recognition systems are being used by the\\u000a forensic community. Lastly,

Nicole A. Spaun

429

A CONCEPT FOR NATIONAL NUCLEAR FORENSIC LIBRARIES  

SciTech Connect

The interpretation of data from the nuclear forensic analysis of illicit nuclear material of unknown origin requires comparative data from samples of known origin. One way to provide such comparative data is to create a system of national nuclear forensics libraries, in which each participating country stores information about nuclear or other radioactive material that either resides in or was manufactured by that country. Such national libraries could provide an authoritative record of the material located in or produced by a particular country, and thus forms an essential prerequisite for a government to investigate illicit uses of nuclear or other radioactive material within its borders. We describe the concept of the national nuclear forensic library, recommendations for content and structure, and suggested querying methods for utilizing the information for addressing nuclear smuggling.

Wacker, John F.; Curry, Michael

2010-08-11

430

Computer-aided forensics: metal object detection.  

PubMed

Recently, forensic investigators1 have started using diagnostic radiology devices (MRI, CT) to acquire image data from cadavers. This new technology, called the virtual autopsy, has the potential to provide a low cost, non-invasive alternative or supplement to conventional autopsies. New image processing techniques are being developed to highlight forensically relevant information in the images. One such technique is the detection and characterization of metal objects embedded in the cadaver. Analysis of this information across a population with similar causes of death can lead to developing improved safety and protection devices with a corresponding reduction in deaths. PMID:16404054

Kelliher, Timothy; Leue, Bill; Lorensen, Bill; Lauric, Alexandra

2006-01-01

431

Forensic Data Recovery from Flash Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Current forensic tools for examination,of embedded systems,like mobile,phones,and,PDA’s mostly,perform,data extraction on,a logical level and,do,not consider,the type,of storage media,during,data analysis. This paper,suggests a low level approach,for the forensic examination,of flash memories,and describes three low-level data acquisition methods,for making,full memory,copies of flash memory,devices. Results are presented,of a file system study in which USB memory,sticks from 45 different make,and models,were used. For different

Marcel Breeuwsma; Martien de Jongh; Coert Klaver; Ronald van der Knijff; Mark Roeloffs

2007-01-01

432

[Incest--forensic genetic approach].  

PubMed

The paper presents intimate relationships between biologically and legally close relatives, complicated in the social, culture and religion perspective. (art. 201 of the Penal Code), but it chiefly addresses problems associated with giving opinion on the fatherhood towards the incestuous child. The report calls for a broader interest in this issue from expert witnesses in forensic genetics, as well as encourages them to publish examples taken from their own professional experience that may unquestionably be helpful to other practitioners in this field and above all will lead to extending educational methods related to widely understood DNA analysis in giving an opinion on arguable fatherhood. PMID:23424940

Raczek, Ewa

433

Retrospective analysis of anaesthesia-related deaths during a 12-year period: looking at the data from a forensic point of view.  

PubMed

Anaesthesia-related death is one of the most complex events to be studied in forensic pathology because of its rarity and its doubtful presentation. Particularly, the difficulties in assessing the cause of deaths in such circumstances are underlined. A scale must be considered in order to determine the causal role of anaesthesia in the process leading to death. Indeed, beyond deaths exclusively explained by anaesthetic care, there are deaths that are not anaesthesia-related and deaths explained by surgery and co-morbidities in which the role of anaesthetic care has to be carefully investigated. A retrospective analysis of 3138 autopsies is presented with the aim of better understanding the patho-physiological process of anaesthesia-related mortality and to determine the causal role of anaesthesiological care in the process leading to death, thus assessing the real incidence of deaths due to anaesthesia (0.16%). In the present study, the number of deaths generically anaesthesia-related (33 cases) accounts for 2.06% of autopsies due to medical malpractice claims and 1.05% of all autopsies. The number of deaths totally related to anaesthesic care is rather low with 0.32% of autopsies due to medical malpractice claims and 0.16% of all autopsies. Anaesthesia-related deaths were due to lack of or delay in intubation (2 cases), acute cardio-respiratory failure (2 cases) and anaesthetic-induced hepatotoxicity (1 case). The importance of a careful forensic investigation (clinical and familial history, medical records, complete autopsy and toxicology), which can lead to a clear understanding of anaesthesia-related deaths, is also stressed. PMID:22422787

Turillazzi, E; Bello, S; Bonsignore, A; Neri, M; Riezzo, I; Fineschi, V

2012-01-30

434

Forensic proteomics of poxvirus production.  

