Sample records for forensic disaster analysis

  1. Role of forensic pathologists in mass disasters.

    PubMed

    Schuliar, Yves; Knudsen, Peter Juel Thiis

    2012-06-01

    The forensic pathologist has always had a central role in the identification of the dead in every day practice, in accidents, and in disasters involving hundreds or thousands of victims. This role has changed in recent years, as advances in forensic odontology, genetics and anthropology have improved the chances of identifying victims beyond recognition. According to the Interpol DVI Guide, fingerprints, dental examination and DNA are the primary identifiers, and this has given new emphasis to the role of the forensic pathologist as the leader of a multidisciplinary team of experts in a disaster situation, based on his or her qualifications and the experience gained from doing the same work in the everyday situation of an institute of forensic medicine. PMID:22160735

  2. Forensic Investigation of mass disasters in Nigeria: A review

    PubMed Central

    Obafunwa, John Oladapo; Faduyile, Francis Adedayo; Soyemi, Sunday Sokunle; Eze, Uwom Okereke; Nwana, Edmund J. C.; Odesanmi, William Olufemi

    2015-01-01

    This paper is to establish the present state of things in the country in terms of legal framework and the availability of personnel with a view to presenting an overview of proper mass disaster investigations. This is a retrospective review of mass disasters in Nigeria that occurred within the last 20 years. The study therefore reviews the state of the forensic investigation of the mass disasters as well as the efforts made to identify the victims of the disaster. The process of proper forensic investigation from the stage of evaluation of the scene and recovery process to the final identification of victims are presented to serve as a protocol for the country. The assessment of the present state of preparedness in Nigeria is also examined with a view to improving the practice to international standards. Data were retrieved from official documents from the aviation industry as well as Nigeria news reports. The standard protocols for disaster victim identification were retrieved from the guide released by the INTERPOL. The state of preparedness of the country and recommendations for improvement are presented. The Federal government and the states of the federation should without further delay put in place the process of reviewing the law of Coroner's system and provide the enabling environment for the proper forensic investigation. The training curriculum of the first responders should incorporate mass disaster investigations in order to produce efficient officers and personnel. A functional disaster victim identification (DVI) team is strongly advocated to incorporate different professionals involved in mass disaster management. PMID:25657485

  3. The role of forensic dentist following mass disaster.

    PubMed

    Kolude, B; Adeyemi, B F; Taiwo, J O; Sigbeku, O F; Eze, U O

    2010-12-01

    This review article focuses on mass disaster situations that may arise from natural or manmade circumstances and the significant role of forensic dental personnel in human identification following such occurrences. The various forensic dental modalities of identification that include matching techniques, postmortem profiling, genetic fingerprinting, dental fossil assessment and dental biometrics with digital subtraction were considered. The varying extent of use of forensic dental techniques and the resulting positive impact on human identification were considered. The importance of preparation by way of special training for forensic dental personnel, mock disaster rehearsal, and use of modern day technology was stressed. The need for international standardization of identification through the use of Interpol Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) for ms was further emphasized. Recommendations for improved human identification in Nigerian situation include reform of the National Emergency Management Association (NEMA), incorporation of dental care in primary health care to facilitate proper ante mortem database of the populace and commencement of identification at site of disaster. PMID:25161478

  4. THE ROLE OF FORENSIC DENTIST FOLLOWING MASS DISASTER

    PubMed Central

    Kolude, B.; Adeyemi, B.F.; Taiwo, J.O.; Sigbeku, O.F.; Eze, U.O.

    2010-01-01

    This review article focuses on mass disaster situations that may arise from natural or manmade circumstances and the significant role of forensic dental personnel in human identification following such occurrences. The various forensic dental modalities of identification that include matching techniques, postmortem profiling, genetic fingerprinting, dental fossil assessment and dental biometrics with digital subtraction were considered. The varying extent of use of forensic dental techniques and the resulting positive impact on human identification were considered. The importance of preparation by way of special training for forensic dental personnel, mock disaster rehearsal, and use of modern day technology was stressed. The need for international standardization of identification through the use of Interpol Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) for ms was further emphasized. Recommendations for improved human identification in Nigerian situation include reform of the National Emergency Management Association (NEMA), incorporation of dental care in primary health care to facilitate proper ante mortem database of the populace and commencement of identification at site of disaster. PMID:25161478

  5. Forensic aspects of the 2009 Victorian Bushfires Disaster.

    PubMed

    Cordner, Stephen M; Woodford, Noel; Bassed, Richard

    2011-02-25

    The 2009 Victorian Bushfires Disaster started on a record hot day in February 2009 and resulted in over 300 separate fires with a death toll of 173 and over 400 presentations to hospital emergency departments. This occurred a little over a week after a heat wave in which over 400 people were thought to have died prematurely in southeastern Australia. The Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine in collaboration with the police force and the State Coroner's Office and over 100 colleagues from all over Australia, Indonesia, New Zealand and Japan implemented a DVI process based on Interpol guidelines to identify the deceased persons. CT scanning was conducted on all remains collected and played a pivotal role in the identification processes in conjunction with experts in pathology, anthropology, forensic odontology and molecular biology. This paper outlines the scale of the disaster and the work, from a forensic medical perspective, to identify the deceased. PMID:20832958

  6. The role of forensic anthropology in Disaster Victim Identification (DVI).

    PubMed

    Blau, Soren; Briggs, Christopher A

    2011-02-25

    This paper briefly describes Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) and reviews the history of the use of forensic anthropology in the identification process. The potential contributions made by forensic anthropology are illustrated through the presentation of a case study. In February 2009 the state of Victoria in south-eastern Australia experienced the most devastating bushfires in its history, resulting in catastrophic loss of life and public and private property. Within 48h of the disaster, forensic teams including pathologists, odontologists and anthropologists assembled at the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine in Melbourne to begin the task of identifying the deceased. This paper reviews the part played by forensic anthropologists in the identification process and outlines the important contribution anthropologists can make to DVI, especially at the scene, in the mortuary and in the reconciliation process. The anthropologist's experience with differentially preserved human remains meant they played an important role identifying and recovering heavily fragmentary human skeletal remains, differentiating human from non-human remains, establishing basic biological information such as the sex and age of the individuals and confirming or denying the possibility of re-associating body parts for release to families. PMID:20797826

  7. Development of the Australian Society of Forensic Odontology disaster victim identification forensic odontology guide.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J

    2009-12-01

    The need for documented procedures and protocols are important in every specialist group to ensure a consistent service to the community. They provide guidance to members of the specialist group about responsibilities and appropriate practices, and confidence to the community that the services are of the highest possible standard. In a Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) incident, by enabling the process to be audited, they also serve to ensure that identifications are reliable. Following the Bali Bombings of 2002 and the 2004 Asian Tsunami the Australian Society of Forensic Odontology recognised the need for a practice guide to assist the management of their members in DVI incidents. 31 members of the Australian Society of Forensic Odontology participated in the development of a guideline document for Disaster Victim Identification using a Delphi based model. The advantage of using the iterative Delphi process is that it encouraged participants to think about the processes used in the forensic odontology aspects of a DVI incident and their expectations of a guiding document. The document developed as a result of this project is comprehensive in coverage and places the Australian Society of Forensic Odontology at the vanguard of professionalism in the forensic odontology and DVI community. PMID:22785098

  8. Encoded evidence: DNA in forensic analysis.

    PubMed

    Jobling, Mark A; Gill, Peter

    2004-10-01

    Sherlock Holmes said "it has long been an axiom of mine that the little things are infinitely the most important", but never imagined that such a little thing, the DNA molecule, could become perhaps the most powerful single tool in the multifaceted fight against crime. Twenty years after the development of DNA fingerprinting, forensic DNA analysis is key to the conviction or exoneration of suspects and the identification of victims of crimes, accidents and disasters, driving the development of innovative methods in molecular genetics, statistics and the use of massive intelligence databases. PMID:15510165

  9. Terminology and forensic gait analysis.

    PubMed

    Birch, Ivan; Vernon, Wesley; Walker, Jeremy; Young, Maria

    2015-07-01

    The use of appropriate terminology is a fundamental aspect of forensic gait analysis. The language used in forensic gait analysis is an amalgam of that used in clinical practice, podiatric biomechanics and the wider field of biomechanics. The result can often be a lack of consistency in the language used, the definitions used and the clarity of the message given. Examples include the use of 'gait' and 'walking' as synonymous terms, confusion between 'step' and 'stride', the mixing of anatomical, positional and pathological descriptors, and inability to describe appropriately movements of major body segments such as the torso. The purpose of this paper is to share the well-established definitions of the fundamental parameters of gait, common to all professions, and advocate their use in forensic gait analysis to establish commonality. The paper provides guidance on the selection and use of appropriate terminology in the description of gait in the forensic context. This paper considers the established definitions of the terms commonly used, identifies those terms which have the potential to confuse readers, and suggests a framework of terminology which should be utilised in forensic gait analysis. PMID:26087876

  10. The “Scandinavian Star” ferry disaster 1990 -a challenge to forensic odontology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tore Solheim; Magne Lorentsen; Per Kristian Sundnes; Gisle Bang; Lasse Bremnes

    1992-01-01

    Summary With 158 victims, the fire on board the “Scandinavian Star” was one of the world's worst ferry disasters. A team of identification experts, including dentists, were employed to secure evidence for identification and to remove the victims from the ferry. Four parallel teams, each with 2 dentists, examined and autopsied the victims at the Institute of Forensic Medicine, University

  11. Forensic Analyses on A Compound Disaster and Its Impacts Following the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei

    2014-05-01

    The 7.9 Mw Wenchuan Earthquake on May 12 in 2008 was one of the most devastating natural disasters in the 21st century and caused massive damages and vast disruptions in Western China. Our analysis takes a special look into the Wolong National Nature Reserve bear the epicenter, where long-term quantitative and qualitative data on socioeconomic and natural conditions have been collected from late 1990s to 2013. The Reserve is known internationally as the hometown of Giant Pandas and a tourism hotspot, where around 5000 ethnic minorities (e.g., Tibetan, Qiang) also reside. While the Reserve suffered lower level of immediate damages and mortalities relative to several nearby areas, the reconstruction and recovery process in the Reserve have been much slower, mainly due to recurrent flush floods, landslides, and debris flow that took place in every summer since 2008. The suddenly increased frequency and intensity of these secondary natural disasters has led to the formation of compound disaster in the Reserve. The reconstruction of the only road to outside will not be completed till at least 2016, and the livelihoods of the local communities are severely compromised, which has induced a resurrection of illegal logging and hunting in the Reserve. Taking advantage of our longitudinal survey data of~200 local households (on their income, expenditure, energy use, land use behaviors, and perceptions and attitudes toward disasters and polices) over a nine-year period before as well as one and several years after the earthquake and also our in-depth knowledge on the ecology and the institutional arrangements in the area, we conducted, in an interdisciplinary and comprehensive manner, a critical cause analysis to investigate the non-human and human drivers behind the predicament that the Reserve is facing currently. We identified a series of proximate and root causes at various spatial and temporal scales and institutional levels. The results were exchanged with various local stakeholders and their feedback was collected. Our case contribute to the expanding examples of forensic disaster investigations and prove that such studies can provide important insights into how fewer people may be adversely impacted and wiser investments and choices may be made when comparable events take place somewhere else.

  12. Forensic Engineering

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The National Academy of Forensic Engineers (1) provides a short definition of forensic engineering as: "the application of the art and science of engineering in matters which are in, or may possibly relate to the jurisprudence system, inclusive of alternative dispute resolution." Specialty areas in forensic engineering include fire investigation, industrial accidents, product liability, traffic accidents, civil engineering and transportation disasters, and environmental systems failures. For example, forensic engineers investigate structural collapses, such as the 2004 Paris Airport collapse described in this article from the Institution of Structural Engineers (2) This website from Materials Evaluation and Engineering, Inc. (3) points out that materials engineering is useful in product failure analysis because many products fail due to materials problems. Given the role forensic engineers play in legal disputes, research in forensic engineering is also a topic on this engineering ethics website (4). Forensic-Evidence.com (5 ) offers The Forensic Center Newsletter, which aims "to stimulate interdisciplinary efforts and research that unite, explore, and advance knowledge in the broad areas of law, medicine, and forensic sciences." This website from the Engineering Forensics Research Institute provides some examples of current research in forensic engineering (6). Finally, Glendale High School offers this Civil Structures Module (7) as a resource for teaching about topics related to forensic engineering, using the 1981 Kansas City Hyatt Regency walkway collapse as an example for analysis.

  13. Forensic dental identification in mass disasters: the current status.

    PubMed

    Wood, James D

    2014-06-01

    Dentists continue to play a valuable role in the identification of victims in a mass disaster. Individuals and multidisciplinary teams are available to assist authorities in the process. Training, experience and advances in technology continue to improve the efficiency of the identification process. PMID:25080762

  14. Forensic analysis of explosions: Inverse calculation of the charge mass.

    PubMed

    van der Voort, M M; van Wees, R M M; Brouwer, S D; van der Jagt-Deutekom, M J; Verreault, J

    2015-07-01

    Forensic analysis of explosions consists of determining the point of origin, the explosive substance involved, and the charge mass. Within the EU FP7 project Hyperion, TNO developed the Inverse Explosion Analysis (TNO-IEA) tool to estimate the charge mass and point of origin based on observed damage around an explosion. In this paper, inverse models are presented based on two frequently occurring and reliable sources of information: window breakage and building damage. The models have been verified by applying them to the Enschede firework disaster and the Khobar tower attack. Furthermore, a statistical method has been developed to combine the various types of data, in order to determine an overall charge mass distribution. In relatively open environments, like for the Enschede firework disaster, the models generate realistic charge masses that are consistent with values found in forensic literature. The spread predicted by the IEA tool is however larger than presented in the literature for these specific cases. This is also realistic due to the large inherent uncertainties in a forensic analysis. The IEA-models give a reasonable first order estimate of the charge mass in a densely built urban environment, such as for the Khobar tower attack. Due to blast shielding effects which are not taken into account in the IEA tool, this is usually an under prediction. To obtain more accurate predictions, the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations is advised. The TNO IEA tool gives unique possibilities to inversely calculate the TNT equivalent charge mass based on a large variety of explosion effects and observations. The IEA tool enables forensic analysts, also those who are not experts on explosion effects, to perform an analysis with a largely reduced effort. PMID:25933424

  15. Forensic odontology as a victim identification tool in mass disasters: A feasibility study in the Indian scenario

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Shamindra; Sharma, Vandana; Gupta, Vineeta; Vij, Hitesh; Vij, Ruchieka; Prabhat, Kanika

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the awareness of practicing dentists about the subject of forensic odontology and to assess their willingness to maintain and share patient records. Materials and Methods: A blind questionnaire survey was carried out among 100 randomly selected practicing dentists in district Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh. Results: Most of the dentists interviewed were familiar with the subject of forensic odontology and its relation to dentistry, despite forensic dentistry having been newly introduced since 2007 into the undergraduate dental curriculum in India. However, dental records are maintained by only a few dentists, and only a very small percentage of them reported to have shared records, which may have helped in the identification of victims in a mass disaster. Conclusion: The result of our survey concluded that more awareness needs to be developed among practicing dentists regarding maintaining and sharing patient records for forensic odontology to succeed as a victim identification tool. PMID:24695834

  16. Forensic medical lessons learned from the Victorian Bushfire Disaster: recommendations from the Phase 5 debrief.

    PubMed

    Bassed, Richard; Leditschke, Jodie

    2011-02-25

    The February 7th 2009 bushfires in Victoria, Australia, resulted in the deaths of 173 individuals, of whom 164 were included in the subsequent DVI operation. The final stage of the International DVI protocol is a debrief, referred to as Phase 5. The Phase 5 operational debrief process conducted in the wake of this disaster was designed for the purpose of developing new strategies in light of this experience. The agencies involved included the Coroners Court of Victoria, the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine, the Department of Justice, and Victoria Police. During the course of this debriefing process strategies and protocols were developed which aim to improve the capacity of all agencies to respond and resolve future incidents. This paper outlines the Phase 5 debrief carried out in the 6 months following the final coronial identification board, and details the findings and recommendations made by the agencies involved. PMID:20650575

  17. VALIDATION GUIDELINES FOR LABORATORIES PERFORMING FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL TERRORISM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Scientific Working Group on Forensic Analysis of Chemical Terrorism (SWGFACT) has developed the following guidelines for laboratories engaged in the forensic analysis of chemical evidence associated with terrorism. This document provides a baseline framework and guidance for...

  18. BLOCK SIZE FORENSIC ANALYSIS IN DIGITAL IMAGES Steven Tjoa

    E-print Network

    Liu, K. J. Ray

    BLOCK SIZE FORENSIC ANALYSIS IN DIGITAL IMAGES Steven Tjoa , W. Sabrina Lin , H. Vicky Zhao , and K@ece.ualberta.ca. To even begin forensic analysis for digital images, we must first address the presence of block processing, University of Alberta ­ Edmonton, AB TG6 2V4 Canada ABSTRACT In non-intrusive forensic analysis, we wish

  19. Forensic Analysis of BIOS Chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershteyn, Pavel; Davis, Mark; Shenoi, Sujeet

    Data can be hidden in BIOS chips without hindering computer performance. This feature has been exploited by virus writers and computer game enthusiasts. Unused BIOS storage can also be used by criminals, terrorists and intelligence agents to conceal secrets. However, BIOS chips are largely ignored in digital forensic investigations. Few techniques exist for imaging BIOS chips and no tools are available specifically for analyzing BIOS data.

  20. Knowledge discovery and experience modeling in computer forensics media analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Chris Bogen; David A. Dampier

    2004-01-01

    This paper is presented to identify research goals for the modeling of experiences, lessons learned, and knowledge discovered during the analysis of digital evidence in a forensic investigation. Additionally this paper suggests how such models might be used to facilitate automated computer forensics media analysis tools. The scope of this paper, with respect to computer forensics, is limited to the

  1. DNA Profiling Technologies in Forensic Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. K. Kashyap; P. Chattopadhyay; R. Trivedi

    2004-01-01

    KEYWORDS Forensic analysis; DNA profiling; RFLP; STRs; SNPs ABSTRACT The remarkable advances in DNA technologies over the past two decades have had an enormous impact on human identification, medical diagnosis, population genetics, understanding of evolution of species, wildlife management, characterization and unfolding the mysteries of antiquity of archaic specimens. This article presents an overview of the current technologies in the

  2. Computer Forensic Analysis in a Virtual Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derek Bem; Ewa Huebner

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the potential role of virtual environments in the analysis phase of computer forensics investigations. General concepts of virtual environments and software tools are presented and discussed. Further we identify the limitations of virtual environments leading to the conclusion that this method can not be considered to be a replacement for conventional techniques of computer evidence

  3. Models for regionalizing economic data and their applications within the scope of forensic disaster analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Hanns-Maximilian; Wiens, rer. pol. Marcus, , Dr.; Schultmann, rer. pol. Frank, Prof. _., Dr.

    2015-04-01

    The impact of natural hazards on the economic system can be observed in many different regions all over the world. Once the local economic structure is hit by an event direct costs instantly occur. However, the disturbance on a local level (e.g. parts of city or industries along a river bank) might also cause monetary damages in other, indirectly affected sectors. If the impact of an event is strong, these damages are likely to cascade and spread even on an international scale (e.g. the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull and its impact on the automotive sector in Europe). In order to determine these special impacts, one has to gain insights into the directly hit economic structure before being able to calculate these side effects. Especially, regarding the development of a model used for near real-time forensic disaster analyses any simulation needs to be based on data that is rapidly available or easily to be computed. Therefore, we investigated commonly used or recently discussed methodologies for regionalizing economic data. Surprisingly, even for German federal states there is no official input-output data available that can be used, although it might provide detailed figures concerning economic interrelations between different industry sectors. In the case of highly developed countries, such as Germany, we focus on models for regionalizing nationwide input-output table which is usually available at the national statistical offices. However, when it comes to developing countries (e.g. South-East Asia) the data quality and availability is usually much poorer. In this case, other sources need to be found for the proper assessment of regional economic performance. We developed an indicator-based model that can fill this gap because of its flexibility regarding the level of aggregation and the composability of different input parameters. Our poster presentation brings up a literature review and a summary on potential models that seem to be useful for this specific task. Moreover, some sample data from our own applications for developed and developing countries are shown. The use of the different methodologies for the calculation of indirect losses in the field of forensic disaster analyses is also to be discussed. Finally, we give an outlook on the further utilization of these models aiming for the simulation of indirect losses.

  4. Careers in Forensics: Analysis, Evidence, and Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torpey, Elka Maria

    2009-01-01

    In legal proceedings, a case is only as strong as its evidence. And whether that evidence is strong depends, in large part, on the work of forensic specialists. The field of forensics is broad and involves many kinds of workers. Some of them are involved in crimesolving. Others, such as forensic social workers or forensic economists, help to…

  5. Historical development of expertise in forensic chemical analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Vycudilik

    2000-01-01

    The history of forensic chemical analysis shows a development from the mere quotation of a concentration value to an expert\\u000a opinion which helps to explain manifold circumstances of the case under consideration. The development of forensic expertises\\u000a on chemical problems connected to forensic medicine reveals two essential stages: 1. A period, when sensual perceptions were\\u000a the only means of investigation

  6. Disasters

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Whether caused by acts of nature, human error or even malevolence, disasters are an increasingly costly threat. The National Science Foundation works with the Administration and other federal agencies in a coordinated effort to anticipate disasters and minimize their effects. Research projects provide information on understanding the causes and predicting natural disasters, disaster preparation in the form of stronger buildings, infrastructure and cybersecurity, and disaster response.

  7. A second generation computer forensic analysis system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Ayers

    2009-01-01

    The architecture of existing – first generation – computer forensic tools, including the widely used EnCase and FTK products, is rapidly becoming outdated. Tools are not keeping pace with increased complexity and data volumes of modern investigations. This paper discuses the limitations of first generation computer forensic tools. Several metrics for measuring the efficacy and performance of computer forensic tools

  8. Transcriptomic analysis of degraded forensic body fluids.

    PubMed

    Lin, Meng-Han; Jones, Daniel F; Fleming, Rachel

    2015-07-01

    Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) has facilitated a significant increase in transcriptomic studies in all biological disciplines. However, the analysis of degraded RNA remains a genuine challenge in practice. In forensic science the biological samples encountered are often extensively degraded and of low abundance. RNA from these compromised samples is used for body fluid identification through the detection of body fluid-specific transcripts. Here we demonstrate the sequencing of four forensically relevant body fluids: oral mucosa/saliva (buccal), circulatory blood, menstrual blood and vaginal fluid. RNA was extracted from fresh, two and six week aged samples. Despite the extensive degradation of most body fluids, significant high quality sequencing output (>80% sequence above Q30) was generated. An average of over 80% of reads from all but one sample aligned successfully to the reference human genome. Furthermore, FPKMs (fragments per kilobase of exon per million fragments mapped) generated indicate the accurate detection of known body fluid markers in respective body fluids. Assessment of global gene expression levels over degradation time enabled the characterisation of differential RNA degradation in different body fluids. This study demonstrates the practical application of MPS technology for the accurate analysis of degraded RNA from minimal samples. PMID:25797141

  9. Luminescence analysis for radiological and nuclear forensic application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nigel A. Spooner; Barnaby W. Smith

    2008-01-01

    This paper briefly discusses recombination luminescence and its use in forensic radiation dosimetry. Recombination luminescence techniques offer a new capability for radiological forensic analysis of sites and vehicles previously cleared of isotopic contamination, enabling the determination of the prior presence of radioactive materials. This key ability, to provide radiation exposure data after the ionising radiation sources and radioisotopes have been

  10. Uses of software in digital image analysis: a forensic report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Mukesh; Jha, Shailendra

    2010-02-01

    Forensic image analysis is required an expertise to interpret the content of an image or the image itself in legal matters. Major sub-disciplines of forensic image analysis with law enforcement applications include photo-grammetry, photographic comparison, content analysis and image authentication. It has wide applications in forensic science range from documenting crime scenes to enhancing faint or indistinct patterns such as partial fingerprints. The process of forensic image analysis can involve several different tasks, regardless of the type of image analysis performed. Through this paper authors have tried to explain these tasks, which are described in to three categories: Image Compression, Image Enhancement & Restoration and Measurement Extraction. With the help of examples like signature comparison, counterfeit currency comparison and foot-wear sole impression using the software Canvas and Corel Draw.

  11. Forensic Learning Disability Nursing Role Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Tom; Phipps, Dianne; Melling, Kat

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a study carried out on the role constructs of forensic and nonforensic Learning Disability Nursing in relation to six binary themes. The aims were to identify if there were differences in perceptions of forensic learning disability nurses and nonforensic learning disability nurses in relation to the six binary themes of the…

  12. Development under extreme conditions: forensic bioinformatics in the wake of the World Trade Center disaster.

    PubMed

    Cash, Howard D; Hoyle, Jonathan W; Sutton, Amy J

    2003-01-01

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 resulted in death and devastation in three locations, and extraordinary efforts have been exerted to identify the remains of all victims. As mass fatalities go, this one has been unusual at a policy level because the goal has been not merely to identify remains for every decedent, but to identify every bit of remains found so that even small pieces of tissue can be returned to families for burial. While the human impact at the Pentagon and Shanksville, PA was horrific, the World Trade Center site presented a particularly complex challenge for forensic DNA matching and data handling. A complete and definitive list of all those killed is still elusive, and human remains were crushed and co-mingled by the falling towers. Software tools had never been considered for a problem of this scale and scope. New data handling systems had to be created under extreme software development conditions characterized by incomplete requirements specifications, chaotically changing priorities, truly impossible deadlines and rapidly rolling production releases. Partly because of the company's experience with mtDNA tools built for the Armed Forces DNA Identification Lab starting in 1997, the New York City Office of Chief Medical Examiner [OCME] contacted Gene Codes Corporation in late September as existing data-handling tools began to fail. We began work on the project in mid-October, 2001. Our approach to the problem included: Extreme Programming [XP] methodology for functional software development, On-site time and motion analysis at the OCME for user interface design, Evidentiary references between STR, SNP and mtDNA analysis results, and Separate data Quality Control [QC] and software Quality Assurance [QA] initiatives. A substantial software suite was developed called M-FISys, an acronym for Mass-Fatality Identification System. PMID:12603064

  13. Recent advances in forensic drug analysis by DART-MS.

    PubMed

    Lesiak, Ashton D; Shepard, Jason Re

    2014-03-01

    Mass spectrometry methods play a major role in many forensic applications. While gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods are commonly used in crime laboratories and enforcement agencies, a variety of advanced techniques are now available that can improve upon standard methods and address emerging issues in forensic science. New mass spectrometry technologies include more versatile ionization sources, allowing the next generation of instrumentation to be more multipurpose and adaptable to the needs of the discipline. Direct analysis in real-time mass spectrometry is an ambient ionization method that allows direct testing of gas, liquid and solid samples without the need for any preparation or extraction, based on thermal desorption and ionization directly from the sample surface. This Review will provide an in-depth description of direct analysis in real-time time-of-flight mass spectrometry as applied to samples relevant to forensic science, with a focus on analysis and characterization related to forensic drug chemistry. PMID:24702113

  14. Hyperspectral imaging for non-contact analysis of forensic traces.

    PubMed

    Edelman, G J; Gaston, E; van Leeuwen, T G; Cullen, P J; Aalders, M C G

    2012-11-30

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) integrates conventional imaging and spectroscopy, to obtain both spatial and spectral information from a specimen. This technique enables investigators to analyze the chemical composition of traces and simultaneously visualize their spatial distribution. HSI offers significant potential for the detection, visualization, identification and age estimation of forensic traces. The rapid, non-destructive and non-contact features of HSI mark its suitability as an analytical tool for forensic science. This paper provides an overview of the principles, instrumentation and analytical techniques involved in hyperspectral imaging. We describe recent advances in HSI technology motivating forensic science applications, e.g. the development of portable and fast image acquisition systems. Reported forensic science applications are reviewed. Challenges are addressed, such as the analysis of traces on backgrounds encountered in casework, concluded by a summary of possible future applications. PMID:23088824

  15. The future of forensic DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Butler, John M

    2015-08-01

    The author's thoughts and opinions on where the field of forensic DNA testing is headed for the next decade are provided in the context of where the field has come over the past 30 years. Similar to the Olympic motto of 'faster, higher, stronger', forensic DNA protocols can be expected to become more rapid and sensitive and provide stronger investigative potential. New short tandem repeat (STR) loci have expanded the core set of genetic markers used for human identification in Europe and the USA. Rapid DNA testing is on the verge of enabling new applications. Next-generation sequencing has the potential to provide greater depth of coverage for information on STR alleles. Familial DNA searching has expanded capabilities of DNA databases in parts of the world where it is allowed. Challenges and opportunities that will impact the future of forensic DNA are explored including the need for education and training to improve interpretation of complex DNA profiles. PMID:26101278

  16. QUALITY ASSURANCE GUIDELINES FOR LABORATORIES PERFORMING FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL TERRORISM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Scientific Working Group on Forensic Analysis of Chemical Terrorism (SWGFACT) has developed the following quality assurance guidelines to provide laboratories engaged in forensic analysis of chemical evidence associated with terrorism a framework to implement a quality assura...

  17. Development of nanomaterials for SALDI-MS analysis in forensics.

    PubMed

    Lim, Angelina Yimei; Ma, Jan; Boey, Yin Chiang Freddy

    2012-08-01

    Within the last decade, the escalation of research output in the field of nanotechnology has spurred the development of new nanomaterials for use as assisting agents in surface assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS). Specifically modified nanomaterials, coupled with mass spectrometry, have improved the detection sensitivity, specificity, flexibility and reproducibility of SALDI-MS analysis. The technological advancement of LDI-MS has in turn, propelled the use of the analytical technique in the field of forensics. In this report, the various roles and applications of metal-, silicon- and carbon-based nanostructured materials as SALDI matrices in the analysis of forensic samples are described. The advantages of SALDI-MS as an analytical tool for forensic sample analysis are also discussed. PMID:23030036

  18. Forensic Analysis of the Windows 7 Registry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khawla Abdulla Alghafli; Andrew Jones; Thomas Anthony Martin

    2010-01-01

    The recovery of digital evidence of crimes from storage media is an increasingly time consuming process as the capacity of the storage media is in a state of constant growth. It is also a difficult and complex task for the forensic investigator to analyse all of the locations in the storage media. These two factors, when combined, may result in

  19. Towards Automating Analysis in Computer Forensics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bastian Schwittay

    Abstract In the recent past, the number of attacks on computer systems that are moti- vated by profit has increased significantly, and such “cybercrime” is expected to dominate the threat landscape in the future. With criminal acts becoming more common in computer related incidents, the need for Computer Forensic experts to provide admissible evidence for these crimes also rises. Since

  20. Y-SNP-genotyping - a new approach in forensic analysis.

    PubMed

    Lessig, R; Zoledziewska, M; Fahr, K; Edelmann, J; Kostrzewa, M; Dobosz, T; Kleemann, W J

    2005-11-25

    Y-chromosomal DNA polymorphisms, especially Y-STRs are well established in forensic routine case work. The STRs are used for identification in paternity deficiency cases and stain analysis with complicate mixtures of male and female DNA. In contrast, Y-chromosomal SNPs are a new tool in forensic investigations. At present, Y-SNPs are mainly used in molecular anthropology for evolutionary studies. Nevertheless, these markers could also provide very useful information for the analysis of forensic cases. The aim of the presented study was to test Y-SNP-typing for stain analyses using different methods-SNaPshot and MALDI-TOF MS. Both methods are based on the principle of minisequencing. The selected Y-SNP markers are suited to define the most important European haplogroups. PMID:16182959

  1. Rapid Disaster Analysis based on SAR Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C. H.; Soergel, U.

    2015-03-01

    Due to all-day and all-weather capability spaceborne SAR is a valuable means for rapid mapping during and after disaster. In this paper, three change detection techniques based on SAR data are discussed: (1) initial coarse change detection, (2) flooded area detection, and (3) linear-feature change detection. The 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami is used as case study, where earthquake and tsunami events provide a complex case for this study. In (1), pre- and post-event TerraSAR-X images are coregistered accurately to produce a false-color image. Such image provides a quick and rough overview of potential changes, which is useful for initial decision making and identifies areas worthwhile to be analysed further in more depth. In (2), the post-event TerraSAR-X image is used to extract the flooded area by morphological approaches. In (3), we are interested in detecting changes of linear shape as indicator for modified man-made objects. Morphological approaches, e.g. thresholding, simply extract pixel-based changes in the difference image. However, in this manner many irrelevant changes are highlighted, too (e.g., farming activity, speckle). In this study, Curvelet filtering is applied in the difference image not only to suppress false alarms but also to enhance the change signals of linear-feature form (e.g. buildings) in settlements. Afterwards, thresholding is conducted to extract linear-shaped changed areas. These three techniques mentioned above are designed to be simple and applicable in timely disaster analysis. They are all validated by comparing with the change map produced by Center for Satellite Based Crisis Information, DLR.

  2. Exemplifying Attack Identification and Analysis in a Novel Forensically Viable Syslog Model

    E-print Network

    Erbacher, Robert F.

    that will validate and authenticate syslogs for computer forensic analysis. Syslogs are often smoking guns [9 of course the syslog files can be made to be legally admissible. Computer forensics, a relatively new fieldExemplifying Attack Identification and Analysis in a Novel Forensically Viable Syslog Model Steena

  3. A visual tool for forensic analysis of mobile phone traffic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salvatore Amato Catanese; Giacomo Fiumara

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present our tool LogAnalysis for forensic visual statistical analysis of mobile phone traffic. LogAnalysis graphically represents the relationships among mobile phone users with a node-link layout. Its aim is to explore the structure of a large graph, measure connectivity among users and give support to visual search and automatic identification of organizations. To do so, LogAnalysis

  4. FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF EXPLOSIVE RESIDUES FROM HAND SWABS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Umi K. Ahmad; Sumathy Rajendran; Syahidah Abu Hassan

    In the forensic examination of physical evidence for organic explosives, cotton swabs are often used to collect residue from surfaces, such as skin and post-blast debris. A preliminary study has been conducted to develop extraction method of a common energetic compound, pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) from hand swabs followed by direct analysis of the resulting extract solution using high-performance liquid chromatography

  5. A Graph Oriented Approach for Network Forensic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Network forensic analysis is a process that analyzes intrusion evidence captured from networked environment to identify suspicious entities and stepwise actions in an attack scenario. Unfortunately, the overwhelming amount and low quality of output from security sensors make it difficult for analysts to obtain a succinct high-level view of complex…

  6. SUPER-RESOLUTION VIDEO ANALYSIS FOR FORENSIC INVESTIGATIONS

    E-print Network

    Stehr, Mark-Oliver

    Chapter 20 SUPER-RESOLUTION VIDEO ANALYSIS FOR FORENSIC INVESTIGATIONS Ashish Gehani and John Reif Abstract Super-resolution algorithms typically improve the resolution of a video frame by mapping-resolution video evidence they produce could be challenged on the grounds that it incorporates data or artifacts

  7. SUPER-RESOLUTION VIDEO ANALYSIS FOR FORENSIC INVESTIGATIONS

    E-print Network

    Reif, John H.

    Chapter 15 SUPER-RESOLUTION VIDEO ANALYSIS FOR FORENSIC INVESTIGATIONS Ashish Gehani and John Reif Abstract Super-resolution algorithms typically improve the resolution of a video frame by mapping-resolution video evidence they produce could be challenged on the grounds that it incorporates data or artifacts

  8. Forensic document analysis using scanning microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaffer, Douglas K.

    2009-05-01

    The authentication and identification of the source of a printed document(s) can be important in forensic investigations involving a wide range of fraudulent materials, including counterfeit currency, travel and identity documents, business and personal checks, money orders, prescription labels, travelers checks, medical records, financial documents and threatening correspondence. The physical and chemical characterization of document materials - including paper, writing inks and printed media - is becoming increasingly relevant for law enforcement agencies, with the availability of a wide variety of sophisticated commercial printers and copiers which are capable of producing fraudulent documents of extremely high print quality, rendering these difficult to distinguish from genuine documents. This paper describes various applications and analytical methodologies using scanning electron miscoscopy/energy dispersive (x-ray) spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and related technologies for the characterization of fraudulent documents, and illustrates how their morphological and chemical profiles can be compared to (1) authenticate and (2) link forensic documents with a common source(s) in their production history.

  9. Storm surge disaster grade evaluation based on principal component analysis in China coast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wang Guo-dong; Kang Jian-cheng; Yan Guo-dong

    2010-01-01

    According to the disasters datas of 33 typhoon storm surge from 2001 to 2008,the methods of principal component analysis was used to storm surge disasters grade evaluation, and developed the classification method of storm surge disaster grade.It is verified that principal component analysis is a scientific and reliable method for storm surge disaster evaluation by various means, such as data

  10. Raman spectroscopy for forensic analysis of inks in questioned documents.

    PubMed

    Braz, André; López-López, Maria; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2013-10-10

    The methods for perpetrating forgery and alteration of documents are becoming increasingly more sophisticated. Forensic examinations of questioned documents routinely involve physical and chemical analysis of inks. Raman spectroscopy is a very attractive technique for ink analysis because it combines chemical selectivity with ease and fast analysis and it does not require sample preparation nor leads to destruction of the evidence. However, some limitations of this technique include low sensitivity and the overwhelming phenomenon of fluorescence, which can be solved by resonance Raman spectroscopy and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. This article aims to demonstrate the great potential of the Raman-based techniques by providing an overview of their application to forensic examinations of ink evidence from pens and printers. Moreover, it is also addressed the chemistry of ink-paper interactions and the problematic of intersecting lines. PMID:24053882

  11. Towards an integrated e-mail forensic analysis framework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachid Hadjidj; Mourad Debbabi; Hakim Lounis; Farkhund Iqbal; Adam Szporer; Djamel Benredjem

    2009-01-01

    Due to its simple and inherently vulnerable nature, e-mail communication is abused for numerous illegitimate purposes. E-mail spamming, phishing, drug trafficking, cyber bullying, racial vilification, child pornography, and sexual harassment are some common e-mail mediated cyber crimes. Presently, there is no adequate proactive mechanism for securing e-mail systems. In this context, forensic analysis plays a major role by examining suspected

  12. A Cybercrime Forensic Method for Chinese Web Information Authorship Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianbin Ma; Guifa Teng; Yuxin Zhang; Yueli Li; Ying Li

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing popularization of the Internet, Internet services used as illegal purposes have become a serious problem.\\u000a How to prevent these phenomena from happening has become a major concern for society. In this paper, a cybercrime forensic\\u000a method for Chinese illegal web information authorship analysis was described. Various writing-style features including linguistic\\u000a features and structural features were extracted. To

  13. Forensic Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Suzanne

    2009-07-01

    Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is incorporating a broader spectrum of chemical sciences. Existing forensic practices are being revisited as the purview of forensic chemistry extends outward from drug analysis and toxicology into such diverse areas as combustion chemistry, materials science, and pattern evidence.

  14. Thermogravimetric analysis as a polymer identification technique in forensic applications.

    PubMed

    Ihms, Elihu C; Brinkman, Dennis W

    2004-05-01

    This paper investigates the potential of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) as a tool for determination of different species of polymers. Materials analyzed include polyvinyl chloride (PVC), chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC), polystyrene, polypropylene, nitriles, and nylon. Analyses showed excellent discriminating results even when samples were contaminated with silicates, organics, moisture, and char. The techniques developed were designed with a forensic-type analysis in mind, such as analysis of blast fragments and arson debris. Techniques were developed that gave satisfactory results even when sample sizes were less than five milligrams. PMID:15171167

  15. Defining a Process Model for Forensic Analysis of Digital Devices and Storage Media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael W. Andrew

    2007-01-01

    There are three components of the overall digital forensic process defined by current industry standards; acquisition, preservation, and analysis. This paper explores defining a model for the analysis phase that will address legal and technical concerns surrounding the forensic analysis process

  16. Forensic Analysis Demonstration via Hawaii Five-O

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shmaefsky, Brian R.

    2006-01-01

    "Forensics," in its most universal sense, is defined as the use of science or technology in the investigation and establishment of facts or evidence for determining identity or relatedness. Most forensic reasoning is used for arguing legal matters. However, forensic studies are also used in agronomy, biology, chemistry, geology, and physics to…

  17. Developing open geographic data model and analysis tools for disaster management: landslide case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydinoglu, A. C.; Bilgin, M. S.

    2014-10-01

    Disaster Management aims to reduce catastrophic losses of disasters as landslide. Geographic information technologies support disaster management activities for effective and collaborative data management considering complex nature of disasters. Thus, this study aims to develop interoperable geographic data model and analysis tools to manage geographic data coming from different sources. For landslide disaster, 39 scenario-based activities were analyzed with required data according to user needs in a cycle of activities at mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery phases. Interoperable geographic data model for disaster management (ADYS), enabling up-to-date exchange of geographic data, was designed compliant with standards of ISO/TC211 Geographic Information/Geomatics, Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), and Turkey National GIS (TUCBS). Open source and free analysis toolbox was developed and tested in case study of the activities such as landslide hazard analysis and disaster warning system to support Provincial Disaster Management Centers of Turkey.

  18. An intelligent crowdsourcing system for forensic analysis of surveillance video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahboub, Khalid; Gadgil, Neeraj; Ribera, Javier; Delgado, Blanca; Delp, Edward J.

    2015-03-01

    Video surveillance systems are of a great value for public safety. With an exponential increase in the number of cameras, videos obtained from surveillance systems are often archived for forensic purposes. Many automatic methods have been proposed to do video analytics such as anomaly detection and human activity recognition. However, such methods face significant challenges due to object occlusions, shadows and scene illumination changes. In recent years, crowdsourcing has become an effective tool that utilizes human intelligence to perform tasks that are challenging for machines. In this paper, we present an intelligent crowdsourcing system for forensic analysis of surveillance video that includes the video recorded as a part of search and rescue missions and large-scale investigation tasks. We describe a method to enhance crowdsourcing by incorporating human detection, re-identification and tracking. At the core of our system, we use a hierarchal pyramid model to distinguish the crowd members based on their ability, experience and performance record. Our proposed system operates in an autonomous fashion and produces a final output of the crowdsourcing analysis consisting of a set of video segments detailing the events of interest as one storyline.

  19. Visible and near-infrared chemical imaging methods for the analysis of selected forensic samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gemma Payne; Christie Wallace; Brian Reedy; Chris Lennard; Rebecca Schuler; David Exline; Claude Roux

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated various chemical imaging methods for the forensic analysis of paints, tapes and adhesives, inks and firearm propellants (absorption and photoluminescence in the UV–vis–NIR regions). Results obtained using chemical imaging technology were compared with those obtained using traditional techniques. The results show that chemical imaging offers significant advantages in the forensic context, for example the ability to display

  20. Application Layer Information Forensics Based on Packet Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruining Guo; Tianjie Cao; Xuan Luo

    2010-01-01

    The work presented in this paper focuses on acquiring the original illegal information hidden in the network data traffic, to provide reliable digital evidence for the network crime cases. Directing toward the data transmission based on Web service, the paper designed a total-part type forensics modal, and implemented a passive network forensics system under the windows system. The technology and

  1. Genetic analysis of fingernail debris: application to forensic casework

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Fernández-Rodr??guez; M. J Iturralde; L Fernández de Simón; J Capilla; M Sancho

    2003-01-01

    DNA typing of fingernail debris in cases in which a struggle is suspected can be a relevant issue in forensic casework. In this study, we analyzed 106 samples of fingernail material from 40 forensic cases. A mixture of the victim and the offender was found in eight samples from the victims' fingernails in six different criminal cases, allowing the identification

  2. Favorite Demonstration: Forensic Analysis Demonstration via Hawaii Five-O

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brian R. Shmaefsky

    2006-09-01

    The interdisciplinary nature of a forensics-based demonstration encourages science majors to move beyond their own narrow fields of study. The demonstration described in this column emphasizes the interconnectedness of biology, chemistry, and geology. Forensic-based demonstrations such as this can also be used to introduce the protocols governing the application of discipline specific information to other fields of study.

  3. The future of computer forensics: a needs analysis survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcus K. Rogers; Kate Seigfried

    2004-01-01

    The current study was a pilot study and attempted to add to the growing body of knowledge regarding inherent issues in computer forensics. The study consisted of an Internet based survey that asked respondents to identify the top five issues in computer forensics. 60 respondents answered the survey using a free form text field. The results indicated that education\\/training and

  4. FATKit: A framework for the extraction and analysis of digital forensic data from volatile system memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nick L. Petroni Jr.; Aaron Walters; Timothy Fraser; William A. Arbaugh

    2006-01-01

    We present the Forensic Analysis ToolKit (FATKit)-a modular, extensible framework that increases the practical applicability of volatile memory forensic analysis by freeing human analysts from the prohibitively-tedious aspects of low-level data extraction. FATKit allows analysts to focus on higher- level tasks by providing novel methods for automatically deriving digital object definitions from C source code, extracting those objects from memory

  5. Development of a novel forensic STR multiplex for ancestry analysis and extended identity testing.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Chris; Fernandez-Formoso, Luis; Gelabert-Besada, Miguel; Garcia-Magariños, Manuel; Santos, Carla; Fondevila, Manuel; Carracedo, Angel; Lareu, Maria Victoria

    2013-04-01

    There is growing interest in developing additional DNA typing techniques to provide better investigative leads in forensic analysis. These include inference of genetic ancestry and prediction of common physical characteristics of DNA donors. To date, forensic ancestry analysis has centered on population-divergent SNPs but these binary loci cannot reliably detect DNA mixtures, common in forensic samples. Furthermore, STR genotypes, forming the principal DNA profiling system, are not routinely combined with forensic SNPs to strengthen frequency data available for ancestry inference. We report development of a 12-STR multiplex composed of ancestry informative marker STRs (AIM-STRs) selected from 434 tetranucleotide repeat loci. We adapted our online Bayesian classifier for AIM-SNPs: Snipper, to handle multiallele STR data using frequency-based training sets. We assessed the ability of the 12-plex AIM-STRs to differentiate CEPH Human Genome Diversity Panel populations, plus their informativeness combined with established forensic STRs and AIM-SNPs. We found combining STRs and SNPs improves the success rate of ancestry assignments while providing a reliable mixture detection system lacking from SNP analysis alone. As the 12 STRs generally show a broad range of alleles in all populations, they provide highly informative supplementary STRs for extended relationship testing and identification of missing persons with incomplete reference pedigrees. Lastly, mixed marker approaches (combining STRs with binary loci) for simple ancestry inference tests beyond forensic analysis bring advantages and we discuss the genotyping options available. PMID:23400880

  6. Rapid Disaster Analysis based on Remote Sensing: A Case Study about the Tohoku Tsunami Disaster 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C. H.; Soergel, U.; Lanaras, Ch.; Baltsavias, E.; Cho, K.; Remondino, F.; Wakabayashi, H.

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we present first results of RAPIDMAP, a project funded by European Union in a framework aiming to foster the cooperation of European countries with Japan in R&D. The main objective of RAPIDMAP is to construct a Decision Support System (DSS) based on remote sensing data and WebGIS technologies, where users can easily access real-time information assisting with disaster analysis. In this paper, we present a case study of the Tohoku Tsunami Disaster 2011. We address two approaches namely change detection based on SAR data and co-registration of optical and SAR satellite images. With respect to SAR data, our efforts are subdivided into three parts: (1) initial coarse change detection for entire area, (2) flood area detection, and (3) linearfeature change detection. The investigations are based on pre- and post-event TerraSAR-X images. In (1), two pre- and post-event TerraSAR-X images are accurately co-registered and radiometrically calibrated. Data are fused in a false-color image that provides a quick and rough overview of potential changes, which is useful for initial decision making and identifying areas worthwhile to be analysed further in more depth. However, a bunch of inevitable false alarms appear within the scene caused by speckle, temporal decorrelation, co-registration inaccuracy and so on. In (2), the post-event TerraSAR-X data are used to extract the flood area by using thresholding and morphological approaches. The validated result indicates that using SAR data combining with suitable morphological approaches is a quick and effective way to detect flood area. Except for usage of SAR data, the false-color image composed of optical images are also used to detect flood area for further exploration in this part. In (3), Curvelet filtering is applied in the difference image of pre- and post-event TerraSAR-X images not only to suppress false alarms of irregular-features, but also to enhance the change signals of linear-features (e.g. buildings) in settlements. Afterwards, thresholding is exploited to extract the linear-feature changes. In rapid mapping of disasters various sensors are often employed, including optical and SAR, since they provide complementary information. Such data needs to be analyzed in an integrated fashion and the results from each dataset should be integrated in a GIS with a common coordinate reference system. Thus, if no orthoimages can be generated, the images should be co-registered employing matching of common features. We present results of co-registration between optical (FORMOSAT-2) and TerraSAR-X images based on different matching methods, and also techniques for detecting and eliminating matching errors.

