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1

Real-time Forensic Disaster Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM, www.cedim.de) - an interdisciplinary research center founded by the German Research Centre for Geoscience (GFZ) and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) - has embarked on a new style of disaster research known as Forensic Disaster Analysis. The notion has been coined by the Integrated Research on Disaster Risk initiative (IRDR, www.irdrinternational.org) launched by ICSU in 2010. It has been defined as an approach to studying natural disasters that aims at uncovering the root causes of disasters through in-depth investigations that go beyond the reconnaissance reports and case studies typically conducted after disasters. In adopting this comprehensive understanding of disasters CEDIM adds a real-time component to the assessment and evaluation process. By comprehensive we mean that most if not all relevant aspects of disasters are considered and jointly analysed. This includes the impact (human, economy, and infrastructure), comparisons with recent historic events, social vulnerability, reconstruction and long-term impacts on livelihood issues. The forensic disaster analysis research mode is thus best characterized as "event-based research" through systematic investigation of critical issues arising after a disaster across various inter-related areas. The forensic approach requires (a) availability of global data bases regarding previous earthquake losses, socio-economic parameters, building stock information, etc.; (b) leveraging platforms such as the EERI clearing house, relief-web, and the many sources of local and international sources where information is organized; and (c) rapid access to critical information (e.g., crowd sourcing techniques) to improve our understanding of the complex dynamics of disasters. The main scientific questions being addressed are: What are critical factors that control loss of life, of infrastructure, and for economy? What are the critical interactions between hazard - socio-economic systems - technological systems? What were the protective measures and to what extent did they work? Can we predict pattern of losses and socio-economic implications for future extreme events from simple parameters: hazard parameters, historic evidence, socio-economic conditions? Can we predict implications for reconstruction from simple parameters: hazard parameters, historic evidence, socio-economic conditions? The M7.2 Van Earthquake (Eastern Turkey) of 23 Oct. 2011 serves as an example for a forensic approach.

Wenzel, F.; Daniell, J.; Khazai, B.; Mühr, B.; Kunz-Plapp, T.; Markus, M.; Vervaeck, A.

2012-04-01

2

Forensic Disaster Analysis in Near-real Time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impacts of extreme hydro-meteorological and geophysical events are controlled by various factors including severity of the event (intensity, duration, spatial extent), amplification with other phenomena (multihazard or cascading effects), interdependencies of technical systems and infrastructure, preparedness and resilience of the society. The Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM) has adopted the comprehensive understanding of disasters and develops methodologies of near real-time FDA as a complementing component of the FORIN program of IRDR. The new research strategy 'Near Real-Time Forensic Disaster Analysis (FDA)' aims at scrutinizing disasters closely with a multi-disciplinary approach in order to assess the various aspects of disasters and to identify mechanisms most relevant for an extreme event to become a disaster (e.g., causal loss analysis). Recent technology developments - which have opened unprecedented opportunities for real-time hazard, vulnerability and loss assessment - are used for analyzing disasters and their impacts in combination with databases of historical events. The former covers modern empirical and analytical methods available in engineering and remote sensing for rapid impact assessments, rapid information extraction from crowd sourcing as well as rapid assessments of socio-economic impacts and economic losses. The event-driven science-based assessments of CEDIM are compiled based on interdisciplinary expertise and include the critical evaluation, assessment, validation, and quantification of an event. An important component of CEDIM's FDA is the near real-time approach which is expected to significantly speed up our understanding of natural disasters and be used to provide timely, relevant and valuable information to various user groups within their respective contexts. Currently, CEDIM has developed models and methodologies to assess different types of hazard. These approaches were applied to several disasters including, for example, Super Typhoon Haiyan/Yolanda (Nov. 2013), Central European Floods (June 2013), Hurricane Sandy (Oct. 2012), US Droughts (Summer 2012), or Typhoon Saola in Taiwan and Philippines (July 2012).

Kunz, Michael; Zschau, Jochen; Wenzel, Friedemann; Khazai, Bijan; Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Trieselmann, Werner

2014-05-01

3

Web-based Weather and Climate Information Service of Forensic Disaster Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extreme meteorological events not only trigger natural disasters, they also control the impact of various catastrophes. Especially for cascading effects or in case of multihazards, for example when an earthquake occurs in conjunction with a cold wave, the actual weather situation might substantially boost the impact. Thus, reliable information on extreme meteorological events and the general weather condition during disasters is an important component of Forensic Disaster Analyses. The Web Service 'Wettergefahren-Frühwarnung' (early warning of weather hazards) provides information on imminent or just occurring unusual or extreme weather events worldwide. Of particular interest are events with a high impact and massive damage that occur around the globe, but with a special focus on Germany and Europe. The Service started on 1 February 2004 with an operational routine. During the last 10 years, 'Wettergefahren-Frühwarnun' examined and assessed more than 800 unusual or extreme weather events that occurred all over the world. Permanent availability, daily updated information, editorially enhanced reports on extreme or unusual weather events enriched by images and measured values, are the hallmarks of the internet project. All warnings, special notes, detailed and high-quality reports can be found in an ever-growing archive. In addition to daily monitoring and assessment of global weather events, 'Wettergefahren-Frühwarnung' also creates its own special maps and images. In recent years, increasingly complex codes have been developed that now produce many hundreds of weather charts for the entire world every 6 hours. Allegedly threatened areas or cities can be identified immediately. The maps give information about rainfall, temperature deviations, convection indices, wind, snow accumulation and much more. Additionally, for some 2800 cities worldwide, daily point forecasts are calculated and the predicted weather parameters are clearly arranged in tables for Germany, Europe, and the other continents. In 2007, 'Wettergefahren-Frühwarnung' became part of CEDIM and contributed to the activity of near-real time Forensic Disaster Analysis ahead, during and after a major event. Information is provided as text, own weather charts or data.

Mühr, Bernhard; Kunz, Michael; Köbele, Daniel

2014-05-01

4

The role of forensic anthropology in Disaster Victim Identification (DVI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper briefly describes Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) and reviews the history of the use of forensic anthropology in the identification process. The potential contributions made by forensic anthropology are illustrated through the presentation of a case study. In February 2009 the state of Victoria in south-eastern Australia experienced the most devastating bushfires in its history, resulting in catastrophic loss

Soren Blau; Christopher A. Briggs

2011-01-01

5

Forensic odontology in the disaster victim identification process.  

PubMed

Disaster victim identification (DVI) is an intensive and demanding task involving specialists from various disciplines. The forensic dentist is one of the key persons who plays an important role in the DVI human identification process. In recent years, many disaster incidents have occurred that challenged the DVI team with various kinds of difficulties related to disaster management and unique situations in each disaster. New technologies have been developed to make the working process faster and more effective and the different DVI protocols have been evaluated and improved. The aim of this article is to collate all information regarding diagnostic tools and methodologies pertaining to forensic odontological DVI, both current and future. It can be concluded that lessons learned from previous disaster incidents have helped to optimize working protocols and to develop new tools that can be applied in future DVI operation. The working procedures have been greatly improved by newly developed technologies. PMID:23000806

Pittayapat, P; Jacobs, R; De Valck, E; Vandermeulen, D; Willems, G

2012-07-01

6

Forensic Investigation of mass disasters in Nigeria: A review  

PubMed Central

This paper is to establish the present state of things in the country in terms of legal framework and the availability of personnel with a view to presenting an overview of proper mass disaster investigations. This is a retrospective review of mass disasters in Nigeria that occurred within the last 20 years. The study therefore reviews the state of the forensic investigation of the mass disasters as well as the efforts made to identify the victims of the disaster. The process of proper forensic investigation from the stage of evaluation of the scene and recovery process to the final identification of victims are presented to serve as a protocol for the country. The assessment of the present state of preparedness in Nigeria is also examined with a view to improving the practice to international standards. Data were retrieved from official documents from the aviation industry as well as Nigeria news reports. The standard protocols for disaster victim identification were retrieved from the guide released by the INTERPOL. The state of preparedness of the country and recommendations for improvement are presented. The Federal government and the states of the federation should without further delay put in place the process of reviewing the law of Coroner's system and provide the enabling environment for the proper forensic investigation. The training curriculum of the first responders should incorporate mass disaster investigations in order to produce efficient officers and personnel. A functional disaster victim identification (DVI) team is strongly advocated to incorporate different professionals involved in mass disaster management.

Obafunwa, John Oladapo; Faduyile, Francis Adedayo; Soyemi, Sunday Sokunle; Eze, Uwom Okereke; Nwana, Edmund J. C.; Odesanmi, William Olufemi

2015-01-01

7

Forensic video image analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forensic video image analysis is a new scientific tool for perpetrator enhancement and identification in poorly recorded crime scene situations. Forensic video image analysis is emerging technology for law enforcement, industrial security and surveillance addressing the following problems often found in these poor quality video recorded incidences.

Edwards, Thomas R.

1997-02-01

8

THE ROLE OF FORENSIC DENTIST FOLLOWING MASS DISASTER  

PubMed Central

This review article focuses on mass disaster situations that may arise from natural or manmade circumstances and the significant role of forensic dental personnel in human identification following such occurrences. The various forensic dental modalities of identification that include matching techniques, postmortem profiling, genetic fingerprinting, dental fossil assessment and dental biometrics with digital subtraction were considered. The varying extent of use of forensic dental techniques and the resulting positive impact on human identification were considered. The importance of preparation by way of special training for forensic dental personnel, mock disaster rehearsal, and use of modern day technology was stressed. The need for international standardization of identification through the use of Interpol Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) for ms was further emphasized. Recommendations for improved human identification in Nigerian situation include reform of the National Emergency Management Association (NEMA), incorporation of dental care in primary health care to facilitate proper ante mortem database of the populace and commencement of identification at site of disaster. PMID:25161478

Kolude, B.; Adeyemi, B.F.; Taiwo, J.O.; Sigbeku, O.F.; Eze, U.O.

2010-01-01

9

Toward Models for Forensic Analysis  

E-print Network

Toward Models for Forensic Analysis Sean Peisert (UC San Diego) Matt Bishop (UC Davis) Sid Karin is Forensic Analysis? Forensic analysis is the process of answering the questions: How did an event take place? What was the nature of the event? What were the effects of the event? Forensic analysis applies

Peisert, Sean

10

Making Forensic Attack Event/forensic Analysis as Simple  

E-print Network

science can only answer part of it. · Forensic analysis is an art, but there are scientific componentsMaking Forensic Attack Event/forensic Analysis as Simple as Possible and No Simpler Sean Peisert to focus on non-binary (e.g., post mortem analysis). 5Tuesday, July 22, 2008 #12;What is forensic Analysis

Peisert, Sean

11

NUCLEAR FORENSICS ANALYSIS CENTER FORENSIC ANALYSIS TO DATA INTERPRETATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nuclear Forensics Analysis Center (NFAC) is part of Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and is one of only two USG National Laboratories accredited to perform nuclear forensic analyses to the requirements of ISO 17025. SRNL NFAC is capable of analyzing nuclear and radiological samples from bulk material to ultra-trace samples. NFAC provides analytical support to the FBI's Radiological Evidence

2011-01-01

12

Encoded evidence: DNA in forensic analysis.  

PubMed

Sherlock Holmes said "it has long been an axiom of mine that the little things are infinitely the most important", but never imagined that such a little thing, the DNA molecule, could become perhaps the most powerful single tool in the multifaceted fight against crime. Twenty years after the development of DNA fingerprinting, forensic DNA analysis is key to the conviction or exoneration of suspects and the identification of victims of crimes, accidents and disasters, driving the development of innovative methods in molecular genetics, statistics and the use of massive intelligence databases. PMID:15510165

Jobling, Mark A; Gill, Peter

2004-10-01

13

NUCLEAR FORENSICS ANALYSIS CENTER FORENSIC ANALYSIS TO DATA INTERPRETATION  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Forensics Analysis Center (NFAC) is part of Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and is one of only two USG National Laboratories accredited to perform nuclear forensic analyses to the requirements of ISO 17025. SRNL NFAC is capable of analyzing nuclear and radiological samples from bulk material to ultra-trace samples. NFAC provides analytical support to the FBI's Radiological Evidence Examination Facility (REEF), which is located within SRNL. REEF gives the FBI the capability to perform traditional forensics on material that is radiological and/or is contaminated. SRNL is engaged in research and development efforts to improve the USG technical nuclear forensics capabilities. Research includes improving predictive signatures and developing a database containing comparative samples.

Nichols, T.

2011-02-07

14

Forensic Analyses on A Compound Disaster and Its Impacts Following the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 7.9 Mw Wenchuan Earthquake on May 12 in 2008 was one of the most devastating natural disasters in the 21st century and caused massive damages and vast disruptions in Western China. Our analysis takes a special look into the Wolong National Nature Reserve bear the epicenter, where long-term quantitative and qualitative data on socioeconomic and natural conditions have been collected from late 1990s to 2013. The Reserve is known internationally as the hometown of Giant Pandas and a tourism hotspot, where around 5000 ethnic minorities (e.g., Tibetan, Qiang) also reside. While the Reserve suffered lower level of immediate damages and mortalities relative to several nearby areas, the reconstruction and recovery process in the Reserve have been much slower, mainly due to recurrent flush floods, landslides, and debris flow that took place in every summer since 2008. The suddenly increased frequency and intensity of these secondary natural disasters has led to the formation of compound disaster in the Reserve. The reconstruction of the only road to outside will not be completed till at least 2016, and the livelihoods of the local communities are severely compromised, which has induced a resurrection of illegal logging and hunting in the Reserve. Taking advantage of our longitudinal survey data of~200 local households (on their income, expenditure, energy use, land use behaviors, and perceptions and attitudes toward disasters and polices) over a nine-year period before as well as one and several years after the earthquake and also our in-depth knowledge on the ecology and the institutional arrangements in the area, we conducted, in an interdisciplinary and comprehensive manner, a critical cause analysis to investigate the non-human and human drivers behind the predicament that the Reserve is facing currently. We identified a series of proximate and root causes at various spatial and temporal scales and institutional levels. The results were exchanged with various local stakeholders and their feedback was collected. Our case contribute to the expanding examples of forensic disaster investigations and prove that such studies can provide important insights into how fewer people may be adversely impacted and wiser investments and choices may be made when comparable events take place somewhere else.

Liu, Wei

2014-05-01

15

Toward Models for Forensic Analysis Sean Peisert  

E-print Network

Toward Models for Forensic Analysis Sean Peisert Matt Bishop Sidney Karin Keith Marzullo Abstract The existing solutions in the field of computer forensics are largely ad hoc. This paper discusses the need for a rigorous model of forensics and outlines qualities that such a model should possess. It presents

Zhou, Yuanyuan

16

Project Title: Thematic Analysis of Forensic  

E-print Network

Project Title: Thematic Analysis of Forensic Service Whanau/family Booklet Bachelor of Arts Application Deadline: 13 February, Noon Project Description: The Canterbury Regional Forensic Service (http' and their families' journey through the Forensic Service. The data has already been transcribed but needs in

Hickman, Mark

17

Project Title: Thematic Analysis of Forensic  

E-print Network

Project Title: Thematic Analysis of Forensic Service Whanau/family Booklet Bachelor of Arts Application Deadline: 1 February, 2012 Project Description: The Canterbury Regional Forensic Service (http' and their families' journey through the Forensic Service. The data has already been transcribed but needs in

Hickman, Mark

18

Forensic dental identification in mass disasters: the current status.  

PubMed

Dentists continue to play a valuable role in the identification of victims in a mass disaster. Individuals and multidisciplinary teams are available to assist authorities in the process. Training, experience and advances in technology continue to improve the efficiency of the identification process. PMID:25080762

Wood, James D

2014-06-01

19

Forensic Analysis of Compromised Computers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Directory Tree Analysis File Generator is a Practical Extraction and Reporting Language (PERL) script that simplifies and automates the collection of information for forensic analysis of compromised computer systems. During such an analysis, it is sometimes necessary to collect and analyze information about files on a specific directory tree. Directory Tree Analysis File Generator collects information of this type (except information about directories) and writes it to a text file. In particular, the script asks the user for the root of the directory tree to be processed, the name of the output file, and the number of subtree levels to process. The script then processes the directory tree and puts out the aforementioned text file. The format of the text file is designed to enable the submission of the file as input to a spreadsheet program, wherein the forensic analysis is performed. The analysis usually consists of sorting files and examination of such characteristics of files as ownership, time of creation, and time of most recent access, all of which characteristics are among the data included in the text file.

Wolfe, Thomas

2004-01-01

20

Optimizing Automated Particle Analysis for Forensic Applications  

E-print Network

Optimizing Automated Particle Analysis for Forensic Applications Nicholas W. M. Ritchie Materials ­ Material science, forensics, manufacturing, #12;Our Tools Instruments ­ 2 electron microprobes, 2 FIBS, 2 Measurement Science Division Materials Measurement Lab 29-Nov-2012 #12;The Big Picture X-ray Microanalysis

Perkins, Richard A.

21

Forensic odontology as a victim identification tool in mass disasters: A feasibility study in the Indian scenario  

PubMed Central

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the awareness of practicing dentists about the subject of forensic odontology and to assess their willingness to maintain and share patient records. Materials and Methods: A blind questionnaire survey was carried out among 100 randomly selected practicing dentists in district Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh. Results: Most of the dentists interviewed were familiar with the subject of forensic odontology and its relation to dentistry, despite forensic dentistry having been newly introduced since 2007 into the undergraduate dental curriculum in India. However, dental records are maintained by only a few dentists, and only a very small percentage of them reported to have shared records, which may have helped in the identification of victims in a mass disaster. Conclusion: The result of our survey concluded that more awareness needs to be developed among practicing dentists regarding maintaining and sharing patient records for forensic odontology to succeed as a victim identification tool. PMID:24695834

Sengupta, Shamindra; Sharma, Vandana; Gupta, Vineeta; Vij, Hitesh; Vij, Ruchieka; Prabhat, Kanika

2014-01-01

22

VALIDATION GUIDELINES FOR LABORATORIES PERFORMING FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL TERRORISM  

EPA Science Inventory

The Scientific Working Group on Forensic Analysis of Chemical Terrorism (SWGFACT) has developed the following guidelines for laboratories engaged in the forensic analysis of chemical evidence associated with terrorism. This document provides a baseline framework and guidance for...

23

Information Gap Analysis: near real-time evaluation of disaster response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disasters, such as major storm events or earthquakes, trigger an immediate response by the disaster management system of the nation in question. The quality of this response is a large factor in its ability to limit the impacts on the local population. Improving the quality of disaster response therefore reduces disaster impacts. Studying past disasters is a valuable exercise to understand what went wrong, identify measures which could have mitigated these issues, and make recommendations to improve future disaster planning and response. While such ex post evaluations can lead to improvements in the disaster management system, there are limitations. The main limitation that has influenced this research is that ex post evaluations do not have the ability to inform the disaster response being assessed for the obvious reason that they are carried out long after the response phase is over. The result is that lessons learned can only be applied to future disasters. In the field of humanitarian relief, this limitation has led to the development of real time evaluations. The key aspect of real time humanitarian evaluations is that they are completed while the operation is still underway. This results in findings being delivered at a time when they can still make a difference to the humanitarian response. Applying such an approach to the immediate disaster response phase requires an even shorter time-frame, as well as a shift in focus from international actors to the nation in question's government. As such, a pilot study was started and methodology developed, to analyze disaster response in near real-time. The analysis uses the information provided by the disaster management system within the first 0 - 5 days of the response. The data is collected from publicly available sources such as ReliefWeb and sorted under various categories which represent each aspect of disaster response. This process was carried out for 12 disasters. The quantity and timeliness of information produced under each category was then compared to establish best practices. Thus, the information produced by a disaster management system following a major disaster can be compared to these best practices within days of the disaster. The resulting "information gap analysis" can help identify areas of the response that may need to be improved and raise questions as to why critical information is lacking or delayed. This information gap analysis therefore complements ex post evaluations and can help lead to improvements in the immediate response and subsequently reduce disaster impacts on the population. The methodology has already been applied in the Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology's (CEDIM) Forensic Disaster Analysis (FDA) activities following tropical cyclone Phailin in India, and the Bohol Earthquake and Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines.

Girard, Trevor

2014-05-01

24

Molecular forensic science analysis of nuclear materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concerns over the proliferation and instances of nuclear material in the environment have increased interest in the expansion of nuclear forensics analysis and attribution programs. A new related field, molecular forensic science (MFS) has helped meet this expansion by applying common scientific analyses to nuclear forensics scenarios. In this work, MFS was applied to three scenarios related to nuclear forensics analysis. In the first, uranium dioxide was synthesized and aged at four sets of static environmental conditions and studied for changes in chemical speciation. The second highlighted the importance of bulk versus particle characterizations by analyzing a heterogeneous industrially prepared sample with similar techniques. In the third, mixed uranium/plutonium hot particles were collected from the McGuire Air Force Base BOMARC Site and analyzed for chemical speciation and elemental surface composition. This work has identified new signatures and has indicated unexpected chemical behavior under various conditions. These findings have lead to an expansion of basic actinide understanding, proof of MFS as a tool for nuclear forensic science, and new areas for expansion in these fields.

Reilly, Dallas David

25

Forensic Analysis using Geological and Geochemical Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the globalisation of legal (and illegal) trade there is an increasing demand for techniques which can verify the geographical origin and transfer routes of many legal and illegal commodities and products. Although geological techniques have been used in forensic investigations since the emergence of forensics as a science in the late eighteen hundreds, the last decade has seen a marked increase in geo-scientists initiating concept studies using the latest analytical techniques, including studying natural abundance isotope variations, micro analysis with laser ablation ICPMS and geochemical mapping. Most of the concept studies have shown a good potential but uptake by the law enforcement and legal community has been limited due to concerns about the admissibility of the new methods. As an introduction to the UGU2009 session "Forensic Provenancing using Geological and Geochemical Techniques" I will give an overview of the state of the art of forensic geology and the issues that concern the admissibility of geological forensic evidence. I will use examples from the NITECRIME and FIRMS networks, the EU TRACE project and other projects and literature to illustrate the important issues at hand.

Hoogewerff, J.

2009-04-01

26

Disaster SitRep -A Vertical Search Engine and Information Analysis Tool in Disaster Management Domain  

E-print Network

Disaster SitRep - A Vertical Search Engine and Information Analysis Tool in Disaster Management at the right time. Needs for heterogeneous information integration in disaster management domain: People have and multimedia data like images and videos. However, information management and processing in disaster management

Chen, Shu-Ching

27

Encoded evidence: DNA in forensic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sherlock Holmes said “it has long been an axiom of mine that the little things are infinitely the most important”, but never imagined that such a little thing, the DNA molecule, could become perhaps the most powerful single tool in the multifaceted fight against crime. Twenty years after the development of DNA fingerprinting, forensic DNA analysis is key to the

Mark A. Jobling; Peter Gill

2004-01-01

28

Forensic Analysis of Phone Call Networks  

E-print Network

In the context of preventing and fighting crime, the analysis of mobile phone traffic, among actors of a criminal network, is helpful in order to reconstruct illegal activities on the base of the relationships connecting those specific individuals. Thus, forensic analysts and investigators require new advanced tools and techniques which allow them to manage these data in a meaningful and efficient way. In this paper we present LogAnalysis, a tool we developed to provide visual data representation and filtering, statistical analysis features and the possibility of a temporal analysis of mobile phone activities. Its adoption may help in unveiling the structure of a criminal network and the roles and dynamics of communications among its components. By using LogAnalysis, forensic investigators could deeply understand hierarchies within criminal organizations, for example discovering central members that provide connections among different sub-groups, etc. Moreover, by analyzing the temporal evolution of the conta...

Catanese, Salvatore; Fiumara, Giacomo

2013-01-01

29

(Environmental and disaster management risk analysis)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler attended workshops on Environmental and Disaster Management Risk Analysis in New Delhi and Jaipur, India. The objective of the workshops was to provide technical knowledge to Indians in the areas of environmental planning, industrial hazards, risk analysis, and disaster management. Conference participants identified the following top priorities to aid in the development of environmental and disaster management in India: (1) technology transfer in the area of atmospheric dispersion modelling, (2) increased training of scientific personnel to effectively deal with environmental problems, and (3) access to data bases on toxicological properties of chemicals.

Travis, C.C.

1990-01-03

30

Statistical Tools for Forensic Analysis of Toolmarks  

SciTech Connect

Recovery and comparison of toolmarks, footprint impressions, and fractured surfaces connected to a crime scene are of great importance in forensic science. The purpose of this project is to provide statistical tools for the validation of the proposition that particular manufacturing processes produce marks on the work-product (or tool) that are substantially different from tool to tool. The approach to validation involves the collection of digital images of toolmarks produced by various tool manufacturing methods on produced work-products and the development of statistical methods for data reduction and analysis of the images. The developed statistical methods provide a means to objectively calculate a ''degree of association'' between matches of similarly produced toolmarks. The basis for statistical method development relies on ''discriminating criteria'' that examiners use to identify features and spatial relationships in their analysis of forensic samples. The developed data reduction algorithms utilize the same rules used by examiners for classification and association of toolmarks.

David Baldwin; Max Morris; Stan Bajic; Zhigang Zhou; James Kreiser

2004-04-22

31

Careers in Forensics: Analysis, Evidence, and Law  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In legal proceedings, a case is only as strong as its evidence. And whether that evidence is strong depends, in large part, on the work of forensic specialists. The field of forensics is broad and involves many kinds of workers. Some of them are involved in crimesolving. Others, such as forensic social workers or forensic economists, help to…

Torpey, Elka Maria

2009-01-01

32

Forensic science and criminal justice: An analysis of curricular models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multi-disciplinary field of forensic science frequently finds its academic home within criminal justice programs. After\\u000a examining the reasons for this academic linkage, an analysis of criminal justice curricular models and courses was undertaken\\u000a to assess their applicability to forensic science education and careers. The authors concluded that the relationship between\\u000a criminal justice and forensic science can be mutually beneficial;

Charles A. Lindquist; Frederick P. Smith

1982-01-01

33

MEASUREMENT SCIENCE AND STANDARDS IN FORENSIC HANDWRITING ANALYSIS CONFERENCE & WEBCAST  

E-print Network

1 MEASUREMENT SCIENCE AND STANDARDS IN FORENSIC HANDWRITING ANALYSIS CONFERENCE & WEBCAST IMPORTANT ANNOUNCEMENTS June 4-5, 2013 Overview We have several important announcements regarding the Measurement Science and Standards in Forensic Handwriting Analysis Conference & Webcast that starts at 9:00AM Eastern Time on June 4

Magee, Joseph W.

34

Defining Digital Forensic Examination and Analysis Tools Using Abstraction Layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses the theory of abstraction layers to describe the purpose and goals of digital forensic analysis tools. Using abstraction layers, we identify where tools can introduce errors and provide requirements that the tools must follow. Categories of forensic analysis types are also defined based on the abstraction layers. Abstraction layers are not a new concept, but their usage

Brian Carrier

2002-01-01

35

Disasters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Whether caused by acts of nature, human error or even malevolence, disasters are an increasingly costly threat. The National Science Foundation works with the Administration and other federal agencies in a coordinated effort to anticipate disasters and minimize their effects. Research projects provide information on understanding the causes and predicting natural disasters, disaster preparation in the form of stronger buildings, infrastructure and cybersecurity, and disaster response.

36

Photogrammetry Tool for Forensic Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system allows crime scene and accident scene investigators the ability to acquire visual scene data using cameras for processing at a later time. This system uses a COTS digital camera, a photogrammetry calibration cube, and 3D photogrammetry processing software. In a previous instrument developed by NASA, the laser scaling device made use of parallel laser beams to provide a photogrammetry solution in 2D. This device and associated software work well under certain conditions. In order to make use of a full 3D photogrammetry system, a different approach was needed. When using multiple cubes, whose locations relative to each other are unknown, a procedure that would merge the data from each cube would be as follows: 1. One marks a reference point on cube 1, then marks points on cube 2 as unknowns. This locates cube 2 in cube 1 s coordinate system. 2. One marks reference points on cube 2, then marks points on cube 1 as unknowns. This locates cube 1 in cube 2 s coordinate system. 3. This procedure is continued for all combinations of cubes. 4. The coordinate of all of the found coordinate systems is then merged into a single global coordinate system. In order to achieve maximum accuracy, measurements are done in one of two ways, depending on scale: when measuring the size of objects, the coordinate system corresponding to the nearest cube is used, or when measuring the location of objects relative to a global coordinate system, a merged coordinate system is used. Presently, traffic accident analysis is time-consuming and not very accurate. Using cubes with differential GPS would give absolute positions of cubes in the accident area, so that individual cubes would provide local photogrammetry calibration to objects near a cube.

Lane, John

2012-01-01

37

Initial Case Analysis Using Windows Registry in Computer Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Windows registry has significant information which are valuable to the forensic analyst. Especially, some information such as the timezone information, the time when the OS was installed and the system was turned off, furthermore what kinds of the storage devices were attached are necessary in the forensic analysis. Besides, the investigator must recognize them for the further investigation. In

Kisik Chang; Gibum Kim; Kwonyoup Kim; Woosuk Kim

2007-01-01

38

Forensic analysis of the android file system YAFFS2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The popularity of Android devices has resulted in a requirement for a process to extract and analyse data in a forensically sound manner. There is a wide range of devices which use the Android operating system, and hence a standard process for forensic extraction and analysis for all devices is not possible. Many devices use the Yet Another Flash File

Darren Quick; Mohammed Alzaabi

2011-01-01

39

Forensic Learning Disability Nursing Role Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a study carried out on the role constructs of forensic and nonforensic Learning Disability Nursing in relation to six binary themes. The aims were to identify if there were differences in perceptions of forensic learning disability nurses and nonforensic learning disability nurses in relation to the six binary themes of the…

Mason, Tom; Phipps, Dianne; Melling, Kat

2011-01-01

40

Uses of software in digital image analysis: a forensic report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forensic image analysis is required an expertise to interpret the content of an image or the image itself in legal matters. Major sub-disciplines of forensic image analysis with law enforcement applications include photo-grammetry, photographic comparison, content analysis and image authentication. It has wide applications in forensic science range from documenting crime scenes to enhancing faint or indistinct patterns such as partial fingerprints. The process of forensic image analysis can involve several different tasks, regardless of the type of image analysis performed. Through this paper authors have tried to explain these tasks, which are described in to three categories: Image Compression, Image Enhancement & Restoration and Measurement Extraction. With the help of examples like signature comparison, counterfeit currency comparison and foot-wear sole impression using the software Canvas and Corel Draw.

Sharma, Mukesh; Jha, Shailendra

2010-02-01

41

The Forensic Analysis of Sediments Recovered from Footwear  

Microsoft Academic Search

The forensic analysis of sediments recovered from footwear has the potential to yield much useful information concerning the\\u000a movements of a person before, during and after a crime has taken place. Three experimental studies and a number of examples\\u000a of forensic casework provide insight into the complexity of the spatial distribution of geoforensic materials on the soles\\u000a of footwear and

Ruth M. Morgan; Jeanne Freudiger-Bonzon; Katharine H. Nichols; Thomas Jellis; Sarah Dunkerley; Przemyslaw Zelazowski; Peter A. Bull

42

MEASUREMENT SCIENCE AND STANDARDS IN FORENSIC HANDWRITING ANALYSIS (JUNE 4-5, 2013)  

E-print Network

1 MEASUREMENT SCIENCE AND STANDARDS IN FORENSIC HANDWRITING ANALYSIS (JUNE 4-5, 2013) SPEAKER of Forensic Sciences, a member and currently the Secretary of the Southeastern Association of Forensic & Forensic Science Research Unit. Her research focus includes microscopy and microanalysis of trace evidence

Magee, Joseph W.

43

DNA fingerprinting in forensics: past, present, future  

PubMed Central

DNA fingerprinting, one of the great discoveries of the late 20th century, has revolutionized forensic investigations. This review briefly recapitulates 30 years of progress in forensic DNA analysis which helps to convict criminals, exonerate the wrongly accused, and identify victims of crime, disasters, and war. Current standard methods based on short tandem repeats (STRs) as well as lineage markers (Y chromosome, mitochondrial DNA) are covered and applications are illustrated by casework examples. Benefits and risks of expanding forensic DNA databases are discussed and we ask what the future holds for forensic DNA fingerprinting. PMID:24245688

2013-01-01

44

Statistical Tools for Forensic Analysis of Toolmarks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recovery and comparison of toolmarks, footprint impressions, and fractured surfaces connected to a crime scene are of great importance in forensic science. The purpose of this project is to provide statistical tools for the validation of the proposition that particular manufacturing processes produce marks on the work-product (or tool) that are substantially different from tool to tool. The approach to

David Baldwin; Max Morris; Stan Bajic; Zhigang Zhou; James Kreiser

2004-01-01

45

Forensic Analysis of the Windows 7 Registry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recovery of digital evidence of crimes from storage media is an increasingly time consuming process as the capacity of the storage media is in a state of constant growth. It is also a difficult and complex task for the forensic investigator to analyse all of the locations in the storage media. These two factors, when combined, may result in

Khawla Abdulla Alghafli; Andrew Jones; Thomas Anthony Martin

2010-01-01

46

QUALITY ASSURANCE GUIDELINES FOR LABORATORIES PERFORMING FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL TERRORISM  

EPA Science Inventory

The Scientific Working Group on Forensic Analysis of Chemical Terrorism (SWGFACT) has developed the following quality assurance guidelines to provide laboratories engaged in forensic analysis of chemical evidence associated with terrorism a framework to implement a quality assura...

47

A DNA microarray system for forensic SNP analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic DNA analysis is routinely performed using polymorphic short tandem repeat (STR) markers. However, for degraded or minute DNA samples, analysis of autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in short fragments might be more successful. Furthermore, sequencing of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is often performed on highly degraded or scarce samples due to the high copy number of mtDNA in each cell.

Anna-Maria Divne; Marie Allen

2005-01-01

48

A Graph Oriented Approach for Network Forensic Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Network forensic analysis is a process that analyzes intrusion evidence captured from networked environment to identify suspicious entities and stepwise actions in an attack scenario. Unfortunately, the overwhelming amount and low quality of output from security sensors make it difficult for analysts to obtain a succinct high-level view of complex…

Wang, Wei

2010-01-01

49

Sub-sampling and preparing forensic samples for pollen analysis.  

PubMed

The main forensic application of palynology is in providing associative evidence, assisting to prove or disprove a link between people and objects with places or with other people. Although identification and interpretation of pollen is a specialist job, sub-sampling and preparing pollen samples for analysis may be carried out by non-specialists. As few forensic laboratories have residing palynologists, laboratories may wish to reduce the cost of analysis or risk of contamination by doing their own sub-sampling and preparation. Presented is a practical guide for sub-sampling and preparing forensic samples for pollen analysis, providing a complete standard procedure for both the palynologist and non-specialist. Procedures for sub-sampling include a wide variety of materials commonly collected for forensic analysis (soil, clothing and other fabrics, footwear, twine and rope, firearms, granulated materials, plant and animal material, and illicit drugs), many of which palynologists will not be familiar with. Procedures for preparation of samples (pollen concentration) are presented as a detailed, step-by-step method. Minimizing the risks of laboratory and cross-sample contamination during sub-sampling and preparation is emphasized. PMID:15461105

Horrocks, Mark

2004-09-01

50

SEM–EDS analysis and discrimination of forensic soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soils vary among different areas, and have some characteristics because of the natural effects and transfers made by human and other living beings in time. So that forensic examination of soil is not only concerned with the analysis of naturally occurring rocks, minerals, vegetation, and animal matter. It also includes the detection of such manufactured materials such as ions from

Salih Cengiz; Ali Cengiz Karaca; ?smail Çak?r; H. Bülent Üner; Aytekin Sevindik

2004-01-01

51

My-Forensic-Loci-queries (MyFLq) framework for analysis of forensic STR data generated by massive parallel sequencing.  

PubMed

Forensic scientists are currently investigating how to transition from capillary electrophoresis (CE) to massive parallel sequencing (MPS) for analysis of forensic DNA profiles. MPS offers several advantages over CE such as virtually unlimited multiplexy of loci, combining both short tandem repeat (STR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci, small amplicons without constraints of size separation, more discrimination power, deep mixture resolution and sample multiplexing. We present our bioinformatic framework My-Forensic-Loci-queries (MyFLq) for analysis of MPS forensic data. For allele calling, the framework uses a MySQL reference allele database with automatically determined regions of interest (ROIs) by a generic maximal flanking algorithm which makes it possible to use any STR or SNP forensic locus. Python scripts were designed to automatically make allele calls starting from raw MPS data. We also present a method to assess the usefulness and overall performance of a forensic locus with respect to MPS, as well as methods to estimate whether an unknown allele, which sequence is not present in the MySQL database, is in fact a new allele or a sequencing error. The MyFLq framework was applied to an Illumina MiSeq dataset of a forensic Illumina amplicon library, generated from multilocus STR polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on both single contributor samples and multiple person DNA mixtures. Although the multilocus PCR was not yet optimized for MPS in terms of amplicon length or locus selection, the results show excellent results for most loci. The results show a high signal-to-noise ratio, correct allele calls, and a low limit of detection for minor DNA contributors in mixed DNA samples. Technically, forensic MPS affords great promise for routine implementation in forensic genomics. The method is also applicable to adjacent disciplines such as molecular autopsy in legal medicine and in mitochondrial DNA research. PMID:24528572

Van Neste, Christophe; Vandewoestyne, Mado; Van Criekinge, Wim; Deforce, Dieter; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip

2014-03-01

52

Forensic document analysis using scanning microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authentication and identification of the source of a printed document(s) can be important in forensic investigations involving a wide range of fraudulent materials, including counterfeit currency, travel and identity documents, business and personal checks, money orders, prescription labels, travelers checks, medical records, financial documents and threatening correspondence. The physical and chemical characterization of document materials - including paper, writing inks and printed media - is becoming increasingly relevant for law enforcement agencies, with the availability of a wide variety of sophisticated commercial printers and copiers which are capable of producing fraudulent documents of extremely high print quality, rendering these difficult to distinguish from genuine documents. This paper describes various applications and analytical methodologies using scanning electron miscoscopy/energy dispersive (x-ray) spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and related technologies for the characterization of fraudulent documents, and illustrates how their morphological and chemical profiles can be compared to (1) authenticate and (2) link forensic documents with a common source(s) in their production history.

Shaffer, Douglas K.

2009-05-01

53

Toward Models for Forensic Analysis Sean Peisert # Matt Bishop + Sidney Karin Keith Marzullo  

E-print Network

Toward Models for Forensic Analysis Sean Peisert # Matt Bishop + Sidney Karin Keith Marzullo Abstract The existing solutions in the field of computer forensics are largely ad hoc. This paper discusses the need for a rigorous model of forensics and outlines qualities that such a model should possess

Bishop, Matt

54

The contribution of forensic science to crime analysis and investigation: Forensic intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The debate in forensic science concentrates on issues such as standardisation, accreditation and de-contextualisation, in a legal and economical context, in order to ensure the scientific objectivity and efficiency that must guide the process of collecting, analysing, interpreting and reporting forensic evidence. At the same time, it is recognised that forensic case data is still poorly integrated into the investigation

Olivier Ribaux; Simon J. Walsh; Pierre Margot

2006-01-01

55

Crowd Disasters as Systemic Failures: Analysis of the Love Parade Disaster  

E-print Network

Each year, crowd disasters happen in different areas of the world. How and why do such disasters happen? Are the fatalities caused by relentless behavior of people or a psychological state of panic that makes the crowd 'go mad'? Or are they a tragic consequence of a breakdown of coordination? These and other questions are addressed, based on a qualitative analysis of publicly available videos and materials, which document the planning and organization of the Love Parade in Duisburg, Germany, and the crowd disaster on July 24, 2010. Our analysis reveals a number of misunderstandings that have widely spread. We also provide a new perspective on concepts such as 'intentional pushing', 'mass panic', 'stampede', and 'crowd crushs'. The focus of our analysis is on the contributing causal factors and their mutual interdependencies, not on legal issues or the judgment of personal or institutional responsibilities. Video recordings show that, in Duisburg, people stumbled and piled up due to a 'domino effect', resulting from a phenomenon called 'crowd turbulence' or 'crowd quake'. Crowd quakes are a typical reason for crowd disasters, to be distinguished from crowd disasters resulting from 'panic stampedes' or 'crowd crushes'. In Duisburg, crowd turbulence was the consequence of amplifying feedback and cascading effects, which are typical for systemic instabilities. Accordingly, things can go terribly wrong in spite of no bad intentions from anyone. Comparing the incident in Duisburg with others, we give recommendations to help prevent future crowd disasters. In particular, we introduce a new scale to assess the criticality of conditions in the crowd. This may allow preventative measures to be taken earlier on. Furthermore, we discuss the merits and limitations of citizen science for public investigation, considering that today, almost every event is recorded and reflected in the World Wide Web.

Dirk Helbing; Pratik Mukerji

2012-06-25

56

Helping formulate propositions in forensic DNA analysis.  

PubMed

The Bayesian paradigm is the preferred approach to evidence interpretation. It requires the evaluation of the probability of the evidence under at least two propositions. The value of the findings (i.e., our LR) will depend on these propositions and the case information, so it is crucial to identify which propositions are useful for the case at hand. Previously, a number of principles have been advanced and largely accepted for the evaluation of evidence. In the evaluation of traces involving DNA mixtures there may be more than two propositions possible. We apply these principles to some exemplar situations. We also show that in some cases, when there are no clear propositions or no defendant, a forensic scientist may be able to generate explanations to account for observations. In that case, the scientist plays a role of investigator, rather than evaluator. We believe that it is helpful for the scientist to distinguish those two roles. PMID:25002042

Buckleton, John; Bright, Jo-Anne; Taylor, Duncan; Evett, Ian; Hicks, Tacha; Jackson, Graham; Curran, James M

2014-07-01

57

A Cybercrime Forensic Method for Chinese Web Information Authorship Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing popularization of the Internet, Internet services used as illegal purposes have become a serious problem.\\u000a How to prevent these phenomena from happening has become a major concern for society. In this paper, a cybercrime forensic\\u000a method for Chinese illegal web information authorship analysis was described. Various writing-style features including linguistic\\u000a features and structural features were extracted. To

Jianbin Ma; Guifa Teng; Yuxin Zhang; Yueli Li; Ying Li

2009-01-01

58

Forensic Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is incorporating a broader spectrum of chemical sciences. Existing forensic practices are being revisited as the purview of forensic chemistry extends outward from drug analysis and toxicology into such diverse areas as combustion chemistry, materials science, and pattern evidence.

Bell, Suzanne

2009-07-01

59

sian czar and czarina. The editor's own contribution to the volume describes the forensic analysis of a mummi-  

E-print Network

Argentino Anthropologia Forense (Argentine Forensic Anthropology Team). An example of how the team worked activities and cases of their peers, and it is also a great book to supplement forensic anthropologysian czar and czarina. The editor's own contribution to the volume describes the forensic analysis

Badyaev, Alex

60

Thermogravimetric analysis as a polymer identification technique in forensic applications.  

PubMed

This paper investigates the potential of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) as a tool for determination of different species of polymers. Materials analyzed include polyvinyl chloride (PVC), chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC), polystyrene, polypropylene, nitriles, and nylon. Analyses showed excellent discriminating results even when samples were contaminated with silicates, organics, moisture, and char. The techniques developed were designed with a forensic-type analysis in mind, such as analysis of blast fragments and arson debris. Techniques were developed that gave satisfactory results even when sample sizes were less than five milligrams. PMID:15171167

Ihms, Elihu C; Brinkman, Dennis W

2004-05-01

61

Forensic analysis of print using digital image analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this investigation is to establish whether it is possible to produce a practical forensic tool that can identify the production sources of printed text from different digital print engines. The identification of print using an automated machine system is important because although expert observers can be employed for this task, there are cases when they make mistakes or do not possess the required knowledge. Therefore the development of an automated print identification system is under consideration. It is envisaged that the system will be useful in solving criminal cases involving the analysis of fraudulent replication of official documents, threatening letters and the counterfeiting of consumer products. The methodology used in this investigation employed a digital image analysis system and specially developed software to measure the shape characteristics of text characters. The information about the shapes of the text characters can be stored in a database along with the corresponding data about the print engines that produced them. A database search engine can then be used to classify text characters of unknown origin. The paper will report on the methodology and techniques used in the investigation and the latest experimental results for the project.

Tchan, Jack

2003-06-01

62

On-Demand View Materialization and Indexing for Network Forensic Analysis  

E-print Network

On-Demand View Materialization and Indexing for Network Forensic Analysis Roxana Geambasu1 , Tanya to log historical network flows and support forensic analysis by network administrators. These solutions for significantly higher data rates, we propose a technique based on on-demand view materialization and in- dexing

Yang, Junfeng

63

Identifying Significant Features for Network Forensic Analysis Using Artificial Intelligence Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Network forensics is the study ofanalyzing network activity in order to discover the source of security policy violations or information assurance breaches. Capturing network activity for forensic analysis is simple in theory, but relatively trivial in practice. Not all the information captured or recorded will be useful for analysis. Identifying key features that reveal information deemed worthy for further

Srinivas Mukkamala; Andrew H. Sung

2003-01-01

64

Forensic Analysis Demonstration via Hawaii Five-O  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Forensics," in its most universal sense, is defined as the use of science or technology in the investigation and establishment of facts or evidence for determining identity or relatedness. Most forensic reasoning is used for arguing legal matters. However, forensic studies are also used in agronomy, biology, chemistry, geology, and physics to…

Shmaefsky, Brian R.

2006-01-01

65

Analysis of the alleged Kyshtym disaster  

SciTech Connect

The alleged Kyshtym disaster has been an intriguing intelligence puzzle for almost 25 years. Zhores Medvedev, a Soviet dissident, has written numerous journal articles as well as two books on the subject. He has argued that a vast contaminated area exists east of the city of Kyshtym in the southern Ural Mountains. Further, he has alleged that a nuclear waste disposal accident in 1957 to 1958 caused the contamination. The authors of this report are in partial disagreement with Medvedev's first allegation and in complete disagreement with his second. A contaminated area does exist east of Kyshtym, but Soviet carelessness coupled with general disregard for the citizenry and the environment are the prime causative factors, not a nuclear waste accident.

Soran, D.M.; Stillman, D.B.