PubMed

The field of microbial forensics has recently sought to develop methods to discern biological signatures to indicate production methods for biological agents. Viral agents have received less attention to date. Their obligate propagation in living cells makes purification from cellular material a challenge. This leads to potential carryover of protein-rich signatures of their production system. Here we have explored a proteomic analysis of vaccinia virus as a model poxvirus system in which to compare samples of virus propagated in different cell lines and subjected to different purification schemes. The proteomic data sets indicated viral, host cell and culture medium proteins. Several layers of data analysis were applied to build confidence in the peptide identification and capture information on the taxonomic utility of each. The analysis showed clear shifts in protein profiles with virus purification, with successive gradient purification steps showing different levels of viral protein enrichment. Peptides from cellular proteins, including those present in purified virus preparations, provided signatures which enabled discrimination of cell line substrates, including distinguishing between cells derived from different primate species. The ability to discern multiple aspects of viral production demonstrates the potential value of proteomic analysis as tool for microbial forensics. PMID:23979794

Wunschel, David; Tulman, Edan; Engelmann, Heather; Clowers, Brian H; Geary, Steven; Robinson, Aaron; Liao, Xiaofen

2013-09-30

435

Forensics on a Shoestring Budget  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In recent years, forensic science has gained popularity thanks in part to high-profile court cases and television programs. Although the cost of forensic equipment and supplies may initially seem too expensive for the typical high school classroom, the author developed an activity that incorporates forensics into her 10th-grade biology curriculum…

Greco, Joseph A.

2005-01-01

436

Forensic Aspects of Ballistic Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical forensic medicine is best defined as the application of forensic medical knowledge and techniques to the solution of law in the investigation of trauma involving living victims. 1–5 In the setting of emergency departments, these techniques include the correct forensic evaluation, documentation, and photography of traumatic injuries, as well as the recognition and proper handling of evidentiary material for

Jeanine Vellema; Hendrik Johannes Scholtz

437

Disaster planning for pediatrics.  

PubMed

Natural and man-made disasters are inevitable and appear to be more common in the current age. Substantial time and effort have been invested and millions of dollars spent on disaster prevention and management. An important oversight in this planning has been the special needs of children. The vulnerability of children and their physiologic characteristics place them at increased risk during a disaster. Importantly, reunification with family and assurance of safety in this vulnerable group is a priority. This paper addresses issues related to pediatric needs, the medical system's shortcomings in caring for children, and recommendations for action. PMID:21944691

Branson, Richard D

2011-09-01

438

Disaster planning for schools.  

PubMed

Community awareness of the school district's disaster plan will optimize a community's capacity to maintain the safety of its school-aged population in the event of a school-based or greater community crisis. This statement is intended to stimulate awareness of the disaster-preparedness process in schools as a part of a global, community-wide preparedness plan. Pediatricians, other health care professionals, first responders, public health officials, the media, school nurses, school staff, and parents all need to be unified in their efforts to support schools in the prevention of, preparedness for, response to, and recovery from a disaster. PMID:18829818

2008-10-01

439

Terrorism, disasters, and security.  