  7. Forensic palynological analysis of intestinal contents of a korean mummy.

    PubMed

    Arguelles, Paulette; Reinhard, Karl; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2015-06-01

    Experimental studies show that pollen resides in the intestinal tract for a minimum of seven days to at least 21 days. Because of this long residence time, pollen analysis is an important avenue of forensic research. Pollen provides evidence of the environment of the decedent as well as foods and medicine. We analyzed a coprolite recovered from a Korean mummy. The decedent was a high-ranking general who lived during the 16th or17th centuries. Twenty pollen types were recovered. These ranged from 100s to 10,000s of pollen grains per gram of coprolite. Importantly, comparison of the coprolite pollen spectrum to modern aeropalynology studies of Korea suggests that the general died in winter between middle November to late February. Economic pollen types were most abundant. Economic refers to dietary, medicinal, spice, and beverage types. Dietary pollen types include pollen from Oryza (rice), Eriogonum (buckwheat), Brassicaceae (mustard family), and Solanaceae (tomato-chile pepper family). Pollen consistent with dandelion is present and may represent its use as food. Tens of thousands of grains from water plants, bur-reed or cattail, dominate the pollen spectrum. We believe that this was introduced with water. The large numbers of water-related pollen suggest that the general consumed broth, tea, or soup for a considerable time before death. Anat Rec, 298:1182-1190, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25998651

  8. Automated Analysis for Digital Forensic Science: Semantic Integrity Checking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tye Stallard; Karl N. Levitt

    2003-01-01

    When computer security violations are detected, com- puter forensic analysts attempting to determine the relevant causes and effects are forced to perform the tedious tasks of finding and preserving useful clues in large networks of op- erational machines. To augment a computer crime investi- gator's efforts, the approach presented in this paper is an expert system with a decision tree

  9. Paint Analysis Using Visible Reflectance Spectroscopy: An Undergraduate Forensic Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Erin M.; Beussman, Douglas J.

    2007-01-01

    The study of forensic science is found throughout undergraduate programs in growing numbers, both as stand-alone courses as well as specific examples within existing courses. Part of the driving force for this trend is the ability to apply common chemistry techniques to everyday situations, all couched in the context of a mystery that must be…

  10. The Gender Analysis Tools Applied in Natural Disasters Management: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Sohrabizadeh, Sanaz; Tourani, Sogand; Khankeh, Hamid Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although natural disasters have caused considerable damages around the world, and gender analysis can improve community disaster preparedness or mitigation, there is little research about the gendered analytical tools and methods in communities exposed to natural disasters and hazards. These tools evaluate gender vulnerability and capacity in pre-disaster and post-disaster phases of the disaster management cycle. Objectives: Identifying the analytical gender tools and the strengths and limitations of them as well as determining gender analysis studies which had emphasized on the importance of using gender analysis in disasters. Methods: The literature search was conducted in June 2013 using PubMed, Web of Sciences, ProQuest Research Library, World Health Organization Library, Gender and Disaster Network (GDN) archive. All articles, guidelines, fact sheets and other materials that provided an analytical framework for a gender analysis approach in disasters were included and the non-English documents as well as gender studies of non-disasters area were excluded. Analysis of the included studies was done separately by descriptive and thematic analyses. Results: A total of 207 documents were retrieved, of which only nine references were included. Of these, 45% were in form of checklist, 33% case study report, and the remaining 22% were article. All selected papers were published within the period 1994-2012. Conclusions: A focus on women’s vulnerability in the related research and the lack of valid and reliable gender analysis tools were considerable issues identified by the literature review. Although non-English literatures with English abstract were included in the study, the possible exclusion of non-English ones was found as the limitation of this study. PMID:24678441

  11. [Significance of mitochondrial DNA for forensic stain analysis, identification and forensic lineage determination].

    PubMed

    Lutz, S; Weisser, H J; Meier, V; Amberg, R

    2000-01-01

    DNA testing using conventional STR systems may produce insufficient results, if the genomic DNA in the specimen is either highly degraded or the available quantity is very small (e.g. skin particles, hair shafts or ancient bones). In some of these cases the examination of mitochondrial DNA, which is present in considerably larger copy numbers in the cytoplasm, is more successful than that of nuclear DNA. Identification of unknown corpses by conventional DNA typing sometimes remains doubtful, if only samples from presumably distant relatives or putative brothers or sisters are available for comparison. Since mitochondrial DNA is generally transmitted in maternal lineages, its sequence pattern can be directly compared with those of other individuals and, in case of the same maternal lineage, corresponding sequence chromatograms are to be expected. In connection with nuclear DNA typing methods certain sequence motives may furnish clues to ethnic groups. The report presents three cases illustrating the application possibilities of mtDNA typing in forensic practice. PMID:11006826

  12. Disaster medicine: genealogy of a concept.

    PubMed

    Stehrenberger, Cécile Stephanie; Goltermann, Svenja

    2014-11-01

    This paper evaluates disaster medicine from a historical perspective that facilitates the understanding of its present. Today, disaster medicine and humanitarian medicine are inextricably linked and the terms are sometimes used synonymously. An in-depth analysis of an extensive body of concrete empirical cases from various sources (i.e. archival records) reveals, however, that they have not always been the same. A genealogical, history-of-knowledge approach demonstrates that the concept of disaster medicine emerged in the early 20th century in Switzerland in the context of industrialization. Even though it gained important impetus during the First World War, the concept was informed by the experiences of forensic physicians in technological disasters such as mining explosions. The Cold War constituted the historical constellation in which disaster medicine was developed in West Germany during the 1960s and 1970s in a way that was paradigmatic for other Western European countries. At the same time, it was contested there in an unusual, historically unique way. Although focusing on a Western European context, this paper explores how medical interventions in disasters were international events and how the practice of disaster medicine was developed and "trained" through being applied in the Global South. It demonstrates the historicity of disaster medicine's political character and of the controversies generated by its involvement in civil and military operations. Throughout the 20th century, the political nature and military involvement of disaster medicine resulted in a number of ethical and practical issues, which are similar to the challenges facing humanitarian medicine today. The exploration of disaster medicine's past can therefore open up critical interventions in humanitarian medicine's present. PMID:24862174

  13. Validation of a Framework for Measuring Hospital Disaster Resilience Using Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Shuang; Clark, Michele; Hou, Xiang-Yu; Zang, Yuli; FitzGerald, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Hospital disaster resilience can be defined as “the ability of hospitals to resist, absorb, and respond to the shock of disasters while maintaining and surging essential health services, and then to recover to its original state or adapt to a new one.” This article aims to provide a framework which can be used to comprehensively measure hospital disaster resilience. An evaluation framework for assessing hospital resilience was initially proposed through a systematic literature review and Modified-Delphi consultation. Eight key domains were identified: hospital safety, command, communication and cooperation system, disaster plan, resource stockpile, staff capability, disaster training and drills, emergency services and surge capability, and recovery and adaptation. The data for this study were collected from 41 tertiary hospitals in Shandong Province in China, using a specially designed questionnaire. Factor analysis was conducted to determine the underpinning structure of the framework. It identified a four-factor structure of hospital resilience, namely, emergency medical response capability (F1), disaster management mechanisms (F2), hospital infrastructural safety (F3), and disaster resources (F4). These factors displayed good internal consistency. The overall level of hospital disaster resilience (F) was calculated using the scoring model: F = 0.615F1 + 0.202F2 + 0.103F3 + 0.080F4. This validated framework provides a new way to operationalise the concept of hospital resilience, and it is also a foundation for the further development of the measurement instrument in future studies. PMID:24945190

  14. Forensic genetic analysis of nine miniSTR loci in the Korean population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Myun Soo Han; Yang Seop Kim; Han Jun Jin; Jong Jin Kim; Kyoung Don Kwak; Jong Eun Lee; Joon Myong Song; Wook Kim

    2009-01-01

    Nine miniSTR loci were analyzed in 191 unrelated individuals from Korea using three multiplex PCR systems (multiplex I: D1S1677, D2S441 and D4S2364; multiplex II: D10S1248, D14S1434 and D22S1045; multiplex III: D12S391, D16S3253 and D20S161). Due to the short PCR amplicons (<145bp), miniSTR systems can effectively be used in forensic analysis with highly degraded DNAs. Allele frequencies and forensic parameters were

  15. FORENSIC ANALYSIS AND SOURCE PARTITIONING OF ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBON CONTAMINATION IN LAKE MARUIT AQUATIC SEDIMENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TAREK A. KASSIM

    Investigations of natural and\\/or engineered environmental systems require achieving a comprehensive characterization and identification of contaminants of concern. The differentiation of contaminant molecular markers (MMs) that originate from various sources is difficult when simply based only on their chemical compositions. Thus, a comprehensive forensic analysis coupled with source partitioning modeling is needed for characterizing contaminant compositions, predicting their possible transport,

  16. Nondestructive forensic analysis of antique stamps by use of synchrotron radiation infrared spectromicroscopy

    E-print Network

    Nondestructive forensic analysis of antique stamps by use of synchrotron radiation infrared" stamps. This series of stamps was printed and issued over 25 years by a single source, but were printed-analytical methods are subjective, more art than science, and may affect the rarity and price of the stamps

  17. Comparative Analysis of the Variability of Facial Landmarks for Forensics Using CCTV Images

    E-print Network

    Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

    Comparative Analysis of the Variability of Facial Landmarks for Forensics Using CCTV Images Ruben images acquired from CCTV images. This type of images presents a very low quality and a large range from CCTV cameras and other low quality sources, which make the task really difficult. Many different

  18. GC-MS Analysis of [gamma]-Hydroxybutyric Acid Analogs: A Forensic Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henck, Colin; Nally, Luke

    2007-01-01

    An upper-division forensic chemistry experiment is described. It involves using glycolic acid and sodium glycolate as analogs of [gamma]-hydroxybutyric acid and its sodium salt. The experiment shows the use of silylation in GC-MS analysis and gives students the opportunity to work with a commonly used silylating reagent,…

  19. Breaking the Performance Wall: The Case for Distributed Digital Forensics

    E-print Network

    Richard III, Golden G.

    Breaking the Performance Wall: The Case for Distributed Digital Forensics Vassil Roussev Golden G soon completely overwhelm digital forensics investigators attempting investigations using a single the level of sophistication of digital forensics analysis be- cause single forensics workstations

  20. Climate Change, Disaster and Sentiment Analysis over Social Media Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; McCusker, J. P.; McGuinness, D. L.

    2012-12-01

    Accelerated climate change causes disasters and disrupts people living all over the globe. Disruptive climate events are often reflected in expressed sentiments of the people affected. Monitoring changes in these sentiments during and after disasters can reveal relationships between climate change and mental health. We developed a semantic web tool that uses linked data principles and semantic web technologies to integrate data from multiple sources and analyze them together. We are converting statistical data on climate change and disaster records obtained from the World Bank data catalog and the International Disaster Database into a Resource Description Framework (RDF) representation that was annotated with the RDF Data Cube vocabulary. We compare these data with a dataset of tweets that mention terms from the Emotion Ontology to get a sense of how disasters can impact the affected populations. This dataset is being gathered using an infrastructure we developed that extracts term uses in Twitter with controlled vocabularies. This data was also converted to RDF structure so that statistical data on the climate change and disasters is analyzed together with sentiment data. To visualize and explore relationship of the multiple data across the dimensions of time and location, we use the qb.js framework. We are using this approach to investigate the social and emotional impact of climate change. We hope that this will demonstrate the use of social media data as a valuable source of understanding on global climate change.

  1. Advances in X-Ray Chemical Analysis, Japan, 45 (2014) ISSN 0911-7806 Role of Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy in the Forensic Analysis of

    E-print Network

    Jun, Kawai

    2014-01-01

    Advances in X-Ray Chemical Analysis, Japan, 45 (2014) ISSN 0911-7806 © Role of Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy in the Forensic Analysis of Wakayama Curry Arsenic Poisoning Case Anthony T. TU and Jun KAWAI #12 80523, U. S. A. 606-8501 Role of Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy in the Forensic Analysis of Wakayama

  2. Neutron activation analysis of dental metals with regard to forensic odontology (dental identification)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Rötzscher; S. Mende; J. Flachowsky; M. Geisler; H.-J. Wehran

    1973-01-01

    In cases of complicated identifications the neutron activation analysis of dental metals may inform more than usual descriptions\\u000a of the teeth including X-rays. Identifications would become more effective in the field of forensic stomatology by adding\\u000a “pilot” elements into the alloys of dental metals by the factories. The neutron activation analysis of dental metals from\\u000a Halsbrücke (GDR) are discussed and

  3. Forensic trace DNA: a review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    DNA analysis is frequently used to acquire information from biological material to aid enquiries associated with criminal offences, disaster victim identification and missing persons investigations. As the relevance and value of DNA profiling to forensic investigations has increased, so too has the desire to generate this information from smaller amounts of DNA. Trace DNA samples may be defined as any sample which falls below recommended thresholds at any stage of the analysis, from sample detection through to profile interpretation, and can not be defined by a precise picogram amount. Here we review aspects associated with the collection, DNA extraction, amplification, profiling and interpretation of trace DNA samples. Contamination and transfer issues are also briefly discussed within the context of trace DNA analysis. Whilst several methodological changes have facilitated profiling from trace samples in recent years it is also clear that many opportunities exist for further improvements. PMID:21122102

  4. Signature Based Detection of User Events for Post-mortem Forensic Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Joshua Isaac; Gladyshev, Pavel; Zhu, Yuandong

    This paper introduces a novel approach to user event reconstruction by showing the practicality of generating and implementing signature-based analysis methods to reconstruct high-level user actions from a collection of low-level traces found during a post-mortem forensic analysis of a system. Traditional forensic analysis and the inferences an investigator normally makes when given digital evidence, are examined. It is then demonstrated that this natural process of inferring high-level events from low-level traces may be encoded using signature-matching techniques. Simple signatures using the defined method are created and applied for three popular Windows-based programs as a proof of concept.

  5. A relative vulnerability estimation of flood disaster using data envelopment analysis in the Dongting Lake region of Hunan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.-H.; Li, N.; Wu, L.-C.; Hu, A.-J.

    2013-07-01

    The vulnerability to flood disaster is addressed by a number of studies. It is of great importance to analyze the vulnerability of different regions and various periods to enable the government to make policies for distributing relief funds and help the regions to improve their capabilities against disasters, yet a recognized paradigm for such studies seems missing. Vulnerability is defined and evaluated through either physical or economic-ecological perspectives depending on the field of the researcher concerned. The vulnerability, however, is the core of both systems as it entails systematic descriptions of flood severities or disaster management units. The research mentioned often has a development perspective, and in this article we decompose the overall flood system into several factors: disaster driver, disaster environment, disaster bearer, and disaster intensity, and take the interaction mechanism among all factors as an indispensable function. The conditions of flood disaster components are demonstrated with disaster driver risk level, disaster environment stability level and disaster bearer sensitivity, respectively. The flood system vulnerability is expressed as vulnerability = f(risk, stability, sensitivity). Based on the theory, data envelopment analysis method (DEA) is used to detail the relative vulnerability's spatiotemporal variation of a flood disaster system and its components in the Dongting Lake region. The study finds that although a flood disaster system's relative vulnerability is closely associated with its components' conditions, the flood system and its components have a different vulnerability level. The overall vulnerability is not the aggregation of its components' vulnerability. On a spatial scale, zones central and adjacent to Dongting Lake and/or river zones are characterized with very high vulnerability. Zones with low and very low vulnerability are mainly distributed in the periphery of the Dongting Lake region. On a temporal scale, the occurrence of a vibrating flood vulnerability trend is observed. A different picture is displayed with the disaster driver risk level, disaster environment stability level and disaster bearer sensitivity level. The flood relative vulnerability estimation method based on DEA is characteristic of good comparability, which takes the relative efficiency of disaster system input-output into account, and portrays a very diverse but consistent picture with varying time steps. Therefore, among different spatial and time domains, we could compare the disaster situations with what was reflected by the same disaster. Additionally, the method overcomes the subjectivity of a comprehensive flood index caused by using an a priori weighting system, which exists in disaster vulnerability estimation of current disasters.

  6. Iranian nurses’ experience of essential technical competences in disaster response: A qualitative content analysis study

    PubMed Central

    Aliakbari, Fatemeh; Bahrami, Masoud; Aein, Fereshteh; Khankeh, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Today disasters are a part of many people's lives. Iran has a long history of disaster events and nurses are one of the most significant groups within the Iranian disaster relief operations, providing immediate and long-term care for those affected by the disaster. However, the technical competence of Iranian nurses and their training for this work has received little attention. This article presents the results of a study that aims to explore this context. Materials and Methods: A qualitative study was conducted using in-depth interviews to collect data from 30 nurses, who were deliberately selected from the health centers affiliated to the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Themes were identified using the conventional qualitative content analysis. The trustworthiness of the study was supported by considering the auditability, neutrality, consistency, and transferability. The study lasted from 2011 to 2012. Results: Data analysis undertaken for the qualitative study resulted in the identification of five main themes, which included: (1) Management competences, (2) ethical and legal competences, (3) team working, and (4) personal abilities and the specific technical competences presented in this report. Conclusions: This report presents an overview of the nursing technical capabilities required for Iranian nurses during disaster relief. It is argued that additional competencies are required for nurses who care in high-risk situations, including disasters. Nurses need to prepare themselves more effectively to be responsible and effective in nursing care. PMID:25558255

  7. Loveparade 2010: Automatic video analysis of a crowd disaster

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Krausz; Christian Bauckhage

    On July 24, 2010, 21 people died and more than 500 were injured in a stampede at the Loveparade, a music festival, in Duisburg, Germany. Although this tragic incident is but one among many terrible crowd disasters that occur during pilgrimage, sports events, or other mass gatherings, it stands out for it has been well documented: there were a total

  8. Near-Real-Time Analysis of Publicly Communicated Disaster Response Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, Trevor

    2015-04-01

    During a disaster situation the public will need to make critical actions regarding what to do, where to go, how to get there, and so on. The more informed the public is, the better actions they are able to make, resulting in reduced disaster impacts. The criteria for what information to provide the public needs to change depending on the specific needs of the disaster affected population. The method of dissemination also needs to match the communication channels that the public typically uses in disaster situations. This research project investigates the dynamic information needs of disaster affected populations and how information leads to actions. The purpose of the research project is to identify key indicators for measuring how well informed the public is during disasters. The indicators are limited to those which can be observed as communication is happening (i.e., in near-real-time). By doing so, the indicators can be analyzed as disaster situations unfold, deficiencies can be identified, and recommendations can be made to potentially improve communication while the response is still underway. The end goal of the research is to improve the ability of communicators to inform disaster affected communities. A classification scheme has been developed to categorize the information provided to the public during disasters. Under each category is a set of typical questions that the information should answer. These questions are the result of a best observed practice review of the information available during 11 disasters. For example, under the category 'Life Saving Response', the questions which should be answered are who is doing what (Evacuation, SAR), where and when, and the amount of the affected communities' needs being covered by these actions. Review of what questions remain unanswered acts as the first indicator, referred to as an 'Information Gap Analysis'. Comparative analysis of the information within categories, between categories, and between similar disasters allows for further indicators to be observed in near-real-time. Other indicators include: timing of information provision; appropriate emphasis on most critical information; appropriate terminology; appropriate information medium; appropriate comparison to past events, and; guidance regarding what to do.

  9. Genetic analysis of sudden cardiac death victims: a survey of current forensic autopsy practices.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Katarzyna; Mangin, Patrice; Elger, Bernice S

    2011-05-01

    Autopsy-negative sudden cardiac deaths (SCD) seen in forensic practice are most often thought to be the result of sudden arrhythmic death syndrome. Postmortem genetic analysis is recommended in such cases, but is currently performed in only a few academic centers. In order to determine actual current practice, an on-line questionnaire was sent by e-mail to members of various forensic medical associations. The questions addressed routine procedures employed in cases of sudden cardiac death (autopsy ordering, macroscopic and microscopic cardiac examination, conduction tissue examination, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy, biochemical markers, sampling and storage of material for genetic analyses, toxicological analyses, and molecular autopsy). Some questions concerned the legal and ethical aspects of genetic analyses in postmortem examinations, as well as any existing multidisciplinary collaborations in SCD cases. There were 97 respondents, mostly from European countries. Genetic testing in cases of sudden cardiac death is rarely practiced in routine forensic investigation. Approximately 60% of respondents reported not having the means to perform genetic postmortem testing and 40% do not collect adequate material to perform these investigations at a later date, despite working at university hospitals. The survey demonstrated that many of the problems involved in the adequate investigation of SCD cases are often financial in origin, due to the fact that activities in forensic medicine are often paid by and dependent on the judicial authorities. Problems also exist concerning the contact with family members and/or the family doctor, as well as the often-nonexistent collaboration with others clinicians with special expertise beneficial in the investigation of SCD cases, such as cardiologists and geneticists. This study highlights the importance in establishing guidelines for molecular autopsies in forensic medicine. PMID:20535491

  10. Forensic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brettell, T. A.; Saferstein, R.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a review of articles appealing to forensic practitioners. Topics include: drugs and poisons, forensic biochemistry, and trace evidence. Lists noteworthy books published on forensic science topics since 1986. (MVL)

  11. Real-Time Earthquake Analysis for Disaster Mitigation (READI) Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Real-time GNSS networks are making a significant impact on our ability to forecast, assess, and mitigate the effects of geological hazards. I describe the activities of the Real-time Earthquake Analysis for Disaster Mitigation (READI) working group. The group leverages 600+ real-time GPS stations in western North America operated by UNAVCO (PBO network), Central Washington University (PANGA), US Geological Survey & Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SCIGN project), UC Berkeley & US Geological Survey (BARD network), and the Pacific Geosciences Centre (WCDA project). Our goal is to demonstrate an earthquake and tsunami early warning system for western North America. Rapid response is particularly important for those coastal communities that are in the near-source region of large earthquakes and may have only minutes of warning time, and who today are not adequately covered by existing seismic and basin-wide ocean-buoy monitoring systems. The READI working group is performing comparisons of independent real time analyses of 1 Hz GPS data for station displacements and is participating in government-sponsored earthquake and tsunami exercises in the Western U.S. I describe a prototype seismogeodetic system using a cluster of southern California stations that includes GNSS tracking and collocation with MEMS accelerometers for real-time estimation of seismic velocity and displacement waveforms, which has advantages for improved earthquake early warning and tsunami forecasts compared to seismic-only or GPS-only methods. The READI working group's ultimate goal is to participate in an Indo-Pacific Tsunami early warning system that utilizes GNSS real-time displacements and ionospheric measurements along with seismic, near-shore buoys and ocean-bottom pressure sensors, where available, to rapidly estimate magnitude and finite fault slip models for large earthquakes, and then forecast tsunami source, energy scale, geographic extent, inundation and runup. This will require cooperation with other real-time efforts around the Pacific Rim in terms of sharing, analysis centers, and advisory bulletins to the responsible government agencies. The IAG's Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS), in particular its natural hazards theme, provides a natural umbrella for achieving this objective.

  12. Identification of forensically important blowfly species (Diptera: Calliphoridae) by high-resolution melting PCR analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tadeusz Malewski; Agnieszka Draber-Mo?ko; Jan Pomorski; Marta ?o?; Wies?aw Bogdanowicz

    2010-01-01

    We describe here the successful coupling of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis\\u000a to rapidly identify 15 forensically important species of blowfly from the family Calliphoridae (Diptera), which occur in Poland.\\u000a Two short regions (119 and 70 base pairs, respectively) of cytochrome oxidase gene subunit I with sufficient sequence diversity\\u000a were selected. In the case of

  13. Identifying 1st instar larvae for three forensically important blowfly species using "fingerprint" cuticular hydrocarbon analysis.

    PubMed

    Moore, Hannah E; Adam, Craig D; Drijfhout, Falko P

    2014-07-01

    Calliphoridae are known to be the most forensically important insects when it comes to establishing the minimum post mortem interval (PMImin) in criminal investigations. The first step in calculating the PMImin is to identify the larvae present to species level. Accurate identification which is conventionally carried out by morphological analysis is crucial because different insects have different life stage timings. Rapid identification in the immature larvae stages would drastically cut time in criminal investigations as it would eliminate the need to rear larvae to adult flies to determine the species. Cuticular hydrocarbon analysis on 1st instar larvae has been applied to three forensically important blowflies; Lucilia sericata, Calliphora vicina and Calliphora vomitoria, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and principal component analysis (PCA). The results show that each species holds a distinct "fingerprint" hydrocarbon profile, allowing for accurate identification to be established in 1-day old larvae, when it can be challenging to apply morphological criteria. Consequently, this GC-MS based technique could accelerate and strengthen the identification process, not only for forensically important species, but also for other entomological samples which are hard to identify using morphological features. PMID:24815992

  14. Application of mass spectrometry to hair analysis for forensic toxicological investigations.

    PubMed

    Vincenti, Marco; Salomone, Alberto; Gerace, Enrico; Pirro, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    The increasing role of hair analysis in forensic toxicological investigations principally owes to recent improvements of mass spectrometric instrumentation. Research achievements during the last 6 years in this distinctive application area of analytical toxicology are reviewed. The earlier state of the art of hair analysis was comprehensively covered by a dedicated book (Kintz, 2007a. Analytical and practical aspects of drug testing in hair. Boca Raton: CRC Press and Taylor & Francis, 382 p) that represents key reference of the present overview. Whereas the traditional organization of analytical methods in forensic toxicology divided target substances into quite homogeneous groups of drugs, with similar structures and chemical properties, the current approach often takes advantage of the rapid expansion of multiclass and multiresidue analytical procedures; the latter is made possible by the fast operation and extreme sensitivity of modern mass spectrometers. This change in the strategy of toxicological analysis is reflected in the presentation of the recent literature material, which is mostly based on a fit-for-purpose logic. Thus, general screening of unknown substances is applied in diverse forensic contexts than drugs of abuse testing, and different instrumentation (triple quadrupoles, time-of-flight analyzers, linear and orbital traps) is utilized to optimally cope with the scope. Other key issues of modern toxicology, such as cost reduction and high sample throughput, are discussed with reference to procedural and instrumental alternatives. PMID:23165962

  15. Blood species identification for forensic purposes using Raman spectroscopy combined with advanced statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Virkler, Kelly; Lednev, Igor K

    2009-09-15

    Forensic analysis has become one of the most growing areas of analytical chemistry in recent years. The ability to determine the species of origin of a body fluid sample is a very important and crucial part of a forensic investigation. We introduce here a new technique which utilizes a modern analytical method based on the combination of Raman spectroscopy and advanced statistics to analyze the composition of blood traces from different species. Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy (NIR) was used to analyze multiple dry samples of human, canine, and feline blood for the ultimate application to forensic species identification. All of the spectra were combined into a single data matrix, and the number of principle components that described the system was determined using multiple statistical methods such as significant factor analysis (SFA), principle component analysis (PCA), and several cross-validation methods. Of the six principle components that were determined to be present, the first three, which contributed over 90% to the spectral data of the system, were used to form a three-dimensional scores plot that clearly showed significant separation between the three groups of species. Ellipsoids representing a 99% confidence interval surrounding each species group showed no overlap. This technique using Raman spectroscopy is nondestructive and quick and can potentially be performed at the scene of a crime. PMID:19670872

  16. Computational Nuclear Forensics Analysis of Weapons-grade Plutonium Separated from Fuel Irradiated in a Thermal Reactor 

    E-print Network

    Coles, Taylor Marie

    2014-04-27

    COMPUTATIONAL NUCLEAR FORENSICS ANALYSIS OF WEAPONS-GRADE PLUTONIUM SEPARATED FROM FUEL IRRADIATED IN A THERMAL REACTOR A Thesis by TAYLOR MARIE COLES Submitted to the Office of Graduate and Professional Studies of Texas A&M University... would include the Pu isotopes, uranium residue isotopics, fission product traces, and elemental contaminants from chemical processes. This information would aid in nuclear forensics activities aimed at attributing intercepted pre-detonation plutonium...

  17. Forensic radiology in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Manigandan, T; Sumathy, C; Elumalai, M; Sathasivasubramanian, S; Kannan, A

    2015-04-01

    Radiography can play an important part in forensic odontology, mainly to establish identification. This may take the precise form of comparison between antemortem and postmortem radiographs. Radiographs may also be taken to determine the age of a minor victim and even help in the assessment of the sex and ethnic group. Comparable radiographs are an essential factor to confirm identification in a mass disaster. PMID:26015728

  18. Forensic radiology in dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Manigandan, T.; Sumathy, C.; Elumalai, M.; Sathasivasubramanian, S.; Kannan, A.

    2015-01-01

    Radiography can play an important part in forensic odontology, mainly to establish identification. This may take the precise form of comparison between antemortem and postmortem radiographs. Radiographs may also be taken to determine the age of a minor victim and even help in the assessment of the sex and ethnic group. Comparable radiographs are an essential factor to confirm identification in a mass disaster. PMID:26015728

  19. Assessment of high resolution melting analysis as a potential SNP genotyping technique in forensic casework.

    PubMed

    Venables, Samantha J; Mehta, Bhavik; Daniel, Runa; Walsh, Simon J; van Oorschot, Roland A H; McNevin, Dennis

    2014-11-01

    High resolution melting (HRM) analysis is a simple, cost effective, closed tube SNP genotyping technique with high throughput potential. The effectiveness of HRM for forensic SNP genotyping was assessed with five commercially available HRM kits evaluated on the ViiA™ 7 Real Time PCR instrument. Four kits performed satisfactorily against forensically relevant criteria. One was further assessed to determine the sensitivity, reproducibility, and accuracy of HRM SNP genotyping. The manufacturer's protocol using 0.5 ng input DNA and 45 PCR cycles produced accurate and reproducible results for 17 of the 19 SNPs examined. Problematic SNPs had GC rich flanking regions which introduced additional melting domains into the melting curve (rs1800407) or included homozygotes that were difficult to distinguish reliably (rs16891982; a G to C SNP). A proof of concept multiplexing experiment revealed that multiplexing a small number of SNPs may be possible after further investigation. HRM enables genotyping of a number of SNPs in a large number of samples without extensive optimization. However, it requires more genomic DNA as template in comparison to SNaPshot®. Furthermore, suitably modifying pre-existing forensic intelligence SNP panels for HRM analysis may pose difficulties due to the properties of some SNPs. PMID:25142205

  20. Comparative analysis of LWR and FBR spent fuels for nuclear forensics evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Permana, Sidik; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Su'ud, Zaki

    2012-06-01

    Some interesting issues are attributed to nuclide compositions of spent fuels from thermal reactors as well as fast reactors such as a potential to reuse as recycled fuel, and a possible capability to be manage as a fuel for destructive devices. In addition, analysis on nuclear forensics which is related to spent fuel compositions becomes one of the interesting topics to evaluate the origin and the composition of spent fuels from the spent fuel foot-prints. Spent fuel compositions of different fuel types give some typical spent fuel foot prints and can be estimated the origin of source of those spent fuel compositions. Some technics or methods have been developing based on some science and technological capability including experimental and modeling or theoretical aspects of analyses. Some foot-print of nuclear forensics will identify the typical information of spent fuel compositions such as enrichment information, burnup or irradiation time, reactor types as well as the cooling time which is related to the age of spent fuels. This paper intends to evaluate the typical spent fuel compositions of light water (LWR) and fast breeder reactors (FBR) from the view point of some foot prints of nuclear forensics. An established depletion code of ORIGEN is adopted to analyze LWR spent fuel (SF) for several burnup constants and decay times. For analyzing some spent fuel compositions of FBR, some coupling codes such as SLAROM code, JOINT and CITATION codes including JFS-3-J-3.2R as nuclear data library have been adopted. Enriched U-235 fuel composition of oxide type is used for fresh fuel of LWR and a mixed oxide fuel (MOX) for FBR fresh fuel. Those MOX fuels of FBR come from the spent fuels of LWR. Some typical spent fuels from both LWR and FBR will be compared to distinguish some typical foot-prints of SF based on nuclear forensic analysis.

  1. Forensic genetic analysis of nine miniSTR loci in the Korean population.

    PubMed

    Han, Myun Soo; Kim, Yang Seop; Jin, Han Jun; Kim, Jong Jin; Kwak, Kyoung Don; Lee, Jong Eun; Song, Joon Myong; Kim, Wook

    2009-07-01

    Nine miniSTR loci were analyzed in 191 unrelated individuals from Korea using three multiplex PCR systems (multiplex I: D1S1677, D2S441 and D4S2364; multiplex II: D10S1248, D14S1434 and D22S1045; multiplex III: D12S391, D16S3253 and D20S161). Due to the short PCR amplicons (< 145 bp), miniSTR systems can effectively be used in forensic analysis with highly degraded DNAs. Allele frequencies and forensic parameters were calculated to evaluate their usefulness in forensic casework. The Exact Test demonstrated that all loci surveyed here were found to be no deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, except two miniSTR markers (D4S2364 and D16S3253). When we compared the distribution of genetic variation of six miniSTR markers (D1S1677, D2S441, D4S2364, D10S1248, D14S1434 and D22S1045), the Exact Test revealed significant differences (P < 0.05) between the Korean sample studied here and almost all of other samples of East Asian and European populations. The combined probability of match calculated from nine miniSTR loci was 1.28 x 10(-8), which is high degree of polymorphism. Thus, the miniSTR system, combined with other valuable miniSTR markers, may be suitable for recovering useful information in analyzing degraded DNA samples. PMID:19423379

  2. Frequency Spectrum Method-Based Stress Analysis for Oil Pipelines in Earthquake Disaster Areas

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaonan; Lu, Hongfang; Huang, Kun; Wu, Shijuan; Qiao, Weibiao

    2015-01-01

    When a long distance oil pipeline crosses an earthquake disaster area, inertial force and strong ground motion can cause the pipeline stress to exceed the failure limit, resulting in bending and deformation failure. To date, researchers have performed limited safety analyses of oil pipelines in earthquake disaster areas that include stress analysis. Therefore, using the spectrum method and theory of one-dimensional beam units, CAESAR II is used to perform a dynamic earthquake analysis for an oil pipeline in the XX earthquake disaster area. This software is used to determine if the displacement and stress of the pipeline meet the standards when subjected to a strong earthquake. After performing the numerical analysis, the primary seismic action axial, longitudinal and horizontal displacement directions and the critical section of the pipeline can be located. Feasible project enhancement suggestions based on the analysis results are proposed. The designer is able to utilize this stress analysis method to perform an ultimate design for an oil pipeline in earthquake disaster areas; therefore, improving the safe operation of the pipeline. PMID:25692790

  3. A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Stance in Disaster News Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Lian; Stevenson, Marie

    2013-01-01

    This study examines stance in cross-cultural media discourse by comparing disaster news reports on the Sichuan earthquake of May 2008 in a Chinese, an Australian Chinese, and an Australian newspaper. The stance taken in the news reports is examined using the Attitude sub-system of Martin and White's (2005) Appraisal framework. The analysis

  4. Digital forensics research: The next 10 years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simson L. Garfinkel

    2010-01-01

    Today’s Golden Age of computer forensics is quickly coming to an end. Without a clear strategy for enabling research efforts that build upon one another, forensic research will fall behind the market, tools will become increasingly obsolete, and law enforcement, military and other users of computer forensics products will be unable to rely on the results of forensic analysis. This

  5. The Engagement of Academic Institutions in Community Disaster Response: A Comparative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dunlop, Anne L.; Logue, Kristi M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Using comparative analysis, we examined the factors that influence the engagement of academic institutions in community disaster response. Methods We identified colleges and universities located in counties affected by four Federal Emergency Management Agency-declared disasters (Kentucky ice storms, Hurricanes Ike and Gustav, California wildfires, and the Columbia space shuttle disintegration) and performed key informant interviews with officials from public health, emergency management, and academic institutions in those counties. We used a comparative case study approach to explore particular resources provided by academic institutions, processes for engagement, and reasons for engagement or lack thereof in the community disaster response. Results Academic institutions contribute a broad range of resources to community disaster response. Their involvement and the extent of their engagement is variable and influenced by (1) their resources, (2) preexisting relationships with public health and emergency management organizations, (3) the structure and organizational placement of the school's disaster planning and response office, and (4) perceptions of liability and lines of authority. Facilitators of engagement include (1) the availability of faculty expertise or special training programs, (2) academic staff presence on public health and emergency management planning boards, (3) faculty contracts and student practica, (4) incident command system or emergency operations training of academic staff, and (5) the existence of mutual aid or memoranda of agreements. Conclusion While a range of relationships exist between academic institutions that engage with public health and emergency management agencies in community disaster response, recurrent win-win themes include co-appointed faculty and staff; field experience opportunities for students; and shared planning and training for academic, public health, and emergency management personnel. PMID:25355979

  6. The relationship of forensic odontology with various dental specialties in the articles published in the Journal of Forensic odonto-stomatology from 2005 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is a paucity of information about the relationship of forensic odontology with various dental specialties in the articles published in the Journal of Forensic Odonto-Stomatology. This study aimed to find the relationship of forensic odontology with various dental specialties in the articles published in the Journal of Forensic Odonto-Stomatology from 2005 to 2012 over an 8-year period. Methods: Bibliometric analysis was performed using web-based search during December 2013. Results: Out of the total 97 published articles, the maximum number of published articles were related to oral medicine and radiology (20) and community dentistry (20), followed by orthodontics (18), prosthodontics (15), and oral pathology and microbiology (8), pedodontics (7), oral and maxillofacial surgery (4) and conservative dentistry and endodontics (3). Among the articles published in Journal of Forensic Odonto-Stomatology, mass disasters (10) and bite mark analysis (10), followed by sexual dimorphism (8) and dental fraud and malpractice (8), followed by craniofacial superimposition (6) and identification (6) form the major attraction of the contributors. Conclusion: This paper has tried to evaluate the new working classification proposed for forensic odontology based on its relationship with other dental specialties.

  7. Forensic physical memory analysis: an overview of tools and Gabriela Limon Garcia

    E-print Network

    Almulhem, Ahmad

    to react to such threats. Digital forensic science is useful for this purpose since it em- ploys techniques which help to determine the origin of inci- dents such as cyber crimes. Digital Forensics comprehends]. In order to find digital evidence, traditional forensics pro- cedures examine storage devices such as hard

  8. THE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF APPLICATION OF TEETH IN FORENSIC ODONTOLOGY CENTER, TEHRAN, IRAN, 1980-2000

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amir Deebaei; Hadi Fathi Moghaddam; Parivash Delkhosh

    Objective: This retrospective study investigated cases in Tehran Forensic Odontology Center, which have been solved by using teeth as the main proof. Methodology: Two hundred forty eight files in archives of Tehran forensic odonotology center during years 1980 to 2000 were reviewed and the data collected from each file. Results: It shows that only 12 cases (4.8%) used the forensic

  9. VoIP network forensic analysis with digital evidence procedure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I-Long Lin; Yun-Sheng Yen; Bo-Lin Wu; Hsiang-Yu Wang

    2010-01-01

    This paper will discuss how the evildoers use communication technology to commit the crime such as the crime facts and crime techniques. The analysis will be focused on the security of Internet phone and organize a prevention method of Internet phone call attack and the attention points of setting up a Internet phone. At the same time, the importance of

  10. FORENSIC ODONTOLOGY IDENTIFICATION USING SMILE PHOTOGRAPH ANALYSIS - CASE REPORTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. F. Silva; S. D. Pereira; F. B. Prado; E. Daruge

    The identification of unknown human by smile photographs that show specific characteristics of each individual has found wide acceptance all over the world. Therefore this paper shows this situation reporting different cases which smile photograph analysis were crucial to determine the positive identification of unidentified human bodies. All the cases were subjected to personal identification by photographs of smile including

  11. Forensic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, P. G. W.

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes the type of work carried out by forensic chemists and the minimum qualification needed for appointment. Indicates that there are eight Home Office regional forensic science laboratories in addition to the Central Research Establishment at Aldermaston. (CC)

  12. Forensic Chemistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne Bell

    2009-01-01

    Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is

  13. Population studies of 17 equine STR for forensic and phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    van de Goor, L H P; van Haeringen, W A; Lenstra, J A

    2011-12-01

    As a consequence of the close integration of horses into human society, equine DNA analysis has become relevant for forensic purposes. However, the information content of the equine Short Tandem Repeat (STR) loci commonly used for the identification or paternity testing has so far not been fully characterized. Population studies were performed for 17 polymorphic STR loci (AHT4, AHT5, ASB2, ASB17, ASB23, CA425, HMS1, HMS2, HMS3, HMS6, HMS7, HTG4, HTG6, HTG7, HTG10, LEX3 and VHL20) including 8641 horses representing 35 populations. The power of parental exclusion, polymorphic information content, expected and observed heterozygosity and probability of identity were calculated, showing that the set of 17 STRs has sufficient discriminating power for forensic analysis in almost all breeds. We also explored the reliability of individual assignment tests in identifying the correct breeds of origin for unknown samples. The overall proportion of individuals correctly assigned to a population was 97.2%. Finally, we demonstrate the phylogenetic signal of the 17 STR. We found three clusters of related breeds: (i) the cold-blooded draught breeds Haflinger, Dutch draft and Friesian; (ii) the pony breeds Shetland and Miniature horse with the Falabella, Appaloosa and Icelandic; and (iii) The Warmblood riding breeds, together with the hot-blooded Standard-bred, Thoroughbred and Arabian. PMID:22035004

  14. Choice of population database for forensic DNA profile analysis.

    PubMed

    Steele, Christopher D; Balding, David J

    2014-12-01

    When evaluating the weight of evidence (WoE) for an individual to be a contributor to a DNA sample, an allele frequency database is required. The allele frequencies are needed to inform about genotype probabilities for unknown contributors of DNA to the sample. Typically databases are available from several populations, and a common practice is to evaluate the WoE using each available database for each unknown contributor. Often the most conservative WoE (most favourable to the defence) is the one reported to the court. However the number of human populations that could be considered is essentially unlimited and the number of contributors to a sample can be large, making it impractical to perform every possible WoE calculation, particularly for complex crime scene profiles. We propose instead the use of only the database that best matches the ancestry of the queried contributor, together with a substantial FST adjustment. To investigate the degree of conservativeness of this approach, we performed extensive simulations of one- and two-contributor crime scene profiles, in the latter case with, and without, the profile of the second contributor available for the analysis. The genotypes were simulated using five population databases, which were also available for the analysis, and evaluations of WoE using our heuristic rule were compared with several alternative calculations using different databases. Using FST=0.03, we found that our heuristic gave WoE more favourable to the defence than alternative calculations in well over 99% of the comparisons we considered; on average the difference in WoE was just under 0.2 bans (orders of magnitude) per locus. The degree of conservativeness of the heuristic rule can be adjusted through the FST value. We propose the use of this heuristic for DNA profile WoE calculations, due to its ease of implementation, and efficient use of the evidence while allowing a flexible degree of conservativeness. PMID:25498938

  15. Choice of population database for forensic DNA profile analysis

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Christopher D.; Balding, David J.

    2014-01-01

    When evaluating the weight of evidence (WoE) for an individual to be a contributor to a DNA sample, an allele frequency database is required. The allele frequencies are needed to inform about genotype probabilities for unknown contributors of DNA to the sample. Typically databases are available from several populations, and a common practice is to evaluate the WoE using each available database for each unknown contributor. Often the most conservative WoE (most favourable to the defence) is the one reported to the court. However the number of human populations that could be considered is essentially unlimited and the number of contributors to a sample can be large, making it impractical to perform every possible WoE calculation, particularly for complex crime scene profiles. We propose instead the use of only the database that best matches the ancestry of the queried contributor, together with a substantial FST adjustment. To investigate the degree of conservativeness of this approach, we performed extensive simulations of one- and two-contributor crime scene profiles, in the latter case with, and without, the profile of the second contributor available for the analysis. The genotypes were simulated using five population databases, which were also available for the analysis, and evaluations of WoE using our heuristic rule were compared with several alternative calculations using different databases. Using FST = 0.03, we found that our heuristic gave WoE more favourable to the defence than alternative calculations in well over 99% of the comparisons we considered; on average the difference in WoE was just under 0.2 bans (orders of magnitude) per locus. The degree of conservativeness of the heuristic rule can be adjusted through the FST value. We propose the use of this heuristic for DNA profile WoE calculations, due to its ease of implementation, and efficient use of the evidence while allowing a flexible degree of conservativeness. PMID:25498938

  16. Differential Power Analysis as a digital forensic tool.

    PubMed

    Souvignet, T; Frinken, J

    2013-07-10

    Electronic payment fraud is considered a serious international crime by Europol. An important part of this fraud comes from payment card data skimming. This type of fraud consists of an illegal acquisition of payment card details when a user is withdrawing cash at an automated teller machine (ATM) or paying at a point of sale (POS). Modern skimming devices, also known as skimmers, use secure crypto-algorithms (e.g. Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)) to protect skimmed data stored within their memory. In order to provide digital evidence in criminal cases involving skimmers, law enforcement agencies (LEAs) must retrieve the plaintext skimmed data, generally without having knowledge of the secret key. This article proposes an alternative to the current solution at the Bundeskriminalamt (BKA) to reveal the secret key. The proposed solution is non-invasive, based on Power Analysis Attack (PAA). This article first describes the structure and the behaviour of an AES skimmer, followed by the proposal of the full operational PAA process, from power measurements to attack computation. Finally, it presents results obtained in several cases, explaining the latest improvements and providing some ideas for further developments. PMID:23623248

  17. Assessment of palatal rugae pattern and their reproducibility for application in forensic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Divya; Juneja, Achint; Jain, Anshi; Khanna, Kaveri Surya; Pruthi, Neha; Gupta, Amit; Chowdhary, Meenakshi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Rugae are the anatomical folds that are located on the anterior third of palate behind the incisive papillae. They are also known as “Plica palatine,” and the study of these patterns is called palatoscopy. It can be used in various fields such as sex determination, orthodontics and forensic odontology. Objective: To investigate palatal rugae patterns in females and males and to evaluate the stability of these patterns in pre- and post-operative orthodontic cases. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients were selected for this study (25 males and 25 females). From the above sample, 10 males and 10 females had undergone orthodontic treatment and their casts were retrieved for sex determination analysis and stability of rugae patterns pre- and post-treatment. Results: Changes occur in bony structures during fixed orthodontic treatment but rugae patterns remain stable. Kappa stats and Chi square test were used to analyze agreement between the two evaluators, and 95% correct matches were achieved. Conclusion: Palatal rugae are unique to every individual and can be used as an indicator in forensic odontology. PMID:24255558

  18. Forensic analysis of explosives using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS)--discrimination of ammonium nitrate sources.

    PubMed

    Benson, Sarah J; Lennard, Christopher J; Maynard, Philip; Hill, David M; Andrew, Anita S; Roux, Claude

    2009-06-01

    An evaluation was undertaken to determine if isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) could assist in the investigation of complex forensic cases by providing a level of discrimination not achievable utilising traditional forensic techniques. The focus of the research was on ammonium nitrate (AN), a common oxidiser used in improvised explosive mixtures. The potential value of IRMS to attribute Australian AN samples to the manufacturing source was demonstrated through the development of a preliminary AN classification scheme based on nitrogen isotopes. Although the discrimination utilising nitrogen isotopes alone was limited and only relevant to samples from the three Australian manufacturers during the evaluated time period, the classification scheme has potential as an investigative aid. Combining oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope values permitted the differentiation of AN prills from three different Australian manufacturers. Samples from five different overseas sources could be differentiated utilising a combination of the nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen isotope values. Limited differentiation between Australian and overseas prills was achieved for the samples analysed. The comparison of nitrogen isotope values from intact AN prill samples with those from post-blast AN prill residues highlighted that the nitrogen isotopic composition of the prills was not maintained post-blast; hence, limiting the technique to analysis of un-reacted explosive material. PMID:19606584

  19. Binary construct analysis of forensic psychiatric nursing in the UK: high, medium, and low security services.

    PubMed

    Mason, Tom; King, Lisa; Dulson, Julie

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify if differences in perceptions of the role of forensic psychiatric nurses exist across the three levels of secure psychiatric provision: high, medium, and low. Any differences may reflect the type of clinical conditions found in different levels of security provision. An information-gathering schedule containing a validated 7-point Likert scale was distributed to 1200 forensic psychiatric nurses across the UK in 2005. A response rate of 34.6 was achieved, with 122 from high-security, 159 from medium-security, and 135 from low-security services. Differences in perceptions regarding role constructs were found across all three levels, with numerous differences being statistically significant using analysis of variance. The main implications are in relation to the development of skills and competencies, which should target specific clinical conditions in relation to effective interventions, the development of a specialist education and training curriculum focused on treatment outcomes, and the need for further research to draw together theory and practice. Finally, creative policy initiatives should be developed to cross-fertilize the levels of security provision in order that staff may acquire and deliver experiences in high-, medium-, and low-security psychiatric services. PMID:19490233

  20. Inadequate Legal, Regulatory and Technical Guidance for the Forensic Analysis of Cyber-Attacks on Safety-Critical Software

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Chris

    1 Inadequate Legal, Regulatory and Technical Guidance for the Forensic Analysis of Cyber-Attacks of a cyber-attack. It is essential that companies apply these guidelines to increase their resilience with cyber-attacks on safety-critical infrastructures. This is an important omission. It is impossible

  1. Forensic Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, William D; Jackson, Glen P

    2015-07-22

    Developments in forensic mass spectrometry tend to follow, rather than lead, the developments in other disciplines. Examples of techniques having forensic potential born independently of forensic applications include ambient ionization, imaging mass spectrometry, isotope ratio mass spectrometry, portable mass spectrometers, and hyphenated chromatography-mass spectrometry instruments, to name a few. Forensic science has the potential to benefit enormously from developments that are funded by other means, if only the infrastructure and personnel existed to adopt, validate, and implement the new technologies into casework. Perhaps one unique area in which forensic science is at the cutting edge is in the area of chemometrics and the determination of likelihood ratios for the evaluation of the weight of evidence. Such statistical techniques have been developed most extensively for ignitable-liquid residue analyses and isotope ratio analysis. This review attempts to capture the trends, motivating forces, and likely impact of developing areas of forensic mass spectrometry, with the caveat that none of this research is likely to have any real impact in the forensic community unless: (a) The instruments developed are turned into robust black boxes with red and green lights for positives and negatives, respectively, or (b) there are PhD graduates in the workforce who can help adopt these sophisticated techniques. PMID:26070716

  2. High-resolution remote sensing image disaster emergency investigation and analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dongjian Xue; Zhengwei He; Shu Tao

    2011-01-01

    A strong earthquake will cause a large number of residential damage, casualties, severely holding back regional economic development. Rapid extraction of information on disasters is critical to acquire the disaster index and disaster assessment, and emergency rapid response can be effective in reducing seismic disaster losses and casualties. Beijing April 14, 2010,Yushu County, Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Qinghai Province,

  3. Analysis of patients treated during four Disaster Medical Assistance Team deployments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin E. Nufer; Gina Wilson-Ramirez; Mark B. Shah; Christopher E. Hughes; Cameron S. Crandall

    2006-01-01

    To aid disaster planning, a retrospective review of patients seen by New Mexico 1 Disaster Medical Assistance Team (NM-1 DMAT) after four disasters was conducted. Data analyzed included age, gender, past medical history, chief complaint, diagnosis, diagnostic testing, treatment, triage category, disposition, and time to presentation after the disaster. Data were analyzed for differences between patients presenting early vs. late

  4. [The role of the dentist in modern forensic age determination].