1982-01-01

66

Objective analysis of toolmarks in forensics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the 1993 court case of Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc. the subjective nature of toolmark comparison has been questioned by attorneys and law enforcement agencies alike. This has led to an increased drive to establish objective comparison techniques with known error rates, much like those that DNA analysis is able to provide. This push has created research in which the 3-D surface profile of two different marks are characterized and the marks' cross-sections are run through a comparative statistical algorithm to acquire a value that is intended to indicate the likelihood of a match between the marks. The aforementioned algorithm has been developed and extensively tested through comparison of evenly striated marks made by screwdrivers. However, this algorithm has yet to be applied to quasi-striated marks such as those made by the shear edge of slip-joint pliers. The results of this algorithm's application to the surface of copper wire will be presented. Objective mark comparison also extends to comparison of toolmarks made by firearms. In an effort to create objective comparisons, microstamping of firing pins and breech faces has been introduced. This process involves placing unique alphanumeric identifiers surrounded by a radial code on the surface of firing pins, which transfer to the cartridge's primer upon firing. Three different guns equipped with microstamped firing pins were used to fire 3000 cartridges. These cartridges are evaluated based on the clarity of their alphanumeric transfers and the clarity of the radial code surrounding the alphanumerics.

Grieve, Taylor N.

67

Use of Stable Isotopes in Forensic Analysis of Microorganisms  

SciTech Connect

The use of isotopic signatures for forensic analysis of biological materials is well-established, and the same general principles that apply to interpretation of stable isotope content of C, N, O, and H apply to the analysis of microorganisms. Heterotrophic microorganisms derive their isotopic content from their growth substrates, which are largely plant and animal products, and the water in their culture medium. Thus the isotope signatures of microbes are tied to their growth environment. The C, N, O, and H isotope ratios of spores have been demonstrated to constitute highly discriminating signatures for sample matching. They can rule out specific samples of media and/or water as possible production media, and can predict isotope ratio ranges of the culture media and water used to produce a given sample. These applications have been developed and tested through analyses of approximately 250 samples of Bacillus subtilis spores and over 500 samples of culture media, providing a strong statistical basis for data interpretation. A Bayesian statistical framework for integrating stable isotope data with other types of signatures derived from microorganisms has been able to characterize the culture medium used to produce spores of various Bacillus species, leveraging isotopic differences in different medium types and demonstrating the power of data integration for forensic investigations.

Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.; Hegg, Eric L.

2012-01-18

68

Developing open geographic data model and analysis tools for disaster management: landslide case  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disaster Management aims to reduce catastrophic losses of disasters as landslide. Geographic information technologies support disaster management activities for effective and collaborative data management considering complex nature of disasters. Thus, this study aims to develop interoperable geographic data model and analysis tools to manage geographic data coming from different sources. For landslide disaster, 39 scenario-based activities were analyzed with required data according to user needs in a cycle of activities at mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery phases. Interoperable geographic data model for disaster management (ADYS), enabling up-to-date exchange of geographic data, was designed compliant with standards of ISO/TC211 Geographic Information/Geomatics, Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), and Turkey National GIS (TUCBS). Open source and free analysis toolbox was developed and tested in case study of the activities such as landslide hazard analysis and disaster warning system to support Provincial Disaster Management Centers of Turkey.

Aydinoglu, A. C.; Bilgin, M. S.

2014-10-01

69

Potential Analysis of Rainfall-induced Sediment Disaster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the mountain regions in Taiwan are sedimentary and metamorphic rocks which are fragile and highly weathered. Severe erosion occurs due to intensive rainfall and rapid flow, the erosion is even worsen by frequent earthquakes and severely affects the stability of hillsides. Rivers are short and steep in Taiwan with large runoff differences in wet and dry seasons. Discharges respond rapidly with rainfall intensity and flood flows usually carry large amount of sediment. Because of the highly growth in economics and social change, the development in the slope land is inevitable in Taiwan. However, sediment disasters occur frequently in high and precipitous region during typhoon. To make the execution of the regulation of slope land development more efficiency, construction of evaluation model for sediment potential is very important. In this study, the Genetic Adaptive Neural Network (GANN) was implemented in texture analysis techniques for the classification of satellite images of research region before and after typhoon or extreme rainfall and to obtain surface information and hazard log data. By using GANN weight analysis, factors, levels and probabilities of disaster of the research areas are presented. Then, through geographic information system the disaster potential map is plotted to distinguish high potential regions from low potential regions. Finally, the evaluation processes for sediment disaster after rainfall due to slope land use are established. In this research, the automatic image classification and evaluation modules for sediment disaster after rainfall due to slope land disturbance and natural environment are established in MATLAB to avoid complexity and time of computation. After implementation of texture analysis techniques, the results show that the values of overall accuracy and coefficient of agreement of the time-saving image classification for different time periods are at intermediate-high level and above. The results of GANN show that the weight of building density is the largest in all slope land disturbance factors, followed by road density, orchard density, baren land density, vegetation density, and farmland density. The weight of geology is the largest in all natural environment factors, followed by slope roughness, slope, and elevation. Overlaying the locations of large sediment disaster in the past on the potential map predicted by GANN, we found that most damage areas were in the region with medium-high or high potential of landslide. Therefore, the proposed potential model of sediment disaster can be used in practice.

Chen, Jing-Wen; Chen, Yie-Ruey; Hsieh, Shun-Chieh; Tsai, Kuang-Jung; Chue, Yung-Sheng

2014-05-01

70

Radiocarbon analysis of human remains: a review of forensic applications.  

PubMed

Radiocarbon analysis of organic materials, with the comparison of values with those of the post-1950 modern bomb curve, has proven useful in forensic science to help evaluate the antiquity of evidence. Applications are particularly helpful in the study of human remains, especially with those displaying advanced decomposition of soft tissues. Radiocarbon analysis can reveal if the remains relate to the modern, post-1950 era and if so, also provide information needed to evaluate the death and birth date. Sample selection and interpretation of results must be guided by knowledge of the formation and remodeling of different human tissues, as well as contextual information and the approximate age at death of the individual represented. Dental enamel does not remodel and thus captures dietary radiocarbon values at the time of juvenile formation. Most other human tissues do remodel but at differing rates and therefore collectively offer key information relative to the estimation of the death date. PMID:25041129

Ubelaker, Douglas H

2014-11-01

71

SEM-EDS analysis and discrimination of forensic soil.  

PubMed

Soils vary among different areas, and have some characteristics because of the natural effects and transfers made by human and other living beings in time. So that forensic examination of soil is not only concerned with the analysis of naturally occurring rocks, minerals, vegetation, and animal matter. It also includes the detection of such manufactured materials such as ions from synthetic fertilizers and from different environments (e.g., nitrate, phosphate, and sulfate) as environmental artifacts (e.g., lead or objects as glass, paint chips, asphalt, brick fragments, and cinders) whose presence may impart soil with characteristics that will make it unique to a particular location. Many screening and analytical methods have been applied for determining the characteristics which differentiate and discriminate the forensic soil samples but none of them easily standardized. Some of the methods that applied in forensic laboratories in forensic soil discrimination are the color comparison of the normal air-dried (dehumidified) and overheated soil samples, macroscopic observation, and low-power stereo-microscopic observation, determination of anionic composition by capillary electrophoresis (CE), and the elemental composition by scanning electron microscope (SEM)-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) and other high sensitivity techniques. The objective of this study was to show the effect of the application of 9 tonnes/cm2 pressure on the elemental compositions obtained by SEM-EDS technique and comparing the discrimination power of the pressed-homogenized and not homogenized forensic soil samples. For this purpose soil samples from 17 different locations of Istanbul were collected. Aliquots of the well mixed samples were dried in an oven at 110-120 degrees C and sieved by using 0.5 mm sieve and then the undersieve fraction(<0.5 mm) of these samples put on an adhesive tape placed on a stub. About 100-150 mg aliquots of dried, sieved samples were pressed under 9 tonnes/cm2 pressure by KBr disk preparation apparatus of an infrared spectrophotometer. Surfaces of the randomized particles and the pressed disks of the soil samples were scanned and the elemental compositions were determined with scanning electron microscope JEO-JSM-5600 equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer OXFORD Link-ISIS-300. The samples from top of the sieves were examined with stereo-microscope equipped with JVC-TK-128DE color video camera and JVC-GV-PT2, digital video printer. Natural and artificial materials that have characteristic features were identified. Then for additional confirmation all soil samples were dried at 120 degrees C and over 780 degrees C and their colors compared. We concluded that pressing the whole sieved soil samples under 9 tonnes/cm2 pressure results in smashing over the harder particles into the softer matrix and results in homogenization of the soil sample. The elemental compositions of these samples obtained by SEM-EDS with 10-fold less standard deviation (S.D.) values and so that with more reproducibility and discrimination power. PMID:15066711

Cengiz, Salih; Cengiz Karaca, Ali; Cakir, Ismail; Bülent Uner, H; Sevindik, Aytekin

2004-04-20

72

Towards Automated Deduction in Blackmail Case Analysis with Forensic Lucid  

E-print Network

This work-in-progress focuses on the refinement of application of the intensional logic to cyberforensic analysis and its benefits are compared with the finite-state automata approach. This work extends the use of the scientific intensional programming paradigm onto modeling and implementation of a cyberforensics investigation process with the backtrace of event reconstruction, modeling the evidence as multidimensional hierarchical contexts, and proving or disproving the claims with it in the intensional manner of evaluation. This is a practical, context-aware improvement over the finite state automata (FSA) approach we have seen in the related works. As a base implementation language model we use in this approach is a new dialect of the Lucid programming language, that we call Forensic Lucid and in this paper we focus on defining hierarchical contexts based on the intensional logic for the evaluation of cyberforensic expressions.

Mokhov, Serguei A; Debbabi, Mourad

2009-01-01

73

Forensic Analysis of Venezuelan Elections during the Chávez Presidency  

PubMed Central

Hugo Chávez dominated the Venezuelan electoral landscape since his first presidential victory in 1998 until his death in 2013. Nobody doubts that he always received considerable voter support in the numerous elections held during his mandate. However, the integrity of the electoral system has come into question since the 2004 Presidential Recall Referendum. From then on, different sectors of society have systematically alleged electoral irregularities or biases in favor of the incumbent party. We have carried out a thorough forensic analysis of the national-level Venezuelan electoral processes held during the 1998–2012 period to assess these complaints. The second-digit Benford's law and two statistical models of vote distributions, recently introduced in the literature, are reviewed and used in our case study. In addition, we discuss a new method to detect irregular variations in the electoral roll. The outputs obtained from these election forensic tools are examined taking into account the substantive context of the elections and referenda under study. Thus, we reach two main conclusions. Firstly, all the tools uncover anomalous statistical patterns, which are consistent with election fraud from 2004 onwards. Although our results are not a concluding proof of fraud, they signal the Recall Referendum as a turning point in the integrity of the Venezuelan elections. Secondly, our analysis calls into question the reliability of the electoral register since 2004. In particular, we found irregular variations in the electoral roll that were decisive in winning the 50% majority in the 2004 Referendum and in the 2012 Presidential Elections. PMID:24971462

Jiménez, Raúl; Hidalgo, Manuel

2014-01-01

74

Favorite Demonstration: Forensic Analysis Demonstration via Hawaii Five-O  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The interdisciplinary nature of a forensics-based demonstration encourages science majors to move beyond their own narrow fields of study. The demonstration described in this column emphasizes the interconnectedness of biology, chemistry, and geology. Forensic-based demonstrations such as this can also be used to introduce the protocols governing the application of discipline specific information to other fields of study.

Shmaefsky, Brian R.

2006-09-01

75

Advances in X-Ray Chemical Analysis, Japan, 45 (2014) ISSN 0911-7806 Role of Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy in the Forensic Analysis of  

E-print Network

Spectroscopy in the Forensic Analysis of Wakayama Curry Arsenic Poisoning Case Anthony T. TU and Jun KAWAI #12 80523, U. S. A. 606-8501 Role of Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy in the Forensic Analysis of Wakayama-8 X-ray fluorescence analysis was the key scientific evidence for the forensic analysis

Jun, Kawai

76

Nondestructive forensic analysis of antique stamps by use of synchrotron radiation infrared spectromicroscopy  

E-print Network

Nondestructive forensic analysis of antique stamps by use of synchrotron radiation infraredEnergy Sciences, Materials Science Division, of the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-ACO3-76SF

77

Forensic analysis of MTBE contamination using basic hydrogeologic concepts.  

PubMed

Contamination of groundwater with petroleum hydrocarbons and additives, such as methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), is often linked to the leaking product distribution system of gas stations. In very few cases is it know if and when a leak occurred and how much product was released to the environment. In the absence of direct evidence, a careful analysis of the available data, such as contaminant breakthrough at receptor wells or discrepancies in the product inventory data, may provide evidence about the nature of the release, its timing and magnitude. Using a MTBE contamination site in the formerly glaciated New England region as an example, two possible release scenarios (slow, long-term release vs. spill) were examined. Of the two scenarios, the slow release could be ruled out as the sole source even though there was no direct evidence for a spill. The analysis of hydraulic test results together with chemical data further permitted to estimate when such an undocumented spill might have occurred. Analyses of the data also allowed these results to be compared to that of a prior transport and fate modeling study. Good agreement and consistency for contaminant travel times was confirmed. This forensic analysis demonstrates that applying basic hydrogeologic principles can aide in the reconstruction of contamination events while providing more readily understandable and defendable evidence relative to complex models. Conceptually, the approach described herein is transferable to other sites with similar hydrogeologies. PMID:24840309

Boving, Thomas

2014-07-01

78

NanoSIMS analysis of Bacillus spores for forensics  

SciTech Connect

The threat associated with the potential use of radiological, nuclear, chemical and biological materials in terrorist acts has resulted in new fields of forensic science requiring the application of state-of-the-science analytical techniques. Since the anthrax letter attacks in the United States in the fall of 2001, there has been increased interest in physical and chemical characterization of bacterial spores. While molecular methods are powerful tools for identifying genetic differences, other methods may be able to differentiate genetically identical samples based on physical and chemical properties, as well as provide complimentary information, such as methods of production and approximate date of production. Microanalysis has the potential to contribute significantly to microbial forensics. Bacillus spores are highly structured, consisting of a core, cortex, coat, and in some species, an exosporium. This structure provides a template for constraining elemental abundance differences at the nanometer scale. The primary controls on the distribution of major elements in spores are likely structural and physiological. For example, P and Ca are known to be abundant in the spore core because that is where P-rich nucleic acids and Cadipicolinic acid are located, respectively. Trace elements are known to bind to the spore coat but the controls on these elements are less well understood. Elemental distributions and abundances may be directly related to spore production, purification and stabilization methodologies, which are of particular interest for forensic investigation. To this end, we are developing a high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry method using a Cameca NanoSIMS 50 to study the distribution and abundance of trace elements in bacterial spores. In this presentation we will review and compare methods for preparing and analyzing samples, as well as review results on the distribution and abundance of elements in bacterial spores. We use NanoSIMS to directly image samples as well as depth profile samples. The directly imaged samples are sectioned to present a flat surface for analysis. We use focused ion beam (FIB) milling to top-cut individual spores to create flat surfaces for NanoSIMS analysis. Depth profiling can be used on whole spores, which are consumed in the process of analysis. The two methods generate comparable results, with the expected distribution of P and Ca. Ca-compatible elements, such as Mg and Mn, are found to follow the distribution of Ca. The distribution of other elements will be discussed. We envision the first application of this methodology will be to sample matching for trace samples. Towards this end, we are generating a baseline data set for samples produced by multiple laboratories. Preliminary results suggest that this method provides significant probative value for identifying samples produced by the same method in the same laboratory, as well as coming from the same initial production run. The results of this study will be presented.

Weber, P K; Davisson, M L; Velsko, S P

2010-02-23

79

Forensic Analysis of Windows Hosts Using UNIX-based Tools  

SciTech Connect

Many forensic examiners are introduced to UNIX-based forensic utilities when faced with investigating a UNIX-like operating system for the first time. They will use these utilities for this very specific task, because in many cases these tools are the only ones for the given job. For example, at the time of this writing, given a FreeBSD 5.x file system, the author's only choice is to use The Coroner's Toolkit running on FreeBSD 5.x. However, many of the same tools examiners use for the occasional UNIX-like system investigation are extremely capable when a Windows system is the target. Indeed, the Linux operating system itself can prove to be an extremely useful forensics platform with very little use of specialized forensics utilities at all.

Cory Altheide

2004-07-19

80

Validation of mitochondrial DNA sequencing for forensic casework analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two sets of studies were performed to evaluate the forensic utility of sequencing human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) derived from various tissues and amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sequencing was performed on a Perkin-Elmer\\/Applied Biosystems Division (PE\\/ABD) automated DNA sequencer (model 373A). The first set of experiments included typical validation studies that had previously been conducted on forensic DNA

Mark R. Wilson; Joseph A. DiZinno; Deborah Polanskey; Jeri Replogle; Bruce Budowle

1995-01-01

81

Rapid Disaster Analysis based on Remote Sensing: A Case Study about the Tohoku Tsunami Disaster 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we present first results of RAPIDMAP, a project funded by European Union in a framework aiming to foster the cooperation of European countries with Japan in R&D. The main objective of RAPIDMAP is to construct a Decision Support System (DSS) based on remote sensing data and WebGIS technologies, where users can easily access real-time information assisting with disaster analysis. In this paper, we present a case study of the Tohoku Tsunami Disaster 2011. We address two approaches namely change detection based on SAR data and co-registration of optical and SAR satellite images. With respect to SAR data, our efforts are subdivided into three parts: (1) initial coarse change detection for entire area, (2) flood area detection, and (3) linearfeature change detection. The investigations are based on pre- and post-event TerraSAR-X images. In (1), two pre- and post-event TerraSAR-X images are accurately co-registered and radiometrically calibrated. Data are fused in a false-color image that provides a quick and rough overview of potential changes, which is useful for initial decision making and identifying areas worthwhile to be analysed further in more depth. However, a bunch of inevitable false alarms appear within the scene caused by speckle, temporal decorrelation, co-registration inaccuracy and so on. In (2), the post-event TerraSAR-X data are used to extract the flood area by using thresholding and morphological approaches. The validated result indicates that using SAR data combining with suitable morphological approaches is a quick and effective way to detect flood area. Except for usage of SAR data, the false-color image composed of optical images are also used to detect flood area for further exploration in this part. In (3), Curvelet filtering is applied in the difference image of pre- and post-event TerraSAR-X images not only to suppress false alarms of irregular-features, but also to enhance the change signals of linear-features (e.g. buildings) in settlements. Afterwards, thresholding is exploited to extract the linear-feature changes. In rapid mapping of disasters various sensors are often employed, including optical and SAR, since they provide complementary information. Such data needs to be analyzed in an integrated fashion and the results from each dataset should be integrated in a GIS with a common coordinate reference system. Thus, if no orthoimages can be generated, the images should be co-registered employing matching of common features. We present results of co-registration between optical (FORMOSAT-2) and TerraSAR-X images based on different matching methods, and also techniques for detecting and eliminating matching errors.

Yang, C. H.; Soergel, U.; Lanaras, Ch.; Baltsavias, E.; Cho, K.; Remondino, F.; Wakabayashi, H.

2014-09-01

82

NCSU Forensic Science Symposium December 6, 2011  

E-print Network

4th NCSU Forensic Science Symposium December 6, 2011 Convocation Room, College of Textiles, NCSU of North Texas 10:15 Break 10:45 Veterinary Forensic Science & Disaster Response Dr. Jason Byrd Associate Tulleners, MSFS Director, Forensic Science Graduate Program University of California at Davis 2:00 Overview

Langerhans, Brian

83

Crop insurance as a form of disaster relief: an analysis of the alternatives  

E-print Network

of MASTER OF AGRICULTURE May, 1990 Agricultural Economics Agribusiness Marketing and Management CROP INSURANCE AS A PORN OP DISASTER RELIEP: AN ANALYSIS OP THE ALTERNATIVES A Professional Paper by Cheryl Crenwelge Approved as to style and content by... insurance coverage. With the suggested changes, the two-tiered disaster insurance plan satisfies criteria 1-3 and has the potential of satisfying criterion 4 and 5. Thus, it provides the most viable proposal studied. CROP INSURANCE AS A PORN OP DISASTER...

Crenwelge, Cheryl

2012-06-07

84

Blood storage for forensic hemoglobin analysis using CO-oximeter.  

PubMed

Blood samples need to be stored for forensic examination using CO-oximeter in case immediate analysis is not possible at autopsy, or re-examinations are expected. In this study, we examined the condition for storage (temperature and air contact) to keep the initial values of hemoglobin derivatives unchanged for a long period. Fresh venous blood samples were divided into two groups; one group was stored without air and the other group with air headspace above the sample. The samples of each group were stored at 37 degrees C, room temperature (ca. 20-25 degrees C), ca. 4 degrees C and ca. -20 degrees C, respectively. They were analyzed with the use of CO-oximeter (CIBA-CORNING 270) a number of times during 6 weeks. And changes in the values of oxyhemoglobin (O2Hb), methemoglobin (MetHb), carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), deoxyhemoglobin (HHb) and total hemoglobin (THb) were examined. Also, another group of blood samples which were made high in COHb experimentally were stored without air at room temperature, ca. 4 degrees C and ca. -20 degrees C, and changes in the percentages of COHb of these samples were examined during 6 months. Our results indicated the following: When the purpose of storage is preservation of O2Hb, MetHb, COHb or HHb, storage at ca. 4 degrees C is considered appropriate, which can keep initial values for up to 2 weeks. As far as COHb is concerned, longer (at least 6 months) storage is possible at ca. 4 degrees C. And no contact with air is desirable in these storages. For THb, frozen storage may be best, which keeps the initial values for up to at least 4 to 6 weeks. In conclusion, when blood samples are stored for CO-oximeter analysis, the temperature and the period of storage should be decided according to the durability of each objective hemoglobin derivative. PMID:12911004

Watanabe, Naoya; Terazawa, Koichi; Sakaihara, Mitsuo

2003-07-01

85

A meta-analysis of risk factors for depression in adults and children after natural disasters  

PubMed Central

Background A number of studies have shown a range of negative psychological symptoms (e.g. depression) after exposure to natural disasters. The aim of this study was to determine risk factors for depression in both children and adults who have survived natural disasters. Methods Four electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and PsychInfo) were used to search for observational studies (case–control, cross-sectional, and cohort studies) about depression following natural disasters. The literature search, study selection, and data extraction were conducted independently by two authors. Thirty-one articles were included in the study, of which twenty included adult participants and eleven included child participants. Summary estimates were obtained using random-effects models. Subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, and publication bias tests were performed on the data. Results The prevalence of depression after natural disasters ranged from 5.8% to 54.0% in adults and from 7.5% to 44.8% in children. We found a number of risk factors for depression after exposure to natural disasters. For adults, the significant predictors were being female ;not married;holding religious beliefs; having poor education; prior trauma; experiencing fear, injury, or bereavement during the disaster; or losing employment or property, suffering house damage as a result of the disaster. For children, the significant predictors were prior trauma; being trapped during the disaster; experiencing injury, fear, or bereavement during the disaster; witnessing injury/death during the disaster; or having poor social support. Conclusions The current analysis provides evidence of risk factors for depression in survivors of natural disasters. Further research is necessary to design interventions to improve the mental health of survivors of natural disasters. PMID:24941890

2014-01-01

86

Temporary disaster debris management site identification using binomial cluster analysis and GIS.  

PubMed

An essential component of disaster planning and preparation is the identification and selection of temporary disaster debris management sites (DMS). However, since DMS identification is a complex process involving numerous variable constraints, many regional, county and municipal jurisdictions initiate this process during the post-disaster response and recovery phases, typically a period of severely stressed resources. Hence, a pre-disaster approach in identifying the most likely sites based on the number of locational constraints would significantly contribute to disaster debris management planning. As disasters vary in their nature, location and extent, an effective approach must facilitate scalability, flexibility and adaptability to variable local requirements, while also being generalisable to other regions and geographical extents. This study demonstrates the use of binomial cluster analysis in potential DMS identification in a case study conducted in Hamilton County, Indiana. PMID:24601923

Grzeda, Stanislaw; Mazzuchi, Thomas A; Sarkani, Shahram

2014-04-01

87

Model-based analysis of striation patterns in forensic science  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new image processing strategy that enables an automated extraction of signatures from striation patterns. To this end, a signal model is proposed that allows a suitable description of the interesting features of forensically relevant striation marks. To provide for a high image quality, several images of the same surface area are recorded under systematically varying conditions. The

M. Heizmann

2000-01-01

88

Pervasive Forensic Analysis Based on Mobile Cloud Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cloud computing has become one of mobile's hottest topics. Moving computing processing and data storage away from mobile devices and into large data centers, mobile applications enable the users to improve productivity, to share data and to collaborate with others. Considering the benefits of mobile cloud computing, the forensic service based on mobile cloud computing could be good solution to

Jooyoung Lee; Dowon Hong

2011-01-01

89

Paint Analysis Using Visible Reflectance Spectroscopy: An Undergraduate Forensic Lab  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study of forensic science is found throughout undergraduate programs in growing numbers, both as stand-alone courses as well as specific examples within existing courses. Part of the driving force for this trend is the ability to apply common chemistry techniques to everyday situations, all couched in the context of a mystery that must be…

Hoffman, Erin M.; Beussman, Douglas J.

2007-01-01

90

The Gender Analysis Tools Applied in Natural Disasters Management: A Systematic Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Background: Although natural disasters have caused considerable damages around the world, and gender analysis can improve community disaster preparedness or mitigation, there is little research about the gendered analytical tools and methods in communities exposed to natural disasters and hazards. These tools evaluate gender vulnerability and capacity in pre-disaster and post-disaster phases of the disaster management cycle. Objectives: Identifying the analytical gender tools and the strengths and limitations of them as well as determining gender analysis studies which had emphasized on the importance of using gender analysis in disasters. Methods: The literature search was conducted in June 2013 using PubMed, Web of Sciences, ProQuest Research Library, World Health Organization Library, Gender and Disaster Network (GDN) archive. All articles, guidelines, fact sheets and other materials that provided an analytical framework for a gender analysis approach in disasters were included and the non-English documents as well as gender studies of non-disasters area were excluded. Analysis of the included studies was done separately by descriptive and thematic analyses. Results: A total of 207 documents were retrieved, of which only nine references were included. Of these, 45% were in form of checklist, 33% case study report, and the remaining 22% were article. All selected papers were published within the period 1994-2012. Conclusions: A focus on women’s vulnerability in the related research and the lack of valid and reliable gender analysis tools were considerable issues identified by the literature review. Although non-English literatures with English abstract were included in the study, the possible exclusion of non-English ones was found as the limitation of this study. PMID:24678441

Sohrabizadeh, Sanaz; Tourani, Sogand; Khankeh, Hamid Reza

2014-01-01

91

Effects of population structure on DNA fingerprint analysis in forensic science  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA fingerprints are used in forensic science to identify individuals. However, current analyses could underestimate the probability of two individuals sharing the same profile because the effect of population structure is not incorporated. An alternative analysis is proposed to take into account population stratification. The analysis uses studies of inbreeding in human populations to obtain an empirical upper bound on

Richard A Nichols; David J Balding

1991-01-01

92

Forensic analysis of social networking application on iOS devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increased use of social networking application on iPhone and iPad make these devices a goldmine for forensic investigators. Besides, QQ, Wechat, Sina Weibo and skype applications are very popular in China and didn't draw attention to researchers. These social networking applications are used not only on computers, but also mobile phones and tablets. This paper focuses on conducting forensic analysis on these four social networking applications on iPhone and iPad devices. The tests consisted of installing the social networking applications on each device, conducting common user activities through each application and correlation analysis with other activities. Advices to the forensic investigators are also given. It could help the investigators to describe the crime behavior and reconstruct the crime venue.

Zhang, Shuhui; Wang, Lianhai

2013-12-01

93

Estimating the measurement uncertainty in forensic breath-alcohol analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evidentiary weight attributed to forensic breath alcohol results in drunk-driving prosecutions requires that measurement uncertainty be established and shown to be fit-for-purpose. The principal components contributing to breath alcohol measurement uncertainty include: (1) biological\\/sampling, (2) instrumental, (3) traceability and (4) the water\\/air partition coefficient for control standards. Employing duplicate breath results from over 92,000 subjects to estimate the biological\\/sampling

Rod G. Gullberg

2006-01-01

94

The Y chromosome in forensic analysis and paternity testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The male specificity of the human Y chromosome makes it potentially useful in forensic studies and paternity testing, and\\u000a markers are now available which will allow its usefulness to be assessed in practice. However, while it can be used confidently\\u000a for exclusions, the unusual properties of the Y mean that inclusions will be very difficult to make: haplotypes are confined

M. A. Jobling; A. Pandya; C. Tyler-Smith

1997-01-01

95

Lecture Notes On Forensic Law  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers lecture notes relating to an introductory survey course on forensic science. It is designed to provide a comprehensive understanding and analysis of technical and legal issues involving forensic techniques. The lectures, focus on traditional subjects relating to the services of crime laboratories,but also deals with allied subjects,including forensic psychiatry, forensic pathology, and social science.

O'Connor, Tom

2011-07-14

96

A critical analysis of the South African Disaster Management Act and Policy Framework.  

PubMed

The promulgation of the South African Disaster Management Act No. 57 of 2002 and the National Disaster Management Policy Framework of 2005 placed South Africa at the international forefront by integrating disaster risk reduction into all spheres of government through a decentralised approach. Yet, good policy and legislation do not necessarily translate into good practice. This paper provides a critical analysis of the Act and Policy Framework. Using qualitative research methods, it analyses the attitudes and perceptions of senior public officials on all levels of government, the private sector and academia. The study finds that one of the weakest aspects of the Act and Framework is the absence of clear guidance to local municipalities. The placement of the disaster risk management function on all tiers of government remains problematic, funding is inadequate and overall knowledge and capacities for disaster risk reduction are insufficient. PMID:25196341

van Niekerk, Dewald

2014-10-01

97

Validation of a framework for measuring hospital disaster resilience using factor analysis.  

PubMed

Hospital disaster resilience can be defined as "the ability of hospitals to resist, absorb, and respond to the shock of disasters while maintaining and surging essential health services, and then to recover to its original state or adapt to a new one." This article aims to provide a framework which can be used to comprehensively measure hospital disaster resilience. An evaluation framework for assessing hospital resilience was initially proposed through a systematic literature review and Modified-Delphi consultation. Eight key domains were identified: hospital safety, command, communication and cooperation system, disaster plan, resource stockpile, staff capability, disaster training and drills, emergency services and surge capability, and recovery and adaptation. The data for this study were collected from 41 tertiary hospitals in Shandong Province in China, using a specially designed questionnaire. Factor analysis was conducted to determine the underpinning structure of the framework. It identified a four-factor structure of hospital resilience, namely, emergency medical response capability (F1), disaster management mechanisms (F2), hospital infrastructural safety (F3), and disaster resources (F4). These factors displayed good internal consistency. The overall level of hospital disaster resilience (F) was calculated using the scoring model: F = 0.615F1 + 0.202F2 + 0.103F3 + 0.080F4. This validated framework provides a new way to operationalise the concept of hospital resilience, and it is also a foundation for the further development of the measurement instrument in future studies. PMID:24945190

Zhong, Shuang; Clark, Michele; Hou, Xiang-Yu; Zang, Yuli; FitzGerald, Gerard

2014-06-01

98

Validation of a Framework for Measuring Hospital Disaster Resilience Using Factor Analysis  

PubMed Central

Hospital disaster resilience can be defined as “the ability of hospitals to resist, absorb, and respond to the shock of disasters while maintaining and surging essential health services, and then to recover to its original state or adapt to a new one.” This article aims to provide a framework which can be used to comprehensively measure hospital disaster resilience. An evaluation framework for assessing hospital resilience was initially proposed through a systematic literature review and Modified-Delphi consultation. Eight key domains were identified: hospital safety, command, communication and cooperation system, disaster plan, resource stockpile, staff capability, disaster training and drills, emergency services and surge capability, and recovery and adaptation. The data for this study were collected from 41 tertiary hospitals in Shandong Province in China, using a specially designed questionnaire. Factor analysis was conducted to determine the underpinning structure of the framework. It identified a four-factor structure of hospital resilience, namely, emergency medical response capability (F1), disaster management mechanisms (F2), hospital infrastructural safety (F3), and disaster resources (F4). These factors displayed good internal consistency. The overall level of hospital disaster resilience (F) was calculated using the scoring model: F = 0.615F1 + 0.202F2 + 0.103F3 + 0.080F4. This validated framework provides a new way to operationalise the concept of hospital resilience, and it is also a foundation for the further development of the measurement instrument in future studies. PMID:24945190

Zhong, Shuang; Clark, Michele; Hou, Xiang-Yu; Zang, Yuli; FitzGerald, Gerard

2014-01-01

99

Thermal analysis as an aid to forensics: Alkane melting and oxidative stability of wool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interdisciplinary methods and thermal analytical techniques in particular are effective tools in aiding the identification and characterization of materials in question involved in civil or criminal law. Forensic material science uses systematic knowledge of the physical or material world gained through analysis, observation and experimentation. Thermal analytical data can be used to aid the legal system in interpreting technical variations

Alan Riga

1998-01-01

100

Forensic elemental analysis of materials by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Materials analysis and characterization can provide important information as evidence in legal proceedings. Although the utility of trace elemental analyses for comparisons of glass, paint chips, bullet lead and metal fragments has been shown to offer a high degree of discrimination between different sources of these materials, the instrumentation required for the generation of good analytical data in forensic comparisons

Jose R. Almirall; Sayuri Umpierrez; Waleska Castro; Igor Gornushkin; James Winefordner

2005-01-01

101

The forensic analysis of soils and sediment taken from the cast of a footprint  

Microsoft Academic Search

The routine production of a cast of a shoe-print taken in soil provides information other than shoe size and gait. Material adhering to the surface of the cast represents the preservation of the moment of footprint impression. The analysis of the interface between the cast and soil is therefore a potentially lucrative source of information for forensic reconstruction. These principles

Peter A. Bull; Adrian Parker; Ruth M. Morgan

2006-01-01

102

Forensic Analysis of Illicit Drugs and Trace Explosives using Ambient Pressure  

E-print Network

Forensic Analysis of Illicit Drugs and Trace Explosives using Ambient Pressure Ionization Mass · Performance of Mass Spectrometers and MS/MS (chemical speciation and identification) ­ No need surfaces Typical enhancement of 10x but have seen up to 2000x enhancement Liquid: Nebulizer Assisted DESI

Perkins, Richard A.

103

GC-MS Analysis of [gamma]-Hydroxybutyric Acid Analogs: A Forensic Chemistry Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An upper-division forensic chemistry experiment is described. It involves using glycolic acid and sodium glycolate as analogs of [gamma]-hydroxybutyric acid and its sodium salt. The experiment shows the use of silylation in GC-MS analysis and gives students the opportunity to work with a commonly used silylating reagent,…

Henck, Colin; Nally, Luke

2007-01-01

104

Forensic pedology, forensic geology, forensic geoscience, geoforensics and soil forensics.  

PubMed

We now have a confusing set of five commonly used terms for the application of Earth evidence in forensic science. This confusion is resulting in Earth scientists who use these methods mentioning different terms, sometimes for the same type of study. Likewise, forensic scientists, police/law enforcement officers and those employed by courts of law are becoming confused as to what each term means. A nomenclatural framework (based on the first use of each term) is proposed to encourage consistency in the use of terminology. Generally, the number of Earth science applications has grown through time, from soil and sediment analysis to remote sensing and GIS. The issue of where forensic biology and microbiology sits with these uses of Earth evidence is considered. PMID:20430544

Ruffell, Alastair

2010-10-10

105

Maori heads (mokomokai): the usefulness of a complete forensic analysis procedure.  

PubMed

Based on an analysis of 19 mummified Maori heads (mokomokai) referred to our forensic laboratory for anthropological analysis prior to their official repatriation from France to New Zealand, and data from the anthropological and medical literature, we propose a complete forensic procedure for the analysis of such pieces. A list of 12 original morphological criteria was developed. Items included the sex, age at death, destruction of the skull base, the presence of argil deposits in the inner part of the skull, nostrils closed with exogenous material, sewing of eyelids and lips, pierced earlobes, ante-mortem and/or post-mortem tattoos, the presence of vegetal fibers within nasal cavities, and other pathological or anthropological anomalies. These criteria were tested for all 19 mokomokai repatriated to New Zealand by the French authorities. Further complementary analyses were limited to fiberscopic examination of the intracranial cavities because of the taboo on any sampling requested by the Maori authorities. In the context of global repatriation of human artifacts to native communities, this type of anthropological expertise is increasingly frequently requested of forensic anthropologists and other practitioners. We discuss the reasons for and against repatriating non-authentic artifacts to such communities and the role played by forensic anthropologists during the authentication process. PMID:24748277

Charlier, Philippe; Huynh-Charlier, Isabelle; Brun, Luc; Champagnat, Julie; Laquay, Laetitia; Hervé, Christian

2014-09-01

106

Forensic Anthropology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this AHS Capstone project, the aim was to explore issues in the identification and interpretation of human bones: sex, age, stature, ancestry, pathology, and anomalies. The reconstruction of individuals and their lifestyles and role of forensic anthropology in mass fatalities were focus of this social behavioral analysis as well.

Christina Cary

2008-01-01

107

Climate Change, Disaster and Sentiment Analysis over Social Media Mining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accelerated climate change causes disasters and disrupts people living all over the globe. Disruptive climate events are often reflected in expressed sentiments of the people affected. Monitoring changes in these sentiments during and after disasters can reveal relationships between climate change and mental health. We developed a semantic web tool that uses linked data principles and semantic web technologies to integrate data from multiple sources and analyze them together. We are converting statistical data on climate change and disaster records obtained from the World Bank data catalog and the International Disaster Database into a Resource Description Framework (RDF) representation that was annotated with the RDF Data Cube vocabulary. We compare these data with a dataset of tweets that mention terms from the Emotion Ontology to get a sense of how disasters can impact the affected populations. This dataset is being gathered using an infrastructure we developed that extracts term uses in Twitter with controlled vocabularies. This data was also converted to RDF structure so that statistical data on the climate change and disasters is analyzed together with sentiment data. To visualize and explore relationship of the multiple data across the dimensions of time and location, we use the qb.js framework. We are using this approach to investigate the social and emotional impact of climate change. We hope that this will demonstrate the use of social media data as a valuable source of understanding on global climate change.

Lee, J.; McCusker, J. P.; McGuinness, D. L.

2012-12-01

108

Advances in X-Ray Chemical Analysis, Japan, 43 (2012) ISSN 0911-7806 Reviews on Forensic Analysis of Wakayama Arsenic Case  

E-print Network

Advances in X-Ray Chemical Analysis, Japan, 43 (2012) ISSN 0911-7806 © X Reviews on Forensic;#12;43 49 X Adv. X-Ray. Chem. Anal., Japan 43, pp.49-87 (2012) 606-8501 X Reviews on Forensic Analysis of Wakayama Arsenic Case ­ X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis ­ Submitted to Court Jun KAWAI Department of Materials

Jun, Kawai

109

An analysis of forensic entomological specimens by Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.  

PubMed

This study reviews forensic entomological specimens analysed by the Department of Parasitology & Medical Entomology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia for the year 2004. A total of 10 cases (6 males and 4 females) were observed for the entomological specimens. Various types of death scenes were obtained including indoor and outdoor area such as bushes field, rubbish dumping site, and aquatic areas. Identified fly species collected from the death sites were blow flies, Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya rufifacies and Lucilia cuprina and unknown sarcophagid larvae, with Ch. megacephala being the most common species found in the ecologically varied death scene habitats. The post-mortem interval (PMI) estimation ranged from one to five days, based on the entomological specimens collected. PMID:21939166

Syamsa, R A; Ahmad, F M S; Marwi, M A; Zuha, R M; Omar, B

2010-09-01

110

Forensic trace DNA: a review  

PubMed Central

DNA analysis is frequently used to acquire information from biological material to aid enquiries associated with criminal offences, disaster victim identification and missing persons investigations. As the relevance and value of DNA profiling to forensic investigations has increased, so too has the desire to generate this information from smaller amounts of DNA. Trace DNA samples may be defined as any sample which falls below recommended thresholds at any stage of the analysis, from sample detection through to profile interpretation, and can not be defined by a precise picogram amount. Here we review aspects associated with the collection, DNA extraction, amplification, profiling and interpretation of trace DNA samples. Contamination and transfer issues are also briefly discussed within the context of trace DNA analysis. Whilst several methodological changes have facilitated profiling from trace samples in recent years it is also clear that many opportunities exist for further improvements. PMID:21122102

2010-01-01

111

Validation of the direct analysis in real time source for use in forensic drug screening.  

PubMed

The Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART) ion source is a relatively new mass spectrometry technique that is seeing widespread use in chemical analyses world-wide. DART studies include such diverse topics as analysis of flavors and fragrances, melamine in contaminated dog food, differentiation of writing inks, characterization of solid counterfeit drugs, and as a detector for planar chromatography. Validation of this new technique for the rapid screening of forensic evidence for drugs of abuse, utilizing the DART source coupled to an accurate mass time-of-flight mass spectrometer, was conducted. The study consisted of the determination of the lower limit of detection for the method, determination of selectivity and a comparison of this technique to established analytical protocols. Examples of DART spectra are included. The results of this study have allowed the Virginia Department of Forensic Science to incorporate this new technique into their analysis scheme for the screening of solid dosage forms of drugs of abuse. PMID:19302399

Steiner, Robert R; Larson, Robyn L

2009-05-01

112

1 Forensic Sciences FORENSIC SCIENCES  

E-print Network

1 Forensic Sciences FORENSIC SCIENCES As part of the Columbian College of Arts and Sciences' natural, mathematical and biomedical sciences programs, the forensic sciences program provides of the results. The Master of Forensic Sciences program offers the following concentrations: forensic chemistry

Vertes, Akos

113

FORENSIC SCIENCE About Forensic Science  

E-print Network

Fact Sheet FORENSIC SCIENCE About Forensic Science: The Forensic Science program at SJSU offers: The SJSU Forensic Science program delivers coursework and training to · Empowergraduatestobecomeagentsofchangetorecognize, document and report errors and injustices in the practice of forensic science and crime scene

Su, Xiao

114

Forensic Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a review of articles appealing to forensic practitioners. Topics include: drugs and poisons, forensic biochemistry, and trace evidence. Lists noteworthy books published on forensic science topics since 1986. (MVL)

Brettell, T. A.; Saferstein, R.

1989-01-01

115

Forensic Entomology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A succinct but clear introduction to forensic entomology with an emphasis on the role of the forensic investigator. Covers life cycles, protocols, information to collect at the scene. Also provides links to other forensic entomology websites and resources.

0002-11-30

116

Iranian nurses’ experience of essential technical competences in disaster response: A qualitative content analysis study  

PubMed Central

Background: Today disasters are a part of many people's lives. Iran has a long history of disaster events and nurses are one of the most significant groups within the Iranian disaster relief operations, providing immediate and long-term care for those affected by the disaster. However, the technical competence of Iranian nurses and their training for this work has received little attention. This article presents the results of a study that aims to explore this context. Materials and Methods: A qualitative study was conducted using in-depth interviews to collect data from 30 nurses, who were deliberately selected from the health centers affiliated to the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Themes were identified using the conventional qualitative content analysis. The trustworthiness of the study was supported by considering the auditability, neutrality, consistency, and transferability. The study lasted from 2011 to 2012. Results: Data analysis undertaken for the qualitative study resulted in the identification of five main themes, which included: (1) Management competences, (2) ethical and legal competences, (3) team working, and (4) personal abilities and the specific technical competences presented in this report. Conclusions: This report presents an overview of the nursing technical capabilities required for Iranian nurses during disaster relief. It is argued that additional competencies are required for nurses who care in high-risk situations, including disasters. Nurses need to prepare themselves more effectively to be responsible and effective in nursing care. PMID:25558255

Aliakbari, Fatemeh; Bahrami, Masoud; Aein, Fereshteh; Khankeh, Hamidreza

2014-01-01

117

The Vulnerable System: An Analysis of the Tenerife Air Disaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tenerife air disaster, in which a KLM 747 and a Pan Am 747 collided with a loss of 583 lives, is examined as a prototype of system vulnerability to crisis. It is concluded that the combination of interruption of important routines among interdependent systems, interdependencies that become tighter, a loss of cognitive efficiency due to autonomic arousal, and a

Karl E. Weick

1990-01-01

118

Forensic comparative glass analysis by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glass samples of four types commonly encountered in forensic examinations have been analyzed by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the purpose of discriminating between samples originating from different sources. Some of the glass sets were also examined by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Refractive index (RI) measurements were also made on all glass samples and the refractive index data was combined with the LIBS and with the LA-ICP-MS data to enhance discrimination. The glass types examined included float glass taken from front and side automobile windows (examined on the non-float side), automobile headlamp glass, automobile side-mirror glass and brown beverage container glass. The largest overall discrimination was obtained by employing RI data in combination with LA-ICP-MS (98.8% discrimination of 666 pairwise comparisons at 95% confidence), while LIBS in combination with RI provided a somewhat lower discrimination (87.2% discrimination of 1122 pairwise comparisons at 95% confidence). Samples of side-mirror glass were less discriminated by LIBS due to a larger variance in emission intensities, while discrimination of side-mirror glass by LA-ICP-MS remained high.

Bridge, Candice M.; Powell, Joseph; Steele, Katie L.; Sigman, Michael E.

2007-12-01

119

Soil examination for a forensic trace evidence laboratory - Part 2: Elemental analysis.  

PubMed

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) are compared in terms of their discrimination power when applied to Australian soil specimens. SEM/EDX and XRF are frequently used in forensic laboratories for the elemental analysis of paint and glass, and for miscellaneous examinations. LIBS is an emerging technique for forensic applications, with a number of researchers promoting its use for the elemental profiling of glass fragments. In this study, 29 soil specimens were analysed, with 12 specimens coming from the Canberra area and the remaining 17 specimens from other sites around Australia. As very good discrimination results were obtained for each of the analytical methods, any of these elemental analysis techniques, available in a trace evidence laboratory, could be used as part of a wider examination protocol to differentiate soil specimens. PMID:25459270

Woods, Brenda; Paul Kirkbride, K; Lennard, Chris; Robertson, James

2014-10-14

120

Forensic Casework Analysis Using the HVI\\/HVII mtDNA Linear Array Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: The mitochondrial hypervariable regions I and II have proven to be a useful target for analysis of forensic materials, in which the amount of DNA is limited or highly degraded. Conventional mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing can be time-consuming and expensive, limitations that can be minimized,using a faster and less expensive typing assay. We have evaluated the exclusion capacity of

Anna-Maria Divne; Martina Nilsson; Cassandra Calloway; Rebecca Reynolds; Henry Erlich; Marie Allen

2005-01-01

121

Integrated sample cleanup and capillary array electrophoresis microchip for forensic short tandem repeat analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A twelve-lane capillary array electrophoresis (CAE) microsystem is developed that utilizes an efficient inline capture injection process together with the classical radial microfabricated capillary array electrophoresis (?CAE) format for high-sensitivity forensic short tandem repeat (STR) analysis. Biotin-labeled 9-plex STR amplicons are captured in a photopolymerized gel plug via the strong binding of streptavidin and biotin, followed by efficient washing and

Peng Liu; James R. Scherer; Susan A. Greenspoon; Thomas N. Chiesl; Richard A. Mathies

2011-01-01

122

Identifying 1st instar larvae for three forensically important blowfly species using "fingerprint" cuticular hydrocarbon analysis.  

