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1

Ash after forest fires. Effects on soil hydrology and erosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hillslopes were though to be most susceptible to enhanced hydro-geomorphological responses immediately following burning, with susceptibility declining during the first months or years depending on the soil and vegetation recovery. However, Cerdà (1998) found some indices in that immediately after the fire, the thin wettable ash layer that typically covers the ground could absorb rainfall and prevent or delay the onset of overland flow and associated erosion. Therefore the time lag while ash remains on the ground become of crucial importance to protect the soil after a wildfire. The effect of this ash layer was rarely been considered in detail because ash has often been reduced or redistributed by wind or water erosion before the onset of monitoring and thus the data collection typically begun some weeks or month after the fire. The first papers focussed only on ash and its hydrological effects were published by Cerdà and Doerr (2008) and by Woods and Balfour (2008). The results showed that the soil covered with ash indeed reduced and delayed surface runoff, reduced soil splash detachment and produced lower sediment yield compared to bare terrain. However, these findings arose more questions, as for instance: Why in other research there were indices that ash reduces infiltration? what is the mechanism by which why ash reduces overland flow? The research went further with Bodí PhD. First of all, it was crucial the agreement on the fact that the material "ash" is very variable depending on the original vegetation and the type and temperature of combustion. Therefore ash properties are different between wildfires even and within a fire. This is the main reason of its different effects and thus ash not always reduces runoff and sediment yield. In this way, depending on the nature of ash, it can increase overland flow if it is crusted (usually it contains a high content of calcium carbonate), it is water repellent (with high contents of organic carbon and specially from certain Eucaliptus and Pinus), or if clog soil pores (depending also on the soil type). If ash is wettable, it can store even 80% of its volume and then it will delay and reduce overland flow proportionally to the thickness of the ash layer. Once ash gets saturated, the flow tends to adjust to an infiltration rate similar to the soil itself, or sometimes higher due to the protection of ash that can reduce soil water repellency and soil sealing (Bodí et al. 2011, 2012). Still, many other aspects on ash remain unknown and ash present us more questions like, what it is its role on the carbon cycle? what is the extent of the ahs effects at basin scale? what is the fate of ash and how long it remains in the ecosystem? are there specific effects of ash depending on the ecosystem and so the type of ash? Acknowledgements This work was supported financially by a research fellowship (AP2007-04602) from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (M.B. Bodí) and the projects PT2009-0073 and CGL2010-21670-C02-01. References Bodí, M.B., Mataix-Solera, J., Doerr, S.H., Cerdà, A., 2011, The wettability of ash from burned vegetation and its relationship to Mediterranean plant species type, burn severity and total organic carbon content. Geoderma 160, 599-607. Bodí, M.B., Doerr, S.H., Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J., 2012, Hydrological effects of a layer of vegetation ash on underlying wettable and water repellent soil. Geoderma 191, 14-23 Cerdà, A., 1998, Changes in overland flow and infiltration after a rangeland fire in a Mediterranean scrubland. Hydrological Processes 12, 1031-1042. Cerdà, A., Doerr, S.H., 2008, The effect of ash and needle cover on surface runoff and erosion in the immediate post-fire period. Catena 74, 256-263. Woods, S.W., Balfour, V., 2008, The effect of ash on runoff and erosion after a forest wildfire, Montana, U.S.A. International Journal of Wildland Fire 17, 535-548.

Bodí, Merche B.

2013-04-01

2

Impacts of fire on forest age and runoff in mountain ash forests  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Runoff from mountain ash (Eucalyptus regnans F.Muell.) forested catchments has been shown to decline significantly in the few decades following fire - returning to pre-fire levels in the following centuries - owing to changes in ecosystem water use with stand age in a relationship known as Kuczera's model. We examined this relationship between catchment runoff and stand age by measuring whole-ecosystem exchanges of water using an eddy covariance system measuring forest evapotranspiration (ET) combined with sap-flow measurements of tree water use, with measurements made across a chronosequence of three sites (24, 80 and 296 years since fire). At the 296-year old site eddy covariance systems were installed above the E. regnans overstorey and above the distinct rainforest understorey. Contrary to predictions from the Kuczera curve, we found that measurements of whole-forest ET decreased by far less across stand age between 24 and 296 years. Although the overstorey tree water use declined by 1.8 mm day-1 with increasing forest age (an annual decrease of 657 mm) the understorey ET contributed between 1.2 and 1.5 mm day-1, 45% of the total ET (3 mm day-1) at the old growth forest. ?? CSIRO 2008.

Wood, S. A.; Beringer, J.; Hutley, L. B.; McGuire, A. D.; Van Dijk, A.; Kilinc, M.

2008-01-01

3

The ash in forest fire affected soils control the soil losses. Part 1. The pioneer research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After forest fires, the ash and the remaining vegetation cover on the soil surface are the main protection against erosion agents. The control ash exert on runoff generation mechanism was researched during the 90's (Cerdà, 1998a; 1998b). This pioneer research demonstrated that after forest fires there is a short period of time that runoff and surface wash by water is controlled by the high infiltration rates achieved by the soil, which were high due to the effect of ash acting as a mulch. The research of Cerdà (1998a; 1998b) also contributed to demonstrate that runoff was enhanced four month later upon the wash of the ash by the runoff, but also due to the removal of ash due to dissolution and water infiltration. As a consequence of the ephemeral ash cover the runoff and erosion reached the peak after the removal of the ash (usually four month), and for two years the soil erosion reached the peak (Cerdà, 1998a). Research developed during the last decade shown that the ash and the litter cover together contribute to reduce the soil losses after the forest fire (Cerdà and Doerr, 2008). The fate of the ash is related to the climatic conditions of the post-fire season, as intense thunderstorms erode the ash layer and low intensity rainfall contribute to a higher infiltration rate and the recovery of the vegetation. Another, key factor found during the last two decades that determine the fate of the ash and the soil and water losses is the impact of the fauna (Cerdà and Doerr, 2010). During the last decade new techniques were developed to study the impact of ash in the soil system, such as the one to monitor the ash changes by means of high spatial resolution photography (Pérez Cabello et al., 2012), and laboratory approaches that show the impact of ash as a key factor in the soil hydrology throughout the control they exert on the soil water repellency (Bodí et al., 2012). Laboratory approaches also shown that the fire severity is a key factor on the ash chemical composition (Pereira and Úbeda, 2010) and Pereira et al., 2012). Some of the new research challenges related to ash impact in the fire affected soils are related to the ash redistribution after the fire, the impact of ash in soil and water chemistry, the temporal changes of soil erosion, the control ash exert on vegetation recovery and the role to be played by ash in the best management of fire affected land. Those topics needs new ideas and new scientists such as Paulo Pereira show in the Part II of this abstract. Acknowledgements, Lithuanian Research Council. Project LITFIRE, Fire effects on Lithuanian soils and ecosystems (MIP-48/2011) and the research projects GL2008-02879/BTE and LEDDRA 243857. References Bodí, M., Mataix-Solera, J., Doerr, S., and Cerdà, A. 2011b. The wettability of ash from burned vegetation and its relationship to Mediterranean plant species type, burn severity and total organic carbon content. Geoderma, 160, 599-607. Cerdà, A. 1998a. Postfire dynamics of erosional processes under mediterranean climatic conditions. Z. Geomorphol., 42 (3) 373-398. Cerdà, A. 1998b. Changes in overland flow and infiltration after a rangeland fire in a Mediterranean scrubland. Hydrological Processes, 12, 1031-1042. Cerdà, A., and Doerr, S. H.2010. The effect of ant mounds on overland flow and soil erodibility following a wildfire in eastern Spain. Ecohydrology, 3, 392-401. Cerdà, A., and Doerr, S.H. 2008. The effect of ash and needle cover on surface runoff and erosion in the immediate post-fire period. Catena, 74, 256-263. Pereira, P., and Úbeda, X. 2010. Spatial distribution of heavy metals released from ashes after a wildfire, Journal of Environment Engineering and Landscape Management, 18, 13-22. Pereira, P., Ubeda, X., Martin, D.A. 2012. Fire severity effects on ash chemical composition and extractable elements. Geoderma, 191, 105 - 114. Pérez-Cabello, F., Cerdà, A., de la Riva, J., Echeverría, M.T., García-Martín, A., Ibarra, P., Lasanta, T., Montorio, R., Palacios, V. 2012. Micro-scale post-fire surface cover changes monitored using hig

Cerdà, Artemi; Pereira, Paulo

2013-04-01

4

Concordant 241Pu-241Am Dating of Environmental Samples: Results from Forest Fire Ash  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have measured the Pu, 237Np, 241Am, and 151Sm isotopic systematics for a set of forest fire ash samples from various locations in the western U.S. including Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, and New Mexico. The goal of this study is to develop a concordant 241Pu (t1/2 = 14.4 y)-241Am dating method for environmental collections. Environmental samples often contain mixtures of components including global fallout. There are a number of approaches for subtracting the global fallout component for such samples. One approach is to use 242Pu/239Pu as a normalizing isotope ratio in a three-isotope plot, where this ratio for the non-global fallout component can be estimated or assumed to be small. This study investigates a new, complementary method of normalization using the long-lived fission product, 151Sm (t1/2 = 90 y). We find that forest fire ash concentrates actinides and fission products with ~1E10 atoms 239Pu/g and ~1E8 atoms 151Sm/g, allowing us to measure these nuclides by mass spectrometric (MIC-TIMS) and radiometric (liquid scintillation counting) methods. The forest fire ash samples are characterized by a western U.S. regional isotopic signature representing varying mixtures of global fallout with a local component from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Our results also show that 151Sm is well correlated with the Pu nuclides in the forest fire ash, suggesting that these nuclides have similar geochemical behavior in the environment. Results of this correlation indicate that the 151Sm/239Pu atom ratio for global fallout is ~0.164, in agreement with an independent estimate of 0.165 based on 137Cs fission yields for atmospheric weapons tests at the NTS. 241Pu-241Am dating of the non-global fallout component in the forest fire ash samples yield ages in the late 1950’s-early 1960’s, consistent with a peak in NTS weapons testing at that time. The age results for this component are in agreement using both 242Pu and 151Sm normalizations, although the errors for the 151Sm correction are currently larger due to the greater uncertainty of their measurements. Additional efforts to develop a concordant 241Pu-241Am dating method for environmental collections are underway with emphasis on soil cores.

Goldstein, S. J.; Oldham, W. J.; Murrell, M. T.; Katzman, D.

2010-12-01

5

Concordant plutonium-241-americium-241 dating of environmental samples: results from forest fire ash  

SciTech Connect

We have measured the Pu, {sup 237}Np, {sup 241}Am, and {sup 151}Sm isotopic systematics for a set of forest fire ash samples from various locations in the western U.S. including Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, and New Mexico. The goal of this study is to develop a concordant {sup 241}Pu (t{sub 1/2} = 14.4 y)-{sup 241}Am dating method for environmental collections. Environmental samples often contain mixtures of components including global fallout. There are a number of approaches for subtracting the global fallout component for such samples. One approach is to use {sup 242}/{sup 239}Pu as a normalizing isotope ratio in a three-isotope plot, where this ratio for the nonglobal fallout component can be estimated or assumed to be small. This study investigates a new, complementary method of normalization using the long-lived fission product, {sup 151}Sm (t{sub 1/2} = 90 y). We find that forest fire ash concentrates actinides and fission products with {approx}1E10 atoms {sup 239}Pu/g and {approx}1E8 atoms {sup 151}Sm/g, allowing us to measure these nuclides by mass spectrometric (MIC-TIMS) and radiometric (liquid scintillation counting) methods. The forest fire ash samples are characterized by a western U.S. regional isotopic signature representing varying mixtures of global fallout with a local component from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Our results also show that {sup 151}Sm is well correlated with the Pu nuclides in the forest fire ash, suggesting that these nuclides have similar geochemical behavior in the environment. Results of this correlation indicate that the {sup 151}Sm/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio for global fallout is {approx}0.164, in agreement with an independent estimate of 0.165 based on {sup 137}Cs fission yields for atmospheric weapons tests at the NTS. {sup 241}Pu-{sup 241}Am dating of the non-global fallout component in the forest fire ash samples yield ages in the late 1950's-early 1960's, consistent with a peak in NTS weapons testing at that time. The age results for this component are in agreement using both {sup 242}Pu and {sup 151}Sm normalizations, although the errors for the {sup 151}Sm correction are currently larger due to the greater uncertainty of their measurements. Additional efforts to develop a concordant {sup 241}Pu-{sup 241}Am dating method for environmental collections are underway with emphasis on soil cores.

Goldstein, Steven J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oldham, Warren J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Murrell, Michael T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Katzman, Danny [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-07

6

Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals in ashes released from a forest fire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires have become a permanent source of environmental and societal concerns. Whilst the impacts of wildfire on hydrological and erosion processes are well documented, the stocks and export of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals have received considerably less research attention. The ashes produced by wildfires, which include polluting substances such as PAHs and metals, are subject to transport processes by wind and especially by overland flow and water infiltrating into the soil and possibly reaching ground water bodies. In the framework of the FIRECNUTS project, we are studying the stocks of PAHs and selected metals in recently burnt forest stands in north-central Portugal, and their subsequent export by overland flow. The present work, however, will focus on the stocks in the ashes, both immediately after wildfire and three months later. These ashes were collected at two burnt slopes with contrasting forest types, i.e. a eucalypt and a maritime pine stand, the two pre-dominant forest types in the study region. The sixteen PAHs identified by US EPA as priority contaminants were analysed by gas chromatograph, after extraction and column clean up. The contents of vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were analysed by inductively coupled plasma- mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), after an acid digestion, while mercury (Hg) was analysed by pyrolysis atomic absorption spectrometry with gold amalgamation. The total concentration of PAHs immediately after the wildfire ranged from 314 ng/g dry weight in the maritime pine stand to 597 ng/g dry weight in the eucalypt stand. Three months later, the total concentration has decreased with 33% in the pine stand but only half (16%) in the eucalypt stand. The composition the PAHs by ring size was dominated by three-rings PAHs. This was true for all samples. The concentrations of various metals differed for the two sampling occasions but not in straightforward manners. Some metals (Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and Hg) revealed higher contents immediately after the fire, whereas others (V, Cr and As) did three months later. The present results underline the importance of furthering the knowledge about contamination of soil and water by ashes from wildfires and the associated risks in terms of ecotoxicological effects, both in-situ and in downstream aquatic systems. Keywords: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); heavy metals; stocks; ash; wildfires

Campos, I.; Abrantes, N.; Pereira, P.; Vale, C.; Ferreira, A.; Keizer, J. J.

2012-04-01

7

Forest fires  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book examines the many complex and sensitive issues relating to wildland fires. Beginning with an overview of the fires of 1980s, the book discusses the implications of continued drought and considers the behavior of wildland fires, from ignition and spread to spotting and firestorms. Topics include the effects of weather, forest fuels, fire ecology, and the effects of fire

Fuller

1991-01-01

8

Forest fire ash impact on micro- and macroalgae in the receiving waters of the east coast of South Korea.  

PubMed

Mountain forest fire ash flushed into the eastern coastal waters of South Korea is known to contain cadmium as one of its significant constituents. To study its impact, two representatives of the micro- and macroalgal communities, Ulva pertusa and Nannochloropsis oculata, were exposed to the concentration range of Cd indicated from the forest fire localities. At low concentrations of 0.224-0.448 mg L(-1), a 20% reduction in growth rate of N. oculata was observed. Chlorophyll a pigment concentration was proportionate to the growth reduction while at higher concentrations (1.792 mg L(-1)) pigments were completely leached. In the macrophyte U. pertusa, a similar trend of pigment leaching was observed. Bioaccumulation factors obtained for these rapidly growing algal species revealed excessive bioconcentration of Cd. Variations in the concentration of Cd among the samples collected along the Korean coast clearly indicated the additional source of metal influx from the forest fires. PMID:12398386

Shin, Hyun-Woung; Sidharthan, M; Young, Kim Shin

2002-01-01

9

Forest Fires  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will assume the role of a Department of Forestry Ranger one of whose major concerns is forest fires. Using NASA Surface Scene Type data (biomes) and Monthly Equivalent Water Thickness Land Mass Change Data from 2006, the students will determine areas at high risk for forest fire development.