    PubMed

    Berndt, Dorothea C; Despotovic, Tatjana; Mund, Michael T; Filippi, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    The increase of international movements has led to a greater demand for forensic age estimation of foreigners without valid identification documents. Age estimation on living individuals is part of asylum and criminal proceedings. Age estimation has become also important within identification of victims, because of the fact of increasing natural disasters and events of terrorism. Therefore dentists are more and more appointed to this job. There are varieties of methods in age estimation. Dental examination and analysis of panoramic x-ray are usually used for dental age estimation. PMID:19066157

  5. The Exploration & Forensic Analysis of Computer Usage Data in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Hatt, William J.; VanBaak, Edward A.; Jimison, Holly B.; Hagler, Stuart; Hayes, Tamara L.; Pavel, Misha; Kaye, Jeffery

    2010-01-01

    Unobtrusive in-home computer monitoring could one day be used to deliver cost-effective diagnostic information about the cognitive abilities of the elderly. This could allow for early detection of cognitive impairment and would additionally be coupled with the cost advantages that are associated with a semi-automated system. Before using the computer usage data to draw conclusions about the participants, we first needed to investigate the nature of the data that was collected. This paper represents a forensics style analysis of the computer usage data that is being collected as part of a larger study of cognitive decline, and focuses on the isolation and removal of non user-generated activities that were recorded by our computer monitoring software (CMS). PMID:19963743

  6. CIS08052: Computer Forensic Investigation Game

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marius Costea; Jill Slay; Ben Turnbull

    Take one part computer forensics analysis software, add one hard drive image disc, a dash of police work, and mix in with an interactive gaming experience and you have Max's Computer Forensics Investigations Game .

  7. Development of a forensically useful age prediction method based on DNA methylation analysis.

    PubMed

    Zbie?-Piekarska, Renata; Spólnicka, Magdalena; Kupiec, Tomasz; Parys-Proszek, Agnieszka; Makowska, ?anetta; Pa?eczka, Anna; Kucharczyk, Krzysztof; P?oski, Rafa?; Branicki, Wojciech

    2015-07-01

    Forensic DNA phenotyping needs to be supplemented with age prediction to become a relevant source of information on human appearance. Recent progress in analysis of the human methylome has enabled selection of multiple candidate loci showing linear correlation with chronological age. Practical application in forensic science depends on successful validation of these potential age predictors. In this study, eight DNA methylation candidate loci were analysed using convenient and reliable pyrosequencing technology. A total number of 41 CpG sites was investigated in 420 samples collected from men and women aged from 2 to 75 years. The study confirmed correlation of all the investigated markers with human age. The five most significantly correlated CpG sites in ELOVL2 on 6p24.2, C1orf132 on 1q32.2, TRIM59 on 3q25.33, KLF14 on 7q32.3 and FHL2 on 2q12.2 were chosen to build a prediction model. This restriction allowed the technical analysis to be simplified without lowering the prediction accuracy significantly. Model parameters for a discovery set of 300 samples were R(2)=0.94 and the standard error of the estimate=4.5 years. An independent set of 120 samples was used to test the model performance. Mean absolute deviation for this testing set was 3.9 years. The number of correct predictions ±5 years achieved a very high level of 86.7% in the age category 2-19 and gradually decreased to 50% in the age category 60-75. The prediction model was deterministic for individuals belonging to these two extreme age categories. The developed method was implemented in a freely available online age prediction calculator. PMID:26026729

  8. Analysis of Death Tolls in Major Earthquake Disasters 1950-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaleghy Rad, M.; Evans, S. G.

    2011-12-01

    Earthquakes have been responsible for some of the world's most devastating disasters resulting in over 1 million deaths since 1950. The 2010 Haiti earthquake (estimated death toll of 225,000) has highlighted the potential destructive effects of a comparatively modest seismic event, the role of a vulnerable population in relation to seismic shaking and the impact of recurrent seismic events on a major well-known geological structure. Further, it has highlighted the need for a fresh look at the factors that affect death tolls in major earthquakes. A number of previous studies have attempted to examine the factors affecting earthquake death tolls, yet none of them has resulted in a rigorous quantitative methodology. Here we examine the record of earthquake disasters in the world from 1950 to 2010 that killed more than 1000 people. We develop a framework for the analysis of earthquake disasters in different countries for the time period 1950-2010 where we consider the seismic characteristics of the event and the level of exposure explicitly. To circumvent the shortcomings of the previous analyses, we normalize earthquake fatalities by exposed population and we develop (and quantify) the concept of earthquake disaster resistance. We also consider energy-release by the seismic event as its hazardous characteristic. Gathering information above, the "normalized event destructive index" (NEDI) is introduced which is used along with the energy-based frequency of earthquake forming a better basis for comparison between countries. Our results show that the 2010 Haiti earthquake is among the 10 critical events in the world in the period 1950-2010 that have an anomalous NEDI with respect to energy-based event frequency. We also calculate the probability of more than 1000 fatalities due to an earthquake of M5.5 or greater.

  9. Environmental Forensics : Compound Specific Isotope Analysis Of PAHs. Study Of A Former Coal Tar Plant.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assal, A.; Doherty, R.; Dickson, K.; Kalin, R. M.

    2008-12-01

    Stable carbon isotopic fingerprints of PAHs obtained by GC-IRMS have often been used in source apportionment studies. The use of PAHs in environmental forensics relies on the assumption that carbon isotopic fractionation caused by microbial degradation is less significant for these heavy molecular weight compounds than for lighter molecules such as chlorinated solvents or BTEX. Carbon isotopic fractionation of PAHs during degradation is still not well understood. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of CSIA of PAHs for environmental forensics applications at a complex (hydrogeology affected by tidal fluxes) former coal tar plant. In this work, soil samples from a tar works site were analyzed. The tar works operated on the site over a period of sixty years. A source apportionment study was first carried out based on 90 target PAHs quantified by GC-MS. These results were then compared to carbon isotope fingerprints. The separation of compounds of interest from co-extracted interfering peaks is a crucial prerequisite of CSIA by GC-IRMS. Hence, a sample preparation method which allowed the determination of precise carbon isotope signatures for up to 35 compounds per soil extract was developed, validated and applied to the samples previously analyzed by GC- MS. Although most soil samples were shown to be related to the point source tar contamination, PAHs ratios and principal component analysis of abundances highlighted some samples with unusual patterns, suggesting the input of a second source of contaminants. However, no statistically significant variation of the isotopic fingerprints of heavy molecular weight PAHs of these samples was observed. This was inconsistent with the first diagnosis. Since evidence was provided that most samples were only affected by a single source of contaminants, carbon isotopic fractionation was investigated in-situ. Importantly, naphthalene and 2- and 1- methylnaphthalenes isotopic fractionation was observed in a vertical soil profile. Results of this study highlight advantages and limitations of CSIA of PAHs in environmental forensics studies and confirm the potential of this technique for deciphering new degradation pathways of lighter PAHs.

  10. Forensic analysis of explosives using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) — Discrimination of ammonium nitrate sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah J. Benson; Christopher J. Lennard; Philip Maynard; David M. Hill; Anita S. Andrew; Claude Roux

    2009-01-01

    An evaluation was undertaken to determine if isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) could assist in the investigation of complex forensic cases by providing a level of discrimination not achievable utilising traditional forensic techniques. The focus of the research was on ammonium nitrate (AN), a common oxidiser used in improvised explosive mixtures.The potential value of IRMS to attribute Australian AN samples

  11. An in-depth population genetic analysis of forensic short tandem repeat loci in Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Venables; D. McNevin; R. Daniel; S. D. Sarre; R. A. H. van Oorschot; S. J. Walsh

    Allele frequency data and knowledge of the population genetic features of relevant populations are required to substantiate the strength of forensic DNA evidence. It is conceivable that population substructure exists within Indonesia given that it is an archipelago with over 17,000 islands and encompasses numerous distinct ethnic and linguistic groups. However, the population genetic features of forensic short tandem repeat

  12. Forensic analysis of explosives using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) — Preliminary study on TATP and PETN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah J. Benson; Christopher J. Lennard; Philip Maynard; David M. Hill; Anita S. Andrew; Claude Roux

    2009-01-01

    The application of isotopic techniques to investigations requiring the provision of evidence to a Court is limited. The objective of this research was to investigate the application of light stable isotopes and isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) to solve complex forensic cases by providing a level of discrimination not achievable utilising traditional forensic techniques.Due to the current threat of organic

  13. What is the cost of a life in a disaster? - Examples, Practice and Global Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniell, James; Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Schaefer, Andreas; Wenzel, Friedemann; Khazai, Bijan

    2015-04-01

    An analysis is presented based on historical evidence and global exposure metrics using the CATDAT Socioeconomic databases, in order to create a global distribution of the cost of life in a disaster using various metrics. Casualty insurance models require a value of life & mitigation and cost-benefit studies require a value of life in order to make decisions and set premiums. Although this is a contentious concept, there are two general approaches to human life costing: the first is based on human capital which looks at the production capacity and potential output as a proxy for future earning; the second looks at willingness to pay which estimates people's value on reducing risk and compensation payouts. A combination approach is used. For each of the 245 nations, a value of life is estimated using the following parameters:- (1) Age of people in a country using the life expectancy and distribution data in CATDAT (2) Output of the economy and wage distribution (3) Household and community interactions (4) Lost quality of life The range of statistical life costs are examined globally from different sources, with the range of a life value being from 10,000 up to in the order of 10 million between different countries. The difference of the cost for a fatality vs. that of a severe injury is also discussed with a severe injury often having higher costs than a fatality for loss purposes. The losses in terms of historical disasters are looked at and examined with the percentage of life cost shown as a proportion of total losses. The losses of a future major earthquake in a low seismicity region show some of the largest potential life cost losses with that of a M6.8 in Adelaide, Australia; having around 160 billion in life costs (25,000 deaths, 15,000 severe injuries). This study has benefits post-disaster for quantification of human capital losses in major disasters, and pre-disaster for the analysis of insurance and mitigation options.

  14. A multivariate analysis of dichotomous opinions in dissensus disaster

    SciTech Connect

    Rappaport, A.; Zincone, L.H. Jr.; Fricke, P.H.

    1982-09-01

    Despite the absence of evidence supporting either environmental or economic damages resulting from the Argo Merchant oil spill of 1976, a questionnaire administered 11 months afterward to 258 randomly selected heads of households in four towns contiguous to the spill revealed that 60 percent thought damages had occurred. In a secondary analysis of the original data to examine the causes of the damage perceptions, a discriminant function was developed on a randomly selected test group and evaluated on a control group. The results support the hypothesis that incorrect damage perceptions resulted from a priori views on the part of younger, socially conscious, higher-achieving heads of households. Support is indicated for the hypothesis that a priori perceptions were reinforced after the event. The index for total discriminating power was .43 for the test group and .38 for the control group. Television was the major media information source.

  15. The transferability of diatoms to clothing and the methods appropriate for their collection and analysis in forensic geoscience.

    PubMed

    Scott, Kirstie R; Morgan, Ruth M; Jones, Vivienne J; Cameron, Nigel G

    2014-08-01

    Forensic geoscience is concerned with the analysis of geological materials in order to compare and exclude environmental samples from a common source, or to identify an unknown provenance in a criminal investigation. Diatom analysis is currently an underused technique within the forensic geoscience approach, which has the potential to provide an independent ecological assessment of trace evidence. This study presents empirical data to provide a preliminary evidence base in order to be able to understand the nature of diatom transfers to items of clothing, and the collection of transferred diatom trace evidence from a range of environments under experimental conditions. Three diatom extraction methods were tested on clothing that had been in contact with soil and water sites: rinsing in water (RW), rinsing in ethanol (RE), and submersion in H2O2 solution (H). Scanning electron microscopy (S.E.M.) analysis was undertaken in order to examine the degree of diatom retention on treated clothing samples. The total diatom yield and species richness data was recorded from each experimental sample in order to compare the efficacy of each method in collecting a representative sample for analysis. Similarity was explored using correspondence analysis. The results highlight the efficiency of H2O2 submersion in consistently extracting high diatom counts with representative species from clothing exposed to both aquatic and terrestrial sites. This is corroborated by S.E.M. analysis. This paper provides an important empirical evidence base for both establishing that diatoms do indeed transfer to clothing under forensic conditions in a range of environments, and in identifying that H2O2 extraction is the most efficient technique for the optimal collection of comparative samples. There is therefore potentially great value in collecting and analysing diatom components of geoforensic samples in order to aid in forensic investigation. PMID:24915452

  16. Computer Forensics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William H. Allen

    2005-01-01

    Evidence gathered from computers is increasingly important in criminal investigations, and forensic examination of computer and other digital data has become an indispensable tool for law enforcement, corporate security, and intelligence gathering. This columns presents an overview of the processes and problems related to computer forensics.

  17. Compound-Specific Isotope Analysis of Diesel Fuels in a Forensic Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammad, Syahidah; Frew, Russell; Hayman, Alan

    2015-02-01

    Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) offers great potential as a tool to provide chemical evidence in a forensic investigation. Many attempts to trace environmental oil spills were successful where isotopic values were particularly distinct. However, difficulties arise when a large data set is analyzed and the isotopic differences between samples are subtle. In the present study, discrimination of diesel oils involved in a diesel theft case was carried out to infer the relatedness of the samples to potential source samples. This discriminatory analysis used a suite of hydrocarbon diagnostic indices, alkanes, to generate carbon and hydrogen isotopic data of the compositions of the compounds which were then processed using multivariate statistical analyses to infer the relatedness of the data set. The results from this analysis were put into context by comparing the data with the ?13C and ?2H of alkanes in commercial diesel samples obtained from various locations in the South Island of New Zealand. Based on the isotopic character of the alkanes, it is suggested that diesel fuels involved in the diesel theft case were distinguishable. This manuscript shows that CSIA when used in tandem with multivariate statistical analysis provide a defensible means to differentiate and source-apportion qualitatively similar oils at the molecular level. This approach was able to overcome confounding challenges posed by the near single-point source of origin i.e. the very subtle differences in isotopic values between the samples.

  18. Compound-specific isotope analysis of diesel fuels in a forensic investigation

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, Syahidah A.; Frew, Russell D.; Hayman, Alan R.

    2015-01-01

    Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) offers great potential as a tool to provide chemical evidence in a forensic investigation. Many attempts to trace environmental oil spills were successful where isotopic values were particularly distinct. However, difficulties arise when a large data set is analyzed and the isotopic differences between samples are subtle. In the present study, discrimination of diesel oils involved in a diesel theft case was carried out to infer the relatedness of the samples to potential source samples. This discriminatory analysis used a suite of hydrocarbon diagnostic indices, alkanes, to generate carbon and hydrogen isotopic data of the compositions of the compounds which were then processed using multivariate statistical analyses to infer the relatedness of the data set. The results from this analysis were put into context by comparing the data with the ?13C and ?2H of alkanes in commercial diesel samples obtained from various locations in the South Island of New Zealand. Based on the isotopic character of the alkanes, it is suggested that diesel fuels involved in the diesel theft case were distinguishable. This manuscript shows that CSIA when used in tandem with multivariate statistical analysis provide a defensible means to differentiate and source-apportion qualitatively similar oils at the molecular level. This approach was able to overcome confounding challenges posed by the near single-point source of origin, i.e., the very subtle differences in isotopic values between the samples. PMID:25774366

  19. Compound-specific isotope analysis of diesel fuels in a forensic investigation.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Syahidah A; Frew, Russell D; Hayman, Alan R

    2015-01-01

    Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) offers great potential as a tool to provide chemical evidence in a forensic investigation. Many attempts to trace environmental oil spills were successful where isotopic values were particularly distinct. However, difficulties arise when a large data set is analyzed and the isotopic differences between samples are subtle. In the present study, discrimination of diesel oils involved in a diesel theft case was carried out to infer the relatedness of the samples to potential source samples. This discriminatory analysis used a suite of hydrocarbon diagnostic indices, alkanes, to generate carbon and hydrogen isotopic data of the compositions of the compounds which were then processed using multivariate statistical analyses to infer the relatedness of the data set. The results from this analysis were put into context by comparing the data with the ?(13)C and ?(2)H of alkanes in commercial diesel samples obtained from various locations in the South Island of New Zealand. Based on the isotopic character of the alkanes, it is suggested that diesel fuels involved in the diesel theft case were distinguishable. This manuscript shows that CSIA when used in tandem with multivariate statistical analysis provide a defensible means to differentiate and source-apportion qualitatively similar oils at the molecular level. This approach was able to overcome confounding challenges posed by the near single-point source of origin, i.e., the very subtle differences in isotopic values between the samples. PMID:25774366

  20. [Development of forensic thanatology through the prism of analysis of postmortem protocols collected at the Department of Forensic Medicine, Jagiellonian University].

    PubMed

    Konopka, Tomasz

    2011-01-01

    When assessed based on the analysis of postmortem protocols, the successes of forensic thanatology appear to differ from those that might be assumed using as the foundation a review of publications and textbooks. The greatest achievements date back to as early as the 18th and 19th centuries, when the morphological changes observed in the majority of types of deaths resulting from disease-associated and traumatic causes were described. Within the past 130 years, however, or in other words, in the period when autopsy protocols were written that are today collected in the archives of the Krakow Department of Forensic Medicine, the causes and mechanisms of death became understood even when the said factors were associated with discrete postmortem changes only or no no such changes whatsoever were left. At the end of the 19th century and for a long time afterwards, a difficult problem was posed by sudden deaths, where the postmortem examinations demonstrated solely atherosclerosis and the cause of death was described as "heart palsy". As it turned out, a great portion of such deaths represented individuals with myocardial infarction; in spite of its evident macroscopic presentation, the diagnostic management of the disease was progressing very slowly. Myocardial infarction, known at least since 1912, was associated by forensic medicine with the phenomenon of sudden death only in the forties, and the ability to detect myocardial infarction in practice developed only in the fifties of the last century. The achievement of the present dissertation is the formulation of a theory ascribing such a long delay in macroscopic diagnostics of myocardial infarction to forensic medicine specialists being attached to and fond of employing the "in situ" autopsy technique, which was unfavorable from the viewpoint of heart examination, since the organ was not dissected free and removed from the body in the course of a postmortem examination. When autopsies started to concentrate on hearts dissected free from large vessels, within several years, the number of diagnosed myocardial infarctions increased several times, what gave rise to a theory of a myocardial infarction epidemics formulated in some centers. A proof supporting the theory postulated by the author is a sudden increase in the number of deaths resulting from pulmonary embolism observed in the same several-year period; this diagnosis was also not facilitated by the "in situ" autopsy technique. Another cause of death, which - although undoubtedly common - was for years interpreted as "heart palsy" was alcohol poisoning. Evolution of methods used in chemical examinations for the presence of alcohol, and especially the use of blood tests rather than gastric contents tests allowed in time for determining alcohol poisoning as the cause of death and demonstrated the true extent of the phenomenon. Here, a milestone was the introduction of the Widmark method, what in turn resulted in changes in the toxicology theory, such as for example the use of a new term of "lethal concentration" in addition to the formerly employed notion of a "lethal dose", which is useless in the case of alcohol. Of lesser importance with respect to the number of cases, but of much greater significance in view of its association with homicides were the achievements in diagnostic management of strangulation. Choking and strangulation, as well as hanging--in spite of the fact that their fundamental features were known as early as in the 19th century--were really understood and the ability to diagnose these phenomena was achieved only in the interwar period. Such a long delay resulted from the autopsy technique that did not include examination of the organs situated in the neck, as well as from difficulties in acquiring experience in examining the type of homicide that was very uncommon. On the other hand, for many years, the erroneous theory of the fluidity of blood in a corpse as an indicator of violent strangulation resulted in dubious opinions on strangling b

  1. The contribution of DNA to the disaster victim identification (DVI) effort.

    PubMed

    Hartman, D; Drummer, O; Eckhoff, C; Scheffer, J W; Stringer, P

    2011-02-25

    As part of the disaster victim identification (DVI) response to the 2009 Victorian bushfires disaster, a number of scientific disciplines contributed to the human identification process--forensic pathology, anthropology and odontology, as well as fingerprinting and DNA profiling. The DNA laboratory received 182 post-mortem (PM) samples from 120 DVI cases and 236 reference samples corresponding to 163 missing persons (and two non-DVI cases). DNA analysis yielded full DNA profiles for 102 DVI cases and 190 ante-mortem (AM) samples (relating to all 163 missing persons), respectively. Subsequent comparison of DNA profiles, through direct and kinship matching, resulted in the submission of 76 DNA reports to the DVI Reconciliation Centre which assisted in the identification of 67 deceased. This paper describes the contribution of DNA analysis towards the DVI response to the 2009 Victorian bushfires disaster. PMID:21106312

  2. Automated extraction of direct, reactive, and vat dyes from cellulosic fibers for forensic analysis by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Dockery, C R; Stefan, A R; Nieuwland, A A; Roberson, S N; Baguley, B M; Hendrix, J E; Morgan, S L

    2009-08-01

    Systematic designed experiments were employed to find the optimum conditions for extraction of direct, reactive, and vat dyes from cotton fibers prior to forensic characterization. Automated microextractions were coupled with measurements of extraction efficiencies on a microplate reader UV-visible spectrophotometer to enable rapid screening of extraction efficiency as a function of solvent composition. Solvent extraction conditions were also developed to be compatible with subsequent forensic characterization of extracted dyes by capillary electrophoresis with UV-visible diode array detection. The capillary electrophoresis electrolyte successfully used in this work consists of 5 mM ammonium acetate in 40:60 acetonitrile-water at pH 9.3, with the addition of sodium dithionite reducing agent to facilitate analysis of vat dyes. The ultimate goal of these research efforts is enhanced discrimination of trace fiber evidence by analysis of extracted dyes. PMID:19536528

  3. HPLC analysis of anti-malaria agent, chloroquine in blood and tissue from forensic autopsy cases in Tanzania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kosei Yonemitsu; Ako Koreeda; Kazuhiko Kibayashi; Paul Ng'walali; Martin Mbonde; James Kitinya; Shigeyuki Tsunenari

    2005-01-01

    HPLC analysis of anti-malaria agent, chloroquine (CQ) in blood and tissues with a simple HCl back extraction method was applied to three forensic autopsy cases in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. CQ concentrations in femoral vein blood were 8.5, 48.4 and 43.8?g\\/ml in three cases, respectively, which were high enough to attribute the cause of deaths to an acute CQ poisoning.

  4. A selection of some of Dr. McCrone's high and low profile cases in the forensic analysis of art.

    PubMed

    Stoney, David A

    2004-03-01

    Throughout Dr. McCrone's active professional career of over 60 years, he worked on many cases involving the forensic analysis of art. This is an overview of a small portion of these cases. Included (exposed as fakes) are the Shroud of Turin, the Vinland Map, Mayan pottery illustrations and Larionov pastels. Also included, with strong support for authentication, are three paintings attributed to Manet, Giorgione, and Leonardo da Vinci. PMID:15027547

  5. Disaster Recovery: Courting Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hanlon, Charlene

    2007-01-01

    An inadequate or nonexistent disaster recovery plan can have dire results. Fire, power outage, and severe weather all can brin down the best of networks in an instant. This article draws on the experiences of the Charlotte County Public Schools (Port Charlotte, Florida), which were able to lessen the damage caused by Hurricane Charley when it hit…

  6. A Simple Cost-Effective Framework for iPhone Forensic Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Iftekhar Husain; R. Sridhar; I. Baggili

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a Apple iPhone has made significant impact on the society both as a handheld computing device and as a cellular phone. Due to\\u000a the unique hardware system as well as storage structure, iPhone has already attracted the forensic community in digital investigation\\u000a of the device. Currently available commercial products and methodologies for iPhone forensics are somewhat expensive, complex\\u000a and often require

  7. Unifying Computer Forensics Modeling Approaches: A Software Engineering Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Chris Bogen; David A. Dampier

    2005-01-01

    As an effort to introduce formalism into computer forensics, researchers have presented various modeling techniques for planning, analysis, and documentation of forensics activities. These modeling techniques provide representations of various forensics subjects such as investigative processes, chain of events, and evidence tests. From a software engineering perspective, it seems that several of these computer forensics modeling approaches may be unified

  8. How does corruption influence perceptions of the risk of nuclear accidents?: cross-country analysis after the 2011 Fukushima disaster in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eiji Yamamura

    2011-01-01

    Japan’s 2011 natural disasters were accompanied by a devastating nuclear disaster in Fukushima. This paper used cross-country data obtained immediately after the Japanese disaster to explore how, and the extent to which, corruption affects the perception of citizens regarding the risk of nuclear accidents. Endogeneity bias was controlled for using instrumental variables. The cross-country analysis showed that citizens in less

  9. COE589: Digital Forensics Introduction to Digital Forensics

    E-print Network

    Almulhem, Ahmad

    technology: "the digital revolution". Digital Forensics "the application of proven scientific methodsCOE589: Digital Forensics Introduction to Digital Forensics Dr. Ahmad Almulhem KFUPM ­ Spring 2013 Digital Forensics · Branches of Digital Forensics · Digital Forensics vs Other Fields · Digital Evidences

  10. [Identifying victims of a disaster].

    PubMed

    de Boer, Hans H; Kloosterman, Ate D; de Bruijn, Arie G; Maat, George J R

    2014-01-01

    Identifying the victims of a disaster is important for the next of kin, to issue a death certificate and, if necessary, for forensic investigations. In the Netherlands victims are identified by the Dutch disaster victim identification team, which is part of the national forensic investigation team ('Landelijk Team Forensische Opsporing'). Ante-mortem data are collected during the identification process; these include the victim's specific medical characteristics and the DNA profile of the victim and their family members. The victim's own doctor can play an important role in the ante-mortem investigation because of his or her knowledge of their personal medical details, and of the possible availability of samples for establishing a DNA profile. The ante-mortem data are then compared with post-mortem data. For a definitive identification at least 1 primary identification characteristic has to be established from the physical remains - dermatoglyphics, the DNA profile or the dental status. PMID:25467027

  11. Analysis of 155 consecutive forensic exhumations with emphasis on undetected homicides.

    PubMed

    Karger, B; Lorin de la Grandmaison, G; Bajanowski, T; Brinkmann, B

    2004-04-01

    A total of 155 consecutive forensic exhumations performed in Münster, Germany from 1967 to 2001 were evaluated retrospectively on the basis of the autopsy report, the police report and the death certificate. Histology and toxicology were performed in most cases. The postmortem intervals varied from 8 days to 8 years. Compared to other countries, the autopsy rate was low (1.2-1.4%) and the exhumation rate high (0.016%): principle of reciprocity. The cause of death could be clearly determined in 103 cases (66.5%) and histology or toxicology were decisive in 40%. Some findings were discernable using immunohistochemistry after considerable postmortem intervals, such as acute myocardial infarction after 1 year and pneumonia after 2 years and a diazepam intoxication was determined after 4.5 years. Major deviations between the cause of death as stated on the death certificate and as diagnosed after autopsy existed in 57 cases (37%). A more detailed analysis revealed five subgroups. 1. primary suspicion of intoxication (n=18) confirmed in 6 cases including 3 homicides (with parathion, clozapin, diazepam) which are described in more detail. 2. primary suspicion of homicide other than poisoning (n=51) confirmed in 19 cases. There was a serial killing of 15 patients by injection of air. In the remaining 4 cases, a shaken infant, craniocerebral injuries from blows with beer bottles, a craniocerebral gunshot and a multiplicity of blunt force injuries were diagnosed. The latter two cases are described in more detail. Superficial external examinations and the low autopsy rate were 2 common reasons for the occurrence of "buried homicides" (n=22)-not a single forensic autopsy had been performed directly after the death of the victims. 3. primary suspicion of medical malpractice (n=39). 4. accidents including traffic accidents (n=30). 5. clarification of the cause of death, circumstances or identity (n=17). Exhumations were frequently successful for recovering evidence which should better have been collected immediately after the death of an individual. Exhumations can also be regarded as an instrument to evaluate the quality of death certificates and death investigations. PMID:14986016

  12. UV-visible microscope spectrophotometric polarization and dichroism with increased discrimination power in forensic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purcell, Dale Kevin

    Microanalysis of transfer (Trace) evidence is the application of a microscope and microscopical techniques for the collection, observation, documentation, examination, identification, and discrimination of micrometer sized particles or domains. Microscope spectrophotometry is the union of microscopy and spectroscopy for microanalysis. Analytical microspectroscopy is the science of studying the emission, reflection, transmission, and absorption of electromagnetic radiation to determine the structure or chemical composition of microscopic-size materials. Microscope spectrophotometry instrument designs have evolved from monochromatic illumination which transmitted through the microscope and sample and then is detected by a photometer detector (photomultiplier tube) to systems in which broad-band (white light) illumination falls incident upon a sample followed by a non-scanning grating spectrometer equipped with a solid-state multi-element detector. Most of these small modern spectrometers are configured with either silicon based charged-couple device detectors (200-950 nm) or InGaAs based diode array detectors (850-2300 nm) with computerized data acquisition and signal processing being common. A focus of this research was to evaluate the performance characteristics of various modern forensic (UV-Vis) microscope photometer systems as well as review early model instrumental designs. An important focus of this research was to efficiently measure ultraviolet-visible spectra of microscopically small specimens for classification, differentiation, and possibly individualization. The first stage of the project consisted of the preparation of microscope slides containing neutral density filter reference materials, molecular fluorescence reference materials, and dichroic reference materials. Upon completion of these standard slide preparations analysis began with measurements in order to evaluate figures of merit for comparison of the instruments investigated. The figures of merit investigated included: 1) wavelength accuracy, 2) wavelength precision, 3) wavelength resolution stability, 4) photometric accuracy, 5) photometric precision, 6) photometric linearity, 7) photometric noise, and 8) short-term baseline stability. In addition, intrinsic instrument polarization effects were investigated to determine the impact of these properties on spectral interpretation and data quality. Finally, a set of recommendations were developed which describe instrument performance characteristics for microscope and spectrometer features and functions, and specific instrument parameters that must be controlled in order to acquire high quality data from an ultraviolet-visible forensic microscope spectrophotometer system for increased discrimination power.

  13. Forensic Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Keith O.; Nigh, W. G.

    1973-01-01

    A course is described, which was given during an interim, with an enrollment of 41 students. The course involved an in-depth study of forensic science, involving students with the methodology of science. (DF)

  14. Elemental analysis of forensic glasses by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almirall, Jose R.; Duckworth, Douglas C.; Bayne, Charles K.; Morton, Sherman A.; Smith, David H.; Koons, Robert D.; Furton, Kenneth G.

    1999-02-01

    Flat glass is a common type of evidence collected from the scenes of crimes such as burglaries, vandalism, and hit-and- run accidents. The usefulness of such evidence lies in the ability to associate the glass from the scene (or a suspect) to the original source. Physical and chemical analysis of the glass can be used for discrimination between the possible sources of glass. If the sample is large enough, physical attributes such as fracture matches, density, color, and thickness can be employed for comparison between a recovered fragment(s) to the suspect source. More commonly, refractive index (RI) comparisons are employed. Due to the improved control over glass manufacturing processes, RI values often cannot differentiate glasses where approximately 6 - 9% of casework samples are not expected to be distinguished by RI alone even if they originated from different sources. Employing methods such as NAA, XRF, ICP-AES, and ICP-MS for the comparison of trace elemental compositions has been shown to be more discriminating than RI comparisons. The multielement capability and the sensitivity of ICP-AES and ICP-MS provide for excellent discrimination power. In this work, the sources of variability in ICP-MS of glass analysis are investigated to determine possible sources of variation. The sources of variation examined include errors due to sample preparation, instrument accuracy and precision, and interlaboratory reproducibility. Other sources of variation include inhomogeneity across a sheet of glass from the same source. Analysis of variance has been applied to our ICP-MS analysis of NIST standards and to the interlaboratory comparisons of float glass samples collected across a sheet in a production facility. The results of these experiments allows for a more accurate interpretation of forensic glass data and a better understanding of the discriminating power (absolute and practical) of ICP-MS.

  15. Forensic Ballistics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernd Karger

    \\u000a Forensic ballistics is the application of ballistics for forensic purposes. The basis is formed by wound ballistics. Two main\\u000a mechanisms of injury are differentiated: the crush-mechanism resulting in the permanent cavity and the stretch-mechanism resulting\\u000a in the temporary cavity. The missile-tissue interactions such as yawing, deformation, fragmentation, and bone contact are\\u000a explained here and it is shown why the energy

  16. Spectrometric Imaging of Polarization Colors and Its Application in Forensic Fiber Analysis.

    PubMed

    van Oijen, Theo A H; van der Weerd, Jaap

    2015-06-01

    A hyperspectral imaging instrument analyzing fibers between crossed polarizers spectrometrically is presented. The principle of operation is introduced and illustrated briefly by the theory of polarization and birefingence and calculations based on Stokes parameters and Müller matrices. Afterward, the developed instrumentation and results are detailed. Results obtained by the calculations and developed instrumentation indicate that the retardance of birefringent materials can be calculated over a high range and with a high accuracy. In addition, the spatial resolution of the instrument suffices to analyze different regions within a fiber individually. This allows the selection of a region at the center of an analyzed fiber that is shown to provide an optimal signal. The developed software enables analysis of the polarization color and the "normal", i.e., absorptive color of the sample individually. These features make possible a preliminary identification of fibers, without isolation of the fiber from a microscope slide. The instrument forms a powerful new approach to automated analyses in forensic fiber evidence, as it can establish analyses of morphology, color, and identity of a set of samples in a high-throughput, automated, and objective way. PMID:25954924

  17. Scanning electron microscopic analysis of incinerated teeth: An aid to forensic identification

    PubMed Central

    Pol, Chetan A; Gosavi, Suchitra R

    2014-01-01

    Background: Forensic dental identification of victims involved in fire accidents is often a complex and challenging endeavor. Knowledge of the charred human dentition and residues of restorative material can help in the recognition of bodies burned beyond recognition. Aim: To observe the effects of predetermined temperatures on healthy unrestored teeth and different restorative materials in restored teeth, by scanning electron microscope, for the purpose of identification. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 135 extracted teeth, which were divided into four groups. Group 1-healthy unrestored teeth, group 2-teeth restored with all ceramic crowns, group 3-teeth restored with class I composite resin and group 4-teeth restored with class I glass ionomer cement (GIC). Results: The scanning electron microscope is useful in the analysis of burned teeth, as it gives fine structural details, requires only a small sample and does not destroy the already fragile specimen. Conclusion: Scanning electron microscope can be a useful tool for the characterization and study of severely burnt teeth for victim identification. PMID:24959034

  18. Computer Forensics Today

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelly J. Kuchta

    2000-01-01

    When people hear the word “forensics,” it often generates a mental image of the movie series with Jack Klugman as a medical examiner named Quincy. The fact is that there are as many as 25 separate forensic disciplines. They run from forensic accounting to forensic medicine and forensic pathology. The word forensics literally means “a science that deals with the

  19. Demographics of Natural Disaster Hotspots in Maine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lindsay Dreiss; Caitlin Dufraine

    2008-01-01

    Natural disasters can cause extensive damage to communities and infrastructure. The state of Maine is fairly lucky because natural disasters are relatively infrequent. Maine does, however, experience earthquakes, flooding, hurricanes, and landslides. Certain areas of the state are more prone to experience natural disaster than others. Using GIS analysis, we are analyzing natural disaster hotspots in Maine to determine if

  20. [Organization, availability and possibility of analysis of disaster data of climate related origin and its impacts on health].

    PubMed

    Xavier, Diego Ricardo; Barcellos, Christovam; Barros, Heglaucio da Silva; Magalhães, Monica de Avelar Figueiredo Mafra; Matos, Vanderlei Pascoal de; Pedroso, Marcel de Moraes

    2014-09-01

    The occurrence of disasters is often related to unforeseeable able natural processes. However, the analysis of major databases may highlight seasonal and long-term trends, as well as some spatial patterns where risks are concentrated. In this paper the process of acquiring and organizing climate-related disaster data collected by civil protection institutions and made available by the Brazilian Climate and Health Observatory is described. Preliminary analyses show the concentration of disasters caused by heavy rainfall events along the Brazilian coastline especially during the summer. Droughts have longer duration and extent, affecting large areas of the south and northeast regions of the country. These data can be used to analyze and monitor the impact of extreme climatic events on health, as well as identify the vulnerability and climate deteminants. PMID:25184573

  1. Postmortem bone marrow analysis in forensic science: study of 73 cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Tattoli, Lucia; Tsokos, Michael; Sautter, Julia; Anagnostopoulos, Joannis; Maselli, Eloisa; Ingravallo, Giuseppe; Delia, Mario; Solarino, Biagio

    2014-01-01

    In forensic sciences, bone marrow (BM) is an alternative matrix in postmortem toxicology because of its good resistance to autolysis and contaminations. Nevertheless, few studies have been focused on postmortem BM morphological changes after pathological stimuli. We examined 73 BM samples from forensic autopsies; causes of death were both natural and traumatic. BM samples were collected from the sternum by needle aspiration and biopsy; in selected cases, immunohistochemistry was performed. Few autolytic changes were found; BM cellularity decreased with increasing age and postmortem interval. Notable cell changes were detected in 45 cases (61.64%): neoplastic (n=4), and non-neoplastic BM findings (n=41), including multiorgan failure/sepsis (n=26), myelodisplastic-like conditions (n=11), and anaphylactic reactions (n=4). The results showed that BM cellularity supported circumstantial and autopsy findings, suggesting that BM samples could be a useful tool in forensic science applications. PMID:24378305

  2. [Measurement and analysis of reflected information from crops canopy suffering from wind disaster influence].

    PubMed

    Bao, Yu-Long; Zhang, Ji-Quan; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Wang, Yong-Fang; Ma, Dong-Lai; Sun, Zhong-Qiu

    2013-04-01

    The corn in the grain filling stage fell over in the central region of Jilin province by the Typhoon Bolaven influence. In order to determine the impact of falling over corn canopy on the reflected information, the hyperspectral reflectance was detected at different viewing zenith angles, at the same time, the polarized reflection was also measured. The results from the analysis by combining the reflection and polarization from corn canopy showed that the reflection of falling over corn is low in visible, while increases in the near infrared wavelength. The reflection from falling over corn canopy was more anisotropic than stand-up corn canopy. The reflected light was highly polarized, the polarization of corn canopy provided the probability for distinguishing between falling over corn and stand-up corn. This research provides a basis for estimating the disaster area and lost units. PMID:23841428

  3. A model for forensic dental education in the predoctoral dental school curriculum.

    PubMed

    Hermsen, Kenneth P; Johnson, J Dane

    2012-05-01

    Forensic odontologists play an important role locally and nationally in assisting in the identification of the victims of mass fatality incidents, whether natural or human-made. With the recent passage of legislation by Congress identifying dentists as a first-responder resource, knowledge of their expanding role in disaster response is particularly important. The purpose of this article is to describe the forensic dental course being taught at Creighton University School of Dentistry in Omaha, Nebraska, as a model for providing a fundamental education in forensic dentistry and disaster preparedness at the predoctoral dental level. This model is designed to 1) provide students with a broad view of forensic odontology; 2) give them a functional knowledge of the tools and techniques of the modern forensic dentist; 3) provide basic knowledge of their potential role in disaster preparedness and response; and 4) encourage students to pursue further forensic education, become active in national forensic organizations, and get involved in disaster preparedness/response in their home communities following graduation. This article includes lecture topics, demonstrations, and hands-on exercises being used at Creighton to teach students the fundamentals of forensic odontology and disaster preparedness. PMID:22550101

  4. Forensic archaeology and anthropology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kate Oakley

    2005-01-01

    Forensic archaeology is an extremely powerful investigative discipline and, in combination with forensic anthropology, can\\u000a provide a wealth of evidentiary information to police investigators and the forensic community. The re-emergence of forensic\\u000a archaeology and anthropology within Australia relies on its diversification and cooperation with established forensic medical\\u000a organizations, law enforcement forensic service divisions, and national forensic boards. This presents a

  5. Specifying digital forensics: A forensics policy approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol Louise Taylor; Barbara Endicott-Popovsky; Deborah A. Frincke

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present an approach to digital forensics specification based on forensic policy definition. Our methodology borrows from computer security policy specification, which has accumulated a significant body of research over the past 30 years. We first define the process of specifying forensics properties through a forensics policy and then present an example application of the process. This

  6. Geometric tampering estimation by means of a SIFT-based forensic analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irene Amerini; Lamberto Ballan; Roberto Caldelli; Alberto Del Bimbo; Giuseppe Serra

    2010-01-01

    In many application scenarios digital images play a basic role and often it is important to assess if their content is realistic or has been manipulated to mislead watcher's opinion. Image forensics tools provide answers to similar questions. This paper, in particular, focuses on the problem of detecting if a feigned image has been created by cloning an area of

  7. Intrinsic sensor noise features for forensic analysis on scanners and scanned images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongmei Gou; Ashwin Swaminathan; Min Wu

    2009-01-01

    A large portion of digital images available today are acquired using digital cameras or scanners. While cameras provide digital reproduction of natural scenes, scanners are often used to capture hard-copy art in a more controlled environment. In this paper, new techniques for nonintrusive scanner forensics that utilize intrinsic sensor noise features are proposed to verify the source and integrity of

  8. Analysis of 155 consecutive forensic exhumations with emphasis on undetected homicides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Karger; G. Lorin de la Grandmaison; T. Bajanowski; B. Brinkmann

    2004-01-01

    A total of 155 consecutive forensic exhumations performed in Münster, Germany from 1967 to 2001 were evaluated retrospectively on the basis of the autopsy report, the police report and the death certificate. Histology and toxicology were performed in most cases. The postmortem intervals varied from 8 days to 8 years. Compared to other countries, the autopsy rate was low (1.2–1.4%)

  9. Forensic response vehicle: Rapid analysis of evidence at the scene of a crime

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Hopwood; R. Fox; C. Round; C. Tsang; S. Watson; E. Rowlands; A. Titmus; J. Lee-Edghill; L. Cursiter; J. Proudlock; C. McTernan; K. Grigg; L. Thornton; C. Kimpton

    2006-01-01

    The first hours of a criminal investigation can be the most important. A suspect arrested soon after a crime has less time to remove evidence from their person, possibly allowing stronger forensic ties between the individual and the crime scene. We have developed a mobile laboratory with designated work areas for the searching of small items and pre and post

  10. The state of nuclear forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristo, Michael J.; Tumey, Scott J.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear terrorism has been identified as one of the most serious security threats facing the world today. Many countries, including the United States, have incorporated nuclear forensic analysis as a component of their strategy to prevent nuclear terrorism. Nuclear forensics involves the laboratory analysis of seized illicit nuclear materials or debris from a nuclear detonation to identify the origins of the material or weapon. Over the years, a number of forensic signatures have been developed to improve the confidence with which forensic analysts can draw conclusions. These signatures are validated and new signatures are discovered through research and development programs and in round-robin exercises among nuclear forensic laboratories. The recent Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group Third Round Robin Exercise and an on-going program focused on attribution of uranium ore concentrate provide prime examples of the current state of nuclear forensics. These case studies will be examined and the opportunities for accelerator mass spectrometry to play a role in nuclear forensics will be discussed.

  11. Multimedia Forensics Is Not Computer Forensics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rainer Böhme; Felix C. Freiling; Thomas Gloe; Matthias Kirchner

    2009-01-01

    The recent popularity of research on topics of multimedia forensics justifies reflections on the definition of the field.\\u000a This paper devises an ontology that structures forensic disciplines by their primary domain of evidence. In this sense, both\\u000a multimedia forensics and computer forensics belong to the class of digital forensics, but they differ notably in the underlying\\u000a observer model that defines

  12. Forensic entomology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jens Amendt; Roman Krettek; Richard Zehner

    2004-01-01

    Necrophagous insects are important in the decomposition of cadavers. The close association between insects and corpses and the use of insects in medicocriminal investigations is the subject of forensic entomology. The present paper reviews the historical background of this discipline, important postmortem processes, and discusses the scientific basis underlying attempts to determine the time interval since death. Using medical techniques,

  13. [Natural disasters and health: an analysis of the situation in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Freitas, Carlos Machado de; Silva, Diego Ricardo Xavier; Sena, Aderita Ricarda Martins de; Silva, Eliane Lima; Sales, Luiz Belino Ferreira; Carvalho, Mauren Lopes de; Mazoto, Maíra Lopes; Barcellos, Christovam; Costa, André Monteiro; Oliveira, Mara Lúcia Carneiro; Corvalán, Carlos

    2014-09-01

    Natural disasters are still insufficiently studied and understood within the scope of public health in this country, with impacts in the short and long term. The scope of this article is to analyze the relationship between disasters and their impact on health based on disaster data recorded in the country. The methodology involved the systematization of data and information contained in the Brazilian Atlas of Natural Disasters 1991-2010 and directly from the National Department of Civil Defense (NSCD). Disasters were organized into four categories of events (meteorological; hydrological; climatological; geophysical/geological) and for each of the latter, the data for morbidity, mortality and exposure of those affected were examined, revealing different types of impacts. Three categories of disasters stood out: the hydrological events showed higher percentages of mortality, morbidity and exposure; climatological events had higher percentages of incidents and people affected; the geophysical/geological events had a higher average of exposure and deaths per event. Lastly, a more active participation of the health sector in the post-2015 global political agenda is proposed, particularly events related to sustainable development, climate change and disaster risk reduction. PMID:25184572

  14. Complex DNA mixture analysis in a forensic context: evaluating the probative value using a likelihood ratio model.

    PubMed

    Haned, Hinda; Benschop, Corina C G; Gill, Peter D; Sijen, Titia

    2015-05-01

    The interpretation of mixed DNA profiles obtained from low template DNA samples has proven to be a particularly difficult task in forensic casework. Newly developed likelihood ratio (LR) models that account for PCR-related stochastic effects, such as allelic drop-out, drop-in and stutters, have enabled the analysis of complex cases that would otherwise have been reported as inconclusive. In such samples, there are uncertainties about the number of contributors, and the correct sets of propositions to consider. Using experimental samples, where the genotypes of the donors are known, we evaluated the feasibility and the relevance of the interpretation of high order mixtures, of three, four and five donors. The relative risks of analyzing high order mixtures of three, four, and five donors, were established by comparison of a 'gold standard' LR, to the LR that would be obtained in casework. The 'gold standard' LR is the ideal LR: since the genotypes and number of contributors are known, it follows that the parameters needed to compute the LR can be determined per contributor. The 'casework LR' was calculated as used in standard practice, where unknown donors are assumed; the parameters were estimated from the available data. Both LRs were calculated using the basic standard model, also termed the drop-out/drop-in model, implemented in the LRmix module of the R package Forensim. We show how our results furthered the understanding of the relevance of analyzing high order mixtures in a forensic context. Limitations are highlighted, and it is illustrated how our study serves as a guide to implement likelihood ratio interpretation of complex DNA profiles in forensic casework. PMID:25485478

  15. Nuclear forensic analysis of an unknown uranium ore concentrate sample seized in a criminal investigation in Australia.