PubMed

Calliphoridae are known to be the most forensically important insects when it comes to establishing the minimum post mortem interval (PMImin) in criminal investigations. The first step in calculating the PMImin is to identify the larvae present to species level. Accurate identification which is conventionally carried out by morphological analysis is crucial because different insects have different life stage timings. Rapid identification in the immature larvae stages would drastically cut time in criminal investigations as it would eliminate the need to rear larvae to adult flies to determine the species. Cuticular hydrocarbon analysis on 1st instar larvae has been applied to three forensically important blowflies; Lucilia sericata, Calliphora vicina and Calliphora vomitoria, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and principal component analysis (PCA). The results show that each species holds a distinct "fingerprint" hydrocarbon profile, allowing for accurate identification to be established in 1-day old larvae, when it can be challenging to apply morphological criteria. Consequently, this GC-MS based technique could accelerate and strengthen the identification process, not only for forensically important species, but also for other entomological samples which are hard to identify using morphological features. PMID:24815992

Moore, Hannah E; Adam, Craig D; Drijfhout, Falko P

2014-07-01

123

NISTIR 7100 PDA Forensic Tools  

E-print Network

NISTIR 7100 PDA Forensic Tools: AnOverviewandAnalysis RickAyers WayneJansen #12;ii NISTIR 7100 C O M P U T E R S E C U R I T Y PDA Forensic Tools: An Overview and Analysis Rick Ayers Wayne Jansen incident, forensic examiners require tools that allow the proper retrieval and speedy examination

124

Forensic soil DNA analysis using high-throughput sequencing: a comparison of four molecular markers.  

PubMed

Soil analysis, such as mineralogy, geophysics, texture and colour, are commonly used in forensic casework to link a suspect to a crime scene. However, DNA analysis can also be applied to characterise the vast diversity of organisms present in soils. DNA metabarcoding and high-throughput sequencing (HTS) now offer a means to improve discrimination between forensic soil samples by identifying individual taxa and exploring non-culturable microbial species. Here, we compare the small-scale reproducibility and resolution of four molecular markers targeting different taxa (bacterial 16S rRNA, eukaryotic18S rRNA, plant trnL intron and fungal internal transcribed spacer I (ITS1) rDNA) to distinguish two sample sites. We also assess the background DNA level associated with each marker and examine the effects of filtering Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) detected in extraction blank controls. From this study, we show that non-bacterial taxa in soil, particularly fungi, can provide the greatest resolution between the sites, whereas plant markers may be problematic for forensic discrimination. ITS and 18S markers exhibit reliable amplification, and both show high discriminatory power with low background DNA levels. The 16S rRNA marker showed comparable discriminatory power post filtering; however, presented the highest level of background DNA. The discriminatory power of all markers was increased by applying OTU filtering steps, with the greatest improvement observed by the removal of any sequences detected in extraction blanks. This study demonstrates the potential use of multiple DNA markers for forensic soil analysis using HTS, and identifies some of the standardisation and evaluation steps necessary before this technique can be applied in casework. PMID:25151602

Young, Jennifer M; Weyrich, Laura S; Cooper, Alan

2014-11-01

125

Parallel digital forensics infrastructure.  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the architecture and implementation of a Parallel Digital Forensics infrastructure. This infrastructure is necessary for supporting the design, implementation, and testing of new classes of parallel digital forensics tools. Digital Forensics has become extremely difficult with data sets of one terabyte and larger. The only way to overcome the processing time of these large sets is to identify and develop new parallel algorithms for performing the analysis. To support algorithm research, a flexible base infrastructure is required. A candidate architecture for this base infrastructure was designed, instantiated, and tested by this project, in collaboration with New Mexico Tech. Previous infrastructures were not designed and built specifically for the development and testing of parallel algorithms. With the size of forensics data sets only expected to increase significantly, this type of infrastructure support is necessary for continued research in parallel digital forensics. This report documents the implementation of the parallel digital forensics (PDF) infrastructure architecture and implementation.

Liebrock, Lorie M. (New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM); Duggan, David Patrick

2009-10-01

126

Monte Carlo analysis of thermochromatography as a fast separation method for nuclear forensics  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear forensic science has become increasingly important for global nuclear security, and enhancing the timeliness of forensic analysis has been established as an important objective in the field. New, faster techniques must be developed to meet this objective. Current approaches for the analysis of minor actinides, fission products, and fuel-specific materials require time-consuming chemical separation coupled with measurement through either nuclear counting or mass spectrometry. These very sensitive measurement techniques can be hindered by impurities or incomplete separation in even the most painstaking chemical separations. High-temperature gas-phase separation or thermochromatography has been used in the past for the rapid separations in the study of newly created elements and as a basis for chemical classification of that element. This work examines the potential for rapid separation of gaseous species to be applied in nuclear forensic investigations. Monte Carlo modeling has been used to evaluate the potential utility of the thermochromatographic separation method, albeit this assessment is necessarily limited due to the lack of available experimental data for validation.

Hall, Howard L [ORNL

2012-01-01

127

Assessment of high resolution melting analysis as a potential SNP genotyping technique in forensic casework.  

PubMed

High resolution melting (HRM) analysis is a simple, cost effective, closed tube SNP genotyping technique with high throughput potential. The effectiveness of HRM for forensic SNP genotyping was assessed with five commercially available HRM kits evaluated on the ViiA™ 7 Real Time PCR instrument. Four kits performed satisfactorily against forensically relevant criteria. One was further assessed to determine the sensitivity, reproducibility, and accuracy of HRM SNP genotyping. The manufacturer's protocol using 0.5 ng input DNA and 45 PCR cycles produced accurate and reproducible results for 17 of the 19 SNPs examined. Problematic SNPs had GC rich flanking regions which introduced additional melting domains into the melting curve (rs1800407) or included homozygotes that were difficult to distinguish reliably (rs16891982; a G to C SNP). A proof of concept multiplexing experiment revealed that multiplexing a small number of SNPs may be possible after further investigation. HRM enables genotyping of a number of SNPs in a large number of samples without extensive optimization. However, it requires more genomic DNA as template in comparison to SNaPshot®. Furthermore, suitably modifying pre-existing forensic intelligence SNP panels for HRM analysis may pose difficulties due to the properties of some SNPs. PMID:25142205

Venables, Samantha J; Mehta, Bhavik; Daniel, Runa; Walsh, Simon J; van Oorschot, Roland A H; McNevin, Dennis

2014-11-01

128

Comparative analysis of LWR and FBR spent fuels for nuclear forensics evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some interesting issues are attributed to nuclide compositions of spent fuels from thermal reactors as well as fast reactors such as a potential to reuse as recycled fuel, and a possible capability to be manage as a fuel for destructive devices. In addition, analysis on nuclear forensics which is related to spent fuel compositions becomes one of the interesting topics to evaluate the origin and the composition of spent fuels from the spent fuel foot-prints. Spent fuel compositions of different fuel types give some typical spent fuel foot prints and can be estimated the origin of source of those spent fuel compositions. Some technics or methods have been developing based on some science and technological capability including experimental and modeling or theoretical aspects of analyses. Some foot-print of nuclear forensics will identify the typical information of spent fuel compositions such as enrichment information, burnup or irradiation time, reactor types as well as the cooling time which is related to the age of spent fuels. This paper intends to evaluate the typical spent fuel compositions of light water (LWR) and fast breeder reactors (FBR) from the view point of some foot prints of nuclear forensics. An established depletion code of ORIGEN is adopted to analyze LWR spent fuel (SF) for several burnup constants and decay times. For analyzing some spent fuel compositions of FBR, some coupling codes such as SLAROM code, JOINT and CITATION codes including JFS-3-J-3.2R as nuclear data library have been adopted. Enriched U-235 fuel composition of oxide type is used for fresh fuel of LWR and a mixed oxide fuel (MOX) for FBR fresh fuel. Those MOX fuels of FBR come from the spent fuels of LWR. Some typical spent fuels from both LWR and FBR will be compared to distinguish some typical foot-prints of SF based on nuclear forensic analysis.

Permana, Sidik; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Su'ud, Zaki

2012-06-01

129

A novel method for the analysis of 20 multi-Indel polymorphisms and its forensic application.  

PubMed

Insertion/deletion polymorphisms (Indels) have been considered as potential markers for forensic DNA analysis. However, the discrimination power of Indels is relatively lower due to the poor polymorphisms of diallelic markers. Here, two to three Indel loci that were very tightly linked in physical position were combined into a specific multi-Indel marker to improve the discrimination, as well as a multiplex that consisted of a set of multi-Indel markers was developed for forensic purpose. Finally, a multiplex system with 20 multi-Indel markers including 43 Indel loci from dbSNP database was constructed and DNA sample can be analyzed by this multiplex in one PCR reaction and one CE run. A total of 150 unrelated individuals from Hunan province in South-central China were genotyped by the multiplex system. The result showed that a total of 63 specific amplicons were detected, three alleles were observed in multi-Indel markers including two Indel loci and four alleles were observed in the markers including three Indel loci. The cumulative probability of exclusion and the accumulated discrimination power were 0.9989 and 0.9999999999994, respectively. Our result demonstrated that the strategy could be efficient to develop higher polymorphic multi-Indel markers, and the new multiplex could provide Supporting Information for forensic application. PMID:24242919

Huang, Jian; Luo, Haibo; Wei, Wei; Hou, Yiping

2014-02-01

130

DNA Commission of the International Society of Forensic Genetics: recommendations on forensic analysis using Y-chromosome STRs  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past few years the DNA commission of the International Society of Forensic Genetics has published a series of\\u000a documents providing guidelines and recommendations concerning the application of DNA polymorphisms to the problems of human\\u000a identification. This latest report addresses a relatively new area, namely Y-chromosome polymorphisms, with particular emphasis\\u000a on short tandem repeats (STRs). This report addresses nomenclature,

P. Gill; C. Brenner; B. Brinkmann; B. Budowle; A. Carracedo; M. A. Jobling; P. de Knijff; M. Kayser; M. Krawczak; W. R. Mayr; N. Morling; B. Olaisen; V. Pascali; M. Prinz; L. Roewer; P. M. Schneider; A. Sajantila; C. Tyler-Smith

2001-01-01

131

Frequency spectrum method-based stress analysis for oil pipelines in earthquake disaster areas.  

PubMed

When a long distance oil pipeline crosses an earthquake disaster area, inertial force and strong ground motion can cause the pipeline stress to exceed the failure limit, resulting in bending and deformation failure. To date, researchers have performed limited safety analyses of oil pipelines in earthquake disaster areas that include stress analysis. Therefore, using the spectrum method and theory of one-dimensional beam units, CAESAR II is used to perform a dynamic earthquake analysis for an oil pipeline in the XX earthquake disaster area. This software is used to determine if the displacement and stress of the pipeline meet the standards when subjected to a strong earthquake. After performing the numerical analysis, the primary seismic action axial, longitudinal and horizontal displacement directions and the critical section of the pipeline can be located. Feasible project enhancement suggestions based on the analysis results are proposed. The designer is able to utilize this stress analysis method to perform an ultimate design for an oil pipeline in earthquake disaster areas; therefore, improving the safe operation of the pipeline. PMID:25692790

Wu, Xiaonan; Lu, Hongfang; Huang, Kun; Wu, Shijuan; Qiao, Weibiao

2015-01-01

132

A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Stance in Disaster News Reports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines stance in cross-cultural media discourse by comparing disaster news reports on the Sichuan earthquake of May 2008 in a Chinese, an Australian Chinese, and an Australian newspaper. The stance taken in the news reports is examined using the Attitude sub-system of Martin and White's (2005) Appraisal framework. The analysis

Liu, Lian; Stevenson, Marie

2013-01-01

133

Discriminant Analysis of Raman Spectra for Body Fluid Identification for Forensic Purposes  

PubMed Central

Detection and identification of blood, semen and saliva stains, the most common body fluids encountered at a crime scene, are very important aspects of forensic science today. This study targets the development of a nondestructive, confirmatory method for body fluid identification based on Raman spectroscopy coupled with advanced statistical analysis. Dry traces of blood, semen and saliva obtained from multiple donors were probed using a confocal Raman microscope with a 785-nm excitation wavelength under controlled laboratory conditions. Results demonstrated the capability of Raman spectroscopy to identify an unknown substance to be semen, blood or saliva with high confidence. PMID:22319277

Sikirzhytski, Vitali; Virkler, Kelly; Lednev, Igor K.

2010-01-01

134

Advanced Signal Analysis for Forensic Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar  

SciTech Connect

Ground penetrating radar (GPR) systems have traditionally been used to image subsurface objects. The main focus of this paper is to evaluate an advanced signal analysis technique. Instead of compiling spatial data for the analysis, this technique conducts object recognition procedures based on spectral statistics. The identification feature of an object type is formed from the training vectors by a singular-value decomposition procedure. To illustrate its capability, this procedure is applied to experimental data and compared to the performance of the neural-network approach.

Steven Koppenjan; Matthew Streeton; Hua Lee; Michael Lee; Sashi Ono

2004-06-01

135

The Engagement of Academic Institutions in Community Disaster Response: A Comparative Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective Using comparative analysis, we examined the factors that influence the engagement of academic institutions in community disaster response. Methods We identified colleges and universities located in counties affected by four Federal Emergency Management Agency-declared disasters (Kentucky ice storms, Hurricanes Ike and Gustav, California wildfires, and the Columbia space shuttle disintegration) and performed key informant interviews with officials from public health, emergency management, and academic institutions in those counties. We used a comparative case study approach to explore particular resources provided by academic institutions, processes for engagement, and reasons for engagement or lack thereof in the community disaster response. Results Academic institutions contribute a broad range of resources to community disaster response. Their involvement and the extent of their engagement is variable and influenced by (1) their resources, (2) preexisting relationships with public health and emergency management organizations, (3) the structure and organizational placement of the school's disaster planning and response office, and (4) perceptions of liability and lines of authority. Facilitators of engagement include (1) the availability of faculty expertise or special training programs, (2) academic staff presence on public health and emergency management planning boards, (3) faculty contracts and student practica, (4) incident command system or emergency operations training of academic staff, and (5) the existence of mutual aid or memoranda of agreements. Conclusion While a range of relationships exist between academic institutions that engage with public health and emergency management agencies in community disaster response, recurrent win-win themes include co-appointed faculty and staff; field experience opportunities for students; and shared planning and training for academic, public health, and emergency management personnel. PMID:25355979

Dunlop, Anne L.; Logue, Kristi M.

2014-01-01

136

THE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF APPLICATION OF TEETH IN FORENSIC ODONTOLOGY CENTER, TEHRAN, IRAN, 1980-2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This retrospective study investigated cases in Tehran Forensic Odontology Center, which have been solved by using teeth as the main proof. Methodology: Two hundred forty eight files in archives of Tehran forensic odonotology center during years 1980 to 2000 were reviewed and the data collected from each file. Results: It shows that only 12 cases (4.8%) used the forensic

Amir Deebaei; Hadi Fathi Moghaddam; Parivash Delkhosh

137

DEVELOPING A FORENSIC METHOD OF ACQUISITION AND ANALYSIS OF THE MOTOROLA XOOM TABLET  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is currently no forensically sound method for analyzing the Motorola Xoom tablet. The purpose of this research is to determine whether a forensically sound method can be developed for the Motorola Xoom tablet running the Ice Cream Sandwich Android operating system. This research is important for investigators as the more forensically sound method offers greater protection relating to an

Justin A Tolman

2012-01-01

138

Forensic Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes the type of work carried out by forensic chemists and the minimum qualification needed for appointment. Indicates that there are eight Home Office regional forensic science laboratories in addition to the Central Research Establishment at Aldermaston. (CC)

Cobb, P. G. W.

1973-01-01

139

Forensics Investigator  

MedlinePLUS

... and if anything is expected to increase in demand. Forensic investigators will always be needed to back up the efforts of other law enforcement officials. Working Conditions & Context Forensic science technicians ...

140

Forensic age estimation by the Schmeling method: computed tomography analysis of the medial clavicular epiphysis.  

PubMed

The variability of anthropometric measures, such as the degree of ossification, among societies should be taken into account when estimating age. The degree of ossification of the medial clavicle can be determined with thin-section computed tomography (CT), which is one of the methods recommended by the Study Group on Forensic Age Diagnostics of the German Association of Forensic Medicine. The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate the applicability of thin-section CT analysis of the degree of ossification of the medial clavicle in a Turkish population. We evaluated the CT images (1-mm slice thickness) of 503 patients (362 male, 141 female; age, 10-35 years) using the Schmeling five-stage method. The Spearman's correlation analysis revealed a positive correlation between age and ossification stage in both male and female patients (total group: rho?=?0.838, p?analysis results indicated that the ossification stage of the medial clavicle is a good predictor when estimating age (r (2)?=?0.735 for all patients, 0.734 for male patients, 0.741 for female patients). Sex differences in ossification stages were observed only for stage 1 and 4 ossification. We believe that future research could expand the database on this topic and contribute to improvements in this measurement method. PMID:25408292

Ekizoglu, Oguzhan; Hocaoglu, Elif; Inci, Ercan; Sayin, Ibrahim; Solmaz, Dilek; Bilgili, Mustafa Gokhan; Can, Ismail Ozgur

2015-01-01

141

Near infrared hyperspectral imaging for forensic analysis of document forgery.  

PubMed

Hyperspectral images in the near infrared range (HSI-NIR) were evaluated as a nondestructive method to detect fraud in documents. Three different types of typical forgeries were simulated by (a) obliterating text, (b) adding text and (c) approaching the crossing lines problem. The simulated samples were imaged in the range of 928-2524 nm with spectral and spatial resolutions of 6.3 nm and 10 ?m, respectively. After data pre-processing, different chemometric techniques were evaluated for each type of forgery. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to elucidate the first two types of adulteration, (a) and (b). Moreover, Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS) was used in an attempt to improve the results of the type (a) obliteration and type (b) adding text problems. Finally, MCR-ALS and Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA), employed as a variable selection tool, were used to study the type (c) forgeries, i.e. crossing lines problem. Type (a) forgeries (obliterating text) were successfully identified in 43% of the samples using both the chemometric methods (PCA and MCR-ALS). Type (b) forgeries (adding text) were successfully identified in 82% of the samples using both the methods (PCA and MCR-ALS). Finally, type (c) forgeries (crossing lines) were successfully identified in 85% of the samples. The results demonstrate the potential of HSI-NIR associated with chemometric tools to support document forgery identification. PMID:25118338

Silva, Carolina S; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; Honorato, Ricardo S; Pasquini, Celio; Prats-Montalbán, José M; Ferrer, Alberto

2014-10-21

142

Choice of population database for forensic DNA profile analysis  

PubMed Central

When evaluating the weight of evidence (WoE) for an individual to be a contributor to a DNA sample, an allele frequency database is required. The allele frequencies are needed to inform about genotype probabilities for unknown contributors of DNA to the sample. Typically databases are available from several populations, and a common practice is to evaluate the WoE using each available database for each unknown contributor. Often the most conservative WoE (most favourable to the defence) is the one reported to the court. However the number of human populations that could be considered is essentially unlimited and the number of contributors to a sample can be large, making it impractical to perform every possible WoE calculation, particularly for complex crime scene profiles. We propose instead the use of only the database that best matches the ancestry of the queried contributor, together with a substantial FST adjustment. To investigate the degree of conservativeness of this approach, we performed extensive simulations of one- and two-contributor crime scene profiles, in the latter case with, and without, the profile of the second contributor available for the analysis. The genotypes were simulated using five population databases, which were also available for the analysis, and evaluations of WoE using our heuristic rule were compared with several alternative calculations using different databases. Using FST = 0.03, we found that our heuristic gave WoE more favourable to the defence than alternative calculations in well over 99% of the comparisons we considered; on average the difference in WoE was just under 0.2 bans (orders of magnitude) per locus. The degree of conservativeness of the heuristic rule can be adjusted through the FST value. We propose the use of this heuristic for DNA profile WoE calculations, due to its ease of implementation, and efficient use of the evidence while allowing a flexible degree of conservativeness. PMID:25498938

Steele, Christopher D.; Balding, David J.

2014-01-01

143

Choice of population database for forensic DNA profile analysis.  

PubMed

When evaluating the weight of evidence (WoE) for an individual to be a contributor to a DNA sample, an allele frequency database is required. The allele frequencies are needed to inform about genotype probabilities for unknown contributors of DNA to the sample. Typically databases are available from several populations, and a common practice is to evaluate the WoE using each available database for each unknown contributor. Often the most conservative WoE (most favourable to the defence) is the one reported to the court. However the number of human populations that could be considered is essentially unlimited and the number of contributors to a sample can be large, making it impractical to perform every possible WoE calculation, particularly for complex crime scene profiles. We propose instead the use of only the database that best matches the ancestry of the queried contributor, together with a substantial FST adjustment. To investigate the degree of conservativeness of this approach, we performed extensive simulations of one- and two-contributor crime scene profiles, in the latter case with, and without, the profile of the second contributor available for the analysis. The genotypes were simulated using five population databases, which were also available for the analysis, and evaluations of WoE using our heuristic rule were compared with several alternative calculations using different databases. Using FST=0.03, we found that our heuristic gave WoE more favourable to the defence than alternative calculations in well over 99% of the comparisons we considered; on average the difference in WoE was just under 0.2 bans (orders of magnitude) per locus. The degree of conservativeness of the heuristic rule can be adjusted through the FST value. We propose the use of this heuristic for DNA profile WoE calculations, due to its ease of implementation, and efficient use of the evidence while allowing a flexible degree of conservativeness. PMID:25498938

Steele, Christopher D; Balding, David J

2014-12-01

144

BS in Digital Forensics Department of Computer and Information Science  

E-print Network

BS in Digital Forensics Department of Computer and Information Science The Digital Forensics Program Digital Forensics is the area of computer science concerned with the examination and analysis Science Digital Forensics degree program covers a wide range of knowledge, including forensic accounting

Lu, Yi

145

City ecosystem resilience analysis in case of disasters  

E-print Network

One of the tasks of urban and hazard planning is to mitigate the damages and minimize the costs of the recovery process after catastrophic events. The rapidity and the efficiency of the recovery process are referred to as resilience. A mathematical definition of the resilience of an urban community has not yet identified. In this paper we propose and test a methodology for the assessment of urban resilience a catastrophic event. The idea is to merge the concepts of the engineering resilience and the ecosystem resilience. As first step we suggest a way to model an urban community inside the framework of complex network theory. Hence, to model the city as a whole, we identify hybrid networks, composed by human elements, i.e. the citizens, and physical networks, i.e. urban lifelines and infrastructures. As second step, we define and evaluate a class of efficiency indexes on the hybrid networks. By modelling the disasters of the physical components and the subsequent recovery process, and by measuring the efficie...

Asprone, D; Latora, V; Manfredi, G; Nicosia, V

2013-01-01

146

Analysis on the spatial-temporal change characteristics of flood and drought disasters in China during 1950-2005  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper is intended to analyze the temporal change and spatial distribution of flood and drought disasters during the period from 1950 to 2005 in China based on the GIS (Geographic Information System) spatial analysis methods. The data for the analysis includes statistical data of the flood and drought disasters which are suffering area and affected area and spatial geographical data of China which are 1:1000 000 province boundary vector map. The spatial data obtained from National Natural atlas published by Institute of Geographical sciences and Nature resources research, CAS. The flood disaster data are gathered from China Hazard Report in 1949-1995 and China Statistical Yearbook compiled by National Bureau of Statistics of China. By analysis of the temporal change and spatial distribution of flood and drought disasters, it can be seen that Flood and drought disasters increased in the research period. Before the middle of 1980s flood and drought disasters had lower and influenced area increased evidently after the middle of 1980s.The indicated that China flood and drought were expanded on the whole situation and stabilizing, this demonstrates China floods and droughts continued on the trend of expansion. China's major flood occurred in the South, the North and floods occurred in both the frequency or intensity was much smaller than the South, China's major drought occurred in the north. The affected rate and suffered rate for flood and drought disasters are positive correlative. This indicates the resistance capacity of agriculture system in China is faintish in general.

Zou, Xiuping; Chen, Shaofeng; Xu, Zengrang; Ning, Miao

2008-10-01

147

The applicability of formalin-fixed and formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues in forensic DNA analysis.  

PubMed

Historically, formalin fixed (FF) tissues could not be used as a source of DNA in forensic science due to the fact that the DNA was too degraded for DNA analysis. With the introduction of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique to forensic science, the usefulness of DNA from this biological material has been re-evaluated. This study evaluates the potential use of DNA from FF and formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues in 13 PCR systems; HLA DQ alpha, LDLR, GYPA, HBGG, D7S8, GC, D1S80, vWA31, THO1, F13A1, FES/FPS, TPOX, and CSF1PO. The first six, HLA DQ alpha, LDLR, GYPA, HBGG, D7S8, and GC are reverse dot blot systems, D1S80 is an amplified fragment length polymorphism (AmpFlp) system and the others are short tandem repeats (STRs). This study shows that FFPE tissue which has not been fixed in formalin for more than three days is a useful source of DNA for 12 of the 13 PCR systems. In contrast, FF tissue did not prove to be a reliable source of DNA for the PCR techniques examined here. PMID:9243837

Romero, R L; Juston, A C; Ballantyne, J; Henry, B E

1997-07-01

148

Assessment of palatal rugae pattern and their reproducibility for application in forensic analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: Rugae are the anatomical folds that are located on the anterior third of palate behind the incisive papillae. They are also known as “Plica palatine,” and the study of these patterns is called palatoscopy. It can be used in various fields such as sex determination, orthodontics and forensic odontology. Objective: To investigate palatal rugae patterns in females and males and to evaluate the stability of these patterns in pre- and post-operative orthodontic cases. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients were selected for this study (25 males and 25 females). From the above sample, 10 males and 10 females had undergone orthodontic treatment and their casts were retrieved for sex determination analysis and stability of rugae patterns pre- and post-treatment. Results: Changes occur in bony structures during fixed orthodontic treatment but rugae patterns remain stable. Kappa stats and Chi square test were used to analyze agreement between the two evaluators, and 95% correct matches were achieved. Conclusion: Palatal rugae are unique to every individual and can be used as an indicator in forensic odontology. PMID:24255558

Shetty, Divya; Juneja, Achint; Jain, Anshi; Khanna, Kaveri Surya; Pruthi, Neha; Gupta, Amit; Chowdhary, Meenakshi

2013-01-01

149

Analysis of microsatellite polymorphism in red deer, roe deer, and fallow deer — possible employment in forensic applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA microsatellites play a major role in population genetics, linkage mapping, and parentage studies of mammals. In addition, they may be used for forensic purposes, if an individual identification of a specific animal is necessary. Therefore, we tested a variety of microsatellite polymorphism derived from reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) by PCR and sequencing analysis for use in red deer (Cervus elaphus),

Micaela Poetsch; Sabine Seefeldt; Marina Maschke; Eberhard Lignitz

2001-01-01

150

Evaluation of circular DNA substrates for whole genome amplification prior to forensic analysis.  

PubMed

Forensic biological evidence often contains low quantities of DNA or substantially degraded DNA which makes samples refractory to genotype analysis. One approach that shows promise to overcome the limited quantity of DNA is whole genome amplification (WGA). One WGA technique, termed rolling circle amplification (RCA), involves the amplification of circular DNA fragments and this study evaluates a single-stranded (ss) DNA ligase enzyme for generating circular DNA templates for RCA WGA. Fast, efficient ligation of several sizes of ssDNA templates was achieved. The enzyme also ligated double-stranded (ds) DNA templates, a novel activity not previously reported. Adapter sequences containing optimal terminal nucleotide ends for increased ligation efficiency were designed and ligation of adapters to template DNA was optimized. Increased amplification of DNA templates was observed following WGA; however, no amplification advantage for ssDNA ligase treatment of templates was evident compared to linear templates. A multi-step process to utilize ssDNA ligase prior to WGA was developed and short tandem repeat (STR) analysis of simulated low template (LT) and fragmented DNA was evaluated. The process resulted in the loss of template DNA and failed STR analysis whereas input of linear genomic DNA template directly into WGA prior to STR analysis improved STR genotyping results compared to non-WGA treated samples. Inclusion of an extreme thermostable single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB) during WGA also increased DNA yields. While STR artifacts such as peak imbalance, drop-in, and dropout persisted, WGA shows potential for successful genetic profiling of LT and fragmented DNA samples. Further research and development is warranted prior to use of WGA in forensic casework. PMID:21570374

Tate, Courtney M; Nuñez, Ada N; Goldstein, Cori A; Gomes, Iva; Robertson, James M; Kavlick, Mark F; Budowle, Bruce

2012-03-01

151

Forensic Toxicology Certificate  

E-print Network

Forensic Toxicology Certificate What is Forensic Toxicology? Forensic toxicology is a discipline of forensic science that is concerned with the study of toxic substances or poisons. Toxicology encompasses. Students of forensic toxicology obtain knowledge about the absorption, distribution, and elimination

Saldin, Dilano

152

Measurement and analysis of diastereomer ratios for forensic characterization of brodifacoum  

SciTech Connect

The highly toxic organic compound brodifacoum exists as two diastereomers. The diasteromer ratio in a sample depends on the methods and conditions used for synthesis and purification, and may vary over time due to differential stability of the diastereomers. The stereoisomer distribution may thus be viewed as a chemical forensic signature, containing information about the production and history of unknown samples, and providing a basis of comparison between samples. A determination of diastereomer ratios can be performed by a number of techniques, notably gas or liquid chromatography or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. An analysis of a cross-section of U.S.-made commercial technical grade brodifacoum material shows that there are detectable manufacturer-to-manufacturer and batch-to-batch variations in diastereomer ratios. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

Cort, John R.; Alperin, Paul J.; Cho, Herman M.

2012-01-10

153

The power of contextual effects in forensic anthropology: a study of biasability in the visual interpretations of trauma analysis on skeletal remains.  

PubMed

The potential for contextual information to bias assessments in the forensic sciences has been demonstrated, in several forensic disiplines. In this paper, biasability potential within forensic anthropology was examined by analyzing the effects of external manipulations on judgments and decision-making in visual trauma assessment. Three separate websites were created containing fourteen identical images. Participants were randomly assigned to one website. Each website provided different contextual information, to assess variation of interpretation of the same images between contexts. The results indicated a higher scoring of trauma identification responses for the Mass grave context. Furthermore, a significant biasing effect was detected in the interpretation of four images. Less experienced participants were more likely to indicate presence of trauma. This research demonstrates bias impact in forensic anthropological trauma assessments and highlights the importance of recognizing and limiting cognitive vulnerabilities that forensic anthropologists might bring to the analysis. PMID:24666192

Nakhaeizadeh, Sherry; Hanson, Ian; Dozzi, Nathalie

2014-09-01

154

Effects of subpopulation structure on probability calculations of DNA profiles from forensic PCR analysis.  

PubMed

DNA typing for forensic identification is a two-step process. The first step involves determining the profiles of samples collected at the crime scene and comparing them with the profiles obtained from suspects and the victims. In the case of a match that includes the suspect as the potential source of the material collected at the crime scene, the last step in the process is to answer the question, what is the likelihood that someone in addition to the suspect could match the profile of the sample studied? This likelihood is calculated by determining the frequency of the suspect's profile in the relevant population databases. The design of forensic databases and the criteria for comparison has been addressed by the NRC report of 1996 (National Research Council, 1996). However, the fact that geographical proximity, migrational patterns, and even cultural and social practices have effects on subpopulation structure establishes the grounds for further study into its effects on the calculation of probability of occurrence values. The issue becomes more relevant in the case of discrete polymorphic markers that show higher probability of occurrence in the reference populations, where several orders of magnitude difference between the databases may have an impact on the jury. In this study, we calculated G values for all possible pairwise comparisons of allelic frequencies in the different databases from the races or subpopulations examined. In addition, we analyzed a set of 24 unrelated Caucasian, 37 unrelated African-American, and 96 unrelated Sioux/Chippewa individuals for seven polymorphic loci (DQA1, LDLR, GYPA, HBGG, D7S8, GC, and D1S80). All three sets of individuals where sampled from Minnesota. The probability of occurrence for all seven loci were calculated with respect to nine different databases: Caucasian, Arabic, Korean, Sioux/Chippewa, Navajo, Pueblo, African American, Southeastern Hispanic, and Southwestern Hispanic. Analysis of the results demonstrated marked differences in the probabilities of occurrence when individuals were compared to the different populations and subpopulation databases. The possible genetic and forensic consequences of subpopulation structure on probability calculations are discussed. PMID:9465406

Gallo, J C; Thomas, E; Novick, G E; Herrera, R J

1997-01-01

155

Scanning electron microscopic analysis of skin resolution as an aid in identifying trauma in forensic investigations.  

PubMed

The forensic investigator is frequently confronted with cases that present with wounds and blunt force trauma. Presently, the forensic investigator depends upon previous experience and further investigative deduction of the crime scene to analyze these injuries. Although not readily apparent to the naked eye, many skin tissue injuries can be visualized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). This study was designed to establish skin trauma resolution using SEM in various skin preparations. Tissue trauma was induced on leather, preserved skin, fresh skin, and living skin using dies of varying thread size. Calibrated pressure forces in pounds per square inch (psi) were applied and impressions made using vinyl polysiloxane. Positive replicas of the tissues were prepared for SEM using isocyanate resin. After sputter coating the cast with 35 nm of gold-palladium, electron micrographs were generated using a Jeol JSM-5310LV scanning electron microscope. To establish resolution, thread widths of 52, 104, and 208 threads per inch (tpi) and trauma forces of 150, 200, and 250 psi were used to produce the impressions. Microgrooves that were identified on the die threads were analyzed. The optimum pressure for resolution studies was 150 psi using the 52 tpi die on the leather sample (4.67 +/- 0.88 microm, p = 0.046 and 0.025, respectively, by ANOVA). The resolution was compared to that of leather using preserved, fresh, and living skin. The resolution in preserved and fresh skin was less than for leather (9.00 +/- 1.73 and 10.5 +/- 4.5 versus 4.67 +/- 0.88 microm, p = 0.09 and p = 0.20, respectively). Living skin resolution was 3 microm at 52 tpi and 100 psi. Various implements of blunt force trauma were also examined using the leather sample. Time after trauma resolution was examined at 0 (3 microm), 5 (6 microm), 10 (8 microm), and 20 (9 microm) min in living tissue. A comparison between the microgrooves on the die replicas and the tissue trauma impressions revealed striking agreement for both linearity and resolution. Analysis of the microgrooves suggests that discrete morphological characteristics are seen in skin tissue traumas. This method could expand the tools available for the forensic investigation of blunt force trauma. PMID:11005176

Rawson, R B; Starich, G H; Rawson, R D

2000-09-01

156

The dead do not dress: contribution of forensic anthropology experiments to burial practices analysis  

E-print Network

of human decomposition, and thus on the final arrangement of bones (in both forensic and archaeological of decomposition (impact on entomological activity, progress of putrefaction, etc.) and, secondly, attempt to apply, etc.) Keywords: burial archaeology, forensic sciences, decomposition process, clothing, wrapping

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

157

[The application of radiological image in forensic medicine].  

PubMed

Personal identification is an important work in forensic investigation included sex discrimination, age and stature estimation. Human identification depended on radiological image technique analysis is a practice and proper method in forensic science field. This paper intended to understand the advantage and defect by reviewed the employing of forensic radiology in forensic science field broadly and provide a reference to perfect the application of forensic radiology in forensic science field. PMID:16850607

Zhang, Ji-Zong; Che, Hong-Min; Xu, Li-Xiang

2006-04-01

158

Biological Science Initative- Forensic Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides middle and high school teachers and students with concepts and techniques of forensic evidence analysis commonly employed in forensic laboratories. This site contains a series of laboratory exercises that can be downloaded for use in middle and high school settings. Experiments are designed to teach students basic principles and methods of forensic science and to motivate the teaching of science in the classroom. Experiments are designed to teach laboratory and data-collection techniques.

2011-06-09

159

NISTIR 7250 Cell Phone Forensic Tools  

E-print Network

NISTIR 7250 Cell Phone Forensic Tools: AnOverviewandAnalysis RickAyers WayneJansen NicolasCilleros RonanDaniellou #12;iii NISTIR 7250 Cell Phone Forensic Tools: An Overview and Analysis Rick Ayers Wayne are involved in a crime or other incident, forensic examiners require tools that allow the proper retrieval

160

NISTIR 7387 Cell Phone Forensic Tools  

E-print Network

NISTIR 7387 Cell Phone Forensic Tools: AnOverviewandAnalysisUpdate RickAyers WayneJansen LudovicMoenner AurelienDelaitre #12;iii NISTIR 7387 Cell Phone Forensic Tools: An Overview and Analysis or other incident, forensic examiners require tools that allow the proper retrieval and speedy examination

161

The transferability of diatoms to clothing and the methods appropriate for their collection and analysis in forensic geoscience.  

PubMed

Forensic geoscience is concerned with the analysis of geological materials in order to compare and exclude environmental samples from a common source, or to identify an unknown provenance in a criminal investigation. Diatom analysis is currently an underused technique within the forensic geoscience approach, which has the potential to provide an independent ecological assessment of trace evidence. This study presents empirical data to provide a preliminary evidence base in order to be able to understand the nature of diatom transfers to items of clothing, and the collection of transferred diatom trace evidence from a range of environments under experimental conditions. Three diatom extraction methods were tested on clothing that had been in contact with soil and water sites: rinsing in water (RW), rinsing in ethanol (RE), and submersion in H2O2 solution (H). Scanning electron microscopy (S.E.M.) analysis was undertaken in order to examine the degree of diatom retention on treated clothing samples. The total diatom yield and species richness data was recorded from each experimental sample in order to compare the efficacy of each method in collecting a representative sample for analysis. Similarity was explored using correspondence analysis. The results highlight the efficiency of H2O2 submersion in consistently extracting high diatom counts with representative species from clothing exposed to both aquatic and terrestrial sites. This is corroborated by S.E.M. analysis. This paper provides an important empirical evidence base for both establishing that diatoms do indeed transfer to clothing under forensic conditions in a range of environments, and in identifying that H2O2 extraction is the most efficient technique for the optimal collection of comparative samples. There is therefore potentially great value in collecting and analysing diatom components of geoforensic samples in order to aid in forensic investigation. PMID:24915452

Scott, Kirstie R; Morgan, Ruth M; Jones, Vivienne J; Cameron, Nigel G

2014-08-01

162

FORENSIC IDENTIFICATION REPORTING USING AUTOMATIC SPEAKER RECOGNITION SYSTEMS  

E-print Network

FORENSIC IDENTIFICATION REPORTING USING AUTOMATIC SPEAKER RECOGNITION SYSTEMS J. Gonzalez to the bayesian approach for evidence analysis and forensic reporting. This approach, firmly established in other forensic areas as fingerprint, DNA or fiber analysis, suits the needs of both the court and the forensic

Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

163

Isotopic Analysis of the Explosive Urea Nitrate and Its Component Ions for Forensic Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urea nitrate (UN) is an explosive used in improvised explosive devices. UN (CH5N2O+NO3-) can be synthesized from readily available chemicals and was the main explosive used in the 1993 bombing of the World Trade Center. Isotopic analysis of this explosive has the potential to elucidate the isotopic ratios of the starting materials and geographic information on the location of synthesis. However, depending on the synthesis of the explosive, variable amounts of residual nitric acid may remain, yielding differing contributions of the components to the bulk UN ?15N values. Since ?15N nitrate values cannot be extrapolated from a single component and the bulk value, it is critical to separate the explosive into urea° and potassium nitrate. Therefore, we developed a method to isolate the components of UN for isotopic analysis through the neutralization of urea and separation via methanol washes. The urea in the explosive is neutralized with a 1.1:1 mole ratio of potassium hydroxide:urea in water resulting in urea° and potassium nitrate. The solution is then dried and the urea and potassium nitrate are separated using methanol. Urea and nitrate were isolated from samples of pre-blast UN and the completeness of the extraction was confirmed with a urease assay and a nitrate detection assay on the appropriate components. Isotopic analysis of the isolated urea and potassium nitrate were performed using an EA-IRMS, with the addition of sucrose to the potassium nitrate to aid combustion. For samples of relatively pure UN, the bulk UN ?15N value is stoichiometrically equivalent to the measured ?15N values of the isolated urea and nitrate in a 2:1 ratio. However, some explosive samples contained an excess of nitric acid due to poor preparation. As a result, the bulk UN ?15N values were biased towards the ?15N value of the nitrate. We are conducting experiments to compare the isotopic values of the initial starting reactants in the UN synthesis and the isotopic composition of the end products in order to test the forensic utility for linking the starting reactants to recovered UN. We are also investigating the extent of oxygen isotope exchange of nitrate and water during UN synthesis. This may provide constraints on the location of UN production, which will be useful in a forensic investigation.

Aranda, R.; Stern, L. A.; McCormick, M. C.; Mothershead, R. F.; Barrow, J. A.

2008-12-01

164

New perspectives in forensic anthropology.  

PubMed

A critical review of the conceptual and practical evolution of forensic anthropology during the last two decades serves to identify two key external factors and four tightly inter-related internal methodological advances that have significantly affected the discipline. These key developments have not only altered the current practice of forensic anthropology, but also its goals, objectives, scope, and definition. The development of DNA analysis techniques served to undermine the classic role of forensic anthropology as a field almost exclusively focused on victim identification. The introduction of the Daubert criteria in the courtroom presentation of scientific testimony accompanied the development of new human comparative samples and tools for data analysis and sharing, resulting in a vastly enhanced role for quantitative methods in human skeletal analysis. Additionally, new questions asked of forensic anthropologists, beyond identity, required sound scientific bases and expanded the scope of the field. This environment favored the incipient development of the interrelated fields of forensic taphonomy, forensic archaeology, and forensic trauma analysis, fields concerned with the reconstruction of events surrounding death. Far from representing the mere addition of new methodological techniques, these disciplines (especially, forensic taphonomy) provide forensic anthropology with a new conceptual framework, which is broader, deeper, and more solidly entrenched in the natural sciences. It is argued that this new framework represents a true paradigm shift, as it modifies not only the way in which classic forensic anthropological questions are answered, but also the goals and tasks of forensic anthropologists, and their perception of what can be considered a legitimate question or problem to be answered within the field. PMID:19003882

Dirkmaat, Dennis C; Cabo, Luis L; Ousley, Stephen D; Symes, Steven A

2008-01-01

165

Corporate involvement in disaster response and recovery : an analysis of the Gujarat Earthquake  

E-print Network

Disaster vulnerability is a serious issue in developing countries where globalization, development patterns, poverty and environmental degradation are placing more people at risk to natural disasters. Recent appeals for ...

Sayegh, Tracy, 1976-

2004-01-01

166

Forensic massively parallel sequencing data analysis tool: Implementation of MyFLq as a standalone web- and Illumina BaseSpace(®)-application.  

PubMed

Routine use of massively parallel sequencing (MPS) for forensic genomics is on the horizon. The last few years, several algorithms and workflows have been developed to analyze forensic MPS data. However, none have yet been tailored to the needs of the forensic analyst who does not possess an extensive bioinformatics background. We developed our previously published forensic MPS data analysis framework MyFLq (My-Forensic-Loci-queries) into an open-source, user-friendly, web-based application. It can be installed as a standalone web application, or run directly from the Illumina BaseSpace environment. In the former, laboratories can keep their data on-site, while in the latter, data from forensic samples that are sequenced on an Illumina sequencer can be uploaded to Basespace during acquisition, and can subsequently be analyzed using the published MyFLq BaseSpace application. Additional features were implemented such as an interactive graphical report of the results, an interactive threshold selection bar, and an allele length-based analysis in addition to the sequenced-based analysis. Practical use of the application is demonstrated through the analysis of four 16-plex short tandem repeat (STR) samples, showing the complementarity between the sequence- and length-based analysis of the same MPS data. PMID:25457631

Van Neste, Christophe; Gansemans, Yannick; De Coninck, Dieter; Van Hoofstat, David; Van Criekinge, Wim; Deforce, Dieter; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip

2015-03-01

167

Using Paper-Based Diagnostics with High School Students To Model Forensic Investigation and Colorimetric Analysis  

E-print Network

Using Paper-Based Diagnostics with High School Students To Model Forensic Investigation Rozkiewicz, George M. Whitesides, and Kathryn A. Hollar Biology Department, Tyngsborough High School, Albuquerque, New Mexico, 87131 United States § Chemistry Department, Merrimack High School, Merrimack, New

168

International Standards in Forensic DNA  

E-print Network

2014: "Minimum Requirements for DNA Collection, Analysis, and Interpretation" US & Canada Europe Groups · ISFG DNA Commission (International) · FBI DNA Advisory Board (U.S.) · SWGDAM (U.S.) · ENFSI DNA/NZ) · Asian Forensic Science Network DNA WG (Asia) · NCFS and OSAC (U.S.) Butler, J.M. (2013) Forensic DNA

169

Forensic analysis of Salvia divinorum using multivariate statistical procedures. Part I: discrimination from related Salvia species.  

PubMed

Salvia divinorum is a hallucinogenic herb that is internationally regulated. In this study, salvinorin A, the active compound in S. divinorum, was extracted from S. divinorum plant leaves using a 5-min extraction with dichloromethane. Four additional Salvia species (Salvia officinalis, Salvia guaranitica, Salvia splendens, and Salvia nemorosa) were extracted using this procedure, and all extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Differentiation of S. divinorum from other Salvia species was successful based on visual assessment of the resulting chromatograms. To provide a more objective comparison, the total ion chromatograms (TICs) were subjected to principal components analysis (PCA). Prior to PCA, the TICs were subjected to a series of data pretreatment procedures to minimize non-chemical sources of variance in the data set. Successful discrimination of S. divinorum from the other four Salvia species was possible based on visual assessment of the PCA scores plot. To provide a numerical assessment of the discrimination, a series of statistical procedures such as Euclidean distance measurement, hierarchical cluster analysis, Student's t tests, Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, and Pearson product moment correlation were also applied to the PCA scores. The statistical procedures were then compared to determine the advantages and disadvantages for forensic applications. PMID:22038586

Willard, Melissa A Bodnar; McGuffin, Victoria L; Smith, Ruth Waddell

2012-01-01

170

Analysis of carbohydrate and fatty acid marker abundance in ricin toxin preparations for forensic information.  