PubMed

The purpose of this editorial is to explore the relationship between the new global emphasis on terrorism and the developing academic and practical fields of disaster management. It includes an appraisal of the place of terrorism among the various forms of disaster, a consideration of its relationship to risk assessment and its place in the practical handling of risks and incidents, and some reflections on the role of the private sector in security management. The influence on the current attitude toward managing the terrorism threat by the evolution of the disaster management field is considered and some of the problems with defining scenarios for counter-terrorism planning also are discussed. PMID:15141853

Alexander, David

440

Mechanism and strategies for preventing post-traumatic stress disorder in forensic workers responding to mass fatality incidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass fatality incidents (MFIs) expose medical examiners\\/coroners and associated staff to circumstances that may increase their risk for developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The aim of this paper is to provide guidance for efforts to prevent the development of PTSD in forensic teams who respond to mass disasters. We present a model of the paths through which exposure to mass

Elizabeth Brondolo; Robin Wellington; Nisha Brady; Daniel Libby; Thomas J. Brondolo

2008-01-01

441

Law Enforcement, Forensics and Mobile Communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

By the end of 2004, the GSM Association reported that over 600 networks in more than 200 countries were serving more than 1.2 billion users (1). This extraordinary devel- opment of inexpensive and flexible mobile communications is also a source of new security challenges. This paper briefly lists the forensic challenges raised by handsets and overviews the handset analysis techniques

Vanessa Gratzer; David Naccache; David Znaty

2006-01-01

442

Computer Forensics Field Triage Process Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the proliferation of digital based evidence, the need for the timely identification, analysis and interpretation of digital evidence is becoming more crucial. In many investigations critical information is required while at the scene or within a short period of time - measured in hours as opposed to days. The traditional cyber forensics approach of seizing a system(s)\\/media, transporting it

Marcus K. Rogers; James Goldman; Rick Mislan; Timothy Wedge; Steve Debrota

2006-01-01

443

Trial by Science: A Forensic Extravaganza  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This intriguing crime-solving activity for middle level students demonstrates some of the basics of forensic science; including the analysis of fingerprints, hair, fiber, and soil evidence. The realism of the scenario is enhanced by recruiting adult volunteers to serve as suspects that can be questioned and tried by students through the process of scientific inquiry.

Hunt, Vanessa

2004-05-01

444

Digital Image Forensics via Intrinsic Fingerprints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital imaging has experienced tremendous growth in recent decades, and digital camera images have been used in a growing number of applications. With such increasing popularity and the availability of low-cost image editing software, the integrity of digital image content can no longer be taken for granted. This paper introduces a new methodology for forensic analysis of digital camera images.

Ashwin Swaminathan; Min Wu; K. J. Ray Liu

2008-01-01

445

Basic issues in forensic DNA typing  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA analysis has become the standard method in forensic stain typing (termed DNA profiling). In contrast to conventional serological methods, any human tissue or body fluid can be analysed by DNA profiling as long as it contains nucleated cells. The majority of genetic systems studied at the DNA level are derived from “non-coding” portions from the human genome, and are

Peter M Schneider

1997-01-01

446

INTEGRATED MICROSYSTEM FOR FORENSIC DNA FINGERPRINTING  

Microsoft Academic Search

rapid STR typing. STR typing has been demonstrated on glass(1-3) and plastic(4, 5) microchip devices. However, sample preparation (DNA extraction and PCR) must still be done off chip. We are currently developing an integrated microfluidic system that integrates all of the necessary processing steps of forensic DNA STR marker analysis and performs them automatically. In this paper we report the

Jason Y. Liu; Allison Phayre; Qihuo Wei; Moria Nagy; Mark Richards; Sameer Venugopal; Ravi Gupta; Ralf Lenigk; Jianing Yang; Jian Gu; Chia-Fu Chou; Frederic Zenhausern

447

Forensic quest for age determination of bloodstains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bloodstains at crime scenes are among the most important types of evidence for forensic investigators. They can be used for DNA-profiling for verifying the suspect's identity or for pattern analysis in order to reconstruct the crime. However, until now, using bloodstains to determine the time elapsed since the crime was committed is still not possible. From a criminalistic point of

Rolf H. Bremmer; Karla G. de Bruin; Martin J. C. van Gemert; Ton G. van Leeuwen; Maurice C. G. Aalders

448

New Digital Forensics Investigation Procedure Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we presented a new digital forensics investigation procedure model which is as follows: investigation preparation, classifying cyber crime and deciding investigation priority, investigating damaged (victim) digital crime scene, criminal profiling consultant and analysis, tracking suspects, investigating injurer digital crime scene, summoning suspect, additional investigation, writing criminal profiling, writing report.