10

Forest Fires  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The objectives of this lesson plan are twofold: to have students understand the benefits and problems associated with fire and to understand the role that fire plays in maintaining healthy ecosystems. Emphasis throughout the lesson plan is placed on manager-ignited prescribed burns and natural fires, and their relevance and importance to various types of fire-adapted ecosystems such as chaparral, prairie grasslands, and lodgepole pine forests. The lesson entails initiating a discussion about the positive and negative powers of fire, introducing terms such as surface fire, crown fire, and fire triangle, and having the students produce a public service announcement, brochure, or television spot on both accidental forest fires and the benefits of prescribed burns. The web site includes a list of suggested materials, procedures, adaptations, discussion questions, extension projects, an evaluation of student learning, suggested readings, relevant web links, a vocabulary list, and relevance to the academic standards set forth by Content Knowledge: A Compendium of Standards and Benchmarks for K-12 Education: Second Edition.

Bailey, Joyce

11

The ash in forest fire affected soils control the soil losses. Part 2. Current and future research challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ash distribution on soil surface and impacts on soil properties received a great attention in recently (Pereira et al., 2010; Pereira et al., 2013). Ash it is a highly mobile material that can be easily transported wind, especially in severe wildland fires, where organic matter is reduced to dust, due the high temperatures of combustion. In the immediate period after the fire, ash cover rules soil erosion as previous researchers observed (Cerdà, 1998a; 1998b) and have strong influence on soil hydrological properties, such as water retention (Stoof et al. 2011 ) and wettability (Bodi et al., 2011). Ash it is also a valuable source of nutrients important for plant recuperation (Pereira et al., 2011; Pereira et al., 2012), but can act also as a source contamination, since are also rich in heavy metals (Pereira and Ubeda, 2010). Ash has different physical and chemical properties according the temperature of combustion, burned specie and time of exposition (Pereira et al., 2010). Thus this different properties will have different implications on soil properties including erosion that can increase due soil sealing (Onda et al. 2008) or decrease as consequence of raindrop impact reduction (Cerdà and Doerr, 2008). The current knowledge shows that ash has different impacts on soil properties and this depends not only from the type of ash produced, but of the soil properties (Woods and Balfour, 2010). After fire wind and water strong redistribute ash on soil surface, increasing the vulnerability of soil erosion in some areas, and reducing in others. Understand this mobility is fundamental have a better comprehension about the spatial and temporal effects of ash in soil erosion. Have a better knowledge about this mobility is a priority to future research. Other important aspects to have to be assessed in the future are how ash particulates percolate on soil and how ash chemical composition is important to induce soil aggregation and dispersion. How soil micro topography have implications on ash spatial distribution and if soil micro topography changes with time? What the factors that controls it? What it is the impact of ash in vegetation recuperation and the implications of this recover in ash spatial distribution? We need studies with better spatial and temporal resolution, especially in the immediate period after the fire, when the major spatial and temporal changes on ash distribution and impacts occur. Based on high level research conducted by Artemi Cerdà and others, our future research will be focused in these and other aspects in order to have a better knowledge about the impacts of ash on post-fire spatio-temporal erosion. Acknowledgements, Lithuanian Research Council. Project LITFIRE, Fire effects on Lithuanian soils and ecosystems (MIP-48/2011) and the research projects GL2008-02879/BTE and LEDDRA 243857. References Bodí, M., Mataix-Solera, J., Doerr, S., and Cerdà, A. 2011b. The wettability of ash from burned vegetation and its relationship to Mediterranean plant species type, burn severity and total organic carbon content. Geoderma, 160, 599-607. Cerdà, A. 1998a. Postfire dynamics of erosional processes under mediterranean climatic conditions. Z. Geomorphol., 42 (3) 373-398. Cerdà, A. 1998b. Changes in overland flow and infiltration after a rangeland fire in a Mediterranean scrubland.Hydrological Processes, 12, 1031-1042. Cerdà, A., and Doerr, S.H. 2008. The effect of ash and needle cover on surface runoff and erosion in the immediate post-fire period. Catena, 74, 256-263. Onda, Y., Dietrich W. E., and Booker, F. 2008. Evolution of overland flow after severe forest fire, Point Reyes, California, Catena, 72, 13-20. Pereira, P. Cerdà, A., Úbeda, X., Mataix-Solera, J. Arcenegui, V., Zavala, L. 2013. Modelling the impacts of wildfire on ash thickness in a short-term period, Land Degradation and Development, (In press) Pereira, P., Bodi. M., Úbeda, X., Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Balfour, V, Woods, S. 2010. Las cenizas y el ecosistema suelo, In: Cerdà, A. Jordan, A. (eds) Actualización en métodos y técnica

Pereira, Paulo; Cerdà, Artemi

2013-04-01

12

The role of ash on soil water repellency changes in a Mediterranean area affected by a forest fire: a field conditions study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil water repellency (WR) is one of the properties most affected by combustion during a forest fire (Doerr, et al., 2000). The modifications of soil organic matter by the heating and the condensation of distilled organic compounds over mineral surfaces are the main factors responsible..After a fire, a layer of ash covers the soil surface affecting also its wettability; it has been demonstrated that ash can also be water repellent depending on the degree of combustion, and type of plant burned (Bodí, et al., 2011). Ash plays an important role in terms of fertility but also in the hydrology of the affected area. The aim of this study is to assess how ash influences the behaviour of soil WR in the short-term after a forest fire. In July 2011, a forest fire affected an area of 50 has in Gorga, Alicante Province, SE Spain. Immediately after fire plots for monitoring were installed in burned (B) and adjacent control (unburned; C) area. In the burned area two treatments were established: Burned ash (Ba): plots where ash was kept, and Burned without ash (Bwa): plots where ash was removed simulating an ash exportation that sometimes occurs through wind erosion. The main objective being to study was therefore the effect of the ash factor. All of the plots were installed underneath Pinus halepensis specie. The water drop penetration time test (WDPT) was used to measure the persistence of WR over topsoil (surface of A mineral horizon) under field conditions in July (immediately after the fire), and in September, October and December 2011,the last measure being after a very rainy period. Ash samples were collected after fire and WR was also measured in laboratory. As expected, WR in July was the highest measured during the study period both in burned and control soil, being higher (670 ± 289) in burned compared to control area (228 ± 92). The measurements of ash WR in laboratory revealed that 50% of samples were water repellent (mainly in the WDPT classes of 10 and 30 s). In the study area, soil WR decreased during the next months but the observed decrease was faster in Bwa plots. The ash removal had an effect on soil WR facilitating a faster decrease. A possible explanation is that the washing of water repellent compounds through soil profile with infiltration water was easier without ash cover, and the fact that the elimination of ash avoided the input of hydrophobic ash material from surface. We continue monitoring the plots to check whether this "positive" effect of ash elimination on a faster decrease of soil WR is or not beneficial versus the expected "negative" effect of elimination of nutrients because of ash removal. Keywords: Ash, wildfire, water repellency, hydrophobicity, WDPT test

Jiménez-Pinilla, P.; Lozano, E.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Arcenegui, V.; Zavala, L. M.; Jordán, A.; Morugán, A.; Pérez-Bejarano, A.; Bárcenas, G. M.

2012-04-01

13

Forest Fires and Percolation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the description and instructions as well as a link for the "Forest Fires and Percolation" applet. It builds a background with a "hands-on" activity for the students which then leads to the applet itself. The applet is a game where the object is to save as many trees from the forest fire as possible. It shows the spread of a fire with the variable of density and the probability of the number of surviving trees.

Mcgath, Gary; Trunfio, Paul

2009-12-14

14

Airborne forest fire research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research relating to airborne fire fighting systems is reviewed to provide NASA/Langley Research Center with current information on the use of aircraft in forest fire operations, and to identify research requirements for future operations. A literature survey, interview of forest fire service personnel, analysis and synthesis of data from research reports and independent conclusions, and recommendations for future NASA-LRC programs are included.

Mattingly, G. S.

1974-01-01

15

Fighting Forest Fires  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Firefly is an airborne system for imaging forest fires. It uses satellite-based navigation for greater positioning accuracy and offers timeliness in fire location data delivery with on board data processing and a direct aircraft-to-fire camp communications link. Developed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the USFS, it has an infrared line scanner to identify fire boundaries and an infrared sensor system that can penetrate smoke to image the ground. Firefly is an outgrowth of a previous collaboration that produced FLAME, an airborne fire mapping instrument. Further refinements are anticipated by NASA and the United States Forest Service (USFS).

1993-01-01

16

Forest Fire Management Technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire management in forests damaged by the Siberian Moth Dark coniferous forests damaged by Siberian Moth (Dendrolimus superans sibiricus Tschetw. (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae)) occupy huge territories from Ural Mountains to Far East. Patches of fully or partially dead stands vary from ten to one hundred thousand hectares. Total damaged areas have been estimated to be equal to several million hectares. Forest

Erik N. Valendik; Yegor K. Kisilyakhov; Sergey V. Verkhovets; Vladimir N. Vekshin

17

Forest Fire Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a model that integrates high school science with the needs of the local scientific community. Describes how a high school ecology class conducted scientific research in fire ecology that benefited the students and a state park forest ecologist. (MKR)

Zucca, Carol; And Others

1995-01-01

18

Forest Fire Mapping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Fire Logistics Airborne Mapping Equipment (FLAME) system, mounted in a twin-engine and airplane operated by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), is an airborne instrument for detecting and pinpointing forest fires that might escape ground detection. The FLAME equipment rack includes the operator interface, a video monitor, the system's control panel and film output. FLAME's fire detection sensor is an infrared line scanner system that identifies fire boundaries. Sensor's information is correlated with the aircraft's position and altitude at the time the infrared imagery is acquired to fix the fire's location on a map. System can be sent to a fire locale anywhere in the U.S. at the request of a regional forester. USFS felt a need for a more advanced system to deliver timely fire information to fire management personnel in the decade of the 1990s. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) conducted a study, jointly sponsored by NASA and USDA, on what advanced technologies might be employed to produce an end-to-end thermal infrared fire detection and mapping system. That led to initiation of the Firefly system, currently in development at JPL and targeted for operational service beginning in 1992. Firefly will employ satellite-reference position fixing and provide performance superior to FLAME.

1990-01-01

19

Forest Fires and Respiratory Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Outdoor > Protecting Your Health > What Makes Air Unhealthy Forest Fires and Respiratory Health Fact Sheet Wildfires are an ... the surrounding area may suffer the effects of forest fire smoke. If you have respiratory problems such as ...

20

Fighting Forest Fires  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Canadian Broadcasting Company opened their vaults, with historical and current stories about wildfires and wildfire defense from both television and radio. Featured is a TV broadcast about 1958 forest closures during a dry Canadian summer, a radio piece about using wind tunnels to examine fire behavior, and a video piece about satellite uplinks that are beginning to replace old radio technology at fire lookout stations in Alberta.

Company, Canadian B.

21

Climate change and forest fires  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the impacts of climate change on forest fires and describes how this, in turn, will impact on the forests of the United States. In addition to reviewing existing studies on climate change and forest fires we have used two transient general circulation models (GCMs), namely the Hadley Centre and the Canadian GCMs, to estimate fire season severity

M. D Flannigan; B. J Stocks; B. M Wotton

2000-01-01

22

Forest Fire Observation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conditions on the perimeter of a forest fire can be obtained by use of airborne remote sensing techniques demonstrated by Ames Research Center. An Ames U-2 high-altitude survey aircraft served as an aerial fire observation system. Equipped with two types of sensors, the U-2 produces real-time infrared images of fireground scenes. Information acquired by the U-2's scanners defines the fire boundary and aids fire management decisions by showing the size, shape and direction of burn and the locations of hot spots in the fire zone. U-2 sends sensor date in digital form to an antenna at Ames Research Center. There the data is computer processed into images which are overlaid on U.S. Geological Survey topographical maps of the fire area. Maps are then transmitted by telecopy machine directly to fire control center. Whole process takes less than 10 minutes and the U-2 can provide information for up to five hours. Ames antenna can pick up signals from the U-2 anywhere within a 300 mile radius from Ames.

1982-01-01

23

Effects of a low severity prescribed fire on water-soluble elements in ash from a cork oak (Quercus suber) forest located in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula.  

PubMed

Wildfire is the major disturbance in Mediterranean forests. Prescribed fire can be an alternative to reduce the amount of fuel and hence decrease the wildfire risk. However the effects of prescribed fire must be studied, especially on ash properties, because ash is an important nutrient source for ecosystem recovery. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of a low severity prescribed fire on water-soluble elements in ash including pH, electrical conductivity (EC), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), potassium (K), aluminum (Al), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), silica (SiO(2)) and total sulphur (TS). A prescribed fire was conducted in a cork oak (Quercus suber) (Q.S) forest located in the northeast part of the Iberian Peninsula. Samples were collected from a flat plot of 40×70m mainly composed of Q.S and Quercus robur (Q.R) trees. In order to understand the effects of the prescribed fire on the soluble elements in ash, we conducted our data analysis on three data groups: all samples, only Q.S samples and only Q.R samples. All three sample groups exhibited a significant increase in pH, EC (p<0.001), water-soluble Ca, Mg, Na, SiO(2) and TS and a decrease in water-soluble Mn, Fe and Zn. Differences were identified between oak species for water-soluble K, Al and Fe. In Q.S samples we registered a significant increase in the first two elements p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively, and a non-significant impact in the third, at p<0.05. In Q.R data we identified a non-significant impact on water-soluble K and Al and a significant decrease in water-soluble Fe (p<0.05). These differences are probably due to vegetation characteristics and burn severity. The fire induced a higher variability in the ash soluble elements, especially in Q.S samples, that at some points burned with higher severity. The increase of pH, EC, Ca, Mg, Na and K will improve soil fertility, mainly in the study area where soils are acidic. The application of this low severity prescribed fire will improve soil nutrient status without causing soil degradation and thus is considered to be a good management strategy. PMID:20869047

Pereira, Paulo; Ubeda, Xavier; Martin, Deborah; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Guerrero, César

2011-02-01

24

Effects of a low severity prescribed fire on water-soluble elements in ash from a cork oak (Quercus suber) forest located in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wildfire is the major disturbance in Mediterranean forests. Prescribed fire can be an alternative to reduce the amount of fuel and hence decrease the wildfire risk. However the effects of prescribed fire must be studied, especially on ash properties, because ash is an important nutrient source for ecosystem recovery. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of a low severity prescribed fire on water-soluble elements in ash including pH, electrical conductivity (EC), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), potassium (K), aluminum (Al), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), silica (SiO2) and total sulphur (TS). A prescribed fire was conducted in a cork oak (Quercus suber) (Q.S) forest located in the northeast part of the Iberian Peninsula. Samples were collected from a flat plot of 40??70m mainly composed of Q.S and Quercus robur (Q.R) trees. In order to understand the effects of the prescribed fire on the soluble elements in ash, we conducted our data analysis on three data groups: all samples, only Q.S samples and only Q.R samples. All three sample groups exhibited a significant increase in pH, EC (p<0.001), water-soluble Ca, Mg, Na, SiO2 and TS and a decrease in water-soluble Mn, Fe and Zn. Differences were identified between oak species for water-soluble K, Al and Fe. In Q.S samples we registered a significant increase in the first two elements p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively, and a non-significant impact in the third, at p<0.05. In Q.R data we identified a non-significant impact on water-soluble K and Al and a significant decrease in water-soluble Fe (p<0.05). These differences are probably due to vegetation characteristics and burn severity. The fire induced a higher variability in the ash soluble elements, especially in Q.S samples, that at some points burned with higher severity. The increase of pH, EC, Ca, Mg, Na and K will improve soil fertility, mainly in the study area where soils are acidic. The application of this low severity prescribed fire will improve soil nutrient status without causing soil degradation and thus is considered to be a good management strategy. ?? 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Pereira, P.; beda, X.; Martin, D.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Guerrero, C.

2011-01-01

25

Arizona Forest Fire  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These ASTER images cover an area of 11 x 14 km on the north rim of the Grand Canyon, Arizona, and were acquired May 12, 2000. The left image displays bands 3,2,1 in RGB, displaying vegetation as red. The large dark area is burned forest, and small smoke plumes can be seen at the edges where active fires are burning. The right display substitutes SWIR band 8 for band 3. The bright red spots are the active fires, visible because the SWIR wavelength region has the capability to penetrate through the smoke. This image is located at 35.9 degrees north latitude and 113.4 degrees west longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2001-01-01

26

Artificial intelligence for forest fire prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest fire prediction constitutes a significant component of forest fire management. It plays a major role in resource allocation, mitigation and recovery efforts. This paper presents a description and analysis of forest fire prediction methods based on artificial intelligence. A novel forest fire risk prediction algorithm, based on support vector machines, is presented. The algorithm depends on previous weather conditions

George E. Sakr; Imad H. Elhajj; George Mitri; Uchechukwu C. Wejinya

2010-01-01

27

Fire Effects on Forest Soil: Cave Gulch Fire, Helena National Forest TABLE OF CONTENTS  

E-print Network

forests. Once forest managers began suppressing forest fires, vegetation and debris accumulatedFire Effects on Forest Soil: Cave Gulch Fire, Helena National Forest #12;ii TABLE OF CONTENTS ecosystems. Historically, ponderosa pine (Pinus contorta) forest systems have had low intensity fires every

Maxwell, Bruce D.