PubMed

One challenge in the forensic analysis of ricin samples is determining the method and extent of sample preparation. Ricin purification from the source castor seeds is essentially a protein purification through removal of the nonprotein fractions of the seed. Two major, nonprotein constituents in the seed are the castor oil and carbohydrates. We used derivatization of carbohydrate and fatty acid markers followed by identification and quantification using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to assess compositional changes in ricin samples purified by different methods. The loss of ricinoleic acid indicated steps for oil removal had occurred, and a large decrease of ricinoleic acid was observed between unextracted mash and solvent extracted and protein precipitate preparations. Changes to the carbohydrate content of the sample were also observed following protein precipitation. The differential loss of arabinose relative to mannose was observed indicating the removal of the major carbohydrate fraction of the seed and enrichment of the protein content. When the data is combined and multivariate principle component analysis is applied, these changes in fatty acid and carbohydrate abundance are discriminating enough to be indicative of the preparation method used for each sample. PMID:20568718

Colburn, Heather A; Wunschel, David S; Kreuzer, Helen W; Moran, James J; Antolick, Kathryn C; Melville, Angela M

2010-07-15

171

Forensic analysis of ballpoint pen inks using paper spray mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A novel analytical approach based on paper spray mass spectrometry (PS-MS) is developed for a fast and effective forensic analysis of inks in documents. Ink writings made in ordinary paper with blue ballpoint pens were directly analyzed under ambient conditions without any prior sample preparation. Firstly, the method was explored on a set of distinct pens and the results obtained in the positive ion mode, PS(+)-MS, demonstrated that pens from different brands provide typical profiles. Simple visual inspection of the PS(+)-MS led to the distinction of four different combinations of dyes and additives in the inks. Further discrimination was performed by using the concept of relative ion intensity (RII), owing to the large variability of dyes BV3 and BB26 regarding their demethylated homologues. Following screening and differentiation studies, the composition changes of ink entries subjected to light exposure were also monitored by PS-MS. The results of these tests revealed distinct degradation behaviors which were reflected on the typical chemical profiles of the studied inks, attesting that PS-MS may be also useful to verify the fading of dyes thus allowing the discrimination of entries on a document. As proof of concept experiments, PS-MS was successfully utilized for the analysis of archived documents and characterization of overlapped ink lines made on simulated forged documents. PMID:25431809

da Silva Ferreira, Priscila; Fernandes de Abreu E Silva, Débora; Augusti, Rodinei; Piccin, Evandro

2015-01-20

172

Analysis of forensically used autosomal short tandem repeat markers in Polish and neighboring populations.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the homogeneity of Polish populations with respect to STRs chosen as core markers of the Polish Forensic National DNA Intelligence Database, and to provide reference allele frequencies and to explore the genetic interrelationship between Poland and neighboring countries. The allele frequency distribution of 10 STRs included in the SGMplus kit was analyzed among 2176 unrelated individuals from 6 regional Polish populations and among 4321 individuals from Germany (three samples), Austria, The Netherlands, Sweden, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Belarus, Ukraine and the Russian Federation (six samples). The statistical approach consisted of AMOVA, calculation of pairwise Rst values and analysis by multidimensional scaling. We found homogeneity of present day Poland and consistent differences between Polish and German populations which contrasted with relative similarities between Russian and German populations. These discrepancies between genetic and geographic distances were confirmed by analysis of an independent data set on Y chromosome STRs. Migrations of Goths, Viking influences, German settlements in the region of Volga river and/or forced population resettlements and other events related to World War II are the historic events which might have caused these finding. PMID:19083822

Soltyszewski, Ireneusz; Plocienniczak, Andrzej; Fabricius, Hans Ake; Kornienko, Igor; Vodolazhsky, Dmitrij; Parson, Walther; Hradil, Roman; Schmitter, Hermann; Ivanov, Pavel; Kuzniar, Piotr; Malyarchuk, Boris A; Grzybowski, Tomasz; Wo?niak, Marcin; Henke, Jurgen; Henke, Lotte; Olkhovets, Sergiv; Voitenko, Vladimir; Lagus, Vita; Ficek, Andrej; Minárik, Gabriel; de Knijff, Peter; Reba?a, Krzysztof; Wysocka, Joanna; Kapi?ska, Ewa; Cybulska, Lidia; Mikulich, Alexei I; Tsybovsky, Iosif S; Szczerkowska, Zofia; Krajewski, Pawe?; Ploski, Rafa?

2008-06-01

173

Population-Sequencing as a Biomarker of Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei Evolution through Microbial Forensic Analysis  

PubMed Central

Large-scale genomics projects are identifying biomarkers to detect human disease. B. pseudomallei and B. mallei are two closely related select agents that cause melioidosis and glanders. Accurate characterization of metagenomic samples is dependent on accurate measurements of genetic variation between isolates with resolution down to strain level. Often single biomarker sensitivity is augmented by use of multiple or panels of biomarkers. In parallel with single biomarker validation, advances in DNA sequencing enable analysis of entire genomes in a single run: population-sequencing. Potentially, direct sequencing could be used to analyze an entire genome to serve as the biomarker for genome identification. However, genome variation and population diversity complicate use of direct sequencing, as well as differences caused by sample preparation protocols including sequencing artifacts and mistakes. As part of a Department of Homeland Security program in bacterial forensics, we examined how to implement whole genome sequencing (WGS) analysis as a judicially defensible forensic method for attributing microbial sample relatedness; and also to determine the strengths and limitations of whole genome sequence analysis in a forensics context. Herein, we demonstrate use of sequencing to provide genetic characterization of populations: direct sequencing of populations. PMID:24455204

Jakupciak, John P.; Wells, Jeffrey M.; Karalus, Richard J.; Pawlowski, David R.; Lin, Jeffrey S.; Feldman, Andrew B.

2013-01-01

174

Disaster Recovery: Courting Disaster  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An inadequate or nonexistent disaster recovery plan can have dire results. Fire, power outage, and severe weather all can brin down the best of networks in an instant. This article draws on the experiences of the Charlotte County Public Schools (Port Charlotte, Florida), which were able to lessen the damage caused by Hurricane Charley when it hit…

O'Hanlon, Charlene

2007-01-01

175

Age Estimation in Forensic Sciences  

PubMed Central

Age determination of unknown human bodies is important in the setting of a crime investigation or a mass disaster because the age at death, birth date, and year of death as well as gender can guide investigators to the correct identity among a large number of possible matches. Traditional morphological methods used by anthropologists to determine age are often imprecise, whereas chemical analysis of tooth dentin, such as aspartic acid racemization, has shown reproducible and more precise results. In this study, we analyzed teeth from Swedish individuals using both aspartic acid racemization and radiocarbon methodologies. The rationale behind using radiocarbon analysis is that aboveground testing of nuclear weapons during the cold war (1955–1963) caused an extreme increase in global levels of carbon-14 (14C), which has been carefully recorded over time. Forty-four teeth from 41 individuals were analyzed using aspartic acid racemization analysis of tooth crown dentin or radiocarbon analysis of enamel, and 10 of these were split and subjected to both radiocarbon and racemization analysis. Combined analysis showed that the two methods correlated well (R2 = 0.66, p < 0.05). Radiocarbon analysis showed an excellent precision with an overall absolute error of 1.0 ± 0.6 years. Aspartic acid racemization also showed a good precision with an overall absolute error of 5.4 ± 4.2 years. Whereas radiocarbon analysis gives an estimated year of birth, racemization analysis indicates the chronological age of the individual at the time of death. We show how these methods in combination can also assist in the estimation of date of death of an unidentified victim. This strategy can be of significant assistance in forensic casework involving dead victim identification. PMID:19965905

Alkass, Kanar; Buchholz, Bruce A.; Ohtani, Susumu; Yamamoto, Toshiharu; Druid, Henrik; Spalding, Kirsty L.

2010-01-01

176

Forensics Bibliography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated bibliography lists and discusses 28 books on forensics, debate, argumentation, discussion, and public speaking. The books cover various topics in oral communication for secondary and college level study. (CH)

Walsh, Grace

177

Forensic Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A course is described, which was given during an interim, with an enrollment of 41 students. The course involved an in-depth study of forensic science, involving students with the methodology of science. (DF)

Berry, Keith O.; Nigh, W. G.

1973-01-01

178

UV-visible microscope spectrophotometric polarization and dichroism with increased discrimination power in forensic analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microanalysis of transfer (Trace) evidence is the application of a microscope and microscopical techniques for the collection, observation, documentation, examination, identification, and discrimination of micrometer sized particles or domains. Microscope spectrophotometry is the union of microscopy and spectroscopy for microanalysis. Analytical microspectroscopy is the science of studying the emission, reflection, transmission, and absorption of electromagnetic radiation to determine the structure or chemical composition of microscopic-size materials. Microscope spectrophotometry instrument designs have evolved from monochromatic illumination which transmitted through the microscope and sample and then is detected by a photometer detector (photomultiplier tube) to systems in which broad-band (white light) illumination falls incident upon a sample followed by a non-scanning grating spectrometer equipped with a solid-state multi-element detector. Most of these small modern spectrometers are configured with either silicon based charged-couple device detectors (200-950 nm) or InGaAs based diode array detectors (850-2300 nm) with computerized data acquisition and signal processing being common. A focus of this research was to evaluate the performance characteristics of various modern forensic (UV-Vis) microscope photometer systems as well as review early model instrumental designs. An important focus of this research was to efficiently measure ultraviolet-visible spectra of microscopically small specimens for classification, differentiation, and possibly individualization. The first stage of the project consisted of the preparation of microscope slides containing neutral density filter reference materials, molecular fluorescence reference materials, and dichroic reference materials. Upon completion of these standard slide preparations analysis began with measurements in order to evaluate figures of merit for comparison of the instruments investigated. The figures of merit investigated included: 1) wavelength accuracy, 2) wavelength precision, 3) wavelength resolution stability, 4) photometric accuracy, 5) photometric precision, 6) photometric linearity, 7) photometric noise, and 8) short-term baseline stability. In addition, intrinsic instrument polarization effects were investigated to determine the impact of these properties on spectral interpretation and data quality. Finally, a set of recommendations were developed which describe instrument performance characteristics for microscope and spectrometer features and functions, and specific instrument parameters that must be controlled in order to acquire high quality data from an ultraviolet-visible forensic microscope spectrophotometer system for increased discrimination power.

Purcell, Dale Kevin

179

Forensic toxicology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Forensic toxicology has developed as a forensic science in recent years and is now widely used to assist in death investigations,\\u000a in civil and criminal matters involving drug use, in drugs of abuse testing in correctional settings and custodial medicine,\\u000a in road and work-place safety, in matters involving environmental pollution, as well as in sports doping. Drugs most commonly\\u000a targeted

Olaf H. Drummer

180

Computer analysis of ATR-FTIR spectra of paint samples for forensic purposes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method of subtraction and normalization of IR spectra (MSN-IR) was developed and successfully applied to extract mathematically the pure paint spectrum from the spectrum of paint coat on different bases, both acquired by the Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) technique. The method consists of several stages encompassing several normalization and subtraction processes. The similarity of the spectrum obtained with the reference spectrum was estimated by means of the normalized Manhattan distance. The utility and performance of the method proposed were tested by examination of five different paints sprayed on plastic (polyester) foil and on fabric materials (cotton). It was found that the numerical algorithm applied is able - in contrast to other mathematical approaches conventionally used for the same aim - to reconstruct a pure paint IR spectrum effectively without a loss of chemical information provided. The approach allows the physical separation of a paint from a base to be avoided, hence a time and work-load of analysis to be considerably reduced. The results obtained prove that the method can be considered as a useful tool which can be applied to forensic purposes.

Szafarska, Ma?gorzata; Wo?niakiewicz, Micha?; Pilch, Mariusz; Zi?ba-Palus, Janina; Ko?cielniak, Pawe?

2009-04-01

181

Analysis of 11 tetrameric STRs in wild boars for forensic purposes.  

PubMed

STR profiling of animal species has a wide range of applications, including forensic identification, wildlife preservation, veterinary public health protection and food safety. We tested the efficacy of a multiplex PCR-based assay including 11 porcine-specific tetrameric STRs in a population sample of wild boars (n=142) originating from Piedmont (North West Italy). Multiple deviations from Hardy-Weinberg expectations were observed, mostly due to a reduction in observed heterozygosity indicative of a high degree of inbreeding. A value of ? of 0.046 and an inbreeding coefficient of 0.089 were estimated. Combined power of discrimination and probability of exclusion values for the STR panel were 0.9999999999996 and 0.99989. In order to test the suitability of the method for meat traceability purposes, a domestic pig reference sample (n=412), consisting of commercial lines commonly used in the meat production process, was also typed. A Bayesian cluster analysis carried out using the observed genotypes, showed a percentage of correct subspecies assignment of individual samples of 0.974 for wild boars and 0.991 for pigs, thus demonstrating the usefulness of the multiplex STR-typing system for discrimination purposes. PMID:20685189

Caratti, Stefano; Rossi, Luca; Sona, Bruno; Origlia, Silvia; Viara, Silvana; Martano, Giuseppe; Torre, Carlo; Robino, Carlo

2010-10-01

182

Scanning electron microscopic analysis of incinerated teeth: An aid to forensic identification  

PubMed Central

Background: Forensic dental identification of victims involved in fire accidents is often a complex and challenging endeavor. Knowledge of the charred human dentition and residues of restorative material can help in the recognition of bodies burned beyond recognition. Aim: To observe the effects of predetermined temperatures on healthy unrestored teeth and different restorative materials in restored teeth, by scanning electron microscope, for the purpose of identification. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 135 extracted teeth, which were divided into four groups. Group 1-healthy unrestored teeth, group 2-teeth restored with all ceramic crowns, group 3-teeth restored with class I composite resin and group 4-teeth restored with class I glass ionomer cement (GIC). Results: The scanning electron microscope is useful in the analysis of burned teeth, as it gives fine structural details, requires only a small sample and does not destroy the already fragile specimen. Conclusion: Scanning electron microscope can be a useful tool for the characterization and study of severely burnt teeth for victim identification. PMID:24959034

Pol, Chetan A; Gosavi, Suchitra R

2014-01-01

183

Raman spectroscopy and capillary electrophoresis applied to forensic colour inkjet printer inks analysis.  

PubMed

Forensic laboratories are increasingly engaged in the examination of fraudulent documents, and what is important, in many cases these are inkjet-printed documents. That is why systematic approaches to inkjet printer inks comparison and identification have been carried out by both non-destructive and destructive methods. In this study, micro-Raman spectroscopy and capillary electrophoresis (CE) were applied to the analysis of colour inkjet printer inks. Micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to study the chemical composition of colour inks in situ on a paper surface. It helps to characterize and differentiate inkjet inks, and can be used to create a spectra database of inks taken from different cartridge brands and cartridge numbers. Capillary electrophoresis in micellar electrophoretic capillary chromatography mode was applied to separate colour and colourless components of inks, enabling group identification of those components which occur in a sufficient concentration (giving intensive peaks). Finally, on the basis of the obtained results, differentiation of the analysed inks was performed. Twenty-three samples of inkjet printer inks were examined and the discriminating power (DP) values for both presented methods were established in the routine work of experts during the result interpretation step. DP was found to be 94.0% (Raman) and 95.6% (CE) when all the analysed ink samples were taken into account, and it was 96.7% (Raman) and 98.4% (CE), when only cartridges with different index numbers were considered. PMID:25062531

Król, Ma?gorzata; Karoly, Agnes; Ko?cielniak, Pawe?

2014-09-01

184

Identification in forensic anthropology: Its relation to genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within forensic activity, whenever identification is a problem, it is generalized that DNA analysis is the solution. However, it is well known both by forensic pathologists and anthropologists that, apart form the immense potentiality of this technique, there are many situations where the classical forensic anthropology examination is still useful and irreplaceable. Through the presentation of two forensic routine cases

Eugénia Cunha; João Pinheiro; Duarte Nuno Vieira

2006-01-01

185

A method for enhancement of background sounds in forensic  

E-print Network

A method for enhancement of background sounds in forensic audio recordings Robert C. Maher;Outline · Introduction ­ Audio forensic analysis ­ Adaptive interference cancelling ­ Sinusoidal modeling · Test implementation · Example processing · Conclusion #12;Audio Forensics · Audio Forensics

Maher, Robert C.

186

Embedding Forensic Capabilities into Networks: Addressing Inefficiencies in Digital Forensics Investigations  

SciTech Connect

A typical incident response pits technicians against networks that aren't prepared forensically. [1, 2] If practitioners do consider collecting network forensic data, they face a choice between expending extraordinary effort (time and money) collecting forensically sound data, or simply restoring the network as quickly as possible. In this context, the concept of organizational network forensic readiness has emerged. This paper proposes a methodology for "operationalizing" organizational network forensic readiness. The methodology, and the theoretical analysis that led to its development, are offered as a conceptual framework for thinking about more efficient, proactive approaches to digital forensics on networks.

Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara; Frincke, Deb A.

2006-08-01

187

Forensic Science Certificate  

E-print Network

Forensic Science Certificate What do Forensic Scientists Do? Forensic scientists apply scientific. Is Forensic Science Right for Me? Students in forensic science have a strong interest in chemistry, biology and death investigators. The median annual wage of forensic science technicians (a common entry level job

Saldin, Dilano

188

A collaborative approach for incorporating forensic case data into crime investigation using criminal intelligence analysis and visualisation.  

PubMed

There is an increasing awareness that the articulation of forensic science and criminal investigation is critical to the resolution of crimes. However, models and methods to support an effective collaboration between the partners are still poorly expressed or even lacking. Three propositions are borrowed from crime intelligence methods in order to bridge this gap: (a) the general intelligence process, (b) the analyses of investigative problems along principal perspectives: entities and their relationships, time and space, quantitative aspects and (c) visualisation methods as a mode of expression of a problem in these dimensions. Indeed, in a collaborative framework, different kinds of visualisations integrating forensic case data can play a central role for supporting decisions. Among them, link-charts are scrutinised for their abilities to structure and ease the analysis of a case by describing how relevant entities are connected. However, designing an informative chart that does not bias the reasoning process is not straightforward. Using visualisation as a catalyser for a collaborative approach integrating forensic data thus calls for better specifications. PMID:24630325

Rossy, Quentin; Ribaux, Olivier

2014-03-01

189

Forensic Analysis of Packet Losses in Wireless Jianxia Ning, Shailendra Singh, Konstantinos Pelechrinis, Bin Liu,  

E-print Network

of 15.0%. I. INTRODUCTION Wireless ad hoc and mesh networks find application in municipal networks, tactical deployments and disaster recovery missions. In such networks, packet forwarding along a path

Krishnamurthy, Srikanth

190

Traditional tools for routine environmental analysis and forensic chemistry of petroleum have relied almost  

E-print Network

of the Macondo well oil released from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon disaster, researchers created an extensive unique neutral elemental compositions for the Macondo well crude oil as an archive for future chemical

Weston, Ken

191

Forensic utility of isotope ratio analysis of the explosive urea nitrate and its precursors.  

PubMed

Urea nitrate (UN) is an improvised explosive made from readily available materials. The carbon and nitrogen isotope composition of UN and its component ions, urea and nitrate, could aid in a forensic investigation. A method was developed to separate UN into its component ions for ?(15)N measurements by dissolving the sample with KOH, drying the sample, followed by removal of the urea by dissolution into 100% methanol. UN was synthesized to assess for preservation of the carbon and nitrogen isotope compositions of reactants (urea and nitric acid) and product UN. Based on nitrogen isotope mass balance, all UN samples contained varying amounts of excess nitric acid, making the ionic separation an essential step in the nitrogen isotope analysis. During UN synthesis experiments, isotopic composition of the reactants is preserved in the product UN, but the urea in the product UN is slightly enriched in (15)N (<1‰) relative to the reactant urea. Published isotopic compositions of UN reactants, urea and nitric acid, have large ranges (urea ?(15)N = -10.8 to +3.3‰; urea ?(13)C = -18.2 to -50.6‰; and nitric acid ?(15)N = -1.8 to +4.0‰). The preservation of isotopic composition of reactants in UN, along with a significant variability in isotopic composition of reactants, indicates that isotope ratio analysis may be used to test if urea or nitric acid collected during an investigation is a possible reactant for a specific UN sample. The carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios differ significantly between two field-collected UN samples, as well as the lab-synthesized UN samples. These observed variations suggest that this approach is useful for discriminating between materials which are otherwise chemically identical. PMID:20729019

Aranda, Roman; Stern, Libby A; Dietz, Marianne E; McCormick, Meghan C; Barrow, Jason A; Mothershead, Robert F

2011-03-20

192

Structural analysis of human rib fracture and implications for forensic interpretation.  

PubMed

Patterns of rib fractures are of significant clinical and forensic interest. Linking patterns of rib fracture with specific physical events provides a foundation for understanding the nature of traumatic events that are associated with rib fracture in forensic contexts. In this study, isolated human ribs (n = 8) were end-loaded to failure to investigate: (i) local deformations (bone strain) prior to and during structural failure, (ii) location of ultimate failure, and (iii) fracture mode. Structural properties of ribs were used to calculate theoretical stresses to determine whether such calculations could be used to predict site of fracture. Ribs fractured on the sternal side of midshaft in all experiments, but mode of failure varied with transverse, buckle, spiral, and "butterfly" fractures observed. Comparison of calculated stress with observed strain values suggest that experimental, rather than theoretical, approaches will be most productive in furthering understanding rib fracture in forensic contexts. PMID:18798775

Daegling, David J; Warren, Michael W; Hotzman, Jennifer L; Self, Casey J

2008-11-01

193

The Development of a Generic Framework for the Forensic Analysis of SCADA and Process Control Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is continuing interest in researching generic security architectures and strategies for managing SCADA and process control systems. Documentation from various countries on IT security does now begin to recommendations for security controls for (federal) information systems which include connected process control systems. Little or no work exists in the public domain which takes a big picture approach to the issue of developing a generic or generalisable approach to SCADA and process control system forensics. The discussion raised in this paper is that before one can develop solutions to the problem of SCADA forensics, a good understanding of the forensic computing process, and the range of technical and procedural issues subsumed with in this process, need to be understood, and also agreed, by governments, industry and academia.

Slay, Jill; Sitnikova, Elena

194

Forensic Applications of LIBS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forensic science is broadly defined as the application of science to matters of the law. Practitioners typically use multidisciplinary scientific techniques for the analysis of physical evidence in an attempt to establish or exclude an association between a suspect and the scene of a crime.

Hark, Richard R.; East, Lucille J.

195

Post-disaster reconstruction: A current analysis of Gujarat's response after the 2001 earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-disaster reconstruction is a complex process that involves the interaction of social, technological and economic factors. The most important goal of any post-disaster reconstruction programme must be to reduce the long-term vulnerability of affected communities through the construction of multi-hazard proof housing and appropriate knowledge transfer. Post-disaster reconstruction is an ever-evolving process and there is by no means a perfect

Plato Jack Powell

2011-01-01

196

ANALYSIS OF THE POST-DISASTER RECONSTRUCTION PROCESS FOLLOWING TURKISH EARTHQUAKES, 1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-disaster housing reconstruction is a process that is the interaction of complex social, technological and economic factors and actions. The process of post-disaster housing reconstruction is comprised of four different periods: The pre-disaster, immediate relief, rehabilitation, and reconstruction periods. The objective of this paper is to briefly define the phases and actions in the process and then to analyze the

Berna BARADAN

197

Dentistry and mass disaster - a review.  

PubMed

Mass disaster situations may arise from natural or manmade circumstances like bioterrorism and dentists or dental responders have significant roles in human identification, following such occurrences. The various roles of dentists in mass disaster management, that include bio surveillance and notification, diagnosis and monitoring, triage, referrals of patients, immunizations, decontamination and infection control would be considered. The varying extents of use of forensic dental techniques and the resulting positive impacts made on human identification will also be included. The importance of preparation by way of special training for the dental personnel, mass disaster rehearsal, and use of modern day technology will be stressed on. PMID:25177658

Nathan, Mark David Edward; Sakthi, D Sri

2014-07-01

198

An integrated system of ABO typing and multiplex STR testing for forensic DNA analysis.  

PubMed

A new amplification system for ABO and STR genotyping in a single reaction has been successfully developed. Two types of information can be obtained from a biological sample at one time. One is the classical information of ABO blood group typing for screening suspects and the other is STR information for individual identification. The system allows for the simultaneous detection of 15 autosomal STR loci (containing all CODIS STR loci as well as Penta D and Penta E), six ABO genotypes (O/O, B/B, A/A, A/O, A/B, and B/O) and the gender-determining locus Amelogenin. Primers are designed so that the amplicons are distributed ranging from 75bp to 500bp within a four-dye fluorescent design, leaving a fourth dye for the internal size standard. With 30 cycles, the results showed that the optimal amount of DNA template for this multiplex ranges from 250pg to 2ng and the lowest detection threshold is 125pg (as low as 63pg for ABO loci). For the DNA template outside the optimal detection range, we could adjust the number of cycles to obtain the robust profiles. Mixture studies showed that over 83% of minor alleles were detected at 1:9 ratios. The full profiles were still observed when 4ng of degraded DNA was digested by DNase I and 1ng undegraded DNA was added to 40?M haematin. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based conditions including the concentrations of primers, magnesium and the Taq polymerase as well as volume, cycle numbers and annealing temperature were examined and optimised. In addition, the system was validated by 364 bloodstain samples and 32 common casework samples. According to the Chinese National Standards and Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM) guidelines, our system demonstrates good detection performance and is an ideal tool for forensic DNA typing with potential application. PMID:22516188

Jiang, Xianhua; He, Juan; Jia, Fei; Shen, Hongying; Zhao, Jinling; Chen, Chuguang; Bai, Liping; Liu, Feng; Hou, Guangwei; Guo, Faye

2012-12-01

199

The forensic luminol test for blood: unwanted interference and the effect on subsequent analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

When no bloodstains are found by visual inspection in crime scene investigations the chemilumine- scence (CL) produced in the luminol test for blood is a useful aid. The complex reactions that give rice to the blue- green CL are facilitated by the catalytical activity of the hemoglobin in blood. The luminol test has a high sensitivity compared to other forensic

Anders Nilsson

200

Analysis of suspected wildlife crimes submitted for forensic examinations in Scotland.  

PubMed

This study describes the occurrence of suspected wildlife crimes submitted for forensic examination in Scotland in 2010. The study aims were to determine which types of crimes were committed, which species were targeted, and the outcome of investigations, in order to assess the contribution of forensic examinations in the prosecution of wildlife crimes. Information on suspected wildlife crimes submitted between January 1 and December 31, 2010 to the SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services Disease Surveillance Centers, Science and Advice for Scottish Agriculture, and to the University of Glasgow, was used. The location of suspected crimes, the species targeted, cause of death, and types of the 188 submitted wildlife crimes were summarized. More information regarding cases involving birds were submitted than cases involving mammals, and included 114 raptors, 14 waterfowl, and 22 "other bird species." Mammal cases (n = 38) included 12 badgers, 8 foxes, 7 deer, 4 hares, and 7 "other mammals." The cause of death was determined in 124 suspected crimes; malicious or accidental trauma was the most likely cause of death in 72, and 33 were poisoned. Forensic evidence supporting criminal activity was found in 53 cases, and poisoning was the most frequent crime recorded. At least five individuals were successfully prosecuted, representing 2.7 % of submissions. It was challenging to track cases from submission through to prosecution and laboratories conducting forensic investigations were often not informed of the outcome of prosecutions or court decisions. PMID:24935435

Millins, Caroline; Howie, Fiona; Everitt, Charles; Shand, Michael; Lamm, Catherine

2014-09-01

201

A review of the methodological aspects of aspartic acid racemization analysis for use in forensic science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate age determination of adult cadavers and human remains is a key requirement in forensic practice. The current morphological methods lack accuracy and precision, require specialist training and are costly. The use of aspartic acid racemization (AAR) in human dentine provides a simple, cost-effective solution and the method can achieve accuracies of ±3 years at best. Currently, there are differences

E. R Waite; M. J Collins; S Ritz-Timme; H-W Schutz; C Cattaneo; H. I. M Borrman

1999-01-01

202

DNA Commission of the International Society of Forensic Genetics (ISFG): an update of the recommendations on the use of Y-STRs in forensic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DNA Commission of the International Society of Forensic Genetics (ISFG) regularly publishes guidelines and recommendations concerning the application of DNA polymorphisms to the problems of human identification. A previous recommendation published in 2001 has already addressed Y-chromosome polymorphisms, with particular emphasis on short tandem repeats (STRs). Since then, the use of Y-STRs has become very popular, and numerous new

L. Gusmão; J. M. Butler; A. Carracedo; P. Gill; M. Kayser; W. R. Mayr; N. Morling; M. Prinz; L. Roewer; C. Tyler-Smith; P. M. Schneider

2006-01-01

203

The state of nuclear forensics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear terrorism has been identified as one of the most serious security threats facing the world today. Many countries, including the United States, have incorporated nuclear forensic analysis as a component of their strategy to prevent nuclear terrorism. Nuclear forensics involves the laboratory analysis of seized illicit nuclear materials or debris from a nuclear detonation to identify the origins of the material or weapon. Over the years, a number of forensic signatures have been developed to improve the confidence with which forensic analysts can draw conclusions. These signatures are validated and new signatures are discovered through research and development programs and in round-robin exercises among nuclear forensic laboratories. The recent Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group Third Round Robin Exercise and an on-going program focused on attribution of uranium ore concentrate provide prime examples of the current state of nuclear forensics. These case studies will be examined and the opportunities for accelerator mass spectrometry to play a role in nuclear forensics will be discussed.

Kristo, Michael J.; Tumey, Scott J.

2013-01-01

204

Forensic entomology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Necrophagous insects are important in the decomposition of cadavers. The close association between insects and corpses and the use of insects in medicocriminal investigations is the subject of forensic entomology. The present paper reviews the historical background of this discipline, important postmortem processes, and discusses the scientific basis underlying attempts to determine the time interval since death. Using medical techniques,

Jens Amendt; Roman Krettek; Richard Zehner

2004-01-01

205

Application of the ORIGEN Fallout Analysis Tool and the DELFIC Fallout Planning Tool to National Technical Nuclear Forensics  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to provide a robust fallout analysis and planning tool for the National Technical Nuclear Forensics interagency ground sample collection team. Their application called for a fast-running, portable mission-planning tool for use in response to emerging improvised nuclear device (IND) post-detonation situations. The project met those goals by research and development of models to predict the physical, chemical, and radiological properties of fallout debris. ORNL has developed new graphical user interfaces for two existing codes, the Oak Ridge Isotope Generation (ORIGEN) code and the Defense Land Fallout Interpretive Code (DELFIC). ORIGEN is a validated, radionuclide production and decay code that has been implemented into the Fallout Analysis Tool to predict the fallout source term nuclide inventory after the detonation of an IND. DELFIC is a validated, physics-based, research reference fallout prediction software package. It has been implemented into the Fallout Planning Tool and is used to predict the fractionated isotope concentrations in fallout, particle sizes, fractionation ratios, dose rate, and integrated dose over the planned collection routes - information vital to ensure quality samples for nuclear forensic analysis while predicting dose to the sample collectors. DELFIC contains a particle activity module, which models the radiochemical fractionation of the elements in a cooling fireball as they condense into and onto particles to predict the fractionated activity size distribution for a given scenario. This provides the most detailed physics-based characterization of the fallout source term phenomenology available in an operational fallout model.

Jodoin, Vincent J [ORNL] [ORNL; Lee, Ronald W [ORNL] [ORNL; Peplow, Douglas E. [ORNL] [ORNL; Lefebvre, Jordan P [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01

206

The value of radiocarbon analysis in determining the forensic interest of human skeletal remains found in unusual circumstances.  

PubMed

The case under analysis refers to the remains of a young adult female found in a shallow grave during the construction work of a hospital in Northern Portugal. The forensic interest of the finding could not be ruled out since distinguishing features pointing to an archaeological grave were lacking. For example, absence of archaeological artefacts could not establish its forensic significance with certainty, together with the absence of modern objects, such as remnants of clothing or personal objects. In addition, although the remains were badly preserved, the condition may not have resulted from a long post-depositional period, but instead could be explained by the geology of the site and the presence of plant roots. The radiocarbon analysis of the remains was meant to establish the death of the individual to before or after the mid-1950s, from comparison with bomb-curve content values. A value of 0.9789 ± 0.0044 for F(14)C (pmC = 97.19 ± 0.44% Modern or ?(14)C = -28.1 ± 4.4‰) was obtained, which placed the death of the individual in the pre-mod-1950s period. This report illustrates the use of radiocarbon analysis in establishing whether the human remains are contemporary or not and describes evidence for what appears to be an historic clandestine grave. PMID:22281219

Cardoso, Hugo F V; Puentes, Katerina; Soares, António Monge; Santos, Agostinho; Magalhães, Teresa

2012-02-01

207

DNA Microarray Analysis of the Mouse Adrenal Gland for the Detection of Hypothermia Biomarkers: Potential Usefulness for Forensic Investigation  

PubMed Central

We analyzed the adrenal gland transcriptome of mice killed by hypothermia using DNA microarray technology. A total of 4051 significantly expressed genes were identified; 2015 genes were upregulated and 2036 were downregulated. The FBJ osteosarcoma oncogene was the most upregulated, whereas stearoyl coenzyme A desaturase 3 was the most downregulated. Validation by quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that results obtained by both methods were consistent. In the gene set analysis, significant variations were found in nine pathways, and we suggest that transforming growth factor ? and tumor necrosis factor ? would be involved in the pathogenesis of hypothermia. Gene functional category analysis demonstrated the most overexpressed categories in upregulated and downregulated genes were cellular process in biological process, binding in molecular function, and cell and cell part in cellular component. The present study demonstrated acute adrenal responses in hypothermia, and we suggest that understanding adrenal mRNA expression would be useful for hypothermia diagnosis. Furthermore, the present microarray data may also facilitate development of immunohistochemical analysis of human cases. In forensic practice, the combination of macroscopic and microscopic observations with molecular biological analyses would be conducive to more accurate diagnosis of hypothermia. Although this study is aimed at forensic practice, the present data regarding more than 20,000 genes of the adrenal gland would be beneficial to inform future clinical hypothermia research. From the viewpoint of adrenal gene activity, they could contribute to elucidating the pathophysiology of hypothermia. PMID:23781398

Saigusa, Kiyoshi; Dewa, Koji

2013-01-01

208

Automated SEM-EDS (QEMSCAN®) Mineral Analysis in Forensic Soil Investigations: Testing Instrumental Reproducibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complex mix of organic and inorganic components present in urban and rural soils and sediments potentially enable them\\u000a to provide highly distinctive trace evidence in both criminal and environmental forensic investigations. Organic components\\u000a might include macroscopic or microscopic plants and animals, pollen, spores, marker molecules, etc. Inorganic components comprise\\u000a naturally derived minerals, mineralloids and man-made materials which may also

Duncan Pirrie; Matthew R. Power; Gavyn K. Rollinson; Patricia E. J. Wiltshire; Julia Newberry; Holly E. Campbell

209

RNA in forensic science  

Microsoft Academic Search

RNA analysis offers insight into diseases and mechanisms leading to death and could develop into a valuable tool for diagnosis of the cause of death in forensic pathology. Other possible applications include the determination of the age of wounds and injuries and of the post-mortem interval. The molecular identification of body fluids by analysis of cell-specific mRNA expression already represents

M. Bauer

2007-01-01

210

[Natural disasters and health: an analysis of the situation in Brazil].  

PubMed

Natural disasters are still insufficiently studied and understood within the scope of public health in this country, with impacts in the short and long term. The scope of this article is to analyze the relationship between disasters and their impact on health based on disaster data recorded in the country. The methodology involved the systematization of data and information contained in the Brazilian Atlas of Natural Disasters 1991-2010 and directly from the National Department of Civil Defense (NSCD). Disasters were organized into four categories of events (meteorological; hydrological; climatological; geophysical/geological) and for each of the latter, the data for morbidity, mortality and exposure of those affected were examined, revealing different types of impacts. Three categories of disasters stood out: the hydrological events showed higher percentages of mortality, morbidity and exposure; climatological events had higher percentages of incidents and people affected; the geophysical/geological events had a higher average of exposure and deaths per event. Lastly, a more active participation of the health sector in the post-2015 global political agenda is proposed, particularly events related to sustainable development, climate change and disaster risk reduction. PMID:25184572

Freitas, Carlos Machado de; Silva, Diego Ricardo Xavier; Sena, Aderita Ricarda Martins de; Silva, Eliane Lima; Sales, Luiz Belino Ferreira; Carvalho, Mauren Lopes de; Mazoto, Maíra Lopes; Barcellos, Christovam; Costa, André Monteiro; Oliveira, Mara Lúcia Carneiro; Corvalán, Carlos

2014-09-01

211

Wavelength dependence on the forensic analysis of glass by nanosecond 266 nm and 1064 nm laser induced breakdown spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy can be used for the chemical characterization of glass to provide evidence of an association between a fragment found at a crime scene to a source of glass of known origin. Two different laser irradiances, 266 nm and 1064 nm, were used to conduct qualitative and quantitative analysis of glass standards. Single-pulse and double-pulse configurations and lens-to-sample-distance settings were optimized to yield the best laser-glass coupling. Laser energy and acquisition timing delays were also optimized to result in the highest signal-to-noise ratio corresponding to the highest precision and accuracy. The crater morphology was examined and the mass removed was calculated for both the 266 nm and 1064 nm irradiations. The analytical figures of merit suggest that the 266 nm and 1064 nm wavelengths are capable of good performance for the forensic chemical characterization of glass. The results presented here suggest that the 266 nm laser produces a better laser-glass matrix coupling, resulting in a better stoichiometric representation of the glass sample. The 266 nm irradiance is therefore recommended for the forensic analysis and comparison of glass samples.

Cahoon, Erica M.; Almirall, Jose R.

2010-05-01

212

September 2006 FORENSIC TECHNIQUES  

E-print Network

September 2006 FORENSIC TECHNIQUES: HELPING ORGANIZATIONS IMPROVE THEIR RESPONSES TO INFORMATION SECURITY INCIDENTS FORENSIC TECHNIQUES: HELPING ORGANIZATIONS IMPROVE THEIR RESPONSES TO INFORMATION and Technology National Institute of Standards and Technology Digital forensic techniques involve the application

213

Amelogenin test abnormalities revealed in Belarusian population during forensic DNA analysis.  

PubMed

Study of gender markers is a part of routine forensic genetic examination of crime scene and reference samples, paternity testing and personal identification. Amelogenin locus as a gender marker is included in majority of forensic STR kits of different manufacturers. In current study we report 11 cases of amelogenin abnormalities identified in males of Belarusian origin: 9 cases of AMELY dropout and 2 cases of AMELX dropout. Cases were obtained from forensic casework (n=9) and paternity testing (n=2) groups. In 4 out of 9 AMELY-negative cases deletion of AMELY was associated with the loss of DYS458 marker. In addition, we identified 3 males with SRY-positive XX male syndrome. Deletion of the long arm of the Y-chromosome was detected in two XX males. Loss of the major part of the Y-chromosome was identified in the third XX male. The presence of two X-chromosomes in XX males was confirmed with the use of Mentype(®) Argus X-8 PCR Amplification Kit. AMELY null allele observed in 2 out of 9 cases with AMELY dropout can be caused by mutation in the primer-binding site of AMELY allele. Primer-binding site mutations of AMELX can result in AMELX dropout identified in 2 cases with amplification failure of AMELX. Our study represents the first report and molecular genetic investigation of amelogenin abnormalities in the Belarusian population. PMID:25458925

Borovko, Sergey; Shyla, Alena; Korban, Victorya; Borovko, Alexandra

2015-03-01

214

Virtual tool mark generation for efficient striation analysis in forensic science  

SciTech Connect

In 2009, a National Academy of Sciences report called for investigation into the scienti#12;c basis behind tool mark comparisons (National Academy of Sciences, 2009). Answering this call, Chumbley et al. (2010) attempted to prove or disprove the hypothesis that tool marks are unique to a single tool. They developed a statistical algorithm that could, in most cases, discern matching and non-matching tool marks made at di#11;erent angles by sequentially numbered screwdriver tips. Moreover, in the cases where the algorithm misinterpreted a pair of marks, an experienced forensics examiner could discern the correct outcome. While this research served to con#12;rm the basic assumptions behind tool mark analysis, it also suggested that statistical analysis software could help to reduce the examiner's workload. This led to a new tool mark analysis approach, introduced in this thesis, that relies on 3D scans of screwdriver tip and marked plate surfaces at the micrometer scale from an optical microscope. These scans are carefully cleaned to remove noise from the data acquisition process and assigned a coordinate system that mathematically de#12;nes angles and twists in a natural way. The marking process is then simulated by using a 3D graphics software package to impart rotations to the tip and take the projection of the tip's geometry in the direction of tool travel. The edge of this projection, retrieved from the 3D graphics software, becomes a virtual tool mark. Using this method, virtual marks are made at increments of 5#14; and compared to a scan of the evidence mark. The previously developed statistical package from Chumbley et al. (2010) performs the comparison, comparing the similarity of the geometry of both marks to the similarity that would occur due to random chance. The resulting statistical measure of the likelihood of the match informs the examiner of the angle of the best matching virtual mark, allowing the examiner to focus his/her mark analysis on a smaller range of angles. Preliminary results are quite promising. In a study with both sides of 6 screwdriver tips and 34 corresponding marks, the method distinguished known matches from known non-matches with zero false positive matches and only two matches mistaken for non-matches. For matches, it could predict the correct marking angle within #6;5-10#14;. Moreover, on a standard desktop computer, the virtual marking software is capable of cleaning 3D tip and plate scans in minutes and producing a virtual mark and comparing it to a real mark in seconds. These results support several of the professional conclusions of the tool mark analysis com- munity, including the idea that marks produced by the same tool only match if they are made at similar angles. The method also displays the potential to automate part of the comparison process, freeing the examiner to focus on other tasks, which is important in busy, backlogged crime labs. Finally, the method o#11;ers the unique chance to directly link an evidence mark to the tool that produced it while reducing potential damage to the evidence.

Ekstrand, Laura [Ames Laboratory

2012-11-16

215

How to Improve Forensic Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some institutional structures for inquiry produce better approximations to truth than others. The current institutional structure\\u000a of police forensics gives each lab a monopoly in the analysis of the police evidence it receives. Forensic workers have inadequate\\u000a incentives to produce reliable analyses of police evidence. Competition would create such incentives. I outline a system of\\u000a “competitive self regulation” for police

Roger Koppl

2005-01-01

216

Forensic odontology: A prosthodontic view  

PubMed Central

The most common role of the forensic dentist is the identification of deceased individuals. Dental identifications have always played a key role in natural and manmade disaster situations, and in particular, the mass casualties normally associated with aviation disasters. Because of the lack of a comprehensive fingerprint database, dental identification continues to be crucial in the world. An all-acrylic resin appliance such as a full denture or an all-acrylic partial denture (or orthodontic appliance), prior to delivery, could be inscribed with the patient's full name on a substrate (paper, metal) and sealed inconspicuously into the surface of a denture by various processes. It has been noted by several authors that in many cases of air disaster where the limbs are completely burnt off, some denture materials survive, especially the posterior part of acrylic dentures and metal-based dentures. Thus, marked dental prostheses (full and partial dentures, mouthguards and removal orthodontic appliances) would lead to rapid identification in the event of accidents and disaster. PMID:23087581

Gosavi, Sulekha; Gosavi, Siddharth

2012-01-01

217

Screening sensitivity analysis of a radionuclides atmospheric dispersion model applied to the Fukushima disaster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical models used to forecast the atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides following nuclear accidents are subject to substantial uncertainties. Input data, such as meteorological forecasts or source term estimations, as well as poorly known model parameters contribute for a large part to this uncertainty. A sensitivity analysis with the method of Morris was carried out in the case of the Fukushima disaster as a first step towards the uncertainty analysis of the Polyphemus/Polair3D model. The main difficulties stemmed from the high dimension of the model's input and output. Simple perturbations whose magnitudes were devised from a thorough literature review were applied to 19 uncertain inputs. Several outputs related to atmospheric activity and ground deposition were aggregated, revealing different inputs rankings. Other inputs based on gamma dose rates measurements were used to question the possibility of calibrating the inputs uncertainties. Some inputs, such as the cloud layer thickness, were found to have little influence on most considered outputs and could therefore be safely discarded from further studies. On the contrary, wind perturbations and emission factors for iodine and caesium are predominant. The performance indicators derived from dose rates observations displayed strong sensitivities. This emphasises the share of the overall uncertainty due to input uncertainties and asserts the relevance of the simple perturbation scheme that was employed in this work.

Girard, Sylvain; Korsakissok, Irène; Mallet, Vivien

2014-10-01

218

[Forensic psychiatry].  

PubMed

Forensic psychiatry is an important part of psychiatry which is especially in public view. This paper summarizes the judicial framework and basic principles in testimony concerning criminal responsibility and criminal prognosis. An interdisciplinary work group has established minimal standards for both these topics, which are also described. They comprise a good example in psychiatry and law for developing quality assurance in this important field. PMID:18696034

Habermeyer, E

2009-01-01

219

Forensic geomorphology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geomorphology plays a critical role in two areas of geoforensics: searching the land for surface or buried objects and sampling scenes of crime and control locations as evidence. Associated geoscience disciplines have substantial bodies of work dedicated to their relevance in forensic investigations, yet geomorphology (specifically landforms, their mapping and evolution, soils and relationship to geology and biogeography) have not had similar public exposure. This is strange considering how fundamental to legal enquiries the location of a crime and its evolution are, as this article will demonstrate. This work aims to redress the balance by showing how geomorphology featured in one of the earliest works on forensic science methods, and has continued to play a role in the sociology, archaeology, criminalistics and geoforensics of crime. Traditional landscape interpretation from aerial photography is used to demonstrate how a geomorphological approach saved police time in the search for a clandestine grave. The application geomorphology has in military/humanitarian geography and environmental/engineering forensics is briefly discussed as these are also regularly reviewed in courts of law.