Yong-Dal Shin; Cyber Police

2008-01-01

449

Forensic report writing.  

PubMed

As the area of specialization of forensic psychology broadens its horizons, it will become increasingly more difficult for clinical psychologists to avoid participating in the forensic arena. As a result, clinical psychologists may be asked to write reports about therapeutic intervention or evaluations in divorce, personal injury, competency, abuse, or criminal proceedings. In this article, the author addresses the issues that the clinical psychologist needs to understand in writing reports that may be utilized in forensic settings. How these reports are affected by the American Psychological Association Ethics Code (APA; 2002), the audience receiving the report, the subject matter of the report, and dissemination of the information are all discussed in this article. PMID:16273512

Ackerman, Marc J

2006-01-01

450

Assessing thermochromatography as a separation method for nuclear forensics: current capability vis-à-vis forensic requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear forensic science has become increasingly important for global nuclear security. However, many current laboratory analysis\\u000a techniques are based on methods developed without the imperative for timely analysis that underlies the post-detonation forensics\\u000a mission requirements. Current analysis of actinides, fission products, and fuel-specific materials requires time-consuming\\u000a chemical separation coupled with nuclear counting or mass spectrometry. High-temperature gas-phase separations have been

D. E. Hanson; J. R. Garrison; H. L. Hall

2011-01-01

451

Forensic analysis of eleven cyclic antidepressants in human biological samples using a new reversed-phase chromatographic column of 2 microm porous microspherical silica gel.  

PubMed

A high-performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the forensic analysis of eleven frequently used cyclic antidepressant drugs (ADSs) (amitriptyline, amoxapine, clomipramine, desipramine, dosulepine, doxepin, imipramine, maprotiline, melitracen, mianserine and nortriptyline) using a recently developed reversed-phase column with 2 microm particles for the analysis of biological samples. The separation was carried out using two different C8 reversed-phase columns (column 1: 100 mm X 4.6 mm I.D., particle size 2 microm, TSK gel Super-Octyl; column 2: 100 mm X 4.6 mm I.D., particle size 5 microm, Hypersil MOS-C8) for comparison. The mobile phase was composed of methanol-20 mM KH2PO4 (pH 7) (60:40, v/v) and the flow-rate was 0.6 ml/min for both columns. The absorbance of the eluent was monitored at 254 nm. When the eleven drugs were determined, the sensitivity with the 2 microm particles was about five times greater than with the 5 microm particles. Retention times on column 1 were shorter than those on column 2. These results show that the new ODS column packing with a particle size of 2 microm gives higher sensitivity and a shorter analysis time than the conventional ODS column packing when applied to the analysis of biological samples. PMID:9188830

Tanaka, E; Terada, M; Nakamura, T; Misawa, S; Wakasugi, C

1997-05-01

452

Forensic web watch.  

PubMed

A search for forensic odontology sites on the Internet revealed thousands of 'hits', of which many constituted dentists offering a private service on their homepages. Several organisations and associations were identified following extensive sifting through these addresses and, despite its growing acceptance in the forensic community, the resources available were superficial and of only moderate educational content. Although many of the sites provided non-specialist information and points of contact for local experts only one was commended for its design and depth. The need for improvement in this field is therefore recommended. PMID:15274965

Swift, B; Rutty, G N

2001-12-01

453

Coping with Disaster  

MedlinePLUS

... experienced trauma, has merely seen the event on television or has heard it discussed by adults, it ... contact with the disaster but witness it on television may develop distress. Recognize Risk Factors For many ...

454

International Disaster Assistance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Primary program objectives are to provide earliest possible alleviation of suffering from foreign disasters, with the principal beneficiaries being those in developing countries least able to survive without outside assistance. The authors focus particula...