28

Forest Fires in a Random Forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fires in Canton Ticino (Switzerland) are very complex phenomena. Meteorological data can explain some occurrences of fires in time, but not necessarily in space. Using anthropogenic and geographical feature data with the random forest algorithm, this study tries to highlight factors that most influence the fire-ignition and to identify areas under risk. The fundamental scientific problem considered in the present research deals with an application of random forest algorithms for the analysis and modeling of forest fires patterns in a high dimensional input feature space. This study is focused on the 2,224 anthropogenic forest fires among the 2,401 forest fire ignition points that have occurred in Canton Ticino from 1969 to 2008. Provided by the Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL), the database characterizes each fire by their location (x,y coordinates of the ignition point), start date, duration, burned area, and other information such as ignition cause and topographic features such as slope, aspect, altitude, etc. In addition, the database VECTOR25 from SwissTopo was used to extract information of the distances between fire ignition points and anthropogenic structures like buildings, road network, rail network, etc. Developed by L. Breiman and A. Cutler, the Random Forests (RF) algorithm provides an ensemble of classification and regression trees. By a pseudo-random variable selection for each split node, this method grows a variety of decision trees that do not return the same results, and thus by a committee system, returns a value that has a better accuracy than other machine learning methods. This algorithm incorporates directly measurement of importance variable which is used to display factors affecting forest fires. Dealing with this parameter, several models can be fit, and thus, a prediction can be made throughout the validity domain of Canton Ticino. Comprehensive RF analysis was carried out in order to 1) understand the importance of environmental features, 2) to assess the predictability of forest fires using environmental variables, and 3) to compare RF with other machine learning algorithms for this particular case study. Risk maps were plotted by estimating the burned area taking into account the environmental variables and according to the most relevant selected variables. Key words: Random Forest, classification and regression trees, forest fires, risk maps. Acknowledgements This work was partly supported by the SNFS Project No. 200021-140658, "Analysis and Modelling of Space-Time Patterns in Complex Regions". References - Breiman L., 2001, Random Forest, Machine Learning, vol. 45-1: 5-32. - Oliveira S., Oehler F., San-Miguel-Ayanz J., Camia A., Pereira J.M.C., 2012, Modeling spatial patterns of fire occurrence in Mediterranean Europe, Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 275: 117-129.

Leuenberger, Michael; Kanevski, Mikhaïl; Vega Orozco, Carmen D.

2013-04-01

29

MY NASA DATA: Forest Fires  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a problem based learning activity which asks students to utilize NASA data to determine areas at high risk for forest fire development. Students will pretend to be Rangers of the Department of Forestry, and will have to draw conclusions from the data in order to attempt to prevent forest fires. Detailed procedures, materials list, vocabulary linked to an online glossary, and teachers notes are provided.

Schnekser, Becky

2010-08-31

30

Amazon RainForest Fires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charcoal is common in the soils of mature rain forests within 75 kilometers of San Carlos de Rio Negro in the north central Amazon Basin. Carbon-14 dates of soil charcoal from this region indicate that numerous fires have occurred since the mid-Holocene epoch. Charcoal is most common in tierra firme forest Oxisols and Ultisols and less common in caatinga and

Robert L. Sanford; Juan Saldarriaga; Kathleen E. Clark; Christopher Uhl; Rafael Herrera

1985-01-01

31

Forest fire monitoring with multiple small UAVs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frequent updates concerning the progress of a forest fire are essential for effective and safe fire fighting. Since a forest fire is typically inaccessible by ground vehicles due to mountainous terrain, small unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) are emerging as a promising means of monitoring large forest fires. We present an effective UAV path planning algorithm utilizing infrared images that are

David W. Casbeer; Randal W. Beard; T. W. McLain; Sai-Ming Li; R. K. Mehra

2005-01-01

32

8, 42214266, 2008 Tropical forest fire  

E-print Network

ACPD 8, 4221­4266, 2008 Tropical forest fire emissions R. J. Yokelson et al. Title Page Abstract Chemistry and Physics Discussions The tropical forest and fire emissions experiment: laboratory fire Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union. 4221 #12;ACPD 8, 4221­4266, 2008 Tropical forest fire

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

33

29 CFR 570.54 - Forest fire fighting and forest fire prevention occupations, timber tract occupations, forestry...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Forest fire fighting and forest fire prevention occupations, timber tract occupations...to Their Health or Well-Being § 570.54 Forest fire fighting and forest fire prevention...

2011-07-01

34

29 CFR 570.54 - Forest fire fighting and forest fire prevention occupations, timber tract occupations, forestry...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Forest fire fighting and forest fire prevention occupations, timber tract occupations...to Their Health or Well-Being § 570.54 Forest fire fighting and forest fire prevention...

2013-07-01

35

29 CFR 570.54 - Forest fire fighting and forest fire prevention occupations, timber tract occupations, forestry...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Forest fire fighting and forest fire prevention occupations, timber tract occupations...to Their Health or Well-Being § 570.54 Forest fire fighting and forest fire prevention...

2012-07-01

36

Causes of Variability in the Effects of Vegetative Ash on Post-Fire Runoff and Erosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetative ash formed during forest wildfires has varying effects on post-fire runoff and erosion. In some cases the ash layer reduces runoff and erosion by storing rainfall and by protecting the soil surface from surface sealing and rainsplash detachment. In other cases, the ash layer increases runoff and erosion by forming a surface crust, clogging soil pores, and providing a ready source of highly erodible fine material. Since only a handful of studies have measured the hydrogeomorphic effect of ash, it is unclear whether the observed variability in its effect reflects initial spatial variability in the ash properties due to factors such as fuel type and fire severity, or differences that develop over time due to compaction and erosion or exposure of the ash to rainfall and air. The goal of our research was to determine if the observed differences in the effect of ash on runoff and erosion are due to: 1) variability in initial ash hydrologic properties due to differences in combustion temperature and fuel type, or 2) variability in ash hydrologic properties caused by mineralogical phase changes that develop after the ash is exposed to water. We created ash in the laboratory using wood and needles of Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), Ponderosa pine (Pinus Ponderosa) and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and at 100° C temperature increments from 300 to 900° C. A subsample of ash from each fuel type / temperature combination was saturated, left undisturbed for 24 hours and then oven dried at 104° C. Dry and wetted ash samples were characterized in terms of: structure (using a scanning electron microscope), carbon content, mineralogy (using X-ray diffraction), porosity, water retention properties and hydraulic conductivity. Ash produced at the higher combustion temperatures from all three fuel types contained lime (CaO), which on wetting was transformed to portlandite (Ca(OH)2) and calcite (CaCO3). This mineralogical transformation resulted in irreversible hardening and crusting of the ash, and hardened ash had a significantly lower hydraulic conductivity than unhardened ash. Ash produced by high severity fires may undergo this same hardening and crusting process after it is wetted by rainfall whereas ash produced by lower severity fires will not, and this may explain in part the contrasting hydrogeomorphic effects of ash that have been reported in the literature.

Balfour, V.; Woods, S.

2008-12-01

37

Wildland Fire Protection Program NEBRASKA FOREST SERVICE  

E-print Network

Wildland Fire Protection Program NEBRASKA FOREST SERVICE HOW NEBRASKANS BENEFIT: · improved protection of life and property from wildland fires · improved firefighting capability in rural fire districts · increased firefighter knowledge of wildland fire suppression and prevention · reduced forest

Farritor, Shane

38

Satellite Observations of Forest Fires  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ocean Remote Sensing Group of the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory has made available a series of maps of some of the fifteen major wildfires that were burning Wednesday across 264,794 acres in six Western states--Oregon, California, Idaho, Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado. The images are not intended as a working fire detection resource, but are offered as interesting observations. Background information is provided, and the subject matter of each image is briefly described. The files are in GIF format and range in size from 200 to 500K. The publicly available data used is from the NOAA polar orbiter AVHRR sensor, which scans the earth beneath six times per second. Links are provided to the Wildland Fire Assessment System of the USDA and Go West forest fire reports, which offers a list of links for each state with major fires.

Sterner, Ray.

1996-01-01

39

Concentration of heavy metals in ash produced from Lithuanian forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wood ash contains important amounts of heavy metals. This quantity depends on burned specie, temperature of exposition and heat duration time. Due the high mineralization imposed by the temperatures, ash is used as lime product in agriculture and forests. Also, after a forest fire large quantities of ash are produced and distributed in soil surface. This mineralized organic matter can induce important environmental problems, including soil toxicity provoked by heavy metals leachates from ash. There is an extensive literature about heavy metals contents on ash in different species. However, it recently highlighted that the same species placed in different environments can respond diversely to same temperatures. This question is of major importance because temperature effects on severity can be a function of the plant communities instead of specie characteristics. These findings add a higher degree of complexity in the understanding of temperature effects on ash composition and consequent availability of heavy metals. The aim of this study is to compare the ash chemical heavy metal composition, Cobalt (Co), Chromium (Cr), Cooper (Cu), Silver (Ag), Lead (Pb), Nickel (Ni), Manganese (Mn) and Zinc (Zn), from Pinus sylvestris and Betula pendula, collected in key and representative areas of Lithuanian forests, located in southern, coastal and central part. Samples were collected from alive trees, taken to laboratory and air dried. Subsequently were crushed and submitted to muffle furnace at temperature of 550°C during two hours. The ash samples were digested and in a HNO3-HCl solution and then analysed with AAS. Comparisons between species and sites were performed with a Non-parametric one-way ANOVA‘s on rank transformed data followed by Tukey‘s HSD, significant at a p<0.05. Results showed significant difference between Co and Ag concentrations between Pinus sylvestris and Betula pendula. Also, significantly different concentrations of Pb, Cu, Ni and Mn were determined among investigated sites. No significant difference was found for Zn and Cr among investigated sites. Variation of metals between sites and stands can be explained by their age, flammability difference between plant communities and anthropogenic heavy metal load. These and other aspects will be discussed with more detail in the communication.

Baltrenaite, Edita; Pereira, Paulo; Butkus, Donatas; Úbeda, Xavier

2010-05-01

40

3D Forest Fire Propagation Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increase in the number of forest fires in the last few years dispatch governments to take precautions. Besides prevention, early intervention is also very important in fire fighting. If the firefighters know where the fire will be in some time, it would be easier for them to stop the fire. Therefore a big need for simulating the fire behavior

K. Kose; N. Grammalidis; E. Yilmaz; E. Cetin

2008-01-01

41

Seed germination of montane forest species in response to ash, smoke and heat shock in Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many fire-prone ecosystems, seed germination is triggered by heat shock, smoke, ash and charred wood. However, few studies concerning the effect of these fire products on the germination of tropical and subtropical species exist. We assessed the effect of fire products and their interactions on seed germination in 12 species that frequently grow in burned areas of pine-oak and mixed forest in a mountainous subtropical area. Each species was exposed to a predetermined treatment of heat shock, which was optimised in accordance with a previous study. For smoke treatments, seeds were immersed in smoke water, whereas for ash treatments, 1.5 g of ash was added to the incubation medium. Germination increased in 92% of the species in response to the products of fire. Both the smoke water and the ash treatments promoted germination in four species that had permeable seed covers and physiological dormancy. Six species with physical dormancy required both heat shock and smoke water or ash to break dormancy. Our results indicate that seed germination response to fire products depends on the species and/or dormancy type. The germination response to the fire products varied between species; therefore, fire products may influence the species composition in post-fire regeneration.

Zuloaga-Aguilar, Susana; Briones, Oscar; Orozco-Segovia, Alma

2011-05-01

42

Animation of Sequoia Forest Fire  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Continued hot, dry weather in the American west contributed to the spread of numerous fires over the weekend of July 29-30, 2000. This is the most active fire season in the United States since 1988, when large portions of Yellowstone National Park burned. One of the largest fires currently burning has consumed more than 63,000 acres in Sequoia National Forest. This NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) image shows the fire on the afternoon of July 30, 2000. Note the clouds above the smoke plume. These often form during large fires because updrafts lift warm air near the ground high into the atmosphere, cooling the air and causing the water vapor it contains to condense into droplets. The soot particles in the smoke also act as condensation nuclei for the droplets. View the animation of GOES data to see the smoke forming clouds. Image and Animation by Robert Simmon and Marit-Jentoft Nilsen, NASA GSFC, based on data from NOAA.

2002-01-01

43

Fire penetration in standing Amazon forests  

E-print Network

Wall-to-wall Landsat images of the Brazilian Amazon from INPE, combined with interviews of local peoples and field checking of vegetation form and composition, are employed to show that infrequent fire has been an important abiotic determinant of forest type - even in central locations far from the climatic transition to savanna and open woodland (cerrado and cerrado). Evergreen Amazon forest types affected by fire over the last century include: "igap" forest on seasonally inundated sandy soils; white-sand or "campinarana" forest on seasonally waterlogged and well-drained sandy soils; montane forest on well-drained rocky soils; and bamboo-dominated forest on low-permeability 2:1 clay soils. Vine forests may also be fire affected. Extensive fire scars are found even where average annual rainfall is 3600 mm/yr.

Bruce Walkernelson Marilanenascimento; Bruce Walker Nelson

1999-01-01

44

Forest fires in the insular Caribbean.  

PubMed

This paper presents a summary of the forest fire reports in the insular Caribbean derived from both management reports and an analysis of publicly available Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrodiometer (MODIS) satellite active fire products from the region. A vast difference between the amount of fires reported by land managers and fire points in the MODIS Fire Information for Resource Management System data can be observed. Future research is recommended to better understand the nature of these differences. While there is a general lack of available statistical data on forest fires in the Caribbean, a few general observations can be made: Forest fires occur mainly in dry forest types (500 to 1000 mm of mean annual rainfall). These are also the areas where most human settlements are located. Lowland high forests and montane forests with higher rainfall (1000 and more mm y(-1)) are less susceptible to forest fire, but they can burn in exceptionally dry years. Most of the dry forest ecosystems in the Caribbean can be considered to be fire-sensitive ecosystems, while the pine forests in the Caribbean (Cuba, Dominican Republic, and the Bahamas) are maintained by wildfires. In fire-sensitive ecosystems, uncontrolled burning often encourages the spread of alien invasive species. A Caribbean Fire Management Cooperation Strategy was developed between 2005 and 2006 under auspices of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. This regional strategy aims to strengthen Caribbean fire management networking by encouraging closer collaboration among countries with similar ecological conditions. The strategy for the Caribbean identifies a number of research, training, and management activities to improve wildfire management capacity in the Caribbean. PMID:19205174

Robbins, A Marcus J; Eckelmann, Claus-Martin; Quiñones, Maya

2008-12-01

45

Forest Fire Modeling and Early Detection using Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early detection of forest fires is the primary way of minimizing their dam- ages. We present the design of a wireless sensor network for early detection of forest fires. We first present the key aspects in modeling forest fires according to the Fire Weather Index (FWI) System which is one of the most comprehensive forest fire danger rating systems in

Mohamed Hefeeda; M. Bagheri

2009-01-01

46

Fire severity effects on ash extractable Total Phosphorous  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorous (P) is a crucial element to plant nutrition and limits vegetal production. The amounts of P in soil are lower and great part of this nutrient is absorbed or precipitated. It is well known that fire has important implications on P cycle, that can be lost throughout volatilization, evacuated with the smoke, but also more available to transport after organic matter mineralization imposed by the fire. The release of P depends on ash pH and their chemical and physical characteristics. Fire temperatures impose different severities, according to the specie affected and contact time. Fire severity is often evaluated by ash colour and this is a low-cost and excellent methodology to assess the fire effects on ecosystems. The aim of this work is study the ash properties physical and chemical properties on ash extractable Total Phosphorous (TP), collected in three wildfires, occured in Portugal, (named, (1) Quinta do Conde, (2) Quinta da Areia and (3) Casal do Sapo) composed mainly by Quercus suber and Pinus pinaster trees. The ash colour was assessed using the Munsell color chart. From all three plots we analyzed a total of 102 ash samples and we identified 5 different ash colours, ordered in an increasing order of severity, Very Dark Brown, Black, Dark Grey, Very Dark Grey and Light Grey. In order to observe significant differences between extractable TP and ash colours, we applied an ANOVA One Way test, and considered the differences significant at a p<0.05. The results showed that significant differences in the extractable TP among the different ash colours. Hence, to identify specific differences between each ash colour, we applied a post-hoc Fisher LSD test, significant at a p<0.05. The results obtained showed significant differences between the extractable TP from Very dark Brown and Black ash, produced at lower severities, in relation to Dark Grey, Very Dark Grey and Light Grey ash, generated at higher severities. The means of the first group were higher than the observed in the second one. This indicates that ash produced lower temperatures release in solution higher amounts of TP. These divergences occur due temperature of combustion, affected specie, ash pH values and CaCO3 content, which affects the quantity of this element in solution. Discussions about these effects will be accurate in the communication.