Ruffell, Alastair; McKinley, Jennifer

2014-02-01

220

Hazard Analysis and Disaster Preparedness in the Fairbanks North Star Borough, Alaska using Hazard Simulations, GIS, and Network Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fairbanks North Star Borough (FNSB) lies in interior Alaska, an area that is dominated by semiarid, boreal forest climate. FNSB frequently witnesses flooding events, wild land fires, earthquakes, extreme winter storms and other natural and man-made hazards. Being a large 19,065 km2 area, with a population of approximately 97,000 residents, providing emergency services to residents in a timely manner is a challenge. With only four highways going in and out of the borough, and only two of those leading to another city, most residents do not have quick access to a main road. Should a major disaster occur and block one of the two highways, options for evacuating or getting supplies to the area quickly dwindle. We present the design of a Geographic Information System (GIS) and network analysis based decision support tool that we have created for planning and emergency response. This tool will be used by Emergency Service (Fire/EMS), Emergency Management, Hazardous Materials Team, and Law Enforcement Agencies within FNSB to prepare and respond to a variety of potential disasters. The GIS combines available road and address networks from different FNSB agencies with the 2010 census data. We used ESRI's ArcGIS and FEMA's HAZUS-MH software to run multiple disaster scenarios and create several evacuation and response plans. Network analysis resulted in determining response time and classifying the borough by response times to facilitate allocation of emergency resources. The resulting GIS database can be used by any responding agency in FNSB to determine possible evacuation routes, where to open evacuation centers, placement of resources, and emergency response times. We developed a specific emergency response plan for three common scenarios: (i) major wildfire threatening Fairbanks, (ii) a major earthquake, (iii) loss of power during flooding in a flood-prone area. We also combined the network analysis results with high resolution imagery and elevation data to determine 'one-way out' areas. These are areas that have only one road going in or out and if that road where to get shut down the residents would have no other way of evacuating.

Schaefer, K.; Prakash, A.; Witte, W.

2011-12-01

221

Disaster Response on September 11, 2001 Through the Lens of Statistical Network Analysis.  

PubMed

The rescue and relief operations triggered by the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City demanded collaboration among hundreds of organisations. To shed light on the response to the September 11, 2001 attacks and help to plan and prepare the response to future disasters, we study the inter-organisational network that emerged in response to the attacks. Studying the inter-organisational network can help to shed light on (1) whether some organisations dominated the inter-organisational network and facilitated communication and coordination of the disaster response; (2) whether the dominating organisations were supposed to coordinate disaster response or emerged as coordinators in the wake of the disaster; and (3) the degree of network redundancy and sensitivity of the inter-organisational network to disturbances following the initial disaster. We introduce a Bayesian framework which can answer the substantive questions of interest while being as simple and parsimonious as possible. The framework allows organisations to have varying propensities to collaborate, while taking covariates into account, and allows to assess whether the inter-organisational network had network redundancy-in the form of transitivity-by using a test which may be regarded as a Bayesian score test. We discuss implications in terms of disaster management. PMID:24707073

Schweinberger, Michael; Petrescu-Prahova, Miruna; Vu, Duy Quang

2014-05-01

222

The role of forensic geoscience in wildlife crime detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increase in both automation and precision in the analysis of geological materials has had significant impact upon forensic investigations in the last 10 years. There is however, a fundamental philosophical difference between forensic and geological enquiry. This paper presents the results of forensic geoscientific investigations of three cases of wildlife crime. Two cases involve the analysis of soils recovered

Ruth M. Morgan; Patricia Wiltshire; Adrian Parker; Peter A. Bull

2006-01-01

223

Laura Monks (99584204) Forensic Image Analysis of the Foramen Magnum The gender identification can be made to approximately 95% accuracy when all the  

E-print Network

Laura Monks (99584204) Forensic Image Analysis of the Foramen Magnum Abstract The gender is that the favourable anatomical conditions are not on often available. The large oval aperture, foramen magnum, which of the foramen magnum. The initial study used 5 skulls from the UCD anthropological department to evaluate

Whelan, Paul F.

224

The Thin Blue Line-Forensic Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site draws on, and brings together, many scientific disciplines-identification of hairs and fibers, forensic psychology, DNA testing, photography, bloodstain pattern analysis, and computer forensics- that contribute to the integrated analysis of a crime and the physical evidence left at a crime scene.

2012-11-15

225

Careers with Forensic Biology  

E-print Network

/Examiner Fingerprint Expert Toxicologist Biomedical Scientist Department of Forensic Medical Science (forensic scientists was the Forensic Science Service (FSS), which ceased to exist in March 2012. They provided include: forensic science units within local police forces, such as the Metropolitan Police Specialist

226

Forensic Science: Best Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All about forensic science Forensic Science for High School Do you watch CSI? You should look at related Web site! How about this one? FORENSIC SCIENCE and have a look at what the Scout Report has to say: Court TV: Forensic Files And don\\'t forget about CSI CSI: The TV Show ...

M., Marcia

2007-03-08

227

ice | proceedings Forensic Engineering  

E-print Network

ice | proceedings Forensic Engineering Volume 165 Issue FE4 November 2012 Forensic Engineering or economic damage. Research and practice papers are sought on traditional or modern forensic engineering, design and construction. Topics covered also include research and education best practice in forensic

Mottram, Toby

228

Analysis of Hospital Disaster in South Korea from 1990 to 2008  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study is to systematically review and analyze disasters involving South Korean hospitals from 1990 and to introduce a newly developed implement to manage patients' evacuation. Materials and Methods We searched for studies reporting disaster preparedness and hospital injuries in South Korean hospitals from 1990 to 2008, by using the Korean Studies Information Service System (KISS, copyright Korean Studies Information Co, Ltd, Seoul, Korea) and, simultaneously, hospital injuries which were reported and regarded as a disaster. Then, each study and injury were analyzed. Results Five studies (3 on prevention and structure, 1 on implement of new device, and 1 on basic supplement to current methods) and 8 injuries were found within this period. During the evacuations, the mean gait speed of walking patients was 0.82 m/s and the mean time of evacuation of individual patients was 38.39 seconds. Regarding structure evaluation, almost all hospitals had no balconies in patient rooms; hospital elevators were placed peripherally and were insufficient in number. As a new device, Savingsun (evacuation elevator) was introduced and had some merits as a fast and easy tool, regardless of patient status or the height of hospital. Conclusion In South Korea, preparation for hospital disasters was noted to be insufficient but has involved various departments such as architectural, clinical, and building operations. In addition, Savignsun has been shown to effectively evacuate and save patients in a hospital disaster. PMID:20879068

Back, Min-Ho

2010-01-01

229

Geospatial analysis of spaceborne remote sensing data for assessing disaster impacts and modeling surface runoff in the built-environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Every year, coastal disasters such as hurricanes and floods claim hundreds of lives and severely damage homes, businesses, and lifeline infrastructure. This research was motivated by the 2005 Hurricane Katrina disaster, which devastated the Mississippi and Louisiana Gulf Coast. The primary objective was to develop a geospatial decision-support system for extracting built-up surfaces and estimating disaster impacts using spaceborne remote sensing satellite imagery. Pre-Katrina 1-m Ikonos imagery of a 5km x 10km area of Gulfport, Mississippi, was used as source data to develop the built-up area and natural surfaces or BANS classification methodology. Autocorrelation of 0.6 or higher values related to spectral reflectance values of groundtruth pixels were used to select spectral bands and establish the BANS decision criteria of unique ranges of reflectance values. Surface classification results using GeoMedia Pro geospatial analysis for Gulfport sample areas, based on BANS criteria and manually drawn polygons, were within +/-7% of the groundtruth. The difference between the BANS results and the groundtruth was statistically not significant. BANS is a significant improvement over other supervised classification methods, which showed only 50% correctly classified pixels. The storm debris and erosion estimation or SDE methodology was developed from analysis of pre- and post-Katrina surface classification results of Gulfport samples. The SDE severity level criteria considered hurricane and flood damages and vulnerability of inhabited built-environment. A linear regression model, with +0.93 Pearson R-value, was developed for predicting SDE as a function of pre-disaster percent built-up area. SDE predictions for Gulfport sample areas, used for validation, were within +/-4% of calculated values. The damage cost model considered maintenance, rehabilitation and reconstruction costs related to infrastructure damage and community impacts of Hurricane Katrina. The developed models were implemented for a study area along I-10 considering the predominantly flood-induced damages in New Orleans. The BANS methodology was calibrated for 0.6-m QuickBird2 multispectral imagery of Karachi Port area in Pakistan. The results were accurate within +/-6% of the groundtruth. Due to its computational simplicity, the unit hydrograph method is recommended for geospatial visualization of surface runoff in the built-environment using BANS surface classification maps and elevations data. Key words. geospatial analysis, satellite imagery, built-environment, hurricane, disaster impacts, runoff.

Wodajo, Bikila Teklu

230

Forensic entomology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Necrophagous insects are important in the decomposition of cadavers. The close association between insects and corpses and the use of insects in medicocriminal investigations is the subject of forensic entomology. The present paper reviews the historical background of this discipline, important postmortem processes, and discusses the scientific basis underlying attempts to determine the time interval since death. Using medical techniques, such as the measurement of body temperature or analysing livor and rigor mortis, time since death can only be accurately measured for the first two or three days after death. In contrast, by calculating the age of immature insect stages feeding on a corpse and analysing the necrophagous species present, postmortem intervals from the first day to several weeks can be estimated. These entomological methods may be hampered by difficulties associated with species identification, but modern DNA techniques are contributing to the rapid and authoritative identification of necrophagous insects. Other uses of entomological data include the toxicological examination of necrophagous larvae from a corpse to identify and estimate drugs and toxicants ingested by the person when alive and the proof of possible postmortem manipulations. Forensic entomology may even help in investigations dealing with people who are alive but in need of care, by revealing information about cases of neglect.

Amendt, Jens; Krettek, Roman; Zehner, Richard

231

A Person-Centered Analysis of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Following a Natural Disaster: Predictors of Latent Class Membership  

PubMed Central

The present study applied latent class analysis to a sample of 810 participants residing in southern Mississippi at the time of Hurricane Katrina to determine if people would report distinct, meaningful PTSD symptom classes following a natural disaster. We found a four-class solution that distinguished persons on the basis of PTSD symptom severity/pervasiveness (Severe, Moderate, Mild, and Negligible Classes). Multinomial logistic regression models demonstrated that membership in the Severe and Moderate Classes was associated with potentially traumatic hurricane-specific experiences (e.g., being physically injured, seeing dead bodies), pre-hurricane traumatic events, co-occurring depression symptom severity and suicidal ideation, certain religious beliefs, and post-hurricane stressors (e.g., social support). Collectively, the findings suggest that more severe/pervasive typologies of natural disaster PTSD may be predicted by the frequency and severity of exposure to stressful/traumatic experiences (before, during, and after the disaster), co-occurring psychopathology, and specific internal beliefs. PMID:24334161

Rosellini, Anthony J.; Coffey, Scott F.; Tracy, Melissa; Galea, Sandro

2014-01-01

232

A person-centered analysis of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms following a natural disaster: predictors of latent class membership.  

PubMed

The present study applied latent class analysis to a sample of 810 participants residing in southern Mississippi at the time of Hurricane Katrina to determine if people would report distinct, meaningful PTSD symptom classes following a natural disaster. We found a four-class solution that distinguished persons on the basis of PTSD symptom severity/pervasiveness (Severe, Moderate, Mild, and Negligible Classes). Multinomial logistic regression models demonstrated that membership in the Severe and Moderate Classes was associated with potentially traumatic hurricane-specific experiences (e.g., being physically injured, seeing dead bodies), pre-hurricane traumatic events, co-occurring depression symptom severity and suicidal ideation, certain religious beliefs, and post-hurricane stressors (e.g., social support). Collectively, the findings suggest that more severe/pervasive typologies of natural disaster PTSD may be predicted by the frequency and severity of exposure to stressful/traumatic experiences (before, during, and after the disaster), co-occurring psychopathology, and specific internal beliefs. PMID:24334161

Rosellini, Anthony J; Coffey, Scott F; Tracy, Melissa; Galea, Sandro

2014-01-01

233

Factors Predicting Organizational Identification with Intercollegiate Forensics Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the relationship between intercollegiate forensics competitors' organizational identification and organizational culture. Through a survey analysis of 314 intercollegiate forensics students, this study reports three major findings. First, this study found male competitors identify with forensics programs more than female…

Croucher, Stephen M.; Long, Bridget L.; Meredith, Michael J.; Oommen, Deepa; Steele, Emily L.

2009-01-01

234

Biometric Identification in Forensic Cases According to the Bayesian Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the one hand, commercial biometric systems and forensic identification require different approaches in order to evaluate system outputs. On the other hand, bayesian approach for evidence analysis and forensic reporting perfectly suits the needs of the court and the forensic scientist. Inside this bayesian framework, any biometric system can be adapted to provide its results in the form of

Joaquin Gonzalez-rodriguez; Julian Fiérrez-aguilar; Javier Ortega-garcia; J. J. Lucena-molina

2002-01-01

235

FORENSIC TRACKING AND MOBILITY PREDICTION IN VEHICULAR NETWORKS  

E-print Network

i #12;ii #12;Chapter 1 FORENSIC TRACKING AND MOBILITY PREDICTION IN VEHICULAR NETWORKS Saif Al been especially tailored for forensic analysis then propose several instances emulating different transportation means. We then use these models to build a full-fledged offline multi-modal forensic tracking sys

Sheldon, Nathan D.

236

Ireland's Global University MSc Digital Investigation & Forensic Computing  

E-print Network

Ireland's Global University MSc Digital Investigation & Forensic Computing (One Year Full Time will be able to perform forensic analysis of a personal computer running Windows OS; understand legal issues demonstrations and in-depth discussions. · Computer Forensic Foundations · Law for IT Investigators · Application

237

Synchrotron radiation identified human chemical fingerprints a novel forensic approach  

E-print Network

Synchrotron radiation identified human chemical fingerprints ­ a novel forensic approach T with the goal of developing an advanced forensic technique to identify complicated partial latent prints a forensic analysis of the fingerprint chemistry, or to identify the latent prints of pre-pubescent children

238

Computer Forensics: An Essential Ingredient for Cyber Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer forensics uses computer investigation and analysis techniques to collect evidence regarding what happened on a computer that is admissible in a court of law. Computer forensics requires a well- balanced combination of technical skills, legal acumen, and ethical conduct. Computer forensics specialists use powerful software tools to uncover data to be sorted through, and then must figure out the

Richard Bassett; Linda Bass; Paul O'Brien

239

Detection Strategies for Malingering with the Miller Forensic Assessment of Symptoms Test: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Its Underlying Dimensions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two of the most widely used measures for the assessment of malingering in forensic populations are the Miller Forensic Assessment of Symptoms Test (M-FAST) and the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS). The underlying dimensions of the SIRS have been well established in the literature, but the structure of the M-FAST remains relatively…

Vitacco, Michael J.; Jackson, Rebecca L.; Rogers, Richard; Neumann, Craig S.; Miller, Holly A.; Gabel, Jason

2008-01-01

240

Burning Down the House A Case Study in Forensic Instrumental Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab-based case, arson investigator “Marie Stanforth” comes under suspicion when her ex-husband dies in a fire. Students assume the role of forensic chemists working for the FBI to analyze charred samples recovered from the crime scene as well as clothing from the principal suspect, comparing what they find in the samples to accelerant standards whose spectra are already known. Once they have determined whether or not the fire was arson, they must then decide if the allegations against Marie are credible. This case study was designed for an instrumental methods course, but could be adapted for a non-science majors’ course.

Boyd, Adam M.; Larsen Iii., Randolph K.

2005-01-01

241

An Examination of Digital Forensic Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Law enforcement is in a perpetual race with criminals in the application of digital technologies, and requires the development of tools to systematically search digital devices for pertinent evidence. Another part of this race, and perhaps more crucial, is the development of a methodology in digital forensics that encompasses the forensic analysis of all genres of digital crime scene investigations.

Mark Reith; Clint Carr; Gregg H. Gunsch

2002-01-01

242

Forensic information acquisition in mobile networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acquisition of data stored on mobile network client equipment including 3G devices, Personal Digital Assistants, Pocket PCs running operating systems such as Symbian and Windows Mobile may be required for forensic purposes. Access to such devices across wireless and mobile interfaces raises challenges which do not normally exist when forensic analysis of hard drives and other storage media occurs. Only

David Irwin; Ray Hunt

2009-01-01

243

Land use change and landslide characteristics analysis for community-based disaster mitigation.  

PubMed

On August 8, 2009, Typhoon Morakot brought heavy rain to Taiwan, causing numerous landslides and debris flows in the Taihe village area of Meishan Township, Chiayi County, in south-central Taiwan. In the Taihe land is primary used for agriculture and land use management may be a factor in the area's landslides. This study explores Typhoon Morakot-induced landslides and land use changes between 1999 and 2009 using GIS with the aid of field investigation. Spot 5 satellite images with a resolution of 2.5 m are used for landslide interpretation and manually digitalized in GIS. A statistical analysis for landslide frequency-area distribution was used to identify the landslide characteristics associated with different types of land use. There were 243 landslides with a total area of 2.75 km(2) in the study area. The area is located in intrinsically fragile combinations of sandstone and shale. Typhoon Morakot-induced landslides show a power-law distribution in the study area. Landslides were mainly located in steep slope areas containing natural forest and in areas planted with bamboo, tea, and betel nut. Land covered with natural forest shows the highest landslide ratio, followed by bamboo, betel nut, and tea. Landslides thus show a higher ratio in areas planted with shallow root vegetation such as bamboo, betel nut, and tea. Furthermore, the degree of basin development is proportional to the landslide ratio. The results show that a change in vegetation cover results in a modified landslide area and frequency and changed land use areas have higher landslide ratios than non-changed. Land use management and community-based disaster prevention are needed in mountainous areas of Taiwan for hazard mitigation. PMID:22961329

Chen, Chien-Yuan; Huang, Wen-Lin

2013-05-01

244

A SNaPshot of next generation sequencing for forensic SNP analysis.  

PubMed

Forensic phenotyping can provide useful intelligence regarding the biogeographical ancestry (BGA) and externally visible characteristics (EVCs) of the donor of an evidentiary sample. Currently, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) based inference of BGA and EVCs is performed most commonly using SNaPshot(®), a single base extension (SBE) assay. However, a single SNaPshot multiplex PCR is limited to 30-40 SNPs. Next generation sequencing (NGS) offers the potential to genotype hundreds to thousands of SNPs from multiple samples in a single experimental run. The PCR multiplexes from five SNaPshot assays (SNPforID 52plex, SNPforID 34plex, Eurasiaplex, IrisPlex and an unpublished BGA assay) were applied to three different DNA template amounts (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 ng) in three samples (9947A and 007 control DNAs and a male donor). The pooled PCR amplicons containing 136 unique SNPs were sequenced using Life Technologies' Ion Torrent™ PGM system. Approximately 72 Mb of sequence was generated from two 10 Mb Ion 314™ v1 chips. Accurate genotypes were readily obtained from all three template amounts. Of a total of 408 genotypes, 395 (97%) were fully concordant with SNaPshot across all three template amounts. Of those genotypes discordant with SNaPshot, six Ion Torrent sequences (1.5%) were fully concordant with Sanger sequencing across the three template amounts. Seven SNPs (1.7%) were either discordant between template amounts or discordant with Sanger sequencing. Sequence coverage observed in the negative control, and, allele coverage variation for heterozygous genotypes highlights the need to establish a threshold for background levels of sequence output and heterozygous balance. This preliminary study of the Ion Torrent PGM system has demonstrated considerable potential for use in forensic DNA analyses as a low to medium throughput NGS platform using established SNaPshot assays. PMID:25282603

Daniel, R; Santos, C; Phillips, C; Fondevila, M; van Oorschot, R A H; Carracedo, A; Lareu, M V; McNevin, D

2015-01-01

245

The Role of Forensic Anthropology in Mass Fatality Incidents Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mass disaster situations, the positive identification of human remains is an important task performed by forensic scientists, i.e., pathologists, biologists, crime scene investigators, odontologists, fingerprint experts, and anthropologists. The identification process of the victims is usually accomplished by scientific methods. The comparison procedure of a large number of bodies with numerous missing persons calls for dividing the population into

Tzipi Kahana; Jehuda Hiss

2009-01-01

246

High-resolution melt analysis of the minisatellite D1S80: A potential forensic screening tool.  

PubMed

High-resolution melt (HRM) analysis of the VNTR region of the human D1S80 locus, a 16-bp repeat minisatellite from approximately 400 to over 700 bp in length, was investigated. A Qiagen Rotor-Gene Q using the Type-it PCR HRM kit was used to acquire HRM curves for 14 single, and 16 biallelic, dsDNA samples. The HRM analysis was applicable over a range of DNA concentrations; however the characteristics of the melt curve did depend on the forward and reverse primer ratio. Despite the large amplicon size and the similarities of the repeat sequences, it was possible to discriminate different genotypes. Heterozygotes were clearly different from the homozygous variants and even small differences in the repeat sequence could be differentiated. However, the melt analysis requires a high-resolution system with temperature resolution of 0.02°C or better in order to sort out differences in these large amplicons of near identical GC content (in this case 56%). HRM analysis of amplicons with large repeat sequences can be used as a means of comparing DNA fragments. Examination of multiple sequences can be used to differentiate DNA samples and demonstrate the potential of HRM analysis as a rapid and inexpensive prescreening technique in forensic applications. PMID:25204971

Pomeroy, Robert S; Balamurugan, Kuppareddi; Wong, Helena; Duncan, George

2014-11-01

247

Comparative forensic soil analysis of New Jersey state parks using a combination of simple techniques with multivariate statistics.  

PubMed

This study has shown that the combination of simple techniques with the use of multivariate statistics offers the potential for the comparative analysis of soil samples. Five samples were obtained from each of twelve state parks across New Jersey in both the summer and fall seasons. Each sample was examined using particle-size distribution, pH analysis in both water and 1 M CaCl2 , and a loss on ignition technique. Data from each of the techniques were combined, and principal component analysis (PCA) and canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) were used for multivariate data transformation. Samples from different locations could be visually differentiated from one another using these multivariate plots. Hold-one-out cross-validation analysis showed error rates as low as 3.33%. Ten blind study samples were analyzed resulting in no misclassifications using Mahalanobis distance calculations and visual examinations of multivariate plots. Seasonal variation was minimal between corresponding samples, suggesting potential success in forensic applications. PMID:24502530

Bonetti, Jennifer; Quarino, Lawrence

2014-05-01

248

Resourcing challenges for post-disaster housing reconstruction: a comparative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-disaster housing reconstruction is likely to suffer project deficiencies in relation to the availability of resources. Inefficiencies in dealing with resource shortages in the aftermath of a catastrophe can trigger economic and environmental impacts on the affected areas. Based on data collected from field research in China, Indonesia, and Australia, three types of resource-led reconstruction strategies are compared: government driven,

Yan Chang; Suzanne Wilkinson; Regan Potangaroa; Erica Seville

2010-01-01

249

COE589: Digital Forensics Introduction to Digital Forensics  

E-print Network

(T122) 1COE589 - Ahmad Almulhem #12;Outline · Forensic Science (Forensics) ­ Classic (Analog) vs Almulhem 2 #12;Forensics Science Forensics (noun): Latin meaning public, forum, discussion Forensic science (forensics) is the application of a broad spectrum of sciences to answer questions of interest to a legal

Almulhem, Ahmad

250

COE589: Digital Forensics Introduction to Digital Forensics  

E-print Network

121) 1COE589 - Ahmad Almulhem #12;Outline · Forensic Science (Forensics) ­ Classic (Analog) vs Digital #12;Forensics Science Forensics (noun): Latin meaning public, forum, discussion Forensic science (forensics) is the application of a broad spectrum of sciences to answer questions of interest to a legal

Almulhem, Ahmad

251

Modeling the economic costs of disasters and recovery: analysis using a dynamic computable general equilibrium model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disaster damages have negative effects on the economy, whereas reconstruction investment has positive effects. The aim of this study is to model economic causes of disasters and recovery involving the positive effects of reconstruction activities. Computable general equilibrium (CGE) model is a promising approach because it can incorporate these two kinds of shocks into a unified framework and furthermore avoid the double-counting problem. In order to factor both shocks into the CGE model, direct loss is set as the amount of capital stock reduced on the supply side of the economy; a portion of investments restores the capital stock in an existing period; an investment-driven dynamic model is formulated according to available reconstruction data, and the rest of a given country's saving is set as an endogenous variable to balance the fixed investment. The 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake is selected as a case study to illustrate the model, and three scenarios are constructed: S0 (no disaster occurs), S1 (disaster occurs with reconstruction investment) and S2 (disaster occurs without reconstruction investment). S0 is taken as business as usual, and the differences between S1 and S0 and that between S2 and S0 can be interpreted as economic losses including reconstruction and excluding reconstruction, respectively. The study showed that output from S1 is found to be closer to real data than that from S2. Economic loss under S2 is roughly 1.5 times that under S1. The gap in the economic aggregate between S1 and S0 is reduced to 3% at the end of government-led reconstruction activity, a level that should take another four years to achieve under S2.

Xie, W.; Li, N.; Wu, J.-D.; Hao, X.-L.

2014-04-01

252

The application of chemometrics on Infrared and Raman spectra as a tool for the forensic analysis of paints.  

PubMed

The aim of this work is to evaluate the capabilities and limitations of chemometric methods and other mathematical treatments applied on spectroscopic data and more specifically on paint samples. The uniqueness of the spectroscopic data comes from the fact that they are multivariate - a few thousands variables - and highly correlated. Statistical methods are used to study and discriminate samples. A collection of 34 red paint samples was measured by Infrared and Raman spectroscopy. Data pretreatment and variable selection demonstrated that the use of Standard Normal Variate (SNV), together with removal of the noisy variables by a selection of the wavelengths from 650 to 1830 cm(-1) and 2730-3600 cm(-1), provided the optimal results for infrared analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clusters analysis (HCA) were then used as exploratory techniques to provide evidence of structure in the data, cluster, or detect outliers. With the FTIR spectra, the Principal Components (PCs) correspond to binder types and the presence/absence of calcium carbonate. 83% of the total variance is explained by the four first PCs. As for the Raman spectra, we observe six different clusters corresponding to the different pigment compositions when plotting the first two PCs, which account for 37% and 20% respectively of the total variance. In conclusion, the use of chemometrics for the forensic analysis of paints provides a valuable tool for objective decision-making, a reduction of the possible classification errors, and a better efficiency, having robust results with time saving data treatments. PMID:21353751

Muehlethaler, Cyril; Massonnet, Genevieve; Esseiva, Pierre

2011-06-15

253

From sample to PCR product in under 45 minutes: a polymeric integrated microdevice for clinical and forensic DNA analysis.  

PubMed

The extraction and amplification of DNA from biological samples is laborious and time-consuming, requiring numerous instruments and sample handling steps. An integrated, single-use, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microdevice for DNA extraction and amplification would benefit clinical and forensic communities, providing a completely closed system with rapid sample-in-PCR-product-out capability. Here, we show the design and simple flow control required for enzyme-based DNA preparation and PCR from buccal swabs or liquid whole blood samples with an ~5-fold reduction in time. A swab containing cells or DNA could be loaded into a novel receptacle together with the DNA liberation reagents, heated using an infrared heating system, mixed with PCR reagents for one of three different target sets under syringe-driven flow, and thermally-cycled in less than 45 min, an ~6-fold reduction in analysis time as compared to conventional methods. The 4 : 1 PCR reagents : DNA ratio required to provide the correct final concentration of all PCR components for effective amplification was verified using image analysis of colored dyes in the PCR chamber. Novel single-actuation, 'normally-open' adhesive valves were shown to effectively seal the PCR chamber during thermal cycling, preventing air bubble expansion. The effectiveness of the device was demonstrated using three target sets: the sex-typing gene Amelogenin, co-amplification of the ?-globin and gelsolin genes, and the amplification of 15 short tandem repeat (STR) loci plus Amelogenin. The use of the integrated microdevice was expanded to the analysis of liquid blood samples which, when incubated with the DNA liberation reagents, form a brown precipitate that inhibits PCR. A simple centrifugation of the integrated microchips (on a custom centrifuge), mobilized the precipitate away from the microchannel entrance, improving amplification of the ?-globin and gelsolin gene fragments by ~6-fold. This plastic integrated microdevice represents a microfluidic platform with potential for evolution into point-of-care prototypes for application to both clinical and forensic analyses, providing a 5-fold reduction from conventional analysis time. PMID:23389252

Lounsbury, Jenny A; Karlsson, Anne; Miranian, Daniel C; Cronk, Stephen M; Nelson, Daniel A; Li, Jingyi; Haverstick, Doris M; Kinnon, Paul; Saul, David J; Landers, James P

2013-04-01

254

Separate analysis of DYS385a and b versus conventional DYS385 typing: is there forensic relevance?  

PubMed

In order to determine to what extent the separate analysis of both copies of DYS385 improves Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (Y-STR) haplotyping, we followed a recently published protocol for the separate amplification of DYS385a and DYS385b with modifications and compared the results with those obtained by conventional analysis in a population sample comprising 133 unrelated Caucasian males from Austria. Additionally, we typed all markers of the minimal haplotype (minHT) and a set of Y-chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs) in order to interpret the STR data depending on the Y-SNP haplogroup structure. The separate amplification of DYS385a and b improved the power of discrimination of this marker when compared to the results obtained with the conventional non-locus-discriminating amplification strategy. However, the degree of this improvement varied greatly between different haplogroups and was found to be highest in clade K. In the forensically relevant context of the minHT, the separate analysis of the DYS385 alleles had no effect on the differentiation of paternal lineages in our study. Furthermore, the amplicon lengths of 700-780 base pairs obtained in the course of the locus-discriminating approach restrict the applicability of this amplification strategy to high quality DNA samples. PMID:15071745

Niederstätter, Harald; Berger, Burkhard; Oberacher, Herbert; Brandstätter, Anita; Huber, Christian G; Parson, Walther

2005-01-01

255

Integrating Forensic Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the implementation of forensic science in an integrated curriculum and discusses the advantages of this approach. Lists the forensic science course syllabi studied in three high schools. Discusses the unit on polymers in detail. (YDS)

Funkhouser, John; Deslich, Barbara J.

2000-01-01

256

Computer Forensics Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of science and education to computer-related crime forensics is still largely limited to law enforcement organizations. Building a suitable workforce development program could support the rapidly growing field of computer and network forensics.

Alec Yasinsac; Robert F. Erbacher; Donald G. Marks; Mark Pollitt; Peter M. Sommer

2003-01-01

257

Surviving Disasters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools play a unique role in communities when disaster strikes. They serve as shelter for evacuees and first responders; they are a trusted source of information; and once danger has passed, the district, as employer and community center, often serves as a foundation for recovery. Technology plays a key role in a school district's ability to…

Henke, Karen Greenwood

2008-01-01

258

Automating the Coupling of ORIGEN with GADRAS via the Fallout Analysis Tool for National Technical Nuclear Forensics  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear forensic teams will be deployed to collect and evaluate fallout samples on the ground in the scenario of a low-yield nuclear detonation in a heavily populated area. Quick non-destructive methods of predicting the quality of the sample before it is analyzed in detail are essential for efficient post-event collections. In this work, the process of exporting Defense Land Fallout Interpretive Code (DELFIC) results into Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) has been automated within the Fallout Analysis Tool. This coupling allows for the simulation of detector responses to fallout samples with varying degrees of fractionation. The degree to which the samples are fractionated depends on the location of the samples in the fallout field. In the following study, this phenomenon is examined, as its understanding is important to the investigation of debris distribution. The simulated detector spectra from GADRAS can be used to compare peak ratios of volatile-refractory isotope pairs in order to determine the degree of fractionation. Simulated fractionated fallout samples from DELFIC for a 10 kt, pure 235U fission surface burst were modeled for distances ranging to 256 km out from ground zero, and for times up to 1 week from detonation. The fractionation ratios, also known as r values, from isotope concentrations, photon lines and peak areas of four volatile-refractory pairs were calculated and compared. Fractionation prediction via the peak areas method was evaluated for each pair by comparing the results with the simulated radionuclide inventory.

Monterial, Mateusz [ORNL; Jodoin, Vincent J [ORNL; Lefebvre, Jordan P [ORNL; Peplow, Douglas E. [ORNL; Hooper, David A [ORNL

2012-01-01

259

Disaster risk management in prospect mining area Blitar district, East Java, using microtremor analysis and ANP (analytical network processing) approach  

SciTech Connect

Indonesia has a wealth of natural assets is so large to be managed and utilized, either from its own local government and local communities, especially in the mining sector. However, mining activities can change the state of the surface layer of the earth that have a high impact disaster risk. This could threaten the safety and disrupt human life, environmental damage, loss of property, and the psychological impact, sulking to the rule of law no 24 of 2007. That's why we strive to manage and minimize the risk of mine disasters in the region, how to use the method of calculation of Amplification Factor (AF) from the analysis based microtremor sulking Kanai and Nakamura, and decision systems were tested by analysis of ANP. Based on the amplification factor and Analytical Network Processing (ANP) obtained, some points showed instability in the surface layer of a mining area include the site of the TP-7, TP-8, TP-9, TP-10, (Birowo2). If in terms of structure, location indicated unstable due to have a sloping surface layer, resulting in the occurrence of landslides and earthquake risk is high. In the meantime, other areas of the mine site can be said to be a stable area.

Parwatiningtyas, Diyan, E-mail: diane.tyas@gmail.com, E-mail: erlinunindra@gmail.com; Ambarsari, Erlin Windia, E-mail: diane.tyas@gmail.com, E-mail: erlinunindra@gmail.com; Marlina, Dwi, E-mail: diane.tyas@gmail.com, E-mail: erlinunindra@gmail.com; Wiratomo, Yogi, E-mail: diane.tyas@gmail.com, E-mail: erlinunindra@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Indraprasta PGRI University, Nangka Street No. 58C Tanjung Barat, South Jakarta (Indonesia)

2014-03-24

260

Disaster risk management in prospect mining area Blitar district, East Java, using microtremor analysis and ANP (analytical network processing) approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indonesia has a wealth of natural assets is so large to be managed and utilized, either from its own local government and local communities, especially in the mining sector. However, mining activities can change the state of the surface layer of the earth that have a high impact disaster risk. This could threaten the safety and disrupt human life, environmental damage, loss of property, and the psychological impact, sulking to the rule of law no 24 of 2007. That's why we strive to manage and minimize the risk of mine disasters in the region, how to use the method of calculation of Amplification Factor (AF) from the analysis based microtremor sulking Kanai and Nakamura, and decision systems were tested by analysis of ANP. Based on the amplification factor and Analytical Network Processing (ANP) obtained, some points showed instability in the surface layer of a mining area include the site of the TP-7, TP-8, TP-9, TP-10, (Birowo2). If in terms of structure, location indicated unstable due to have a sloping surface layer, resulting in the occurrence of landslides and earthquake risk is high. In the meantime, other areas of the mine site can be said to be a stable area.

Parwatiningtyas, Diyan; Ambarsari, Erlin Windia; Marlina, Dwi; Wiratomo, Yogi

2014-03-01

261

Forensic entomology in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic entomology (FE) is increasingly gaining international recognition. In Germany, however, the development of FE has been stagnating, mainly because of the lack of cooperation between police, forensic medicine and entomology. In 1997 a co-operative research project ‘Forensic Entomology’ was started in Frankfurt\\/Main at the Center of Legal Medicine and the Research Institute Senckenberg. The aim of this project is

Jens Amendt; Roman Krettek; Constanze Niess; Richard Zehner; Hansjürgen Bratzke

2000-01-01

262

Introduction to Forensic Anthropology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Course Objectives: This course provides a broad overview of forensic anthropology, an applied field of biological anthropology that seeks to recover, identify, and evaluate human skeletal remains within a medico-legal context. In this course, students will learn: to identify the bones of the human skeleton; recovery techniques and initial treatment of forensic material; the techniques used by forensic anthropologists to

P. James Macaluso

2008-01-01

263

Elder Abuse Forensic Centers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elder abuse forensic centers present a new model of multidisciplinary collaboration on elder abuse cases. The “clients” of a forensic center are Adult Protective Services (APS), law enforcement, and the Long-term Care Ombudsman. Centers take the basic multidisciplinary team model and add a geriatrician and a psychologist. Additionally, forensic center team members make home visits with APS and others for

Diana Cafaro Schneider; Laura Mosqueda; Erika Falk; George J. Huba

2010-01-01

264

NISTIR 7617 Mobile Forensic  

E-print Network

NISTIR 7617 Mobile Forensic Reference Materials: AMethodologyandReification WayneJansen AurélienDelaitre i #12;Mobile Forensic Reference Materials: A Methodology and Reification Wayne Jansen Aurélien of forensic tools. It describes an application and data set developed to populate identity modules

265

High Performance Proactive Digital Forensics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the increase in the number of digital crimes and in their sophistication, High Performance Computing (HPC) is becoming a must in Digital Forensics (DF). According to the FBI annual report, the size of data processed during the 2010 fiscal year reached 3,086 TB (compared to 2,334 TB in 2009) and the number of agencies that requested Regional Computer Forensics Laboratory assistance increasing from 689 in 2009 to 722 in 2010. Since most investigation tools are both I/O and CPU bound, the next-generation DF tools are required to be distributed and offer HPC capabilities. The need for HPC is even more evident in investigating crimes on clouds or when proactive DF analysis and on-site investigation, requiring semi-real time processing, are performed. Although overcoming the performance challenge is a major goal in DF, as far as we know, there is almost no research on HPC-DF except for few papers. As such, in this work, we extend our work on the need of a proactive system and present a high performance automated proactive digital forensic system. The most expensive phase of the system, namely proactive analysis and detection, uses a parallel extension of the iterative z algorithm. It also implements new parallel information-based outlier detection algorithms to proactively and forensically handle suspicious activities. To analyse a large number of targets and events and continuously do so (to capture the dynamics of the system), we rely on a multi-resolution approach to explore the digital forensic space. Data set from the Honeynet Forensic Challenge in 2001 is used to evaluate the system from DF and HPC perspectives.

Alharbi, Soltan; Moa, Belaid; Weber-Jahnke, Jens; Traore, Issa

2012-10-01

266

Nuclear Forensic Materials and Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A short history and treatment of the various aspects of nuclear forensic analysis is followed by a discussion of the most common chemical procedures, including applications of tracers, radioisotopic generators, and sample chronometry. Analytic methodology discussed includes sample preparation, radiation detection, various forms of microscopy, and mass-spectrometric techniques. The chapter concludes with methods for the production and treatment of special

I. D. Hutcheon; P. M. Grant; K. J. Moody

2011-01-01

267

What can multiwave studies teach us about disaster research: an analysis of low-income Hurricane Katrina survivors.  

PubMed

Previous research on natural disasters has been limited by a lack of predisaster data and statistical analyses that do not adequately predict change in psychological symptoms. In the current study, we addressed these limitations through analysis of 3 waves of data from a longitudinal investigation of 313 low-income, African American mothers who were exposed to Hurricane Katrina. Although postdisaster cross-sectional estimates of the impact of traumatic stress exposure and postdisaster social support on postdisaster psychological distress were somewhat inflated, the general trends persisted when controlling for predisaster data (B = 0.88 and -0.33, vs. B = 0.81 and -0.27, respectively). Hierarchical linear modeling of the 3 waves of data revealed that lower predisaster social support was associated with higher psychological distress at the time of the disaster (? = -.16), and that higher traumatic stress exposure was associated with greater increases in psychological distress after the storm (? = .86). Based on the results, we suggest that the impact of traumatic stress on psychological trajectories cannot be accounted for solely by preexisting risk, and recommend more complex research designs to further illuminate the complex, dynamic relationships between psychological distress, traumatic stress exposure, and social support. PMID:22684676

Green, Gillian; Lowe, Sarah R; Rhodes, Jean E

2012-06-01

268

Centre for Forensic Science Centre for Forensic Science  

E-print Network

Centre for Forensic Science #12;Centre for Forensic Science · First program in UK and now in itsKie #12;Education, Research & Practice · MSc/PgDip Forensic Science · BSc/MChem Forensic & Analytical Education Research #12;MSc Forensic Science #12;Semester 1 · Lectures and labs to provide grounding in field

Mottram, Nigel

269

Forensic evaluations in psychiatry  

PubMed Central

Forensic psychiatry is an important subspecialty of psychiatry. Forensic psychiatrists play an important role in the society in assisting the judiciary in many complicated cases. In India, forensic psychiatry work is undertaken mostly by the general psychiatrists. Forensic psychiatric assessments are often associated with an element of anxiety or fear for a young psychiatrist. The present paper aims at familiarizing the readers with forensic evaluation in various situations so that they are able to carry out the assessments in real-life situations comfortably. Various steps of forensic assessment in different situations are discussed in the background of real-life cases. Assessment areas include criminal responsibility, fitness to plead, issue of guardianship, assessment of mental status, testamentary capacity and others. The paper gives some general guidelines on forensic psychiatric assessment in practical situations in our country. The readers are advised to refer to the standard textbooks and the Indian law for further details. PMID:24459315

Chadda, R. K.

2013-01-01

270

Modeling senescence changes of the pubic symphysis in historic Italian populations: A comparison of the Rostock and forensic approaches to aging using transition analysis.  

PubMed

Age-related anatomical changes to the surface of the pubic symphysis are well-documented in the literature. However, aligning these morphological changes with chronological age has proven problematic, often resulting in biased age estimates. Statistical modeling provides an avenue for forensic anthropologists and bioarchaeologists to increase the accuracy of traditional aging methods. Locating appropriate samples to use as a basis for modeling age estimations can be challenging due to differing sample age distributions and potentially varying patterns of senescence. We compared two approaches, Rostock and Forensic, coupled with a Bayesian methodology, to address these issues. Transition analysis was run specific to each method (which differ by sample selection). A Gompertz model was derived from an informative prior that yielded the mortality and senescence parameters for constructing highest posterior density ranges, i.e., coverages, which are analogous to age ranges. These age ranges were generated from both approaches and are presented as reference tables useful for historic male and female Italian samples. The age ranges produced from each approach were tested on an historic Italian sample, using cumulative binomial tests. These two approaches performed similarly, with the Forensic approach showing a slight advantage. However, the Forensic approach is unable to identify varying senescence patterns between populations, thus preference for one approach over the other will depend on research design. Finally, we demonstrate that while populations exhibit similar morphological changes with advancing age, there are no significant sex differences in these samples, and the timing of these changes varies from population to population. Am J Phys Anthropol 156:466-473, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25407762

Godde, Kanya; Hens, Samantha M

2015-03-01

271

Survey of Forensic Service Providers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Government-funded studies, to date, have focused on forensic science within the laboratory setting. Recent studies have suggested that there is a significant amount of forensic services that take place outside of the forensic laboratories. There has been a lack of research that quantifies and benchmarks forensic services performed outside of the traditional forensic laboratories. This study, funded through the West

Randall A. Childs; Tom S. Witt; Kanybek Nur-tegin

2009-01-01

272

Ethical issues in DNA identification of human biological material from mass disasters.  

PubMed

Each mass disaster has its own characteristics and will involve a different approach, so the safeguarding and collection of forensic evidence have to be considered as part of the field response procedure. DNA typing has played a more prominent role in the identification of human remains, and particularly so for highly decomposed and fragmented remains. Although the ultimate goal is to obtain the identification, the specific context of each application of human identity testing has its specific problems, ranging from technical approach, through statistical interpretation, to ethical issues. The preparedness plan of the forensic genetics laboratory needs to include policies for family notification, long-term sample storage, and data archiving. For this reason, DNA sample collection and a strategy for DNA-based victim identification needs to be part of the preparedness plan. In this paper, the authors seek to define three of these ethical aspects: (1) the humanitarian importance of identification; (2) resource allocation in the victims' DNA identification; and (3) the secondary use for research of the samples initially collected for identification purposes. DNA analysis for the purpose of identifying victims of mass disasters has complex implications that demand much more rigorous examination than they have received until now. PMID:23594584

Caenazzo, Luciana; Tozzo, Pamela; Rodriguez, Daniele

2013-08-01

273

Open Source Live Distributions for Computer Forensics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current distributions of open source forensic software provide digital investigators with a large set of heterogeneous tools. Their use is not always focused on the target and requires high technical expertise. We present a new GNU/Linux live distribution, named CAINE (Computer Aided INvestigative Environment) that contains a collection of tools wrapped up into a user friendly environment. The CAINE forensic framework introduces novel important features, aimed at filling the interoperability gap across different forensic tools. Moreover, it provides a homogeneous graphical interface that drives digital investigators during the acquisition and analysis of electronic evidence, and it offers a semi-automatic mechanism for the creation of the final report.

Giustini, Giancarlo; Andreolini, Mauro; Colajanni, Michele

274

Evaluation of Methods to Improve the Extraction and Recovery of DNA from Cotton Swabs for Forensic Analysis  

PubMed Central

Samples for forensic DNA analysis are often collected from a wide variety of objects using cotton or nylon tipped swabs. Testing has shown that significant quantities of DNA are retained on the swab, however, and subsequently lost. When processing evidentiary samples, the recovery of the maximum amount of available DNA is critical, potentially dictating whether a usable profile can be derived from a piece of evidence or not. The QIAamp DNA Investigator extraction kit was used with its recommended protocol for swabs (one hour incubation at 56°C) as a baseline. Results indicate that over 50% of the recoverable DNA may be retained on the cotton swab tip, or otherwise lost, for both blood and buccal cell samples when using this protocol. The protocol’s incubation time and temperature were altered, as was incubating while shaking or stationary to test for increases in recovery efficiency. An additional step was then tested that included periodic re-suspension of the swab tip in the extraction buffer during incubation. Aliquots of liquid blood or a buccal cell suspension were deposited and dried on cotton swabs and compared with swab-less controls. The concentration of DNA in each extract was quantified and STR analysis was performed to assess the quality of the extracted DNA. Stationary incubations and those performed at 65°C did not result in significant gains in DNA yield. Samples incubated for 24 hours yielded less DNA. Increased yields were observed with three and 18 hour incubation periods. Increases in DNA yields were also observed using a swab re-suspension method for both cell types. The swab re-suspension method yielded an average two-fold increase in recovered DNA yield with buccal cells and an average three-fold increase with blood cells. These findings demonstrate that more of the DNA collected on swabs can be recovered with specific protocol alterations. PMID:25549111

Adamowicz, Michael S.; Stasulli, Dominique M.; Sobestanovich, Emily M.; Bille, Todd W.

2014-01-01

275

Disaster response. Natural disaster: Katrina.  