    PubMed

    Keegan, Elizabeth; Kristo, Michael J; Colella, Michael; Robel, Martin; Williams, Ross; Lindvall, Rachel; Eppich, Gary; Roberts, Sarah; Borg, Lars; Gaffney, Amy; Plaue, Jonathan; Wong, Henri; Davis, Joel; Loi, Elaine; Reinhard, Mark; Hutcheon, Ian

    2014-07-01

    Early in 2009, a state policing agency raided a clandestine drug laboratory in a suburb of a major city in Australia. During the search of the laboratory, a small glass jar labelled "Gamma Source" and containing a green powder was discovered. The powder was radioactive. This paper documents the detailed nuclear forensic analysis undertaken to characterise and identify the material and determine its provenance. Isotopic and impurity content, phase composition, microstructure and other characteristics were measured on the seized sample, and the results were compared with similar material obtained from the suspected source (ore and ore concentrate material). While an extensive range of parameters were measured, the key 'nuclear forensic signatures' used to identify the material were the U isotopic composition, Pb and Sr isotope ratios, and the rare earth element pattern. These measurements, in combination with statistical analysis of the elemental and isotopic content of the material against a database of uranium ore concentrates sourced from mines located worldwide, led to the conclusion that the seized material (a uranium ore concentrate of natural isotopic abundance) most likely originated from Mary Kathleen, a former Australian uranium mine. PMID:24836840

  16. Passive-blind Image Forensics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tian-Tsong Ng; Shih-Fu Chang; Ching-Yung Lin; Qibin Sun

    2006-01-01

    In this chapter, we will review the research area of passive-blind image forensics, i.e., an form of image analysis for flnding out the condition of an image without relying on pre-registration or pre-embedded information. We consider the two main functions of passive-blind image forensics as be- ing image forgery detection and image source identiflcation. In this vein, we provide a

  17. Effect of electron beam irradiation on forensic evidence. 2. Analysis of writing inks on porous surfaces.

    PubMed

    Ramotowski, Robert S; Regen, Erin M

    2007-05-01

    The effect of electron beam irradiation on a series of different writing inks is described. As the anthrax-tainted letters were discovered in October 2001, the U.S. government began to experiment with the use of the electron beam irradiation process for destroying such biological agents. Plans initially considered a large-scale countrywide use of this technology. However, over time the scope of this plan as well as the radiation dosage were reduced, especially when some adverse consequences to mailed items subjected to this process were observed. Little data existed at the time to characterize what level of damage might be expected to occur with common items sent through the mail. This was especially important to museums and other institutions that routinely ship valuable and historic items through the mail. Although the Smithsonian Institution initiated some studies of the effect of electron beam irradiation on archived materials, little data existed on the effect that this process would have on forensic evidence. Approximately 97 different black, blue, red, green, and yellow writing inks were selected. Writing ink types included ballpoint, gel, plastic/felt tip, and rollerball. All noncontrol samples were subjected to standard mail irradiation conditions used by the U.S. Postal Service at the time this experiment was performed. A video spectral comparator and thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analysis were used to evaluate both the control and the irradiated samples. Some published studies reported changes in the presence/absence of dye bands in the chromatograms of irradiated writing inks. Some of these studies report the formation of additional dye bands on the chromatogram while others report missing dye bands. However, using standard testing guidelines and procedures, none of the 97 irradiated inks tested were found to show any significant optical or chemical differences from the control samples. In addition, random testing of some of the ink samples using a second solvent system did not reveal any changes. However, one control ink did show some minor changes in optical properties and dye characteristics over time (but not TLC) while the irradiated sample remained stable. Significant changes in the ultraviolet fluorescence characteristics of the irradiated paper samples themselves (not inks) were also observed. PMID:17456088

  18. FORSIGS: Forensic Signature Analysis of the Hard Drive for Multimedia File Fingerprints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Haggerty; Mark Taylor

    2007-01-01

    Computer forensics is emerging as an important tool in the fight against crime. Increasingly, computers are being used to\\u000a facilitate new criminal activity, or used in the commission of existing crimes. The networked world has seen increases in,\\u000a and the volume of, information that may be shared amongst hosts. This has given rise to major concerns over paedophile activity,\\u000a and

  19. State-of-the-art of bone marrow analysis in forensic toxicology: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathalie Cartiser; Fabien Bévalot; Laurent Fanton; Yvan Gaillard; Jérôme Guitton

    2011-01-01

    Although blood is the reference medium in the field of forensic toxicology, alternative matrices are required in case of limited,\\u000a unavailable or unusable blood samples. The present review investigated the suitability of bone marrow (BM) as an alternative\\u000a matrix to characterize xenobiotic consumption and its influence on the occurrence of death. Basic data on BM physiology are\\u000a reported in order

  20. An illustration of the advantages of efficient statistical methods for RFLP analysis in forensic science.

    PubMed Central

    Evett, I W; Scranage, J; Pinchin, R

    1993-01-01

    The debate about the statistics of DNA profiling in forensic science casework has been carried out mainly from the perspective which is generally known as "match/binning." This approach has an initial appeal because of its apparent conceptual simplicity. However, the simplicity is illusory because it encourages misconceptions which obscure the essential forensic issues. This is exemplified in a recent report of the National Research Council, which places great emphasis on the need for conservative estimation of relative frequencies while missing the point that the power of RFLP technology cannot be realized if the matching stage is inefficient. Our approach to the problem is a one-stage rather than a two-stage process, by means of one function--the likelihood ratio--which determines the evidential strength. This paper describes experiments which have been carried out to assess the power of the method in forensic science and compares it with match/binning methodology. Tests for gauging the effects of between-probe dependence are included, with the results complementing those of Risch and Devlin. PMID:8095367

  1. Hazard Analysis and Disaster Preparedness in the Fairbanks North Star Borough, Alaska using Hazard Simulations, GIS, and Network Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, K.; Prakash, A.; Witte, W.

    2011-12-01

    The Fairbanks North Star Borough (FNSB) lies in interior Alaska, an area that is dominated by semiarid, boreal forest climate. FNSB frequently witnesses flooding events, wild land fires, earthquakes, extreme winter storms and other natural and man-made hazards. Being a large 19,065 km2 area, with a population of approximately 97,000 residents, providing emergency services to residents in a timely manner is a challenge. With only four highways going in and out of the borough, and only two of those leading to another city, most residents do not have quick access to a main road. Should a major disaster occur and block one of the two highways, options for evacuating or getting supplies to the area quickly dwindle. We present the design of a Geographic Information System (GIS) and network analysis based decision support tool that we have created for planning and emergency response. This tool will be used by Emergency Service (Fire/EMS), Emergency Management, Hazardous Materials Team, and Law Enforcement Agencies within FNSB to prepare and respond to a variety of potential disasters. The GIS combines available road and address networks from different FNSB agencies with the 2010 census data. We used ESRI's ArcGIS and FEMA's HAZUS-MH software to run multiple disaster scenarios and create several evacuation and response plans. Network analysis resulted in determining response time and classifying the borough by response times to facilitate allocation of emergency resources. The resulting GIS database can be used by any responding agency in FNSB to determine possible evacuation routes, where to open evacuation centers, placement of resources, and emergency response times. We developed a specific emergency response plan for three common scenarios: (i) major wildfire threatening Fairbanks, (ii) a major earthquake, (iii) loss of power during flooding in a flood-prone area. We also combined the network analysis results with high resolution imagery and elevation data to determine 'one-way out' areas. These are areas that have only one road going in or out and if that road where to get shut down the residents would have no other way of evacuating.

  2. Forensic odontology: A prosthodontic view

    PubMed Central

    Gosavi, Sulekha; Gosavi, Siddharth

    2012-01-01

    The most common role of the forensic dentist is the identification of deceased individuals. Dental identifications have always played a key role in natural and manmade disaster situations, and in particular, the mass casualties normally associated with aviation disasters. Because of the lack of a comprehensive fingerprint database, dental identification continues to be crucial in the world. An all-acrylic resin appliance such as a full denture or an all-acrylic partial denture (or orthodontic appliance), prior to delivery, could be inscribed with the patient's full name on a substrate (paper, metal) and sealed inconspicuously into the surface of a denture by various processes. It has been noted by several authors that in many cases of air disaster where the limbs are completely burnt off, some denture materials survive, especially the posterior part of acrylic dentures and metal-based dentures. Thus, marked dental prostheses (full and partial dentures, mouthguards and removal orthodontic appliances) would lead to rapid identification in the event of accidents and disaster. PMID:23087581

  3. XIRAF - XML-based indexing and querying for digital forensics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wouter Alink; R. A. F. Bhoedjang; Peter A. Boncz; Arjen P. De Vries

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a novel, XML-based approach towards managing and querying forensic traces extracted from digital evidence. This approach has been implemented in XIRAF, a prototype system for forensic analysis. XIRAF systematically applies forensic analysis tools to evidence files (e.g., hard disk images). Each tool produces structured XML annotations that can refer to regions (byte ranges) in an evidence file.

  4. THE CASE FOR TEACHING NETWORK PROTOCOLS TO COMPUTER FORENSICS EXAMINERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary C. Kessler; Matt Fasulo

    Most computer forensics experts are well-versed in basic computer hardware technology, operating systems, common software applications, and computer forensics tools. And while many have rudimentary knowledge about the Internet and simple network-lookup tools, they are not trained in the analysis of network communication protocols and the use of packet sniffers. This paper describes digital forensics applications for network analysis and

  5. Forensic dentistry in a terrorist world.

    PubMed

    Glass, R Thomas

    2005-04-01

    While body identification by dental means has not changed substantially since 9/11, or even since the bombing of the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City in 1995, the conditions and potential risks of a bioterrorism action to the dental personnel is new. The purpose of this article is to review general forensic dentistry disaster responses and to address the impact a bioterrorism action might have on primary, secondary and tertiary dental responders. It will also examine the triage role that dental offices might play in the event of such a disaster. PMID:16013679

  6. Disaster Response on September 11, 2001 Through the Lens of Statistical Network Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Schweinberger, Michael; Petrescu-Prahova, Miruna; Vu, Duy Quang

    2014-01-01

    The rescue and relief operations triggered by the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City demanded collaboration among hundreds of organisations. To shed light on the response to the September 11, 2001 attacks and help to plan and prepare the response to future disasters, we study the inter-organisational network that emerged in response to the attacks. Studying the inter-organisational network can help to shed light on (1) whether some organisations dominated the inter-organisational network and facilitated communication and coordination of the disaster response; (2) whether the dominating organisations were supposed to coordinate disaster response or emerged as coordinators in the wake of the disaster; and (3) the degree of network redundancy and sensitivity of the inter-organisational network to disturbances following the initial disaster. We introduce a Bayesian framework which can answer the substantive questions of interest while being as simple and parsimonious as possible. The framework allows organisations to have varying propensities to collaborate, while taking covariates into account, and allows to assess whether the inter-organisational network had network redundancy—in the form of transitivity—by using a test which may be regarded as a Bayesian score test. We discuss implications in terms of disaster management. PMID:24707073

  7. md5bloom: Forensic filesystem hashing revisited

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vassil Roussev; Yixin Chen; Timothy Bourg; Golden G. Richard III

    2006-01-01

    Hashing is a fundamental tool in digital forensic analysis used both to ensure data integrity and to efficiently identify known data objects. However, despite many years of practice, its basic use has advanced little. Our objective is to leverage advanced hashing techniques in order to improve the efficiency and scalability of digital forensic analysis. Specifically, we explore the use of

  8. Molecular Forensics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sam Donovan (University of Pittsburgh; Biology)

    2006-05-20

    Can we establish the origin of an infection by looking at DNA? In the 1990â??s, suspicion that HIV in several individuals could be linked to a local dentist was investigated. We will take a closer look at sequence data from this dentist and other HIV positive individuals including patients who believed they were exposed to HIV during dental procedures. * examine viral DNA sequence data as forensic evidence

  9. Microbial Forensics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Abigail Salyers (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; )

    2004-01-01

    The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article demonstrates how microbial forensics is a relatively new field that can help in solving cases such as: bioterrorism attacks, medical negligence, and outbreaks of foodborne diseases. The paper is suitable for undergraduate and beyond levels. Excerpts from the paper are provided in a companion article at http://www.actionbioscience.org/newfrontiers/salyersarticle.html, suitable for middle school and lower division high school reading.

  10. Xbox Forensics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul K. Burke; Philip Craiger

    2006-01-01

    Microsoft's Xbox game console is little more than a low-end personal computer; with a small amount of effort it can be modified to run additional operating systems, enabling it to store gigabytes worth of non-game-related files in addition to allowing it to run various computer services. Little has been published, however, on the proper forensic procedures to determine whether an

  11. Forensic Computing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiang Li; Jennifer Seberry

    2003-01-01

    \\u000a Technology is rapidly changing the speed and manner in which people interact with each other and with the world. As technology\\u000a helps criminals to operate more easily and quickly across borders, so law enforcement capability must continuously improve\\u000a to keep one step ahead. Computer forensics has become a specialized and accepted investigative technique with its own tools\\u000a and legal precedents

  12. Matching an oil spill with its source requires methods that take into account the weathering of oil in the spill. [Forensic chemical analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bentz

    1978-01-01

    The analytical approach to the identification of the source of an oil spill is discussed. Since the identification of the source of an oil spill requires a forensic chemical analysis, several different types of analyses are used, namely, thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, low-temperature luminescence, infrared spectroscopy, and emission spectroscopy. The application of these methods to the process of

  13. Multimedia Forensics Is Not Computer Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhme, Rainer; Freiling, Felix C.; Gloe, Thomas; Kirchner, Matthias

    The recent popularity of research on topics of multimedia forensics justifies reflections on the definition of the field. This paper devises an ontology that structures forensic disciplines by their primary domain of evidence. In this sense, both multimedia forensics and computer forensics belong to the class of digital forensics, but they differ notably in the underlying observer model that defines the forensic investigator’s view on (parts of) reality, which itself is not fully cognizable. Important consequences on the reliability of probative facts emerge with regard to available counter-forensic techniques: while perfect concealment of traces is possible for computer forensics, this level of certainty cannot be expected for manipulations of sensor data. We cite concrete examples and refer to established techniques to support our arguments.

  14. Microbial forensics: the next forensic challenge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce Budowle; Randall Murch; Ranajit Chakraborty

    2005-01-01

    Pathogens and toxins can be converted to bioweapons and used to commit bioterrorism and biocrime. Because of the potential and relative ease of an attack using a bioweapon, forensic science needs to be prepared to assist in the investigation to bring perpetrators to justice and to deter future attacks. A new subfield of forensics—microbial forensics—has been created, which is focused

  15. Forensic hash for multimedia information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wenjun; Varna, Avinash L.; Wu, Min

    2010-01-01

    Digital multimedia such as images and videos are prevalent on today's internet and cause significant social impact, which can be evidenced by the proliferation of social networking sites with user generated contents. Due to the ease of generating and modifying images and videos, it is critical to establish trustworthiness for online multimedia information. In this paper, we propose novel approaches to perform multimedia forensics using compact side information to reconstruct the processing history of a document. We refer to this as FASHION, standing for Forensic hASH for informatION assurance. Based on the Radon transform and scale space theory, the proposed forensic hash is compact and can effectively estimate the parameters of geometric transforms and detect local tampering that an image may have undergone. Forensic hash is designed to answer a broader range of questions regarding the processing history of multimedia data than the simple binary decision from traditional robust image hashing, and also offers more efficient and accurate forensic analysis than multimedia forensic techniques that do not use any side information.

  16. Disaster Preparedness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... National Institutes of Health NIH...Turning Discovery Into Health® National Institute on Aging People with Alzheimer’s disease can be especially vulnerable during disasters such as severe weather, fires, floods, earthquakes, and other emergency situations. It is important ...

  17. Disaster Math

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    This site will help you to practice math while reviewing science! Disaster math has five great mathematical problems that discuss the effects and aftermath of earthquakes. When you are finished attempting the problems you can check your score!

  18. Mass Disasters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cristina Cattneo; Danilo De Angelis; Marco Grandi

    A mass disaster is commonly construed as an event (air, naval, railway, or motorway accident, flooding, earthquake, and so\\u000a on), resulting in a large number of victims that need to be identified and subject to medicolegal investigation. Furthermore,\\u000a depending on which continent one comes from, innumerous protocols and procedures are available, the Interpol Disaster Victim\\u000a Identification form being the most

  19. A person-centered analysis of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms following a natural disaster: predictors of latent class membership.

    PubMed

    Rosellini, Anthony J; Coffey, Scott F; Tracy, Melissa; Galea, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    The present study applied latent class analysis to a sample of 810 participants residing in southern Mississippi at the time of Hurricane Katrina to determine if people would report distinct, meaningful PTSD symptom classes following a natural disaster. We found a four-class solution that distinguished persons on the basis of PTSD symptom severity/pervasiveness (Severe, Moderate, Mild, and Negligible Classes). Multinomial logistic regression models demonstrated that membership in the Severe and Moderate Classes was associated with potentially traumatic hurricane-specific experiences (e.g., being physically injured, seeing dead bodies), pre-hurricane traumatic events, co-occurring depression symptom severity and suicidal ideation, certain religious beliefs, and post-hurricane stressors (e.g., social support). Collectively, the findings suggest that more severe/pervasive typologies of natural disaster PTSD may be predicted by the frequency and severity of exposure to stressful/traumatic experiences (before, during, and after the disaster), co-occurring psychopathology, and specific internal beliefs. PMID:24334161

  20. A Person-Centered Analysis of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Following a Natural Disaster: Predictors of Latent Class Membership

    PubMed Central

    Rosellini, Anthony J.; Coffey, Scott F.; Tracy, Melissa; Galea, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    The present study applied latent class analysis to a sample of 810 participants residing in southern Mississippi at the time of Hurricane Katrina to determine if people would report distinct, meaningful PTSD symptom classes following a natural disaster. We found a four-class solution that distinguished persons on the basis of PTSD symptom severity/pervasiveness (Severe, Moderate, Mild, and Negligible Classes). Multinomial logistic regression models demonstrated that membership in the Severe and Moderate Classes was associated with potentially traumatic hurricane-specific experiences (e.g., being physically injured, seeing dead bodies), pre-hurricane traumatic events, co-occurring depression symptom severity and suicidal ideation, certain religious beliefs, and post-hurricane stressors (e.g., social support). Collectively, the findings suggest that more severe/pervasive typologies of natural disaster PTSD may be predicted by the frequency and severity of exposure to stressful/traumatic experiences (before, during, and after the disaster), co-occurring psychopathology, and specific internal beliefs. PMID:24334161

  1. Forensic aspects of insulin.

    PubMed

    Marks, Vincent; Wark, Gwen

    2013-09-01

    Insulin or, more appropriately, hypoglycaemia gives rise to a wide variety of interactions with the law. In most cases its role is not seriously open to question occasionally however, it is. This is especially true of situations in which insulin is suspected of having been used inappropriately or maliciously. The major differences between investigation of hypoglycaemia in clinical and forensic situation are that in the latter the history is often unreliable, appropriate samples for analysis were not collected, preserved or labelled correctly and analytical results are likely to be challenged on grounds of specificity, accuracy and interpretation. Immunoassay remains the mainstay of clinical investigation of hypoglycaemia but likely to become displaced by mass-spectrometry in the forensic situation especially now that human insulin is being replaced by synthetic insulin analogues for the treatment of diabetes. PMID:23751444

  2. Computer Forensics: An Essential Ingredient for Cyber Security

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Bassett; Linda Bass; Paul O'Brien

    Computer forensics uses computer investigation and analysis techniques to collect evidence regarding what happened on a computer that is admissible in a court of law. Computer forensics requires a well- balanced combination of technical skills, legal acumen, and ethical conduct. Computer forensics specialists use powerful software tools to uncover data to be sorted through, and then must figure out the

  3. On the role of file system metadata in digital forensics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florian P. Buchholz; Eugene H. Spafford

    2004-01-01

    Most of the eort in today's digital forensics community lies in the retrieval and analysis of existing information from computing systems. Little is being done to increase the quantity and quality of the forensic information on today's computing systems. In this paper we pose the question of what kind of information is desired on a system by a forensic investigator.

  4. Factors Predicting Organizational Identification with Intercollegiate Forensics Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croucher, Stephen M.; Long, Bridget L.; Meredith, Michael J.; Oommen, Deepa; Steele, Emily L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between intercollegiate forensics competitors' organizational identification and organizational culture. Through a survey analysis of 314 intercollegiate forensics students, this study reports three major findings. First, this study found male competitors identify with forensics programs more than female…

  5. Forensic Data Carving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povar, Digambar; Bhadran, V. K.

    File or data carving is a term used in the field of Cyber forensics. Cyber forensics is the process of acquisition, authentication, analysis and documentation of evidence extracted from and/or contained in a computer system, computer network and digital media. Extracting data (file) out of undifferentiated blocks (raw data) is called as carving. Identifying and recovering files based on analysis of file formats is known as file carving. In Cyber Forensics, carving is a helpful technique in finding hidden or deleted files from digital media. A file can be hidden in areas like lost clusters, unallocated clusters and slack space of the disk or digital media. To use this method of extraction, a file should have a standard file signature called a file header (start of the file). A search is performed to locate the file header and continued until the file footer (end of the file) is reached. The data between these two points will be extracted and analyzed to validate the file. The extraction algorithm uses different methods of carving depending on the file formats.

  6. Rainfall and snow-melt triggered glacial lake outbursts: a systematic analysis of the Kedarnath (Uttarakhand, India), June 2013 disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Simon; Rastner, Philipp; Arora, Manohar; Huggel, Christian; Stoffel, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Heavy rainfall in early June 2013 triggered flash flooding and landslides throughout the Indian Himalayan state of Uttarakhand, killing more than 6000 people. The destruction of roads and trekking routes left around 100,000 pilgrims and tourists stranded. Most fatalities and damages resulted directly from a lake outburst and debris flow disaster originating from above the village of Kedarnath on June 16 and 17. Here we provide a first systematic analysis of the contributing factors leading to the Kedarnath disaster, both in terms of hydro-meteorological triggering (rainfall, snowmelt, and temperature) and topographic predisposition. Specifically, the topographic characteristics of the Charobari lake watershed above Kedarnath are compared with other glacial lakes across the northwestern Indian Himalayan states of Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh, and implications for glacier lake outburst hazard assessment in a changing climate are discussed. Our analysis suggests that the early onset of heavy monsoon rainfall (390 mm, June 10 - 17) immediately following a prolonged four week period of unusually rapid snow cover depletion and elevated streamflow is the crucial hydro-meteorological factor, resulting in slope saturation and significant runoff into the small seasonal glacial lake. Over a four week period the MODIS-derived snow covered area above Kedarnath decreased nearly 50%, from above average coverage in mid-May to well below average coverage by the second week of June. Such a rapid decrease has not been observed in the previous 13-year record, where the average decrease in snow covered area over the same four week window is only 15%. The unusual situation of the lake being dammed in a steep, unstable paraglacial environment, but fed entirely from snow-melt and rainfall within a fluvial dominated watershed is important in the context of this disaster. A simple scheme enabling large-scale recognition of such an unfavorable topographic setting is presented, and on the basis of all assessed watershed parameters, the situation at Charobari lake indicates an anomalous predisposition towards rapid runoff and infilling during enhanced snowmelt or heavy rainfall. In view of projected 21st century changes in monsoon timing and heavy precipitation in South Asia, more emphasis should be given to potential hydro-meteorological triggering of lake outburst and related debris flow disasters in the Himalayas. The potential for Kedarnath-type lake breaching may further increase as glaciers recede or ultimately disappear, and watersheds become increasingly rainfall dominated. Hence, a long-term perspective to glacier lake outburst hazard assessment and management is required, as the greatest threat from hydro-meteorological triggering of related disasters may only be realized in an ice-free environment.

  7. Detection Strategies for Malingering with the Miller Forensic Assessment of Symptoms Test: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Its Underlying Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitacco, Michael J.; Jackson, Rebecca L.; Rogers, Richard; Neumann, Craig S.; Miller, Holly A.; Gabel, Jason

    2008-01-01

    Two of the most widely used measures for the assessment of malingering in forensic populations are the Miller Forensic Assessment of Symptoms Test (M-FAST) and the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS). The underlying dimensions of the SIRS have been well established in the literature, but the structure of the M-FAST remains relatively…

  8. An interactive approach for hierarchical analysis of helicopter logistics in disaster relief operations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gülay Barbarosoglu; Linet Özdamar; Ahmet Çevik

    2002-01-01

    This study develops a mathematical model for helicopter mission planning during a disaster relief operation. The decisions inherent in the problem decompose hierarchically into two sub-problems where tactical decisions are made at the top level, and the operational routing and loading decisions are made at the base level. Consistency between the decomposed problems is achieved with an iterative coordination procedure

  9. Fuzzy logic analysis of flood disaster monitoring and assessment of damage in SE Anatolia Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hüseyin BAYRAKTAR; Bülent BAYRAM

    2009-01-01

    Southeast Anatolia Region was subject to a large flood disaster whose severity is expected only once each 100 years in November 2006. Several people died or injured after a very heavy rain fell which outlast nearly 3 hours. Nonetheless government made a strong effort to interfere the casualties. Before and after images of TERRA\\/ASTER satellite were used to analyse the

  10. NOAA's Improved Fire and Smoke Analysis, A Global Disaster Information Network Initiative

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Stephens; D. P. McNamara; R. Fennimore; B. H. Ramsay; M. Ruminski

    2001-01-01

    The National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) of The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) produces a smoke and fire monitoring product based on environmental satellite data. In response to an initiative by NOAA's Global Disaster Information Network (GDIN), NESDIS is in the process of enhancing this product to better serve the needs of its customers. Environmental satellitescan

  11. Tailoring Disaster Mental Health Services to Diverse Needs: An Analysis of 36 Crisis Counseling Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Craig S.; Greene, Carolyn J.; Young, Helena E.; Norris, Fran H.

    2010-01-01

    The federal Crisis Counseling Program (CCP) funds states' delivery of mental health services after disasters. These services are provided by social workers, other mental health professionals, and paraprofessionals from the local community. The present study examined whether CCP grant recipients that reported more tailoring of their interventions…

  12. Study Of The Risks Arising From Natural Disasters And Hazards On Urban And Intercity Motorways By Using Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA) Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DEL?CE, Yavuz

    2015-04-01

    Highways, Located in the city and intercity locations are generally prone to many kind of natural disaster risks. Natural hazards and disasters that may occur firstly from highway project making to construction and operation stages and later during the implementation of highway maintenance and repair stages have to be taken into consideration. And assessment of risks that may occur against adverse situations is very important in terms of project design, construction, operation maintenance and repair costs. Making hazard and natural disaster risk analysis is largely depending on the definition of the likelihood of the probable hazards on the highways. However, assets at risk , and the impacts of the events must be examined and to be rated in their own. With the realization of these activities, intended improvements against natural hazards and disasters will be made with the utilization of Failure Mode Effects Analysis (FMEA) method and their effects will be analyzed with further works. FMEA, is a useful method to identify the failure mode and effects depending on the type of failure rate effects priorities and finding the most optimum economic and effective solution. Although relevant measures being taken for the identified risks by this analysis method , it may also provide some information for some public institutions about the nature of these risks when required. Thus, the necessary measures will have been taken in advance in the city and intercity highways. Many hazards and natural disasters are taken into account in risk assessments. The most important of these dangers can be listed as follows; • Natural disasters 1. Meteorological based natural disasters (floods, severe storms, tropical storms, winter storms, avalanches, etc.). 2. Geological based natural disasters (earthquakes, tsunamis, landslides, subsidence, sinkholes, etc) • Human originated disasters 1. Transport accidents (traffic accidents), originating from the road surface defects (icing, signaling caused malfunctions and risks), fire or explosion etc.- In this study, with FMEA method, risk analysis of the urban and intercity motorways against natural disasters and hazards have been performed and found solutions were brought against these risks. Keywords: Failure Modes Effects Analysis (FMEA), Pareto Analyses (PA), Highways, Risk Management.

  13. Objective forensic analysis of striated, quasi-striated and impressed toolmarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spotts, Ryan E.

    Following the 1993 Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc. court case and continuing to the 2010 National Academy of Sciences report, comparative forensic toolmark examination has received many challenges to its admissibility in court cases and its scientific foundations. Many of these challenges deal with the subjective nature in determining whether toolmarks are identifiable. This questioning of current identification methods has created a demand for objective methods of identification - "objective" implying known error rates and statistically reliability. The demand for objective methods has resulted in research that created a statistical algorithm capable of comparing toolmarks to determine their statistical similarity, and thus the ability to separate matching and nonmatching toolmarks. This was expanded to the creation of virtual toolmarking (characterization of a tool to predict the toolmark it will create). The statistical algorithm, originally designed for two-dimensional striated toolmarks, had been successfully applied to striated screwdriver and quasi-striated plier toolmarks. Following this success, a blind study was conducted to validate the virtual toolmarking capability using striated screwdriver marks created at various angles of incidence. Work was also performed to optimize the statistical algorithm by implementing means to ensure the algorithm operations were constrained to logical comparison regions (e.g. the opposite ends of two toolmarks do not need to be compared because they do not coincide with each other). This work was performed on quasi-striated shear cut marks made with pliers - a previously tested, more difficult application of the statistical algorithm that could demonstrate the difference in results due to optimization. The final research conducted was performed with pseudostriated impression toolmarks made with chisels. Impression marks, which are more complex than striated marks, were analyzed using the algorithm to separate matching and nonmatching toolmarks. Results of the conducted research are presented as well as evidence of the primary assumption of forensic toolmark examination; all tools can create identifiably unique toolmarks.

  14. Understanding Impact and Implications of Data Standards on Post Disaster Risk Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, Robert

    2010-05-01

    Although the physical and humanitarian effects of a natural catastrophe are often bound to the locality of the event the financial impacts can have global effects. This is particularly prominent in the re/insurance community, where through a number of market mechanisms and re/insurance structures financial loss is mitigated amongst many companies across the globe. The level of risk a company wishes to retain, given an event, represents the level of risk decision makers deem acceptable. Catastrophe risk modelling tools aid the estimation of risk retention and transfer mechanisms, and increasingly the level of capital required to withstand a catastrophic event. These tools rely on appropriate representations hazard, exposure, vulnerability and insurance conditions that reflect the reality of risk. In addition, accurate estimation of loss potential in the aftermath of a catastrophic event equally relies on the data available to assess the scale of damages experienced and to provide views on the likely scale of loss. A coherent and focussed data and modelling strategy is required to ensure that the risk assessment made is as accurate as possible. A fundamental factor in determining the accuracy of catastrophe output, is the quality of data entered. It is of vital importance, therefore, to have an understanding of both the data used as well as the standard of this data, which will so powerfully impact upon the decision making process. This is perhaps best illustrated through the study of historical events, such as Hurricane Katrina and Ike. The extent of data variance in post disaster analysis clearly demonstrates issues of data discrepancies, vintage, resolution and uncertainty propagation, and reflects on the standard of the original data utilized for modelling purposes and decision making. Using experience gained from recent events, this paper will explore current data variabilities, and the impacts on effective loss estimation, both in relation to reinsurance structuring, but also in terms of effective post-event analysis. It will provide views on how data is currently applied in this context, and will make suggestions as to the most important areas for future data improvements.

  15. The application of chemometrics on Infrared and Raman spectra as a tool for the forensic analysis of paints.

    PubMed

    Muehlethaler, Cyril; Massonnet, Genevieve; Esseiva, Pierre

    2011-06-15

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the capabilities and limitations of chemometric methods and other mathematical treatments applied on spectroscopic data and more specifically on paint samples. The uniqueness of the spectroscopic data comes from the fact that they are multivariate - a few thousands variables - and highly correlated. Statistical methods are used to study and discriminate samples. A collection of 34 red paint samples was measured by Infrared and Raman spectroscopy. Data pretreatment and variable selection demonstrated that the use of Standard Normal Variate (SNV), together with removal of the noisy variables by a selection of the wavelengths from 650 to 1830 cm(-1) and 2730-3600 cm(-1), provided the optimal results for infrared analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clusters analysis (HCA) were then used as exploratory techniques to provide evidence of structure in the data, cluster, or detect outliers. With the FTIR spectra, the Principal Components (PCs) correspond to binder types and the presence/absence of calcium carbonate. 83% of the total variance is explained by the four first PCs. As for the Raman spectra, we observe six different clusters corresponding to the different pigment compositions when plotting the first two PCs, which account for 37% and 20% respectively of the total variance. In conclusion, the use of chemometrics for the forensic analysis of paints provides a valuable tool for objective decision-making, a reduction of the possible classification errors, and a better efficiency, having robust results with time saving data treatments. PMID:21353751

  16. Forensic toxicology.

    PubMed

    Drummer, Olaf H

    2010-01-01

    Forensic toxicology has developed as a forensic science in recent years and is now widely used to assist in death investigations, in civil and criminal matters involving drug use, in drugs of abuse testing in correctional settings and custodial medicine, in road and workplace safety, in matters involving environmental pollution, as well as in sports doping. Drugs most commonly targeted include amphetamines, benzodiazepines, cannabis, cocaine and the opiates, but can be any other illicit substance or almost any over-the-counter or prescribed drug, as well as poisons available to the community. The discipline requires high level skills in analytical techniques with a solid knowledge of pharmacology and pharmacokinetics. Modern techniques rely heavily on immunoassay screening analyses and mass spectrometry (MS) for confirmatory analyses using either high-performance liquid chromatography or gas chromatography as the separation technique. Tandem MS has become more and more popular compared to single-stage MS. It is essential that analytical systems are fully validated and fit for the purpose and the assay batches are monitored with quality controls. External proficiency programs monitor both the assay and the personnel performing the work. For a laboratory to perform optimally, it is vital that the circumstances and context of the case are known and the laboratory understands the limitations of the analytical systems used, including drug stability. Drugs and poisons can change concentration postmortem due to poor or unequal quality of blood and other specimens, anaerobic metabolism and redistribution. The latter provides the largest handicap in the interpretation of postmortem results. PMID:20358697

  17. Bridging biometrics and forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yanjun; Osadciw, Lisa Ann

    2008-02-01

    This paper is a survey on biometrics and forensics, especially on the techniques and applications of face recognition in forensics. This paper describes the differences and connections between biometrics and forensics, and bridges each other by formulating the conditions when biometrics can be applied in forensics. Under these conditions, face recognition, as a non-intrusive and non-contact biometrics, is discussed in detail as an illustration of applying biometrics in forensics. The discussion on face recognition covers different approaches, feature extractions, and decision procedures. The advantages and limitations of biometrics in forensic applications are also addressed.

  18. Comparative analysis of permanent post-disaster houses constructed in Çank?r? and Dinar.

    PubMed

    Dikmen, Nese

    2011-04-01

    A major challenge after an earthquake is how to establish a new residential area of a similar or even improved standard for people who have suffered psychological, social and economic impacts and witnessed significant damage to the physical environment. As part of a research project conducted in 2005 and 2008, questionnaires were administered to the permanent occupiers of post-disaster houses in the Turkish cities of Çank?r? and Dinar. They were asked to compare the comfort levels and other characteristics of the houses in which they now reside with those of the traditional houses in which they used to live. The survey revealed that such aspects do not differ between the two types of accommodation. However, differences were identified between the two areas under review (Çank?r? and Dinar). In addition, average scores for traditional houses were higher than those for post-disaster houses in both places. PMID:21054498

  19. Crop insurance as a form of disaster relief: an analysis of the alternatives 

    E-print Network

    Crenwelge, Cheryl

    1990-01-01

    Disaster Payments 4. Farm Program Participation Example of Inequity Under Administration Proposal 17 29 35 Summary Evaluation of Crop Insurance Alternatives 39 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY INTRODUCTION The federal crop insurance has failed to provide..., " Agricultural Law (November, 1985) : 120A-B. Overview of Program Operation The crop insurance program is administered under the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation (FCIC), an agency within the U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). FCIC is a wholly owned...

  20. [Disaster medicine].

    PubMed

    Carli, Pierre; Telionri, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    For over 30 years, the French hospital and pre-hospital medical teams are trained in disaster medicine. In fact, they are regularly confronted with the management of multiple casualties in accidents or even terrorist attacks, and more rarely to large-scale disasters. The intervention of physicians of the EMS system (SAMU-SMUR) in the field allows an original healthcare organization: in an advanced medical post, the victims are triaged according to their severity and benefit if needed of initial resuscitation. SAMU medical regulating center then organize their transport and repartition in several hospitals put on alert. To cope with a mass casualty situation, the hospital also has a specific organization, the White Plan. This plan, initiated by the director, assisted by a medico-administrative cell crisis can mobilize all the resources of the institution. Personnel are recalled and the ability of emergency units is increased. Care, less urgent, other patients are postponed. There are many plans for responding to disasters. ORSEC plans of the ministry of Interior articulate with the ORSAN plans of the ministry of Health. This complementarity allows a global mobilization of public services in disasters or exceptional medical situations. PMID:25842432

  1. Surviving Disasters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henke, Karen Greenwood

    2008-01-01

    Schools play a unique role in communities when disaster strikes. They serve as shelter for evacuees and first responders; they are a trusted source of information; and once danger has passed, the district, as employer and community center, often serves as a foundation for recovery. Technology plays a key role in a school district's ability to…

  2. Disaster Drill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rebecca

    1998-01-01

    Bus disaster drills have been held all over country for years. A drill in Blairsville, Pennsylvania, taught officials important lessons: (1) keep roster of students and stops in designated area on bus, and ensure emergency workers know where location; (2) send at least three school officials to accident scene; (3) provide school officials with…

  3. Forensic pharmacy: can you prove it?

    PubMed

    Wick, Jeannette Y

    2013-07-01

    Forensic science is the acquisition, analysis, and application of scientific data to provide the legal system with answers to questions of interest. Pharmacy fills a forensic niche. Most pharmacists work in forensics part-time at their regular job or moonlight. A rare few work full-time. Most often, forensic pharmacists work as consultants to attorneys, claims adjustors, detectives/investigators, and other forensic specialists. These pharmacists review cases much like a clinical pharmacist or pharmacy manager would review a clinical challenge or administrative problem, but with an eye to the specific legal issues. Pharmacists' expert testimony has traditionally been offered in either therapeutics and human pharmacology or pharmacy practice. New specialty areas include drug-induced violence and death investigations. Deaths in long-term care facilities constitute their own category, and every state has its own approach. The law and science consider evidence quite differently, and sometimes, final verdicts surprise scientists. PMID:23835459

  4. Determinants of the lethality of climate-related disasters in the Caribbean Community (CARICOM): a cross-country analysis.

    PubMed

    Andrewin, Aisha N; Rodriguez-Llanes, Jose M; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2015-01-01

    Floods and storms are climate-related hazards posing high mortality risk to Caribbean Community (CARICOM) nations. However risk factors for their lethality remain untested. We conducted an ecological study investigating risk factors for flood and storm lethality in CARICOM nations for the period 1980-2012. Lethality - deaths versus no deaths per disaster event- was the outcome. We examined biophysical and social vulnerability proxies and a decadal effect as predictors. We developed our regression model via multivariate analysis using a generalized logistic regression model with quasi-binomial distribution; removal of multi-collinear variables and backward elimination. Robustness was checked through subset analysis. We found significant positive associations between lethality, percentage of total land dedicated to agriculture (odds ratio [OR] 1.032; 95% CI: 1.013-1.053) and percentage urban population (OR 1.029, 95% CI 1.003-1.057). Deaths were more likely in the 2000-2012 period versus 1980-1989 (OR 3.708, 95% CI 1.615-8.737). Robustness checks revealed similar coefficients and directions of association. Population health in CARICOM nations is being increasingly impacted by climate-related disasters connected to increasing urbanization and land use patterns. Our findings support the evidence base for setting sustainable development goals (SDG). PMID:26153115

  5. Determinants of the lethality of climate-related disasters in the Caribbean Community (CARICOM): a cross-country analysis

    PubMed Central

    Andrewin, Aisha N.; Rodriguez-Llanes, Jose M.; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2015-01-01

    Floods and storms are climate-related hazards posing high mortality risk to Caribbean Community (CARICOM) nations. However risk factors for their lethality remain untested. We conducted an ecological study investigating risk factors for flood and storm lethality in CARICOM nations for the period 1980–2012. Lethality - deaths versus no deaths per disaster event- was the outcome. We examined biophysical and social vulnerability proxies and a decadal effect as predictors. We developed our regression model via multivariate analysis using a generalized logistic regression model with quasi-binomial distribution; removal of multi-collinear variables and backward elimination. Robustness was checked through subset analysis. We found significant positive associations between lethality, percentage of total land dedicated to agriculture (odds ratio [OR] 1.032; 95% CI: 1.013–1.053) and percentage urban population (OR 1.029, 95% CI 1.003–1.057). Deaths were more likely in the 2000–2012 period versus 1980–1989 (OR 3.708, 95% CI 1.615–8.737). Robustness checks revealed similar coefficients and directions of association. Population health in CARICOM nations is being increasingly impacted by climate-related disasters connected to increasing urbanization and land use patterns. Our findings support the evidence base for setting sustainable development goals (SDG). PMID:26153115

  6. COE589: Digital Forensics Research in Digital Forensics

    E-print Network

    Almulhem, Ahmad

    computing) ­ imaging ­ carving ­ history timeline ­ ... COE589 - Ahmad Almulhem 11 #12;4. Live Acquisition information ­ Gathering information from books, magazines, and Internet is not research · Does not contribute accurate is the analysis? COE589 - Ahmad Almulhem 12 #12;5. Media Types · Computer forensics evolved

  7. Interim Report on SNP analysis and forensic microarray probe design for South American hemorrhagic fever viruses, tick-borne encephalitis virus, henipaviruses, Old World Arenaviruses, filoviruses, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever viruses, Rift Valley fever

    SciTech Connect

    Jaing, C; Gardner, S

    2012-06-05

    The goal of this project is to develop forensic genotyping assays for select agent viruses, enhancing the current capabilities for the viral bioforensics and law enforcement community. We used a multipronged approach combining bioinformatics analysis, PCR-enriched samples, microarrays and TaqMan assays to develop high resolution and cost effective genotyping methods for strain level forensic discrimination of viruses. We have leveraged substantial experience and efficiency gained through year 1 on software development, SNP discovery, TaqMan signature design and phylogenetic signature mapping to scale up the development of forensics signatures in year 2. In this report, we have summarized the whole genome wide SNP analysis and microarray probe design for forensics characterization of South American hemorrhagic fever viruses, tick-borne encephalitis viruses and henipaviruses, Old World Arenaviruses, filoviruses, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus and Japanese encephalitis virus.

  8. Rapid Disaster Damage Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, T. T.

    2012-07-01

    The experiences from recent disaster events showed that detailed information derived from high-resolution satellite images could accommodate the requirements from damage analysts and disaster management practitioners. Richer information contained in such high-resolution images, however, increases the complexity of image analysis. As a result, few image analysis solutions can be practically used under time pressure in the context of post-disaster and emergency responses. To fill the gap in employment of remote sensing in disaster response, this research develops a rapid high-resolution satellite mapping solution built upon a dual-scale contextual framework to support damage estimation after a catastrophe. The target objects are building (or building blocks) and their condition. On the coarse processing level, statistical region merging deployed to group pixels into a number of coarse clusters. Based on majority rule of vegetation index, water and shadow index, it is possible to eliminate the irrelevant clusters. The remaining clusters likely consist of building structures and others. On the fine processing level details, within each considering clusters, smaller objects are formed using morphological analysis. Numerous indicators including spectral, textural and shape indices are computed to be used in a rule-based object classification. Computation time of raster-based analysis highly depends on the image size or number of processed pixels in order words. Breaking into 2 level processing helps to reduce the processed number of pixels and the redundancy of processing irrelevant information. In addition, it allows a data- and tasks- based parallel implementation. The performance is demonstrated with QuickBird images captured a disaster-affected area of Phanga, Thailand by the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami are used for demonstration of the performance. The developed solution will be implemented in different platforms as well as a web processing service for operational uses.

  9. Integrating Forensic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funkhouser, John; Deslich, Barbara J.

    2000-01-01

    Explains the implementation of forensic science in an integrated curriculum and discusses the advantages of this approach. Lists the forensic science course syllabi studied in three high schools. Discusses the unit on polymers in detail. (YDS)

  10. International forensic automotive paint database

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory A. Bishea; Joe L. Buckle; Scott G. Ryland

    1999-01-01

    The Technical Working Group for Materials Analysis (TWGMAT) is supporting an international forensic automotive paint database. The Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) are collaborating on this effort through TWGMAT. This paper outlines the support and further development of the RCMP's Automotive Paint Database, `Paint Data Query'. This cooperative agreement augments and supports a current,

  11. Computer Forensics in Forensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sean Peisert; Matt Bishop; Keith Marzullo

    2008-01-01

    Dierent users apply computer forensic systems, models, and terminology in very dierent ways. They often make incompatible assumptions and reach dierent conclusions about the validity and accuracy of the methods they use to log, audit, and present forensic data. In fact, it can be hard to say who, if anyone is right. We present several forensic systems and discuss situations

  12. Forensic entomology in Germany

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jens Amendt; Roman Krettek; Constanze Niess; Richard Zehner; Hansjürgen Bratzke

    2000-01-01

    Forensic entomology (FE) is increasingly gaining international recognition. In Germany, however, the development of FE has been stagnating, mainly because of the lack of cooperation between police, forensic medicine and entomology. In 1997 a co-operative research project ‘Forensic Entomology’ was started in Frankfurt\\/Main at the Center of Legal Medicine and the Research Institute Senckenberg. The aim of this project is

  13. What can multiwave studies teach us about disaster research: an analysis of low-income Hurricane Katrina survivors.

    PubMed

    Green, Gillian; Lowe, Sarah R; Rhodes, Jean E

    2012-06-01

    Previous research on natural disasters has been limited by a lack of predisaster data and statistical analyses that do not adequately predict change in psychological symptoms. In the current study, we addressed these limitations through analysis of 3 waves of data from a longitudinal investigation of 313 low-income, African American mothers who were exposed to Hurricane Katrina. Although postdisaster cross-sectional estimates of the impact of traumatic stress exposure and postdisaster social support on postdisaster psychological distress were somewhat inflated, the general trends persisted when controlling for predisaster data (B = 0.88 and -0.33, vs. B = 0.81 and -0.27, respectively). Hierarchical linear modeling of the 3 waves of data revealed that lower predisaster social support was associated with higher psychological distress at the time of the disaster (? = -.16), and that higher traumatic stress exposure was associated with greater increases in psychological distress after the storm (? = .86). Based on the results, we suggest that the impact of traumatic stress on psychological trajectories cannot be accounted for solely by preexisting risk, and recommend more complex research designs to further illuminate the complex, dynamic relationships between psychological distress, traumatic stress exposure, and social support. PMID:22684676

  14. What Can Multiwave Studies Teach Us About Disaster Research: An Analysis of Low-Income Hurricane Katrina Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Green, Gillian; Lowe, Sarah R.; Rhodes, Jean E.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research on natural disasters has been limited by a lack of predisaster data and statistical analyses that do not adequately predict change in psychological symptoms. In the current study, we addressed these limitations through analysis of 3 waves of data from a longitudinal investigation of 313 low-income, African American mothers who were exposed to Hurricane Katrina. Although postdisaster cross-sectional estimates of the impact of traumatic stress exposure and postdisaster social support on postdisaster psychological distress were somewhat inflated, the general trends persisted when controlling for predisaster data (B = 0.88 and ?0.33, vs. B = 0.81 and ?0.27, respectively). Hierarchical linear modeling of the 3 waves of data revealed that lower predisaster social support was associated with higher psychological distress at the time of the disaster (? = ?.16), and that higher traumatic stress exposure was associated with greater increases in psychological distress after the storm (? = .86). Based on the results, we suggest that the impact of traumatic stress on psychological trajectories cannot be accounted for solely by preexisting risk, and recommend more complex research designs to further illuminate the complex, dynamic relationships between psychological distress, traumatic stress exposure, and social support. PMID:22684676

  15. Expanding forensic science through forensic intelligence.

    PubMed

    Ribaux, Olivier; Talbot Wright, Benjamin

    2014-12-01

    Research and Development ('R&D') in forensic science currently focuses on innovative technologies improving the efficiency of existing forensic processes, from the detection of marks and traces at the scene, to their presentation in Court. R&D approached from this perspective provides no response to doubts raised by recent criminological studies, which question the effective contribution of forensic science to crime reduction, and to policing in general. Traces (i.e. forensic case data), as remnants of criminal activity are collected and used in various forms of crime monitoring and investigation. The aforementioned doubts therefore need to be addressed by expressing how information is conveyed by traces in these processes. Modelling from this standpoint expands the scope of forensic science and provides new R&D opportunities. Twelve propositions for R&D are stated in order to pave the way. PMID:25498939

  16. Forensic analysis of printing inks using tandem Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subedi, Kiran; Trejos, Tatiana; Almirall, José

    2015-01-01

    Elemental analysis, using either LA-ICP-MS or LIBS, can be used for the chemical characterization of materials of forensic interest to discriminate between source materials originating from different sources and also for the association of materials known to originate from the same source. In this study, a tandem LIBS/LA-ICP-MS system that combines the benefits of both LIBS and LA-ICP-MS was evaluated for the characterization of samples of printing inks (toners, inkjets, intaglio and offset.). The performance of both laser sampling methods is presented. A subset of 9 black laser toners, 10 colored (CMYK) inkjet samples, 12 colored (CMYK) offset samples and 12 intaglio inks originating from different manufacturing sources were analyzed to evaluate the discrimination capability of the tandem method. These samples were selected because they presented a very similar elemental profile by LA-ICP-MS. Although typical discrimination between different ink sources is found to be > 99% for a variety of inks when only LA-ICP-MS was used for the analysis, additional discrimination was achieved by combining the elemental results from the LIBS analysis to the LA-ICP-MS analysis in the tandem technique, enhancing the overall discrimination capability of the individual laser ablation methods. The LIBS measurements of the Ca, Fe, K and Si signals, in particular, improved the discrimination for this specific set of different ink samples previously shown to exhibit very similar LA-ICP-MS elemental profiles. The combination of these two techniques in a single setup resulted in better discrimination of the printing inks with two distinct fingerprint spectra, providing information from atomic/ionic emissions and isotopic composition (m/z) for each ink sample.