Pereira, Paulo; Úbeda, Xavier; Martin, Deborah

2010-05-01

47

Natural Variability of Mexican Forest Fires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper was 1) to present a new algorithm for analyzing the forest fires, 2) to discuss the present understanding of the natural variability at different scales with special emphasis on Mexico conditions since 1972, 3) to analyze the internal and external factors affecting forest fires for example ENSO and Total Solar Irradiance, and 4) to discuss the implications of this knowledge, on research and on restoration and management methods, which purpose is to enhance forest biodiversity conservation. 5) We present an estimate of the Mexican forest fires for the next decade. These results may be useful to minimize human and economic losses.

Velasco-Herrera, Graciela; Velasco Herrera, Victor Manuel; Kemper-Valverdea, N.

48

Wildfire ash: its production and hydro-eco-geomorphic effects in forested landscapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire, whether ignited naturally or by humans, is one of the most important disturbance agents in many of the world's forested ecosystems. Amongst its direct consequences is the deposition of a range of solid and largely powdery residues on the ground consisting of charred organic material including charcoal and residual mineral material. This fragile 'ash' layer can be removed in large quantities from hillslopes within days by wind or water erosion, with the latter facilitating its transfer to the hydrological system. Probably as a result of its ephemeral nature and not being soil, vegetation or litter, ash has seen limited attention in studies on hydrological impacts of wildfire. Those few studies available show that ash can substantially affect the hydrological system. When present on hillslopes as a water-absorbent layer, it can reduce surface runoff, protect soil against rainsplash erosion, and its leachates can reportedly reduce soil erodibility by promoting flocculation of dispersed clays. In contrast, however, ash can also increase surface runoff by blocking soil pores or by forming a crust. Furthermore, ash is thought capable of promoting debris flows. Its net effect probably depends on the nature of the ash and soil including their respective water repellency levels, the pore size distribution of the soil, and general terrain and rainfall characteristics. Being very mobile, ash can be the source of substantial organic and inorganic sediment inputs, and of solute influxes into the fluvial system. These can affect water quality sometimes with detrimental effects on aquatic organisms and domestic water supply. This presentation aims to provide an overview of the current knowledge base regarding the production and potential effects of wildfire ash on the hydrological system in and beyond forested landscapes..The late Scott Woods examining a thick ash layer following a severe fire in a conifer forest. Montana, USA.

Doerr, S. H.; Bodi, M.; Santin, C.; Balfour, V.; Woods, S.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Cerda, A.; Shakesby, R.

2012-12-01

49

Wildland Fire Behavior & Forest Structure Environmental Consequences  

E-print Network

Wildland Fire Behavior & Forest Structure Environmental Consequences Economics Social Concerns Root Diseases in Coniferous Forests of the Inland West: Potential Implications of Fuels Treatments Root Diseases Technician with the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station at the Forestry Sciences Laboratory

50

COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS: SOLVING ASH DEPOSITION PROBLEMS  

SciTech Connect

The accumulation of slagging and fouling ash deposits in utility boilers has been a source of aggravation for coal-fired boiler operators for over a century. Many new developments in analytical, modeling, and combustion testing methods in the past 20 years have made it possible to identify root causes of ash deposition. A concise and comprehensive guidelines document has been assembled for solving ash deposition as related to coal-fired utility boilers. While this report accurately captures the current state of knowledge in ash deposition, note that substantial research and development is under way to more completely understand and mitigate slagging and fouling. Thus, while comprehensive, this document carries the title ''interim,'' with the idea that future work will provide additional insight. Primary target audiences include utility operators and engineers who face plant inefficiencies and significant operational and maintenance costs that are associated with ash deposition problems. Pulverized and cyclone-fired coal boilers are addressed specifically, although many of the diagnostics and solutions apply to other boiler types. Logic diagrams, ash deposit types, and boiler symptoms of ash deposition are used to aid the user in identifying an ash deposition problem, diagnosing and verifying root causes, determining remedial measures to alleviate or eliminate the problem, and then monitoring the situation to verify that the problem has been solved. In addition to a step-by-step method for identifying and remediating ash deposition problems, this guideline document (Appendix A) provides descriptions of analytical techniques for diagnostic testing and gives extensive fundamental and practical literature references and addresses of organizations that can provide help in alleviating ash deposition problems.

Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Steven A. Benson; Jay R. Gunderson

2001-04-01

51

Fire vegetative ash and erosion in the Mediterranean areas. State of the art and future perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire is a global phenomenon with important ecological impacts. Among all ecosystems, the Mediterranean is frequently visited by severe wildfires with serious impacts on soil properties and increase soil vulnerability to erosion due vegetation removal. After the fire the ash distributed in soil surface can mitigate soil exposition to erosion and rain splash (Cerda and Doerr, 2008), however, this depends on the fire severity that have implications on the type of ash produced (Pereira et al., 2010). High fire severities produced thinner ash that it is easily transported by wind, contrary to low severity wildfires where combustion is not so intense and the mass loss is less, providing a better soil protection in the immediate period after the fire. Soil protection after the fire highly depends on fire severity (Pereira et al. 2013a; Pereira et al. 2013b). Ash it is a highly mobile material, thus this protection can change in space and time, providing a better cover in some areas and worst in others. In the period immediate after the fire, ash can change soil hydrological properties, increasing water retention and reducing sediment transport in relation to bare soil areas (Cerda and Doerr, 2008), but also clog soil pores, seal the soil and increase erosion (Onda et al., 2008). In fact results are controversial and the impacts of vegetative ash in soil erosion may rely on the proprieties of ash produced, that can be extremely variable, even in small distances (Pereira and Úbeda, 2010), due the different conditions of combustions. Ash produced at low severity temperatures can be highly hydrophilic (Bodi et al., 2011) and induce soil hydrophobicity (Bodi et al., 2012). Other mechanisms as the direct impact of fire in soil, can induce soil water repellency, and do not have any interference of vegetative ash. This fire can induce direct (e.g temperature) and indirect (e.g. ash properties) on soil wettability, with obvious implications on spatio-temporal pattern of soil erosion. At this point we are dealing with a complex interaction since interactions, since low severity fires due ash, and high severity fires, due temperature induce soil hydrophobicity. After the fire, other ash properties may interact with soil erosion, as particulate size, and chemical composition, that can induce soil particulates flocculation or dispersion. Ash chemistry is strongly related with fire severity (Pereira et al., 2012). Further studies may be directed in the complex interaction between ash physico-chemical properties interaction with the degree of fire impacts on soil. These and other ideas will be discussed during the session. Acknowledgements, The authors appreciated the support of the project "Litfire", Fire effects in Lithuanian soils and ecosystems (MIP-048/2011) funded by the Lithuanian Research Council and FUEGORED (Spanish Network of Forest Fire Effects on Soils http://grupo.us.es/fuegored/). References Bodi, M., Doerr, S., Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J. (2012) Hydrological effects of a layer of vegetation ash on underlying wettable and water repellent soil. Geoderma 191: 14-13. Bodi, M., Mataix-Solera, J., Doerr, S., Cerdà, A. (2011) The wettability of ash from burned vegetation and its relationship to Mediterranean plant species type, burn severity and total organic matter content. Geoderma, 160, 599-607. Cerdà, A., Doerr, S.H. (2008). The effect of ash and needle cover on surface runoff and erosion in the immediate post-fire period. Catena, 74, 256-263. Onda Y, Dietrich WE, Booker F. 2008. Evolution of overland flow after a severe forest fire, Point Reyes, California. Catena. 72, 13-20. Pereira, P., Bodi. M., Úbeda, X., Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Balfour, V, Woods, S. (2010) Las cenizas y el ecosistema suelo, In: Cerdà, A. Jordan, A. (eds) Actualización en métodos y técnicas para el estudio de los suelos afectados por incendios forestales, 345-398. Càtedra de Divulgació de la Ciència. Universitat de Valencia. ISBN: 978-84-370-7887-8. Deposito Legal: V-3541-2010. Pereira, P., Cerdà, A., Úbeda, X., Mataix-Solera,

Pereira, Paulo; Cerdà, Artemi

2013-04-01

52

Observe forest fires as seen from space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Earth science resource shows students how atmospheric scientists use infrared imaging to detect and locate forest fires. The introduction explains how visible-light images recorded by satellites are unable to distinguish smoke from clouds. In contrast, infrared imaging, which detects heat, can detect hot spots that indicate the location of forest fires. The resource provides two different sets of satellite pictures. Students are instructed to toggle between the visible-light and infrared images of each set to see how scientists use information from both types of images to identify forest fires. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Education, Terc. C.; Littell, Mcdougal

2003-01-01

53

The impact of bushfires on water yield from south-east Australia's ash forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Widespread disturbance within forested catchments typically increases runoff. However, following widespread fire in 1939 throughout south-east Australia, Kuczera (1987) reported persistent reductions in runoff that were attributed to increased evapotranspiration from regenerating "ash" forests. Kuczera projected ongoing reductions of water yield for ˜150 years. In 2003, widespread fire in the headwaters of the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB) again stimulated extensive regeneration of ash forests, raising the prospect of subsequent water yield reductions. To understand the potential impact of the 2003 bushfires, we re-evaluated yield reductions from three of the catchments originally studied by Kuczera using the same calibration period. We also used an expanded prefire calibration period (1908-1938) based on data not originally available to Kuczera. The trend of postfire water yield that we observed in 1939-affected catchments is qualitatively consistent with Kuczera's projections, but the quantitative details were, as expected, sensitive to the prefire calibration period used. We then used a simplified method to examine a further five ash-dominated catchments affected by the 2003 fires. We report relative reductions in mean annual stream flow in all five catchments and a statistically significant (? = 0.05) postfire reduction in one of five catchments. Postfire yield reductions during the austral summer (October to April) were greater in relative magnitude in all five catchments and were statistically significant (? = 0.05) in three of five catchments. We conclude that a postbushfire Kuczera-type response may be widespread in regenerating ash forests. On that basis, we anticipate postfire yield reductions in ash forests elsewhere and conclude that further reductions in stream flow are likely in the MDB for at least another decade.

Brookhouse, Matthew T.; Farquhar, Graham D.; Roderick, Michael L.

2013-07-01

54

Forest fire risk zone mapping from satellite imagery and GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A forest fire can be a real ecological disaster, regardless of whether it is caused by natural forces or human activity. It is impossible to control nature, but it is possible to map forest fire risk zones and thereby minimise the frequency of fire, avert damage, etc. Forest fire risk zones are locations where a fire is likely to start,

Rajeev Kumar Jaiswal; Saumitra Mukherjee; Kumaran D. Raju; Rajesh Saxena

2002-01-01

55

Fire effects on ecosystem nitrogen cycling in a Californian bishop pine forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire can cause severe nitrogen (N) losses from grassland, chaparral, and temperate and boreal forest ecosystems. Paradoxically,\\u000a soil ammonium levels are markedly increased by fire, resulting in high rates of primary production in re-establishing plant\\u000a communities. In a manipulative experiment, we examined the influence of wild-fire ash residues on soil, microbial and plant\\u000a N pools in a recently burned Californian

P. Grogan; T. D. Burns; F. S. Chapin III

2000-01-01

56

Simulation for the expansion of the Boreal Forest Fire  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Background Now, frequent occurrence of a forest fire serves as a situation which should be careful of in international society. In the boreal forest, the main reason of the forest reduction is considered as climate change. The NOAA satellite image could detect lots of forest fire in Siberia. The forest fire can be found by only satellite because the

K. Kimura; T. Honma; K. Nakau; K. Kushida; M. Fukuda; H. Hayasaka

2005-01-01

57

Stabilisation of biofuel ashes for recycling to forest soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Swedish research program concerning the technical and ecological effects of wood fuel ash recycling to forest biotopes has been on-going for several years. Within this program, a study of the stabilisation of ash by the so-called self-hardening process was carried out. Chemical reactions occurring in the ash materials on water addition and during solidification were identified based on results

B.-M. Steenari; O. Lindqvist

1997-01-01

58

Thermocouple errors in forest fire research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperatures measured in forest fires are usually low because of radiant heat loss from thermocouples. The authors offer a\\u000a method, based on their recent experiments, for estimating true flame temperatures in the field.

J. D. Walker; B. J. Stocks

1968-01-01

59

Mapping fire effects on ash and soil properties. Current knowledge and future perspectives.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire has heterogeneous impacts on ash and soil properties, depending on severity, topography of the burned area, type of soil and vegetation affected, and meteorological conditions during and post-fire. The heterogeneous impacts of fire and the complex topography of wildland environments impose the challenge of understand fire effects at diverse scales in space and time. Mapping is fundamental to identify the impacts of fire on ash and soil properties because allow us to recognize the degree of the fire impact, vulnerable areas, soil protection and distribution of ash and soil nutrients, important to landscape recuperation. Several methodologies have been used to map fire impacts on ash soil properties. Burn severity maps are very useful to understand the immediate and long-term impacts of fire on the ecosystems (Wagtendonk et al., 2004; Kokaly et al., 2007). These studies normally are carried out with remote sensing techniques and study large burned areas. On a large scale it is very important to detect the most vulnerable areas (e.g. with risk of runoff increase, flooding, erosion, sedimentation and debris flow) and propose -if necessary- immediate rehabilitation measures. Post-fire rehabilitation measures can be extremely costly. Thus the identification of the most affected areas will reduce the erosion risks and soil degradation (Miller and Yool, 2002; Robichaud et al., 2007; Robichaud, 2009), as the consequent economical, social and ecological impacts. Recently, the United States Department of Agriculture created a field guide to map post-fire burn severity, based on remote sensing and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) technologies. The map produced should reflect the effects of fire on soil properties, and identify areas where fire was more severe (Parsons et al. 2010). Remote sensing studies have made attempts to estimate soil and ash properties after the fire, as hydrophobicity (Lewis et al., 2008), water infiltration (Finnley and Glenn, 2010), forest floor consumption (Lewis et al., 2011), ash cover (Robichaud et al., 2007) and other aspects related with soil as the vegetation factors that affect post-fire erosion risk (Fox et al., 2008). Field studies had also indented to estimate and map the impacts of fire in soil properties. Contrary to remote sensing studies, the mapping of fire effects on ash and soil properties in the field is specially carried out at small scale (e.g. slope or plot). The small scale resolution studies are important because identify small patterns that are normally ignored by remote sensing studies, but fundamental to understand the post-fire evolution of the burned areas. One of the important aspects of the small scale studies of fire effect on ash and soil properties is the great spatial variability, showing that the impact of fire is extremely heterogeneous in space and time (Outeiro et al., 2008; Pereira et al. in press). The small scale mapping of fire effects on soil properties normally is carried out using Geostatistical methods or using deterministic interpolation methods (Robichaud and Miller, 1999; Pereira et al., 2013). Several reports were published on the spatial distribution and mapping of ash and duff thickness (Robichaud and Miller, 1999; Pereira et al., 2013; Pereira et al. in press), fire severity (Pereira et al., 2014), ash chemical characteristics as total nitrogen (Pereira et al., 2010a), and ash extractable elements (Pereira et al., 2010b). Also, previous works mapped fire effects on soil temperature (Gimeno-Garcia et al., 2004), soil hydrophobicity (Woods et al., 2007), total nitrogen (Hirobe et al., 2003), phosphorous (Rodriguez et al., 2009) and major cations (Outeiro et al., 2008). It is important to integrate remote sensing and field based works of fire effects on ash and soil properties in order to have a better validation of the models predicted. The aim of this work is present the current knowledge about mapping fire effects in ash and soil properties at diverse scales and the future perspectives. References Finley, C.D., Glenn, N.F. (2010) Fire and vege

Pereira, Paulo; Cerda, Artemi; Strielko, Irina

2014-05-01

60

PCDD/F EMISSIONS FROM FOREST FIRES  

EPA Science Inventory

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) emissions from combustion of forest biomass were sampled to obtain an estimated emission factor for forest fires. An equal composition of live shoot and litter biomass from Oregon and North Carolina was bu...