PubMed

The aftermath and response to a disaster can be divided into four phases. The importance of each depends on the length of time without resupply and the resources that are required. This in turn depends on the time span of the disaster; the area involved; the number of the population affected; the resupply available; the extent of the devastation; and the size of the evacuation. The above phases are discussed using hurricane Katrina as an example. The phases are as follows: immediate response, evacuation, backfill and resupply, and restoration. The restoration phase is usually the longest and requires the most resources. This article addresses the situation of Katrina, the mistakes that were made, the lessons that were learned, and the solutions that are needed. Appropriate training and practice are required for all participants using realistic scenarios. PMID:20582507

McSwain, Norman E

2010-07-01

276

Contribution of forensic autopsy to scene reconstruction in mass fire casualties: A case of alleged arson on a floor consisting of small compartments in a building.  

PubMed

A fire is an important cause of mass disasters, involving various forensic issues. Before dawn on an early morning, 16 male visitors in their twenties to sixties were killed in a possibly incendiary fire at a 'private video parlor' consisting of small compartments in a building. The main causes of death as determined by forensic autopsy were acute carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication for all of the 15 found-dead victims, and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy following acute CO intoxication for a victim who died in hospital. Burns were mild (<20% of body surface) in most victims, except for three victims found between the entrance and the estimated fire-outbreak site; thus, identification was completed without difficulty, supported by DNA analysis. Blood carboxyhemoglobin saturation (COHb) was higher for victims found dead in the inner area. Blood cyanide levels were sublethal, moderately correlated to COHb, but were higher in victims found around the estimated fire-outbreak site. There was no evidence of thinner, alcohol or drug abuse, or an attack of disease as a possible cause of an accidental fire outbreak. These observations contribute to evidence-based reconstruction of the fire disaster, and suggest how deaths could have been prevented by appropriate disaster measures. PMID:25311374

Michiue, Tomomi; Ishikawa, Takaki; Oritani, Shigeki; Maeda, Hitoshi

2015-01-01

277

Analysis on key problems of mountain torrent disaster loss assessment system in Liaohe River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liaohe river basin mountain torrent disaster serious, this paper tells a system of flood loss assessment which would be helpful for the decrease of the geologic disastrous loss. Firstly, it mainly analyzes four uncertainties aspects of flood loss: precision of prediction and simulation, accounting standard of asset, asset vulnerability and flood prevention ability. Secondly, EasyDHM has been selected for forecast flood, the simulation forecast time is 6h before real flood peak coming; flood inundation model is selected for flood submerged level information extracted and flood submerged map. In the end, the model of flood Lose calculation is used to calculation the loss by the extracted information from stacking social economic data and water data. The feasibility of flood loss assessment system has been proved by flood simulation in 1998, 2003 and 2005. The unified assessment criteria make the assessment result difference, but this system of flood loss assessment has some value in system integration.

Chen, Jing

2014-01-01

278

World of Forensic Laboratory Testing  

MedlinePLUS

... Was this page helpful? Overview | Forensic Pathology | Forensic Toxicology | Genetic Tests and DNA Typing | Testing in Cases ... Michael Jackson died in 2009, results of Forensic Toxicology tests on his brain tissue took almost a ...

279

Immunohistochemical analysis of markers for different macrophage phenotypes and their use for a forensic wound age estimation.  

PubMed

A total of 117 vital skin wounds (post infliction intervals between a few seconds and 7 months), 20 postmortem wounds and skin specimens with beginning or advanced signs of putrefaction were investigated. Different markers for macrophage maturation (27 E 10, RM 3/1, 25 F 9, G 16/1) were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The early stage inflammation marker 27 E 10 stained macrophages, but also monocytes and neutrophilic granulocytes localized in blood vessels or bleeding induced postmortem and therefore provided no further information for a forensic wound age estimation in comparison to the routine histological detection of macrophages. The antigens recognized by the RM 3/1- (intermediate stage inflammation marker) and 25 F 9-antibodies (late stage inflammation marker) were expressed exclusively by histiocytes and inflammatory cells that had migrated from the blood vessels as part of the acute inflammatory response associated with an intravital reaction. The morphometrical analysis revealed positive results (defined as at least a two-fold increase in number in 2 or more microscope fields when compared to the maximum value of histiocytes found in uninjured skin) for the RM 3/1- or 25 F 9-antibody earliest in wounds aged 7 or 11 days, respectively. Similarly to the 25 F 9-antibody, the chronic stage inflammation marker (G 16/1) reacted with a macrophage subpopulation first detectable 12 days after wounding but showed positive results in a comparably reduced percentage of cases. On the other hand, this marker did not stain a relevant number of resident macrophages thus facilitating the evaluation of the specimens.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7599096

Betz, P; Tübel, J; Eisenmenger, W

1995-01-01

280

Ask a Forensic Artist  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How exactly does one become a forensic artist? It is not easy, and this website provides some rather direct and frank advice about the profession. The Ask a Forensic Artist (AAFA) site is well organized, and first-time visitors should make a beeline for the "FAQ" section. Here they will find answers to questions like "What is 'Forensic Art'?" and "What training is available in Forensic Art?" The remaining sections include "Careers", "Gallery", "Artist Interviews" and the thematic "Categories" area on the right-hand side of the page. The "Artist Interviews" includes profiles with forensic artists working in many fields of law enforcement. The "Gallery" features a few samples of forensic art, and the "Careers" area includes some basic information for those who wish to get started in the field. The site is rounded out by a list of career-related sites and helpful blogs.

281

Computational Forensics: An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive abilities of human expertise modeled using computational methods offer several new possibilities for the forensic\\u000a sciences. They include three areas: providing tools for use by the forensic examiner, establishing a scientific basis for\\u000a the expertise, and providing an alternate opinion on a case. This paper gives a brief overview of computational forensics\\u000a with a focus on those disciplines that

Katrin Franke; Sargur N. Srihari

2008-01-01

282

Overview of Audio Forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Audio forensics applies the tools and techniques of audio engineering and digital signal processing to study audio data as\\u000a part of a legal proceeding or an official investigation of some kind. This chapter summarizes the principal audio forensic\\u000a tasks, including authentication, enhancement, and interpretation. The chapter explains the relevant procedural and historical\\u000a background, presents several examples of audio forensic applications,

Robert C. Maher

2010-01-01

283

Forensic odontology: an overview.  

PubMed

This article is an overview of the field of forensic odontology, highlighting historical cases, with an emphasis on California cases, and briefly discussing some of the current techniques and issues in the field. As with all fields of dentistry, forensic odontology is adapting to new methodologies, changes in techniques, research findings and legal issues. Today's dentist who works in the forensic arena must face and understand these changes and advancements. PMID:25080766

Spencer, Duane E

2014-06-01

284

Pathoanatomic findings and blood alcohol analysis at autopsy (BAC) in forensic diagnoses of undetermined suicide. A cross-cultural study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Sweden, ca. 25% of unnatural deaths ascribed to self-inflicted injury are finally recorded as ‘undetermined suicide’ (abbreviated UMSA), i.e. the forensic pathologist has not been able to establish whether the fatality was an accident or a suicide. In the present study, a series of UMSA cases was investigated with the aims to study the impact of immigrant status, and

Marcello Ferrada-Noli; Kari Ormstad; Marie Åsberg

1996-01-01

285

Court TV: Forensic Files  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This companion Web site to the Court TV series _Forensic Files_ offers a virtual forensics lab where visitors can learn more about the different techniques experts use to "put together the pieces of the crime puzzle." Each room of the virtual 3-story lab is dedicated to a different forensic technique, including DNA evidence, bite marks, blood splatter, time of death, and more. Each room offers an explanatory video presentation, as well as an annotated slide show or video of forensics scientists at work.

286

Elder abuse forensic centers.  

PubMed

Elder abuse forensic centers present a new model of multidisciplinary collaboration on elder abuse cases. The "clients" of a forensic center are Adult Protective Services (APS), law enforcement, and the Long-term Care Ombudsman. Centers take the basic multidisciplinary team model and add a geriatrician and a psychologist. Additionally, forensic center team members make home visits with APS and others for the purposes of conducting psychological or medical evaluations, lessening the burden of multiple interviews for the alleged abuse victims, and gathering evidence for possible prosecution. The challenges and successes of the four California forensic center teams are discussed. PMID:20711913

Schneider, Diana Cafaro; Mosqueda, Laura; Falk, Erika; Huba, George J

2010-07-01

287

Framework forensic examination computer systems.  

E-print Network

??This thesis discusses the features and requirements of a computationally intelligent computer forensic system. By introducing a novel concept, "Case-Relevance", a computationally intelligent forensic framework… (more)

Gong, Ruibin.

2008-01-01

288

Inference structures for crime analysis and intelligence: the example of burglary using forensic science data  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been much work dedicated to crime analysis and intelligence in recent times. Independently, physical evidence has shown great potential for linking crimes and bringing solid informative data through the increased use of multiple databases. However, their informative potential is still often underestimated and has been poorly integrated into police information systems. We propose a framework that fully introduces

O. Ribaux; P. Margot

1999-01-01

289

Forensic Analysis of Canine DNA Samples in the Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent advances in canine genomics have allowed the development of highly distinguishing methods of analysis for both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. We describe a laboratory exercise suitable for an undergraduate biochemistry course in which the polymerase chain reaction is used to amplify hypervariable regions of DNA from dog hair and saliva…

Carson, Tobin M.; Bradley, Sharonda Q.; Fekete, Brenda L.; Millard, Julie T.; LaRiviere, Frederick J.

2009-01-01

290

Forensic dentistry in human identification: A review of the literature.  

PubMed

An update is provided of the literature on the role of odontology in human identification, based on a PubMed-Medline search of the last 5 years and using the terms: "forensic dentistry" (n = 464 articles), "forensic odontology" (n = 141 articles) and "forensic dentistry identification" (n = 169 articles). Apart from these initial 774 articles, others considered to be important and which were generated by a manual search and cited as references in review articles were also included. Forensic dentistry requires interdisciplinary knowledge, since the data obtained from the oral cavity can contribute to identify an individual or provide information needed in a legal process. Furthermore, the data obtained from the oral cavity can narrow the search range of an individual and play a key role in the victim identification process following mass disasters or catastrophes. This literature search covering the last 5 years describes the novelties referred to buccodental studies in comparative identification, buccodental evaluation in reconstructive identification, human bites as a method for identifying the aggressor, and the role of DNA in dental identification. The oral cavity is a rich and noninvasive source of DNA, and can be used to solve problems of a social, economic or legal nature. Key words:Forensic identification, DNA, forensic dentistry, rugoscopy, cheiloscopy, saliva. PMID:24790717

Ata-Ali, Javier; Ata-Ali, Fadi

2014-04-01

291

Combined pH\\/organic solvent gradient HPLC in analysis of forensic material  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combined pH\\/organic solvent linear gradient mode in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is presented as a new approach to determination of low concentrations of ionogenic analytes in biological material. The approach consists in simultaneous development of linear gradients of pH and organic modifier in the mobile phase. Advantages of the method are illustrated in postmortem analysis of opipramol in

Pawe? Wiczling; Micha? J. Markuszewski; Micha? Kaliszan; Katarzyna Galer; Roman Kaliszan

2005-01-01

292

Analysis and interpretation of mixed forensic stains using DNA STR profiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of multiplex PCR and fluorescent dye technology in the automated detection and analysis of short tandem repeat loci provides not only qualitative information about the profile—i.e. which alleles are present—but can also provide quantitative information on the relative intensities of the bands, and is therefore a measure of the amount of amplified DNA. The availability of this quantitative

T. M. Clayton; J. P. Whitaker; R. Sparkes; P. Gill

1998-01-01

293

Analysis of nonstandard and home-made explosives and post-blast residues in forensic practice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonstandard and home-made explosives may constitute a considerable threat and as well as a potential material for terrorist activities. Mobile analytical devices, particularly Raman, or also FTIR spectrometers are used for the initial detection. Various sorts of phlegmatizers (moderants) to decrease sensitivity of explosives were tested, some kinds of low viscosity lubricants yielded very good results. If the character of the substance allows it, phlegmatized samples are taken in the amount of approx.0.3g for a laboratory analysis. Various separation methods and methods of concentrations of samples from post-blast scenes were tested. A wide range of methods is used for the laboratory analysis. XRD techniques capable of a direct phase identification of the crystalline substance, namely in mixtures, have highly proved themselves in practice for inorganic and organic phases. SEM-EDS/WDS methods are standardly employed for the inorganic phase. In analysing post-blast residues, there are very important techniques allowing analysis at the level of separate particles, not the overall composition in a mixed sample.

Kotrlý, Marek; Turková, Ivana

2014-05-01

294

Nuclear Forensic Materials and Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A short history and treatment of the various aspects of nuclear forensic analysis is followed by a discussion of the most common chemical procedures, including applications of tracers, radioisotopic generators, and sample chronometry. Analytic methodology discussed includes sample preparation, radiation detection, various forms of microscopy, and mass-spectrometric techniques. The chapter concludes with methods for the production and treatment of special nuclear materials and with a description of several actual case studies conducted at Livermore.

Hutcheon, I. D.; Grant, P. M.; Moody, K. J.

295

FORENSIC SCIENCE The bachelor of science in forensic science at  

E-print Network

FORENSIC SCIENCE The bachelor of science in forensic science at Wichita State University in forensic science at WSU. The academic resources (e.g., teaching, research, facilities) necessary investigations. Admission Freshman and transfer students declaring forensic science as a major will be assigned

296

Forensic Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

upon the application of scientific methods and techniques to crime and law. Recent advances in scientific methods and principles have had an enormous impact upon law enforcement and the entire criminal justice system. In this course, scientific methods specifically relevant to crime detection and analysis will be presented. No prior chemistry instruction is required or assumed but the course should

James T. Spencer

2009-01-01

297

Natural Disasters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to our planet's structure and its dynamic system of natural forces through an examination of the natural hazards of earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides, tsunamis, floods and tornados, as well as avalanches, fires, hurricanes and thunderstorms. They see how these natural events become disasters when they impact people, and how engineers help to make people safe from them. Students begin by learning about the structure of the Earth; they create clay models showing the Earth's layers, see a continental drift demo, calculate drift over time, and make fault models. They learn how earthquakes happen; they investigate the integrity of structural designs using model seismographs. Using toothpicks and mini-marshmallows, they create and test structures in a simulated earthquake on a tray of Jell-O. Students learn about the causes, composition and types of volcanoes, and watch and measure a class mock eruption demo, observing the phases that change a mountain's shape. Students learn that the different types of landslides are all are the result of gravity, friction and the materials involved. Using a small-scale model of a debris chute, they explore how landslides start in response to variables in material, slope and water content. Students learn about tsunamis, discovering what causes them and makes them so dangerous. Using a table-top-sized tsunami generator, they test how model structures of different material types fare in devastating waves. Students learn about the causes of floods, their benefits and potential for disaster. Using riverbed models made of clay in baking pans, students simulate the impact of different river volumes, floodplain terrain and levee designs in experimental trials. They learn about the basic characteristics, damage and occurrence of tornadoes, examining them closely by creating water vortices in soda bottles. They complete mock engineering analyses of tornado damage, analyze and graph US tornado damage data, and draw and present structure designs intended to withstand high winds.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

298

Forensic Science Technician  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forensic science technicians, also called crime laboratory technicians or police science technicians, help solve crimes. They examine and identify physical evidence to reconstruct a crime scene. This article discusses everything students need to know about careers for forensic science technicians--wages, responsibilities, skills needed, career…

Tech Directions, 2010

2010-01-01

299

Audio forensic examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of audio forensics involves many topics familiar to the general audio digital signal processing (DSP) community, such as speech recognition, talker identification, and signal quality enhancement. There is potentially much to be gained by applying modern DSP theory to problems of interest to the forensics community, and this article is written to give the DSP audience some insight

Robert C. Maher

2009-01-01

300

Multimedia Forensics and Security  

E-print Network

of Computer Science at the University of Warwick (UK), editor-in-chief of the International Journal of Digital Crime and Forensics (IJDCF)and associate editor of the International Journal of Applied Systemic StudiesMultimedia Forensics and Security Edited by: Chang-Tsun Li, University of Warwick, UK 13-digit ISBN

Autrusseau, Florent

301

Complexity in Forensic Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic Science is an end-to-end process beginning at the scene and finishing in court. There are many opportunities for quality failures along the way. To limit the focus to the validity and robustness of the actual tests does not support the contribution of forensic science to the criminal justice system and risks compromising it. A particularly critical aspect of the

Stan Brown; Sheila Willis

2010-01-01

302

Forensic isotope analysis leads to identification of a mutilated murder victim.  

PubMed

The relationship between diet, geographic location and isotopic composition of human tissue has been successfully exploited in archaeological and palaeodietary studies, i.e. on ancient man, but cases in which this approach has been applied to present-day people e.g. to aid identification of mutilated or deteriorated bodies are far and few between. Stable isotope data are presented here from a case where for the first time stable isotope based intelligence aided victim identification by DNA analysis and subsequent apprehension of the perpetrators thus demonstrating that it is possible in principal for stable isotope data of present-day people to be useful for human provenancing, i.e. to yield valuable information about a person's life history and geographic origin. PMID:18953804

Meier-Augenstein, Wolfram; Fraser, Isla

2008-09-01

303

Multiple Forensic Interviews During Investigations of Child Sexual Abuse: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis  

PubMed Central

In cases of suspected child sexual abuse (CSA) some professionals routinely recommend multiple interviews by the same interviewer because any additional details provided might improve decision-making and increase perpetrator convictions. We analyzed alternative policies about child interviewing to estimate the probability that a policy of all children receiving multiple interviews will increase criminal convictions and better protect children. Using decision analysis, we prepared a decision tree reflecting the structure through which a case of possible CSA passes through the health care, welfare, and legal systems with an estimated probability of conviction of the offender. We reviewed the CSA disclosure, criminal justice, and child welfare literature to obtain estimates for the median and range of rates for the steps of disclosure, substantiation, criminal charges, and conviction. Using the R statistical package, our decision analysis model was populated using literature-based estimates. Once the model was populated, we simulated the experiences of 1,000 cases at 250 sets of plausible parameter values representing different hypothetical communities. Multiple interviews increase the likelihood that an offender will be convicted by 6.1% in the average community. Simulations indicate that a policy in which all children seen for a CSA medical evaluation receive multiple interviews would cost an additional $100,000 for each additional conviction. We estimate that approximately 17 additional children would need to be interviewed on more than one occasion to yield one additional conviction. A policy of multiple interviews has implications for the children, for the costs of care, for protecting other children, and for the risk of false prosecution. PMID:24244100

Block, Stephanie D.; Foster, E. Michael; Pierce, Matthew W.; Berkoff, Molly C.; Runyan, Desmond K.

2013-01-01

304

Forensic mental health professionals' perceptions of psychopathy: a prototypicality analysis of the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality in Sweden.  

PubMed

Assessments of psychopathic traits are used on a routine basis in forensic evaluations across Westernized countries. Despite this, consensus has not yet emerged concerning what exactly are the "core" features of this construct. Moreover, relatively little is known about how practitioners in the field construe this disorder. This study explored perceptions and attitudes regarding psychopathy among individuals working in the forensic mental health system (N = 90) in Sweden. Participants provided prototype ratings of what they considered to be core psychopathy features based on the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality (CAPP), a model that increasingly is the focus of research in North America and Europe. The study protocol also included questions regarding (a) global perceptions and attitudes about a number of aspects of the psychopathy construct (e.g., personal experience, perceived prevalence), and (b) attitudinal scales that assessed perceived correlates of psychopathic traits across a variety of domains (e.g., violence proneness, treatment amenability) and moral judgments and attitudes concerning how psychopathic offenders should be treated within the legal system. The majority of the 33 individual CAPP items and the six CAPP scales were rated as at least moderately prototypical of psychopathy, with Dominance, Self, and Attachment domains obtaining the highest mean ratings. Participants viewed psychopaths as more likely to commit crimes than the average criminal, without being blatantly "evil" people. We believe our results help to advance our understanding of the psychopathy construct by exploring forensic professionals' perceptions of this disorder in general and in relation to the CAPP model specifically. PMID:24707908

Sörman, Karolina; Edens, John F; Smith, Shannon Toney; Svensson, Olof; Howner, Katarina; Kristiansson, Marianne; Fischer, Håkan

2014-10-01

305

Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the past 50 years forensic psychological practice has expanded dramatically. Because the practice of forensic psychology differs in important ways from more traditional practice areas (Monahan, 1980) the "Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists" were developed and published in 1991 (Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic

American Psychologist, 2013

2013-01-01

306

National Academy of Forensic Engineers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Academy of Forensic Engineers provides a short definition of forensic engineering here. After reading through the definition, click the "Menu" link at the bottom of the page to access the site's main menu. From here, you can find more information on the National Academy of Forensic Engineers, and forensic engineering in general.

2008-04-07

307

FORENSIC TECHNIQUES FOR CELL PHONES  

E-print Network

, is called mobile phone forensics. In general, forensic science is the application of scientific principles for legal, investigative, and public policy purposes. Digital forensic science refers to the preservation incidents. The science of recovering digital evidence from mobile phones, using forensically sound

308

75 FR 14331 - Disaster Assistance Loan Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 123 RIN 3245-AF98 Disaster Assistance Loan...Section-by-Section Analysis SBA is amending section 123.11 to reflect that SBA will not require...major disaster. SBA is amending sections 123.202(a) and 123.202(b) to...

2010-03-25

309

Chaos theory, informational needs, and natural disasters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study applies chaos theory to a system-wide analysis of crisis communication in a natural disaster. Specifically, we analyze crisis communication during the 1997 Red River Valley flood in Minnesota and North Dakota. This flood, among the worst in modern American history, consumed entire metropolitan areas, displacing thousands of people. The conditions and decisions leading to the disaster, and the

Timothy L. Sellnow; Matthew W. Seeger; Robert R. Ulmer

2002-01-01

310

The medicolegal and forensic aspects of fires.  

PubMed

Fires, their consequences and their investigations, continue to provide forensic scientists, especially those involved in medicolegal investigation (the medical examiner or forensic pathologist), with constant work and variations in problems. The recent history of mass disasters involving high-rise buildings, transport accidents, and arson-related accidents in nightclubs and prisons has emphasized the necessity for corrective and preventive means to ensure safety to the occupants of any of these areas. Problems presented by fires include the determination of the cause of the fire, the identification of the victims, and the cause and manner of their deaths. The motivation of the fire setter and the settlement by the insurance company or legal means are also aspects to be considered. The imperceptible effects of the fires include many other aspects, among which loss of loved ones and family providers and loss of industrial revenue and job potential are all felt. The most frightening development of all, however, is the insidious surfacing of arson as a possible factor in many major fires. The most recent tragedies involving the Stouffer Inn fire and the Hilton International Hotel fire were both related to arsonous acts. The scope of this article is to review the subject as it affects the forensic medical practitioner directly or indirectly so that his or her investigation may be brought to completion in conjunction with other authorities involved in the case. PMID:7340512

Eckert, W G

1981-12-01

311

Bayesian networks for evaluation of evidence from forensic entomology.  

PubMed

In the aftermath of a CBRN incident, there is an urgent need to reconstruct events in order to bring the perpetrators to court and to take preventive actions for the future. The challenge is to discriminate, based on available information, between alternative scenarios. Forensic interpretation is used to evaluate to what extent results from the forensic investigation favor the prosecutors' or the defendants' arguments, using the framework of Bayesian hypothesis testing. Recently, several new scientific disciplines have been used in a forensic context. In the AniBioThreat project, the framework was applied to veterinary forensic pathology, tracing of pathogenic microorganisms, and forensic entomology. Forensic entomology is an important tool for estimating the postmortem interval in, for example, homicide investigations as a complement to more traditional methods. In this article we demonstrate the applicability of the Bayesian framework for evaluating entomological evidence in a forensic investigation through the analysis of a hypothetical scenario involving suspect movement of carcasses from a clandestine laboratory. Probabilities of different findings under the alternative hypotheses were estimated using a combination of statistical analysis of data, expert knowledge, and simulation, and entomological findings are used to update the beliefs about the prosecutors' and defendants' hypotheses and to calculate the value of evidence. The Bayesian framework proved useful for evaluating complex hypotheses using findings from several insect species, accounting for uncertainty about development rate, temperature, and precolonization. The applicability of the forensic statistic approach to evaluating forensic results from a CBRN incident is discussed. PMID:23971824

Andersson, M Gunnar; Sundström, Anders; Lindström, Anders

2013-09-01

312

Satellite Application for Disaster Management Information Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract Satellites are becoming increasingly vital to modern day disaster management activities. Earth observation (EO) satellites provide images at various wavelengths that assist rapid-mapping in all phases of the disaster management cycle: mitigation of potential risks in a given area, preparedness for eventual disasters, immediate response to a disaster event, and the recovery/reconstruction efforts follo wing it. Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) assist all the phases by providing precise location and navigation data, helping manage land and infrastructures, and aiding rescue crews coordinate their search efforts. Effective disaster management is a complex problem, because it involves many parameters, which are usually not easy to measure and even identify: Analysis of current situation, planning, optimum resource management, coordination, controlling and monitoring current activities and making quick and correct decisions are only some of these parameters, whose complete list is very long. Disaster management information systems (DMIS) assist disaster management to analyse the situation better, make decisions and suggest further actions following the emergency plans. This requires not only fast and thorough processing and optimization abilities, but also real-time data provided to the DMIS. The need of DMIS for disaster’s real-time data can be satisfied by small satellites data utilization. Small satellites can provide up-to-data, plus a better media to transfer data. This paper suggests a rationale and a framework for utilization of small Satellite data by DMIS. DMIS should be used ‘’before’’, ‘’during’’ and ‘’after’’ the disasters. Data provided by the Small Satellites are almost crucial in any period of the disasters, because early warning can save lives, and satellite data may help to identify disasters before they occur. The paper also presents’ ‘when’’, ‘’where’’ and ‘’how’’ small satellite data should be used by DMIS.

Okpanachi, George

313

The Effects of Natural Disasters on Human Capital Accumulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I investigate the effects of disasters on human capital accumulation using an extensive panel dataset on natural disasters, covering 170 countries over a 25 year period (1980-2004). My analysis shows that disasters have both a direct, contemporaneous effect and a long-term, indirect effect on human capital. While the direct effects - primarily related to injury, illness and

Thomas K. J. McDermott

2011-01-01

314

Topic in Depth - Forensic Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The field of forensic engineering involves the study of products, materials, and structures that fail to function properly. Forensic engineers investigate the problem to locate the source of the failure in order to improve the product or structure. Principles of forensic engineering are applied broadly across many different disciplines. Evidence from forensic engineering investigations is often used in both civil and criminal courts. The resources in this folder provide an overview of many different aspects of the forensic engineering discipline.

2010-09-10

315

Managing Performance in the Forensic Sciences: Expectations in Light of Limited Budgets  

Microsoft Academic Search

For forensic service providers worldwide, the demand for high-quality services greatly outpaces available resources to meet those requests. The gap between the demand for services and the resource-restricted supply of those services has implications for managing performance: the effectiveness and efficiency of forensic science. The effectiveness of forensic science is directly related to the quality of the scientific analysis and

Hilton Kobus; Max Houck; Paul Speaker; Richard Riley; Tom Witt

2011-01-01

316

J Forensic Sci, Mar. 2005, Vol. 50, No. 2 Paper ID JFS2004293  

E-print Network

DNA sequence analysis. KEYWORDS: forensic science, DNA typing, mtDNA, SSO probes, mitochondrial DNA coding of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, Dallas, Texas. National Institute of Justice (NIJ) funded this workJ Forensic Sci, Mar. 2005, Vol. 50, No. 2 Paper ID JFS2004293 Available online at: www

317

Digital Meta-Forensics: Quantifying the Investigation Richard E Overill and Jantje A M Silomon  

E-print Network

network; likelihood ratio; odds ratio; complexity; cost-effectiveness; return on investment; cost-benefit ratio; forensic triage. 1. Introduction and Background Digitial forensic analysis has up to now not kept of a likelihood ratio. In the context of digital forensic evidence however, qualitative statements, such as "very

Overill, Richard E.

318

Image Forensic of Glare Feature for Improving Image Retrieval Using Benford's Law  

E-print Network

Image Forensic of Glare Feature for Improving Image Retrieval Using Benford's Law Ghulam Qadir proposed technique is novel and has a potential to be an image forensic tool for quick image analysis. I. INTRODUCTION The field of digital image forensics is striving hard to restore the lost trust in digital content

Doran, Simon J.

319

World Trade Center Disaster Exposure-Related Probable Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Responders and Civilians: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

The World Trade Center (WTC) disaster on September 11, 2001 was an unprecedented traumatic event with long-lasting health consequences among the affected populations in the New York metropolitan area. This meta-analysis aimed to estimate the risk of probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) associated with specific types of WTC exposures. Meta-analytical findings from 10 studies of 3,271 to 20,294 participants yielded 37 relevant associations. The pooled summary odds ratio (OR) was 2.05 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.82, 2.32), with substantial heterogeneity linked to exposure classification, cohort type, data source, PTSD assessment instrument/criteria, and lapse time since 9/11. In general, responders (e.g. police, firefighters, rescue/recovery workers and volunteers) had a lower probable PTSD risk (OR?=?1.61; 95% CI: 1.39, 1.87) compared to civilians (e.g. residents, office workers, and passersby; OR?=?2.71, 95% CI: 2.35, 3.12). The differences in ORs between responders and civilians were larger for physical compared to psychosocial exposure types. We also found that injury, lost someone, and witnessed horror were the three (out of six) most pernicious exposures. These findings suggest that these three exposures should be a particular focus in psychological evaluation and treatment programs in WTC intervention and future emergency preparedness efforts. PMID:25047411

Liu, Bian; Tarigan, Lukman H.; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Kim, Hyun

2014-01-01

320

Journal of Forensic Identification 58 (1), 2008 \\ 109  

E-print Network

Journal of Forensic Identification 58 (1), 2008 \\ 109 Received November 21, 2006; accepted March 19, they are still discriminable. #12;Journal of Forensic Identification 110 / 58 (1), 2008 Introduction The study Center of Excellence for Document Analysis and Recognition Department of Computer Science and Engineering

321

Developing a computer forensics program in police higher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

By the analysis and comparison of the application of domestic and overseas computer forensics education, combining with the demand of the industry, the characteristics of subjects and the aim of police education in China, an innovative program in computer forensics has been developed and begun in fall 2007. This four-year program consists of courses in general education, major (computer crime

Liu Zhijun; Wang Ning

2009-01-01

322

[Forensic medical examination in cases of sexual abuse].  

PubMed

The article presents the analysis of forensic medical expert practice in the field of sexual abuse. Drawbacks in expert examinations, official decisions on such examinations, low expertise of forensic medical personnel in sexual crime, lack of tools for genital and anal examination are analysed and methods of correction of this situation are proposed. PMID:17089603

Deriagin, G B

2006-01-01

323

Forensic Science Methods Called Into Question by National Academies Report  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Study Calls for Oversight of Forensics in Crime Labs http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/19/us/19forensics.htmlCall For Forensics Overhaul Linked to 'CSI' Effecthttp://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=100831831Forensics under the microscopehttp://www.chicagotribune.com/news/specials/chi-forensics-specialpackage,0,4244313.specialStrengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forwardhttp://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12589#tocForensic Magazinehttp://www.forensicmag.com/DNA Forensics [Flash Player, pdf]http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/forensics.shtmlU.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Forensics Laboratory [pdf, Flash Player]http://www.lab.fws.gov/The average person watching any number of procedural crime television shows might be forgiven if he or she believed that every piece of carpet fiber or DNA can lead to a "case closed" finale. In real life, forensic science isn't nearly as infallible as it appears on television, and that is something that has troubled many at the National Academy of Sciences. In a report released this Wednesday, the National Academy of Sciences research team found that in 2005 there was a backlog of 359,000 requests for forensic analysis and that 80 percent of all crime laboratories are understaffed. The report went on to call into question the scientific merit of practically every commonly used forensic method of analysis, including the analysis of ballistics, arson, hair, and fingerprints. The team of scholars who wrote the report also recommended that the United States should standardize forensic tests and assume responsibility for the certification of forensic experts. These findings have garnered attention from the general public, the law enforcement community, and elected officials such as Senator Patrick Leahy (D) of Vermont. In a recent interview with the New York Times, Leahy commented, "I am troubled by the report's general finding that far too many forensic disciplines lack the standards necessary to ensure their scientific reliability in court."The first link will take users to a New York Times article from this Wednesday, which talks a bit about this recent report. The second link leads to an audio piece from National Public Radio about the report and how it might transform forensic science. Moving on, the third link leads to a very fine set of investigative articles on forensic science from the Chicago Tribune. The fourth link will whisk users away to the full-text of the Academies' recent report on the state of forensic science. The fifth link leads to the homepage of Forensic Science magazine. Here, visitors can learn more about the field and read articles from current and past editions of the publication. The sixth link leads to a set of resources on DNA forensic analysis offered by the Human Genome Project. Finally, the last link leads to the homepage of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Forensics Laboratory, which is "the only lab in the world dedicated to crimes against wildlife."

Grinnell, Max

2009-02-20

324

Forensic Facial Reconstruction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a background of forensic facial reconstruction with a process description on how to give students a reliable laboratory experience from which to learn the origins and insertions of the muscles of facial expression.

Sarah Cooper (Arcadia University)

2008-07-01

325

Forensic Chemistry Lab Manual  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Any aspect of forensic science can be quite tricky, and educators will be delighted to learn about this helpful educational resource designed just for them. Created by Professor Robert Thompson of Oberlin College this online forensic chemistry lab manual is designed to help chemistry faculty in developing forensic chemistry project laboratories for both undergraduate and graduate courses. In this manual, visitors will find sample preparations, procedural details, instructions for students, and typical results in a variety of formats. Along the left-hand side of the homepage, visitors can look through the forensic chemistry analyses, which include explosives, fabric, glass, and arson. The site is rounded out by a selection of "Stories", which are meant to provide the background for chemical analyses of crime scene samples.

Thompson, Robert

326

Forensic speaker recognition  

E-print Network

Looking at the different points highlighted in this article, we affirm that forensic applications of speaker recognition should still be taken under a necessary need for caution. Disseminating this message remains one of ...

Bonstre, Jean-Francois

327

SEM in forensic science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic investigation traces of crime scenes are very popular in current TV serial stories. But demonstration of forensic\\u000a scientist’s work is very schematic and authors mix a lot of special fields of examinations together. All equipment has a special\\u000a effect and it is possible to be used for special determination samples. SEM with EDS\\/WDS makes is possible to observe topography

I. Turkova; M. Kotrly

328

DNA Fingerprinting in a Forensic Teaching Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an experiment designed to provide students, in a classroom laboratory setting, a hands-on demonstration of the steps used in DNA forensic analysis by performing DNA extraction, DNA fingerprinting, and statistical analysis of the data. This experiment demonstrates how DNA fingerprinting is performed and how long it takes. It…

Wagoner, Stacy A.; Carlson, Kimberly A.

2008-01-01

329

Serving through Disaster  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Disaster planning focuses on future function and recovery, on helping libraries expeditiously return to their original states of operation. It all but ignores the concept of continuous function throughout a disaster. This is not true in the private and government sectors, however, which have managed to cover a wider load of disaster response…

Kuzyk, Raya

2007-01-01

330

Epidemics after Natural Disasters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between natural disasters and com- municable diseases is frequently misconstrued. The risk for outbreaks is often presumed to be very high in the chaos that follows natural disasters, a fear likely derived from a perceived association between dead bodies and epidem- ics. However, the risk factors for outbreaks after disasters are associated primarily with population displacement. The availability

John T. Watson; Michelle Gayer; Maire A. Connolly

2007-01-01

331

DISASTER PLAN Library Materials  

E-print Network

)978-2222 is automatically alerted when the alarm sounds. 2. OTHER DISASTER SITUATIONS-- Contact campus police ((416DISASTER PLAN Library Materials For the University of Toronto Library System September 2013 as the aftermath of a fire or because of a flood. The Disaster Plan for the University of Toronto is limited

Sokolowski, Marla

332

Internet and forensic science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Internet is a very powerful and inexpensive tool that was created for the free distribution of knowledge and information. The Internet is a learning tool, a research tool, a virtual library without borders and membership requirements, a journal with instant publication, a help desk, and a newspaper/journal with current information. Very soon, when live audio and video transmission is perfected, the Internet also will be a live classroom and everyday conference. Forensic scientists, laboratories and colleges should make use of information already available on the Internet. They also should actively participate and contribute. Very few forensic scientists and laboratories have made their presence felt by setting up their home pages/web pages. But, there is tremendous growth during the past year. Immense benefits from Internet to forensic community are discussed along with the author's personal experience. Creating on-line searchable data bases in all specialties of forensic science is an urgent need. Leading forensic journals should take a lead and create on-line searchable indexes with abstracts. On line electronic publishing, collaborative research/paper publishing or editing is easy, fast, economical and convenient through the use of the Internet. Creation of Internet repositories of unpublished papers is an idea worth looking into. Internet also can be used to give training, re-training or advanced training to students/forensic scientists.

Chamakura, Reddy P.

1997-02-01

333

Ion chromatography-mass spectrometry: a review of recent technologies and applications in forensic and environmental explosives analysis.  

PubMed

The development and application of ion chromatography (IC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) is discussed herein for the quantitative determination of low-order explosives-related ionic species in environmental and forensic sample types. Issues relating to environmental explosives contamination and the need for more confirmatory IC-MS based applications in forensic science are examined. In particular, the compatibility of a range of IC separation modes with MS detection is summarised along with the analytical challenges that have been overcome to facilitate determinations at the ng-?g L(-1) level. Observed trends in coupling IC to inductively coupled plasma and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry form a particular focus. This review also includes a discussion of the relative performance of reported IC-MS methods in comparison to orthogonal ion separation-based, spectrometric and spectroscopic approaches to confirmatory detection of low-order explosives. Finally, some promising areas for future research are highlighted and discussed with respect to potential IC-MS applications. PMID:24331039

Barron, Leon; Gilchrist, Elizabeth

2014-01-01

334

Applying Machine Trust Models to Forensic Investigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital forensics involves the identification, preservation, analysis and presentation of electronic evidence for use in legal proceedings. In the presence of contradictory evidence, forensic investigators need a means to determine which evidence can be trusted. This is particularly true in a trust model environment where computerised agents may make trust-based decisions that influence interactions within the system. This paper focuses on the analysis of evidence in trust-based environments and the determination of the degree to which evidence can be trusted. The trust model proposed in this work may be implemented in a tool for conducting trust-based forensic investigations. The model takes into account the trust environment and parameters that influence interactions in a computer network being investigated. Also, it allows for crimes to be reenacted to create more substantial evidentiary proof.

Wojcik, Marika; Venter, Hein; Eloff, Jan; Olivier, Martin

335

A regression analysis of the effect of natural disaster on agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the grain production data and agriculture statistical data from 1995 to 2005?» factors of grain production in China is discussed by the model of gray correlative analysis. The results show that Consumption of chemical fertilizers, Effective irrigated area, grain sown area and stricken area, Total power of agriculture machinery are the most important factors that affect grain production.

Zhongcheng Wang; Chunhua Li; Wei Liu

2011-01-01

336

Application impact analysis: a risk-based approach to business continuity and disaster recovery.  

PubMed

There are many possible disruptions that can occur in business. Overlooking or under planning for Business Continuity requires time, understanding and careful planning. Business Continuity Management is far more than producing a document and declaring business continuity success. What is the recipe for businesses to achieve continuity management success? Application Impact Analysis is a method for understanding the unique Business Attributes. This AIA Cycle involves a risk based approach to understanding the business priority and considering business aspects such as Financial, Operational, Service Structure, Contractual Legal, and Brand. The output of this analysis provides a construct for viewing data, evaluating impact, and delivering results, for an approved valuation of Recovery Time Objectives (RTO). PMID:24578024

Epstein, Beth; Khan, Dawn Christine

2014-01-01

337

Disaster risk reduction strategies and post- disaster infrastructure reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

World's vulnerability to natural disasters has increased over the last few years. Hence, mainstreaming disaster risk reduction into constructed facilities has taken up an important role in the whole of the disaster management cycle. This paper aims to study the importance of mainstreaming disaster risk reduction in to post- disaster infrastructure reconstruction and the initiatives taken by the relevant bodies

R. S. Palliyaguru; D. Amaratunga; R. D. G. Amaratunga; R. Haigh

338

Electron microscopy and forensic practice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron microanalysis in forensic practice ranks among basic applications used in investigation of traces (latents, stains, etc.) from crime scenes. Applying electron microscope allows for rapid screening and receiving initial information for a wide range of traces. SEM with EDS/WDS makes it possible to observe topography surface and morphology samples and examination of chemical components. Physical laboratory of the Institute of Criminalistics Prague use SEM especially for examination of inorganic samples, rarely for biology and other material. Recently, possibilities of electron microscopy have been extended considerably using dual systems with focused ion beam. These systems are applied mainly in study of inner micro and nanoparticles , thin layers (intersecting lines in graphical forensic examinations, analysis of layers of functional glass, etc.), study of alloys microdefects, creating 3D particles and aggregates models, etc. Automated mineralogical analyses are a great asset to analysis of mineral phases, particularly soils, similarly it holds for cathode luminescence, predominantly colour one and precise quantitative measurement of their spectral characteristics. Among latest innovations that are becoming to appear also at ordinary laboratories are TOF - SIMS systems and micro Raman spectroscopy with a resolution comparable to EDS/WDS analysis (capable of achieving similar level as through EDS/WDS analysis).

Kotrlý, Marek; Turková, Ivana

2013-05-01

339

Forensic proteomics of poxvirus production.  

PubMed

The field of microbial forensics has recently sought to develop methods to discern biological signatures to indicate production methods for biological agents. Viral agents have received less attention to date. Their obligate propagation in living cells makes purification from cellular material a challenge. This leads to potential carryover of protein-rich signatures of their production system. Here we have explored a proteomic analysis of vaccinia virus as a model poxvirus system in which to compare samples of virus propagated in different cell lines and subjected to different purification schemes. The proteomic data sets indicated viral, host cell and culture medium proteins. Several layers of data analysis were applied to build confidence in the peptide identification and capture information on the taxonomic utility of each. The analysis showed clear shifts in protein profiles with virus purification, with successive gradient purification steps showing different levels of viral protein enrichment. Peptides from cellular proteins, including those present in purified virus preparations, provided signatures which enabled discrimination of cell line substrates, including distinguishing between cells derived from different primate species. The ability to discern multiple aspects of viral production demonstrates the potential value of proteomic analysis as tool for microbial forensics. PMID:23979794

Wunschel, David; Tulman, Edan; Engelmann, Heather; Clowers, Brian H; Geary, Steven; Robinson, Aaron; Liao, Xiaofen

2013-11-01

340

LC-MS/MS analysis of 2-aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic acid as a forensic biomarker for cyanide poisoning  

PubMed Central

AIM: To demonstrate the potential of using 2-aminothiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (ATCA) as a novel biomarker/forensic biomarker for cyanide poisoning. METHODS: A sensitive method was developed and employed for the identification and quantification of ATCA in biological samples, where the sample extraction and clean up were achieved by solid phase extraction (SPE). After optimization of SPE procedures, ATCA was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. ATCA levels following the administration of different doses of potassium cyanide (KCN) to mice were measured and compared to endogenous ATCA levels in order to study the significance of using ATCA as a biomarker for cyanide poisoning. RESULTS: A custom made analytical method was established for a new (mice) model when animals were exposed to increasing KCN doses. The application of this method provided important new information on ATCA as a potential cyanide biomarker. ATCA concentration in mice plasma samples were increased from 189 ± 28 ng/mL (n = 3) to 413 ± 66 ng/mL (n = 3) following a 10 mg/kg body weight dose of KCN introduced subcutaneously. The sensitivity of this analytical method proved to be a tool for measuring endogenous level of ATCA in mice organs as follows: 1.2 ± 0.1 ?g/g for kidney samples, 1.6 ± 0.1 ?g/g for brain samples, 1.8 ± 0.2 ?g/g for lung samples, 2.9 ± 0.1 ?g/g for heart samples, and 3.6 ± 0.9 ?g/g for liver samples. CONCLUSION: This finding suggests that ATCA has the potential to serve as a plasma biomarker / forensic biomarker for cyanide poisoning. PMID:25237615

Yu, Jorn CC; Martin, Sarah; Nasr, Jessica; Stafford, Katelyn; Thompson, David; Petrikovics, Ilona

2012-01-01

341

A CONCEPT FOR NATIONAL NUCLEAR FORENSIC LIBRARIES  

SciTech Connect

The interpretation of data from the nuclear forensic analysis of illicit nuclear material of unknown origin requires comparative data from samples of known origin. One way to provide such comparative data is to create a system of national nuclear forensics libraries, in which each participating country stores information about nuclear or other radioactive material that either resides in or was manufactured by that country. Such national libraries could provide an authoritative record of the material located in or produced by a particular country, and thus forms an essential prerequisite for a government to investigate illicit uses of nuclear or other radioactive material within its borders. We describe the concept of the national nuclear forensic library, recommendations for content and structure, and suggested querying methods for utilizing the information for addressing nuclear smuggling.

Wacker, John F.; Curry, Michael

2010-08-11

342

Modeling imbalanced economic recovery following a natural disaster using input-output analysis.  

PubMed

Input-output analysis is frequently used in studies of large-scale weather-related (e.g., Hurricanes and flooding) disruption of a regional economy. The economy after a sudden catastrophe shows a multitude of imbalances with respect to demand and production and may take months or years to recover. However, there is no consensus about how the economy recovers. This article presents a theoretical route map for imbalanced economic recovery called dynamic inequalities. Subsequently, it is applied to a hypothetical postdisaster economic scenario of flooding in London around the year 2020 to assess the influence of future shocks to a regional economy and suggest adaptation measures. Economic projections are produced by a macro econometric model and used as baseline conditions. The results suggest that London's economy would recover over approximately 70 months by applying a proportional rationing scheme under the assumption of initial 50% labor loss (with full recovery in six months), 40% initial loss to service sectors, and 10-30% initial loss to other sectors. The results also suggest that imbalance will be the norm during the postdisaster period of economic recovery even though balance may occur temporarily. Model sensitivity analysis suggests that a proportional rationing scheme may be an effective strategy to apply during postdisaster economic reconstruction, and that policies in transportation recovery and in health care are essential for effective postdisaster economic recovery. PMID:23614394

Li, Jun; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Syddall, Mark; Guan, Dabo

2013-10-01

343

Experimental studies of forensic odontology to aid in the identification process  

PubMed Central

The importance of dental identification is on the increase year after year. With the passage of time, the role of forensic odontology has increased as very often teeth and dental restorations are the only means of identification. Forensic odontology has played a key role in identification of persons in mass disasters (aviation, earthquakes, Tsunamis), in crime investigations, in ethnic studies, and in identification of decomposed and disfigured bodies like that of drowned persons, fire victims, and victims of motor vehicle accidents. The various methods employed in forensic odontology include tooth prints, radiographs, photographic study, rugoscopy, cheiloscopy and molecular methods. Investigative methods applied in forensic odontology are reasonably reliable, yet the shortcomings must be accounted for to make it a more meaningful and relevant procedure. This paper gives an overview of the various experimental studies to aid in the identification processes, discussing their feasibilities and limitations in day-to-day practice. PMID:21731343

Saxena, Susmita; Sharma, Preeti; Gupta, Nitin

2010-01-01

344

Forensics on a Shoestring Budget  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, forensic science has gained popularity thanks in part to high-profile court cases and television programs. Although the cost of forensic equipment and supplies may initially seem too expensive for the typical high school classroom, the author developed an activity that incorporates forensics into her 10th-grade biology curriculum…

Greco, Joseph A.