1985-01-01

455

Natural Disasters & Environmental Hazards  

MedlinePLUS

... Associated Hazards Chapter 2 - Scuba Diving Natural Disasters & Environmental Hazards Josephine Malilay, Dahna Batts, Armin Ansari, Charles W. ... cautions about unique hazards in the affected area. ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS Air Air pollution may be found in large ...

456

Disaster Response in India.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

India is prone to natural and man-made disasters. The number has been increasing every year because of the mixture of various factors such as adverse weather, population growth, urbanization, and industrialization. How the Republic of India organizes for ...

J. G. Turbiville P. Singh W. W. Mendel

2000-01-01

457

On-Demand Information Portals for Disaster Situations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes our work on developing tech- nology for rapidly assembling information portals that provide integrated access to and analysis of information from multiple sources in the case of any disaster. Many recent disasters (the S.E. Asian Tsunamis, the London subway bombings, the Katrina hurricane, to name a few) have demonstrated that a lot of valuable information becomes available

Yiming Ma; Dmitri V. Kalashnikov; Ramaswamy Hariharan; Sharad Mehrotra; Nalini Venkatasubramanian; Naveen Ashish; Jay Lickfett

2007-01-01

458

RISK ASSESSMENT USING SPATIAL PREDICTION MODEL FOR NATURAL DISASTER PREPAREDNESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial mapping of risk is critical in planning for disaster preparedness. An application from a study area affected by mass movements is used as an example to portray the desirable relations between hazard prediction and disaster management. We have developed a three-stage procedure in spatial data analysis not only to estimate the probability of the occurrence of the natural

Chang-Jo F. Chung; Andrea G. Fabbri; Dong-Ho Jang

459

Macroeconomic Implications of Natural Disasters in the Caribbean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each year natural disasters affect about 200 million people and cause about $50 billion in damage. This paper compares the incidence of natural disasters across countries along several dimensions and finds that the relative costs tend to be far higher in developing countries than in advanced economies. The analysis shows that small island states are especially vulnerable, with the countries

Tobias N. Rasmussen

2004-01-01

460

RSNN-Based Instability Disaster Prediction of Tailings Dam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The instability disaster prediction model of tailings dam had been established, based on system analysis of the factors that caused the instability disaster of tailings dam, by selecting 6 prediction index, medium unit weight, cohesion, internal friction angle, slope angle, slope height and pore pressure ratio and combining with using theory of the rough set and neural network. First the

Keping Zhou; Shuna Li; Qingfa Chen; Rui Chen

2009-01-01

461

August 2003: Reflections on a French Summer Disaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heat wave of August 2003 caused a hecatomb in France. Its extent and consequences (INVS 2003) require analysis in order to understand why such a situation occurred and how to avoid that the same medical disaster will be caused in the future by identical climatic conditions. This natural disaster had no known precedent in France. The heatwave lasted for

Xavier Thirion; David Debensason; Jean Christophe Delarozière; Jean Louis San Marco

2005-01-01

462

Health services responses to disasters in Mumbai sharing experiences.  

PubMed

In mass disaster situations, demands frequently exceed the capacity of personnel and facilities. In the last few years, there has been an increased incidence of civil disasters; the spectrum of possible catastrophes has also dramatically increased as a result of an increasingly technologically sophisticated society. During the last 15 years, varied terrorist activities have become increasingly common as expressions of the opinions of extreme political groups, especially in India. In Mumbai itself, we have witnessed disasters such as widespread riots, terrorist bomb blasts, floods, and fires. There have been other disasters in India, such as earthquakes, floods, cyclones, as well as tsunamis Though most of the hospitals in India manage the medical problems associated with these disasters fairly efficiently, an analysis of the situation is presented so that this may form the basis for future planning in disaster preparedness and provide a template for other communities that may want to implement preparedness protocols. We present our experience with disaster management in Mumbai, India. A successful medical response to multi-injury civilian disasters, either natural or man-made, dictates formulation, dissemination, and periodic assessment of a contingency plan to facilitate the triage and treatment of victims of disaster. PMID:18603744