  17. Ecological Disaster

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johan M. Havenaar

    \\u000a On September 11, 2001, as this book was on its way to press, disaster struck once again. Two hijacked airplanes, fully loaded\\u000a with passengers and fuel crashed into the World Trade Center in New York and another into the Pentagon in Washington, D.C.\\u000a A fourth airplane crashed into the countryside of Pennsylvania, apparently missing its intended target, but nevertheless killing

  18. COE589: Digital Forensics Introduction to Digital Forensics

    E-print Network

    Almulhem, Ahmad

    technology: "the digital revolution". Digital Forensics "the application of proven scientific methodsCOE589: Digital Forensics Introduction to Digital Forensics Dr. Ahmad Almulhem KFUPM - Fall 2012 (T121) 1COE589 - Ahmad Almulhem #12;Outline · Forensic Science (Forensics) ­ Classic (Analog) vs Digital

  19. Forensic evaluations in psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Chadda, R. K.

    2013-01-01

    Forensic psychiatry is an important subspecialty of psychiatry. Forensic psychiatrists play an important role in the society in assisting the judiciary in many complicated cases. In India, forensic psychiatry work is undertaken mostly by the general psychiatrists. Forensic psychiatric assessments are often associated with an element of anxiety or fear for a young psychiatrist. The present paper aims at familiarizing the readers with forensic evaluation in various situations so that they are able to carry out the assessments in real-life situations comfortably. Various steps of forensic assessment in different situations are discussed in the background of real-life cases. Assessment areas include criminal responsibility, fitness to plead, issue of guardianship, assessment of mental status, testamentary capacity and others. The paper gives some general guidelines on forensic psychiatric assessment in practical situations in our country. The readers are advised to refer to the standard textbooks and the Indian law for further details. PMID:24459315

  20. Multicriteria Analysis for Disaster Risk Reduction in Virginia, USA: A Policy-Focused Approach to Oil and Gas Drilling in the Outer Continental Shelf

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason K. Levy; Chennat Gopalakrishnan

    2009-01-01

    Multiple Criteria Analysis (MCA) is a collection of methodologies to compare, select, or rank multiple alternatives that typically involve incommensurate attributes. MCA is well-suited for eliciting and modeling the disaster management preferences of stakeholders and for improving the coordination among emergency response agencies, organizations and affected citizens. Many Americans favour new drilling for oil and gas in the Outer Continental

  1. Open Source Live Distributions for Computer Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giustini, Giancarlo; Andreolini, Mauro; Colajanni, Michele

    Current distributions of open source forensic software provide digital investigators with a large set of heterogeneous tools. Their use is not always focused on the target and requires high technical expertise. We present a new GNU/Linux live distribution, named CAINE (Computer Aided INvestigative Environment) that contains a collection of tools wrapped up into a user friendly environment. The CAINE forensic framework introduces novel important features, aimed at filling the interoperability gap across different forensic tools. Moreover, it provides a homogeneous graphical interface that drives digital investigators during the acquisition and analysis of electronic evidence, and it offers a semi-automatic mechanism for the creation of the final report.

  2. Evidence Aid approach to gap analysis and priority setting of questions for systematic reviews in disasters.

    PubMed

    Kayabu, Bonnix

    2015-02-01

    This article is based on a presentation at the Evidence Aid Symposium, on 20 September 2014, at Hyderabad, India. Ten years after the Indian Ocean Tsunami, Evidence Aid and it parters and other humanitarian stakeholders met to update about Evidence Aid work and discussed it future. The Evidence Aid approach to fill in the gap on the production and use of evidence in disater sector and other humanitarian health emergencies was widely discussed. Iterative approach to prioritise evidence reinforced Evidence Aid principle of independacy and a coordinated international orgasisation. The generation of 30 research questions during the prioritisation process contitute the first big step for Evidence Aid to become a one stop shop for the seach evidence on the effectiveness of interventions in disasters. PMID:25597957

  3. Development and Analysis of a Hurricane Hazard Model for Disaster Risk Assessment in Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pita, G. L.; Gunasekera, R.; Ishizawa, O. A.

    2014-12-01

    Hurricane and tropical storm activity in Central America has consistently caused over the past decades thousands of casualties, significant population displacement, and substantial property and infrastructure losses. As a component to estimate future potential losses, we present a new regional probabilistic hurricane hazard model for Central America. Currently, there are very few openly available hurricane hazard models for Central America. This resultant hazard model would be used in conjunction with exposure and vulnerability components as part of a World Bank project to create country disaster risk profiles that will assist to improve risk estimation and provide decision makers with better tools to quantify disaster risk. This paper describes the hazard model methodology which involves the development of a wind field model that simulates the gust speeds at terrain height at a fine resolution. The HURDAT dataset has been used in this study to create synthetic events that assess average hurricane landfall angles and their variability at each location. The hazard model also then estimates the average track angle at multiple geographical locations in order to provide a realistic range of possible hurricane paths that will be used for risk analyses in all the Central-American countries. This probabilistic hurricane hazard model is then also useful for relating synthetic wind estimates to loss and damage data to develop and calibrate existing empirical building vulnerability curves. To assess the accuracy and applicability, modeled results are evaluated against historical events, their tracks and wind fields. Deeper analyses of results are also presented with a special reference to Guatemala. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this paper are entirely those of the authors. They do not necessarily represent the views of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/World Bank and its affiliated organizations, or those of the Executive Directors of the World Bank or the governments they represent.

  4. Diversity and forensics: diversity in hiring is not enough.

    PubMed

    Koppl, Roger

    2007-04-01

    The current organization of forensic work may induce biases in forensic analysis (Risinger et al., 2002). Such biases may have a differential impact across groups, creating differential bias. We should reorganize forensic work to reduce this bias. The obvious strategy of hiring ethnically diverse forensic workers will not work. 'Us vs. Them' thinking is an important source of differential bias. The definitions of 'Us' and 'Them' are socially conditioned. The current organization of forensic work induces forensic workers to see the police as 'Us' and suspects of any ethnicity as 'Them'. Thus, differential biases in arrests become differential biases in forensic analysis. I argue that my prior proposal for 'competitive self regulation' (Koppl, 2005) would reduce or eliminate differential bias. Competitive self regulation divides forensic work among several, unrelated parties, and hides extraneous, bias-inducing information from forensic analysts. These measures separate forensic workers from the police, reduce their sense of identification with the police, and hide from them the knowledge of what result the police are looking for. My argument builds on a literature on biases, Us vs. Them thinking, and the role of 'coalitional alliances' (Kurzban et al., 2001) in bias formation. PMID:17520956

  5. Trace elemental analysis of glass and paint samples of forensic interest by ICP-MS using laser ablation solid sample introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almirall, Jose R.; Trejos, Tatiana; Hobbs, Andria; Furton, Kenneth G.

    2003-09-01

    The importance of small amounts of glass and paint evidence as a means to associate a crime event to a suspect or a suspect to another individual has been demonstrated in many cases. Glass is a fragile material that is often found at the scenes of crimes such as burglaries, hit-and-run accidents and violent crime offenses. Previous work has demonstrated the utility of elemental analysis by solution ICP-MS of small amounts of glass for the comparison between a fragment found at a crime scene to a possible source of the glass. The multi-element capability and the sensitivity of ICP-MS combined with the simplified sample introduction of laser ablation prior to ion detection provides for an excellent and relatively non-destructive technique for elemental analysis of glass fragments. The direct solid sample introduction technique of laser ablation (LA) is reported as an alternative to the solution method. Direct solid sampling provides several advantages over solution methods and shows great potential for a number of solid sample analyses in forensic science. The advantages of laser ablation include the simplification of sample preparation, thereby reducing the time and complexity of the analysis, the elimination of handling acid dissolution reagents such as HF and the reduction of sources of interferences in the ionization plasma. Direct sampling also provides for essentially "non-destructive" sampling due to the removal of very small amounts of sample needed for analysis. The discrimination potential of LA-ICP-MS is compared with previously reported solution ICP-MS methods using external calibration with internal standardization and a newly reported solution isotope dilution (ID) method. A total of ninety-one different glass samples were used for the comparison study using the techniques mentioned. One set consisted of forty-five headlamps taken from a variety of automobiles representing a range of twenty years of manufacturing dates. A second set consisted of forty-six automotive glasses (side windows and windshields) representing casework glass from different vehicle manufacturers over several years was also characterized by RI and elemental composition analysis. The solution sample introduction techniques (external calibration and isotope dilution) provide for excellent sensitivity and precision but have the disadvantages of destroying the sample and also involve complex sample preparation. The laser ablation method was simpler, faster and produced comparable discrimination to the EC-ICP-MS and ID-ICP-MS. LA-ICP-MS can provide for an excellent alternative to solution analysis of glass in forensic casework samples. Paints and coatings are frequently encountered as trace evidence samples submitted to forensic science laboratories. A LA-ICP-MS method has been developed to complement the commonly used techniques in forensic laboratories in order to better characterize these samples for forensic purposes. Time-resolved plots of each sample can be compared to associate samples to each other or to discriminate between samples. Additionally, the concentration of lead and the ratios of other elements have been determined in various automotive paints by the reported method. A sample set of eighteen (18) survey automotive paint samples have been analyzed with the developed method in order to determine the utility of LA-ICP-MS and to compare the method to the more commonly used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) method for elemental characterization of paint layers in forensic casework.

  6. Reconsidering Data Logging in Light of Digital Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Bin-Hui; Takahashi, Kenichi; Hori, Yoshiaki; Sakurai, Kouichi

    Logs record the events that have happened within in a system so they are considered the history of system activities. They are one of the objects that digital forensic investigators would like to examine when a security incident happens. However, logs were initially created for trouble shooting, and are not purposefully designed for digital forensics. Thus, enormous and redundant log data make analysis tasks complicated and time-consuming to find valuable information, and make logging-related techniques difficult utilized in some systems such as embedded systems. In this paper, we reconsider a data logging mechanism in terms of forensics and consequently, we propose purpose-based forensic logging. In purpose-based forensic logging, we only collect the required logs according to a specific purpose, which could decrease the space that logs occupy and may mitigate the analysis tasks during forensic investigations.

  7. Experience of technological and natural disasters and their impact on the perceived risk of nuclear accidents after the Fukushima nuclear disaster in Japan 2011: A cross-country analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eiji Yamamura

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses cross-country data compiled immediately after the Fukushima nuclear accident to investigate how the experience of such disasters affects the perception of the risk of nuclear accidents. Estimation results show that the perceived risk of a nuclear accident is positively associated with experiencing technological disasters but not with that of natural disasters.

  8. Experience of technological and natural disasters and their impact on the perceived risk of nuclear accidents after the Fukushima nuclear disaster in Japan 2011: A cross-country analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eiji Yamamura

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses cross-country data compiled immediately after the Fukushima nuclear accident to investigate how the experience of such disasters affects the perception of the risk of nuclear accidents. Estimation results show that the perceived risk of a nuclear accident is positively associated with experiencing technological disasters but not with that of natural disasters.

  9. Computational Forensics: An Overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katrin Franke; Sargur N. Srihari

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive abilities of human expertise modeled using computational methods offer several new possibilities for the forensic\\u000a sciences. They include three areas: providing tools for use by the forensic examiner, establishing a scientific basis for\\u000a the expertise, and providing an alternate opinion on a case. This paper gives a brief overview of computational forensics\\u000a with a focus on those disciplines that

  10. Anomalies in polycyanoacrylate formation studied by Raman spectroscopy: Implications for the forensic enhancement of latent fingerprints for spectral analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Howell G. M. Edwards; Joanna S. Day

    2006-01-01

    The enhancement of latent fingerprints by controlled exposure to cyanoacrylate vapour in fuming cabinets is now an established technique for artefacts recovered from forensic crime-scene investigations. The basis of the method involves the deposition of the monomeric cyanoacrylate under warm, moist conditions onto the object following which the resulting polymerisation produces a white film which renders the fingerprint visible. In

  11. Influence of the luminol chemiluminescence reaction on the confirmatory tests for the detection and characterization of bloodstains in forensic analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. R. D. Santos; W. X. Paula; E. Kalapothakis

    2009-01-01

    Preliminary tests for the detection of stains at crime scenes aim to focus the police work making them more efficient in the combat of criminality. The application of the luminol chemiluminescence reaction (3-aminoftalhidrazida) in presumptive tests for the detection of bloodstains is known for more than 40 years in forensic science. This reaction is based on the emission of light

  12. Validity of Rorschach Inkblot Scores for Discriminating Psychopaths from Nonpsychopaths in Forensic Populations: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, James M.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Nezworski, M. Teresa; Garb, Howard N.; Allen, Keli Holloway; Wildermuth, Jessica L.

    2010-01-01

    Gacono and Meloy (2009) have concluded that the Rorschach Inkblot Test is a sensitive instrument with which to discriminate psychopaths from nonpsychopaths. We examined the association of psychopathy with 37 Rorschach variables in a meta-analytic review of 173 validity coefficients derived from 22 studies comprising 780 forensic participants. All…

  13. Research article Using the new Phadebas1 Forensic Press test to find crime scene saliva stains suitable for DNA analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johannes Hedman; Karin Gustavsson; Ricky Ansell

    The Phadebas1 Forensic Press test is a new product that detects saliva stains by reacting with amylase. When the paper is pressed against a saliva stain a blue spot occurs. To test the sensitivity of the paper, a set of dilution series of saliva down to 1:500 was prepared on cotton fabric. Blue spots could be seen for dilutions of

  14. Using the new Phadebas ® Forensic Press test to find crime scene saliva stains suitable for DNA analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johannes Hedman; Karin Gustavsson; Ricky Ansell

    2008-01-01

    The Phadebas® Forensic Press test is a new product that detects saliva stains by reacting with amylase. When the paper is pressed against a saliva stain a blue spot occurs. To test the sensitivity of the paper, a set of dilution series of saliva down to 1:500 was prepared on cotton fabric. Blue spots could be seen for dilutions of

  15. Court TV: Forensic Files

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This companion Web site to the Court TV series _Forensic Files_ offers a virtual forensics lab where visitors can learn more about the different techniques experts use to "put together the pieces of the crime puzzle." Each room of the virtual 3-story lab is dedicated to a different forensic technique, including DNA evidence, bite marks, blood splatter, time of death, and more. Each room offers an explanatory video presentation, as well as an annotated slide show or video of forensics scientists at work.

  16. Forensic dentistry in human identification: A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ata-Ali, Javier; Ata-Ali, Fadi

    2014-04-01

    An update is provided of the literature on the role of odontology in human identification, based on a PubMed-Medline search of the last 5 years and using the terms: "forensic dentistry" (n = 464 articles), "forensic odontology" (n = 141 articles) and "forensic dentistry identification" (n = 169 articles). Apart from these initial 774 articles, others considered to be important and which were generated by a manual search and cited as references in review articles were also included. Forensic dentistry requires interdisciplinary knowledge, since the data obtained from the oral cavity can contribute to identify an individual or provide information needed in a legal process. Furthermore, the data obtained from the oral cavity can narrow the search range of an individual and play a key role in the victim identification process following mass disasters or catastrophes. This literature search covering the last 5 years describes the novelties referred to buccodental studies in comparative identification, buccodental evaluation in reconstructive identification, human bites as a method for identifying the aggressor, and the role of DNA in dental identification. The oral cavity is a rich and noninvasive source of DNA, and can be used to solve problems of a social, economic or legal nature. Key words:Forensic identification, DNA, forensic dentistry, rugoscopy, cheiloscopy, saliva. PMID:24790717

  17. Accident analysis of large-scale technological disasters applied to an anaesthetic complication.

    PubMed

    Eagle, C J; Davies, J M; Reason, J

    1992-02-01

    The occurrence of serious accidents in complex industrial systems such as at Three Mile Island and Bhopal has prompted development of new models of causation and investigation of disasters. These analytical models have potential relevance in anaesthesia. We therefore applied one of the previously described systems to the investigation of an anaesthetic accident. The model chosen describes two kinds of failures, both of which must be sought. The first group, active failures, consists of mistakes made by practitioners in the provision of care. The second group, latent failures, represents flaws in the administrative and productive system. The model emphasizes the search for latent failures and shows that prevention of active failures alone is insufficient to avoid further accidents if latent failures persist unchanged. These key features and the utility of this model are illustrated by application to a case of aspiration of gastric contents. While four active failures were recognized, an equal number of latent failures also became apparent. The identification of both types of failures permitted the formulation of recommendations to avoid further occurrences. Thus this model of accident causation can provide a useful mechanism to investigate and possibly prevent anaesthetic accidents. PMID:1544192

  18. In: IEEE Workshop on Statistical Analysis in Computer Vision (in conjunction with CVPR), 2003 Higher-order Wavelet Statistics and their Application to Digital Forensics

    E-print Network

    Farid, Hany

    Higher-order Wavelet Statistics and their Application to Digital Forensics Hany Farid and Siwei Lyu regularities of nat- ural images. We show how this model can be useful in several digital forensic applications- eral digital forensic applications, specifically in detect- ing various types of digital tampering. 2

  19. Issues in forensic voice.

    PubMed

    Hollien, Harry; Huntley Bahr, Ruth; Harnsberger, James D

    2014-03-01

    The following article provides a general review of an area that can be referred to as Forensic Voice. Its goals will be outlined and that discussion will be followed by a description of its major elements. Considered are (1) the processing and analysis of spoken utterances, (2) distorted speech, (3) enhancement of speech intelligibility (re: surveillance and other recordings), (4) transcripts, (5) authentication of recordings, (6) speaker identification, and (7) the detection of deception, intoxication, and emotions in speech. Stress in speech and the psychological stress evaluation systems (that some individuals attempt to use as lie detectors) also will be considered. Points of entry will be suggested for individuals with the kinds of backgrounds possessed by professionals already working in the voice area. PMID:24176301

  20. Natural Disasters

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students are introduced to our planet's structure and its dynamic system of natural forces through an examination of the natural hazards of earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides, tsunamis, floods and tornados, as well as avalanches, fires, hurricanes and thunderstorms. They see how these natural events become disasters when they impact people, and how engineers help to make people safe from them. Students begin by learning about the structure of the Earth; they create clay models showing the Earth's layers, see a continental drift demo, calculate drift over time, and make fault models. They learn how earthquakes happen; they investigate the integrity of structural designs using model seismographs. Using toothpicks and mini-marshmallows, they create and test structures in a simulated earthquake on a tray of Jell-O. Students learn about the causes, composition and types of volcanoes, and watch and measure a class mock eruption demo, observing the phases that change a mountain's shape. Students learn that the different types of landslides are all are the result of gravity, friction and the materials involved. Using a small-scale model of a debris chute, they explore how landslides start in response to variables in material, slope and water content. Students learn about tsunamis, discovering what causes them and makes them so dangerous. Using a table-top-sized tsunami generator, they test how model structures of different material types fare in devastating waves. Students learn about the causes of floods, their benefits and potential for disaster. Using riverbed models made of clay in baking pans, students simulate the impact of different river volumes, floodplain terrain and levee designs in experimental trials. They learn about the basic characteristics, damage and occurrence of tornadoes, examining them closely by creating water vortices in soda bottles. They complete mock engineering analyses of tornado damage, analyze and graph US tornado damage data, and draw and present structure designs intended to withstand high winds.

  1. The NASA Applied Science Program Disasters Area: Disaster Applications Research and Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, J. J.; Lindsay, F. E.; Stough, T.; Jones, C. E.

    2014-12-01

    The goal of the Natural Disaster Application Area is to use NASA's capabilities in spaceborne, airborne, surface observations, higher-level derived data products, and modeling and data analysis to improve natural disaster forecasting, mitigation, and response. The Natural Disaster Application Area applies its remote sensing observations, modeling and analysis capabilities to provide hazard and disaster information where and when it is needed. Our application research activities specifically contribute to 1) Understanding the natural processes that produce hazards, 2)Developing hazard mitigation technologies, and 3)Recognizing vulnerability of interdependent critical infrastructure. The Natural Disasters Application area selects research projects through a rigorous, impartial peer-review process that address a broad spectrum of disasters which afflict populations within the United States, regionally and globally. Currently there are 19 active projects in the research portfolio which address the detection, characterization, forecasting and response to a broad range of natural disasters including earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions and ash dispersion, wildfires, hurricanes, floods, tornado damage assessment, oil spills and disaster data mining. The Disasters team works with federal agencies to aid the government in meeting the challenges associated with natural disaster response and to transfer technologies to agencies as they become operational. Internationally, the Disasters Area also supports the Committee on Earth Observations Working Group on Disasters, and the International Charter on Space and Disasters to increase, strengthen, and coordinate contributions of NASA Earth-observing satellites and applications products to disaster risk management. The CEOS group will lead pilot efforts focused on identifying key systems to support flooding, earthquake, and volcanic events.

  2. Forensic Handwritten Document Retrieval System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sargur N. Srihari; Zhixin Shi

    2004-01-01

    Document storage and retrieval capabilities of the CEDAR-FOX forensic handwritten document examination system are described. The system is designed for automated and semi-automated analysis of scanned handwritten documents. For library creation, the system provides functionalities for (i) entering document meta- data, e.g., identification number, writer and other collateral information, (ii) creating a textual transcript of the image content at the

  3. Application of photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy in the forensic analysis of artists' inorganic pigments.

    PubMed

    von Aderkas, Eleanor L; Barsan, Mirela M; Gilson, Denis F R; Butler, Ian S

    2010-12-01

    Fourier-transform photoacoustic infrared (PAIR) spectroscopy has been used in the analysis of 12 inorganic pigments commonly in use by artists today, viz., cobalt blue, ultramarine blue, Prussian blue, azurite, malachite, chromium oxide, viridian, cadmium yellow, chrome yellow, iron oxide, yellow ochre and Mars orange. The authenticity of these 12 commercial pigments was first established by recording their Raman spectra. The subsequent PAIR spectra were highly reproducible and matched well in the mid-IR region with previously published data for these pigments. A number of additional overtone and combination bands were also detected that will prove useful in the identification of the pigments in the future. The PAIR technique is a promising and reliable method for the analysis of inorganic pigments, especially since it involves much simpler preparation than is required for conventional IR measurements. PMID:20851668

  4. Application of photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy in the forensic analysis of artists' inorganic pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Aderkas, Eleanor L.; Barsan, Mirela M.; Gilson, Denis F. R.; Butler, Ian S.

    2010-12-01

    Fourier-transform photoacoustic infrared (PAIR) spectroscopy has been used in the analysis of 12 inorganic pigments commonly in use by artists today, viz., cobalt blue, ultramarine blue, Prussian blue, azurite, malachite, chromium oxide, viridian, cadmium yellow, chrome yellow, iron oxide, yellow ochre and Mars orange. The authenticity of these 12 commercial pigments was first established by recording their Raman spectra. The subsequent PAIR spectra were highly reproducible and matched well in the mid-IR region with previously published data for these pigments. A number of additional overtone and combination bands were also detected that will prove useful in the identification of the pigments in the future. The PAIR technique is a promising and reliable method for the analysis of inorganic pigments, especially since it involves much simpler preparation than is required for conventional IR measurements.

  5. Basic research in evolution and ecology enhances forensics.

    PubMed

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Benbow, M Eric; Tarone, Aaron M; Mohr, Rachel M

    2011-02-01

    In 2009, the National Research Council recommended that the forensic sciences strengthen their grounding in basic empirical research to mitigate against criticism and improve accuracy and reliability. For DNA-based identification, this goal was achieved under the guidance of the population genetics community. This effort resulted in DNA analysis becoming the 'gold standard' of the forensic sciences. Elsewhere, we proposed a framework for streamlining research in decomposition ecology, which promotes quantitative approaches to collecting and applying data to forensic investigations involving decomposing human remains. To extend the ecological aspects of this approach, this review focuses on forensic entomology, although the framework can be extended to other areas of decomposition. PMID:21185105

  6. Sensitivity analysis of a short distance atmospheric dispersion model applied to the Fukushima disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Périllat, Raphaël; Girard, Sylvain; Korsakissok, Irène; Mallet, Vinien

    2015-04-01

    In a previous study, the sensitivity of a long distance model was analyzed on the Fukushima Daiichi disaster case with the Morris screening method. It showed that a few variables, such as horizontal diffusion coefficient or clouds thickness, have a weak influence on most of the chosen outputs. The purpose of the present study is to apply a similar methodology on the IRSN's operational short distance atmospheric dispersion model, called pX. Atmospheric dispersion models are very useful in case of accidental releases of pollutant to minimize the population exposure during the accident and to obtain an accurate assessment of short and long term environmental and sanitary impact. Long range models are mostly used for consequences assessment while short range models are more adapted to the early phases of the crisis and are used to make prognosis. The Morris screening method was used to estimate the sensitivity of a set of outputs and to rank the inputs by their influences. The input ranking is highly dependent on the considered output, but a few variables seem to have a weak influence on most of them. This first step revealed that interactions and non-linearity are much more pronounced with the short range model than with the long range one. Afterward, the Sobol screening method was used to obtain more quantitative results on the same set of outputs. Using this method was possible for the short range model because it is far less computationally demanding than the long range model. The study also confronts two parameterizations, Doury's and Pasquill's models, to contrast their behavior. The Doury's model seems to excessively inflate the influence of some inputs compared to the Pasquill's model, such as the altitude of emission and the air stability which do not have the same role in the two models. The outputs of the long range model were dominated by only a few inputs. On the contrary, in this study the influence is shared more evenly between the inputs.

  7. A Propensity Score Analysis of Brief Worksite Crisis Interventions after the World Trade Center Disaster

    PubMed Central

    Boscarino, Joseph A.; Adams, Richard E.; Foa, Edna B.; Landrigan, Philip J.

    2006-01-01

    Background Postdisaster crisis interventions have been viewed by some as appropriate to enhance the mental health status of persons affected by large-scale traumatic events. However, studies and systematic reviews have challenged the effectiveness of these efforts. Objectives The focus of this study was to examine the impact of brief mental health interventions received by employees at the worksite after the World Trade Center disaster (WTCD) among workers in New York City (NYC). Research Design The data for the present study come from a prospective cohort study of 1121 employed adults interviewed by telephone in a household survey 1 year and 2 years after the WTCD. All study participants were living in NYC at the time of the attacks. For the current study, we used propensity scores to match intervention cases (n = 150) to nonintervention controls (n = 971) using a 1:5 matching ratio based on a bias-corrected nearest-neighbor algorithm. Results Approximately 7% of NYC adults (~425,000 persons) reported receiving employer-sponsored, worksite crisis interventions related to the WTCD provided by mental health professionals. In addition, analyses indicated that attending 1 to 3 brief worksite sessions was associated with positive outcomes up to 2 years after the WTCD across a spectrum of results, including reduced alcohol dependence, binge drinking, depression, PTSD severity, and reduced anxiety symptoms. Conclusions Although our study had limitations, it is one of the few to suggest that brief postdisaster crisis interventions may be effective for employees after mass exposure to psychologically traumatic events. The reasons for the effectiveness of these interventions are unclear at this time and warrant further investigation. PMID:16641664

  8. Development of a clinical forensic medicine curriculum for emergency physicians in the USA.

    PubMed

    Smock, W S

    1994-06-01

    To address the forensic needs of living patients, the Department of Emergency Medicine at the University of Louisville School of Medicine in Louisville, Kentucky, USA initiated the first clinical forensic medicine training programme in the USA. In July 1991, formal training in clinical forensic medicine was incorporated into the core curriculum of the USA's second oldest academic emergency medicine training programme. The University of Louisville, in cooperation with the Kentucky Medical Examiner's Office, developed the curriculum to provide the emergency physician with the knowledge base and technical skills to perform forensic evaluations of living patients. Forensic lectures are given monthly by local and regional forensic experts including: forensic pathologists, prosecuting attorneys, firearm and ballistics examiners, law enforcement officers, forensic chemists and forensic odontologists. Topics which are presented include: forensic pathology, forensic photography, ballistics and firearms analysis, paediatric physical and sexual assault, crime scene investigation, forensic odontology, courtroom and expert testimony and the forensic evaluation of penetrating trauma. As a result of the introduction of clinical forensic medicine into the core curriculum of an emergency medicine training programme the residents are now actively addressing the forensic issues encountered in the Emergency department. Key, often short-lived forensic evidence, which was frequently overlooked or discarded while delivering patient care is now recognized, documented and preserved. The development and introduction of a clinical forensic medicine curriculum into emergency medicine training has greatly enhanced the emergency physician's ability to recognize, document and address the forensic needs of their patients who are victims of violent and non-fatal trauma. PMID:16371262

  9. Analysis of organophosphorus pesticides in whole blood by GC-MS-?ECD with forensic purposes.

    PubMed

    Valente, Nuno I P; Tarelho, Sónia; Castro, André L; Silvestre, Armando; Teixeira, Helena M

    2015-07-01

    In the present work, two multi-residue methods for the determination of ten organophosphorus pesticides (OPs), namely chlorfenvinphos, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dimethoate, fenthion, malathion, parathion, phosalone, pirimiphos-methyl and quinalphos, in post-mortem whole blood samples are presented. The adopted procedure uses GC-MS for screening and quantitation, and GC-?ECD (electron capture detector) for compound confirmation. Three different Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) procedures for OPs with Oasis(®) hydrophilic lipophilic balanced (HLB) and Sep-Pak(®) C18 cartridges were tested, and followed by GC-?ECD and GC-MS analysis. The Sep-Pak(®) C18 cartridges extraction procedure was selected since it generated analytical signals 5 times higher than those obtained with the two different Oasis(®) HLB cartridges extraction procedures. The method has shown to be selective for the isolation of selected OPs as well as to the chosen internal standard (ethion) in postmortem blood samples. Calibration curves between 50 and 5000 ng/mL were prepared using weighted linear regression models (1/x(2)). It was not possible to establish a working range for fenthion by GC-?ECD due to the lower sensitivity of the detector to this compound, whereas for pirimiphos-methyl it was set between 500 and 5000 ng/mL. The limit of quantitation was established at 50 ng/mL for all analytes, except for pirimiphos-methyl by GC-?ECD analysis (500 ng/mL). The average extraction efficiency ranged from 72 to 102%. The developed methods were considered robust and fit for the purpose, and had already been adopted in the laboratory routine analysis. PMID:26048493

  10. Multimedia Forensics and Security

    E-print Network

    Autrusseau, Florent

    Multimedia Forensics and Security Edited by: Chang-Tsun Li, University of Warwick, UK 13-digit ISBN in the emerging field of multimedia forensics and security by tackling challenging issues such as digital wa. Increasing amounts of digital image, video, and music have created numerous information security issues

  11. Forensic medicine in Bangladesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhammad Nurul Islam; Mohammed Nasimul Islam

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the current medico-legal practice and future plan to improve the medico-legal service of Bangladesh which is rooted in the remnants of British medical jurisprudence. It includes clinical forensic medicine and forensic pathology. In Bangladesh all unnatural deaths are to be reported at the nearest police station and an appointed police officer should visit the scene

  12. Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In the past 50 years forensic psychological practice has expanded dramatically. Because the practice of forensic psychology differs in important ways from more traditional practice areas (Monahan, 1980) the "Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists" were developed and published in 1991 (Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic

  13. Microbial Forensics: Applications in Bioterrorism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Priyabrata Pattnaik; Asha Mukul Jana

    2005-01-01

    Microbial forensics is a new discipline combining microbiology and forensic science. Unlike public health investigations, microbial forensics goes further to associate the source of the causative agent with a specific individual or group. Microbial forensics measures molecular variations between related microbial strains and their use to infer the origin, relationship, or transmission route of a particular microbial strain. Several advanced

  14. Forensic Analysis of Two Contrasting Satellite Rainfall Products for Detection of the July 2002 Flooding in South-Central Texas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caitlin B. Moffit; Ling Tang; Faisal Hossain

    2011-01-01

    This study is a forensic investigation of how two well-known satellite rainfall products, available at native scales that are much coarser than that ideally needed for detecting heavy rainfall-induced localized flooding, might have performed for July 2002 flooding in south-central Texas. These two products are: 1) the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) rainfall product available at 1° and daily resolution;

  15. Forensic mental health professionals' perceptions of psychopathy: a prototypicality analysis of the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Sörman, Karolina; Edens, John F; Smith, Shannon Toney; Svensson, Olof; Howner, Katarina; Kristiansson, Marianne; Fischer, Håkan

    2014-10-01

    Assessments of psychopathic traits are used on a routine basis in forensic evaluations across Westernized countries. Despite this, consensus has not yet emerged concerning what exactly are the "core" features of this construct. Moreover, relatively little is known about how practitioners in the field construe this disorder. This study explored perceptions and attitudes regarding psychopathy among individuals working in the forensic mental health system (N = 90) in Sweden. Participants provided prototype ratings of what they considered to be core psychopathy features based on the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality (CAPP), a model that increasingly is the focus of research in North America and Europe. The study protocol also included questions regarding (a) global perceptions and attitudes about a number of aspects of the psychopathy construct (e.g., personal experience, perceived prevalence), and (b) attitudinal scales that assessed perceived correlates of psychopathic traits across a variety of domains (e.g., violence proneness, treatment amenability) and moral judgments and attitudes concerning how psychopathic offenders should be treated within the legal system. The majority of the 33 individual CAPP items and the six CAPP scales were rated as at least moderately prototypical of psychopathy, with Dominance, Self, and Attachment domains obtaining the highest mean ratings. Participants viewed psychopaths as more likely to commit crimes than the average criminal, without being blatantly "evil" people. We believe our results help to advance our understanding of the psychopathy construct by exploring forensic professionals' perceptions of this disorder in general and in relation to the CAPP model specifically. PMID:24707908

  16. Do Natural Disasters Promote Long-Run Growth?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Skidmore; Hideki Toya

    2002-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the long-run relationships among disasters, capital accumulation, total factor productivity, and economic growth. The cross-country empirical analysis demonstrates that higher frequencies of climatic disasters are correlated with higher rates of human capital accumulation, increases in total factor productivity, and economic growth. Though disaster risk reduces the expected rate of return to physical capital, risk also

  17. Worldwide disaster warning and assessment with Earth Resources Technology Satellites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Robinove

    1975-01-01

    On the basis of experimental results, the potential use of Earth Resources Technology Satellites (ERTS) for worldwide disaster or monitoring and the techniques used for application of ERTS data to disaster monitoring and analysis are described. Problems and recommended solutions to arrive at an operational disaster monitoring capability are presented.

  18. Author's personal copy Natural disasters impacting a macroeconomic model with

    E-print Network

    Ghil, Michael

    Author's personal copy ANALYSIS Natural disasters impacting a macroeconomic model with endogenous the investment­profit instability. Our model exhibits a larger response to natural disasters during expansions damages or natural disaster losses that are based purely on long-term growth models. © 2008 Elsevier B

  19. Web Information and Social Impacts of Disasters in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiuchang Wei; Dingtao Zhao; Desheng Dash Wu; Shasha Lv

    2009-01-01

    Understanding disasters' social impacts is a key issue for efficient disaster management. This article proposes a framework to assess disasters' social impacts based on network information resources. The proposed approach is validated using statistical analysis. Key factors that change social impacts are also identified for useful decision-making.

  20. NOAA's Improved Fire and Smoke Analysis, A Global Disaster Information Network Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, G.; McNamara, D. P.; Fennimore, R.; Ramsay, B. H.; Ruminski, M.; Ruminski, M.

    2001-05-01

    The National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) of The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) produces a smoke and fire monitoring product based on environmental satellite data. In response to an initiative by NOAA's Global Disaster Information Network (GDIN), NESDIS is in the process of enhancing this product to better serve the needs of its customers. Environmental satellitescan detect and monitor hot spots and smoke associated with wildfires. Infrared and visible band sensors on NESDIS' Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES)and Polar Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) can delineate hot spots and smoke, respectively, resulting from fire activity. In response to requirements of the Fire Weather Program of the National Weather Service (NWS), NESDIS currently twice per day produces a product delineating hot spots and smoke for selected limited geographic areas of the Continental United States (CONUS). GOES and POES imagery is analyzed on an image display system, and a graphical depiction of smoke and hot spot areas is drawn by the analyst. The product is disseminated as imagery via the Internet, and is utilized by Incident Meteorologists, SPC personnel, and U.S. Forest Service fire managers. In response to formally expressed requirements of the NWS, and informal requests from many other users, including federal, state, and local fire management agencies, for a more frequent, spatially accurate product covering all of CONUS and Alaska, GDIN has initiated a program to enhance NOAA's smoke and fire products. The Satellite Services Division (SSD) of NESDIS' Office of Satellite Data Processing and Distribution is developing the Hazard Mapping System (HMS) based on these requirements. It will use data from GOES, POES, and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's (DMSP) On Line Scanner, which can detect hot spots at night. Automated hot spot and smoke detections will be provided by the Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (ABBA) and the Fire Identification, Mapping and Monitoring Algorithm (FIMMA), developed by NESDIS' Office of Research and Applications (ORA). Smoke trajectories will be calculated by the HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT), developed by NOAA's Air Resources Laboratory. Satellite imagery and model outputs will be displayable as multiple data layers in the HMS updated half hourly, and analysts will generate a composite image and graphic product disseminated on the Internet. The product will be geolocated and be compatible for display by commonly used Geographic Information Systems. Users will be able to choose geographic areas displayed. An operational demonstration is scheduled for early Summer, 2001, with subsequent further development, including the possible incorporation of data from the NASA's MODIS instrument and satellite derived vegetation index and fire potential maps.

  1. Forensic analysis of mesembrine alkaloids in Sceletium tortuosum by nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Roscher, Jörg; Posch, Tjorben Nils; Pütz, Michael; Huhn, Carolin

    2012-06-01

    The consumption of legal and illegal drugs follows an organic trend comparable to the current trend in food consumption. The investigation of such drugs is therefore of interest to characterize the active ingredients of plants and drug preparations. A new method of nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry (NACE-MS) as a powerful tool for the separation of complex alkaloid mixtures in difficult matrices is presented in this study for the analysis of samples of Sceletium tortuosum and drug products called Kanna made thereof. The method was found to be suitable for the investigation of the alkaloid composition and relative quantification of the ingredients. It proved of value to separate a large number of isobaric compounds, most probably including diastereomers, double-bond isomers, and further structurally closely related compounds. A comparison of plant samples from different vendors, self-fermented samples, and products ready for consumption was made. The high separation power obtained allowed a better description of the chemotypic differences of plant samples as well as Kanna preparations compared to other methods presented in the literature so far. Thus, the use of the NACE-MS enables a new perspective on the alkaloid profile of Sceletium species. PMID:22736358

  2. Y-STRs in forensic medicine: DNA analysis in semen samples of azoospermic individuals.

    PubMed

    Soares-Vieira, José Arnaldo; Billerbeck, Ana Elisa Correia; Iwamura, Edna Sadayo Miazato; Zampieri, Ricardo Andrade; Gattás, Gilka Jorge Fígaro; Munoz, Daniel Romero; Hallak, Jorge; Mendonca, Berenice Bilharinho; Lucon, Antonio Marmo

    2007-05-01

    The incidence of rape has increased, especially in metropolitan areas, such as the city of São Paulo. In Brazil, studies about it have shown that the majority of this type of crime is committed by the relatives and persons close to the victim. This has made the crime more difficult to be denounced, as only 10% of the cases are reported to competent police authorities. Usually, cytological exams are carried out in sex crime investigations. The difficulty in showing the presence of spermatozoa is frequent, but it does not exclude the presence of male DNA. The absence of spermatozoa in material collected from rape victims can be due to several factors, including the fact that the agressor suffers from azoospermia. This condition can be the result of a successful vasectomy. As the majority of DNA in the ejaculation sample is from spermatozoa, there is much less DNA to be analyzed. This study presents the application of Y-STRs (DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, and DYS393) in DNA analysis of sperm samples from 105 vasectomized men. The study demonstrated a great variation in DNA concentration. DNA extraction and amplification was possible in all sperm samples even in the absence of spermatozoa. The same profile was observed, for each individual, from DNA extracted from blood, pre- and postvasectomy semen samples. The use of markers specific for Y chromosome in sex crime cases, especially in the absence of spermatozoa, is very important, mainly because in most situations there is a small quantity of the agressor's DNA in the medium and a large quantity of the victim's DNA. PMID:17456093

  3. World Trade Center Disaster Exposure-Related Probable Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Responders and Civilians: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bian; Tarigan, Lukman H.; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Kim, Hyun

    2014-01-01

    The World Trade Center (WTC) disaster on September 11, 2001 was an unprecedented traumatic event with long-lasting health consequences among the affected populations in the New York metropolitan area. This meta-analysis aimed to estimate the risk of probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) associated with specific types of WTC exposures. Meta-analytical findings from 10 studies of 3,271 to 20,294 participants yielded 37 relevant associations. The pooled summary odds ratio (OR) was 2.05 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.82, 2.32), with substantial heterogeneity linked to exposure classification, cohort type, data source, PTSD assessment instrument/criteria, and lapse time since 9/11. In general, responders (e.g. police, firefighters, rescue/recovery workers and volunteers) had a lower probable PTSD risk (OR?=?1.61; 95% CI: 1.39, 1.87) compared to civilians (e.g. residents, office workers, and passersby; OR?=?2.71, 95% CI: 2.35, 3.12). The differences in ORs between responders and civilians were larger for physical compared to psychosocial exposure types. We also found that injury, lost someone, and witnessed horror were the three (out of six) most pernicious exposures. These findings suggest that these three exposures should be a particular focus in psychological evaluation and treatment programs in WTC intervention and future emergency preparedness efforts. PMID:25047411

  4. Fear and Loathing in Forensics: The View from Postmodern Suburbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, B. Keith

    This report attempts to construct a postmodern framework to provide for an analysis of Intercollegiate Forensics. It isolates the major theoretical constructs of postmodernism, applies them to Intercollegiate Forensics, and draws conclusions. The paper maintains that linguistic-based postmodernism consists of four theoretical areas: (1)…

  5. Network forensics based on fuzzy logic and expert system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niandong Liao; Shengfeng Tian; Tinghua Wang

    2009-01-01

    Network forensics is a research area that finds the malicious users by collecting and analyzing the intrusion or infringement evidence of computer crimes such as hacking. In the past, network forensics was only used by means of investigation. However, nowadays, due to the sharp increase of network traffic, not all the information captured or recorded will be useful for analysis

  6. The Case for Open Source Software in Digital Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanero, Stefano; Huebner, Ewa

    In this introductory chapter we discuss the importance of the use of open source software (OSS), and in particular of free software (FLOSS) in computer forensics investigations including the identification, capture, preservation and analysis of digital evidence; we also discuss the importance of OSS in computer forensics

  7. Developing a computer forensics program in police higher education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liu Zhijun; Wang Ning

    2009-01-01

    By the analysis and comparison of the application of domestic and overseas computer forensics education, combining with the demand of the industry, the characteristics of subjects and the aim of police education in China, an innovative program in computer forensics has been developed and begun in fall 2007. This four-year program consists of courses in general education, major (computer crime

  8. The forensic psychiatric report.

    PubMed

    Norko, Michael A; Buchanan, Mar Alec

    2015-01-01

    The construction of a written forensic report is a core component of forensic practice, demonstrating the evaluator's skill in conducting the evaluation and in communicating relevant information to the legal audience in an effective manner. Although communication skills and quality of written documentation are important in clinical psychiatry generally, they form the sine qua non of successful forensic work, which consists in telling complex stories in a coherent and compelling fashion. High quality forensic reports require careful preparation from the earliest stages of work on a case. They generally follow an expected structure, which permits the evaluator to provide all the data necessary to form a carefully reasoned opinion that addresses the legal questions posed. Formats and content of reports vary according to the type of case and the circumstances of the evaluation and so require flexibility within customary frameworks. The style and quality of writing are critical to the crafting of forensic reports. The effects on legal decision-makers of various approaches to the presentation of information in reports has not been studied empirically, but guidance from experienced forensic psychiatrists is available. There is a small body of research on quality improvement in forensic writing, and further empiric study is warranted. PMID:25603453

  9. Forensic Science Methods Called Into Question by National Academies Report

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Grinnell, Max

    2009-02-20

    Study Calls for Oversight of Forensics in Crime Labs http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/19/us/19forensics.htmlCall For Forensics Overhaul Linked to 'CSI' Effecthttp://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=100831831Forensics under the microscopehttp://www.chicagotribune.com/news/specials/chi-forensics-specialpackage,0,4244313.specialStrengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forwardhttp://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12589#tocForensic Magazinehttp://www.forensicmag.com/DNA Forensics [Flash Player, pdf]http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/forensics.shtmlU.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Forensics Laboratory [pdf, Flash Player]http://www.lab.fws.gov/The average person watching any number of procedural crime television shows might be forgiven if he or she believed that every piece of carpet fiber or DNA can lead to a "case closed" finale. In real life, forensic science isn't nearly as infallible as it appears on television, and that is something that has troubled many at the National Academy of Sciences. In a report released this Wednesday, the National Academy of Sciences research team found that in 2005 there was a backlog of 359,000 requests for forensic analysis and that 80 percent of all crime laboratories are understaffed. The report went on to call into question the scientific merit of practically every commonly used forensic method of analysis, including the analysis of ballistics, arson, hair, and fingerprints. The team of scholars who wrote the report also recommended that the United States should standardize forensic tests and assume responsibility for the certification of forensic experts. These findings have garnered attention from the general public, the law enforcement community, and elected officials such as Senator Patrick Leahy (D) of Vermont. In a recent interview with the New York Times, Leahy commented, "I am troubled by the report's general finding that far too many forensic disciplines lack the standards necessary to ensure their scientific reliability in court."The first link will take users to a New York Times article from this Wednesday, which talks a bit about this recent report. The second link leads to an audio piece from National Public Radio about the report and how it might transform forensic science. Moving on, the third link leads to a very fine set of investigative articles on forensic science from the Chicago Tribune. The fourth link will whisk users away to the full-text of the Academies' recent report on the state of forensic science. The fifth link leads to the homepage of Forensic Science magazine. Here, visitors can learn more about the field and read articles from current and past editions of the publication. The sixth link leads to a set of resources on DNA forensic analysis offered by the Human Genome Project. Finally, the last link leads to the homepage of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Forensics Laboratory, which is "the only lab in the world dedicated to crimes against wildlife."

  10. Developing a health system approach to disaster management: A qualitative analysis of the core literature to complement the WHO Toolkit for assessing health-system capacity for crisis management

    PubMed Central

    Bayntun, Claire; Rockenschaub, Gerald; Murray, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND The World Health Organisation's (WHO) sixty-fourth World Health Assembly in May 2011 adopted a resolution on ‘strengthening national health emergency and disaster management capacities and resilience of health systems’. Disaster management is a topical issue globally and countries are being encouraged to improve their disaster preparedness, along with growing international commitment to strengthening health systems. Lessons identified from disasters have not been effectively collated; essential experience is forgotten. METHODS This paper describes the analysis of the worldwide experience of disasters through a health systems approach. A systematic search of the core literature from January 2000 to November 2011 was conducted. Components drawn from the WHO’s Global assessment of national health sector emergency preparedness and response baseline survey were combined with WHO’s six health system building blocks (or levers) to act as the initial analysis anchors, with a further grounded theory qualitative analysis of the literature allowing the identification of emerging themes and insights. The priority areas identified by this literature review were then compared with the topics covered by the new expert-consensus-derived Toolkit for assessing health-system capacity for crisis management developed by the WHO Regional Office for Europe. FINDINGS 143 publications identified from a literature search were analysed and appraised. Themes and examples from the literature demonstrate how health system strengthening should contribute to disaster management. Priority areas under-represented in the WHO Toolkit and identified by the qualitative analysis are discussed. INTERPRETATION Collation and analysis of the disaster management literature identifies how health system strengthening can promote resilience and efficient recovery in the face of disasters. These findings support and complement the WHO Toolkit. Countries can use the literature evidence with the WHO Toolkit to assess their disaster management capacities and identify priorities for strengthening their health system. Citation: Bayntun C, Rockenschaub G, Murray V. Developing a health system approach to disaster management: A qualitative analysis of the core literature to complement the WHO Toolkit for assessing health-system capacity for crisis management. PLOS Currents Disasters. 2012 Aug 22. doi: 10.1371/5028b6037259a. PMID:23066520

  11. Conservation of resources and coping self-efficacy predicting distress following a natural disaster: A causal model analysis where the environment meets the mind

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles C. Benight; Gail Ironson; Kelli Klebe; Charles S. Carver; Christina Wynings; Kent Burnett; Debra Greenwood; Andrew Baum; Neil Schneiderman

    1999-01-01

    Disaster research has increasingly examined how personal characteristics mediate emotional recovery following disaster exposure. We investigated the importance of lost resources, coping self-efficacy, and coping behavior as important variables in acute disaster reaction and medium range disaster recovery following Hurricane Andrew. One hundred and eighty participants living in southern Dade county completed the initial phase of the study (1–4 months

  12. A review of the analysis of vegetable oil residues from fire debris samples: spontaneous ignition, vegetable oils, and the forensic approach.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, Eric

    2005-09-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the analysis of vegetable (and animal) oil residues from fire debris samples. The process of self-heating and spontaneous ignition is well-known by fire investigators and causes many fires. Vegetable oils are often the chemicals that originate such phenomenon. Vegetable oils are composed of lipids, which contain fatty acids. The autooxidation of the double bonds present in unsaturated fatty acids is the exothermic reaction at the origin of the self-heating process. The degree of unsaturation of fatty acids directly influences the propensity of an oil to undergo self-heating and, eventually, spontaneous ignition. When fire debris samples are collected, it is possible to examine them at the laboratory to extract and identify vegetable oil residues. This is typically performed by solvent extraction, followed by gas chromatographic(-mass spectrometric) analysis of the extract. Such analyses differ from ignitable liquid residue analyses, so a different forensic approach is necessary. PMID:16225213

  13. The imported forensic expert

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, C.P.

    1980-09-01

    A review of the experiences of one of the pioneer forensic pathologists in the United States offers an interesting insight into the possibilities of private forensic pathology in America. The author's experience includes serving as President of the National Boxing Association and the International Boxing Association, during which time he made many improvements in ring safety. His research into several areas of cases of product liability offer an insight to the wide scope of the potential of the forensic expert. This presentation reviews his activities in realms widely afield from medicine.