2005-01-01

345

Statistics in Practice Forensic Science  

E-print Network

Statistics in Practice Forensic Science Dr. David Lucy d.lucy@lancaster.ac.uk Lancaster University Statistics in Practice ­ p.1/36 #12;Forensic Science Criminal evidence becoming increasingly "scientific in Practice ­ p.2/36 #12;Forensic Science Greater realisation that uncertainty is important has lead to

Lucy, David

346

Enacting forensics in homicide investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article, co-authored by an academic and a forensic practitioner, describes some of the gaps in current knowledge of the utility of forensic science support to homicide investigations. It also reflects on the experience of a recent pilot study of the use of forensic science in homicide investigations in an English police force to argue for new kinds of research

Robin Williams; Jason Weetman

2012-01-01

347

Forensic Seismology and the Comprehensive  

E-print Network

Forensic Seismology and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty David Bowers and Neil D. Selby discrimination methods, underground explosion source, earthquake source Abstract One application of forensic facing the forensic seismologist is to discriminate between the many thousands of earthquakes

Jellinek, Mark

348

Return or relocate? An inductive analysis of decision-making in a disaster.  

PubMed

This paper proposes an inductive analysis of the decision as to whether to return or to relocate by persons in the State of Louisiana, United States, who evacuated after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in August and September 2005, respectively. Drawing on interviews with evacuees in these events and extensive fieldwork in the impacted area, the paper seeks to identify the folk dimensions of the decision-making process, assess their arrangements, and situate the process in the larger context of risk and resilience in an advanced society. It suggests that, despite the material and emotional upheaval experienced by affected persons, the decision-making process is a rational endeavour combining a definite set of tightly interconnected factors, involving material dimensions and substantive values that can act in concert or in conflict. In addition, it indicates that there are significant variations by geographic areas, homeownership, and kind of decision. Some theoretical implications, practical measures, and suggestions for future research are examined. PMID:23278427

Henry, Jacques

2013-04-01

349

Authentication of forensic DNA samples.  

PubMed

Over the past twenty years, DNA analysis has revolutionized forensic science, and has become a dominant tool in law enforcement. Today, DNA evidence is key to the conviction or exoneration of suspects of various types of crime, from theft to rape and murder. However, the disturbing possibility that DNA evidence can be faked has been overlooked. It turns out that standard molecular biology techniques such as PCR, molecular cloning, and recently developed whole genome amplification (WGA), enable anyone with basic equipment and know-how to produce practically unlimited amounts of in vitro synthesized (artificial) DNA with any desired genetic profile. This artificial DNA can then be applied to surfaces of objects or incorporated into genuine human tissues and planted in crime scenes. Here we show that the current forensic procedure fails to distinguish between such samples of blood, saliva, and touched surfaces with artificial DNA, and corresponding samples with in vivo generated (natural) DNA. Furthermore, genotyping of both artificial and natural samples with Profiler Plus((R)) yielded full profiles with no anomalies. In order to effectively deal with this problem, we developed an authentication assay, which distinguishes between natural and artificial DNA based on methylation analysis of a set of genomic loci: in natural DNA, some loci are methylated and others are unmethylated, while in artificial DNA all loci are unmethylated. The assay was tested on natural and artificial samples of blood, saliva, and touched surfaces, with complete success. Adopting an authentication assay for casework samples as part of the forensic procedure is necessary for maintaining the high credibility of DNA evidence in the judiciary system. PMID:20129467

Frumkin, Dan; Wasserstrom, Adam; Davidson, Ariane; Grafit, Arnon

2010-02-01

350

Trial by Science: A Forensic Extravaganza  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This intriguing crime-solving activity for middle level students demonstrates some of the basics of forensic science; including the analysis of fingerprints, hair, fiber, and soil evidence. The realism of the scenario is enhanced by recruiting adult volunteers to serve as suspects that can be questioned and tried by students through the process of scientific inquiry.

Hunt, Vanessa

2004-05-01

351

Research on the application in disaster reduction for using cloud computing technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cloud Computing technology has been rapidly applied in different domains recently, promotes the progress of the domain's informatization. Based on the analysis of the state of application requirement in disaster reduction and combining the characteristics of Cloud Computing technology, we present the research on the application of Cloud Computing technology in disaster reduction. First of all, we give the architecture of disaster reduction cloud, which consists of disaster reduction infrastructure as a service (IAAS), disaster reduction cloud application platform as a service (PAAS) and disaster reduction software as a service (SAAS). Secondly, we talk about the standard system of disaster reduction in five aspects. Thirdly, we indicate the security system of disaster reduction cloud. Finally, we draw a conclusion the use of cloud computing technology will help us to solve the problems for disaster reduction and promote the development of disaster reduction.

Tao, Liang; Fan, Yida; Wang, Xingling

352

Analysis of XXI Century Disasters in the National Geophysical Data Center Historical Natural Hazard Event Databases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) maintains a global historical event database of tsunamis, significant earthquakes, and significant volcanic eruptions. The database includes all tsunami events, regardless of intensity, as well as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions that caused fatalities, moderate damage, or generated a tsunami. Event date, time, location, magnitude of the phenomenon, and socio-economic information are included in the database. Analysis of the NGDC event database reveals that the 21st century began with earthquakes in Gujarat, India (magnitude 7.7, 2001) and Bam, Iran (magnitude 6.6, 2003) that killed over 20,000 and 31,000 people, respectively. These numbers were dwarfed by the numbers of earthquake deaths in Pakistan (magnitude 7.6, 2005-86,000 deaths), Wenchuan, China (magnitude 7.9, 2008-87,652 deaths), and Haiti (magnitude 7.0, 2010-222,000 deaths). The Haiti event also ranks among the top ten most fatal earthquakes. The 21st century has observed the most fatal tsunami in recorded history-the 2004 magnitude 9.1 Sumatra earthquake and tsunami that caused over 227,000 deaths and 10 billion damage in 14 countries. Six years later, the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami, although not the most fatal (15,000 deaths and 5,000 missing), could cost Japan's government in excess of 300 billion-the most expensive tsunami in history. Volcanic eruptions can cause disruptions and economic impact to the airline industry, but due to their remote locations, fatalities and direct economic effects are uncommon. Despite this fact, the second most expensive eruption in recorded history occurred in the 21st century-the 2010 Merapi, Indonesia volcanic eruption that resulted in 324 deaths, 427 injuries, and $600 million in damage. NGDC integrates all natural hazard event datasets into one search interface. Users can find fatal tsunamis generated by earthquakes or volcanic eruptions. The user can then link to information about the related runup observations (e.g. maximum wave height) and the source earthquake or volcano. If available, damage photographs and plots of water level data can also be viewed. The data are accessible online via tables, reports, and a new state-of-the-art interactive map viewer. These data and access capabilities help coastal communities assess their risks, identify hazards, and promote public awareness of tsunamis and earthquakes.

Dunbar, P. K.; McCullough, H. L.

2011-12-01

353

Forensic Science Center  

SciTech Connect

Since 1991, the Laboratory's Forensic Science Center has focused a comprehensive range of analytical expertise on issues related to non proliferation, counterterrorism, and domestic law enforcement. During this short period, LLNL's singular combination of human and technological resources has made the Center among the best of its kind in the world. The Forensic Science Center houses a variety of state-of-the-art analytical tools ranging from gas chromatograph/mass spectrometers to ultratrace DNA detection techniques. The Center's multidisciplinary staff provides expertise in organic and inorganic analytical chemistry, nuclear science, biochemistry, and genetics useful for supporting law enforcement and for verifying compliance with international treaties and agreements.

Andresen, B.; Grant, P.M.

1994-03-01

354

Research in forensic odontology.  

PubMed Central

Forensic odontology has established itself as an important and often indispensable science in medicolegal matters and in particular in identification of the dead. Much of its expertise is drawn from clinical experience based on basic research and advances in knowledge in dentistry in general. There has also been, particularly during the past two decades, an increasing body of research in specifically forensic dental matters and these studies form the subject of this review. Progress in this field, as in others, will depend upon development of training pathways and research facilities in our dental schools. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:7044254

Whittaker, D. K.

1982-01-01

355

Handbook of Forensic Sciences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Curious about the procedures used in documenting a crime scene and gathering evidence? Look no further than the official handbook of the FBI Laboratory, "one of the largest and most comprehensive forensic laboratories in the world." The full text of the handbook may be read online in HTML format, divided by chapter. Topics discussed include guidelines for conducting a crime scene search, crime scene safety, guidelines for various types of evidence, and how to pack and ship evidence, among others. Also included at the site are links to the full text of the journal, Forensic Science Communications and to the official sites of the FBI Lab and Library.

1999-01-01

356

Handbook of Forensic Services  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Curious about the procedures used in documenting a crime scene and gathering evidence? Look no further than the official handbook of the FBI Laboratory, "one of the largest and most comprehensive forensic laboratories in the world." The full text of the handbook may be read online in HTML format, divided by chapter. Topics discussed include guidelines for conducting a crime scene search, crime scene safety, guidelines for various types of evidence, and how to pack and ship evidence, among others. Also included at the site are links to the full text of the journal, Forensic Science Communications and to the official sites of the FBI Lab and Library.

357

Lab on Forensic Trigonometry 1. Introduction (1 point)  

E-print Network

Lab on Forensic Trigonometry 1. Introduction (1 point) This lab explores a model of blood spatter analysis that needs trigonometry to interpret the results. As you have probably seen from police shows

Mays, Michael

358

International disaster research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

No existing telecommunications system can be expected to provide strategy and tactics appropriate to the complex, many faceted problem of disaster. Despite the exciting capabilities of space, communications, remote sensing, and the miracles of modern medicine, complete turnkey transfers to the disaster problem do not make the fit, and cannot be expected to do so. In 1980, a Presidential team assigned the mission of exploring disaster response within the U.S. Federal Government encountered an unanticipated obstacle: disaster was essentially undefined. In the absence of a scientifically based paradigm of disaster, there can be no measure of cost effectiveness, optimum design of manpower structure, or precise application of any technology. These problems spawned a 10-year, multidisciplinary study designed to define the origins, anatomy, and necessary management techniques for catastrophes. The design of the study necessarily reflects interests and expertise in disaster medicine, emergency medicine, telecommunications, computer communications, and forencsic sciences. This study is described.

Silverstein, Martin Elliot

1991-01-01

359

Analysis of allelic drop-out using the Identifiler(®) and PowerPlex(®) 16 forensic STR typing systems.  

PubMed

Low-template (LT) DNA profiles continue to present interpretational challenges to the forensic community. Whether the LT contribution comprises the main profile, or whether it is present as the minor component of a mixture, ambiguity arises from the possibility that alleles present in the biological sample may not be detected in the resulting DNA profile. This phenomenon is known as allelic drop-out. This ambiguity complicates both the assessment of the potential number of contributors and estimation of the weight of the DNA evidence for or against specific propositions. One solution to estimating the weight of the evidence is to use a likelihood ratio (LR) that incorporates the probability of allelic drop-out P(DO) estimated for the specific evidence sample under consideration. However, although a vast repository of data exists, few empirical studies to determine allelic drop-out probabilities have been performed to date. Here we characterized patterns of allelic drop-out in single-source samples using both universal and run-specific analytical thresholds. Not surprisingly, we found fewer instances of apparent drop-out when using a lower (run-specific) detection threshold. Also, unsurprisingly, a positive correlation exists between allele drop-out and allele length, even in good quality samples. We used logistic regression to model the fraction of alleles that dropped out of a profile as a function of the average height of the detected peaks. The equation derived from the logistic regression model allowed us to estimate the expected drop-out probability for an evidentiary sample based on the average peak height of the profile. We show that the LRs calculated using the estimated drop-out probabilities were similar to those calculated using the benchmark drop-out probabilities, suggesting that the estimates of the drop-out probability are accurate and useful. This trend holds even when using the data from the PowerPlex(®) 16 typing system to estimate the drop-out probability for an Identifiler(®) profile, and vice versa. Thus we demonstrate that use of a LR that incorporates empirically estimated allelic drop-out probabilities provides a reliable means for extracting additional information from LT forensic DNA profiles. PMID:24841801

Lohmueller, Kirk E; Rudin, Norah; Inman, Keith

2014-09-01

360

The ontology of disaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

The considerable number of major disasters in the last decade have had a significant impact on very many children. Some have been victims, some bereaved, others just generally anxious and frightened by their proximity to, or awareness of such disasters. Additionally, many personal disasters-accidents, illness, family breakdown, and, of course, child abuse-befall children and their caregivers, producing a traumatic, crisis-torn

Neil Thompson

1995-01-01

361

When is a natural disaster a development disaster; when is a natural disaster not a disaster?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extremes of nature like hurricanes, droughts and earthquakes influence human welfare in a variety of ways. While it might seem counterintuitive, evidence from long run macro-economic data suggests that when natural extremes are especially destructive to human societies, and earn the title “natural disaster” they can actually have a beneficial effect on development. The process involved may be akin to the “The gale of creative destruction” first described by the economist Joseph Schumpeter. Applied to disasters the notion is that, in the short term, disasters can stimulate certain industries such as construction with capital flows coming into the disaster region from outside sources such as central government or international aid that can stimulate the economy. Longer term, outdated and inefficient public and private infrastructure destroyed in the disaster can be replaced by up to date, efficient systems that permit the economy to function more effectively, so that post-disaster growth can exceed pre-disaster levels. Disasters are macro-economic shocks, fundamentally similar to the banking shock that lead to the current global recession and, in the same way require external capital stimuli to overcome and that stimulus can result in stronger economies after recovery. These large-scale and long-run trends disguise the fact that disasters have very different development outcomes for different societies. Globally, there is evidence that poorer countries are not systematically stimulated by disaster shocks and may even be driven into poverty traps by certain disasters. Locally, the recovery from Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans has had been very different for different social groups, with both over-recovery and under-recovery occurring simultaneously and in close proximity. We discuss the conditions under which disasters might be a stimulating force and when they might lead to development setbacks.

Mutter, J. C.; Archibong, B.; Pi, D.

2009-12-01

362

Exploring Trends in Forensic Odontology  

PubMed Central

Background: Forensic odontology nowadays has become a developing science and is of great importance to society. It is important that dental practitioners should have a proper knowledge of forensics as the need has increased greatly over the last decades due to the unprecedented demand from the criminal justice including terrorism in Kashmir valley (J&K India). Materials and Methods: Data was collected based on questionnaire survey among qualified dental practitioners related to their awareness of forensic odontology. Results: A total number of 235 dental practitioners responded to the questionnaire. Results showed that there was a low confidence, in handling of forensic odontology related cases among dental practitioners and majority of dental practitioners were not having any formal training in forensic odontology. Conclusion: Each dental practitioner has a responsibility to understand the forensic implications associated with the practice of his profession and thus he should work sincerely enough so to ensure his contribution in the field of forensic odontology. PMID:25654026

Singh, Narendra Nath; Ain, Tasneem S.; Sultan, Saima

2014-01-01

363

Forensic DNA databases in Western Balkan region: retrospectives, perspectives, and initiatives  

PubMed Central

The European Network of Forensic Science Institutes (ENFSI) recommended the establishment of forensic DNA databases and specific implementation and management legislations for all EU/ENFSI members. Therefore, forensic institutions from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, and Macedonia launched a wide set of activities to support these recommendations. To assess the current state, a regional expert team completed detailed screening and investigation of the existing forensic DNA data repositories and associated legislation in these countries. The scope also included relevant concurrent projects and a wide spectrum of different activities in relation to forensics DNA use. The state of forensic DNA analysis was also determined in the neighboring Slovenia and Croatia, which already have functional national DNA databases. There is a need for a ‘regional supplement’ to the current documentation and standards pertaining to forensic application of DNA databases, which should include regional-specific preliminary aims and recommendations. PMID:21674821

Marjanovi?, Damir; Konjhodži?, Rijad; Butorac, Sara Sanela; Drobni?, Katja; Merkaš, Siniša; Lauc, Gordan; Primorac, Damir; An?elinovi?, Šimun; Milosavljevi?, Mladen; Karan, Željko; Vidovi?, Stojko; Stojkovi?, Oliver; Pani?, Bojana; Vu?eti? Dragovi?, An?elka; Kova?evi?, Sandra; Jakovski, Zlatko; Asplen, Chris; Primorac, Dragan

2011-01-01

364

Introduction to Forensic Anthropology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The academic roots of modern forensic anthropology can be traced back to contributions of Europeans, beginning in the 18th\\u000a century. In particular, Jean-Joseph Sue, Matthieu-Joseph-Bonaventure Orfila, Paul Broca, Paul Topinard, étienne Rollet, Leonce\\u000a Manouvrier, and Karl Pearson published research on the methodology of stature estimation and related topics.

Douglas H. Ubelaker

365

Analysis of Ground-vibration induced by the sediment disaster on Izu Oshima, Tokyo in October 2013  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

October 2013, at the Mariana Islands, typhoon Wipha occurred. Wipha attacked Izu Ohshima of Japan and brought heavy rain. Izu Ohshima is part of Tokyo Metropolitan prefecture. Ohshima rain-gauge station of Japan Meteorological Agency showed 118.5 mm per hour and 824.0mm per 24hours. This 24 hour rainfall was about 2.5 times higher than the average rainfall for October (329.0mm / 24hour). And then, a lot of shallow landslides and debris flow has occurred. Thirty six people were killed and four people were missing by these sediment disaster. It is important to clarify that "When and where did disaster occur?". A lot of seismographs for volcano observation are installed in Izu Ohshima. And then, it is known that when sediment moved, ground-vibration occurred. We estimated time and location of disaster by analyzing ground-vibration in sediment moving. First, we estimated that the disaster occurred from 2:00 a.m. to 3:00 a.m. of October 16 by some newspaper reports. Second, we collected data of installed seismographs in Izu Ohshima and analyzed. And then, we caught that some wave data existed. These were different from earthquake data. We estimated that these showed ground-vibration data in sediment moving. Finally, we estimated hypocenter (location of sediment moving) by relationship between "distance between hypocenter and seismograph" and amplitude. Methods are as follows. Making envelope on basis of collected seismograph data and calculating maximum amplitude (y) Calculating amplitude (x) on basis of some assumed hypocenters Setting hypocenter (location of sediment moving) by minimum residual of y and x Comparing of set hypocenter and actual location of sediment moving. We found that distance of set hypocenter and actual location of sediment moving is close. Therefore, when sediment disaster occurs, by analyzing seismographs data, it may be possible to estimate that the location and timing of sediment moving. And, it may be possible to use as tools for people to evacuate.

Takahara, Teruyoshi; Kinoshita, Atsuhiko; Mizutani, Tasuku; Ishizuka, Tadanori; Ishida, Tetsuya; Kaihara, Soichi; Asahara, Hiroshi

2014-05-01

366

Inter-Faculty Bachelor of Forensic Science  

E-print Network

Inter-Faculty Bachelor of Forensic Science Forensic science is the study of evidence in criminal of Forensic Science allows you to focus on three major areas of forensic science by choosing a scientific is intended for students interested in the use of DNA and serology in forensic science. 2) The Chemistry

367

Virtual Tour of a Forensic Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual tour of a forensic laboratory has three floors. Each floor has a number of rooms devoted to a particular forensic specialty. Each room has a slide show of forensic scientists performing their work. All rooms have a video explanation detailing the forensic specialty being visited. Some rooms also have videos of forensic scientists demonstrating analytical techniques.

2012-09-28

368

Transmission genetics of pancreatic acinar atrophy in the German Shepherd Dog and development of microsatellite DNA-based tools for canine forensics and linkage analysis  

E-print Network

analyses in the study of canine hereditary diseases. This was achieved through the development of 1) multiplexing strategies for the MSS-1, 2) a multiplex of microsatellite markers for use in canine forensics and parentage assays and 3) chromosome...

Clark, Leigh Anne

2004-09-30

369

Distinguishing between forensic science and forensic pseudoscience: testing of validity and reliability, and approaches to forensic voice comparison.  

PubMed

In this paper it is argued that one should not attempt to directly assess whether a forensic analysis technique is scientifically acceptable. Rather one should first specify what one considers to be appropriate principles governing acceptable practice, then consider any particular approach in light of those principles. This paper focuses on one principle: the validity and reliability of an approach should be empirically tested under conditions reflecting those of the case under investigation using test data drawn from the relevant population. Versions of this principle have been key elements in several reports on forensic science, including forensic voice comparison, published over the last four-and-a-half decades. The aural-spectrographic approach to forensic voice comparison (also known as "voiceprint" or "voicegram" examination) and the currently widely practiced auditory-acoustic-phonetic approach are considered in light of this principle (these two approaches do not appear to be mutually exclusive). Approaches based on data, quantitative measurements, and statistical models are also considered in light of this principle. PMID:24796954

Morrison, Geoffrey Stewart

2014-05-01

370

Natural Disaster and Technological Catastrophe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Against the backdrop of ever-expanding technological systems, the effects of accidents or breakdowns in human-made technology are examined and contrasted with those of natural disasters. A number of differences are identified, and research on these forms of cataclysmic events is reviewed. These data, as well as this analysis, suggest that technological catastrophes are more likely to have long-term effects, to

Andrew Baum; Raymond Fleming; Laura M. Davidson

1983-01-01

371

Vocal Forgery in Forensic Sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes techniques of vocal forgery able to affect automatic speaker recognition system in a forensic context. Vocal forgery covers two main aspects: voice transformation and voice conversion. Concerning voice transformation, this article proposes an automatic analysis of four specific disguised voices in order to detect the forgery and, for voice conversion, different ways to automatically imitate a target voice. Vocal forgery appears as a real and relevant question for forensic expertise. In most cases, criminals who make a terrorist claim or a miscellaneous call, disguise their voices to hide their identity or to take the identity of another person. Disguise is considered in this paper as a deliberate action of the speaker who wants to conceal or falsify his identity. Different techniques exist to transform one’s own voice. Some are sophisticated as software manipulation, some others are simpler as using an handkerchief over the mouth. In voice transformation, the presented work is dedicated to the study of disguise used in the most common cases. In voice conversion, different techniques will be presented, compared, and applied on an original example of the French President voice.

Perrot, Patrick; Morel, Mathieu; Razik, Joseph; Chollet, Gérard

372

Leveraging public health nurses for disaster risk communication in Fukushima City: a qualitative analysis of nurses' written records of parenting counseling and peer discussions  

PubMed Central

Background Local public health nurses (PHNs) have been recognized as the main health service providers in communities in Japan. The Fukushima nuclear disaster in 2011 has, however, created a major challenge for them in responding to mothers’ concerns. This was in part due to difficulties in assessing, understanding and communicating health risks on low-dose radiation exposure. In order to guide the development of risk communication plans, this study sought to investigate mothers’ primary concerns and possible solutions perceived by a core healthcare profession like the PHNs. Methods A total of 150 records from parenting counseling sessions conducted between PHNs and mothers who have attended mandatory 18-month health checkups for their children at the Fukushima City Health and Welfare Center in 2010, 2011 (year of disaster) and 2012 were examined. Discussion notes of three peer discussions among PHNs organized in response to the nuclear disaster in 2012 and 2013 were also analyzed. All transcribed data were first subjected to text mining to list the words according to their frequencies and inter-relationships. The Steps Coding and Theorization method was then undertaken as a framework for qualitative analysis. Results PHNs noted mothers to have considerable needs for information on radiation risks as they impact on decisions related to relocations, concerns for child safety, and experiences with interpersonal conflicts within the family owing to differing risk perceptions. PHNs identified themselves as the information channels in the community, recommended the building of their risk communication capacities to support residents in making well-informed decisions, and advocated for self-measurement of radiation levels to increase residents’ sense of control. PHNs also suggested a more standardized form of information dissemination and an expansion of community-based counseling services. Conclusions Inadequate risk communication on radiation in the Fukushima nuclear incident has resulted in multiple repercussions for mothers in the community. Empowerment of local residents to assume more active roles in the understanding of their environment, increasing PHNs’ capacity in communication, and an expansion of health services such as counseling will together better address risk communication challenges in post-disaster recovery efforts. PMID:24642079

2014-01-01

373

Types of Disasters  

MedlinePLUS

... and there are manmade disasters, such as the oil spill that affected the Gulf Coast of the United States in 2010. Nature, including the weather, can cause big problems, such ... can cause disasters, like when the oil spilled into the Gulf of Mexico, or when ...

374

Eye Care Following Disasters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The needs of ophthalmologic casualties mirror these general patterns of casualty care following disasters. The number of ophthalmologic casualties, however, may be large. In humans, the eyes account for only 0.1 % of the total body surface area, yet during an explosion as many as 10% of survivors may suffer eye trauma (3). Acute eye injuries during a disaster often

Michael G Weddle

375

Role of forensic odontologist in post mortem person identification  

PubMed Central

The natural teeth are the most durable organs in the bodies of vertebrates, and humankind's understanding of their own past and evolution relies heavily upon remnant dental evidence found as fossils. The use of features unique to the human dentition as an aid to personal identification is widely accepted within the forensic field. Comparative dental identifications play a major role in identifying the victims of violence, disaster or other mass tragedies. The comparison of ante-mortem and postmortem dental records to determine human identity has long been established. Indeed, it is still a major identification method in criminal investigations, mass disasters, grossly decomposed or traumatized bodies, and in other situations where visual identification is neither possible nor desirable. This article has comprehensively described some of the methods, and additional factors aiding in postmortem person identification. PMID:23559914

Pramod, Jahagirdar B.; Marya, Anand; Sharma, Vidhii

2012-01-01

376

National Science Foundation: Disasters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fine website from the National Science Foundation (NSF) addresses its subject thusly: "Whether caused by acts of nature, human errors or even malevolence, disasters are an increasingly costly threat." Released as part of their "Special Reports" series, this interactive site profiles the latest in disaster research from the NSF and the "Critical Role of Research". First-time visitors will want to start by clicking on the "Understanding Disasters" area. Here they can learn about the NSF's work on observing, modeling, identifying, studying, and analyzing various disasters. Each subarea here includes Flash videos, charts, and images which help give some visual armature to each topic. Moving on, the "NSF and 9/11" area features work done through NSF in and around Lower Manhattan and the Pentagon in the aftermath of those tragic events. The site is rounded out by the "Disaster News" area, which features profiles of their work related to California wildfires, major thunderstorms, and levee destruction.

377

Epidemics after Natural Disasters  

PubMed Central

The relationship between natural disasters and communicable diseases is frequently misconstrued. The risk for outbreaks is often presumed to be very high in the chaos that follows natural disasters, a fear likely derived from a perceived association between dead bodies and epidemics. However, the risk factors for outbreaks after disasters are associated primarily with population displacement. The availability of safe water and sanitation facilities, the degree of crowding, the underlying health status of the population, and the availability of healthcare services all interact within the context of the local disease ecology to influence the risk for communicable diseases and death in the affected population. We outline the risk factors for outbreaks after a disaster, review the communicable diseases likely to be important, and establish priorities to address communicable diseases in disaster settings. PMID:17370508

Gayer, Michelle; Connolly, Maire A.

2007-01-01

378

Looking beyond the illness: forensic service users' perceptions of rehabilitation.  

PubMed

The aim of this qualitative study was to explore perspectives on rehabilitation of those detained in a New Zealand forensic hospital setting. Twenty forensic service users participated in individual interviews, which were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim, and subjected to thematic analysis. The analysis identified seven themes that were broadly categorized into those that concerned the rehabilitation context (external) and those that more directly reflected the forensic service user's personal experience (internal). External themes highlighted a person-centered approach, the nature of relationships with staff, consistency of care, and awareness of the rehabilitation pathway. Internal themes related to forensic service users' self-evaluations, agency, and coping strategies. These findings are discussed within the broader context in which rehabilitation took place. PMID:25049033

Barnao, Mary; Ward, Tony; Casey, Sharon

2015-03-01

379

Differences between Disaster Prediction and Risk Assessment in Natural Disasters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A clear distinction between disaster prediction and risk assessment is necessary for effective disaster reduction. Disaster prediction models objects that face hazard, damage, or loss, while risk assessment models the likelihoods of the scene in future adverse incidents. In terms of mathematics, a model for disaster prediction can be an explicit function, while a model for risk assessment might be

Chongfu Huang

2011-01-01

380

By Diana Ha, Undergraduate, UNLV Diversity in Forensics  

E-print Network

be when a forensic pathologist seeks the advice of a forensic science technician that specializes in DNABy Diana Ha, Undergraduate, UNLV Diversity in Forensics Since there is diversity forensic investigators, crime scene photographers, firearm and tool mark examiners, forensic accountants

Walker, Lawrence R.

381

University of Glasgow Forensic Medicine and Science  

E-print Network

University of Glasgow Forensic Medicine and Science COURSE IN FORENSIC MEDICAL SCIENCES Session and Course Fee to: Dr Marjorie Turner Forensic Medicine and Science University of Glasgow Glasgow G12 8QQ Tel

Glasgow, University of

382

Forensic Anthropology Center Department of Anthropology  

E-print Network

Forensic Anthropology Center Department of Anthropology University of Tennessee 250 South Stadium Anthropology Databank. Data Collection Procedures for Forensic Skeletal Material (1994) PM Moore-Jansen, SD: Field Methods in Forensic Anthropology Outdoor Recovery Human Identification Advanced Laboratory

Wang, Xiaorui "Ray"

383

Instrumental neutron activation analysis of minor and trace elements in food in the Russian region that suffered from the Chernobyl disaster.  

PubMed

The control of food quality, using the analysis of essential and toxic element contents, assumes an urgent importance within the regions that suffered from the Chernobyl disaster. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to study contents of 17 chemical elements (calcium, chlorine, cobalt, chromium, cesium, iron, mercury, potassium, magnesium, manganese, sodium, rubidium, antimony, scandium, selenium, strontium, and zinc) in foods within the south and southwest territories of the Kaluga Region that was exposed to radionuclide contamination. The radionuclide contamination ranges up to 15 Ci/km2 there. Flesh and meat products, dairy products, bread, vegetables, legumes, roots, fruits, and mushrooms were analyzed. The concentration of essential and toxic elements in the different foods were in the normal ranges. PMID:12362793

Zaichick, Vladimir

2002-09-01

384

Laboratory guidelines and standards in clinical and forensic toxicology  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview is given of the existing standards and guidelines for analytical toxicology. Details about guidelines concerning\\u000a forensic toxicology, clinical toxicology, point-of-care testing, and an area of overlap are provided. Guidelines and standards\\u000a exist for forensic toxicological analysis in general and for specific situations, e.g., workplace drug testing and driving\\u000a under the influence of drugs and alcohol. For workplace drug

Joris Penders; Alain Verstraete

2006-01-01

385

Use of X-linked markers for forensic purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In forensic science, X-chromosomal short tandem repeats (ChrX STRs) bear the potential to efficiently complement the analysis of other genetic markers (autosomal, Y-chromosomal or mitochondrial). We review the population genetic properties and forensic utility of selected ChrX markers, and discuss the problems and limitations arising with their practical use. Formulae required to assess the evidential power of individual markers in

R. Szibor; M. Krawczak; S. Hering; J. Edelmann; E. Kuhlisch; D. Krause

2003-01-01

386

Reasoning About an ACME Printer Case Investigation with Forensic Lucid  

E-print Network

In this work we model the ACME printer case incident and make its specification in Forensic Lucid, a Lucid- and intensional-logic-based programming language for cyberforensic analysis and event reconstruction specification. The printer case involves a dispute about two parties that was previously solved using the finite-state automata (FSA) approach, and now re-done in a more usable way in Forensic Lucid.

Mokhov, Serguei A; Debbabi, Mourad

2009-01-01

387

Source inference of exogenous gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) administered to humans by means of carbon isotopic ratio analysis: novel perspectives regarding forensic investigation and intelligence issues.  

PubMed

?-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is an endogenous short-chain fatty acid popular as a recreational drug due to sedative and euphoric effects, but also often implicated in drug-facilitated sexual assaults owing to disinhibition and amnesic properties. Whilst discrimination between endogenous and exogenous GHB as required in intoxication cases may be achieved by the determination of the carbon isotope content, such information has not yet been exploited to answer source inference questions of forensic investigation and intelligence interests. However, potential isotopic fractionation effects occurring through the whole metabolism of GHB may be a major concern in this regard. Thus, urine specimens from six healthy male volunteers who ingested prescription GHB sodium salt, marketed as Xyrem(®), were analysed by means of gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry to assess this particular topic. A very narrow range of ?(13)C values, spreading from -24.81‰ to -25.06‰, was observed, whilst mean ?(13)C value of Xyrem(®) corresponded to -24.99‰. Since urine samples and prescription drug could not be distinguished by means of statistical analysis, carbon isotopic effects and subsequent influence on ?(13)C values through GHB metabolism as a whole could be ruled out. Thus, a link between GHB as a raw matrix and found in a biological fluid may be established, bringing relevant information regarding source inference evaluation. Therefore, this study supports a diversified scope of exploitation for stable isotopes characterized in biological matrices from investigations on intoxication cases to drug intelligence programmes. PMID:21455654

Marclay, François; Saudan, Christophe; Vienne, Julie; Tafti, Mehdi; Saugy, Martial

2011-05-01

388

Trace elemental analysis of titanium dioxide pigments and automotive white paint fragments for forensic examination using high-energy synchrotron radiation x-ray fluorescence spectrometry.  

PubMed

High-energy synchrotron radiation x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SR-XRF) utilizing 116 keV x-rays was used to characterize titanium dioxide pigments (rutile) and automotive white paint fragments for forensic examination. The technique allowed analysis of K lines of 9 trace elements in 18 titanium dioxide pigments (rutile), and 10 trace elements in finish coat layers of seven automotive white paint fragments. High-field strength elements (HFSE) were found to strongly reflect the origin of the titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) pigments, and could be used as effective parameters for discrimination and classification of the pigments and paint fragments. A pairwise comparison of the finish coat layers of seven automotive white paint fragments was performed. The trace elements in the finish coat layers detected by the high-energy SR-XRF were especially effective for identification. By introducing the trace element information of primer and electrocoat layers, all the automotive white paint fragments could be discriminated by this technique. PMID:19302400

Nishiwaki, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Seiya; Shimoda, Osamu; Saito, Yasuhiro; Nakanishi, Toshio; Terada, Yasuko; Ninomiya, Toshio; Nakai, Izumi

2009-05-01

389

[Forensic aspects of schizophrenia].  

PubMed

Recent research has shown a clear association between schizophrenia and violent behaviour, which cannot be completely explained by co-morbid substance abuse or personality disorders. This increased risk for delinquent behaviour becomes apparent in acts of severe violent crime. Individuals who frequent the penal system often have a history of acute and chronic mental illness, as well as significant rates of co-morbidity; this includes alcohol and drug abuse, lack of motivation in therapy, poor insight regarding their illness, high rates of therapeutic non-compliance, as well as frequent, mostly short-term, contact with general psychiatry prior to forensic institutionalisation. Forensic psychiatric research has developed assessment and treatment tools which are also of great practical importance to general psychiatry. PMID:23132197

Prunnlechner, Regina

2012-12-01

390

Introduction to Forensic Anthropology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Forensic anthropology is the application of biological anthropology principals and knowledge of the human skeleton to medicolegal\\u000a casework. The specialized skill set brought by the anthropologist to the crime scene insures a comprehensive recognition of\\u000a human remains, proper documentation of the scene, and identification and collection of potentially associated evidence. An\\u000a understanding of decomposition patterns, taphonomic processes, and thermal alteration

Jennifer C. Love; Michelle D. Hamilton

391

Awareness of Forensic Odontology among Legal Professionals, Chennai, India  

PubMed Central

Background: The forensic discipline of law is a multidisciplinary team comprising of specialists in forensic medicine, forensic odontology, security and law. Aim: The study was to find the awareness level of scope and utility of forensic odontology among lawyers in Chennai, South India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study using a self administered structured questionnaire was conducted in 200 lawyers between August and September of 2013. The data was analyzed depending on age, gender, type and years of practice. Results: Lawyers above 40 years of experience were more aware of palatal rugae analysis (P = 0.02), and those with more than 20 years were aware of lip print (P = 0.001) and bite mark analysis (P = 0.001). Males were more aware of forensic odontology with respect to criminal identification (P = 0.001). The knowledge of bite mark analysis was higher among male lawyers (P = 0.001), civil and criminal practicing lawyers (P = 0.004). All participants were aware that loss or fracture of tooth constitutes a grievous injury under Indian Penal Code (IPC) 320 clause 7(5). Conclusion: This study highlighted the knowledge of forensic odontology among legal professionals and also identified the areas in which they need further appraisal. PMID:25535602

Selvajothi, Packiaraj; Lavanya, Chandra; Joshua, Elizabeth; Rao, Umadevi K.; Ranganathan, Kannan

2014-01-01

392

Parricide: a forensic approach.  

PubMed

Parricide is the act of murdering one's father (patricide), mother (matricide) or other close relative, but usually not children (infanticide). It is a rare event and little information is available on this topic. This study aims to increase knowledge about this phenomenon, promoting the timely detection of problematic cases and avoiding fatalities. A retrospective study based on the autopsy reports of parricide victims performed by the North Services of the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences of Portugal between 2003 and 2011, as well as on the judicial outcome of each case, was performed. Seven cases of parricide were found, corresponding to 1.7% of all the homicides undergoing forensic evaluated. Victims and perpetrators were typically males. The assaults occurred all at home, in the presence of witnesses, and the perpetrator remained at the scene after the crime. The main alleged reasons were untreated psychiatric illness and financial conflicts in the cases of adult parricide, and attempts to protect the mother from intimate partner violence in younger ones. The judicial outcomes ranged from acquittal for nonimputability to conviction for murder, manslaughter or involuntary manslaughter. This study was carried out on a forensic sample and it is useful to implement strategies to prevent parricide. PMID:24485411

Dantas, Soraia; Santos, Agostinho; Dias, Isabel; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Magalhães, Teresa

2014-02-01

393

In search of a footprint: an investigation about the potentiality of large datasets and territorial analysis in disaster and resilience research.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present investigation aims to contribute to a better understanding if and how coarse scale data can prove useful in a study on resilience of communities towards natural hazards. Main goal of the work is the exploitation of large datasets in search for indicators and information valuable for resilience research; in particular, for marks in the statistical distribution of events as well as in the physical signs on a territory, to be possibly defined as disaster footprints. The approach developed required to start from theoretical considerations about some key concepts, such as footprint and resilience and the possible influence of different types of adverse events on a territory. In particular, the research focuses on statistical signals that can be identified within datasets, concerning the effects of hazardous events against the background of resilience, defined as the "ability of a system and its component parts to anticipate, absorb, accommodate, or recover" from a disaster. The hypothesis for this work was that a disaster footprint could be shown using land features and changes maps. The question linked to this hypothesis was: is there a possibility to recognize on the land a multi-dimensional footprint? Is it possible to do this using land cover/land use data? In order to answer these questions this work proposes a synthetic index, named for convenience Hazard-Territory Index, created to categorize classes of Land Use/Land Cover from the CORINE Land Cover maps, by the mean of different approaches, according to the type of hazard. Through the use and elaboration of CORINE Land Cover data this work investigates whether the land and its use (in a way the relationship between a territory and the community living on it) and its changes over time can reveal some information and results relevant for the analysis of resilience. The investigation, set up in order to analyse these "signs on a map", led to implicate the notion of footprint as a multi-dimensional concept, dealing with different temporal scales and dimensions of resilience and it proposes therefore a definition of disaster footprint, as a multi-parametrical and complex impact indicator (or rather an indicator family). The mutual influence between the land, the hazard and the system on the territory presents different aspects that we tried to synthesize into the same index, differently analyzed according to different dimensions of disaster footprint considered; namely: probability of occurrence, susceptibility to harm, long-term impacts and modifications. The index visualizes the information at national and supra-national scale on maps. Although presenting important theoretical limitations (mainly in the spatial and temporal resolution of the data and in the definition of proxies for physical parameters), the application of this methodology at a supra-national scale has proved useful in the attempt to define the domains of investigations for community resilience studies at a local scale.

Pregnolato, Marco; Petitta, Marcello; Schneiderbauer, Stefan; Pedoth, Lydia; Iasio, Christian; Kaveckis, Giedrius

2014-05-01

394

Computer-assisted systems for forensic pathology and forensic toxicology.  

PubMed

A computer software, RättsBASE (RB), was developed for all forensic pathology units in Sweden and introduced in 1992. Simultaneously, a corresponding software, ToxBASE (TB), was developed for the Department of Forensic Toxicology, where all forensic toxicology in Sweden is managed. Both of the databases were created using dBASE IV, and the programming was carried out according to specifications from the staff at the forensic toxicology and forensic pathology units. since the development or RB and TB was coordinated, the systems can run together smoothly. The purpose of both systems was to automate the offices and to enable compilation of detailed statistics. Installation of Novell Netware and ISDN-connections (Integrated Service Digital Network) has enabled rapid communication between the units and easy compilation of nationwide statistics of forensic pathology and forensic toxicology. the systems offer a wide spectrum of reports and include a simple module for evaluation of the importance of the forensic efforts for th whole death investigation. The configuration of the softwares has also enabled processing of a large amount of related toxicological and autopsy data that in turn has yielded a base for compilation of toxicology interpretation lists. This article includes a summary of the features of the software and a discussion of its benefits and limitations. PMID:15637819

Druid, H; Holmgren, P; Löwenhielm, P

1996-09-01

395

Forensic validation of the Genplex SNP typing system—Results of an inter-laboratory study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present data from a multi-laboratory validation study of the Genplex typing system [C. Phillips, et al., Evaluation of the Genplex SNP typing system and a 49plex forensic marker panel, Forensic Sci. Int.: Genet. 1 (2) (2007) 180–185.] (Applied Biosystems), which interrogates a subset of 48 SNPs selected from the panel of 52 previously developed for forensic analysis by the

Esther Musgrave-Brown; David Ballard; Manuel Fondevila Álvarez; Rixun Fang; Cheryl Harrison; Chris Phillips; Yogesh Prasad; Bea Sobrino Rey; Catherine Thacker; Joerg Wiluhn; Angel Carracedo; Peter M. Schneider; Denise Syndercombe Court

2008-01-01

396

University of Tennessee -Department of Anthropology -Disasters, Displacement and Human Rights Program (DDHR) A Look Back --With Appreciation!  

E-print Network

1 University of Tennessee - Department of Anthropology - Disasters, Displacement and Human Rights Anthropological Association meeting. Dr. Richard A. Wilson, Gladstein Chair and Professor of Anthropology and Law of the International Forensic Program for Physicians for Human Rights, was also a keynote speaker and shared his

Wang, Xiaorui "Ray"

397

Analysis of flood disaster characteristics by using GIS: a case study at the Kujukuri Plain in Chiba Prefecture, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subsidence has occurred at many areas in Japan. The Kujukuri Plain, Chiba Prefecture, Japan, is one of the heavy subsidence areas caused by ground deformation from paleo-earthquakes, plate tectonics and human-induced subsidence by groundwater use. The maximum value of accumulated subsidence is 106.8 cm at the Mobara City during the period from 1969 to 2011. The impact of land subsidence on surface environment has been concerned; one of its effects may include the increase of the risk of flood. In the Kujukuri area, flood disaster has occurred repeatedly in the past. In this study, we analyzed and compared the flood disaster of different period that occurred at 1 July 1970, 8 to 11 October 2004, and 16 October 2013 by using GIS to understand the temporal change of the flood characteristics of the region. Three periods were selected because 1970 is after huge land modification, 2004 is prior to the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake, and 2013 is after the earthquake of 2011. Data used are 1-meter resolution airborne laser scanning data, Landsat-data, and precipitation data. Local topographic depressions were represented from the difference between the raster images that filled the sinks from original raster image using 1-m DEM. Slope angles along the road were calculated by using road data of digital map 2500 (Geospatial information authority of Japan: GSI) and 1-m DEM. Land use maps were produced by Landsat-1 MSS (26 November 1972) and Landsat-5 TM (1 April 2004 and 5 April 2011) and aerial photograph. Impervious ratio distribution map was made by defining the impervious area where covered by asphalt such as roads and buildings. The results showed that the distribution of depressions was mostly unchanged from 1970 to 2004, however, changed slightly in 2013. This change could be affected by ground deformation after earthquake or small human activities such as surface improvement. Flood disaster area is recognized in the depth of depression of more than 20cm with the road gradient of ca. 1 % or less at Mobara City. In some areas, flooding is also occurred in the depressions of ca. 5 to 10 cm. Land use change, impervious area, and other data will be analyzed and compared with flood record map to investigate flood¬-prone area.

Ito, Yuka; Chen, Huali; Sawamukai, Marie; Tokunaga, Tomochika

2014-05-01

398

Validation of high throughput sequencing and microbial forensics applications.  