61

FOREST FIRE, DEFORESTATION AND LANDCOVER CHANGE IN THE BRAZILIAN AMAZON  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uncontrolled forest fires are a growing problem in the Amazon. Accidental fires burn thousands of square kilometers of forest each year in the Brazilian Ama- zon. These previously burned tropical forests are highly susceptible to recurrent fires which are significantly more severe in intensity and impact. Due to the posi- tive feedback inherent in this process, fire has been predicted

Mark A. Cochrane

62

Direct carbon emissions from Canadian forest fires, 1959-1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct emissions of carbon from Canadian forest fires were estimated for all Canada and for each ecozone for the period 1959-1999. The estimates were based on a data base of large fires for the country and calculations of fuel consumption for each fire using the Canadian Forest Fire Behaviour Prediction System. This technique used the fire locations and start dates

B. D. Amiro; J. B. Todd; B. M. Wotton; K. A. Logan; M. D. Flannigan; B. J. Stocks; J. A. Mason; D. L. Martell; K. G. Hirsch

2001-01-01

63

Study on fired bricks with replacing clay by fly ash in high volume ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

In present paper fly ash in wet state with low quality was used as raw material to replace clay to make fired bricks. The effect of fly ash with high replacing ratio of clay on firing parameters and properties of bricks were studied. The results indicate that the plasticity index of mixture of fly ash and clay decrease dramatically with

Xu Lingling; Guo Wei; Wang Tao; Yang Nanru

2005-01-01

64

Remote Sensing of Forest Fires from Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Forest fires, and fires used for deforestation and agriculture are sporadic. Some may last an hour others several days. It is difficult to find the fires or to estimate their effect on atmospheric pollution without an "eye in the sky" a satellite or an array of satellites that monitors them routinely from space. Since fires have a significant effect on the quality of air that we breath, on the surface vegetation, on clouds and precipitation and even on climate, NASA and other space agencies try to develop fire monitoring capability from space. Presently satellites were not designed to monitor fires. But the AVHRR and GOES satellites were used for fire monitoring. AVHRR is an orbiter that passes over the same area twice a day with detailed observations of fires from a distance of 800 km, GOES is a stationary satellite located above the equator, and observes the larger fires from a distance of 20,000 km. Field experiments, such as the "SCAR-B" experiment in Brazil conducted in 1995 by INPE, NASA and Universities of Sao Paulo, Washington and Wisconsin, were used to determine the ability of satellites to observe fires and the emitted pollution. They are the basis of a new system of satellites designed by NASA to observe fires and pollution, the Earth Observing System AM1 and PM1. NASA plans to use the information for four observations a day of the fires and the emitted smoke. The information can be used to determine the location of the fires, to distinguish between small and large fires and monitor their development. The satellites will measure the emitted smoke and with trajectory models can be used to predict the density and spread of the smoke.

Kaufman, Y.

1999-01-01

65

Universal scaling of forest fire propagation  

E-print Network

In this paper we use a variant of the Watts-Strogatz small-world model to predict wildfire behavior near the critical propagation/nonpropagation threshold. We find that forest fire patterns are fractal and that critical exponents are universal, which suggests that the propagation/nonpropagation transition is a second-order transition. Universality tells us that the characteristic critical behaviour of propagation in real (amorphous) forest landscapes can be extracted from the simplest network model.

Bernard, Porterie; Pierre, Clerc Jean; Nouredine, Zekri; Zekri, Lotfi

2008-01-01

66

Forest Fires in Russia and Northern China  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Smoke plumes from forest fires scattered along the border between the Russian Far East and northern China are clearly visible in this true-color image from the Sea-viewing Wide-Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) on June 16, 2000. Fires in Siberia occur every summer, and severe outbreaks occur every ten years or so, with the most recent in 1998. The fires are ignited by lightning, and are so remote that it is impossible to fight them effectively. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

2002-01-01

67

Forest fires, explosions, and random trees Edward Crane  

E-print Network

Forest fires, explosions, and random trees Edward Crane HIMR, UoB 13th January 2014 #12 and James Martin at the University of Oxford. Edward Crane (HIMR, UoB) Forest fires, explosions, and random process and the Brownian CRT. Edward Crane (HIMR, UoB) Forest fires, explosions, and random trees 13th

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

68

Spatial and Temporal Variations in Forest Fire Frequency in the Boreal Forest of Northern Alberta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest fires occur frequently in the boreal forest of North America and greatly affect vegetation dynamics, biogeochemical cycles and resident human populations. Estimates of the frequency of boreal forest fires would be useful for understanding boreal ecosystems and managing the affects of fires on human populations. The objectives of this work were to investigate relations between fire frequency and climate

Christopher Poul Storm Larsen

1994-01-01

69

Emissions from Forest Fires near Mexico City  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The emissions of NOx (defined as NO (nitric oxide) + NO2 (nitrogen dioxide)) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN), per unit amount of fuel burned, from fires in the pine forests that dominate the mountains surrounding Mexico City (MC) are about 2 times higher than normally observed for forest burning. The ammonia (NH3) emissions are about average for forest burning. The upper limit for the mass ratio of NOX to volatile organic compounds (VOC) for these MC-area mountain fires was approximately 0.38, which is similar to the NOx/VOC ratio in the MC urban area emissions inventory of 0.34, but much larger than the NOx/VOC ratio for tropical forest fires in Brazil (approximately 0.068). The nitrogen enrichment in the fire emissions may be due to deposition of nitrogen-containing pollutants in the outflow from the MC urban area. This effect may occur worldwide wherever biomass burning coexists with large urban areas (e.g. the tropics, southeastern US, Los Angeles Basin). The molar emission ratio of HCN to carbon monoxide (CO) for the mountain fires was 0.012 +/- 0.007, which is 2-9 times higher than widely used literature values for biomass burning. The ambient molar ratio HCN/CO in the MC-area outflow is about 0.003 +/- 0.0003. Thus, if only mountain fires emit significant amounts of HCN, these fires may be contributing about 25% of the CO production in the MCarea (approximately 98-100 W and 19-20 N). Comparing the PM10/CO and PM2.5/CO mass ratios in the MC Metropolitan Area emission inventory (0.01 15 and 0.0037) to the PM1/CO mass ratio for the mountain fires (0.133) then suggests that these fires could produce as much as approximately 79-92% of the primary fine particle mass generated in the MC-area. Considering both the uncertainty in the HCN/CO ratios and secondary aerosol formation in the urban and fire emissions implies that about 50 +/- 30% of the "aged" fine particle mass in the March 2006 MC-area outflow could be from these fires.

Yokelson, R.; Urbanski, S.; Atlas, E.; Toohey, D.; Alvarado, E.; Crounse, J.; Wennberg, P.; Fisher, M.; Wold, C.; Campos, T.; Adachi, K.; Buseck, P. R.; Hao, W. M.

2007-01-01

70

Forest Fire: A Crisis Reality for Camp.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two camp directors were interviewed about evacuations from their camps due to forest fires. Topics covered include descriptions of the events; actions taken; aspects of advance planning that proved helpful; unexpected portions of the experience and resultant changes made in plans; relations with outside agencies, the media, and parents; working…

Brown, Don; Mickelson, Rhonda

2002-01-01

71

Forest-fire model with resistant trees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of forest heterogeneity in the long-term, large-scale dynamics of forest fires is investigated by means of a cellular automata model and mean-field approximation. Heterogeneity was conceived as trees (or acres of forest) with distinct strengths of resistance to burning. The scaling analysis of fire-size and fire-lifetime frequency distributions in the non-interacting fire steady-state limit indicates the breakdown of power-law behavior whenever the resistance strength parameter R exceeds a certain value. For higher resistance strength, exponential behavior characterizes the frequency distributions, while power-law like behavior was observed for the lower resistance case in the same manner as reported in the literature for a homogeneous counterpart model. For the intermediate resistance strength, however, it may be described either by a stretched exponential or by a power-law plot whenever the fraction of recovering empty cells by susceptible trees does not exceed or exceeds a certain threshold, respectively, also suggesting a dynamical percolation transition with respect to the stationary forest density.

Camelo-Neto, G.; Coutinho, S.

2011-06-01

72

Fly ash and concrete: a study determines whether biomass, or coal co-firing fly ash, can be used in concrete  

SciTech Connect

Current US national standards for using fly ash in concrete (ASTM C618) state that fly ash must come from coal combustion, thus precluding biomass-coal co-firing fly ash. The co-fired ash comes from a large and increasing fraction of US power plants due to rapid increases in co-firing opportunity fuels with coal. The fly ashes include coal fly ash, wood fly ash from pure wood combustion, biomass and coal co-fired fly ash SW1 and SW2. Also wood fly ash is blended with Class C or Class F to produce Wood C and Wood E. Concrete samples were prepared with fly ash replacing cement by 25%. All fly ash mixes except wood have a lower water demand than the pure cement mix. Fly ashes, either from coal or non coal combustion, increase the required air entraining agent (AEA) to meet the design specification of the mixes. If AEA is added arbitrarily without considering the amount or existence of fly ash results could lead to air content in concrete that is either too low or too high. Biomass fly ash does not impact concrete setting behaviour disproportionately. Switch grass-coal co-fired fly ash and blended wood fly ash generally lie within the range of pure coal fly ash strength. The 56 day flexure strength of all the fly ash mixes is comparable to that of the pure cement mix. The flexure strength from the coal-biomass co-fired fly ash does not differ much from pure coal fly ash. All fly ash concrete mixes exhibit lower chloride permeability than the pure cement mixes. In conclusion biomass coal co-fired fly ash perform similarly to coal fly ash in fresh and hardened concrete. As a result, there is no reason to exclude biomass-coal co-fired fly ash in concrete.

Wang, Shuangzhen; Baxter, Larry

2006-08-01

73

Who Framed the Forest Fire? State Framing and Peasant Counter-Framing of Anthropogenic Forest Fires in Spain Since 1940  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenic fires in forested areas are a globally relevant environmental issue characterized by a high degree of uncertainty in terms of their ecological impact. States the world over have, for the most part, attempted to grapple with them by developing costly forest fire suppression policies. This study examines the implementation and impact of one such policy, anti-forest fire media campaigns

F. Seijo

2009-01-01

74

The Frequency and Fate of Understory Forest Fires in Amazonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fires for deforestation or agricultural management frequently escape their intended boundaries and burn standing Amazon forests. The extent and frequency of understory forest fires are critical to assess forest carbon emissions and the long-term legacy of understory fires in Amazonia. Patterns of understory fire activity under current climate conditions also offer a blueprint for potential changes in Amazon forests under scenarios of future climate and land use. Here, we estimated of the extent and frequency of understory forest fires for the entire arc of deforestation in southern Amazonia using a time series of annual Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. Understory forest fires burned more than 80,000 km2 during 1999-2010. Fires were widespread along the southern and eastern extents of Amazon forests during the four years with highest fire activity (1999, 2005, 2007, 2010). The interannual variability in understory fires offered new insights into fire-climate dynamics in Amazonia over a range of temporal scales, based on the combination of burned area, MODIS active fire detections, and reanalysis climate data. Initial fire exposure reduces aboveground carbon stocks, and frequent fires are one possible mechanism for long-term changes the structure of Amazon forests. Repeated burning was concentrated in southeastern Amazonia, and >95% of all repeated fires occurred in the Brazilian states of Mato Grosso and Pará. Forests that burned two or more times during this period accounted for 16% of understory fire activity. Finally, deforestation of burned forests was rare, suggesting that forest degradation from understory fires was an independent source of carbon emissions during this period. Modeling the time scales of carbon loss and recovery in burned forests is therefore critical to estimate the net carbon emissions from these fires. The results of this study suggest that understory fires operate as a large-scale edge effect in Amazonia, as human ignitions expand the influence of land use activity beyond the extent of deforestation activity.

Morton, D. C.; le page, Y.; Wang, D.; Chen, Y.; Randerson, J. T.; Collatz, G. J.; Giglio, L.; Hurtt, G. C.; DeFries, R. S.

2012-12-01

75

Effects of particle crushing in abrasion testing of steels with ash from biomass-fired powerplants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of biomass for firing of powerplants (either as a primary fuel or in co-firing) is gaining popularity as it is seen as a carbon-neutral energy source. The ash produced by firing with such materials causes wear of the powerplant systems designed to process it, both in the form of fly-ash and bottom-ash. In this paper, the wear behaviour

S. M. Nahvi; P. H. Shipway; D. G. McCartney

2009-01-01

76

Remote, unattended, forest fire detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Instruments for land tract scanning and fire detection include: temperature sensor capable of detecting distant match flame; elevated television camera with automatic controls for light balance, position, filter, and focus; and scanner equipped with photocell to sense intensity of flying spot brought to it by sweep-and-scan mechanism.

Winslow, D. J.

1976-01-01

77

Factors influencing plant succession following fire in Ashe juniper woodland types in Real County, Texas  

E-print Network

) state that fire increased the germination of Fhus ovata and chaoine, Ad nostema fasciculata. Apparently fire kills the seed of Ashe Juniper ss writers have reported fewer seedlings of Ashe juni- per on burned sroas than on unburned (Bray 190K, W...) state that fire increased the germination of Fhus ovata and chaoine, Ad nostema fasciculata. Apparently fire kills the seed of Ashe Juniper ss writers have reported fewer seedlings of Ashe juni- per on burned sroas than on unburned (Bray 190K, W...

Huss, Donald Lee

2012-06-07

78

Fuel loads, fire regimes, and post-fire fuel dynamics in Florida Keys pine forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

In forests, the effects of different life forms on fire behavior may vary depending on their contributions to total fuel loads. We examined the distribution of fuel components before fire, their effects on fire behavior, and the effects of fire on subsequent fuel recovery in pine forests within the National Key Deer Refuge in the Florida Keys. We conducted a

Jay P. Sah; Michael S. RossA; James R. SnyderB; Hillary C. CooleyD

79

Production of fired construction brick from high sulfate-containing fly ash with boric acid addition.  

PubMed

The increase of power plant capacity has led to the production of an increasing amount of fly ash that causes high environmental impact in Turkey. Some of the fly ash is utilized within the fired brick industry but high sulfate-containing fly ash creates severe problems during sintering of the fired brick. This study attempted to investigate the potential for converting high sulfate-containing fly ash into useful material for the construction industry by the addition of boric acid. The chemical and mineralogical composition of fly ash and clay were investigated. Boric acid (H(3)BO(3)) was added to fly ash-clay mixtures with up to 5 wt.%. Six different series of test samples were produced by uniaxial pressing. The samples were fired at the industrial clay-brick firing temperatures of 800, 900 and 1000 degrees C. The microstructures of the fired samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and some physical and mechanical properties were measured. It was concluded that the firing at conventional brick firing temperature of high sulfate fly ash without any addition of boric acid resulted in very weak strength bricks. The addition of boric acid and clay simultaneously to the high sulfate- containing fly ash brick dramatically increased the compressive strength of the samples at a firing temperature of 1000 degrees C by modifying the sintering behaviour of high sulfate fly ash. PMID:19423597

Ba?pinar, M Serhat; Kahraman, Erhan; Görhan, Gökhan; Demir, Ismail

2010-01-01

80

Time fluctuation analysis of forest fire sequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fires are complex events involving both space and time fluctuations. Understanding of their dynamics and pattern distribution is of great importance in order to improve the resource allocation and support fire management actions at local and global levels. This study aims at characterizing the temporal fluctuations of forest fire sequences observed in Portugal, which is the country that holds the largest wildfire land dataset in Europe. This research applies several exploratory data analysis measures to 302,000 forest fires occurred from 1980 to 2007. The applied clustering measures are: Morisita clustering index, fractal and multifractal dimensions (box-counting), Ripley's K-function, Allan Factor, and variography. These algorithms enable a global time structural analysis describing the degree of clustering of a point pattern and defining whether the observed events occur randomly, in clusters or in a regular pattern. The considered methods are of general importance and can be used for other spatio-temporal events (i.e. crime, epidemiology, biodiversity, geomarketing, etc.). An important contribution of this research deals with the analysis and estimation of local measures of clustering that helps understanding their temporal structure. Each measure is described and executed for the raw data (forest fires geo-database) and results are compared to reference patterns generated under the null hypothesis of randomness (Poisson processes) embedded in the same time period of the raw data. This comparison enables estimating the degree of the deviation of the real data from a Poisson process. Generalizations to functional measures of these clustering methods, taking into account the phenomena, were also applied and adapted to detect time dependences in a measured variable (i.e. burned area). The time clustering of the raw data is compared several times with the Poisson processes at different thresholds of the measured function. Then, the clustering measure value depends on the threshold which helps to understand the time pattern of the studied events. Our findings detected the presence of overdensity of events in particular time periods and showed that the forest fire sequences in Portugal can be considered as a multifractal process with a degree of time-clustering of the events. Key words: time sequences, Morisita index, fractals, multifractals, box-counting, Ripley's K-function, Allan Factor, variography, forest fires, point process. Acknowledgements This work was partly supported by the SNFS Project No. 200021-140658, "Analysis and Modelling of Space-Time Patterns in Complex Regions". References - Kanevski M. (Editor). 2008. Advanced Mapping of Environmental Data: Geostatistics, Machine Learning and Bayesian Maximum Entropy. London / Hoboken: iSTE / Wiley. - Telesca L. and Pereira M.G. 2010. Time-clustering investigation of fire temporal fluctuations in Portugal, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., vol. 10(4): 661-666. - Vega Orozco C., Tonini M., Conedera M., Kanevski M. (2012) Cluster recognition in spatial-temporal sequences: the case of forest fires, Geoinformatica, vol. 16(4): 653-673.