  14. Factors Influencing Collaborative Activities between Non-Professional Disaster Volunteers and Victims of Earthquake Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Haraoka, Tomoko; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Murata, Chiyoe; Hayasaka, Shinya

    2012-01-01

    Background Assistance from non-professional disaster volunteers (hereinafter, volunteers) is essential for disaster victims to recover physically and rebuild their lives; however, disaster victims in some areas are reluctant to accept assistance from volunteers. This study explored factors that may influence collaborative activities between volunteers and victims of earthquake disasters. Methods From July to September 2008, a self-reporting questionnaire survey was conducted with all 302 leaders of neighborhood associations in a city within Niigata Prefecture at the time of the Niigataken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake in 2007. Each factor was determined based on the Health Belief Model. Multiple regression analysis was conducted, using collaborative activities as the objective variable. Results From 261 valid responses received (response rate 86.4%), 41.3% of leaders collaborated with volunteers, and 60.2% of associations had residents who collaborated with volunteers. Collaboration with volunteers was significantly and positively related to perceived severity of an earthquake disaster (standardized partial regression coefficient ??=?0.224, p<0.001) and neighborhood association activities during the earthquake disaster (??=?0.539, p<0.001). A positive and marginally significant relation was found between such collaboration and sense of coherence within a community (??=?0.137, p?=?0.06), social capital (??=?0.119, p?=?0.08), and perceived benefits (??=?0.116, p?=?0.09). Conclusion Collaboration between disaster victims and volunteers during the response to an earthquake may require the preemptive estimation of damage by residents during normal times and the enhancement of neighborhood association activities during a disaster. For residents to have such estimation abilities, public institutions should provide information related to anticipated disaster damage and appropriate disaster prevention training and education. In addition, residents should create a disaster prevention map with other residents. Lastly, promoting neighborhood association activities may require the participation of many residents in disaster drills and education as well as a preemptive discussion of neighborhood activities during a disaster. PMID:23094037

  15. Persistence of activity on Twitter triggered by a natural disaster: A data analysis

    E-print Network

    Kawamoto, Tatsuro

    2015-01-01

    In this note, we list the results of a simple analysis of a Twitter dataset: the complete dataset of Japanese tweets in the 1-week period after the Great East Japan earthquake, which occurred on March 11, 2011. Our data analysis shows how people reacted to the earthquake on Twitter and how some users went inactive in the long-term.

  16. Obtaining Disaster Assistance 

    E-print Network

    Cavanagh, Joyce

    2008-09-24

    information is available by calling the IRS at 1-800-829-1040. References Hurricane Disaster Assistance, Small Business Administration, www.sba.gov Downloaded September 30, 2005. Disaster Assistance Frequently Asked Questions www....fema.gov/rrr/dafaq/shtm Downloaded September 30, 2005. Help After a Disaster: Applicant?s Guide to the Individuals & Households Program (August 2005) www.fema.gov/pdf/about/process/help_after_disaster _english.pdf Downloaded September 30, 2005. Compiled by Joyce Cavanagh...

  17. New psychoactive substances: catalysing a shift in forensic science practice?

    PubMed

    Tettey, Justice; Crean, Conor

    2015-08-01

    The analysis of substances of abuse remains one of the most matured areas in forensic science with a strong scientific basis, namely analytical chemistry. The current evolving drug markets, characterized by the global emergence of new psychoactive substances (NPS) and the need for forensic scientists to identify an unprecedented and ever-increasing number of NPS, presents a unique challenge to this discipline. This article looks at the current situation with NPS at the global level, and the challenges posed to the otherwise technically robust forensic science discipline of analysis of substances of abuse. It discusses the preparedness of forensic science to deal with the current situation and identifies the need for a shift in forensic science practice, especially one which embraces research and looks beyond normal casework in order to provide the much needed data for developing effective policy responses to the NPS problem. PMID:26101290

  18. Epidemics after Natural Disasters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John T. Watson; Michelle Gayer; Maire A. Connolly

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between natural disasters and com- municable diseases is frequently misconstrued. The risk for outbreaks is often presumed to be very high in the chaos that follows natural disasters, a fear likely derived from a perceived association between dead bodies and epidem- ics. However, the risk factors for outbreaks after disasters are associated primarily with population displacement. The availability

  19. Dynamic responses analysis and disaster prevention of transmission line under strong wind

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jingbo Yang; Fengli Yang; Qinghua Li; Dongjie Fu; Zifu Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic analysis of a typical transmission line section under strong wind was carried out. Firstly, according to the design conditions of the typical transmission line section, a three dimensional finite element analysis model of cup tower-stay frame tower-conductor-ground wire-insulator system was established in ANSYS. The initial tension force of the conductors was applied by the cooling method. Before the wind-induced

  20. Applying Machine Trust Models to Forensic Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojcik, Marika; Venter, Hein; Eloff, Jan; Olivier, Martin

    Digital forensics involves the identification, preservation, analysis and presentation of electronic evidence for use in legal proceedings. In the presence of contradictory evidence, forensic investigators need a means to determine which evidence can be trusted. This is particularly true in a trust model environment where computerised agents may make trust-based decisions that influence interactions within the system. This paper focuses on the analysis of evidence in trust-based environments and the determination of the degree to which evidence can be trusted. The trust model proposed in this work may be implemented in a tool for conducting trust-based forensic investigations. The model takes into account the trust environment and parameters that influence interactions in a computer network being investigated. Also, it allows for crimes to be reenacted to create more substantial evidentiary proof.

  1. Setting priorities: global patterns of disaster risk.

    PubMed

    Dilley, Maxx

    2006-08-15

    Natural disasters are caused by the exposure and vulnerabilities to natural hazards of people, infrastructure and economic activities. Analysis of these factors has permitted identification of countries and areas within them where disaster-related mortality and economic losses are likely in the future. These high-risk areas are candidates for increased attention to, and investment in, disaster risk identification, reduction and transfer. Plans are underway to further identify disaster risk levels and factors on national and subnational scales in high-risk countries to create evidence for improved risk management decision-making. In this paper, I review selected recent global and regional risk analyses to highlight findings, areas for improvement and next steps in the overall process of using disaster risk information for more effective risk management and cost-effective reduction of losses. PMID:16844657

  2. Disaster related stresses, depressive signs and symptoms, and suicidal ideation among a multi-racial/ethnic sample of adolescents: a longitudinal analysis.

    PubMed

    Warheit, G J; Zimmerman, R S; Khoury, E L; Vega, W A; Gil, A G

    1996-05-01

    Longitudinal findings are presented on the relationships between disaster related stresses, depression scores, and suicidal ideation among a multi-racial/ethnic sample of adolescents (N = 4,978) all of whom have been exposed to Hurricane Andrew. Regression analysis showed that being female, hurricane generated stresses, low levels of family support, pre-hurricane suicidal ideation, and post-hurricane depression scores were significant predictors of post-hurricane suicidal ideation. Path analysis revealed that being female, low socioeconomic status, pre- and post-hurricane depression, high stress scores, low family support, and pre-hurricane suicidal ideation had significant direct/indirect effects on post-hurricane suicidal ideation. PMID:8735443

  3. Gold is going forensic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmed A. Mohamed

    Not long ago, forensic science was mainly focused on fingerprint detection. With the advance in science and technology, forensics\\u000a has become an increasingly interesting scientific field to explore, and gold is playing an increasingly important role in\\u000a this area. Gold compounds and gold nanoparticles contribute to fingerprint detection and illicit drug testing. Fingerprints\\u000a can be detected on diverse suspected articles

  4. Professionalism in Computer Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irons, Alastair D.; Konstadopoulou, Anastasia

    The paper seeks to address the need to consider issues regarding professionalism in computer forensics in order to allow the discipline to develop and to ensure the credibility of the discipline from the differing perspectives of practitioners, the criminal justice system and in the eyes of the public. There is a need to examine and develop professionalism in computer forensics in order to promote the discipline and maintain the credibility of the discipline.

  5. Internet and forensic science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamakura, Reddy P.

    1997-02-01

    The Internet is a very powerful and inexpensive tool that was created for the free distribution of knowledge and information. The Internet is a learning tool, a research tool, a virtual library without borders and membership requirements, a journal with instant publication, a help desk, and a newspaper/journal with current information. Very soon, when live audio and video transmission is perfected, the Internet also will be a live classroom and everyday conference. Forensic scientists, laboratories and colleges should make use of information already available on the Internet. They also should actively participate and contribute. Very few forensic scientists and laboratories have made their presence felt by setting up their home pages/web pages. But, there is tremendous growth during the past year. Immense benefits from Internet to forensic community are discussed along with the author's personal experience. Creating on-line searchable data bases in all specialties of forensic science is an urgent need. Leading forensic journals should take a lead and create on-line searchable indexes with abstracts. On line electronic publishing, collaborative research/paper publishing or editing is easy, fast, economical and convenient through the use of the Internet. Creation of Internet repositories of unpublished papers is an idea worth looking into. Internet also can be used to give training, re-training or advanced training to students/forensic scientists.

  6. LARGE SCALE DISASTER ANALYSIS AND MANAGEMENT: SYSTEM LEVEL STUDY ON AN INTEGRATED MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The increasing intensity and scale of human activity across the globe leading to severe depletion and deterioration of the Earth's natural resources has meant that sustainability has emerged as a new paradigm of analysis and management. Sustainability, conceptually defined by the...

  7. Ion chromatography-mass spectrometry: a review of recent technologies and applications in forensic and environmental explosives analysis.

    PubMed

    Barron, Leon; Gilchrist, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The development and application of ion chromatography (IC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) is discussed herein for the quantitative determination of low-order explosives-related ionic species in environmental and forensic sample types. Issues relating to environmental explosives contamination and the need for more confirmatory IC-MS based applications in forensic science are examined. In particular, the compatibility of a range of IC separation modes with MS detection is summarised along with the analytical challenges that have been overcome to facilitate determinations at the ng-?g L(-1) level. Observed trends in coupling IC to inductively coupled plasma and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry form a particular focus. This review also includes a discussion of the relative performance of reported IC-MS methods in comparison to orthogonal ion separation-based, spectrometric and spectroscopic approaches to confirmatory detection of low-order explosives. Finally, some promising areas for future research are highlighted and discussed with respect to potential IC-MS applications. PMID:24331039

  8. [Analysis of deaths caused by rail-vehicles in the materials collected by the Department of Forensic Medicine in Bydgoszcz in the years 1992-2002].

    PubMed

    Bloch-Bogus?awska, Elzbieta; Engelgardt, Piotr; Wolska, Ewa; Paradowska, Agnieszka

    2006-01-01

    The analysis focused on cases of death following accidents involving rail-vehicles, in which autopsies were performed at the Department of Forensic Medicine in Bydgoszcz in the years 1992-2002. Sixty-five individuals died in train accidents (80%), 16 people (20%) were victims of tram accidents (20%). Males constituted 86% of the material, while females accounted for 14%. The highest number of rail-vehicle accidents was observed in 1992. The most common reason of death was multiorgan injury. In the subgroup of tram accidents, the authors noted no injuries of the highest severity, such as limb amputations, amputations or crushing of the head, or fragmentation or rupturing of the trunk. On the other hand, in railroad accidents, the percentage of the above injuries was 26%, 44% and 24.5%, respectively. The most severe injuries were noted in the group of people hit by a train while in prone position. PMID:17131763

  9. A longitudinal study of emerging networks during natural disaster

    E-print Network

    Abbasi, Alireza; Kapucu, Naim

    2015-01-01

    We present longitudinal analysis of the evolution of inter-organizational disaster coordination networks during natural disasters. We suggest that social networks are a useful paradigm for exploring this complex phenomenon from both theoretical and methodological perspective aiming to develop a quantitative assessment framework which could aid in developing a better understanding of the optimal functioning of these emerging inter-organizational networks during natural disasters. We highlight the importance of network metrics in order to investigate disaster response coordination networks. Results suggest that in disasters, rate of communication increases and creates the conditions where organizational structures need to move at that same pace to exchange new information.

  10. Role of the forensic psychiatric nurse.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Tamsen

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The article clarifies the role of the forensic psychiatric nurse (FPN) and challenges interchangeable terms confusing forensic and correctional nursing. It addresses the varied venues where the FPN may assess the patient (victim or perpetrator) and gather evidence that may influence conviction, sentencing, recidivism, treatment, and prevention. In depth knowledge of medical and psychiatric nursing as well as the criminal justice system is germane to competent advanced practice forensic nursing. An analogy is drawn between the forensic assessment for risk of violence which is commonly performed by psychiatric nurses in Emergency Departments and the collection and preservation of evidence by medical nurses in Emergency Departments. Both instances require evidence-based techniques and a familiarity with forensic procedures and are often performed by nurses who are not specifically trained in these areas. A case analysis demonstrates the value of an in depth and broad assessment of victim and perpetrator. Evidence based training and the application of structured clinical judgment used in the evaluation of victims and perpetrators make it possible for the FNP to provide expert testimony and to make recommendations for treatment. PMID:19222692

  11. Modeling imbalanced economic recovery following a natural disaster using input-output analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Syddall, Mark; Guan, Dabo

    2013-10-01

    Input-output analysis is frequently used in studies of large-scale weather-related (e.g., Hurricanes and flooding) disruption of a regional economy. The economy after a sudden catastrophe shows a multitude of imbalances with respect to demand and production and may take months or years to recover. However, there is no consensus about how the economy recovers. This article presents a theoretical route map for imbalanced economic recovery called dynamic inequalities. Subsequently, it is applied to a hypothetical postdisaster economic scenario of flooding in London around the year 2020 to assess the influence of future shocks to a regional economy and suggest adaptation measures. Economic projections are produced by a macro econometric model and used as baseline conditions. The results suggest that London's economy would recover over approximately 70 months by applying a proportional rationing scheme under the assumption of initial 50% labor loss (with full recovery in six months), 40% initial loss to service sectors, and 10-30% initial loss to other sectors. The results also suggest that imbalance will be the norm during the postdisaster period of economic recovery even though balance may occur temporarily. Model sensitivity analysis suggests that a proportional rationing scheme may be an effective strategy to apply during postdisaster economic reconstruction, and that policies in transportation recovery and in health care are essential for effective postdisaster economic recovery. PMID:23614394

  12. Bringing science to digital forensics with standardized forensic corpora

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simson Garfinkel; Paul Farrell; Vassil Roussev; George Dinolt

    2009-01-01

    Progress in computer forensics research has been limited by the lack of a standardized data sets—corpora—that are available for research purposes. We explain why corpora are needed to further forensic research, present a taxonomy for describing corpora, and announce the availability of several forensic data sets.

  13. A CONCEPT FOR NATIONAL NUCLEAR FORENSIC LIBRARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Wacker, John F.; Curry, Michael

    2010-08-11

    The interpretation of data from the nuclear forensic analysis of illicit nuclear material of unknown origin requires comparative data from samples of known origin. One way to provide such comparative data is to create a system of national nuclear forensics libraries, in which each participating country stores information about nuclear or other radioactive material that either resides in or was manufactured by that country. Such national libraries could provide an authoritative record of the material located in or produced by a particular country, and thus forms an essential prerequisite for a government to investigate illicit uses of nuclear or other radioactive material within its borders. We describe the concept of the national nuclear forensic library, recommendations for content and structure, and suggested querying methods for utilizing the information for addressing nuclear smuggling.

  14. [Metabonomics and its perspective on forensic medicine].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gao-Qin; Wang, Mei; Zhang, Da-Ming; Liu, Yao

    2010-10-01

    Metabolomics is a new study, which use chromatography, mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), capillary electrophoresis (CE) techniques on the cells, organs and other body fluids and metabolites in samples were isolated, purified and testing, re-use bioinformatics tools on the obtained data are analyzed to obtain one or a set of biomarker information. Based on analysis of the literatures in recent years, metabolomics was summarized from history, concept, advantage, methods, application, difficulties and challenges, journals and books, websites, and its application in forensic medicine was forecasted. As a new branch of global system biology, metabonomics developed rapidly, and its perspective on forensic medicine was feasible and very optimistic. PMID:21287744

  15. American Academy of Forensic Sciences

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Promotion Students Choosing a Career Colleges & Universities Young Forensic Scientists Forum CSI Summer Camp Meetings AAFS 68th Annual Scientific Meeting — Las Vegas, NV - 2016 Forensic Science Educational Conferences IAFS Meeting International Conferences International ...

  16. [Incest--forensic genetic approach].

    PubMed

    Raczek, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents intimate relationships between biologically and legally close relatives, complicated in the social, culture and religion perspective. (art. 201 of the Penal Code), but it chiefly addresses problems associated with giving opinion on the fatherhood towards the incestuous child. The report calls for a broader interest in this issue from expert witnesses in forensic genetics, as well as encourages them to publish examples taken from their own professional experience that may unquestionably be helpful to other practitioners in this field and above all will lead to extending educational methods related to widely understood DNA analysis in giving an opinion on arguable fatherhood. PMID:23424940

  17. International forensic automotive paint database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishea, Gregory A.; Buckle, Joe L.; Ryland, Scott G.

    1999-02-01

    The Technical Working Group for Materials Analysis (TWGMAT) is supporting an international forensic automotive paint database. The Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) are collaborating on this effort through TWGMAT. This paper outlines the support and further development of the RCMP's Automotive Paint Database, `Paint Data Query'. This cooperative agreement augments and supports a current, validated, searchable, automotive paint database that is used to identify make(s), model(s), and year(s) of questioned paint samples in hit-and-run fatalities and other associated investigations involving automotive paint.

  18. Experimental studies of forensic odontology to aid in the identification process

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Susmita; Sharma, Preeti; Gupta, Nitin

    2010-01-01

    The importance of dental identification is on the increase year after year. With the passage of time, the role of forensic odontology has increased as very often teeth and dental restorations are the only means of identification. Forensic odontology has played a key role in identification of persons in mass disasters (aviation, earthquakes, Tsunamis), in crime investigations, in ethnic studies, and in identification of decomposed and disfigured bodies like that of drowned persons, fire victims, and victims of motor vehicle accidents. The various methods employed in forensic odontology include tooth prints, radiographs, photographic study, rugoscopy, cheiloscopy and molecular methods. Investigative methods applied in forensic odontology are reasonably reliable, yet the shortcomings must be accounted for to make it a more meaningful and relevant procedure. This paper gives an overview of the various experimental studies to aid in the identification processes, discussing their feasibilities and limitations in day-to-day practice. PMID:21731343

  19. Experimental studies of forensic odontology to aid in the identification process.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Susmita; Sharma, Preeti; Gupta, Nitin

    2010-07-01

    The importance of dental identification is on the increase year after year. With the passage of time, the role of forensic odontology has increased as very often teeth and dental restorations are the only means of identification. Forensic odontology has played a key role in identification of persons in mass disasters (aviation, earthquakes, Tsunamis), in crime investigations, in ethnic studies, and in identification of decomposed and disfigured bodies like that of drowned persons, fire victims, and victims of motor vehicle accidents. The various methods employed in forensic odontology include tooth prints, radiographs, photographic study, rugoscopy, cheiloscopy and molecular methods. Investigative methods applied in forensic odontology are reasonably reliable, yet the shortcomings must be accounted for to make it a more meaningful and relevant procedure. This paper gives an overview of the various experimental studies to aid in the identification processes, discussing their feasibilities and limitations in day-to-day practice. PMID:21731343

  20. Construction of Evaluation Index System and Evaluation Model of Flood Disaster Risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guohua Fang; Yuqin Gao

    \\u000a The flood risk evaluation is the foundation and basis of flood management. The meaning of flood disaster, flood disaster risk\\u000a and flood disaster risk evaluation are explored in this paper. The principle and methods for establishing flood risk evaluation\\u000a index system of flood disaster are summarized. Based on the analysis of the attributes and formation principle of flood disaster,\\u000a the

  1. Assessing thermochromatography as a separation method for nuclear forensics: current capability vis-à-vis forensic requirements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. E. Hanson; J. R. Garrison; H. L. Hall

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear forensic science has become increasingly important for global nuclear security. However, many current laboratory analysis\\u000a techniques are based on methods developed without the imperative for timely analysis that underlies the post-detonation forensics\\u000a mission requirements. Current analysis of actinides, fission products, and fuel-specific materials requires time-consuming\\u000a chemical separation coupled with nuclear counting or mass spectrometry. High-temperature gas-phase separations have been

  2. Face Recognition in Forensic Science

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicole A. Spaun

    \\u000a In this chapter, we will first explain the current means of comparing faces used by forensic science laboratories. It is a\\u000a nonautomated process performed by forensic examiners and has been referred to as facial “photographic comparison” or forensic\\u000a facial identification. Next, we will outline the innovative ways in which facial recognition systems are being used by the\\u000a forensic community. Lastly,

  3. Establishing network computer forensics classes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louise L. Soe; Dan Manson; Marcy Wright

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the deployment of computer forensics classes at undergraduate and graduate levels in a shared classroom\\/lab environment. The course content combined broad-based computer forensics theory and practice with hands-on forensics tools, including networked EnCase Enterprise forensics software. Our discussion covers teaching and learning issues from the perspectives of the instructors and the graduate and undergraduate students. Lessons learned

  4. Combined target factor analysis and Bayesian soft-classification of interference-contaminated samples: forensic fire debris analysis.

    PubMed

    Williams, Mary R; Sigman, Michael E; Lewis, Jennifer; Pitan, Kelly McHugh

    2012-10-10

    A bayesian soft classification method combined with target factor analysis (TFA) is described and tested for the analysis of fire debris data. The method relies on analysis of the average mass spectrum across the chromatographic profile (i.e., the total ion spectrum, TIS) from multiple samples taken from a single fire scene. A library of TIS from reference ignitable liquids with assigned ASTM classification is used as the target factors in TFA. The class-conditional distributions of correlations between the target and predicted factors for each ASTM class are represented by kernel functions and analyzed by bayesian decision theory. The soft classification approach assists in assessing the probability that ignitable liquid residue from a specific ASTM E1618 class, is present in a set of samples from a single fire scene, even in the presence of unspecified background contributions from pyrolysis products. The method is demonstrated with sample data sets and then tested on laboratory-scale burn data and large-scale field test burns. The overall performance achieved in laboratory and field test of the method is approximately 80% correct classification of fire debris samples. PMID:22920087

  5. Trial by Science: A Forensic Extravaganza

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Vanessa Hunt

    2004-05-01

    This intriguing crime-solving activity for middle level students demonstrates some of the basics of forensic science; including the analysis of fingerprints, hair, fiber, and soil evidence. The realism of the scenario is enhanced by recruiting adult volunteers to serve as suspects that can be questioned and tried by students through the process of scientific inquiry.

  6. Digital Image Forensics via Intrinsic Fingerprints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashwin Swaminathan; Min Wu; K. J. Ray Liu

    2008-01-01

    Digital imaging has experienced tremendous growth in recent decades, and digital camera images have been used in a growing number of applications. With such increasing popularity and the availability of low-cost image editing software, the integrity of digital image content can no longer be taken for granted. This paper introduces a new methodology for forensic analysis of digital camera images.

  7. Transform Coder Classification for Digital Image Forensics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven Tjoa; Wan-yi Sabrina Lin; K. J. Ray Liu

    2007-01-01

    The area of non-intrusive forensic analysis has found many applica- tions in the area of digital imaging. One unexplored area is the iden- tification of source coding in digital images. In other words, given a digital image, can we identify which compression scheme was used, if any? This paper focuses on the aspect of transform coder clas- sification, where we

  8. Computer Forensics Field Triage Process Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcus K. Rogers; James Goldman; Rick Mislan; Timothy Wedge; Steve Debrota

    2006-01-01

    With the proliferation of digital based evidence, the need for the timely identification, analysis and interpretation of digital evidence is becoming more crucial. In many investigations critical information is required while at the scene or within a short period of time - measured in hours as opposed to days. The traditional cyber forensics approach of seizing a system(s)\\/media, transporting it

  9. Location tracking forensics on mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sack, Stefan; Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2013-03-01

    The spread of navigation devices has increased significantly over the last 10 years. With the help of the current development of even smaller navigation receiver units it is to navigate with almost any current smart phone. Modern navigation systems are no longer limited to satellite navigation, but use current techniques, e.g. WLAN localization. Due to the increased use of navigation devices their relevance to forensic investigations has risen rapidly. Because navigation, for example with navigation equipment and smartphones, have become common place these days, also the amount of saved navigation data has risen rapidly. All of these developments lead to a necessary forensic analysis of these devices. However, there are very few current procedures for investigating of navigation devices. Navigation data is forensically interesting because by the position of the devices in most cases the location and the traveled path of the owner can be reconstructed. In this work practices for forensic analysis of navigation devices are developed. Different devices will be analyzed and it is attempted, by means of forensic procedures to restore the traveled path of the mobile device. For analysis of the various devices different software and hardware is used. There will be presented common procedures for securing and testing of mobile devices. Further there will be represented the specials in the investigation of each device. The different classes considered are GPS handhelds, mobile navigation devices and smartphones. It will be attempted, wherever possible, to read all data of the device. The aim is to restore complete histories of the navigation data and to forensically study and analyze these data. This is realized by the usage of current forensic software e.g. TomTology or Oxygen Forensic Suite. It is also attempted to use free software whenever possible. Further alternative methods are used (e.g. rooting) to access locked data of the unit. To limit the practical work the data extraction is focused on the frequently used device sample of a specific class, as the procedure for many groups of devices can be similar. In the present work a Garmin Dakota 10, a TomTom GO 700, an iPhone 4 (iOS) and a Samsung Galaxy S Plus (Android) is used because they have a wide circulation.

  10. Enacting forensics in homicide investigations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robin Williams; Jason Weetman

    2012-01-01

    This article, co-authored by an academic and a forensic practitioner, describes some of the gaps in current knowledge of the utility of forensic science support to homicide investigations. It also reflects on the experience of a recent pilot study of the use of forensic science in homicide investigations in an English police force to argue for new kinds of research

  11. A Formalization of Digital Forensics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryan Leigland; Axel W. Krings

    2004-01-01

    Forensic investigative procedures are used in the case of an intrusion into a networked computer system to detect the scope or nature of the attack. In many cases, the forensic procedures employed are constructed in an informal manner that can impede the effectiveness or integrity of the investigation. We propose a formal model for analyzing and constructing forensic procedures, showing

  12. Forensics on a Shoestring Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greco, Joseph A.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, forensic science has gained popularity thanks in part to high-profile court cases and television programs. Although the cost of forensic equipment and supplies may initially seem too expensive for the typical high school classroom, the author developed an activity that incorporates forensics into her 10th-grade biology curriculum…

  13. Modelling the elements of country vulnerability to earthquake disasters.

    PubMed

    Asef, M R

    2008-09-01

    Earthquakes have probably been the most deadly form of natural disaster in the past century. Diversity of earthquake specifications in terms of magnitude, intensity and frequency at the semicontinental scale has initiated various kinds of disasters at a regional scale. Additionally, diverse characteristics of countries in terms of population size, disaster preparedness, economic strength and building construction development often causes an earthquake of a certain characteristic to have different impacts on the affected region. This research focuses on the appropriate criteria for identifying the severity of major earthquake disasters based on some key observed symptoms. Accordingly, the article presents a methodology for identification and relative quantification of severity of earthquake disasters. This has led to an earthquake disaster vulnerability model at the country scale. Data analysis based on this model suggested a quantitative, comparative and meaningful interpretation of the vulnerability of concerned countries, and successfully explained which countries are more vulnerable to major disasters. PMID:18958916

  14. Open Source Digital Forensics Tools The Legal Argument 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian Carrier

    This paper addresses digital forensic analysis tools and their use in a legal setting. To enter scientific evidence into a United States court, a tool must be reliable and relevant. The reliability of evidence is tested by applying \\

  15. These lives will not be lost in vain: organizational learning from disaster in US coal mining

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, P.M. [Brigham Young University, Provo, UT (United States). Marriott School Management

    2009-09-15

    The stated purpose of the investigations that invariably follow industrial, transportation, and mining disasters is to learn from those tragedies to prevent future tragedies. But does prior experience with disaster make organizations more capable of preventing future disasters? Do organizations learn from disasters experienced by other organizations? Do organizations learn differently from rare disasters than they do from common minor accidents? In its present state, the organizational safety literature is poorly equipped to answer these questions. The present work begins to address this gap by empirically examining how prior organizational experience with disaster affects the likelihood that organizations will experience future disasters. It approaches the issue in the context of fatal U.S. coal mining accidents from 1983 to 2006. The analysis demonstrates that organizations do learn to prevent future disasters through both direct and vicarious experience with disaster. It also indicates that the mechanisms through which organizations learn from disasters differ from those through which they learn from minor accidents.

  16. Forensic DNA databases in Western Balkan region: retrospectives, perspectives, and initiatives

    PubMed Central

    Marjanovi?, Damir; Konjhodži?, Rijad; Butorac, Sara Sanela; Drobni?, Katja; Merkaš, Siniša; Lauc, Gordan; Primorac, Damir; An?elinovi?, Šimun; Milosavljevi?, Mladen; Karan, Željko; Vidovi?, Stojko; Stojkovi?, Oliver; Pani?, Bojana; Vu?eti? Dragovi?, An?elka; Kova?evi?, Sandra; Jakovski, Zlatko; Asplen, Chris; Primorac, Dragan

    2011-01-01

    The European Network of Forensic Science Institutes (ENFSI) recommended the establishment of forensic DNA databases and specific implementation and management legislations for all EU/ENFSI members. Therefore, forensic institutions from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, and Macedonia launched a wide set of activities to support these recommendations. To assess the current state, a regional expert team completed detailed screening and investigation of the existing forensic DNA data repositories and associated legislation in these countries. The scope also included relevant concurrent projects and a wide spectrum of different activities in relation to forensics DNA use. The state of forensic DNA analysis was also determined in the neighboring Slovenia and Croatia, which already have functional national DNA databases. There is a need for a ‘regional supplement’ to the current documentation and standards pertaining to forensic application of DNA databases, which should include regional-specific preliminary aims and recommendations. PMID:21674821

  17. Photography in forensic medicine.

    PubMed

    Henham, A P; Lee, K A

    1994-01-01

    Forensic photography, although similar to medical photography, has different aims, and different objectives. The main consideration is that the images are taken primarily for legal reasons, therefore the results must be accurate and detailed, and of use in court. The photographer must have an understanding of the technical requirements as well as the related medical and legal requirements. Autopsy photography must produce the minimum delay to the autopsy as well as being extremely reliable, as the images are not repeatable. This requires a combination of easily portable equipment and additional technical support. A good photograph clearly demonstrates the required information and minimizes distortion and misleading information. Factors to consider include identification, backgrounds, lighting, colour, scale, perspective, orientation and cropping. The requirements for the effective photographic documentation of forensic subjects are discussed, with reference to the current practices of a specialist forensic pathology service in South Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. PMID:8034901

  18. When is a natural disaster a development disaster; when is a natural disaster not a disaster?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutter, J. C.; Archibong, B.; Pi, D.

    2009-12-01

    Extremes of nature like hurricanes, droughts and earthquakes influence human welfare in a variety of ways. While it might seem counterintuitive, evidence from long run macro-economic data suggests that when natural extremes are especially destructive to human societies, and earn the title “natural disaster” they can actually have a beneficial effect on development. The process involved may be akin to the “The gale of creative destruction” first described by the economist Joseph Schumpeter. Applied to disasters the notion is that, in the short term, disasters can stimulate certain industries such as construction with capital flows coming into the disaster region from outside sources such as central government or international aid that can stimulate the economy. Longer term, outdated and inefficient public and private infrastructure destroyed in the disaster can be replaced by up to date, efficient systems that permit the economy to function more effectively, so that post-disaster growth can exceed pre-disaster levels. Disasters are macro-economic shocks, fundamentally similar to the banking shock that lead to the current global recession and, in the same way require external capital stimuli to overcome and that stimulus can result in stronger economies after recovery. These large-scale and long-run trends disguise the fact that disasters have very different development outcomes for different societies. Globally, there is evidence that poorer countries are not systematically stimulated by disaster shocks and may even be driven into poverty traps by certain disasters. Locally, the recovery from Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans has had been very different for different social groups, with both over-recovery and under-recovery occurring simultaneously and in close proximity. We discuss the conditions under which disasters might be a stimulating force and when they might lead to development setbacks.

  19. Key Aspects of Providing Healthcare Services in Disaster Response Stage

    PubMed Central

    POURHOSSEINI, Samira Sadat; ARDALAN, Ali; MEHROLHASSANI, Mohammad Hossien

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Health care management in disasters is one of the main parts of disaster management. Health in disasters is affected by performance of various sectors, and has an interactive impact on various aspects of disaster management. The aim of this study was to identify the most important themes affecting the healthcare management in disaster. Method In this qualitative study with a content analysis approach, in-depth interviews in two steps with 30 disaster experts and managers were conducted to collect the data. Results Eleven themes affecting healthcare management in disasters were identified. These themes were related to human resources management, resources management, victims’ management transfer, environmental hygiene monitoring, nutrition management, mental health control, inter-agency coordination, training, technology management, information and communication management, and budget management. Conclusion Providing effective health care service in disasters requires a comprehensive look at the various aspects of disaster management. Effective factors on the success of healthcare in disaster are not limited to the scope of healthcare. There should be a close relationship and interaction between different sectors of disaster management.

  20. StrikesForensic Dentistry and DisasterVictim Identification

    E-print Network

    Saskatchewan, University of

    crime scene to dinosaur dig, bones tell the story. The Fruits of Fraud Follow the money through the high living in Saskatoon and a regular contributor to the Green & White. He is a big fan of dinosaurs. Craig in Saskatoon. His work appears in Planet S Magazine and The National Post. Stephen Johnson (BA'95

  1. [Forensic biological examination--the reality and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, P L; Klevno, V A

    2008-01-01

    The point of view of authors on the modern condition and priority directions of the development of examination of biological material evidence is set out. The main idea consists in the necessarily of reorganization and correction of organization methodical base of examination of biological material evidence. The role and place in examination of material evidence of traditional serological and new--molecule genetic components are determined in this direction. It is noted that forensic biology must not ever be associated with only one of its part--serological methods of analysis. Under growing influence of molecule genetic component the semantic, and methodical content of forensic examination of material evidence. This is not already auxiliary differentiation of examination objects but conclusive set of their equality or difference. Thus forensic biological department of forensic medical examination Office must become expert compartments of new type due for complex analysis of material evidence where molecule genetic technologies lie in the centre. All other methodical compartments of forensic biology also will be used but as auxiliary and additional methods. In perspective it is necessary to enlarge and centralize of high-tech forensic molecule genetic laboratories based on common science-methodical approach. Unfavorable outcome of medical aid: study of the problem in forensic medicine practice PMID:18326240

  2. Research in forensic odontology.

    PubMed Central

    Whittaker, D. K.

    1982-01-01

    Forensic odontology has established itself as an important and often indispensable science in medicolegal matters and in particular in identification of the dead. Much of its expertise is drawn from clinical experience based on basic research and advances in knowledge in dentistry in general. There has also been, particularly during the past two decades, an increasing body of research in specifically forensic dental matters and these studies form the subject of this review. Progress in this field, as in others, will depend upon development of training pathways and research facilities in our dental schools. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:7044254

  3. Preparing for Disaster: Taking the Lead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colber, Judith

    2008-01-01

    In this article, Irwin Redlener, director of the National Center for Disaster Preparedness describes disasters in relation to five phases that may serve as a helpful framework for planning disaster response: (1) before the disaster (pre-disaster); (2) during the disaster (intra-disaster); (3) immediately after the disaster (immediate…

  4. Performance evaluation of disaster monitoring systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tuncay Bayrak

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the performance of disaster monitoring systems is a key to understanding their success; therefore, various qualitative\\u000a and quantitative measures and metrics can be applied in the characterization and analysis of such systems. Through evaluation\\u000a studies, problems that impede a disaster monitoring system performance can be identified. The results can be used for system\\u000a design, control, and capacity planning. Previous

  5. Analysis of Ground-vibration induced by the sediment disaster on Izu Oshima, Tokyo in October 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahara, Teruyoshi; Kinoshita, Atsuhiko; Mizutani, Tasuku; Ishizuka, Tadanori; Ishida, Tetsuya; Kaihara, Soichi; Asahara, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    October 2013, at the Mariana Islands, typhoon Wipha occurred. Wipha attacked Izu Ohshima of Japan and brought heavy rain. Izu Ohshima is part of Tokyo Metropolitan prefecture. Ohshima rain-gauge station of Japan Meteorological Agency showed 118.5 mm per hour and 824.0mm per 24hours. This 24 hour rainfall was about 2.5 times higher than the average rainfall for October (329.0mm / 24hour). And then, a lot of shallow landslides and debris flow has occurred. Thirty six people were killed and four people were missing by these sediment disaster. It is important to clarify that "When and where did disaster occur?". A lot of seismographs for volcano observation are installed in Izu Ohshima. And then, it is known that when sediment moved, ground-vibration occurred. We estimated time and location of disaster by analyzing ground-vibration in sediment moving. First, we estimated that the disaster occurred from 2:00 a.m. to 3:00 a.m. of October 16 by some newspaper reports. Second, we collected data of installed seismographs in Izu Ohshima and analyzed. And then, we caught that some wave data existed. These were different from earthquake data. We estimated that these showed ground-vibration data in sediment moving. Finally, we estimated hypocenter (location of sediment moving) by relationship between "distance between hypocenter and seismograph" and amplitude. Methods are as follows. Making envelope on basis of collected seismograph data and calculating maximum amplitude (y) Calculating amplitude (x) on basis of some assumed hypocenters Setting hypocenter (location of sediment moving) by minimum residual of y and x Comparing of set hypocenter and actual location of sediment moving. We found that distance of set hypocenter and actual location of sediment moving is close. Therefore, when sediment disaster occurs, by analyzing seismographs data, it may be possible to estimate that the location and timing of sediment moving. And, it may be possible to use as tools for people to evacuate.

  6. Palatal rugae and their role in forensic odontology.

    PubMed

    Jain, Anoop; Chowdhary, Ramesh

    2014-08-01

    Establishing a person's identity can be a difficult task in cases of traffic accidents or in mass disaster situations. The records collected to identify a decedent should be accurate and totally inclusive of objective findings. When a victim has no teeth, information for use in personal identification based on methods available in forensic odontology is much more limited than in the case of dentate victims. Palatal rugae have been considered relevant for human identification due to its stability, which is equivalent to the fingerprint, in that it is unique for each ruga pattern. Palatal rugae appear to possess the features of an ideal forensic identification parameter, that is, uniqueness, postmortem resistance, and stability. The purpose of this article was to review the literature, in order to determine if there is enough evidence to establish the use of palatal rugae in dental identification. PMID:23371877

  7. The challenges and effects of globalisation on forensic dentistry.

    PubMed

    Bernitz, Herman

    2009-08-01

    This paper deals with the challenges faced by forensic dentists in a world in which globalisation has become a reality. People travelling across the globe on a daily basis become victims of violent crime, terrorist attacks, human displacement, natural and man made disasters. This has forced colleagues in the profession to participate in joint operations exposing inadequacies which need urgent attention. Forensic dentists practise in isolation creating their own rules and regulations oblivious to the greater global community. No international protocols exist for the many procedures practised by the profession. Possible solutions to the complex problems are offered. These include co-operation with colleagues around the globe while striving for the highest levels of quality control, standardisation, reliability, impartiality, reproducibility and ethical accountability. PMID:19774806

  8. Digital image forensics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Fridrich; Min Wu; K. J. Ray Liu; Jessica Fridrich

    2009-01-01

    The article explains how photo-response nonuniformity (PRNU) of imaging sensors can be used for a variety of important digital forensic tasks, such as device identification, device linking, recovery of processing history, and detection of digital forgeries. The PRNU is an intrinsic property of all digital imaging sensors due to slight variations among individual pixels in their ability to convert photons

  9. Forensic medicine in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Islam, Muhammad Nurul; Islam, Mohammed Nasimul

    2003-03-01

    In this paper, we discuss the current medico-legal practice and future plan to improve the medico-legal service of Bangladesh which is rooted in the remnants of British medical jurisprudence. It includes clinical forensic medicine and forensic pathology. In Bangladesh all unnatural deaths are to be reported at the nearest police station and an appointed police officer should visit the scene of crime for investigation and to arrange postmortem if required. The forensic services of the country are delivered partly by academic staffs of Government Medical Colleges and the rest by the Civil Surgeons. Sometimes, residential medical officers in the district hospitals perform the medico-legal work. Most of them have no forensic qualifications except a long exposure in the medico-legal field. Currently academic and professional postgraduate courses are available. The chemical examiner's laboratory is situated at Dhaka with the facility of quantitative tests only. The Government of Bangladesh is trying to standardize the existing system. A Workshop on medico-legal services has been organized regularly by The Medico-legal Society of Bangladesh. A DNA profiling laboratory at the Dhaka Medical College is in the process of being set up. Such progress will be a milestone in the development of the medico-legal service in Bangladesh. However, with a few exceptions, teaching and training facilities are still lacking. PMID:12935633

  10. Manual of Forensic Odontology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Griffiths

    1997-01-01

    Edited by C Michael Bowers and Gary L Belt. American Society of Forensic Odontology, Colorado Springs, third edition, 1996; 376 pp. soft cover; US$79.00 plus US$6.00 for handling direct from PO Box 669, Colorado Springs CO 80901-0669; ISBN 0 9650223 4 X.

  11. Criminal computer forensics management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ray Yeager

    2006-01-01

    This research paper addresses the methodology and approaches to managing criminal computer forensic investigations in a law enforcement environment with management controls, operational controls, and technical controls. Management controls cover policy and standard operating procedures (SOP's), methodology, and guidance. Operational controls cover SOP requirements, seizing evidence, evidence handling, best practices, and education, training and awareness. Technical controls cover acquisition and

  12. Functional Disaster Resistant Buildings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William R. Young; James Robert Haggard

    2006-01-01

    Natural disasters, such as hurricanes, floods, tornados, tsunami and earthquakes, are becoming a greater problem as they destroy lives, homes, businesses and the natural environment. Such disasters can happen with little or no warning, leaving hundreds or even thousands of people without medical services, potable water, sanitation, communications and electrical services for up to several weeks. One proactive strategy to

  13. Disaster Preparation and Recovery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the insurance you need, including special types, like flood insurance. No matter what kind of disaster you experience, it causes emotional distress. After a disaster, recovery can take time. Stay connected to your family and friends during this period. Federal Emergency Management Agency

  14. Types of Disasters

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and there are manmade disasters, such as the oil spill that affected the Gulf Coast of the United States in 2010. Nature, including the weather, can cause big problems, such ... can cause disasters, like when the oil spilled into the Gulf of Mexico, or when ...

  15. PREDICTION OF NATURAL DISASTERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    OuYANG SHOUCHENG; YI LIN; WU YONG

    2000-01-01

    During the past 30 plus years, we have been dealing with several fundamental problems in prediction science. We believe that “the science of human natural disasters” (natural disasters affecting mankind) is not well addressed by the classical theory of dynamical systems. It is argued that there exist problems, when the theory of dynamic systems is used, related to (1) measurement

  16. Planning for Disaster.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Mohini P

    2015-07-01

    Some of my friends and relatives wonder why I want to spend my time thinking about social inequities in the context of natural disasters. I have tried to explain the importance of understanding how humanity's responses mitigate or worsen the human toll of "acts of God." Disaster ethics presents a unique set of challenges. PMID:26152392

  17. [General organizational issues in disaster health response].

    PubMed

    Pacifici, L E; Riccardo, F; De Rosa, A G; Pacini, A; Nardi, L; Russo, G; Scaroni, E

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies show how in the 2004-2005 period there has been an increase in natural disasters of 18% worldwide. According to a renowned author planning for disaster response is as valid as the starting hypothesis. The study of an inductive mental process in disaster response planning is the key to avoiding the invention and re-invention of the wheel for each emergency. Research in this field however is hampered by different factors one of which is data collection that during disaster response requires specific training. Standardization of data collection models with limitation of the number of variables is required as is taking into account problems related to people migration and subsequent sampling problems and retrospective analysis. Moreover poor attention to the training of the volunteers employed on the field is an issue to be considered. PMID:17598986

  18. Distinguishing between forensic science and forensic pseudoscience: testing of validity and reliability, and approaches to forensic voice comparison.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Geoffrey Stewart

    2014-05-01

    In this paper it is argued that one should not attempt to directly assess whether a forensic analysis technique is scientifically acceptable. Rather one should first specify what one considers to be appropriate principles governing acceptable practice, then consider any particular approach in light of those principles. This paper focuses on one principle: the validity and reliability of an approach should be empirically tested under conditions reflecting those of the case under investigation using test data drawn from the relevant population. Versions of this principle have been key elements in several reports on forensic science, including forensic voice comparison, published over the last four-and-a-half decades. The aural-spectrographic approach to forensic voice comparison (also known as "voiceprint" or "voicegram" examination) and the currently widely practiced auditory-acoustic-phonetic approach are considered in light of this principle (these two approaches do not appear to be mutually exclusive). Approaches based on data, quantitative measurements, and statistical models are also considered in light of this principle. PMID:24796954

  19. National Science Foundation: Disasters

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This fine website from the National Science Foundation (NSF) addresses its subject thusly: "Whether caused by acts of nature, human errors or even malevolence, disasters are an increasingly costly threat." Released as part of their "Special Reports" series, this interactive site profiles the latest in disaster research from the NSF and the "Critical Role of Research". First-time visitors will want to start by clicking on the "Understanding Disasters" area. Here they can learn about the NSF's work on observing, modeling, identifying, studying, and analyzing various disasters. Each subarea here includes Flash videos, charts, and images which help give some visual armature to each topic. Moving on, the "NSF and 9/11" area features work done through NSF in and around Lower Manhattan and the Pentagon in the aftermath of those tragic events. The site is rounded out by the "Disaster News" area, which features profiles of their work related to California wildfires, major thunderstorms, and levee destruction.

  20. Epidemics after Natural Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Gayer, Michelle; Connolly, Maire A.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between natural disasters and communicable diseases is frequently misconstrued. The risk for outbreaks is often presumed to be very high in the chaos that follows natural disasters, a fear likely derived from a perceived association between dead bodies and epidemics. However, the risk factors for outbreaks after disasters are associated primarily with population displacement. The availability of safe water and sanitation facilities, the degree of crowding, the underlying health status of the population, and the availability of healthcare services all interact within the context of the local disease ecology to influence the risk for communicable diseases and death in the affected population. We outline the risk factors for outbreaks after a disaster, review the communicable diseases likely to be important, and establish priorities to address communicable diseases in disaster settings. PMID:17370508

  1. Differences between Disaster Prediction and Risk Assessment in Natural Disasters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chongfu Huang

    2011-01-01

    A clear distinction between disaster prediction and risk assessment is necessary for effective disaster reduction. Disaster prediction models objects that face hazard, damage, or loss, while risk assessment models the likelihoods of the scene in future adverse incidents. In terms of mathematics, a model for disaster prediction can be an explicit function, while a model for risk assessment might be

  2. Role of forensic odontologist in post mortem person identification

    PubMed Central

    Pramod, Jahagirdar B.; Marya, Anand; Sharma, Vidhii

    2012-01-01

    The natural teeth are the most durable organs in the bodies of vertebrates, and humankind's understanding of their own past and evolution relies heavily upon remnant dental evidence found as fossils. The use of features unique to the human dentition as an aid to personal identification is widely accepted within the forensic field. Comparative dental identifications play a major role in identifying the victims of violence, disaster or other mass tragedies. The comparison of ante-mortem and postmortem dental records to determine human identity has long been established. Indeed, it is still a major identification method in criminal investigations, mass disasters, grossly decomposed or traumatized bodies, and in other situations where visual identification is neither possible nor desirable. This article has comprehensively described some of the methods, and additional factors aiding in postmortem person identification. PMID:23559914

  3. Analysis of quazepam and its metabolites in human urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: application to a forensic case.

    PubMed

    Terada, Masaru; Shinozuka, Tatsuo; Hasegawa, Chika; Tanaka, Einosuke; Hayashida, Makiko; Ohno, Youkichi; Kurosaki, Kunihiko

    2013-04-10

    A sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of quazepam and two of its metabolites, 2-oxoquazepam and 3-hydroxy-2-oxoquazepam, in human urine was developed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with an Rtx-5MS capillary column. The quazepam and its metabolites were extracted from human urine using a simple solid-phase extraction Oasis(®) HLB cartridge column, and the 3-hydroxy-2-oxoquazepam was derivatised using BSTFA/1%TMCS and pyridine at 60 °C for 30 min. The mass spectrometric detection of the analytes was performed in the full scan mode, m/z 60-480, and selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode, m/z 386, for quazepam; m/z 342, for 2-oxoquazepam; m/z 429, for 3-hydroxy-2-oxoquazepam-TMS; and m/z 284, for alprazolam-d5 (internal standard), by electron ionization. The calibration curves of quazepam and its metabolites in urine showed good linearity in the concentration range of 2.5-500 ng/0.2 ml of urine. The average recoveries of quazepam and its metabolites from 0.2 ml of urine containing 500 ng and 50 ng of each drug were 71-83% and 88-90%, respectively. The limits of detection of quazepam, 2-oxoquazepam and 3-hydroxy-2-quazepam in urine by the selected ion monitoring mode were 0.096-0.37 ng/ml. This method would be applicable to other forensic biological materials containing low concentrations of quazepam and its metabolites. PMID:23290298

  4. Summer Conference: Research in Forensic Psychiatry

    E-print Network

    Schubart, Christoph

    1st Summer Conference: Research in Forensic Psychiatry The University of Regensburg Forensic Psychiatry and Psychotherapy Unit Head: Prof. Dr. med. Michael Osterheider Universitätsstrasse 84 D-93053 Conference: Research in Forensic Psychiatry in Regensburg. The conference schedule comprises nearly fifty

  5. The Role of Self-Forensics in Vehicle Crash Investigations and Event Reconstruction

    E-print Network

    Mokhov, Serguei A

    2009-01-01

    This paper further introduces and formalizes a novel concept of self-forensics for automotive vehicles, specified in the Forensic Lucid language. We argue that self-forensics, with the forensics taken out of the cybercrime domain, is applicable to "self-dissection" of intelligent vehicles and hardware systems for automated incident and anomaly analysis and event reconstruction by the software with or without the aid of the engineering teams in a variety of forensic scenarios. We propose a formal design, requirements, and specification of the self-forensic enabled units (similar to blackboxes) in vehicles that will help investigation of incidents and also automated reasoning and verification of theories along with the events reconstruction in a formal model. We argue such an analysis is beneficial to improve the safety of the passengers and their vehicles, like the airline industry does for planes.