Supe, Avinash; Satoskar, Rajeev

2008-06-01

463

Differences in the Perceived Influence of Natural Disasters and Travel Risk on International Travel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the socio-demographic and economic differences in the perceived influences of natural disasters and travel risk on international travel. A sample of 354 visitors to South Florida was surveyed as to their perceptions of the influence of natural disasters and travel risk on international travel. A Principal Components Analysis identified two groups of natural disasters, ‘Snow and fire’

Yvette Reisinger

2010-01-01

464

Bhopal Gas Leak Disaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Bhopal’s gas leak disaster is the worst recorded industrial disaster in human history. On the night between December 2–3,\\u000a 1984, methyl isocyanate leaked at the Union Carbide India Limited (UCIL) factory at Bhopal, in central India, spreading into\\u000a the surrounding environment. This leak of an “extremely hazardous chemical” covered the city of Bhopal in a cloud of poisonous\\u000a gas over

R. Srinivasa Murthy

465

Natural and Technological Disasters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disasters are very common. Worldwide, earthquakes, floods, cyclones, landslides, technological accidents, and urban fires\\u000a occur daily. They tend to occur suddenly, without much warning, and cause massive destruction, sometimes killing or injuring\\u000a large numbers of people within a short time. In 1999 alone, natural disasters killed over 60,000 people in Turkey, 10,000\\u000a people in India, and 25,000 people in Venezuela

Daya Somasundaram; Fran H. Norris; Nozomu Asukai; R. Srinivasa Murthy

466

Open Source Digital Forensics Tools The Legal Argument 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses digital forensic analysis tools and their use in a legal setting. To enter scientific evidence into a United States court, a tool must be reliable and relevant. The reliability of evidence is tested by applying \\

Brian Carrier

467

Regional Computer Forensic Laboratory Program, Fiscal Year 2004.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the Fiscal Year 2004 publication of the RCFL National Program. Digital forensics is the application of science and engineering to the recovery of digital evidence in a legally acceptable method. Examiners use digital investigation and analysis tec...

2004-01-01

468

Regional Computer Forensic Laboratory Program, Fiscal Year 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the Fiscal Year 2006 publication of the RCFL National Program. Digital forensics is the application of science and engineering to the recovery of digital evidence in a legally acceptable method. Examiners use digital investigation and analysis tec...

2006-01-01

469

Regional Computer Forensic Laboratory Program, Fiscal Year 2005.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the Fiscal Year 2005 publication of the RCFL National Program. Digital forensics is the application of science and engineering to the recovery of digital evidence in a legally acceptable method. Examiners use digital investigation and analysis tec...

2005-01-01

470

Regional Computer Forensic Laboratory Program, Fiscal Year 2007.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the Fiscal Year 2007 publication of the RCFL National Program. Digital forensics is the application of science and engineering to the recovery of digital evidence in a legally acceptable method. Examiners use digital investigation and analysis tec...

2007-01-01

471

Regional Computer Forensic Laboratory Program, Fiscal Year 2008.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the Fiscal Year 2008 publication of the RCFL National Program. Digital forensics is the application of science and engineering to the recovery of digital evidence in a legally acceptable method. Examiners use digital investigation and analysis tec...

2008-01-01

472

Regional Computer Forensic Laboratory Program, Fiscal Year 2003.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Digital forensics is the application of science and engineering to the recovery of digital evidence in a legally acceptable method. Examiners use digital investigation and analysis techniques to determine potential legal evidence by applying their skills ...

2003-01-01

473

Emergency Satellite Image Delivery through International Charter `Space and Major Disasters'  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid acquisition and availability of satellite imagery is an essential component of effective response to many types of disasters such as floods, earthquakes, landslides, and other natural or human-induced disasters. The International Charter `Space and Major Disasters' provides a unified system of space-based data acquisition, image analysis, and derived information delivery to those affected by natural or man-made disasters. As

B. K. Jones; R. M. Lamb

2010-01-01