Vega Orozco, Carmen D.; Kanevski, Mikhaïl; Tonini, Marj; Golay, Jean; Pereira, Mário J. G.

2013-04-01

81

Fire regimes and forest structure in a sky island mixed conifer forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Fire is a key disturbance agent in the fire-prone mixed conifer and ponderosa pine forests of the southwestern United States. Human,activities (i.e., livestock grazing, logging, and fire suppression) have resulted in the exclusion of fire from these forests for the past century and fire exclusion has caused changes in forest structure and composition. This study quantifies spatial and temporal

John Sakulich; Alan H. Taylor

82

Carbon dioxide emission during forest fires ignited by lightning  

E-print Network

In this paper we developed the model for the carbon dioxide emission from forest fire. The master equation for the spreading of the carbon dioxide to atmosphere is the hyperbolic diffusion equation. In the paper we study forest fire ignited by lightning. In that case the fores fire has the well defined front which propagates with finite velocity.

Pelc, Magdalena

2009-01-01

83

Forest Fire Modeling and Early Detection using Wireless Sensor Networks  

E-print Network

Forest Fire Modeling and Early Detection using Wireless Sensor Networks MOHAMED HEFEEDA Simon Fraser University, Canada Forest fires cost millions of dollars in damages and claim many human lives every year. Apart from preventive measures, early detection and suppression of fires is the only way

Zhang, Richard "Hao"

84

Carbon dioxide emission during forest fires ignited by lightning  

E-print Network

In this paper we developed the model for the carbon dioxide emission from forest fire. The master equation for the spreading of the carbon dioxide to atmosphere is the hyperbolic diffusion equation. In the paper we study forest fire ignited by lightning. In that case the fores fire has the well defined front which propagates with finite velocity.

Magdalena Pelc; Radoslaw Osuch

2009-03-31

85

Forest fire hazard rating assessment in peat swamp forest using Landsat thematic mapper image  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fires are one of the major causes of the deforestation of tropical peat swamps in Malaysia. One way of trying to identify which peat swamp forests are vulnerable to forest fire is to develop a forest fire risk index. The objectives of this study were to develop both a fuel-type map and a forest fire hazard rating assessment for the peat swamp forests. The study was conducted in a peat swamp forest located at Batu Enam, Penor/Kuantan District of Pahang. This area suffered a severe forest fire on 12 March 1998 which degraded the peat swamp area. Digitally processed Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite image were integrated with geographic information layer of fuel type, roads and canal layer to derive a fire hazard rating map of the area. Using the superior spectral and temporal resolution of a Landsat TM, five fire hazard rating classifications were defined. A forest fire hazard rating map was produced showing that 49% of the area was 'low' fire hazard rating, 23% was 'high', 17% was 'moderate', 10% was 'extreme' and 1% was 'null'. Peat lands within 150 meters of roads and of a canal were identified as having an 'extreme' fire hazard rating. Both the fire hazard rating map and the forest fire hazard rating assessment can be used in future forest fire management planning.

Razali, Sheriza M.; Nuruddin, A. Ainuddin; Malek, Ismail A.; Patah, Norizan A.

2010-05-01

86

5th Symposium on Fire and Forest Meteorology and the 2nd International Wildland Fire Ecology and Fire Management Congress  

E-print Network

More 5th Symposium on Fire and Forest Meteorology and the 2nd International Wildland Fire Ecology and Fire Management Congress Monday, 17 November 2003 Fire severity classification: uses and abuses Theresa to as fire severity) is not a single definition, but rather a concept and its classification is a function

Fried, Jeremy S.

87

Modeling Forest Understory Fires in an Eastern Amazonian Landscape  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Forest understory fires are an increasingly important cause of forest impoverishment in Ammonia, but little is known of the landscape characteristics and climatic phenomena that determine their occurrence. We developed empirical functions relating the occurrence of understory fires to landscape features near Paragominas, a 35- yr-old ranching and logging center in eastern Ammonia. An historical sequence of maps of forest understory fire was created based on field interviews With local farmers and Landsat TM images. Several landscape features that might explain spatial variations in the occurrence of understory fires were also mapped and co-registered for each of the sample dates, including: forest fragment size and shape, forest impoverishment through logging and understory fires, source of ignition (settlements and charcoal pits), roads, forest edges, and others. The spatial relationship between forest understory fire and each landscape characteristic was tested by regression analyses. Fire probability models were then developed for various combinations of landscape characteristics. The analyses were conducted separately for years of the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which are associated with severe drought in eastern Amazonia, and non-ENS0 years. Most (91 %) of the forest area that burned during the 10-yr sequence caught fire during ENSO years, when severe drought may have increased both forest flammability and the escape of agricultural management fires. Forest understory fires were associated with forest edges, as reported in previous studies from Ammonia. But the strongest predictor of forest fire was the percentage of the forest fragment that had been previously logged or burned. Forest fragment size, distance to charcoal pits, distance to agricultural settlement, proximity to forest edge, and distance to roads were also correlated with forest understory fire. Logistic regression models using information on fragment degradation and distance to ignition sources accurately predicted the location of lss than 80% of the forest fires observed during the ENSO event of 1997- 1998. In this Amazon landscape, forest understory fire is a complex function of several variables that influence both the flammability and ignition exposure of the forest.

Alencar, A. A. C.; Solorzano, L. A.; Nepstad, D. C.

2004-01-01

88

Fire, global warming, and the carbon balance of boreal forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire strongly influences carbon cycling and storage in boreal forests. In the near-term, if global warming occurs, the frequency and intensity of fires in boreal forests are likely to increase significantly. A sensitivity analysis on the relationship between fire and carbon storage in the living-biomass and ground-layer compartments of boreal forests was performed to determine how the carbon stocks would

E. S. Kasischke; N. L. Jr. Christensen; B. J. Stocks

1995-01-01

89

Real-time forest fire detection with wireless sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a wireless sensor network paradigm for real-time forest fire detection. The wireless sensor network can detect and forecast forest fire more promptly than the traditional satellite-based detection approach. This paper mainly describes the data collecting and processing in wireless sensor networks for real-time forest fire detection. A neural network method is applied to in-network data

Liyang Yu; Neng Wang; Xiaoqiao Meng

2005-01-01

90

Effects of fire on properties of forest soils: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many physical, chemical, mineralogical, and biological soil properties can be affected by forest fires. The effects are chiefly a result of burn severity, which consists of peak temperatures and duration of the fire. Climate, vegetation, and topography of the burnt area control the resilience of the soil system; some fire-induced changes can even be permanent. Low to moderate severity fires,

Giacomo Certini

2005-01-01

91

Satellite imagery gives clear picture of Russia's boreal forest fires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boreal forest fires in Russia in 1998 may have covered a much larger area than originally reported and may have been mostly crown fires, releasing more greenhouse gases into the atmosphere than surface fires. These conclusions are based on analysis of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data and discussions with Russian fire officials. A more complete analysis of AVHRR

Eric S. Kasischke; Kathleen Bergen; R. Fennimore; F. Sotelo; G. Stephens; Anthony Janetos; H. Hank Shugart

1999-01-01

92

Early Forest Fire Detection Using Radio-Acoustic Sounding System  

PubMed Central

Automated early fire detection systems have recently received a significant amount of attention due to their importance in protecting the global environment. Some emergent technologies such as ground-based, satellite-based remote sensing and distributed sensor networks systems have been used to detect forest fires in the early stages. In this study, a radio-acoustic sounding system with fine space and time resolution capabilities for continuous monitoring and early detection of forest fires is proposed. Simulations show that remote thermal mapping of a particular forest region by the proposed system could be a potential solution to the problem of early detection of forest fires. PMID:22573967

Sahin, Yasar Guneri; Ince, Turker

2009-01-01

93

Fire Effects on Carbon and Nitrogen Budgets in Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimates of C and N loss by gasification during a wildfire in a Jeffrey pine (Pinus Jeffreyii [Grev. and Balf.]) forest in Little Valley, Nevada are compared to potential losses in more mesic forests in the Integrated Forest Study (IFS). In Little Valley, the fire consumed the forest floor, foliage, and an unknown amount of soil organic matter, but little

D. W. Johnson; R. B. Susfalk; T. G. Caldwell; J. D. Murphy; W. W. Miller; R. F. Walker

2004-01-01

94

Observations of boreal forest fire seasonality and interannual variability from MODIS active fire registrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seasonal and interannual timing of fire events in the boreal forest has a strong effect on fire severity. In general, fires are more intense during the late season than earlier in the year. The MODIS active fire data product (MCD14ML) provides daily global observations of burn locations, as well as an estimate of the amount of energy released by the fire (Fire Radiative Power or FRP) at the time of the overpass. We used the Active Fire Product to compare the seasonal timing of fires and FRP between large and small fire years, early and late season burning, front burning versus remnants of fronts that moved on or were extinguished, and among vegetation types. The daily and seasonal distribution of active fire observations from small fire years were resampled to match the distribution observed in large fire years. Active fire detections for Alaska over the last decade show distinctive patterns in both large and small fire years. Late season fires, especially those that occur during years with a large area burned, occur when the upper duff layer of the forest floor has become dry and warm and highly susceptible to deep burning. Late season fires account for 60% of burning in large fire years, and just 40% of burning in small fire years. Remnant fires that remain after a front has moved through a stand result in more severe burning by consuming more of the surface organic material that is essential to ecosystem function in the boreal forest. These remnant fires account for a maximum of 35% of the cumulative front activity in large fire years, and just 25% in small fire years. Vegetation type sometimes appears to be highly important in controlling fire activity (e.g., in remnant fires during small fire years), whereas at other times it is not a factor. The differences in the pattern of active fire detections between large and small fire years indicate that large fire years are likely to be more severe.

Barrett, K. M.; Kasischke, E. S.

2011-12-01

95

75 FR 52713 - Nationwide Aerial Application of Fire Retardant on National Forest System Lands  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Service Nationwide Aerial Application of Fire Retardant on National Forest System Lands...continued nationwide aerial application of fire retardant on National Forest System lands...The Forest Service is working to restore fire-adapted ecosystems through...

2010-08-27

96

Biomass and nutrient dynamics associated with slash fires in neotropical dry forests  

SciTech Connect

Unprecedented rates of deforestation and biomass burning in tropical dry forests are dramatically influencing biogeochemical cycles, resulting in resource depletion, declines in biodiversity, and atmospheric pollution. We quantified the effects of deforestation and varying levels of slash-fire severity on nutrient losses and redistribution in a second-growth tropical dry forest ([open quotes]Caatinga[close quotes]) near Serra Talhada, Pernambuco, Brazil. Total aboveground biomass prior to burning was [approx]74 Mg/ha. Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were highest in litter, leaves attached to slash, and fine wood debris (fires were conducted during the 1989 burning season. Consumption was 78, 88, and 95% of the total aboveground biomass. As much as 96% of the prefire aboveground N and C pools and 56% of the prefire aboveground P pool was lost. Nitrogen losses exceeded 500 kg/ha and P losses exceeded 20 kg/ha in the fires of the greatest severity. With increasing fire severity, the concentrations of N and P in ash decreased while the concentration of Ca increased. Greater ecosystem losses of these nutrients occurred with increasing fire severity. Following fire, up to 47% of the residual aboveground N and 84% of the residual aboveground P were in the form of ash, quickly lost from the site via wind erosion. Fires appeared to have a minor immediate effect on total N, C, or P in the soils. However, soils in forests with no history of cultivation had significantly higher concentrations of C and P than second-growth forests. It would likely require a century or more of fallow for reaccumulation to occur. However, current fallow periods in this region are 15 yr or less. 38 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

Kauffman, J.B.; Cummings, D.L. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (United States)); Sanford, R.L. Jr. (Univ. of Denver, CO (United States)); Salcedo, I.H.; Sampaio, E.V.S.B. (Universidade Federal do Pernambuco, Recife (Brazil))

1993-01-01

97

Analysis of lightning-induced forest fires in Austria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Besides human-caused fires, lightning is the major reason for forest fire ignition in Austria. In order to analyse the causes of ignition and to characterise lightning-induced forest fires, fire records were compared with the real appearance of lightning events by using the Austrian Lightning Detection and Information System for the period from 1993 to 2010. A probability was estimated for each forest fire being caused by lightning by using a decision tree and decision matrices based on flash characteristics (e.g. amplitude, time, location). It could be shown that 15 % of documented forest fires were lightning-caused. Nearly all lightning-caused fires were found during the summer months, whereas almost 40 % of all fires occurring from June to August were naturally caused. Most lightning-caused fires took place in the south and east of Austria. Lightning fires were more frequent at higher altitudes and primarily affected conifer forests. The median burned area was lower than that for anthropogenic forest fires.

Müller, Mortimer M.; Vacik, Harald; Diendorfer, Gerhard; Arpaci, Alexander; Formayer, Herbert; Gossow, Hartmut

2013-01-01

98

The technology of forest fire detection based on infrared image  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to infrared imaging features of forest fire, we use image processing technology which is conducive to early detection and prevention of forest fires. We use image processing technology based on infrared imaging features of forest fire which is conducive to early detection and prevention of forest fires. In order to the timeliness and accuracy of fire detection, this paper proposes a forest fire detection method based on infrared image technology. We take gray histogram analysis to collected Cruising image. The image which will be detected is segmented by the adaptive dynamic threshold. Then the suspected ignitions are extracted in the image after segmentation. The ignition of forest fire which form image in the infrared image is almost circular. We use the circular degree of suspected ignition as the decision basis of the fire in the infrared image. Through the analysis of position correlation which is the same suspected ignition between adjacent frames, we judge whether there is a fire in the image. In order to verify the effectiveness of the method, we adopt image sequences of forest fire to do experiment. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm under the conditions of different light conditions and complex backgrounds, which can effectively eliminate distractions and extract the fire target. The accuracy fire detection rate is above 95 percent. All fire can be detected. The method can quickly identify fire flame and high-risk points of early fire. The structure of method is clear and efficient which processing speed is less than 25 frames per second. So it meets the application requirement of real-time processing.