  6. Natural Disasters and Adaptive Capacity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeff Dayton-Johnson

    2004-01-01

    Natural disasters (droughts, earthquakes, epidemics, floods, wind storms) damage wellbeing, both in their immediate and long-term aftermath, and because the insecurity of exposure to disasters is in itself harmful to risk-averse people. As such, mitigating and coping with the risk of natural disasters is a pressing issue for economic development. This paper provides a conceptual framework for understanding natural disasters.

  7. Automated Forensic Animal Family Identification by Nested PCR and Melt Curve Analysis on an Off-the-Shelf Thermocycler Augmented with a Centrifugal Microfluidic Disk Segment

    PubMed Central

    Zengerle, Roland; von Stetten, Felix; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Nested PCR remains a labor-intensive and error-prone biomolecular analysis. Laboratory workflow automation by precise control of minute liquid volumes in centrifugal microfluidic Lab-on-a-Chip systems holds great potential for such applications. However, the majority of these systems require costly custom-made processing devices. Our idea is to augment a standard laboratory device, here a centrifugal real-time PCR thermocycler, with inbuilt liquid handling capabilities for automation. We have developed a microfluidic disk segment enabling an automated nested real-time PCR assay for identification of common European animal groups adapted to forensic standards. For the first time we utilize a novel combination of fluidic elements, including pre-storage of reagents, to automate the assay at constant rotational frequency of an off-the-shelf thermocycler. It provides a universal duplex pre-amplification of short fragments of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA and cytochrome b genes, animal-group-specific main-amplifications, and melting curve analysis for differentiation. The system was characterized with respect to assay sensitivity, specificity, risk of cross-contamination, and detection of minor components in mixtures. 92.2% of the performed tests were recognized as fluidically failure-free sample handling and used for evaluation. Altogether, augmentation of the standard real-time thermocycler with a self-contained centrifugal microfluidic disk segment resulted in an accelerated and automated analysis reducing hands-on time, and circumventing the risk of contamination associated with regular nested PCR protocols. PMID:26147196

  8. A similarity based technique for detecting malicious executable files for computer forensics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun-hyung Park; Minsoo Kim; Bong-Nam Noh; James B. D. Joshi

    2006-01-01

    With the rapidly increasing complexity of computer systems and the sophistication of hacking tools and techniques, there is a crucial need for computer forensic analysis techniques. Very few techniques exist to support forensic analysis of unknown executable files. The existing techniques primarily inspect executable files to detect known signatures or are based on metadata information. A key goal of such

  9. Analysis of flood disaster characteristics by using GIS: a case study at the Kujukuri Plain in Chiba Prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Yuka; Chen, Huali; Sawamukai, Marie; Tokunaga, Tomochika

    2014-05-01

    Subsidence has occurred at many areas in Japan. The Kujukuri Plain, Chiba Prefecture, Japan, is one of the heavy subsidence areas caused by ground deformation from paleo-earthquakes, plate tectonics and human-induced subsidence by groundwater use. The maximum value of accumulated subsidence is 106.8 cm at the Mobara City during the period from 1969 to 2011. The impact of land subsidence on surface environment has been concerned; one of its effects may include the increase of the risk of flood. In the Kujukuri area, flood disaster has occurred repeatedly in the past. In this study, we analyzed and compared the flood disaster of different period that occurred at 1 July 1970, 8 to 11 October 2004, and 16 October 2013 by using GIS to understand the temporal change of the flood characteristics of the region. Three periods were selected because 1970 is after huge land modification, 2004 is prior to the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake, and 2013 is after the earthquake of 2011. Data used are 1-meter resolution airborne laser scanning data, Landsat-data, and precipitation data. Local topographic depressions were represented from the difference between the raster images that filled the sinks from original raster image using 1-m DEM. Slope angles along the road were calculated by using road data of digital map 2500 (Geospatial information authority of Japan: GSI) and 1-m DEM. Land use maps were produced by Landsat-1 MSS (26 November 1972) and Landsat-5 TM (1 April 2004 and 5 April 2011) and aerial photograph. Impervious ratio distribution map was made by defining the impervious area where covered by asphalt such as roads and buildings. The results showed that the distribution of depressions was mostly unchanged from 1970 to 2004, however, changed slightly in 2013. This change could be affected by ground deformation after earthquake or small human activities such as surface improvement. Flood disaster area is recognized in the depth of depression of more than 20cm with the road gradient of ca. 1 % or less at Mobara City. In some areas, flooding is also occurred in the depressions of ca. 5 to 10 cm. Land use change, impervious area, and other data will be analyzed and compared with flood record map to investigate flood¬-prone area.

  10. Twitter as a Potential Disaster Risk Reduction Tool. Part II: Descriptive Analysis of Identified Twitter Activity during the 2013 Hattiesburg F4 Tornado

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Guy Paul; Yeager, Violet; Burkle, Frederick M.; Subbarao, Italo

    2015-01-01

    Background: This article describes a novel triangulation methodological approach for identifying twitter activity of regional active twitter users during the 2013 Hattiesburg EF-4 Tornado. Methodology: A data extraction and geographically centered filtration approach was utilized to generate Twitter data for 48 hrs pre- and post-Tornado. The data was further validated using six sigma approach utilizing GPS data. Results: The regional analysis revealed a total of 81,441 tweets, 10,646 Twitter users, 27,309 retweets and 2637 tweets with GPS coordinates. Conclusions: Twitter tweet activity increased 5 fold during the response to the Hattiesburg Tornado.  Retweeting activity increased 2.2 fold. Tweets with a hashtag increased 1.4 fold. Twitter was an effective disaster risk reduction tool for the Hattiesburg EF-4 Tornado 2013. 

  11. Tattoos: forensic considerations.

    PubMed

    Byard, Roger W

    2013-12-01

    Tattooing refers to marking of the skin by puncturing and introducing pigmented material. Although it derives from a Polynesian word, tautau, decorative tattooing has been found in most societies over many centuries. The purpose of tattooing has varied from simple decoration, to a marker of social rank, criminal and noncriminal group membership, or a particular rite of passage in tribal communities. Tattooing may be used in medicine to mark areas for radiotherapy, and may occur inadvertently associated with certain occupations such as coal mining. Forensically, tattoos may be very useful in assisting with body identification if facial features or fingers have been damaged or removed. Aspects of a decedent's history may also be deduced from certain tattoos such as military tattoos in service personnel, rudimentary line tattoos with antisocial and anti-police messages in ex-prisoners, and syringes, marihuana leaves or mushrooms in illicit drug users. Tattoos have become more common in recent years in younger individuals in the West and so should be expected to be found with increasing incidence at the time of forensic autopsy examinations. Increasing population movements also mean that less common tattoos may be encountered during forensic evaluations. PMID:23846907

  12. Validation of high throughput sequencing and microbial forensics applications

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    High throughput sequencing (HTS) generates large amounts of high quality sequence data for microbial genomics. The value of HTS for microbial forensics is the speed at which evidence can be collected and the power to characterize microbial-related evidence to solve biocrimes and bioterrorist events. As HTS technologies continue to improve, they provide increasingly powerful sets of tools to support the entire field of microbial forensics. Accurate, credible results allow analysis and interpretation, significantly influencing the course and/or focus of an investigation, and can impact the response of the government to an attack having individual, political, economic or military consequences. Interpretation of the results of microbial forensic analyses relies on understanding the performance and limitations of HTS methods, including analytical processes, assays and data interpretation. The utility of HTS must be defined carefully within established operating conditions and tolerances. Validation is essential in the development and implementation of microbial forensics methods used for formulating investigative leads attribution. HTS strategies vary, requiring guiding principles for HTS system validation. Three initial aspects of HTS, irrespective of chemistry, instrumentation or software are: 1) sample preparation, 2) sequencing, and 3) data analysis. Criteria that should be considered for HTS validation for microbial forensics are presented here. Validation should be defined in terms of specific application and the criteria described here comprise a foundation for investigators to establish, validate and implement HTS as a tool in microbial forensics, enhancing public safety and national security. PMID:25101166

  13. Toxicological evidence in forensic pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Ferner, R E

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory evidence of the presence and concentration of a drug in a person who has come to harm is often helpful in forensic pharmacology, and may be crucial. However, its value depends on two critical interpretations by the expert. First, the expert must make a careful analysis of the relationship between the results as measured in the sample and the drug in the patient at the time that harm occurred. That is especially difficult with post-mortem samples. Secondly, the expert must syntheses the laboratory information with the available clinical history and clinical or pathological findings. Even in the most favourable circumstances, when the sample is correctly obtained, identified, and analyzed, it can be hard to say that beyond reasonable doubt a given concentration had a given effect. PMID:22436255

  14. Speeding earthquake disaster relief

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mortensen, Carl; Donlin, Carolyn; Page, Robert A.; Ward, Peter

    1995-01-01

    In coping with recent multibillion-dollar earthquake disasters, scientists and emergency managers have found new ways to speed and improve relief efforts. This progress is founded on the rapid availability of earthquake information from seismograph networks.

  15. Disaster Recovery Assistance

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    As one might imagine, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)'s Disaster Recovery Assistance office works closely with other federal agencies, such as the Small Business Administration and the Federal Emergency Management Agency. On their homepage, visitors can learn about their programs in various states, or they may wish to start by viewing some of their latest press releases. The site contains a great deal of specific information on their work rebuilding New Orleans through the Disaster Housing Assistance Program and the Disaster Vouching Program. Users of the site will also be glad to learn that many of the materials are available in Spanish. The site is rounded out by a section on their work addressing disasters in Southern California.

  16. Natural Disasters in Florida

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Claudia Markham-Ahl

    2011-10-18

    The students will translate the information they have gained into a poster/picture of Florida's natural disasters, label the storms, and list on the poster at least three safety practices to use with each storm.

  17. Scorching effects of heat on extracted teeth - A forensic view

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Ajay P.; Reddy, Shyam D. P.; Rao, Madhusudan T.; Ramanand, O. V.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Fire investigation is the multidisciplinary basis of the exploration, which involves investigations concerning the origin of fire, its cause as well as the identification of victims. At times, victim identification in fire disasters becomes nearly impossible owing to complete destruction of soft tissues. In such circumstances, teeth may prove to be of value since they are extremely hard. A precise understanding of physical and histological changes in teeth subjected to high temperature can provide valuable clues in fire and crime investigations, when dental evidence remains. Aim: The main aim and objective of the study was to investigate structural damage in freshly extracted teeth to heating, at different temperatures for a certain length of time in the laboratory. Settings and Design: Fifty-four freshly extracted teeth of different age groups had been subjected to different temperatures for a period of 15 minutes in the laboratory furnace. Physical and microscopic findings were correlated to the temperature. Materials and Methods: Freshly extracted 54 permanent teeth of different age groups were collected and were subjected to temperatures of 100°C, 300°C, and 600°C. Teeth were then examined for any physical changes such as change in color, texture, or morphology that occurred. Then the teeth were subjected for decalcification following which the tissues were kept for routine processing and were embedded in paraffin wax. Sections of 4 ?m thickness were made and stained in hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) to correlate the microscopic findings to the temperature. Statistical Analysis: Physical and microscopic findings were correlated to the temperature. Results: Microscopic examination revealed definite histological patterns, which were explicitly seen at a particular temperature. The samples showed cracks and charring of the tooth structure with microscopic findings such as widening of dentinal tubules and altered histological staining. Conclusion: Evaluation of incinerated dental remains may provide additional forensic investigative avenues in victim identification because of the consistency of morphological changes, the histological patterns at temperatures that are commonly encountered in common domestic fires. PMID:25177142

  18. Forensic Management Academy Spring 2011 Tentative Schedule Forensic Management Academy

    E-print Network

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    Bob Waggoner 8:00 ­ 11:30 Session XI How to Develop and Manage a Federal Grant Max Houck 11:30 ­ 1Forensic Management Academy ­ Spring 2011 Tentative Schedule Forensic Management Academy Spring Thursday April 14th Friday April 15th 11:00 ­ 11:30 Registration 8:30 - 11:30 Session II Developing

  19. COE589: Digital Forensics Research in Digital Forensics

    E-print Network

    Almulhem, Ahmad

    computing) ­ imaging ­ carving ­ history timeline ­ ... COE589 - Ahmad Almulhem 12 #12;4. Live Acquisition, magazines, and Internet is not research ­ Does not contribution to new knowledge ­ requires comprehension Almulhem 13 #12;5. Media Types · Computer forensics evolved into Digital Forensics ­ devices such as phones

  20. Disaster and disabilities

    E-print Network

    Stough, Laura

    2014-01-01

    in receiving timely communication about emergency events. In addition, people with disabili- ties are more likely to live in housing that places them at risk in disaster, such as in flood plains or in substandard structures (Hemingway & Priestly, 2006; Peek... the response and recovery phases of disaster (Rowland, White, Fox, & Rooney, 2007; Stough, 2009). Accounts report difficulties in physically evacuating buildings, finding accessible transportation, and obtaining sheltering postdisaster. For example...

  1. Microanalytical Methods for Bio-Forensics Investigations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L N Brewer; P K Weber; R P Grant; S Ghosal; J R Michael

    2006-01-01

    Forensics investigations of bio-crime or bio-terrorism incidents require careful analysis of collected evidentiary material. Although the biological markers in the evidentiary material are important (e.g. genomic signatures, protein markers), the elemental make-up of the organisms themselves and the surrounding non-biological material is extremely useful for attributing a specific process and, perhaps, specific persons to the production of the biological agent.

  2. [Analysis of traffic accident fatalities in autopsy material collected in the years 2007-2008 at the Department of Forensic Medicine, Medical University of Bia?ystok].

    PubMed

    Szeremeta, Micha?; Niemcunowicz-Janica, Anna; Sackiewicz, Adam; Ptaszy?ska-Sarosiek, Iwona

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the paper was an analysis of traffic accident fatalities in autopsy material collected at the Department of Forensic Medicine, Medical University of Bia?ystok in the years 2007-2008. The analysis was carried out in 209 traffic accident victims included in the total number of 876 autopsies. Based on autopsy reports, the main criteria included gender, site of death (urban area, rural area, non-built-up), mode of movement (driver, passenger, pedestrian, biker and cyclist), age, location of fatal injuries (head, thorax, abdomen and pelvis, upper and lower limbs, multiorgan injuries) and blood alcohol level. The collected data were analyzed statistically according to the above listed criteria and presented as a text and graphs. In the years 2007-2008, 209 individuals died in traffic accidents in Podlasie Region, with the mortality rate of 24%. Male victims accounted for 76% of fatalities, while females constituted 24%. Drivers predominated among traffic accident fatalities in Podlasie Region, with the mortality rate of 38%. In the years 2007-2008, the mortality rates for pedestrians, passengers, motorbike drivers and bikers were 29%, 26% and 7%, respectively. Regardless of the time period, the fatalities were predominant in non-built-up areas, with the percentage amounting to 48.5%. The location of fatal injuries in respective groups was similar, with a preponderance of multiorgan injuries. The mean age of traffic accident fatalities was 41 years, predominantly due to an increasing number of fatal cases among young individuals. In the years 2007-2008, the percentage of traffic accident victims being under the influence of alcohol was 45% in males and 12% in females. The mean blood alcohol level of traffic accident victims was 2.1% per hundred in males and 1.6% per hundred in females. PMID:20441075

  3. 137Cs Activities and 135Cs/137Cs Isotopic Ratios at Idaho National Laboratory: A Case Study in Environmental Nuclear Forensic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew S Snow; Morgan Kelley; Darin C. Snyder; James E. Delmore; Sue B. Clark

    2015-01-01

    Abstract is still in progress. Below is the current outline: -Some statement regarding how Cs can be useful for nuclear forensic analysis of environmental samples. -Then some other statement stating how the SDA provides an excellent case study for such an analysis. -137Cs concentration patterns suggest that the 137Cs came from localized releases in the near vicinity of the SDA, while observations of thermal 135Cs/137Cs ratios suggests some contribution from thermal fission product waste buried within the SDA. -137Cs activity patterns, combined with 135Cs/137Cs ratios, known Cs environmental chemistry, and historical data, suggest the Cs was most likely released from Pit 9 and Trench 48 during the 1969 flood. -Knowledge of the release event and excavations narrows the possible window for waste disposed of at SDA to 5 months (Trench 48) to 1.2 years (Pit 9). -Only 3 waste generators disposed of waste during this timeframe, however, as Rocky Flats Site did not generate any appreciable 137Cs waste, and as best estimates suggest that the INL disposed 2000 times as much non-actinide waste at the SDA than off-site processes, INL related operations are determined to be the most likely contributor to the observed Cs contamination. -While 135Cs/137Cs ratios have the potential to reveal information regarding the reactor design and operating conditions which led to the fission event, the large number of different INL reactors which most likely contributed to waste within Trench 48 and Pit 9, combined with evidence of a mixture of thermal and fast fission product Cs (most likely originating from global + regional fallout) precludes the ability to further refine the 135Cs/137Cs ratios. -However, at other sites which do not contain such large quantities of highly diverse contamination, secondary nuclide monitors which have similar environmental mobilities to Cs (such as Pu or Sr) might enable correction for the quantity of fallout within samples.

  4. Macroeconomic Implications of Natural Disasters in the Caribbean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tobias N. Rasmussen

    2004-01-01

    Each year natural disasters affect about 200 million people and cause about $50 billion in damage. This paper compares the incidence of natural disasters across countries along several dimensions and finds that the relative costs tend to be far higher in developing countries than in advanced economies. The analysis shows that small island states are especially vulnerable, with the countries

  5. National Center for Nuclear Security: The Nuclear Forensics Project (F2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Klingensmith, A. L.

    2012-03-21

    These presentation visuals introduce the National Center for Nuclear Security. Its chartered mission is to enhance the Nation’s verification and detection capabilities in support of nuclear arms control and nonproliferation through R&D activities at the NNSS. It has three focus areas: Treaty Verification Technologies, Nonproliferation Technologies, and Technical Nuclear Forensics. The objectives of nuclear forensics are to reduce uncertainty in the nuclear forensics process & improve the scientific defensibility of nuclear forensics conclusions when applied to nearsurface nuclear detonations. Research is in four key areas: Nuclear Physics, Debris collection and analysis, Prompt diagnostics, and Radiochemistry.

  6. DNA methylation and application in forensic sciences.

    PubMed

    Kader, Farzeen; Ghai, Meenu

    2015-04-01

    DNA methylation of cytosine residues is a stable epigenetic alteration, beginning as early as foetal development in the uterus and continuously evolving throughout life. DNA methylation as well as other epigenetic modifications such as chromatin remodelling and histone modifications are indispensable in mammalian development. Methylation is to a large extent influenced by the ageing process, diets and lifestyle choices. Our understanding of this crucial modification may even contribute to the treatment and prevention of age-related illnesses in the very near future. Genome-wide methylation analysis using high throughput DNA technologies has discovered numerous differentially methylated regions (tDMRs) which differ in levels of methylation in various cell types and tissues. TDMRs have been useful in various applications, particularly medicine and forensic sciences. Forensic scientists are constantly seeking exciting and novel methods to aid in the reconstruction of crime scenes, and the analysis of tDMRs represents a new and reliable technique to identify biological fluids and tissues found at the scene of a violent act. Not only has research been able to unequivocally identify various fluids and tissues, but methods to determine the sex, age and phenotype of donors has been developed. New tDMRs in genes are being searched for consistently to serve as novel markers in forensic DNA analysis. PMID:25732744

  7. Tutorial on Forensic Speech Science

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anders Eriksson

    how our present knowledge can be applied in forensic fieldwork. In this part of the tutorial, the focus will be on human voice recognition and discrimination and how factors like memory, familiarity, language, disguise etc. influence these abilities. Lies and deception are age-old problems in forensic investigations. It is therefore not surprising that many people have tried to find ways

  8. An overview of computer forensics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. D. Dixon

    2005-01-01

    The core goals of computer forensics are fairly straightforward: the preservation, identification, extraction, documentation, and interpretation of computer data. There are several policies and procedures that need to be out-lined and defined with regard to computer forensics are analyzed in this paper. Data must be able to be retrieved and analyzed without it is damaged. The authenticity of the data

  9. Computer forensic timeline visualization tool

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jens Olsson; Martin Boldt

    2009-01-01

    Computer Forensics is mainly about investigating crime where computers have been involved. There are many tools available to aid the investigator with this task. We have created a prototype of a new type of tool called CyberForensic TimeLab where all evidence is indexed by their time variables and plotted on a timeline. We believed that this way of visualizing the

  10. Natural disasters in the US as release agents of oil, chemicals, or radiological materials between 1980-1989: Analysis and recommendations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pamela Sands Showalter; Mary Fran Myers

    1994-01-01

    Generally, hazards research and literature has treated natural and technological disasters as separate entities. This study attempts to determine how frequently interaction between these two types of disaster took place in the US from 1980-1989. Data were collected by performing a literature review, contacting organizations and individuals active in hazards research and mitigation, and through a questionnaire sent to the

  11. Model Action Plan for Nuclear Forensics and Nuclear Attribution

    SciTech Connect

    Dudder, G B; Niemeyer, S; Smith, D K; Kristo, M J

    2004-03-01

    Nuclear forensics and nuclear attribution have become increasingly important tools in the fight against illegal trafficking in nuclear and radiological materials. This technical report documents the field of nuclear forensics and nuclear attribution in a comprehensive manner, summarizing tools and procedures that have heretofore been described independently in the scientific literature. This report also provides national policy-makers, decision-makers, and technical managers with guidance for responding to incidents involving the interdiction of nuclear and radiological materials. However, due to the significant capital costs of the equipment and the specialized expertise of the personnel, work in the field of nuclear forensics has been restricted so far to a handful of national and international laboratories. In fact, there are a limited number of specialists who have experience working with interdicted nuclear materials and affiliated evidence. Most of the laboratories that have the requisite equipment, personnel, and experience to perform nuclear forensic analysis are participants in the Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group or ITWG (see Section 1.8). Consequently, there is a need to disseminate information on an appropriate response to incidents of nuclear smuggling, including a comprehensive approach to gathering evidence that meets appropriate legal standards and to developing insights into the source and routes of nuclear and radiological contraband. Appendix A presents a ''Menu of Options'' for other Member States to request assistance from the ITWG Nuclear Forensics Laboratories (INFL) on nuclear forensic cases.

  12. Computer Forensic: An Issue of Definitions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steve Mccombie; Matt Warren

    2003-01-01

    The paper investigates what computer forensic is at the most basic level. The concept of Computer Forensic is thought to be widely known, but in essence is it? At the most fundamental level can computer forensics be defined. This paper will focus on a variety of approaches to actually defining computer forensics.

  13. Computer Forensics and Its Future Trend

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WANG Ling; QIAN Hua-Lin

    2003-01-01

    Computer forensics is the technology field that attempts to prove thorough, efficient, and secure means to investigate computer crime. Computer evidence must be authentic, accurate, complete and convincing to juries. In this paper, the stages of computer forensics are presented, and the theories and the realization of the forensics software are described. An example about forensic practice is also given.

  14. Effects of Disasters: Risk and Resilience Factors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... caused and natural disasters. Disasters may be explosions, earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, tornados, or fires. In a disaster, ... at severe natural disasters, such as the Armenian earthquake, mudslides in Mexico, and Hurricane Andrew in the ...

  15. 76 FR 18613 - Hawaii Disaster #HI-00022

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ...Disaster Declaration 12503 and 12504] Hawaii Disaster HI-00022 AGENCY: U...declaration of a disaster for the State of Hawaii dated 03/29/2011. Incident: Honshu...affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Hawaii. Contiguous Counties: None. The...

  16. When Is Exposure to a Natural Disaster Traumatic? Comparison of a Trauma Questionnaire and Disaster Exposure Inventory

    PubMed Central

    Harville, Emily W.; Jacobs, Marni; Boynton-Jarrett, Renée

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have compared the sensitivity of trauma questionnaires to disaster inventories for assessing the prevalence of exposure to natural disaster or associated risk for post-disaster psychopathology. The objective of this analysis was to compare reporting of disaster exposure on a trauma questionnaire (Brief Trauma Questionnaire [BTQ]) to an inventory of disaster experience. Between 2011 and 2014, a sample of 841 reproductive-aged southern Louisiana women were interviewed using the BTQ and completed a detailed inventory about exposure to hurricanes and flooding. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomology was measured with the Post-Traumatic Stress Checklist, and depression with the Edinburgh Depression Scale. The single question addressing disaster exposure on the BTQ had a sensitivity of between 65% and 70% relative to the more detailed questions. Reporting disaster exposure on the BTQ was more likely for those who reported illness/injury due to a hurricane or flood (74%-77%) or danger (77-79%), compared to those who reported damage (69-71%) or evacuation (64-68%). Reporting disaster exposure on the BTQ was associated with depression (odds ratio [OR] 2.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.43-3.68). A single question is unlikely to be useful for assessing the degree of exposure to disaster across a broad population, and varies in utility depending on the mental health outcome of interest: the single trauma question is useful for assessing depression risk. PMID:25853820

  17. When is exposure to a natural disaster traumatic? Comparison of a trauma questionnaire and disaster exposure inventory.

    PubMed

    Harville, Emily W; Jacobs, Marni; Boynton-Jarrett, Renée

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have compared the sensitivity of trauma questionnaires to disaster inventories for assessing the prevalence of exposure to natural disaster or associated risk for post-disaster psychopathology. The objective of this analysis was to compare reporting of disaster exposure on a trauma questionnaire (Brief Trauma Questionnaire [BTQ]) to an inventory of disaster experience. Between 2011 and 2014, a sample of 841 reproductive-aged southern Louisiana women were interviewed using the BTQ and completed a detailed inventory about exposure to hurricanes and flooding. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomology was measured with the Post-Traumatic Stress Checklist, and depression with the Edinburgh Depression Scale. The single question addressing disaster exposure on the BTQ had a sensitivity of between 65% and 70% relative to the more detailed questions. Reporting disaster exposure on the BTQ was more likely for those who reported illness/injury due to a hurricane or flood (74%-77%) or danger (77-79%), compared to those who reported damage (69-71%) or evacuation (64-68%). Reporting disaster exposure on the BTQ was associated with depression (odds ratio [OR] 2.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.43-3.68). A single question is unlikely to be useful for assessing the degree of exposure to disaster across a broad population, and varies in utility depending on the mental health outcome of interest: the single trauma question is useful for assessing depression risk. PMID:25853820

  18. Forensics examination of volatile system data using virtual introspection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian Hay; Kara Nance

    2008-01-01

    While static examination of computer systems is an important part of many digital forensics investigations, there are often important system properties present only in volatile memory that cannot be effectively recovered using static analysis techniques, such as offline hard disk acquisition and analysis. An alternative approach, involving the live analysis of target systems to uncover this volatile data, presents significant

  19. Postmortem volumetric CT data analysis of pulmonary air/gas content with regard to the cause of death for investigating terminal respiratory function in forensic autopsy.

    PubMed

    Sogawa, Nozomi; Michiue, Tomomi; Ishikawa, Takaki; Kawamoto, Osamu; Oritani, Shigeki; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2014-08-01

    Postmortem CT (PMCT) is useful to investigate air/gas distribution and content in body cavities and viscera. The present study investigated the procedure to estimate total lung air/gas content and aeration ratio as possible indices of terminal respiratory function, using three-dimensional (3-D) PMCT data analysis of forensic autopsy cases without putrefactive gas formation (within 3 days postmortem, n=75), and analyzed the volumetric data with regard to the cause of death. When 3-D bilateral lung images were reconstructed using an image analyzer, combined lung volume was larger in drowning (n=12) than in alcohol/sedative-hypnotic intoxication (n=8) and sudden cardiac death (SCD; n=10), and intermediate in other cases, including mechanical asphyxiation (n=12), fire fatalities due to burns (n=6) and carbon monoxide intoxication (n=7), fatal methamphetamine abuse (n=7), hyperthermia (heatstroke; n=6) and fatal hypothermia (cold exposure; n=7). Air/gas content of the lung as detected using HU interval between -2000 and -400 ('effective' lung aeration areas) and between -2000 and -191 (total lung aeration areas) as well as the ratios to total lung volume ('effective' and total lung aeration ratios, respectively) was higher in mechanical asphyxiation, drowning, fatal burns and hypothermia (cold exposure) than in SCD, and was intermediate in other cases. 'Effective' and total lung aeration ratios may be useful for comparisons between specific causes of death to discriminate between hypothermia (cold exposure) and drug intoxication, and between SCD and other causes of death, respectively. These findings provide interesting insights into potential efficacy of PMCT data analyses of lung volume and CT density as well as lung air/gas content and aeration ratio with regard to the cause of death, as possible indicators of terminal respiratory function, as part of virtual autopsy of the viscera in situ. PMID:24905153

  20. An IP Traceback Model for Network Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilli, Emmanuel S.; Joshi, R. C.; Niyogi, Rajdeep

    Network forensics deals with capture, recording, analysis and investigation of network traffic to traceback the attackers. Its ultimate goal is to provide sufficient evidence to allow the perpetrator to be prosecuted. IP traceback is an important aspect in the investigation process where the real attacker is identified by tracking source address of the attack packets. In this paper we classify the various approaches to network forensics to list the requirements of the traceback. We propose a novel model for traceback based on autonomous systems (AS) and deterministic packet marking (DPM) to enable traceback even with a single packet. The model is analyzed against various evaluation metrics. The traceback solution will be a major step in the direction of attack attribution and investigation.

  1. [Forensic aspects of gunshot suicides in Germany].

    PubMed

    Kunz, Sebastian Niko; Meyer, Harald J; Kraus, Sybille

    2013-12-01

    Suicidal gunshot wounds are a common appearance in forensic casework. The main task of the coroner lies in the detection of typical pathomorphological correlates, thus differentiating between homicide, suicide and accident. Apart from characteristic bloodstain patterns on the gun and shooting hand, the localisation of the entrance wound and the position of the weapon, additional details such as family background or medical history are important aspects of forensic investigation. An uncommon choice of weaponry and its unusual morphological manifestation often complicate the examination and reconstruction of such cases. Furthermore, due to social stigmatisation, the possibility of secondary changes by relatives at the crime scene should be considered. In addition to autopsy findings, a careful crime scene investigation and bloodstain pattern analysis, a ballistic reconstruction can be an essential tool to gain knowledge of the shooting distance and position of the gun. PMID:23857247

  2. Disaster Assistance: Access to Disaster Help and Resources

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 1 week 2 hours ago Texas Severe Storms, Tornadoes, Straight-line Winds, and Flooding Major Disaster Declaration ... 1 week 3 days ago Oklahoma Severe Storms, Tornadoes, Straight-line Winds, and Flooding Major Disaster Declaration ...

  3. Advances in forensic DNA quantification: a review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Steven B; McCord, Bruce; Buel, Eric

    2014-11-01

    This review focuses upon a critical step in forensic biology: detection and quantification of human DNA from biological samples. Determination of the quantity and quality of human DNA extracted from biological evidence is important for several reasons. Firstly, depending on the source and extraction method, the quality (purity and length), and quantity of the resultant DNA extract can vary greatly. This affects the downstream method as the quantity of input DNA and its relative length can determine which genotyping procedure to use-standard short-tandem repeat (STR) typing, mini-STR typing or mitochondrial DNA sequencing. Secondly, because it is important in forensic analysis to preserve as much of the evidence as possible for retesting, it is important to determine the total DNA amount available prior to utilizing any destructive analytical method. Lastly, results from initial quantitative and qualitative evaluations permit a more informed interpretation of downstream analytical results. Newer quantitative techniques involving real-time PCR can reveal the presence of degraded DNA and PCR inhibitors, that provide potential reasons for poor genotyping results and may indicate methods to use for downstream typing success. In general, the more information available, the easier it is to interpret and process the sample resulting in a higher likelihood of successful DNA typing. The history of the development of quantitative methods has involved two main goals-improving precision of the analysis and increasing the information content of the result. This review covers advances in forensic DNA quantification methods and recent developments in RNA quantification. PMID:25088961

  4. Disaster nursing: a retrospective review.

    PubMed

    Stangeland, Paula A

    2010-12-01

    A plethora of information exists in the literature regarding emergencies and disasters. Nevertheless, significant gaps in the science related to nurses working during disasters are revealed. Few studies have addressed the perspective of nurses and their intent to respond to future disasters. Because nurses are invaluable to disaster response efforts, more research is essential to validate current findings and elucidate the needs of nurses who respond to disasters and other health emergencies. There is a paucity of research in the literature describing nurses' lived experiences of working during hurricanes. Natural disasters inevitably inflict human suffering, and nurses are expected to respond and provide services during these catastrophic times. Lost within this expectation are the experiences and concerns of the nurses who are called upon and intend to respond to the disaster, and yet are themselves affected by the disaster. Understanding the experiences and needs of nurses who decide to respond to the call of duty and work during disasters remains unclear in the literature. Research in the area of disaster response intentions by nurses becomes the initial step in understanding the phenomenon of working during a disaster and creating innovative approaches that address working during disasters. Disaster policies have been developed and implemented at the international, national, state, local, and hospital level. Nevertheless, disasters continue to adversely impact communities and hospitals at all levels causing injuries, death, and destruction of infrastructure. To reduce the impact of disasters, continued research is needed to inform and strengthen future disaster policies. Knowledge gained from future research has great potential to inform nursing education, research, and practice, as well as health policy related to the care of individuals and responders before, during, and after disasters. PMID:21095551

  5. Can denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of amplified 16s rDNA of soil bacterial populations be used in forensic investigations?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anat Lerner; Yaron Shor; Asya Vinokurov; Yaacov Okon; Edouard Jurkevitch

    2006-01-01

    In criminal investigations, information on the origin of soils may be crucial for solving cases. The biological complexity of soil may potentially be used for sorting and differentiating between soil samples. Nucleic-acid based analyses of soil microbial populations are powerful tools, routinely used in studies of this habitat. Application of such approaches in forensics implies that a standardized DNA extraction

  6. Liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometric and desorption electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric analysis of chemical warfare agents in office media typically collected during a forensic investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. D’Agostino; J. R. Hancock; C. L. Chenier; C. R. Jackson Lepage

    2006-01-01

    Most prior analytical studies have dealt with the determination of chemical warfare agents in environmental or biological matrices that would typically be collected following battlefield use or in support of the Chemical Weapons Convention. These methods may be useful for some investigations, but may not be practical for indoor forensic investigations where chemical warfare agent use is suspected. There is

  7. The potential of using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma time of flight mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-TOF-MS) in the forensic analysis of micro debris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cameron J. Scadding; R. John Watling; Allen G. Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The majority of crimes result in the generation of some form of physical evidence, which is available for collection by crime scene investigators or police. However, this debris is often limited in amount as modern criminals become more aware of its potential value to forensic scientists. The requirement to obtain robust evidence from increasingly smaller sized samples has required refinement

  8. Analysis of body fluids for forensic purposes: From laboratory testing to non-destructive rapid confirmatory identification at a crime scene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelly Virkler; Igor K. Lednev

    2009-01-01

    Body fluid traces recovered at crime scenes are among the most important types of evidence to forensic investigators. They contain valuable DNA evidence which can identify a suspect or victim as well as exonerate an innocent individual. The first step of identifying a particular body fluid is highly important since the nature of the fluid is itself very informative to

  9. Radiation disasters and children.

    PubMed

    2003-06-01

    The special medical needs of children make it essential that pediatricians be prepared for radiation disasters, including 1) the detonation of a nuclear weapon; 2) a nuclear power plant event that unleashes a radioactive cloud; and 3) the dispersal of radionuclides by conventional explosive or the crash of a transport vehicle. Any of these events could occur unintentionally or as an act of terrorism. Nuclear facilities (eg, power plants, fuel processing centers, and food irradiation facilities) are often located in highly populated areas, and as they age, the risk of mechanical failure increases. The short- and long-term consequences of a radiation disaster are significantly greater in children for several reasons. First, children have a disproportionately higher minute ventilation, leading to greater internal exposure to radioactive gases. Children have a significantly greater risk of developing cancer even when they are exposed to radiation in utero. Finally, children and the parents of young children are more likely than are adults to develop enduring psychologic injury after a radiation disaster. The pediatrician has a critical role in planning for radiation disasters. For example, potassium iodide is of proven value for thyroid protection but must be given before or soon after exposure to radioiodines, requiring its placement in homes, schools, and child care centers. Pediatricians should work with public health authorities to ensure that children receive full consideration in local planning for a radiation disaster. PMID:12777572

  10. Optimization of Input Pattern for Semi Non-Intrusive Component Forensics of Digital Cameras

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashwin Swaminathan; Min wu; K. J. Ray Liu

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of semi non-intrusive component forensics and proposes a methodology to identify the algorithms and parameters employed by various processing modules inside a digital camera. The proposed analysis techniques assume the availability of the camera; and introduce a forensic methodology to estimate the parameters of the color interpolation and white balancing algorithms employed in cameras. We

  11. REACTOR PHYSICS MODELING OF SPENT RESEARCH REACTOR FUEL FOR TECHNICAL NUCLEAR FORENSICS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Nichols; D. Beals; M. Sternat

    2011-01-01

    Technical nuclear forensics (TNF) refers to the collection, analysis and evaluation of pre- and post-detonation radiological or nuclear materials, devices, and\\/or debris. TNF is an integral component, complementing traditional forensics and investigative work, to help enable the attribution of discovered radiological or nuclear material. Research is needed to improve the capabilities of TNF. One research area of interest is determining

  12. Distributed Agent-Based Real Time Network Intrusion Forensics System Architecture Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Ren; Hai Jin

    2005-01-01

    Network forensics is a new approach for the network security, because the firewall and IDS cannot always stop and discover the misuse in the network. Once the system is compromised, the forensics and investigation always after the attacks and lose some useful instant evidence. The integrated analysis of the log and audit system and network traffic can lead to an

  13. La implementación forense de la tecnología del ADN en Costa Rica: Un análisis retrospectivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Isabel; Bernal Morera; Gerardo Jiménez-Arce; Unidad de ADN

    2004-01-01

    Forensic implementation of DNA technology in Costa Rica: a retrospective analysis. La reciente utilización de la tecnología del ADN para la identificación individual a traído consigo una revolución en las cien- cias forenses, que ha alcanzado también a la America Latina. El análisis histórico muestra que en Costa Rica se han logrado importantes avances y en la actualidad se encuentra

  14. Oil spill analysis by means of full polarimetric UAVSAR (L-band) and Radarsat-2 (C-band) products acquired during Deepwater Horizon Disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latini, Daniele; Del Frate, Fabio; Jones, Cathleen E.

    2014-10-01

    SAR instruments with polarimetric capabilities, high resolution and short revisit time can provide powerful support in oil spill monitoring and different techniques of analysis have been developed for this purpose [1][2]. An oil film on the sea surface results in darker areas in SAR images, but careful interpretation is required because dark spots can also be caused by natural phenomena. In view of the very low backscatter from slicks, the Noise Equivalent Sigma Zero (NESZ) is a primary sensor parameter to be considered when using a sensor for slick analysis. Among the existing full polarimetric sensors, the high resolution and very low NESZ values of UAVSAR (L-band) and RADARSAT-2 (C-band) make them preferable for oil spill analysis compared to the last generation SAR instruments. The Deepwater Horizon disaster that occurred in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010 represents a unique and extensive test site where large amounts of SAR imagery and ground validation data are available. By applying the Cloude-Pottier decomposition method to full polarimetric UAVSAR (L-band) and RADARSAT-2 (C-band), it is possible to extract parameters that describe the scattering mechanism of the target. By comparing quasi-simultaneous acquisitions and exploiting the different penetration capabilities of the sensors, we investigate the potential of full polarimetric SAR to discriminate oil on the sea surface from look-alike phenomena covering the full range of backscattering values down to those at the instrument noise floor.

  15. Relief Aid in a Disaster

    MedlinePLUS

    ... one or more DACs may open, usually in schools or other public buildings. Staff at these centers give information and take applications for assistance. Federal Disaster Assistance Federal disaster assistance is available for everyone. ...

  16. Talking to Children about Disasters

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Explosions Chemical Terrorism and Agents Disaster Phases Decontamination Earthquakes Enterovirus D68 Ebola FAQs Extreme Temperatures: Heat and ... Explosions Chemical Terrorism and Agents Disaster Phases Decontamination Earthquakes Enterovirus D68 Ebola FAQs Extreme Temperatures: Heat and ...

  17. Nanoparticles in forensic science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantu, Antonio A.

    2008-10-01

    Nanoparticles appear in several areas of forensic science including security documents, paints, inks, and reagents that develop latent prints. One reagent (known as the silver physical developer) that visualizes the water insoluble components of latent print residue is based on the formation of highly charged silver nanoparticles. These attach to and grow on the residue and generate a silver image. Another such reagent involves highly charged gold nanoparticles. These attach to the residue forming a weak gold image which can be amplified with a silver physical developer. Nanoparaticles are also used in items such as paints, printing inks, and writing inks. Paints and most printing inks consist of nano-sized pigments in a vehicle. However, certain modern ink jet printing inks now contain nano-sized pigments to improve their light fastness and most gel inks are also based on nano scale pigments. These nanoparticlecontaining materials often appear as evidence and are thus subject to forensic characterization. Both luminescent (quantum dots), up-converting nano scale phosphors, and non luminescent nanoparticles are used as security tags to label product, add security to documents, and as anti counterfeiting measures. These assist in determining if an item is fraudulently made.

  18. Disaster warning satellite study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The Disaster Warning Satellite System is described. It will provide NOAA with an independent, mass communication system for the purpose of warning the public of impending disaster and issuing bulletins for corrective action to protect lives and property. The system consists of three major segments. The first segment is the network of state or regional offices that communicate with the central ground station; the second segment is the satellite that relays information from ground stations to home receivers; the third segment is composed of the home receivers that receive information from the satellite and provide an audio output to the public. The ground stations required in this system are linked together by two, separate, voice bandwidth communication channels on the Disaster Warning Satellites so that a communications link would be available in the event of disruption of land line service.

  19. Recommended Practice: Creating Cyber Forensics Plans for Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Eric Cornelius; Mark Fabro

    2008-08-01

    Cyber forensics has been in the popular mainstream for some time, and has matured into an information-technology capability that is very common among modern information security programs. The goal of cyber forensics is to support the elements of troubleshooting, monitoring, recovery, and the protection of sensitive data. Moreover, in the event of a crime being committed, cyber forensics is also the approach to collecting, analyzing, and archiving data as evidence in a court of law. Although scalable to many information technology domains, especially modern corporate architectures, cyber forensics can be challenging when being applied to non-traditional environments, which are not comprised of current information technologies or are designed with technologies that do not provide adequate data storage or audit capabilities. In addition, further complexity is introduced if the environments are designed using proprietary solutions and protocols, thus limiting the ease of which modern forensic methods can be utilized. The legacy nature and somewhat diverse or disparate component aspects of control systems environments can often prohibit the smooth translation of modern forensics analysis into the control systems domain. Compounded by a wide variety of proprietary technologies and protocols, as well as critical system technologies with no capability to store significant amounts of event information, the task of creating a ubiquitous and unified strategy for technical cyber forensics on a control systems device or computing resource is far from trivial. To date, no direction regarding cyber forensics as it relates to control systems has been produced other than what might be privately available from commercial vendors. Current materials have been designed to support event recreation (event-based), and although important, these requirements do not always satisfy the needs associated with incident response or forensics that are driven by cyber incidents. To address these issues and to accommodate for the diversity in both system and architecture types, a framework based in recommended practices to address forensics in the control systems domain is required. This framework must be fully flexible to allow for deployment into any control systems environment regardless of technologies used. Moreover, the framework and practices must provide for direction on the integration of modern network security technologies with traditionally closed systems, the result being a true defense-in-depth strategy for control systems architectures. This document takes the traditional concepts of cyber forensics and forensics engineering and provides direction regarding augmentation for control systems operational environments. The goal is to provide guidance to the reader with specifics relating to the complexity of cyber forensics for control systems, guidance to allow organizations to create a self-sustaining cyber forensics program, and guidance to support the maintenance and evolution of such programs. As the current control systems cyber security community of interest is without any specific direction on how to proceed with forensics in control systems environments, this information product is intended to be a first step.

  20. Examining a Comprehensive Model of Disaster-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Systematically Studied Survivors of 10 Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Julianne; Pandya, Anand

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Using a comprehensive disaster model, we examined predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in combined data from 10 different disasters. Methods. The combined sample included data from 811 directly exposed survivors of 10 disasters between 1987 and 1995. We used consistent methods across all 10 disaster samples, including full diagnostic assessment. Results. In multivariate analyses, predictors of PTSD were female gender, younger age, Hispanic ethnicity, less education, ever-married status, predisaster psychopathology, disaster injury, and witnessing injury or death; exposure through death or injury to friends or family members and witnessing the disaster aftermath did not confer additional PTSD risk. Intentionally caused disasters associated with PTSD in bivariate analysis did not independently predict PTSD in multivariate analysis. Avoidance and numbing symptoms represented a PTSD marker. Conclusions. Despite confirming some previous research findings, we found no associations between PTSD and disaster typology. Prospective research is needed to determine whether early avoidance and numbing symptoms identify individuals likely to develop PTSD later. Our findings may help identify at-risk populations for treatment research. PMID:22897543

  1. Disability and health-related rehabilitation in international disaster relief

    PubMed Central

    Reinhardt, Jan D.; Li, Jianan; Gosney, James; Rathore, Farooq A.; Haig, Andrew J.; Marx, Michael; Delisa, Joel A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Natural disasters result in significant numbers of disabling impairments. Paradoxically, however, the traditional health system response to natural disasters largely neglects health-related rehabilitation as a strategic intervention. Objectives To examine the role of health-related rehabilitation in natural disaster relief along three lines of inquiry: (1) epidemiology of injury and disability, (2) impact on health and rehabilitation systems, and (3) the assessment and measurement of disability. Design Qualitative literature review and secondary data analysis. Results Absolute numbers of injuries as well as injury to death ratios in natural disasters have increased significantly over the last 40 years. Major impairments requiring health-related rehabilitation include amputations, traumatic brain injuries, spinal cord injuries (SCI), and long bone fractures. Studies show that persons with pre-existing disabilities are more likely to die in a natural disaster. Lack of health-related rehabilitation in natural disaster relief may result in additional burdening of the health system capacity, exacerbating baseline weak rehabilitation and health system infrastructure. Little scientific evidence on the effectiveness of health-related rehabilitation interventions following natural disaster exists, however. Although systematic assessment and measurement of disability after a natural disaster is currently lacking, new approaches have been suggested. Conclusion Health-related rehabilitation potentially results in decreased morbidity due to disabling injuries sustained during a natural disaster and is, therefore, an essential component of the medical response by the host and international communities. Significant systematic challenges to effective delivery of rehabilitation interventions during disaster include a lack of trained responders as well as a lack of medical recordkeeping, data collection, and established outcome measures. Additional development of health-related rehabilitation following natural disaster is urgently required. PMID:21866223

  2. Crowdsourcing oriented Ontology Applies in Instant Debris-flow Disaster Information Platform in Web and Smart Phone Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Yuan-Fan; Chan, Chun-Hsiang; Huang, Chu-Yi; Chou, Huan-Chieh

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, extreme climates events increase the frequency of typhoon and rainstorm, and this induces more natural disasters in Taiwan, such as flood and landsides. Thus, disaster reduction has become a dispensable issue in present government policy. However, most of people cannot obtain the latest disaster information, thus causing second disaster, on these reasons above, this study attempts to build an interface which provides instant disaster information. The proposal of study aims at establishing an instant information platform for debris flow disaster both on website and smart phone application, which combines crowdsourcing concepts and official open data through sending SMS, email notifications, disaster map and news to people. In addition, both website and smart phone application will not only automatically deliver official warning information, but also sending other disaster information uploaded by other people. However, the quality of crowdsourcing-based information is difficult to control, hence, this study utilizes three types validation method: one is instant rainfall information, another is potential region of debris flow disaster from ontology analysis, and the other is people mutual validation to maintain information quality. To sum up, this study has successfully established an instant information platform for debris flow disaster on website and smart phone application, and this provides the latest official and uploaded disaster information to reach disaster reduction, even for disaster prevention in the future. Keywords: Crowdsourcing-based Information, Disaster Ontology, Debris-flow Disaster

  3. Disaster Education in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boon, Helen J.; Pagliano, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Australia regularly suffers floods, droughts, bushfires and cyclones, which are predicted to increase and/or intensify in the future due to climate change. While school-aged children are among the most vulnerable to natural disasters, they can be empowered through education to prepare for and respond to disasters. School disaster education is…

  4. Disaster Preparedness in YOUR School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Adult and Continuing Education.

    A look at what to do in time of natural and man-made disasters is presented. Disasters covered include tornados, hurricanes, floods, fires, blizzards, and nuclear disaster. The responsibilities of the Board of Education, school superintendent, school principal, teachers, school nurse, custodian, students, bus drivers, and cafeteria workers are…

  5. wind engineering & natural disaster mitigation

    E-print Network

    Denham, Graham

    wind engineering & natural disaster mitigation #12;wind engineering & natural disaster mitigation Investment WindEEE Dome at Advanced Manufacturing Park $31million Insurance Research Lab for Better Homes $8million Advanced Facility for Avian Research $9million #12;wind engineering & natural disaster mitigation

  6. DNA Fingerprint Analysis of Three Short Tandem Repeat (STR) Loci for Biochemistry and Forensic Science Laboratory Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara-Schroeder, Kathleen; Olonan, Cheryl; Chu, Simon; Montoya, Maria C.; Alviri, Mahta; Ginty, Shannon; Love, John J.