PubMed

High throughput sequencing (HTS) generates large amounts of high quality sequence data for microbial genomics. The value of HTS for microbial forensics is the speed at which evidence can be collected and the power to characterize microbial-related evidence to solve biocrimes and bioterrorist events. As HTS technologies continue to improve, they provide increasingly powerful sets of tools to support the entire field of microbial forensics. Accurate, credible results allow analysis and interpretation, significantly influencing the course and/or focus of an investigation, and can impact the response of the government to an attack having individual, political, economic or military consequences. Interpretation of the results of microbial forensic analyses relies on understanding the performance and limitations of HTS methods, including analytical processes, assays and data interpretation. The utility of HTS must be defined carefully within established operating conditions and tolerances. Validation is essential in the development and implementation of microbial forensics methods used for formulating investigative leads attribution. HTS strategies vary, requiring guiding principles for HTS system validation. Three initial aspects of HTS, irrespective of chemistry, instrumentation or software are: 1) sample preparation, 2) sequencing, and 3) data analysis. Criteria that should be considered for HTS validation for microbial forensics are presented here. Validation should be defined in terms of specific application and the criteria described here comprise a foundation for investigators to establish, validate and implement HTS as a tool in microbial forensics, enhancing public safety and national security. PMID:25101166

Budowle, Bruce; Connell, Nancy D; Bielecka-Oder, Anna; Colwell, Rita R; Corbett, Cindi R; Fletcher, Jacqueline; Forsman, Mats; Kadavy, Dana R; Markotic, Alemka; Morse, Stephen A; Murch, Randall S; Sajantila, Antti; Schmedes, Sarah E; Ternus, Krista L; Turner, Stephen D; Minot, Samuel

2014-01-01

399

Validation of high throughput sequencing and microbial forensics applications  

PubMed Central

High throughput sequencing (HTS) generates large amounts of high quality sequence data for microbial genomics. The value of HTS for microbial forensics is the speed at which evidence can be collected and the power to characterize microbial-related evidence to solve biocrimes and bioterrorist events. As HTS technologies continue to improve, they provide increasingly powerful sets of tools to support the entire field of microbial forensics. Accurate, credible results allow analysis and interpretation, significantly influencing the course and/or focus of an investigation, and can impact the response of the government to an attack having individual, political, economic or military consequences. Interpretation of the results of microbial forensic analyses relies on understanding the performance and limitations of HTS methods, including analytical processes, assays and data interpretation. The utility of HTS must be defined carefully within established operating conditions and tolerances. Validation is essential in the development and implementation of microbial forensics methods used for formulating investigative leads attribution. HTS strategies vary, requiring guiding principles for HTS system validation. Three initial aspects of HTS, irrespective of chemistry, instrumentation or software are: 1) sample preparation, 2) sequencing, and 3) data analysis. Criteria that should be considered for HTS validation for microbial forensics are presented here. Validation should be defined in terms of specific application and the criteria described here comprise a foundation for investigators to establish, validate and implement HTS as a tool in microbial forensics, enhancing public safety and national security. PMID:25101166

2014-01-01

400

A similarity based technique for detecting malicious executable files for computer forensics  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rapidly increasing complexity of computer systems and the sophistication of hacking tools and techniques, there is a crucial need for computer forensic analysis techniques. Very few techniques exist to support forensic analysis of unknown executable files. The existing techniques primarily inspect executable files to detect known signatures or are based on metadata information. A key goal of such

Jun-hyung Park; Minsoo Kim; Bong-Nam Noh; James B. D. Joshi

2006-01-01

401

Forensic confirmatory analysis of ethyl sulfate--a new marker for alcohol consumption--by liquid-chromatography/electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Ethyl sulfate (EtS)--a new direct marker for ethanol intake besides ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and others--was detected in urine samples by electrospray ionization tandem mass-spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Ethyl sulfate sodium salt was used for method development, yielding a precursor [M - H]- m/z 125 and product ions m/z 97 [HSO4]- and m/z 80 [SO3]-. Pentadeuterated EtS (D5-EtS) was synthesized by esterification of sulfuric acid with anhydrous hexadeutero ethanol ([M - H]- m/z 130, product ions m/z 98 [DSO4]- and m/z 80 [SO3]-). After addition of D5-EtS and D5-EtG, urine samples were analyzed by direct injection into the gradient LC-MS/MS system. Analysis was performed in accordance with forensic guidelines for confirmatory analysis using one precursor and two product ions. EtS has been detected (in addition to EtG) in the urine samples of nine volunteers after drinking sparkling wine containing between 9 and 49 g of ethanol. Both EtS and EtG could be detected up to 36 h after consumption of alcohol. The excretion profile was found to be similar to that of EtG. No EtS was found in teetotalers' urine samples. Method validation parameters are presented. EtS was stable in urine upon storage up to twenty days at room temperature. In addition to EtG, EtS can be used to detect recent alcohol consumption, thus providing a second marker for the time range of up to approximately one day after elimination of ethanol from urine samples. The determination of EtS can be used in addition to EtG as proof of ethanol consumption in workplace monitoring programs. PMID:15519232

Dresen, Sebastian; Weinmann, Wolfgang; Wurst, Friedrich Martin

2004-11-01

402

Engendering development and disasters.  

PubMed

Over the last two decades the different impacts of disasters on women and men have been acknowledged, leading to calls to integrate gender into disaster risk reduction and response. This paper explores how evolving understandings of ways of integrating gender into development have influenced this process, critically analysing contemporary initiatives to 'engender' development that see the inclusion of women for both efficiency and equality gains. It has been argued that this has resulted in a 'feminisation of responsibility' that can reinforce rather than challenge gender relations. The construction of women affected by disasters as both an at-risk group and as a means to reduce risk suggests similar processes of feminisation. The paper argues that if disaster risk reduction initiatives are to reduce women's vulnerability, they need to focus explicitly on the root causes of this vulnerability and design programmes that specifically focus on reducing gender inequalities by challenging unequal gendered power relations. PMID:25494957

Bradshaw, Sarah

2015-01-01

403

Natural Disasters in Florida  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The students will translate the information they have gained into a poster/picture of Florida's natural disasters, label the storms, and list on the poster at least three safety practices to use with each storm.

Claudia Markham-Ahl

2011-10-18

404

A Peanut Butter Disaster  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of how cross-age tutoring was used with older pupils helping younger ones by making media curriculum materials. How this method was applied to disaster preparedness education is described. (HB)

Vento, Carla J.

1976-01-01

405

Speeding earthquake disaster relief  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In coping with recent multibillion-dollar earthquake disasters, scientists and emergency managers have found new ways to speed and improve relief efforts. This progress is founded on the rapid availability of earthquake information from seismograph networks.

Mortensen, Carl; Donlin, Carolyn; Page, Robert A.; Ward, Peter

1995-01-01

406

Forensic anthropology in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic anthropology has been one of the fastest growing medico–legal disciplines both in its contribution to the practical needs of the legal system and research accomplishments. New anthropological standards were developed to apply to a specific population of a region. The purpose of this paper is to analyze a large sample of anthropological forensic cases and to review pertinent literature

M Ya?ar ??can; Horacio Elbio Solla Olivera

2000-01-01

407

Pediatric Forensic Pathology in Crisis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pediatric forensic pathology is an area of medicine that has only received attention relatively recently as a subspecialization of forensic pathology dealing with cases involving children, i.e., it is the study of diseases and injuries of children with subsequent medicolegal interpretation of findings for police and the courts. Unfortunately, the mere naming of an area of medicine does not automatically

Roger W. Byard; Henry F. Krous

2004-01-01

408

On-Demand Information Portals for Disaster Situations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes our work on developing tech- nology for rapidly assembling information portals that provide integrated access to and analysis of information from multiple sources in the case of any disaster. Many recent disasters (the S.E. Asian Tsunamis, the London subway bombings, the Katrina hurricane, to name a few) have demonstrated that a lot of valuable information becomes available

Yiming Ma; Dmitri V. Kalashnikov; Ramaswamy Hariharan; Sharad Mehrotra; Nalini Venkatasubramanian; Naveen Ashish; Jay Lickfett

2007-01-01

409

Differences in the Perceived Influence of Natural Disasters and Travel Risk on International Travel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the socio-demographic and economic differences in the perceived influences of natural disasters and travel risk on international travel. A sample of 354 visitors to South Florida was surveyed as to their perceptions of the influence of natural disasters and travel risk on international travel. A Principal Components Analysis identified two groups of natural disasters, ‘Snow and fire’

Yvette Reisinger

2010-01-01

410

Quality improvement of forensic mental health evaluations and reports of youth in the Netherlands.  

PubMed

Quality improvement of forensic mental health evaluations and reports is needed, but little information is available on how this can be attained, and relatively little conceptual analysis has been undertaken. The STAR, a standardized evaluation instrument of the quality of forensic mental health reports of youth, is developed on the basis of concept mapping to clarify the different perspectives on usability of these reports. Psychometric data are provided, demonstrating the reliability and supporting the validity of the STAR. The Dutch forensic context is described to better understand the development and psychometric properties of this standardized instrument. Quality improvement possibilities of forensic mental health evaluations and reports are discussed. PMID:23040679

Duits, Nils; van der Hoorn, Steven; Wiznitzer, Martin; Wettstein, Robert M; de Beurs, Edwin

2012-01-01

411

National Center for Nuclear Security: The Nuclear Forensics Project (F2012)  

SciTech Connect

These presentation visuals introduce the National Center for Nuclear Security. Its chartered mission is to enhance the Nation’s verification and detection capabilities in support of nuclear arms control and nonproliferation through R&D activities at the NNSS. It has three focus areas: Treaty Verification Technologies, Nonproliferation Technologies, and Technical Nuclear Forensics. The objectives of nuclear forensics are to reduce uncertainty in the nuclear forensics process & improve the scientific defensibility of nuclear forensics conclusions when applied to nearsurface nuclear detonations. Research is in four key areas: Nuclear Physics, Debris collection and analysis, Prompt diagnostics, and Radiochemistry.

Klingensmith, A. L.

2012-03-21

412

Use of pacemaker programmers for disaster victim identification.  

PubMed

Disaster victim identification (DVI) presents a number of physical and legal challenges, involving the degeneration of human remains and legal obstacles to forensic examinations. One non-invasive method for positive identification may be the use of a pacemaker programmer to detect and obtain data from pacemakers recovered from unidentified remains. To test the usefulness of this method, this investigation examined the efficiency and utility of 5 different pacemaker programmers in the positive identification of victims of the March 2011 tsunami in Japan at 8 disaster sites in May 2011. On scanning 148 sets of remains, data were successfully obtained from 1 implant in 1 set of remains, allowing for the rapid positive identification of the individual. Scanning pacemakers with pacemaker programmers can be a non-invasive method of positive identification that meets Japanese legal and institutional requirements, but this method is ineffective without a preceding whole-body X-ray scan. PMID:23592022

Makinae, Haruka; Numata, Norio; Kitaoka, Hirofumi; Daimon, Masao; Yamamoto, Taira; Amano, Atsushi

2013-12-01

413

Global Forensic Science Collaboration: Standards and Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is based on a presentation (Lucas 2011) by the author at a session organized by the American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS) at the International Association of Forensic Sciences Meeting in Funchal, Madeira, Portugal, on September 16, 2011. The title of the session was “Global Research: The Forensic Science Edge.” The “global” nature of AAFS, forensic science, and

Douglas M. Lucas

2011-01-01

414

National Commission on Forensic Science (NCFS) and  

E-print Network

National Commission on Forensic Science (NCFS) and Organization of Scientific Area Committees (OSAC to the Director for Forensic Science Vice-Chair, National Commission on Forensic Science NEAFS Plenary Session Hershey, PA November 5, 2014 #12;NCFS and OSAC: U.S. Efforts to Strengthen Forensic Science · National

415

Forensic Computing Xiang Li and Jennifer Seberry  

E-print Network

Forensic Computing Xiang Li and Jennifer Seberry #3; Abstract Technology is rapidly changing continuously improve to keep one step ahead. Computer forensics has become a specialized and accepted forensic software is also widely used during the whole process of computer forensic investigation

Seberry, Jennifer

416

NISTIR 7516 Forensic Filtering of Cell  

E-print Network

NISTIR 7516 Forensic Filtering of Cell Phone Protocols AurélienDelaitre WayneJansen #12;ii Forensic of Standards and Technology Interagency Report 42 pages (2008) iii #12;Abstract Phone managers are non-forensic managers are sometimes used by forensic investigators to recover data from a cell phone when no suitable

417

Forensic epidemiologic and biomechanical analysis of a pelvic cavity blowout injury associated with ejection from a personal watercraft (jet-ski).  

PubMed

Jet-propelled personal watercraft (PWC) or jet-skis have become increasingly popular. The means of propulsion of PWC, which is a jet of water forced out of small nozzle at the rear of the craft, combined with a high risk of falling off of the seat and into close proximity with the water jet stream, raise the potential for a unique type of injury mechanism. The most serious injuries associated with PWC falls are those that occur when the perineum passes in close proximity to the jet nozzle and the high-pressure water stream enters the vaginal or rectal orifice. We describe the forensic investigation into a case of an anovaginal "blowout" injury in a passenger who was ejected from the rear seat position of a PWC and subsequently suffered life-threatening injuries to the pelvic organs. The investigation included a biomechanical analysis of the injury mechanism, a summary of prior published reports of internal pelvic injuries resulting from PWC falls as well as other water sports and activities, and a comparison of the severity of the injuries resulting from differing mechanisms using the New Injury Severity Score (NISS). The mean (± standard deviation [SD]) NISS values for reported PWC injuries [not including the NISS of 38 in this case study] were 11.2 (± 9.5), while the mean value for reported water-skiing falls was half that of the PWC group at 5.6 (± 5.2). It was concluded that the analyzed injuries were unique to a PWC ejection versus other previously described non-PWC-associated water sport injuries. It is recommended that PWC manufacturers help consumers understand the potential risks to passengers with highly visible warnings and reduce injury risk with revised seat design, and/or passenger seat "deadman" switches. PMID:22925030

Freeman, Michael D; Everson, Todd M; Kohles, Sean S

2013-01-01

418

Postmortem volumetric CT data analysis of pulmonary air/gas content with regard to the cause of death for investigating terminal respiratory function in forensic autopsy.  

PubMed

Postmortem CT (PMCT) is useful to investigate air/gas distribution and content in body cavities and viscera. The present study investigated the procedure to estimate total lung air/gas content and aeration ratio as possible indices of terminal respiratory function, using three-dimensional (3-D) PMCT data analysis of forensic autopsy cases without putrefactive gas formation (within 3 days postmortem, n=75), and analyzed the volumetric data with regard to the cause of death. When 3-D bilateral lung images were reconstructed using an image analyzer, combined lung volume was larger in drowning (n=12) than in alcohol/sedative-hypnotic intoxication (n=8) and sudden cardiac death (SCD; n=10), and intermediate in other cases, including mechanical asphyxiation (n=12), fire fatalities due to burns (n=6) and carbon monoxide intoxication (n=7), fatal methamphetamine abuse (n=7), hyperthermia (heatstroke; n=6) and fatal hypothermia (cold exposure; n=7). Air/gas content of the lung as detected using HU interval between -2000 and -400 ('effective' lung aeration areas) and between -2000 and -191 (total lung aeration areas) as well as the ratios to total lung volume ('effective' and total lung aeration ratios, respectively) was higher in mechanical asphyxiation, drowning, fatal burns and hypothermia (cold exposure) than in SCD, and was intermediate in other cases. 'Effective' and total lung aeration ratios may be useful for comparisons between specific causes of death to discriminate between hypothermia (cold exposure) and drug intoxication, and between SCD and other causes of death, respectively. These findings provide interesting insights into potential efficacy of PMCT data analyses of lung volume and CT density as well as lung air/gas content and aeration ratio with regard to the cause of death, as possible indicators of terminal respiratory function, as part of virtual autopsy of the viscera in situ. PMID:24905153

Sogawa, Nozomi; Michiue, Tomomi; Ishikawa, Takaki; Kawamoto, Osamu; Oritani, Shigeki; Maeda, Hitoshi

2014-08-01

419

Forensic Science: Middle School  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. This resource guide for middle school educators provides background content knowledge, lessons and activities, career information, and ideas for integrating forensics topics and concepts into existing units commonly taught in middle level science - for example, nature of science, methods of science, biology, engineering or genetics units. One section shows the alignment of resources to the National Science Education Standards.

Lefever, Mary

2009-07-01

420

76 FR 18613 - Hawaii Disaster #HI-00022  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Disaster Declaration 12503 and 12504] Hawaii Disaster HI-00022 AGENCY: U...declaration of a disaster for the State of Hawaii dated 03/29/2011. Incident: Honshu...affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Hawaii. Contiguous Counties: None. The...

2011-04-04

421

77 FR 61652 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00066  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Disaster Declaration 13328 and 13329] Oklahoma Disaster OK-00066 AGENCY: U...declaration of a disaster for the State of OKLAHOMA dated 10/01/2012. Incident: Luther...by the disaster: Primary Counties: Oklahoma. Contiguous Counties: Oklahoma:...

2012-10-10

422

75 FR 47650 - Oklahoma Disaster #OK-00042  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Disaster Declaration 12260 and 1226] Oklahoma Disaster OK-00042 AGENCY: U...declaration of a disaster for the State of OKLAHOMA dated 08/03/2010. Incident: Tornadoes...by the disaster: Primary Counties: Oklahoma. Contiguous Counties: Oklahoma:...

2010-08-06

423

Stealth Disasters and Geoethics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural processes of the earth unleash energy in ways that are sometimes harmful or, at best, inconvenient, for humans: earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, landslides, floods. Ignoring the biological component of the geosphere, we have historically called such events "natural disasters." They are typically characterized by a sudden onset and relatively immediate consequences. There are many historical examples and our human societies have evolved various ways of coping with them logistically, economically, and psychologically. Preparation, co-existence, recovery, and remediation are possible, at least to some extent, even in the largest of events. Geoethical questions exist in each stage, but the limited local extent of these disasters allows the possibility of discussion and resolution. There are other disasters that involve the natural systems that support us. Rather than being driven primarily by natural non-biological processes, these are driven by human behavior. Examples are climate change, desertification, acidification of the oceans, and compaction and erosion of fertile soils. They typically have more gradual onsets than natural disasters and, because of this, I refer to these as "stealth disasters." Although they are unfolding unnoticed or ignored by many, they are having near-term consequences. At a global scale they are new to human experience. Our efforts at preparation, co-existence, recovery, and remediation lag far behind those that we have in place for natural disasters. Furthermore, these four stages in stealth disaster situations involve many ethical questions that typically must be solved in the context of much larger cultural and social differences than encountered in natural disaster settings. Four core ethical principles may provide guidelines—autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice (e.g., Jamais Cascio). Geoscientists can contribute to the solutions in many ways. We can work to ensure that as people take responsibility for their own lives (autonomy), they have relevant information in useable form. To minimize harm to others and the environment (non-maleficence), we can design and implement sustainable ways to extract resources and dispose of waste. To advance the welfare of humankind (beneficence), we can work with engineers on innovative uses for commodities that are easily-obtained, and on replacements for rare ones. And, we can strive toward social justice by recognizing that social, ethical, legal and political issues regarding resource use may be far more difficult than the geotechnical ones, and work within the (sometimes frustrating) framework for resolution of those issues. Referring back to the four stages of co-existence with natural disasters (preparation, co-existence, recovery, and remediation), the global scope of stealth disasters raises far more geoethical issues than we have encountered with natural disasters. Just as we have learned (e.g., Hurricanes Katrina and Sandy in the U.S.) that inter-agency response is crucial to successful management of natural disasters, we can expect that global cooperation in management and governance will be essential to the management of stealth disasters. It is imperative that research and education of current and future geoscientists in universities recognize the newly developing role of the geosciences in stealth disasters and that we train our students for a future within this context.

Kieffer, Susan W.

2013-04-01

424

Analysis of body fluids for forensic purposes: From laboratory testing to non-destructive rapid confirmatory identification at a crime scene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Body fluid traces recovered at crime scenes are among the most important types of evidence to forensic investigators. They contain valuable DNA evidence which can identify a suspect or victim as well as exonerate an innocent individual. The first step of identifying a particular body fluid is highly important since the nature of the fluid is itself very informative to

Kelly Virkler; Igor K. Lednev

2009-01-01

425

Liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometric and desorption electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric analysis of chemical warfare agents in office media typically collected during a forensic investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most prior analytical studies have dealt with the determination of chemical warfare agents in environmental or biological matrices that would typically be collected following battlefield use or in support of the Chemical Weapons Convention. These methods may be useful for some investigations, but may not be practical for indoor forensic investigations where chemical warfare agent use is suspected. There is

P. A. D’Agostino; J. R. Hancock; C. L. Chenier; C. R. Jackson Lepage

2006-01-01

426

Materials Evaluation and Engineering, Inc.: Forensic Engineering Investigations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from Materials Evaluation and Engineering, Inc., which specializes in the analysis of product failures, points out that materials engineering is useful in product failure analysis because many products fail due to materials problems. The site provides a brief description of failure analysis, materials and product evaluations, mechanical failure investigations, forensic engineering, and corrosion failure investigations among others.

427

Nanoparticles in forensic science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoparticles appear in several areas of forensic science including security documents, paints, inks, and reagents that develop latent prints. One reagent (known as the silver physical developer) that visualizes the water insoluble components of latent print residue is based on the formation of highly charged silver nanoparticles. These attach to and grow on the residue and generate a silver image. Another such reagent involves highly charged gold nanoparticles. These attach to the residue forming a weak gold image which can be amplified with a silver physical developer. Nanoparaticles are also used in items such as paints, printing inks, and writing inks. Paints and most printing inks consist of nano-sized pigments in a vehicle. However, certain modern ink jet printing inks now contain nano-sized pigments to improve their light fastness and most gel inks are also based on nano scale pigments. These nanoparticlecontaining materials often appear as evidence and are thus subject to forensic characterization. Both luminescent (quantum dots), up-converting nano scale phosphors, and non luminescent nanoparticles are used as security tags to label product, add security to documents, and as anti counterfeiting measures. These assist in determining if an item is fraudulently made.

Cantu, Antonio A.

2008-10-01

428

Integrated Disaster Risk Management of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper firstly introduces the disaster (public security) status quo and situation of China briefly, and then gives a detailed explanation of the integrated disaster risk management system. China is one of the most natural disaster affected countries in the world. The disaster risk reduction work in China includes the pre-disaster decentralized management with separate fields and departments, the in-disaster

Peijun Shi; Jing Liu; Qinghai Yao; Di Tang; Xi Yang

429

DNA Fingerprint Analysis of Three Short Tandem Repeat (STR) Loci for Biochemistry and Forensic Science Laboratory Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We have devised and implemented a DNA fingerprinting module for an upper division undergraduate laboratory based on the amplification and analysis of three of the 13 short tandem repeat loci that are required by the Federal Bureau of Investigation Combined DNA Index System (FBI CODIS) data base. Students first collect human epithelial (cheek)…

McNamara-Schroeder, Kathleen; Olonan, Cheryl; Chu, Simon; Montoya, Maria C.; Alviri, Mahta; Ginty, Shannon; Love, John J.

2006-01-01

430

Hair analysis, a novel tool in forensic and biomedical sciences: new chromatographic and electrophoretic\\/electrokinetic analytical strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hair analysis for abused drugs is recognized as a powerful tool to investigate exposure of subjects to these substances. In fact, drugs permeate the hair matrix at the root level and above. Evidence of their presence remains incorporated into the hair stalk for the entire life of this structure. Most abusive drugs (e.g. opiates, cocaine, amphetamines, cannabinoids etc.) and several

F. Tagliaro; F. P. Smith; Z. De Battisti; G. Manetto; M. Marigo

1997-01-01

431

Forensic applications of stable isotope analysis: Case studies of the origins of water in mislabeled beer and contaminated diesel fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the use of oxygen (18O) isotope analysis of water contained in two different materials — beer and diesel fuel — involved in the resolution of two separate cases. In the first case study, it was possible to demonstrate that a sample of beer labelled as premium brand in fact belonged to a cheap brand. The second case

Wolfgang Papesch; Micha Horacek

2009-01-01

432

Oil spill analysis by means of full polarimetric UAVSAR (L-band) and Radarsat-2 (C-band) products acquired during Deepwater Horizon Disaster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SAR instruments with polarimetric capabilities, high resolution and short revisit time can provide powerful support in oil spill monitoring and different techniques of analysis have been developed for this purpose [1][2]. An oil film on the sea surface results in darker areas in SAR images, but careful interpretation is required because dark spots can also be caused by natural phenomena. In view of the very low backscatter from slicks, the Noise Equivalent Sigma Zero (NESZ) is a primary sensor parameter to be considered when using a sensor for slick analysis. Among the existing full polarimetric sensors, the high resolution and very low NESZ values of UAVSAR (L-band) and RADARSAT-2 (C-band) make them preferable for oil spill analysis compared to the last generation SAR instruments. The Deepwater Horizon disaster that occurred in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010 represents a unique and extensive test site where large amounts of SAR imagery and ground validation data are available. By applying the Cloude-Pottier decomposition method to full polarimetric UAVSAR (L-band) and RADARSAT-2 (C-band), it is possible to extract parameters that describe the scattering mechanism of the target. By comparing quasi-simultaneous acquisitions and exploiting the different penetration capabilities of the sensors, we investigate the potential of full polarimetric SAR to discriminate oil on the sea surface from look-alike phenomena covering the full range of backscattering values down to those at the instrument noise floor.

Latini, Daniele; Del Frate, Fabio; Jones, Cathleen E.

2014-10-01

433

Raman spectroscopy and laser desorption mass spectrometry for minimal destructive forensic analysis of black and color inkjet printed documents.  

PubMed

Inkjet ink analysis is the best way to discriminate between printed documents, or even though more difficult, to connect an inkjet printed document with a brand or model of printers. Raman spectroscopy and laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS) have been demonstrated as powerful tools for dyes and pigments analysis, which are ink components. The aim of this work is to evaluate the aforementioned techniques for inkjet inks analysis in terms of discriminating power, information quality, and nondestructive capability. So, we investigated 10 different inkjet ink cartridges (primary colors and black), 7 from the HP manufacturer and one each from Epson, Canon and Lexmark. This paper demonstrates the capabilities of three methods: Raman spectroscopy, LDMS and MALDI-MS. Raman spectroscopy, as it is preferable to try the nondestructive approach first, is successfully adapted to the analysis of color printed documents in most cases. For analysis of color inkjet inks by LDMS, we show that a MALDI matrix (9-aminoacridine, 9AA) is needed to desorb and to ionize dyes from most inkjet inks (except Epson inks). Therefore, a method was developed to apply the 9AA MALDI matrix directly onto the piece of paper while avoiding analyte spreading. The obtained mass spectra are very discriminating and lead to information about ink additives and paper compositions. Discrimination of black inkjet printed documents is more difficult because of the common use of carbon black as the principal pigment. We show for the first time the possibility to discriminate between two black-printed documents coming from different, as well as from the same, manufacturers. Mass spectra recorded from black inks in positive ion mode LDMS detect polyethylene glycol polymers which have characteristic mass distributions and end groups. Moreover, software has been developed for rapid and objective comparison of the low mass range of these positive mode LDMS spectra which have characteristic unknown peaks. PMID:22225847

Heudt, Laetitia; Debois, Delphine; Zimmerman, Tyler A; Köhler, Laurent; Bano, Fouzia; Partouche, Franck; Duwez, Anne-Sophie; Gilbert, Bernard; De Pauw, Edwin

2012-06-10

434

A real-time color image processing system for forensic fiber investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

During forensic fiber investigations a material is searched for single fibers transferred in connection to a crime. If fibers can be matched it is an indication of a connection between the crime scene and the material investigated or between persons. This paper describes an automated searching system based on color image analysis. The system is primarily developed for forensic textile

Nils Paulsson; Bengt Stocklassa

1999-01-01

435

Nuclear forensics of special nuclear material at Los Alamos: three recent studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear forensics of special nuclear materials is a highly specialized field because there are few analytical laboratories in the world that can safely handle nuclear materials, perform high accuracy and precision analysis using validated analytical methods. The goal of nuclear forensics is to establish an unambiguous link between illicitly trafficked nuclear material and its origin. The Los Alamos National Laboratory

Lav Tandon; David L Gallimore; Katherine Garduon; Russell C Keller; Kevin J Kuhn; Elmer J Lujan; Alexander Martinez; Steven C Myers; Steve S Moore; Donivan R Porterfield; Daniel S Schwartz; Khalil J Spencer; Lisa E Townsend; Ning Xu

2010-01-01

436

Forensic Linguistics: The Linguistic Analyst and Expert Witness of Language Evidence in Criminal Trials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forensic linguistics (FL) provides consultation to lawyers through the analysis of language evidence during the pre-trial investigation. Evidence commonly analyzed by linguists in criminal cases includes transcripts of police interviews and language crimes (such as bribery) and anonymous or questioned texts. Forensic linguistic testimony is rarely…

Jordan, Sherilynn Nidever

437

La implementación forense de la tecnología del ADN en Costa Rica: Un análisis retrospectivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic implementation of DNA technology in Costa Rica: a retrospective analysis. La reciente utilización de la tecnología del ADN para la identificación individual a traído consigo una revolución en las cien- cias forenses, que ha alcanzado también a la America Latina. El análisis histórico muestra que en Costa Rica se han logrado importantes avances y en la actualidad se encuentra

Ana Isabel; Bernal Morera; Gerardo Jiménez-Arce; Unidad de ADN

2004-01-01

438

Extended guidelines for mtDNA typing of population data in forensic science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondrial DNA analysis has become a vital niche in forensic science as it constitutes a powerful technique for low quality and low quantity DNA samples. For the forensic field it is important to employ standardized procedures based on scientific grounds, in order to have mtDNA evidence be accepted in court. Here, we modify and extend recommendations that were spelled out

Walther Parson; Hans-Jürgen Bandelt

2007-01-01

439

E-Voting and Forensics: Prying Open the Black Box Matt Bishop and Sean Peisert  

E-print Network

. Auditing tech- niques may provide an indication that forensic analysis is necessary and may be useful toolsE-Voting and Forensics: Prying Open the Black Box Matt Bishop and Sean Peisert Department of Computer Science University of California, Davis {bishop, peisert}@cs.ucdavis.edu Candice Hoke Cleveland

Bishop, Matt

440

EVoting and Forensics: Prying Open the Black Box Matt Bishop and Sean Peisert  

E-print Network

. Auditing tech­ niques may provide an indication that forensic analysis is necessary and may be useful toolsE­Voting and Forensics: Prying Open the Black Box Matt Bishop and Sean Peisert Department of Computer Science University of California, Davis {bishop, peisert}@cs.ucdavis.edu Candice Hoke Cleveland

Bishop, Matt

441

Forensic Science Education and Educational Requirements for Forensic Scientists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on criminalistics, which can be understood to mean the activities and specialty areas characteristic of most municipal, county, or state forensic science laboratories in the United States. (DDR)

Gaensslen, Robert E.

2002-01-01

442

Responses to natural disasters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1964, natural disasters caused by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, or extreme weather in the form of floods, droughts, or hurricanes, have been responsible for more than 2,756,000 deaths worldwide in nations other than the United States, the Soviet Union, and the Eastern European Bloc, according to figures tabulated by the Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA) of the Agency for International Development (AID). Over 95% of these fatalities occurred in developing or third world countries. Damage resulting from these calamities has been severe but extremely difficult to estimate in monetary terms. In 1986, U.S. government and voluntary agencies spent $303 million on natural disaster assistance around the world, 79% of total world assistance. In 1985 the U.S. total was nearly $900 million, 48% of the $1.84 billion world total.

Maggs, William Ward

443

Special report: silent disasters.  

PubMed

Disasters occur not only in war and conflict or after natural events, such as earthquakes or floods. In fact, the death of hundreds of thousands of children in Niger every year, often for treatable conditions, could just as well qualify as a disaster situation. A lack of funding for health care and health-care staff and user fee policies for health care in very poor or unstable settings challenge international agreements that make statements about the right to health and access to health care for all people. This paper argues that although sustainable development is important, today many are without essential health care and die in the silent disasters of hunger and poverty. In other words, the development of health care appears to be stalled for the sake of sustainability. PMID:17958672

Eriksson, Anneli

2007-12-01

444

Recommended Practice: Creating Cyber Forensics Plans for Control Systems  

SciTech Connect

Cyber forensics has been in the popular mainstream for some time, and has matured into an information-technology capability that is very common among modern information security programs. The goal of cyber forensics is to support the elements of troubleshooting, monitoring, recovery, and the protection of sensitive data. Moreover, in the event of a crime being committed, cyber forensics is also the approach to collecting, analyzing, and archiving data as evidence in a court of law. Although scalable to many information technology domains, especially modern corporate architectures, cyber forensics can be challenging when being applied to non-traditional environments, which are not comprised of current information technologies or are designed with technologies that do not provide adequate data storage or audit capabilities. In addition, further complexity is introduced if the environments are designed using proprietary solutions and protocols, thus limiting the ease of which modern forensic methods can be utilized. The legacy nature and somewhat diverse or disparate component aspects of control systems environments can often prohibit the smooth translation of modern forensics analysis into the control systems domain. Compounded by a wide variety of proprietary technologies and protocols, as well as critical system technologies with no capability to store significant amounts of event information, the task of creating a ubiquitous and unified strategy for technical cyber forensics on a control systems device or computing resource is far from trivial. To date, no direction regarding cyber forensics as it relates to control systems has been produced other than what might be privately available from commercial vendors. Current materials have been designed to support event recreation (event-based), and although important, these requirements do not always satisfy the needs associated with incident response or forensics that are driven by cyber incidents. To address these issues and to accommodate for the diversity in both system and architecture types, a framework based in recommended practices to address forensics in the control systems domain is required. This framework must be fully flexible to allow for deployment into any control systems environment regardless of technologies used. Moreover, the framework and practices must provide for direction on the integration of modern network security technologies with traditionally closed systems, the result being a true defense-in-depth strategy for control systems architectures. This document takes the traditional concepts of cyber forensics and forensics engineering and provides direction regarding augmentation for control systems operational environments. The goal is to provide guidance to the reader with specifics relating to the complexity of cyber forensics for control systems, guidance to allow organizations to create a self-sustaining cyber forensics program, and guidance to support the maintenance and evolution of such programs. As the current control systems cyber security community of interest is without any specific direction on how to proceed with forensics in control systems environments, this information product is intended to be a first step.

Eric Cornelius; Mark Fabro

2008-08-01

445

Implant Bone Integration Importance in Forensic Identification.  

PubMed

Odontological identification consists of the comparison of antemortem dental information regarding a missing person with postmortem data from an unidentified corpse or human remains. Usually, the comparison concerns morphologic features that the operator chooses among all the visible characteristics because of inter-individual uniqueness; for this reason, implants can be of enormous assistance. A case concerning the recovery of a burnt oral implant, connected to a bone fragment, among 2780 charred bone fragments, suspected to have belonged to a victim of homicide, is presented to demonstrate that dental implants and their site of bone integration represent a very precious element for personal forensic identification. Because of their morphological invariability in time and because of their morphologic uniqueness, they were used as evidence to associate unidentified human charred remains to a missing person where DNA analysis failed to do so. The case illustrates the fundamental contribution, not yet described in literature, given by the clinical aspects of tooth replacement with dental implants to a forensic discipline. Clinical practitioners should therefore be aware of the great importance of their work and of dental records in a forensic identification scenario. PMID:25387697

De Angelis, Danilo; Cattaneo, Cristina

2014-11-12

446

Disaster Preparedness in YOUR School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A look at what to do in time of natural and man-made disasters is presented. Disasters covered include tornados, hurricanes, floods, fires, blizzards, and nuclear disaster. The responsibilities of the Board of Education, school superintendent, school principal, teachers, school nurse, custodian, students, bus drivers, and cafeteria workers are…

Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Adult and Continuing Education.

447

Information Products Laboratory for Emergency Response The three-tiered disaster management approach, disaster planning, disaster response and disaster  

E-print Network

a systems engineering approach to define user needs in disaster management, perform targeted researchIPLER Information Products Laboratory for Emergency Response 1 The three-tiered disaster management to innovation in disaster management. The mission of the IPLER is to create a technology, policy and business

Zanibbi, Richard

448

wind engineering & natural disaster mitigation  

E-print Network

wind engineering & natural disaster mitigation #12;wind engineering & natural disaster mitigation Investment WindEEE Dome at Advanced Manufacturing Park $31million Insurance Research Lab for Better Homes $8million Advanced Facility for Avian Research $9million #12;wind engineering & natural disaster mitigation

Denham, Graham

449

Himalayan/Karakoram Disaster After Disaster: The Pain Will Not Be Ending Anytime Soon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Are recent natural disasters in the Himalaya/Karakoram partly human-caused? Will disasters diminish or increase in frequency? Natural disasters in this region are nothing new. Earthquakes, floods, landslides, avalanches, and debris flows have occurred in the Himalaya/Karakoram since the mountains first grew from the sea. Simply put, the Himalaya/Karakoram, being South Asia's 'water tower' and an active plate tectonic collision zone, must shed water and debris to the lowlands and the sea. When this activity occurs swiftly and with high intensity at or near human settlements, the results are often deadly. Remote sensing analysis of recent disasters coupled with demography, news accounts, and field studies indicate that there is a component of human responsibility. Two overarching human elements include (1) settlement and infrastructure encroachment into hazardous mountain areas and (2) aggravation of climate change. Both are substantially responsible--separately or together--for most of the recent tragedies. These conclusions provide the answer to when the disasters will end: not soon. Unfortunately, disasters will almost surely increase. Whether natural disasters have increased in frequency over the region's long historical record may be debated and must be researched. This expected link is a challenge to assess due to the stochastic nature of disasters and their triggering events (e.g., earthquakes and extreme weather events). While Himalayan tectonism, rock mechanics, glaciation, and climate are fundamental causes of the disasters, so are human land uses. Encroaching development into ever-hazardous zones is a paramount cause of much human tragedy. Climate change is harder to pin down specifically as a cause of some of these disasters, because some disasters are linked to rare extreme weather events and mass movements, which may be statistically but not individually attributable in part to climate change. Nevertheless, evidence supports a major role of climate change for some natural disasters, and little if any role in others. I select a few recent disaster examples (Attabad rockfall, Gayari avalanche, Seti River flood, and Uttarakhand floods) and summarize their relationships to geology and geomorphology, weather, climate change, habitation, and infrastructure development. Disasters are apt to increase in frequency, effects, and geographic spread due to increased habitation and infrastructure development and changing climate. Whether climate change causes glacier shrinkage or growth, glacier-related hazards are affected. Some of these disasters have international cross-cultural, political, economic, and security components and could spiral into further human catastrophes related to international tensions. Improved international cooperation could ease the chances for disasters to trigger additional unintended consequences between nations. Not all development and human uses of the Himalaya/Karakoram are unwise. Furthermore, some people committed to living in risky places have nowhere else to go. Climate change and shifting mountain processes may have winners and losers. All current and future uses of the region should be weighed against the rapidly changing climate and shifting natural hazard landscape. Acknowledgements: Support from NASA/USAID SERVIR Applied Science Team, NASA Science of Terra & Aqua, and USAID Climbers' Science.

Kargel, J. S.; Leonard, G. J.

2013-12-01

450

First contribution of mites (Acari) to the forensic analysis of hanged corpses: A case study from Spain.  

PubMed

This case study from North Spain, highlights the importance of the collection of mites in addition to insects, from crime scenes or corpses subjected to environmental constraints that reduce or minimise insect activity, such as hanged corpses. In addition, this analysis highlights the relevance of arthropods' collection in the field, even after the corpse has been moved away for autopsy. Four species of mites, phoretic on carrion (Silphidae) and rove (Staphylinidae) beetles, complemented and reinforced the autopsy analysis as well as the scarce information provided by insect activity. Poecilochirus carabi Canestrini & Canestrini, 1882 and Poecilochirus (Physoparasitus) davydovae Hyatt, 1980 (Mesostigmata: Parasitidae) were found in association with two Silphidae, Nicrophorus Fabricius, 1775 and Necrodes Leach, 1815, only when sampled in the autopsy room; this is suggestive of host-switching of mites and was likely due to the lack of availability of specific carriers in the field. The interpretation of the activity of Parasitidae mites both in the field and the autopsy room allows a better understanding of the timing and circumstances of decomposition. Phoretic deutonymphs of Pelzneria Scheucher 1957 (Astigmata: Histiostomatidae) were highly abundant, mostly P. crenulata Oudemans, 1909 and are reported for the first time on a Staphylinidae rove beetle, Creophilus maxillosus (L., 1758). Surprisingly, in this case study no Pelzneria were associated with the Silphidae found, which are their most common hosts, such as Necrodes littoralis (L., 1758) and Nicrophorus interruptus (Stephens, 1830). All histiostomatids were removed from the staphylinid (rove beetle) collected from the soil, at the scene of death, suggesting a recent arrival of the beetle. The occurrence of Staphylinidae beetles and their associated mites, such as Parasitidae and Pelzneria, and the information they provided would have been easily overlooked or lost if only the autopsy sampling would have been considered in the analysis of the case. The four mite species are reported for the first time for the Iberian Peninsula. PMID:25193143

Saloña-Bordas, Marta I; Perotti, M Alejandra

2014-11-01

451

Forensic application of chiral separation of amphetamine-type stimulants to impurity analysis of seized methamphetamine by capillary electrophoresis.  

PubMed

The applicability of capillary electrophoresis (CE) with a UV detector using highly sulfated gamma-cyclodextrin as a chiral selector was examined for analysis of impurities in seized methamphetamine. Samples of methamphetamine-hydrochloride dissolved in water at a high concentration (20 mg/mL) were analyzed. Electrokinetic injection has an advantage over hydrodynamic injection for improving the detection of trace impurities. Small peaks of the precursor impurities, such as (1R,2S)-(-)-ephedrine and (1S,2S)-(+)-pseudoephedrine, were detected and quantified without extraction. The seized drugs could be classified into three groups based on the contents of the two impurities. PMID:16870377

Iwata, Yuko T; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Kuwayama, Kenji; Kanamori, Tatsuyuki; Tsujikawa, Kenji; Miyaguchi, Hajime; Kishi, Tohru

2006-09-12

452

Disaster management: vulnerability and resilience in disaster recovery in Thailand.  

PubMed

This project explores disaster management in Thailand with a focus on the vulnerability and resilience of women, children, the elderly, and the disabled population and on the impact of disaster on these subpopulations. The 2 main findings deal with the major models of disaster management in Thailand and building resilience for social recovery. The selected 5 major models currently employed in disaster management in Thailand are the (a) model of royal project and international cooperation on disaster preparedness and response, (b) ASEAN Socio-Cultural Blueprint, (c) rights-based approach, (d) welfare mix model, and (e) knowledge management model. PMID:23679805

Busapathumrong, Pattamaporn

2013-01-01

453

Disaster preparedness in Scandinavia.  

PubMed

Disaster preparedness in Scandinavia is being improved on the national level, with increased cooperation between the different countries following 9/11. However, focus so far has been largely directed against CBRN threats. The reduction of hospital beds along with centralisation of advanced care as well as financial strains will enforce a closer cooperation between the health boards. The federal health care authorities must have a clear-cut responsibility and mandate to coordinate the nations health care systems in peacetime disasters, and not only during war. This reorganisation has just merely begun. PMID:16425628

Ortenwall, P

2005-01-01

454

Reducing natural disaster vulnerability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because poor countries are vulnerable to the impact of natural disasters, the U.K. Department for International Development (DFID) launched on 30 March a new policy to better integrate natural disaster risk reduction into development and humanitarian activities. Gareth Thomas, U.K. development minister, said, ``There is nothing we can do to stop hurricanes, tsunamis, and earthquakes from striking. But what we can do is help put simple measures in place, such as better built houses, schools, and hospitals alongside more high-tech early warning systems to reduce the loss of life.''

Zielinski, Sarah

2006-04-01

455

Disaster aeromedical evacuation.  

PubMed

Successful disaster aeromedical evacuation depends on applying the principles learned by moving patients since World War II, culminating in today's global patient movement system. This article describes the role of the Department of Defense patient movement system in providing defense support to civil authorities during the 2008 hurricane season and the international disaster response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake. Adapting and applying the principles of active partnerships, establishing patient movement requirements, patient preparation, and in-transit visibility have resulted in the successful aeromedical evacuation of over 1,600 patients since the federal response to Hurricane Katrina. PMID:22128647

Lezama, Nicholas G; Riddles, Lawrence M; Pollan, William A; Profenna, Leonardo C

2011-10-01

456

Forensic Science--A Proposal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forensic science is an approach to study desirability of specific technologies in the context of value objectives and biological imperatives of society. Such groups should be formed with people from various physical and social sciences. (PS)

Geesaman, Donald P.; Abrahamson, Dean E.

1973-01-01

457

UT Knoxville: Forensic Anthropology Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Consider this: A hunter finds what she believes is a human skull deep in the woods. She calls the police. Who do the police call? A forensic anthropologist, of course, who comes to the site and examines the skull to determine whether the skull is, indeed, human, whether it is male or female, and how old the person was upon death. The Forensic Anthropology Center at the University of Tennessee-Knoxville trains forensic anthropologists for just this sort of work. Start with the homepage, where you can read up on the department, started in 1987 by Dr. William M. Bass. Next, follow a quick link to What is Forensic Anthropology? for an informative overview of the field. Also of interest, are the Short Courses, News, and, for those feeling philanthropic, Body Donation sections of the site.

458

National Forensic League  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over its eighty year history, the NFL has graduated such notable alumni as President Lyndon Baines Johnson, Oprah Winfrey, Jane Pauley, and Don Ameche. They never played a moment in the NFL that celebrates the legends of the gridiron, but rather they honed their powers of persuasion and oratory in the National Forensic League. Over one million additional alums have joined these well-known personages, and persons who wish to know more about the organization and its operations will want to take a close look at their site. From the homepage, visitors can move through sections that provide hands-on resources that will help both students and coaches get familiar with the world of debate. Most of these resources are located in the "Coaching Resources" area, and are divided into such topics as speech assignments, vocabulary, and peer evaluations.

2007-03-01

459

National Forensic League  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over its eighty year history, the NFL has graduated such notable alumni as President Lyndon Baines Johnson, Oprah Winfrey, Jane Pauley, and Don Ameche. They never played a moment in the NFL that celebrates the legends of the gridiron, but rather they honed their powers of persuasion and oratory in the National Forensic League. Over one million additional alums have joined these well-known personages, and persons who wish to know more about the organization and its operations will want to take a close look at their site. From the homepage, visitors can move through sections that provide hands-on resources that will help both students and coaches get familiar with the world of debate. Most of these resources are located in the "Coaching Resources" area, and are divided into such topics as speech assignments, vocabulary, and peer evaluations.

460

Forensic applications of stable isotope analysis: case studies of the origins of water in mislabeled beer and contaminated diesel fuel.  

PubMed

This paper describes the use of oxygen (18O) isotope analysis of water contained in two different materials--beer and diesel fuel--involved in the resolution of two separate cases. In the first case study, it was possible to demonstrate that a sample of beer labelled as premium brand in fact belonged to a cheap brand. The second case related to the contamination of diesel fuel from a service station. The diesel fuel contained visible amounts of water, which caused vehicles that had been filled up with it to become defective. For insurance purposes, it was necessary to determine the source of water. The delta18O values for the water of nearly all samples of diesel was close to the delta18O of local tap water at the filling station. PMID:19606593

Papesch, Wolfgang; Horacek, Micha

2009-06-01

461

Enhancing disaster management by mapping disaster proneness and preparedness.  

PubMed

The focus of most disaster management programmes is to deploy resources-physical and human-from outside the disaster zone. This activity can produce a