Wu, Zhi-guo; Liu, Guo-juan; Wang, Ming-jia; Wang, Suo-jian

2013-09-01

99

Factors influencing the formation of unburned forest islands within the perimeter of a large forest fire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large forest fires have recently increased in frequency and severity in many ecosystems. Due to the heterogeneity in fuels, weather and topography, these large fires tend to form unburned islands of vegetation. This study focuses on a large forest fire that occurred in north-eastern Spain in 1998, which left large areas of unburned vegetation within its perimeter. Based on a

Rosa Maria Román-Cuesta; Marc Gracia; Javier Retana

2009-01-01

100

Fire and Forest History in Mixed-Conifer Forests of Southwest Colorado  

E-print Network

Fire and Forest History in Mixed-Conifer Forests of Southwest Colorado Peter M. Brown, Rocky pines Fuels plentiful; dry conditions limit fire occurrence and spread The "goldilocks effect" Desert WARM, DRY Piñon-juniper woodland Juniper-shrub-savanna Modified from Bob Martin, 1982; Fire history

101

INFLUENCE OF FIRE ON MAMMALS IN EASTERN OAK FORESTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the exception of small mammals, little research has been conducted in eastern oak forests on the influence of fire on mammals. Several studies have documented little or no change in relative abundance or community measures for non-volant small mammals in eastern oak (Quercus spp.) forests following fires despite reductions in leaf litter, small woody debris, and changes in understory

Patrick D. Keyser; W. Mark Ford

102

Identification method of forest fire based on color space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest fire is a kind of natural disasters with huge effect on the ecological environment of the earth. Flame color and brightness are two inherent features of the flame itself which are important static identifiable information. In order to identify the flame effectively and fight the forest fire in time the flame region may be identified based on these features

Fei Yan; Xing Xu; Ning Han

2010-01-01

103

Forest fire detection based on video multi-feature fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the light of the problem of monitoring forest fire, the design strategy and practical implementation of establishing the monitor system based on digital image information are proposed. The system is based on the CCD configuration characteristics and color information to detect and locate fire. Manned lookout posts are commonly installed in the forests all around the world. In this

Li Jie; Xiao Jiang

2009-01-01

104

Atmospheric effects of a Canadian forest fire smoke plume  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1982, a northern British Columbia forest fire created a massive smoke plume that could be detected for several days in satellite imagery. The radiative and dynamical impacts of this large forest fire smoke plume are investigated using interactive prognostic models of atmospheric circulation, aerosol microphysics and transport, and radiative heat transfer.

Westphal, Douglas L.; Toon, Owen B.; Mckie, William R.

1988-01-01

105

Mapping the Spatial Distribution of Forest Fire Danger Using GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A geographical information system (GIS) is proposed as a suitable tool for mapping the spatial distribution of forest fire danger. Using a region severely affected by forest fires in Central Spain as the study area, topography, meteorological data, fuel models and human-caused risk were mapped and incorporated within a GIS. Three danger maps were generated: probability of ignition, fuel hazard

Emilio Chuvieco; Javier Salas

1996-01-01

106

FEDERAL FOREST-FIRE POLICY IN THE UNITED STATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest-fire policy of U.S. federal agencies has evolved from the use of small patrols in newly created National Parks to diverse policy initiatives and institutional ar- rangements that affect millions of hectares of forests. Even with large expenditures and substantial infrastructure dedicated to fire suppression, the annual area burned by wildfire has increased over the last decade. Given the current

Scott L. Stephens; Lawrence W. Ruth

2005-01-01

107

A model for predicting forest fire spreading using cellular automata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The model presented, for the first time, in this paper can predict the spreading of fire in both homogeneous and inhomogeneous forests and can easily incorporate weather conditions and land topography. An algorithm has been constructed based on the proposed model and was used for the determination of fire fronts in a number of hypothetical forests, which were found to

Ioannis Karafyllidis; Adonios Thanailakis

1997-01-01

108

Atmospheric effects of a Canadian forest fire smoke plume  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1982, a northern British Columbia forest fire created a massive smoke plume that could be detected for several days in satellite imagery. The radiative and dynamical impacts of this large forest fire smoke plume are investigated using interactive prognostic models of atmospheric circulation, aerosol microphysics and transport, and radiative heat transfer.

Westphal, Douglas L.; Toon, Owen B.; McKie, William R.

109

Levels and Sources of Forest Fire Prevention Knowledge  

E-print Network

Levels and Sources of Forest Fire Prevention Knowledge of California Hunters William S. Folkman U-managerial occupations. Their level of knowl- edge about forest fire prevention is generally high, but their knowledge prevention is generally high, but their knowledge is weak in some pertinent areas. Most frequently reported

Standiford, Richard B.

110

Fire regimes and forest structure in a sky island mixed conifer forest, Guadalupe Mountains National Park, Texas, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire is a key disturbance agent in the fire-prone mixed conifer and ponderosa pine forests of the southwestern United States. Human activities (i.e., livestock grazing, logging, and fire suppression) have resulted in the exclusion of fire from these forests for the past century and fire exclusion has caused changes in forest structure and composition. This study quantifies spatial and temporal

John Sakulich; Alan H. Taylor

2007-01-01

111

Wood and combination wood-fired boiler ash characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ashes resulting from the combustion of wood residues in industrial boilers are characterized relative to (i) macroelement compositions, (ii) trace and heavy metal microelement compositions, (iii) organics, and (iv) polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and -furans (PCDD\\/Fs). Ash compositions, both macro- and microelements, are compared with coal ash and limestone. Microelements in wood ashes are also compared with other potential soil amendments such

Arun V. Someshwar

1996-01-01

112

Effects of fire on ash thickness in a Lithuanian grassland and short-term spatio-temporal changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ash thickness is a key variable in the protection of soil against erosion agents after planned and unplanned fires. Thicker ash provides better protection against raindrop impact and reduces the runoff response by retaining water and promoting water infiltration although little is known about the distribution and the evolution of the ash layer after the fires. Ash thickness measurements were conducted along two transects (flat and sloping areas) following a a grid experimental design. Both transects extended from the burned area into an adjacent unburned area. We analysed ash thickness evolution according to time and fire severity. In order to interpolate data with accuracy and identify the techniques with the least bias, several interpolation methods were tested in the grid plot. Overall, the fire had a low severity. The fire significantly reduced the ground cover, especially on sloping areas owing to the higher fire severity and/or less biomass previous to the fire. Ash thickness depends on fire severity and is thin where fire severity was higher and thicker in lower fire severity sites. The ash thickness decreased with time after the fire. Between 4 and 16 days after the fire, ash was transported by wind. The major reduction took place between 16 and 34 days after the fire as a result of rainfall, and was more efficient where fire severity was higher. Between 34 and 45 days after the fire no significant differences in ash thickness were identified among ash colours and only traces of the ash layer remained. The omni-directional experimental variograms shown that variable structure did not change importantly with the time, however, the most accurate interpolation methods were different highlighting the slight different patterns of ash thickness distribution with the time. The ash spatial variability increased with the time, particularly on the slope, as a result of water erosion.

Pereira, P.; Cerdà, A.; Úbeda, X.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Martin, D.; Jordán, A.; Burguet, M.

2012-12-01

113

Forest Fire Evolution Prediction Using a Hybrid Intelligent System  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Forest fires represent a quite complex environment and an accurate prediction of the fires generated is crucial when trying\\u000a to react quickly and effectively in such a critical situation. In this study, an hybrid system is applied to predict the evolution\\u000a of forest fires. The Case-Based Reasoning methodology combined with a summarization of SOM ensembles algorithm has been used\\u000a to

Aitor Mata; Bruno Baruque; Belén Pérez-Lancho; Emilio Corchado; Juan M. Corchado

114

Transport of boreal forest fire emissions from Canada to Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

In August 1998, severe forest fires occurred in many parts of Canada, especially in the Northwest Territories. In the week from August 5 to 11, more than 1000 different fires burned >1×106ha of boreal forest, the highest 1-week sum ever reported throughout the 1990s. In this study we can unambigously show for the first time that these fires caused pronounced

Caroline Forster; Ulla Wandinger; Gerhard Wotawa; Paul James; Ina Mattis; Dietrich Althausen; Peter Simmonds; S. O'Doherty; S. Gerard Jennings; Christoph Kleefeld; Johannes Schneider; Thomas Trickl; Stephan Kreipl; Horst Jäger; Andreas Stohl

2001-01-01

115

The Development and Implementation of Forest Fire Management Decision Support  

E-print Network

the late 1960's, the OMNR and its predecessor, the Ontario Department of Lands and Forests, have worked the possibility of using Operations Research (OR) in Ontario in the 1960's. Martell (1982) and Martell and others Fire Management in Ontario Ontario's Fire Management Program provides fire protection to more than 85

Standiford, Richard B.

116

Forest Restoration and Fire: Principles in the Context of Place  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is broad consensus that active management through thinning and fire is urgently needed in many forests of the western United States. This consensus stems from physically based models of fire behavior and substantial empirical evidence. But the types of thinning and fire and where they are applied are the subjects of much debate. We propose that low thinning is

RICHARD T. BROWN; JAMES K. AGEE; JERRY F. FRANKLIN

2004-01-01

117

Oak woodlands and forests fire consortium: A regional view of fire science sharing  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Joint Fire Science Program established 14 regional fire science knowledge exchange consortia to improve the delivery of fire science information and communication among fire managers and researchers. Consortia were developed regionally to ensure that fire science information is tailored to meet regional needs. In this paper, emphasis was placed on the Oak Woodlands and Forests Fire Consortium to provide an inside view of how one regional consortium is organized and its experiences in sharing fire science through various social media, conference, and workshop-based fire science events.

Grabner, Keith W.; Stambaugh, Michael C.; Marschall, Joseph M.; Abadir, Erin R.

2013-01-01

118

Landscape development, forest fires, and wilderness management.  

PubMed

Both the landforms and the vegetation of the earth develop to states that are maintained in dynamic equilibrium. Short-term equilibrium of a hillslope or river valley results from intersection between erosional and depositional tendencies, controlled by gravitational force and the efficiency of the transporting medium. Long-term equilibrium of major landforms depends on crustal uplift and the resistance of the rock to weathering. In most parts of the world landscape evolves toward a peneplain, but the reduction rate approaches zero as the cycle progresses, and the counteracting force of crustal uplift intercedes before the end form is reached. Davis described this theoretical model in elegant terms. Leopold and Hack have provided a new and quantitative understanding of short-range geomorphic interactions that tend to discredit the Davisian model in the eyes of many. However, the substitute models of quasi-equilibrium or dynamic equilibrium merely describe short-range situations in which this or that Davisian stage is maintained despite uplift or downwasting. Given crustal stability and an unchanging climate, landforms would presumably still evolve through Davisian stages. However, the Davis model cannot be tested, for despite tremendous inventions in geochronology and impressive advances in stratigraphic knowledge, we cannot yet establish the rates or even the fact of crustal uplift in most areas. We are left with an unresolvable problem, for the sedimentary records of erosional history are largely inaccessible, undatable, and indecipherable, at least in the detail necessary to describe long-term evolution of the landscape. We know more about the evolution and maintenance of vegetation assemblages than about landform evolution, for even long-term vegetation sequences are within the scope of radiocarbon dating, and the biostratigraphic record is detailed. Even here, however, distinctions between short-term and long-term situations must be made, so that Clements' grand scheme of vegetational climax-created soon after Davis's model of landform development-can be evaluated in terms of modern knowledge. Disillusion with the climax model paralleled disillusion with Davis's model in the 1950's, but the climax model can be tested, because the record of vegetational history is accessible, datable, and decipherable. In the short term of a few decades, successional vegetation stages occur in variety of situations, as confirmed by observation or by techniques such as tree-ring analysis. The successional vegetation stages are reactions to nutrients, weather, competition, and consumption. Such succession implies long-term disequilibrium, or at least unidirectional development. The long-term controlling factor in Clements' model of vegetation development is climate. With climatic stability the succession will proceed to a climax. In the Appalachian Mountains, geomorphic, microclimatic, and edaphic conditions limit climax development, producing a polyclimax, which is generally sustained by the dominance of these factors. Death and regeneration of single forest trees is controlled mostly by windstorms. The distributional pattern may be locally transected by lightning fires, major windstorms, or washouts. However, the long-term stability of Appalachian forests is demonstrated by pollen stratigraphy. Although we can infer the long-term stability of Appalachian forests, the trends and mechanics of short-term vegetational succession are not fully understood, because lack of sizable areas of virgin forest limits investigations of natural conditions. In this respect, the eastern United States is already much like western Europe, where climatic and disturbance factors in vegetational history cannot be disentangled. In the Great Lakes region, a large area of virgin forest exists in the BWCA of northeastern Minnesota. Here short- and long-term studies show that for at least 9000 years the principal stabilizing factor has been the frequent occurrence of fire. Major fires occur so often that the vegetation pattern is a record of fire history. All e

Wright, H E

1974-11-01

119

Fire y ashing and jumping spider predation Skye M. Long a  

E-print Network

Fire y ashing and jumping spider predation Skye M. Long a , Sara Lewis b , Leo Jean-Louis c: aposematic re y ashing jumping spider learning Phidippus Photuris predation startle response Bioluminescent hunting jumping spiders, Phidippus princeps and Phidippus audax. To con rm anec- dotal reports that re ies

Lewis, Sara

120

PATHOLOGIC CHANGES INDUCED BY COAL-FIRED FLY ASH IN HAMSTER TRACHEAL GRAFTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The toxicity of fly ash from a coal-fired power plant for respiratory tract epithelium was studied in heterotropic tracheal grafts. Hamster tracheal grafts were continuously exposed to beeswax-cholesterol pellets containing 100, 1000 and 5000 micrograms fly ash and evaluated at 1...

121

Assessing fire emissions from tropical savanna and forests of central Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wildfires in tropical forest and savanna are a strong source of trace gas and particulate emissions to the atmosphere, but estimates of the continental-scale impacts are limited by large uncertainties in the rates of fire occurrence and biomass combustion. Satellite-based remote sensing offers promise for characterizing fire physical properties and impacts on the environment, but currently available sensors saturate over high-radiance targets and provide only indications of regions and times at which fires are extensive and their areal rate of growing as recorded in ash layers. Here we describe an approach combining satellite- and aircraft-based remote sensing with in situ measurements of smoke to estimate emissions from central Brazil. These estimates will improve global accounting of radiation-absorbing gases and particulates that may be contributing to climate change and will provide strategic data for fire management.

Riggan, Philip J.; Brass, James A.; Lockwood, Robert N.

1993-01-01

122

CHARACTERIZATION OF ASH FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes existing data on the chemical and physical characteristics of ashes produced by the burning of coal in steam-electric generating plants. It summarizes several recent coal or ash characterization studies, emphasizing the elemental chemical composition, partic...

123

Protection against fire in the mountainous forests of Greece case study: forest complex of W. Nestos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fires are an ancient phenomenon. Appear, however, with devastating frequency and intensity over the last 30 years. In our country, the climatic conditions in combination with the intense relief, favor their rapid spread. Considering the fact that environmental conditions provided for decades even worse (increased temperature, drought and vegetation), then the problem of forest fires in our country, is expected to become more intense. The work focuses on the optimization model of the opening up of the forest mountain areas taking into account the prevention and suppression of forest fires. Research area is the mountain forest complex of W. Nestos of Drama Prefecture. The percentage of forest protection area is examined under the light whether the total hose length corresponds to the actual operational capacity to reach a fire source. For this reason are decided to present a three case study concerning area of the forest being protected by fire extinguishing vehicles. The first one corresponds to a fire suppression bandwidth (buffer zone) with a capacity radius of 150m uphill and 250m downhill from the origin point where the fire extinguishing vehicle stands. The second one corresponds to a fire suppression capacity of 200m uphill and 400m downhill and the third one corresponds to a fire suppression capacity of 300m uphill and 500m downhill. The most important forest technical infrastructures to prevent fire are roads network (opening up) for fire protection and buffer zones. Patrols of small and agile 4 × 4 appropriately equipped (pipe length of 500 meters and putting pressure on uphill to 300 meters) for the first attack of the fire in the summer months coupled with early warning of fire observatories adequately cover the forest protection of W. Nestos complex. But spatial distribution needed improvements to a road density of the optimum economic Dec, both forest protection and for better management (skidding) of woody capital.

Drosos, Vasileios C.; Giannoulas, Vasileios J.; Stergiadou, Anastasia; Karagiannis, Evaggelos; Doukas, Aristotelis-Kosmas G.

2014-08-01

124

Impact of high-volume wood-fired boiler ash amendment on soil properties and nutrients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest application of boiler ash is fast becoming a popular alternative to landfilling. Boiler ash is a good source of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), phosphorus (P), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn), but it may potentially increase soil pH and electrical conductivity. A monitoring study was conducted to determine the changes in soil properties and the availability and leachability

Tait Chirenje; Lena Q. Ma

2002-01-01

125

The EFFIS forest fire atmospheric emission model: Application to a major fire event in Portugal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fires are a major contributor of gaseous and particulate compounds to the atmosphere, impairing air quality and affecting human health. A new forest fire emissions module was developed and integrated into the European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS), which systematically compiles, since 2000, series of burnt area statistics mapped from satellite imagery. This new forest fire emission model was built on classical methodologies of fuel-map based emission estimation that were improved, especially on burning efficiency, fuel consumption estimation and emission factors. It makes the best use of EFFIS near-real time and detailed information on forest fires, mainly concerning products with a high temporal resolution, which is needed to simulate smoke dispersion and chemical transformation in the atmosphere.