    2006-01-01

    We have devised and implemented a DNA fingerprinting module for an upper division undergraduate laboratory based on the amplification and analysis of three of the 13 short tandem repeat loci that are required by the Federal Bureau of Investigation Combined DNA Index System (FBI CODIS) data base. Students first collect human epithelial (cheek)…

  7. Implant bone integration importance in forensic identification.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Danilo; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-03-01

    Odontological identification consists of the comparison of antemortem dental information regarding a missing person with postmortem data from an unidentified corpse or human remains. Usually, the comparison concerns morphologic features that the operator chooses among all the visible characteristics because of inter-individual uniqueness; for this reason, implants can be of enormous assistance. A case concerning the recovery of a burnt oral implant, connected to a bone fragment, among 2780 charred bone fragments, suspected to have belonged to a victim of homicide, is presented to demonstrate that dental implants and their site of bone integration represent a very precious element for personal forensic identification. Because of their morphological invariability in time and because of their morphologic uniqueness, they were used as evidence to associate unidentified human charred remains to a missing person where DNA analysis failed to do so. The case illustrates the fundamental contribution, not yet described in literature, given by the clinical aspects of tooth replacement with dental implants to a forensic discipline. Clinical practitioners should therefore be aware of the great importance of their work and of dental records in a forensic identification scenario. PMID:25387697

  8. Supportive housing and forensic patient outcomes.

    PubMed

    Salem, Leila; Crocker, Anne G; Charette, Yanick; Seto, Michael C; Nicholls, Tonia L; Côté, Gilles

    2015-06-01

    In Canada, Review Boards are mandated to evaluate individuals found Not Criminally Responsible on Account of Mental Disorder (NCRMD) on an annual basis and render 1 of 3 dispositions: (a) custody, (b) conditional discharge, or (c) absolute discharge. To promote social reintegration, conditional discharge can be ordered with the condition to live in supportive housing. However, NCRMD accused face great barriers to housing access as a result of the stigma associated with the forensic label. The goal of this study was to evaluate the role of housing in the clinical and criminal trajectories of forensic patients as they reintegrate into the community. Data for this study were extracted from a national study of individuals found NCRMD in Canada (Crocker, Nicholls, Seto, Côté, et al., in press). The present study focuses on a random sample of NCRMD accused in the province of Québec, who were under a conditional discharge disposition during the study period (n = 837). Controlling for sociodemographic, clinical, and criminal variables, survival analysis showed that individuals placed in independent housing following a conditional discharge from the Review Board were 2.5 times more likely to commit a new offense, nearly 3 times more likely to commit an offense against a person, and 1.4 times more likely to be readmitted for psychiatric treatment compared with individuals residing in supportive housing. These results point to the influence housing can have on the trajectories of forensic patients, above and beyond a range of clinical, criminological, and sociodemographic factors. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25365472

  9. Forensic Science Education and Educational Requirements for Forensic Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaensslen, Robert E.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on criminalistics, which can be understood to mean the activities and specialty areas characteristic of most municipal, county, or state forensic science laboratories in the United States. (DDR)

  10. Disaster management: vulnerability and resilience in disaster recovery in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Busapathumrong, Pattamaporn

    2013-01-01

    This project explores disaster management in Thailand with a focus on the vulnerability and resilience of women, children, the elderly, and the disabled population and on the impact of disaster on these subpopulations. The 2 main findings deal with the major models of disaster management in Thailand and building resilience for social recovery. The selected 5 major models currently employed in disaster management in Thailand are the (a) model of royal project and international cooperation on disaster preparedness and response, (b) ASEAN Socio-Cultural Blueprint, (c) rights-based approach, (d) welfare mix model, and (e) knowledge management model. PMID:23679805

  11. Approach of forensic medicine to gossypiboma

    PubMed Central

    Karakaya, M. Arif; Koç, Okay; Ekiz, Feza; A?açhan, A. Feran

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the risk factors and preventive measures for gossypibomas and their medico-legal implications in forensic medicine in the Turkish legal system. Material and Methods: This study involved a retrospective analysis of the records of 39 patients with gossypiboma. Records were available from the Istanbul Forensic Medicine Institution and were surveyed for faulty treatment between 2008 and 2012. Parameters such as distribution of the cases according to specializations, elective and emergency procedures, surgical procedures, radio-opaque sponge and fluoroscopy availability, routine sponge and instrument counting, number of nurses for counting, and control of the operative field by a second surgeon were investigated. Results: All cases were evaluated by the Istanbul Forensic Medicine Institute 3rd Expertise Committee. This committee comprised of specialists from the departments of forensic medicine, orthopedics and traumatology, general surgery, neurology, internal medicine, pediatrics, chest disease, and infectious diseases. All cases were considered as poor medical practice (malpractice) and surgeons were found to be responsible. In 16 of these 39 cases (41%) emergency procedures were performed. No unexpected event was reported in any procedure. In 16 cases (41%), sponge count was performed and was reported to be complete. Operation notes were available in 16 (41%) cases. Control of the operative field was performed by 1 surgeon, and sponge and instrument count was performed by 1 scrub nurse. Radio-opaque sponge and fluoroscopy were available in 9 (23%) centers in these cases. Conclusion: Gossypiboma can be prevented not only with surgeons’ care but also with adequate support of medical device and material. However, it is considered as a poor medical practice. Presence of only 1 general surgeon in the expertise committee and ignorance of the working conditions by the surgeons should be questioned. PMID:26170754

  12. Advancing the science of forensic data management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naughton, Timothy S.

    2002-07-01

    Many individual elements comprise a typical forensics process. Collecting evidence, analyzing it, and using results to draw conclusions are all mutually distinct endeavors. Different physical locations and personnel are involved, juxtaposed against an acute need for security and data integrity. Using digital technologies and the Internet's ubiquity, these diverse elements can be conjoined using digital data as the common element. This result is a new data management process that can be applied to serve all elements of the community. The first step is recognition of a forensics lifecycle. Evidence gathering, analysis, storage, and use in legal proceedings are actually just distinct parts of a single end-to-end process, and thus, it is hypothesized that a single data system that can also accommodate each constituent phase using common network and security protocols. This paper introduces the idea of web-based Central Data Repository. Its cornerstone is anywhere, anytime Internet upload, viewing, and report distribution. Archives exist indefinitely after being created, and high-strength security and encryption protect data and ensure subsequent case file additions do not violate chain-of-custody or other handling provisions. Several legal precedents have been established for using digital information in courts of law, and in fact, effective prosecution of cyber crimes absolutely relies on its use. An example is a US Department of Agriculture division's use of digital images to back up its inspection process, with pictures and information retained on secure servers to enforce the Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act. Forensics is a cumulative process. Secure, web-based data management solutions, such as the Central Data Repository postulated here, can support each process step. Logically marrying digital technologies with Internet accessibility should help nurture a thought process to explore alternatives that make forensics data accessible to authorized individuals, whenever and wherever they need it.

  13. Mass Fatality Management following the South Asian Tsunami Disaster: Case Studies in Thailand, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Oliver W; Sribanditmongkol, Pongruk; Perera, Clifford; Sulasmi, Yeddi; Van Alphen, Dana; Sondorp, Egbert

    2006-01-01

    Background Following natural disasters, mismanagement of the dead has consequences for the psychological well-being of survivors. However, no technical guidelines currently exist for managing mass fatalities following large natural disasters. Existing methods of mass fatality management are not directly transferable as they are designed for transport accidents and acts of terrorism. Furthermore, no information is currently available about post-disaster management of the dead following previous large natural disasters. Methods and Findings After the tsunami disaster on 26 December 2004, we conducted three descriptive case studies to systematically document how the dead were managed in Thailand, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka. We considered the following parameters: body recovery and storage, identification, disposal of human remains, and health risks from dead bodies. We used participant observations as members of post-tsunami response teams, conducted semi-structured interviews with key informants, and collected information from published and unpublished documents. Refrigeration for preserving human remains was not available soon enough after the disaster, necessitating the use of other methods such as dry ice or temporary burial. No country had sufficient forensic capacity to identify thousands of victims. Rapid decomposition made visual identification almost impossible after 24–48 h. In Thailand, most forensic identification was made using dental and fingerprint data. Few victims were identified from DNA. Lack of national or local mass fatality plans further limited the quality and timeliness of response, a problem which was exacerbated by the absence of practical field guidelines or an international agency providing technical support. Conclusions Emergency response should not add to the distress of affected communities by inappropriately disposing of the victims. The rights of survivors to see their dead treated with dignity and respect requires practical guidelines and technical support. Mass fatality management following natural disasters needs to be informed by further field research and supported by a network of regional and international forensic institutes and agencies. PMID:16737348

  14. Assessment of structural steel from the World Trade Center towers, part II: Analysis of images for forensic information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Foecke; S. W. Banovic; F. W. Gayle

    2006-01-01

    A meaningful modeling analysis of the collapse of the World Trade Center towers required documentation of the damage of the\\u000a buildings due to the aircraft impacts. Images accumulated during the National Institute of Standards and Technology National\\u000a Construction Safety Team investigation were analyzed for information regarding structural damage and failure modes. A number\\u000a of recovered and identified components survived the

  15. Application of Data Field Clustering in Computer Forensics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deguang Wang; Zhigang Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Computer forensics is the traces collection and processing, which is the offender to remain in the computer or network system, and as legally binding evidence in the proceedings available to the court, so that suspects would be brought to justice. It mainly includes data protection, data collection, data analysis, the evidence presented in such processes. The data analysis is the

  16. Fast gas chromatography and negative-ion chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry for forensic analysis of cannabinoids in whole blood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aurélien Thomas; Christèle Widmer; Gérard Hopfgartner; Christian Staub

    2007-01-01

    The present work describes a fast gas chromatography\\/negative-ion chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometric assay (Fast GC\\/NICI-MS\\/MS) for analysis of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-OH) and 11-nor-9-carboxy-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) in whole blood. The cannabinoids were extracted from 500?L of whole blood by a simple liquid–liquid extraction (LLE) and then derivatized by using trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA) and hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP) as fluorinated agents. Mass spectrometric

  17. The rhetoric of therapy in forensic psychiatric nursing.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Jean Daniel

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the results obtained from a qualitative research study conducted in a forensic psychiatric setting and to explore the dual role associated with being both "agents of care and agents of social control." Following the narratives provided by nurses working in this field, the analysis that follows will problematize the rhetoric of therapy in forensic psychiatric nursing. In order to support the analysis, this article comprises four sections. The first section will briefly review the study's methodological considerations. Using a combination of Foucault and Goffman's work, the second section provides an empirical contextualization of correctional environments and their effects on nursing care. The third section explains the effects of having a contradictory mandate of care and custody from Festinger's (1957) theory of cognitive dissonance. Lastly, the fourth section provides a critique of disciplinary interventions in forensic psychiatric nursing, as it is explained by the participants. PMID:23176358

  18. General finite state machine reasoning method for digital forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Long; Wang, Guoyin

    2008-04-01

    Digital forensics investigator faces the challenge of reliability of forensic conclusions. Formal automatic analysis method is helpful to deal with the challenge. The finite state machine analysis method tries to determine all possible sequences of events that could have happened in a digital system during an incident. Its basic idea is to model the target system using a finite state machine and then explore its all possible states on the condition of available evidence. Timed mealy finite state machine is introduced to model the target system, and the formalization of system running process and evidence is presented to match the system running with possible source evidence automatically. Based on Gladyshev's basic reasoning method, general reasoning algorithms with multi strategies are developed to find the possible real scenarios. Case study and experimental results show that our method is feasible and adaptable to possible cases and takes a further step to practical formal reasoning for digital forensics.

  19. Virtual Machine for Computer Forensics - the Open Source Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bem, Derek

    In this paper we discuss the potential role of virtual environments in the analysis phase of computer forensics investigations. We argue that commercial closed source computer forensics software has certain limitations, and we propose a method which may lead to gradual shift to open source software (OSS). A brief overview of virtual environments and open source software tools is presented and discussed. Further we identify current limitations of virtual environments leading to the conclusion that the method is very promising, but at this point in time it can not replace conventional techniques of computer forensics analysis. We demonstrate that using Virtual Machines (VM) in Linux environments can complement the conventional techniques, and often can bring faster and verifiable results not dependent on proprietary, close source tools.

  20. Integration initiatives for forensic services

    PubMed Central

    ARBOLEDA-FLÓREZ, JULIO

    2003-01-01

    Poorly implemented mental health reform policies are often given as reasons for the growth in demands for forensic psychiatric services and the steady increase of mental patients in prison systems. However, in this paper, additional reasons are advanced to explain the growth of forensic psychiatry, such as an expansion in the types of "psychiatric defences" in courts of law; public concerns about violent behaviour attributed to the mentally ill; the community management of paraphilias, especially pedophilia; the development of risk assessment methodologies and the halo of super-specialization. The net result of these developments is that patients who receive a label of "forensic" enter into a mental health ghetto with little connectivity or integration with the general mental health system. The forensic label increases the stigma and decreases opportunities for reintegration and full social recovery. The paper provides guidelines to reverse these trends. PMID:16946932

  1. UT Knoxville: Forensic Anthropology Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Consider this: A hunter finds what she believes is a human skull deep in the woods. She calls the police. Who do the police call? A forensic anthropologist, of course, who comes to the site and examines the skull to determine whether the skull is, indeed, human, whether it is male or female, and how old the person was upon death. The Forensic Anthropology Center at the University of Tennessee-Knoxville trains forensic anthropologists for just this sort of work. Start with the homepage, where you can read up on the department, started in 1987 by Dr. William M. Bass. Next, follow a quick link to What is Forensic Anthropology? for an informative overview of the field. Also of interest, are the Short Courses, News, and, for those feeling philanthropic, Body Donation sections of the site.

  2. Handwriting Classification in Forensic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansell, Michael

    1979-01-01

    Considers systems for the classification of handwriting features, discusses computer storage of information about handwriting features, and summarizes recent studies that give an idea of the range of forensic handwriting research. (GT)

  3. Evaluating the impacts of stressors of Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato on the effectiveness of multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis and multi-locus sequence typing in microbial forensic investigations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Crops in the USA are vulnerable to natural and criminal threats because of their widespread cultivation and lack of surveillance, and because of implementation of growing practices such as monoculture. To prepare for investigation and attribution of such events, forensic assays, including determination of molecular profiles, are being adapted for use with plant pathogens. The use of multi-locus variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) in investigations involving plant pathogens may be problematic because the long lag periods between pathogen introduction and discovery of associated disease may provide enough time for evolution to occur in the regions of the genome employed in each assay. Thus, more information on the stability of the loci employed in these methods is needed. Results The MLVA fingerprints and MLST profiles were consistent throughout the experiment, indicating that, using a specific set of primers and conditions, MLVA and MLST typing systems reliably identify P.s. tomato DC3000. This information is essential to forensic investigators in interpreting comparisons between MLVA and MLST typing profiles observed in P.s. tomato isolates. Conclusions Our results indicate that MLVA and MLST typing systems, utilizing the specified primers and conditions, could be employed successfully in forensics investigations involving P.s. tomato. Similar experiments should be conducted in the field and with other high-consequence plant pathogens to ensure that the assays are reliable for pathogens infecting plants in their natural environment and for organisms that may display faster rates of mutation. PMID:25132953

  4. Coping With Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaelis, Anthony R.

    1973-01-01

    In wake of increased frequency of accidents, disasters, and catastrophes caused by nature or technological development across the world, an important need has arisen to rush assistance and to coordinate all such efforts. An International Rescue Organization is proposed to meet these needs. (PS)

  5. When Disaster Strikes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champion, Sandra; Master, Christine

    1993-01-01

    Describes the experiences of school librarians with organizing volunteers, assessing the destruction, and recovery and rebuilding efforts after Hurricane Andrew. Information gathering, record keeping, public relations, public service, communication, and organization are highlighted; and the value of storytelling in coping with disaster is…

  6. Bracing for Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2011-01-01

    A freak blizzard, a mentally ill and armed student, a record-breaking flood. No matter how idyllic a campus may feel, no matter how cocooned the ivory tower, disaster can strike. If a campus is unprepared, it comes like a sucker punch, potentially turning a crisis into a tragedy of unimagined proportions--and causing reverberations that will be…

  7. Distributed Disaster Disclosure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernard Mans; Stefan Schmid; Roger Wattenhofer

    2008-01-01

    Assume a set of distributed nodes which are equipped with a sensor device. When nodes sense an event, they want to know (the size of) the connected component consisting of nodes which have also sensed the event, in order to raise—if necessary—a disaster alarm. This paper presents distributed algorithms for this problem. Concretely, our algorithms aim at minimizing both the

  8. Disaster Victim Identification: quality management from an odontology perspective.

    PubMed

    Lake, A W; James, H; Berketa, J W

    2012-06-01

    The desired outcome of the victim identification component of a mass fatality event is correct identification of deceased persons in a timely manner allowing legal and social closure for relatives of the victims. Quality Management across all aspects of the Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) structure facilitates this process. Quality Management in forensic odontology is the understanding and implementation of a methodology that ensures collection, collation and preservation of the maximum amount of available dental data and the appropriate interpretation of that data to achieve outcomes to a standard expected by the DVI instructing authority, impacted parties and the forensic odontology specialist community. Managerial pre-event planning responsibility, via an odontology coordinator, includes setting a chain of command, developing and reviewing standard operating procedures (SOP), ensuring use of current scientific methodologies and staff training. During a DVI managerial responsibility includes tailoring SOP to the specific situation, ensuring member accreditation, encouraging inter-disciplinary cooperation and ensuring security of odontology data and work site. Individual responsibilities include the ability to work within a team, accept peer review, and share individual members' skill sets to achieve the best outcome. These responsibilities also include adherence to chain of command and the SOP, maintenance of currency of knowledge and recognition of professional boundaries of expertise. This article highlights issues of Quality Management pertaining particularly to forensic odontology but can also be extrapolated to all DVI actions. PMID:21956540

  9. Research article Allele frequencies of six miniSTR markers in a population sample from Northern German and its application on forensic stain analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrike Herzog; Christa Augustin; Klaus Puschel

    A population study on six miniSTR loci (D10S1248, D14S1434, D22S1045, D1S1677, D2S441 and D4S2364) was performed on Northern German unrelated individuals. Allele frequencies and the usual forensic statistical parameters were defined. Additionally, the six loci were tested on DNA samples from mobiles phones, gear shifts plus steering wheels to test their robustness and sensitivity.

  10. Allele frequencies of six miniSTR markers in a population sample from Northern German and its application on forensic stain analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrike Herzog; Christa Augustin; Klaus Püschel

    2008-01-01

    A population study on six miniSTR loci (D10S1248, D14S1434, D22S1045, D1S1677, D2S441 and D4S2364) was performed on Northern German unrelated individuals. Allele frequencies and the usual forensic statistical parameters were defined.Additionally, the six loci were tested on DNA samples from mobiles phones, gear shifts plus steering wheels to test their robustness and sensitivity.

  11. Forensic applications of desorption electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (DESI-MS).

    PubMed

    Morelato, Marie; Beavis, Alison; Kirkbride, Paul; Roux, Claude

    2013-03-10

    Desorption electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) is an emerging analytical technique that enables in situ mass spectrometric analysis of specimens under ambient conditions. It has been successfully applied to a large range of forensically relevant materials. This review assesses and highlights forensic applications of DESI-MS including the analysis and detection of illicit drugs, explosives, chemical warfare agents, inks and documents, fingermarks, gunshot residues and drugs of abuse in urine and plasma specimens. The minimal specimen preparation required for analysis and the sensitivity of detection achieved offer great advantages, especially in the field of forensic science. PMID:23498998

  12. Application of Fuzzy C-Means Clustering Algorithm Based on Particle Swarm Optimization in Computer Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Deguang; Han, Baochang; Huang, Ming

    Computer forensics is the technology of applying computer technology to access, investigate and analysis the evidence of computer crime. It mainly include the process of determine and obtain digital evidence, analyze and take data, file and submit result. And the data analysis is the key link of computer forensics. As the complexity of real data and the characteristics of fuzzy, evidence analysis has been difficult to obtain the desired results. This paper applies fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm based on particle swarm optimization (FCMP) in computer forensics, and it can be more satisfactory results.

  13. Reaching the global community during disasters: findings from a content analysis of the organizational use of twitter after the 2010 haiti earthquake.

    PubMed

    Gurman, Tilly A; Ellenberger, Nicole

    2015-06-01

    Social networking sites provide virtual environments in which individuals and organizations exchange real-time information on a multitude of topics, including health promotion and disease prevention. The January 2010 earthquake in Haiti has been posited as a turning point in the way in which organizations use social media, such as Twitter, for crisis communication. The purpose of this content analysis was to explore whether organizations' use of Twitter changed after the 2010 Haiti earthquake. A team of 13 coders analyzed all English-language tweets (N = 2,616) during the 3 months before and post earthquake from 6 leading organizations in the Haiti disaster relief efforts. Study findings indicate that the ways in which organizations used Twitter changed over time. Chi-square analyses demonstrated that organizations decreased in their use of certain strategies to disseminate information through Twitter, such as the use of links. Organizations did not change in their use of techniques to involve users (e.g., retweet, call to action), with the exception of using tweets as a fundraising mechanism. Study findings highlight missed opportunities among organizations to maximize Twitter in order to encourage more interactive and immediate communication with the global community. PMID:25928401

  14. Insuring Electric Power for Critical Services After Disasters with Building-Sited Electric Generating Technologies 

    E-print Network

    Jackson, J.

    2006-01-01

    electric power for critical disaster management, safety, health and temporary shelter services during widespread and prolonged central electric system outages in hurricane-prone areas of the US. More generally, these analysis results are presented... disaster mitigation functions considered in this analysis include: (1) disaster management/ municipal/public safety, (2) health, and (3) shelter services. The analysis is benchmarked to a US population unit of 100,000 people and assumes the following...

  15. An approach to dissecting the congenitally malformed heart in the forensic autopsy: the value of sequential segmental analysis.

    PubMed

    Horn, K D; Devine, W A

    2001-12-01

    The demonstration of congenital heart disease at autopsy necessitates the careful preservation and examination of the heart, the vessels, and their connections. Techniques preserving these connections and using a reproducible and systematic approach are preferred. The Rokitansky method of organ block dissection, in combination with a system of heart examination termed sequential segmental analysis, provides such an approach. This study is based on the examination of heart specimens accessioned into the Frank E. Sherman, M.D., and Cora C. Lenox, M.D., Heart Museum (containing approximately 2400 specimens) of the Pathology Department, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh. Specimens received in consultation during a 25-year period from hospitals and coroners'/medical examiners' offices were examined, and the corresponding reports were reviewed. Of 46 total heart specimens examined (1975-1999), 29 (63%) were dissected properly or left intact for dissection at Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, and 17 (37%) were incorrectly dissected for the demonstration of congenital heart disease. Of these 17 cases, 11 (24%) displayed dissection errors, which did not hinder a complete diagnosis, 3 cases (6.5%) had errors that enabled only an incomplete diagnosis, and in 3 cases (6.5%), no diagnosis of congenital heart disease could be made. Dissection mistakes and means of avoiding them are discussed. Review of medical and family history, external and internal examination, and a reproducible and sequential method of examining the heart and its connections enables documentation of even the most complex cardiovascular anomalies. PMID:11764911

  16. Cyber Surveillance for Flood Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Shi-Wei; Wu, Jyh-Horng; Lin, Fang-Pang; Hsu, Ching-Han

    2015-01-01

    Regional heavy rainfall is usually caused by the influence of extreme weather conditions. Instant heavy rainfall often results in the flooding of rivers and the neighboring low-lying areas, which is responsible for a large number of casualties and considerable property loss. The existing precipitation forecast systems mostly focus on the analysis and forecast of large-scale areas but do not provide precise instant automatic monitoring and alert feedback for individual river areas and sections. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an easy method to automatically monitor the flood object of a specific area, based on the currently widely used remote cyber surveillance systems and image processing methods, in order to obtain instant flooding and waterlogging event feedback. The intrusion detection mode of these surveillance systems is used in this study, wherein a flood is considered a possible invasion object. Through the detection and verification of flood objects, automatic flood risk-level monitoring of specific individual river segments, as well as the automatic urban inundation detection, has become possible. The proposed method can better meet the practical needs of disaster prevention than the method of large-area forecasting. It also has several other advantages, such as flexibility in location selection, no requirement of a standard water-level ruler, and a relatively large field of view, when compared with the traditional water-level measurements using video screens. The results can offer prompt reference for appropriate disaster warning actions in small areas, making them more accurate and effective. PMID:25621609

  17. Cyber surveillance for flood disasters.

    PubMed

    Lo, Shi-Wei; Wu, Jyh-Horng; Lin, Fang-Pang; Hsu, Ching-Han

    2015-01-01

    Regional heavy rainfall is usually caused by the influence of extreme weather conditions. Instant heavy rainfall often results in the flooding of rivers and the neighboring low-lying areas, which is responsible for a large number of casualties and considerable property loss. The existing precipitation forecast systems mostly focus on the analysis and forecast of large-scale areas but do not provide precise instant automatic monitoring and alert feedback for individual river areas and sections. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an easy method to automatically monitor the flood object of a specific area, based on the currently widely used remote cyber surveillance systems and image processing methods, in order to obtain instant flooding and waterlogging event feedback. The intrusion detection mode of these surveillance systems is used in this study, wherein a flood is considered a possible invasion object. Through the detection and verification of flood objects, automatic flood risk-level monitoring of specific individual river segments, as well as the automatic urban inundation detection, has become possible. The proposed method can better meet the practical needs of disaster prevention than the method of large-area forecasting. It also has several other advantages, such as flexibility in location selection, no requirement of a standard water-level ruler, and a relatively large field of view, when compared with the traditional water-level measurements using video screens. The results can offer prompt reference for appropriate disaster warning actions in small areas, making them more accurate and effective. PMID:25621609

  18. Comparative dental anatomy in Disaster Victim Identification: Lessons from the 2009 Victorian Bushfires.

    PubMed

    Lain, Russell; Taylor, Jane; Croker, Sarah; Craig, Pamela; Graham, Jeremy

    2011-02-25

    In the Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) response to the recent bushfire disasters in rural Victoria, Australia, forensic odontology played a significant role in the identification process. Particular features of this disaster were challenging to the odontologists. A characteristic of house fires is the extended time period during which the remains may be subject to heat, and their subsequent disruption as buildings collapse. This can result in dislodgement of teeth from sockets, loss of tooth crowns from roots, disruption of anatomical location of teeth and damage to bony features. Commingling of human remains also is often a feature, as is commingling of animal remains with human. Two cases which illustrate these features are described. A strategy for improving familiarity with comparative dental anatomy and improving skills in dental anatomy is suggested. PMID:20605076

  19. [Mortality due to disasters in Brazil: what the data reveals].

    PubMed

    Carmo, Roberto Luiz do; Anazawa, Tathiane Mayumi

    2014-09-01

    This work presents and analyzes the main databases on mortality due to disasters in Brazil: EM-DAT - Emergency Events Database and the Brazilian Atlas of Natural Disasters, as well as the Mortality Information System (SIM, Ministry of Health) and the Yearbook of Natural Disasters (Ministry of National Integration). These databases were addressed using two basic methodological procedures: descriptive analysis of systematic information and comparative analysis, by means of the construction of tables that helped to analyze the information selected. The comparison revealed that with the current databases it is not possible to affirm if disasters and mortality due to disasters are increasing in Brazil, since there are variations in the intensity of the events that occur each year. The information available shows the importance of the mega disaster that occurred in the mountainous region of Rio de Janeiro in 2011, especially in the municipality of Nova Friburgo. In this case the disaster affected the various age groups in both sexes in different ways: the 5 to 9-year-old age group was the most affected among men and women, as well as the 20 to 24-year-old age group (for women) and the 30 to 34-year-old age group (for men). PMID:25184574

  20. The forensic validity of visual analytics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erbacher, Robert F.

    2008-01-01

    The wider use of visualization and visual analytics in wide ranging fields has led to the need for visual analytics capabilities to be legally admissible, especially when applied to digital forensics. This brings the need to consider legal implications when performing visual analytics, an issue not traditionally examined in visualization and visual analytics techniques and research. While digital data is generally admissible under the Federal Rules of Evidence [10][21], a comprehensive validation of the digital evidence is considered prudent. A comprehensive validation requires validation of the digital data under rules for authentication, hearsay, best evidence rule, and privilege. Additional issues with digital data arise when exploring digital data related to admissibility and the validity of what information was examined, to what extent, and whether the analysis process was sufficiently covered by a search warrant. For instance, a search warrant generally covers very narrow requirements as to what law enforcement is allowed to examine and acquire during an investigation. When searching a hard drive for child pornography, how admissible is evidence of an unrelated crime, i.e. drug dealing. This is further complicated by the concept of "in plain view". When performing an analysis of a hard drive what would be considered "in plain view" when analyzing a hard drive. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the issues of digital forensics and the related issues as they apply to visual analytics and identify how visual analytics techniques fit into the digital forensics analysis process, how visual analytics techniques can improve the legal admissibility of digital data, and identify what research is needed to further improve this process. The goal of this paper is to open up consideration of legal ramifications among the visualization community; the author is not a lawyer and the discussions are not meant to be inclusive of all differences in laws between states and countries.

  1. [Building questions in forensic medicine and their logical basis].

    PubMed

    Kovalev, A V; Shmarov, L A; Ten'kov, A A

    2015-01-01

    The authors characterize in brief the requirements to the correct formulation of the questions posed to forensic medical experts with special reference to the mistakes made in building the questions and the ways to avoid them. This article actually continues the series of publications of the authors concerned with the major logical errors encountered in expert conclusions. Further publications will be dedicated to the results of the in-depth analysis of the logical errors contained in the questions posed to forensic medical experts and encountered in the expert conclusions. PMID:25874321

  2. Statistical Tools for Digital Image Forensics

    E-print Network

    Farid, Hany

    Statistical Tools for Digital Image Forensics A thesis submitted to the faculty in partial for Digital Image Forensics Alin C. Popescu A digitally altered image, often leaving no visual clues of having

  3. Psychiatric comorbidity in forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Palijan, Tija Zarkovi?; Muzini?, Lana; Radeljak, Sanja

    2009-09-01

    For the past several years a numerous studies in the field of forensic psychiatry confirmed a close relationship between violent offenders and comorbid substance abuse. The comorbid substance abuse in violent offenders was usually unrecognized and misdiagnosed. Furthermore, comorbidity in forensic psychiatry describes the co-occurrence of two or more conditions or psychiatric disorder known in the literature as dual diagnosis and defined by World Health Organization (WHO). In fact, many violent offenders have multiple psychiatric diagnoses. Recent studies have confirmed causal relationship between major psychiatric disorders and concomitant substance abuse (comorbidity) in 50-80% of forensic cases. In general, there is a high level of psychiatric comorbidity in forensic patients with prevalence of personality disorders (50-90%), mood disorders (20-60%) and psychotic disorders (15-20%) coupled with substance abuse disorders. Moreover, the high prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities could be found in mentally retarded individuals, as well as, in epileptic patients. Drugs and alcohol abuse can produce serious psychotoxic effects that may lead to extreme violent behavior and consequently to serious criminal offence such as physical assault, rape, armed robbery, attempted murder and homicide, all due to an altered brain function and generating psychotic-like symptoms. Studies have confirmed a significant statistical relevance in causal relationship between substance abuse and violent offences. In terms of forensic psychiatry, the comorbidity strongly contributes in the process of establishing psychiatric diagnosis of diminished mental capacity or insanity at the time of the offence in the course of clinical assessment and evaluation of violent offenders. Today, the primary focus of forensic psychiatry treatment services (in-patient or community) is management of the violent offenders with psychiatric comorbidity which requires a multilevel, evidence based approach to the patient. Forensic treatment service effectiveness appears to be associated with individual case management and approach including psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy and occupational therapy in order to achieve optimal rehabilitation, prevention of recidivism and stability in social functioning of the patient in the community. PMID:19794370

  4. [Benzodiazepines and forensic aspects].

    PubMed

    Michel, L; Lang, J-P

    2003-01-01

    Adverse effects of benzodiazepines are well known since the first one was used in 1958 (chlordiazepoxide). The literature collects study-cases or rarely controlled studies concerning side effects or paradoxical reactions to benzodiazepines. They mostly described drowsiness and behavioral disinhibition, including increased well-being feeling but also hostility, rage access with feeling of invulnerability, serious crimes and sometimes homicides. Delusional, manic, confusional or depressive states are also pointed out. Rate for aggressive behaviour is 0.3 to 0.7% but distinction should be done between accidental or "idiosyncratic" reaction and voluntary sought disinhibition, clearly more frequent. No benzodiazepine has any specificity for these adverse effects but pharmacology, doses, associated drugs (or alcohol) and psychopathology interact to produce hazardous psychic states. Pharmacology: GABA induces a decrease in serotonin compound and vigilance. Pharmacokinetic: first dose effect or over-dose effect, short half-life, lipophily, affinity, digestive absorption, active metabolites interact. Psychopathology: age, alcohol association, psychological status (high initial level of hostility, impulsivity, frustration, personality disorder and depressive status). External conditions: chronic illness, affective and professional frustrations, physical or psychic exhaustion contribute also. Some benzodiazepines (flunitrazepam, diazepam, clorazepate, triazolam, alprazolam, lorazepam, for example) are more often concerned for pharmacokinetics characteristics but also prescription habits. Forensic aspects should be considered in case of homicide. Especially, reality of benzodiazepines consumption and awareness of the potential paradoxical reaction should be precisely evaluated. Special focus on voluntary induced disinhibition has to be done for forensic considerations. Relationship but also crime facilitations are sometimes consciously sought. Some benzodiazepines have already been identified for this use: flunitrazepam, clorazepate but also triazolam and temazepam in UK, alprazolam in USA. Flunitrazepam is prohibited in USA and considered as narcotics in France. A Swedish study showed that violent acts were more frequent and serious in juvenile offenders taking flunitrazepam/alcohol than other young offenders staying in the same correctional institution. They recommended classification of flunitrazepam as narcotic. A study from Belgium with drug addicts concluded in the same way and asked for an increased information of professionals and a more efficient control of the delivery. Before concluding to idiosyncratic effect, and then possibly to penal irresponsibility, the forensic approach should consider: firstly the reality of the benzodiazepines absorption and implication in committing violence (urine test, chronology, amnesia); secondly, the association of unusual behaviour and converging circumstances (pharmacological, pharmacokinetic, psychopathology, external conditions); thirdly the consumer's knowledge of the disinhibition effect. In our prison practice, we have to be particularly cautious as population frequently associates personality disorder, drug addiction and high level of frustration related to penitential context. Special information should be given to inmates when benzodiazepines are prescribed, but more extensively, a preventive strategy should be adopted in general population. PMID:15029082

  5. The assessment of vulnerability to natural disasters in China by using the DEA method

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Yiming; Fan Ying; Lu Cong; Tsai, H.-T

    2004-05-01

    China has been greatly affected by natural disasters, so that it is of great importance to analyze the impact of natural disasters on national economy. Usually, the frequency of disasters or absolute loss inflicted by disasters is the first priority to be considered, while the capability of regions to overcome disasters is ignored. The concept of vulnerability is used to measure the capability to overcome disasters in different regions with distinctive economies. Traditional methods for vulnerability analysis calculate sub-indices based on disaster frequency, loss, the economic impact and the population of each region, and then add the sub-indices to get a composite index for regional vulnerability. But those methods are sensitive to the weights selected for sub-indices when multi-indexes are added up to get an index of total vulnerability. The analytic results are less convincing because of the subjectivity of different weighting methods. A data envelopment analysis (DEA)-based model for analysis of regional vulnerability to natural disasters is presented here to improve upon the traditional method. This paper systematically describes the DEA method to evaluate the relative severity of disasters in each region. A model for regional vulnerability analysis is developed, based on the annual governmental statistics from 1989 to 2000. The regional vulnerabilities in China's mainland are illustrated as a case study, and a new method for the classification of regional vulnerability to natural disasters in China is proposed.

  6. A Fuzzy Expert System for Network Forensics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jung-sun Kim; Minsoo Kim; Bong-Nam Noh

    2004-01-01

    \\u000a The field of digital forensic science emerged as a response to the growth of a computer crime. Digital forensics is the art\\u000a of discovering and retrieving information about a crime in such a way to make digital evidence admissible in court. Especially,\\u000a network forensics is digital forensic science in networked environments. The more network traffic, the harder network analyzing.\\u000a Therefore,

  7. San Francisco disaster

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Mutoscope and Biograph Company

    A silent film from May of 1906 that seeks to simulate the San Francisco fire and earthquake using a small-scale model of the city. The film's realism and accuracy are questionable-the flames reach unrealistic heights, and the real fire was more scattered than the flame shown-but it marks an early attempt to visualize and recreate the disaster. The film is available in Real Media, QuickTime and MPEG format.

  8. Genetic identification of forensically important flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Zehner; Jens Amendt; Svenja Schütt; Jan Sauer; Roman Krettek; Dalibor Povolný

    2004-01-01

    Unequivocal identification of fly specimens is an essential requirement in forensic entomology. However, not all species can be determined at every developmental stage, which is illustrated by the flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), important members of the necrophagous insect fauna. Up to now no suitable key for the identification of the immature stages of this family of flies exists. DNA analysis

  9. The ANSI/NIST-ITL Standard: Forensic Data Interchange

    E-print Network

    Perkins, Richard A.

    -2011 #12;Latent Friction Ridge Prints Extended Feature Set Markups Cores Deltas Distinctive Characteristics amnesiacs: * All angles ·Mark eye locations using 2D markups -- Automated Matching -- Forensic Analysis (e.g. club foot, extra finger, broken nose, etc.) Post-mortem or for living amnesiacs: * With ruler

  10. An Organic Chemistry Experiment for Forensic Science Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothchild, Robert

    1979-01-01

    The laboratory experiment described here is intended to be of use to the forensic science major enrolled in a course in organic chemistry. The experiment is the use of thin-layer chromotography for qualitative analysis, specifically for the identification of drugs. (Author/SA)

  11. A hypothesis-based approach to digital forensic investigations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian D. Carrier

    2006-01-01

    This work formally defines a digital forensic investigation and categories of analysis techniques. The definitions are based on an extended finite state machine (FSM) model that was designed to include support for removable devices and complex states and events. The model is used to define the concept of a computer's history, which contains the primitive and complex states and events

  12. Towards Improving Validation, Verification, Crash Investigations, and Event Reconstruction of Flight-Critical Systems with Self-Forensics

    E-print Network

    Mokhov, Serguei A

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel concept of self-forensics to complement the standard autonomic self-CHOP properties of the self-managed systems, to be specified in the Forensic Lucid language. We argue that self-forensics, with the forensics taken out of the cybercrime domain, is applicable to "self-dissection" for the purpose of verification of autonomous software and hardware systems of flight-critical systems for automated incident and anomaly analysis and event reconstruction by the engineering teams in a variety of incident scenarios during design and testing as well as actual flight data.

  13. Computer Based Forensics -A Case Study -

    E-print Network

    California at Davis, University of

    Computer Based Forensics - A Case Study - U.S Support To The U.N. Capt Kevin J. Ziese AF&D Directions s Generate Potential COTS Opportunities s Improve Overall Forensics Process #12;Computer Forensics, CHEMICAL, AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES #12;Valid Tools & Techniques TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES THAT CAN BE APPLIED

  14. Forensic Chemistry--A Symposium Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Presents a collection of articles to provide chemistry teachers with resource materials to add forensic chemistry units to their chemistry courses. Topics range from development of forensic science laboratory courses and mock-crime scenes to forensic serology and analytical techniques. (JN)

  15. Building theoretical underpinnings for digital forensics research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah Mocas

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: In order for technical research in digital forensics to progress a cohesive set ofelectronic forensics characteristics must be specied. To date, although the needfor such a framework has been expressed, with a few exceptions, clear unifyingcharacteristics have not been well laid out. We begin the process of formulating aframework for digital forensics research by identifying fundamental properties andabstractions.

  16. Framework for a Digital Forensic Investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Kohn; Martin S. Olivier; Jan H. P. Eloff

    2006-01-01

    Computer Forensics is essential for the successful prosecution of computer criminals. For a forensic investigation to be performed successfully there are a number of important steps that have to be considered and taken. The aim of this paper is to define a clear, step-by-step framework for the collection of evidence suitable for presentation in a court of law. Existing forensic

  17. Digital Video Forensics Submitted to the Faculty

    E-print Network

    Farid, Hany

    Digital Video Forensics A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty in partial fulfillment;#12;Abstract We present new forensic tools that are capable of detecting traces of tampering in digital video first set of forensic tools for authenticating digital video. ii #12;Acknowledgments First, I would like

  18. Evaluating Commercial Counter-Forensic Tools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew Geiger

    2005-01-01

    Digital forensic analysts may find their task compl icated by any of more than a dozen commercial software packages designed to irretrieva bly erase files and records of computer activity. These counter-forensic tools hav e been used to eliminate evidence in criminal and civil legal proceedings and represent an area of continuing concern for forensic investigators. In this paper, we

  19. The history of forensic odontology in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuo Suzuki

    1996-01-01

    The major role of forensic odontology is to identify an unknown body by means of dental evidence. This method provides a positive identification. The importance of forensic odontology was especially recognized through the identification of the victims of the JAL crash in 1985. With this as a start, police dental surgeon system and Japanese Society of Forensic Odontology were founded

  20. Towards Proactive Computer-System Forensics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phillip G. Bradford; Marcus Brown; Josh Perdue; Bonnie Self

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines principles and approaches for proactive computer-system forensics. Proactive computer- system forensics is the design, construction and configuring of systems to make them most amenable to digital foren- sics analyses in the future. The primary goals of proac- tive computer-system forensics are system structuring and augmentation for automated data discovery, lead forma- tion, and efficient data preservation. This

  1. The Forensic Psychiatry and Psychotherapy Unit

    E-print Network

    Schubart, Christoph

    The Forensic Psychiatry and Psychotherapy Unit Head: Prof. Dr. M. Osterheider 3rd Summer Conference. Cordially Michael Osterheider M.D. Professor of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychotherapy The University. Dr. Michael Osterheider Head of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychotherapy Unit, University of Regensburg

  2. Information Assurance and Forensic Readiness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pangalos, Georgios; Katos, Vasilios

    Egalitarianism and justice are amongst the core attributes of a democratic regime and should be also secured in an e-democratic setting. As such, the rise of computer related offenses pose a threat to the fundamental aspects of e-democracy and e-governance. Digital forensics are a key component for protecting and enabling the underlying (e-)democratic values and therefore forensic readiness should be considered in an e-democratic setting. This position paper commences from the observation that the density of compliance and potential litigation activities is monotonically increasing in modern organizations, as rules, legislative regulations and policies are being constantly added to the corporate environment. Forensic practices seem to be departing from the niche of law enforcement and are becoming a business function and infrastructural component, posing new challenges to the security professionals. Having no a priori knowledge on whether a security related event or corporate policy violation will lead to litigation, we advocate that computer forensics need to be applied to all investigatory, monitoring and auditing activities. This would result into an inflation of the responsibilities of the Information Security Officer. After exploring some commonalities and differences between IS audit and computer forensics, we present a list of strategic challenges the organization and, in effect, the IS security and audit practitioner will face.

  3. Forensic web watch.

    PubMed

    Rutty, G N

    1999-09-01

    Since the development of the Internet (Net) by the Americans in the 1970s as a potential means of communication following a future world war, it has evolved over the decades into the graphical format of the world-wide web (WWW, Web) that we know today. Anyone accessing the Net, be it from home or work, has access to information and resources on almost anything but with this comes the time-consuming and potentially expensive task of identifying those sites of use in one's professional work from those of purely interest or fun. These reviews will try and direct those working within forensic practice in all professions towards sites considered by the author to be practical resources. They are, by their very nature, a personal opinion and the author recognizes that the review of a site by one person may differ considerably from that of another user or the site designer. The articles will assume a basic knowledge of how to access and use the WWW using either Netscape or Microsoft Explorer. They will address groups of sites related to common areas of practice listing key web addresses to allow those interested to access sites reviewed. Because of the time between writing and publishing some sites may no longer be valid PMID:15335488

  4. Factors predicting crisis counselor referrals to other crisis counseling, disaster relief, and psychological services: a cross-site analysis of post-Katrina programs.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Craig S; Matthieu, Monica M; Norris, Fran H

    2009-05-01

    An important aspect of crisis counseling is linking survivors with services for their unmet needs. We examined determinants of referrals for disaster relief, additional crisis counseling, and psychological services in 703,000 crisis counseling encounters 3-18 months after Hurricane Katrina. Referrals for disaster relief were predicted by clients' losses, age (adults rather than children), and urbanicity. Referrals for additional counseling and psychological services were predicted by urbanicity, losses and trauma exposure, prior trauma, and preexisting mental health problems. Counseling and psychological referrals declined over time despite continuing mental health needs. Results confirm large urban-rural disparities in access to services. PMID:19381795

  5. 76 FR 7622 - Maine Disaster # ME-00028

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-10

    ...ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12461 and 12462] Maine Disaster ME-00028 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration...a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Maine (FEMA-1953- DR), dated 02/01/2011. Incident:...

  6. 78 FR 20370 - Maine Disaster # ME-00035

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ...ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13525 and 13526] Maine Disaster ME-00035 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration...a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Maine (FEMA-4108- DR), dated 03/25/2013. Incident:...

  7. 75 FR 22167 - Maine Disaster #ME-00025

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ...Disaster Declaration 12126 and 12127] Maine Disaster ME-00025 AGENCY: U.S...declaration of a disaster for the State of MAINE dated 04/19/2010. Incident: Severe...Counties: York. Contiguous Counties: Maine: Cumberland, Oxford. New...

  8. 78 FR 34701 - Maine Disaster #ME-00036

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ...Disaster Declaration 13592 and 13593] Maine Disaster ME-00036 AGENCY: U.S...declaration of a disaster for the State of Maine dated 05/30/2013. Incident: Apartment...Androscoggin. Contiguous Counties: Maine: Cumberland, Franklin, Kennebec,...

  9. 78 FR 48762 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00053

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ...BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13699 and 13700] Iowa Disaster IA-00053 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration...a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Iowa (FEMA-4135- DR), dated 07/31/2013. Incident:...

  10. 75 FR 45681 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00025

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ...BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12252 and 12253] Iowa Disaster IA-00025 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration...a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Iowa (FEMA-1928- DR), dated 07/27/2010. Incident:...

  11. 76 FR 55721 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00038

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ...BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12772 and 12773] Iowa Disaster IA-00038 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration...a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Iowa (FEMA-4018- DR), dated 08/30/2011. Incident:...

  12. 75 FR 11582 - IOWA Disaster # IA-00023

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ...BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12062 and 12063] IOWA Disaster IA-00023 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration...a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Iowa (FEMA-1880- DR), dated 03/02/2010. Incident:...

  13. 76 FR 52042 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00035

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ...Disaster Declaration 12734 and 12735] Iowa Disaster IA-00035 AGENCY: U.S...declaration of a disaster for the State of Iowa Dated. Incident: Severe Storms and...Counties: Dubuque. Contiguous counties: Iowa: Clayton, Delaware, Jackson,...

  14. 75 FR 10329 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00022

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ...BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12053 and 12054] Iowa Disaster IA-00022 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration...a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of IOWA (FEMA--1877-- DR), dated 02/25/2010....

  15. 75 FR 70763 - Texas Disaster #TX-00363

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ...BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12377 and 12378] Texas Disaster TX-00363 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business...disaster for physical damage is 12377 B and for economic injury is 12378 0. The State which received an EIDL Declaration is...

  16. 76 FR 21935 - Hawaii Disaster #HI-00023

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-19

    ...Disaster Declaration 12526 and 12527] Hawaii Disaster HI-00023 AGENCY: U...Public Assistance Only for the State of Hawaii (FEMA-1967- DR), dated 04/08...affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Hawaii Honolulu Maui. The Interest Rates...

  17. 77 FR 25010 - Hawaii Disaster # HI-00026

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ...ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13065 and 13066] Hawaii Disaster HI-00026 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration...a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Hawaii (FEMA-4062- DR), dated 04/18/2012. Incident:...

  18. 76 FR 42155 - Arkansas Disaster #AR-00051

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ...Application Deadline Date: 09/06/2011. Economic Injury (EIDL...disaster declaration on 07/08/2011, Private Non- Profit organizations...disaster: Primary Counties: Crawford, Franklin, Johnson. The...Disaster Assistance. [FR Doc. 2011-17947 Filed...

  19. 76 FR 42154 - Arkansas Disaster #AR-00050

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ...Application Deadline Date: 09/06/2011. Economic Injury (EIDL...disaster declaration on 07/08/2011, applications for disaster...Injury Loans Only): Arkansas: Crawford, Logan, Madison, Newton...Disaster Assistance. [FR Doc. 2011-17944 Filed...

  20. 76 FR 66768 - Iowa Disaster #IA-00033

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ...Application Deadline Date: 12/19/2011. Economic Injury (EIDL...disaster declaration on 10/18/2011, applications for disaster...Loans Only): Iowa: Cass, Crawford, Ida, Montgomery, Page...Disaster Assistance. [FR Doc. 2011-27829 Filed...