Monteiro, A.; Corti, P.; San Miguel-Ayanz, J.; Miranda, A. I.; Borrego, C.

2014-02-01

126

Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in riverine waters after Mediterranean forest fires.  

PubMed

Extensive forest fires occurred in Catalonia, northern Spain, in 1994. In our study, concentrations and profiles of 12 parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in riverine waters, ash and sediment samples at nine sampling sites (W1-W9) and at three sampling dates from Llobregat hydrographic basin: in August, 1994, one month after the extensive forest fires; in September, 1994, after the first heavy autumn rainfalls and in January, 1995, six months after forest fires. In August 1994, the total concentrations of 12 PAHs measured in riverine waters varied from 2 ng/l to 336 ng/l. In September 1994, the total PAH concentrations decreased to 0.2-31 ng/l and in January 1995, from 9 ng/l to 73 ng/l. In August, the composition pattern of PAHs showed a distribution dominated by 4-ring PAHs (pyrene, chrysene+triphenylene, benzo(a)anthracene) at W3-W6, W8 and W9 and 3-ring PAHs (phenanthrene) at W1, W2 and W7. In September, a preference by 3-ring PAHs (phenanthrene) at all sampling sites except W5 was shown and in January was clearly dominated by 4-ring PAHs (chrysene+triphenylene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene) at all sampling sites. In ash and sediment samples, the total concentrations of 12 PAHs ranged from 1.3 ng/g to 19 ng/g. The dominant compound was phenanthrene. PMID:15885751

Olivella, M A; Ribalta, T G; de Febrer, A R; Mollet, J M; de Las Heras, F X C

2006-02-15

127

Effect of Forest Fires on Hydrology and Biogeochemistry of Watersheds  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Forest fire generally includes both natural wildfire and human-induced fire (e.g., slash-and-burn agriculture and accidental\\u000a fire). Areas burned by forest fire are relatively widespread across the world (Table 30.1), but vary substantially across\\u000a continents. For example, burned areas account for about two thirds of the total area in Africa, yet only approximately 1%\\u000a in North America (Roy et al. 2008). Wildfire

Shin-ichi Onodera; John T. Van Stan

128

Verification & Validation Of An Agent-Based Forest Fire Simulation Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present the verification and validation of an agent-based model of forest fires. We use a combination of a Virtual Overlay Multi-Agent System (VOMAS) validation scheme with Fire Weather Index (FWI) to validate the forest fire Simulation. FWI is based on decades of real forest fire data and is now regarded as a standard index for fire

Muaz A. Niazi; Amir Hussain; Qasim Siddique; Mario Kolberg

129

Verification & validation of an agent-based forest fire simulation model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present the verification and validation of an agent-based model of forest fires. We use a combination of a Virtual Overlay Multi-Agent System (VOMAS) validation scheme with Fire Weather Index (FWI) to validate the forest fire Simulation. FWI is based on decades of real forest fire data and is now regarded as a standard index for fire

Muaz A. Niazi; Qasim Siddique; Amir Hussain; Mario Kolberg

2010-01-01

130

Road paving, fire regime feedbacks, and the future of Amazon forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire poses the greatest threat to the forests of Amazônia. The magnitude of this threat is amplified by three positive feedback loops that drive the expansion of forest fire in the region: (1) Fire promotes drought, and therefore more fire, by releasing smoke into the atmosphere, thus reducing rainfall. Fire-assisted conversion of forests to pastures may also promote drought by

Daniel Nepstad; Georgia Carvalho; Ana Cristina Barros; Ane Alencar; João Paulo Capobianco; Josh Bishop; Paulo Moutinho; Paul Lefebvre; Urbano Lopes Silva; Elaine Prins

2001-01-01

131

Leaching of PCDD\\/F from fly ash and soil with fire-extinguishing water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaching experiments from fly ash and soil with fire-extinguishing water result in significant amounts of PCDD\\/F in the related leachates. In contrast to the water solubilities the higher chlorinated congeners are leached more easily than the low chlorinated tetra- and penta-congeners. Obviously, the cosolvents present in the fire-extinguishing water enhances PCDD\\/F solubilities.

K.-W. Schramm; M. Merk; B. Henkelmann; A. Kettrup

1995-01-01

132

Tree diversity, composition, forest structure and aboveground biomass dynamics after single and repeated fire in a Bornean rain forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest fires remain a devastating phenomenon in the tropics that not only affect forest structure and biodiversity, but also\\u000a contribute significantly to atmospheric CO2. Fire used to be extremely rare in tropical forests, leaving ample time for forests to regenerate to pre-fire conditions.\\u000a In recent decades, however, tropical forest fires occur more frequently and at larger spatial scales than they

J. W. Ferry Slik; Caroline S. Bernard; Marloes Van Beek; Floris C. Breman; Karl A. O. Eichhorn

2008-01-01

133

Different Climate - Fire Relationships on Forested and Non-Forested Landscapes in California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfire activity has increased in western USA forests and climate change is considered a driving factor. Previous studies have shown that over the past several decades forest fires have increased significantly on forested landscapes and is correlated with warmer and drier conditions. However, the bulk of the landscape in the western US comprises non-forested ecosystems and there are no reports on trends in fire activity for these landscapes. Here we show that in the highly fire-prone Sierra Nevada region of California increased fired activity over the last 50 years has only occurred in the higher-elevation forests, and is not characteristic of the lower elevation grasslands, woodlands and shrublands. In our study, forests exhibited increased fire activity in years with warmer and drier springs, both in the early twentieth century as well as more recently. On lower elevation non-forested landscapes warmer and drier conditions were not related to fire activity over the course of the last 90 years of record. These patterns predict that climate changes including higher spring temperatures and lower spring precipitation, will have a significant impact on future fire regimes only in higher elevation forested ecosystems. Future fire regimes in the lower more densely populated landscapes are likely to be more affected by global changes that directly involve land use patterns and less on climate.

Keeley, J. E.

2013-12-01

134

Influence of forest fires on climate change studies in the central boreal forest of Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

This brief paper indicates that forest fires may have short and longer term effects on runoff and thus, can influence trend studies on the response of watersheds to climate change. Twenty-two watersheds at the Experimental Lakes Area in northwestern Ontario were studied to view the impacts of climatic variability and forest fires on runoff. A roughly 30 year database demonstrated

C. Valeo; K. Beaty; R. Hesslein

2003-01-01

135

Study of the pseudo-color processing for infrared forest-fire image  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest-fire hazard is very serious, so at home and abroad they pay great attention to the study of forest-fire, such as the prevention of forest-fire. Processing the forest-fire image of detected by using the technology of pseudo-color to improve the amount of useful information is one of the most important of forest-fire detection. By a full studying of pseudo-color coded

Tingting Wang; Jianmin Su; Yinglai Huang; Yingshen Zhu

2010-01-01

136

Methods for Assessing the Impact of Fire on Forest Recreation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Methods for assessing the impact of fire on forest recreation were studied in a literature search and an experiment. Contingent market valuation appeared the most promising. This direct, economic approach uses personal interviews and sets up a hypothetica...

H. J. Vaux, P. D. Gardner, T. J. Mills

1984-01-01

137

Cloud Condensation Nuclei from a Simulated Forest Fire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements made downwind of a simulated forest fire showed that the concentration of cloud condensation nuclei active at a supersaturation of 1 percent was increased by a factor of about 2.5. Smaller increases were observed at lower supersaturations.

Peter V. Hobbs; L. F. Radke

1969-01-01

138

Is fire a long term sink or source of atmospheric carbon? A comprehensive evaluation of a boreal forest fire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fires lead to a rapid release of carbon (C) from forest and other fire-prone ecosystems, emitting important quantities of C to the atmosphere. Every year 300-600 Mill. ha burn around the globe, generating CO2 emissions equivalent to half of the current annual global from fossil fuel combustion. Over the longer-term vegetation fires are widely considered as 'net zero Carbon (C) emission events', because C emissions from fires, excluding those associated with deforestation, are balanced by C uptake by regenerating vegetation. This 'zero C emission' scenario, however, may be flawed, as it does not consider the role of pyrogenic C (PyC). During fire, some of the fuel is transformed into PyC (i.e. charcoal, black C, soot), which is characterized by an enhanced recalcitrance and a longer mean residence time in the environment than its 'fresh' precursors. Therefore, after complete regeneration of the vegetation, the PyC generated represents an additional longer-term C pool and, hence, recurring fire-regrowth cycles could be considered as a 'net sink of atmospheric C'. To test the validity of this hypothesis, and to estimate how quantitatively important this PyC pool might be, accurate data on PyC production with respect to the fuel combusted are needed. Unfortunately, detailed quantification of fuel prior to fire is normally only available for prescribed and experimental fires, which are usually of low-intensity and therefore not representative of higher-intensity wildfires. Furthermore, what little data is available is usually based on only a specific fraction of the PyC present following burning rather than the whole range of PyC products and stores (i.e. PyC in soil, ash, downed wood and standing vegetation). The FireSmart project (Ft. Providence, NWT, Canada, June 2012) provided the ideal framework to address this research gap. This experimental fire reproduced wildfire conditions in boreal forest, i.e. stand-replacing crown fire and, at the same time, allowed i) pre-fire fuel assessment, ii) fire behaviour monitoring and iii) immediate post-fire fuel and PyC inventory. Before the fire, fuel characteristics were established and the site was instrumented with auto-logging thermocouples to provide temperature-duration profiles during burning. Also, different types of PyC were placed on the ground to determine PyC loss during the fire. Immediately after fire, the various post-burn PyC products and stores were sampled. Total PyC was quantified and the chemical recalcitrance of the different PyC forms found was determined. The results obtained will be discussed in the context of PyC production, and its different forms and quantities, with respect to (i) fire characteristics and fuel consumed, and (ii) the long term carbon balance in this boreal forest environment for recurring fire-regrowth cycles under current and predicted future climatic conditions.

Santin, C.; Doerr, S. H.; Preston, C.; Bryant, R.

2012-12-01

139

Forest fires may cause cooling in boreal Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As climate in North America continues to become warmer and drier through the 21st century, a new study finds that fire may be playing an increasingly important role in shaping the climate of the boreal regions of Canada. Forest fires change the amount of shortwave radiation absorbed by Earth's surface by reducing vegetation cover and changing the composition of plant species, thereby changing the reflectivity of the surface (albedo). Fires also affect other ecosystem processes and increase aerosol (particularly soot) emission and deposition, all of which alter regional climate through a series of feedbacks mechanisms. Jin et al. used satellite observations of surface albedo from 2000 to 2011 and fire perimeter data since 1970 to study how forest fires affect surface albedo and associated shortwave radiation at the surface, across forests in boreal Canada.

Bhattacharya, Atreyee

2012-08-01

140

A kind of identification method of geometric parameters for forest fire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest fire is a kind of natural disaster with devastating effect on the ecological environment of the earth. In order to obtain the wildfire information in the fire scene in time and improve firefighters' efficiency to suppress the fire, the digital information about the forest fire which can exactly depict the fire behavior is very important for the fire-fighting department

Fei Yan; Xing Xu; Ning Han

2010-01-01

141

Forest construction infrastructures for the prevision, suppression, and protection before and after forest fires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climatic changes cause temperature rise and thus increase the risk of forest fires. In Greece the forests with the greatest risk to fire are usually those located near residential and tourist areas where there are major pressures on land use changes, while there are no currently guaranteed cadastral maps and defined title deeds because of the lack of National and Forest Cadastre. In these areas the deliberate causes of forest fires are at a percentage more than 50%. This study focuses on the forest opening up model concerning both the prevention and suppression of forest fires. The most urgent interventions that can be done after the fire destructions is also studied in relation to soil protection constructions, in order to minimize the erosion and the torrential conditions. Digital orthophotos were used in order to produce and analyze spatial data using Geographical Information Systems (GIS). Initially, Digital Elevation Models were generated, based on photogrammetry and forest areas as well as the forest road network were mapped. Road density, road distance, skidding distance and the opening up percentage were accurately measured for a forest complex. Finally, conclusions and suggestions have been drawn about the environmental compatibility of forest protection and wood harvesting works. In particular the contribution of modern technologies such as digital photogrammetry, remote sensing and Geographical Information Systems is very important, allowing reliable, effective and fast process of spatial analysis contributing to a successful planning of opening up works and fire protection.

Drosos, Vasileios C.; Giannoulas, Vasileios J.; Daoutis, Christodoulos

2014-08-01

142

Particulate emissions from fires in central Siberian Scots pine forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Siberian boreal forest fires burn large areas annually, resulting in smoke that releases large amounts of par- ticulate emission into the atmosphere. We sampled aerosol emissions from experimental fires on three Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest sites of central Siberia. Emissions from ground-based aerosol samples were 0.1-0.7 t\\/ha. This value represented 1%-7% of the total biomass (10-30 t\\/ha) consumed

Yuri N. Samsonov; Konstantin P. Koutsenogii; V. I. Makarov; Andrey V. Ivanov; Valery A. Ivanov; Douglas J. McRae; Susan G. Conard; Stephen P. Baker; Galina A. Ivanova

2005-01-01

143

Forecasting the probability of forest fires in Northeast Texas  

E-print Network

FORECASTING THE PROBABILITY OF FOREST FIRES IN NORTHEAST TEXAS A Thesis by STUART ALLEN WADLEIGH Submit ted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1972 Major Subject: Meteorology FORECASTING THE PROBABILITY OF FOREST FIRES IN NORTHEAST TEXAS A Thesis by STUART ALLEN WADLEIGH Approved as to style and content by: ( irman of ee) (Head of Depar nt) (Member) (Member) December 1972 c...

Wadleigh, Stuart Allen

2012-06-07

144

A Forest Fire Sensor Web Concept with UAVSAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a forest fire sensor web concept with a UAVSAR-based smart sensor and onboard automated response capability that will allow us to monitor fire progression based on coarse initial information provided by an external source. This autonomous disturbance detection and monitoring system combines the unique capabilities of imaging radar with high throughput onboard processing technology and onboard automated response capability based on specific science algorithms. In this forest fire sensor web scenario, a fire is initially located by MODIS/RapidFire or a ground-based fire observer. This information is transmitted to the UAVSAR onboard automated response system (CASPER). CASPER generates a flight plan to cover the alerted fire area and executes the flight plan. The onboard processor generates the fuel load map from raw radar data, used with wind and elevation information, predicts the likely fire progression. CASPER then autonomously alters the flight plan to track the fire progression, providing this information to the fire fighting team on the ground. We can also relay the precise fire location to other remote sensing assets with autonomous response capability such as Earth Observation-1 (EO-1)'s hyper-spectral imager to acquire the fire data.

Lou, Y.; Chien, S.; Clark, D.; Doubleday, J.; Muellerschoen, R.; Zheng, Y.

2008-12-01

145

Soil erosion after forest fires in the Valencia region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil erosion after forest fire is triggered by the lack of vegetation cover and the degradation of the physical, biological and chemical properties (Martí et al., 2012; Fernández et al., 2012; Guénon, 2013). Valencia region belongs to the west Mediterranean basin ("Csa", Köppen climate classification), with drought summer periods that enhance forest fire risk. The characteristics of the climate, lithology and land use history makes this region more vulnerable to soil erosion. In this area, fire recurrence is being increased since late 50s (Pausas, 2004) and post-fire erosion studies became more popular from 80's until nowadays (Cerdá and Mataix-Solera, 2009). Research in Valencia region has contributed significantly to a better understanding of the effect of spatial and temporal scale on runoff and sediment yield measurements. The main achievements concerns: a) direct measurement of erosion rates under a wide range of methodologies (natural vs simulated rainfall, open vs closed plots); from micro- to meso-plot and catchment scale in single (Rubio et al., 1994; Cerdà et al., 1995; Cerdà 1998a; 1998b; Llovet et al., 1998; Cerdà, 2001; Calvo-Cases et al., 2003; Andreu et al., 2001; Mayor et al., 2007; Cerdà and Doerr, 2008) and multiples fires (Campo et al., 2006; González-Pelayo et al., 2010a). Changes in soil properties (Sanroque et al., 1985; Rubio et al., 1997; Boix-Fayós, 1997; Gimeno-Garcia et al., 2000; Guerrero et al., 2001; Mataix-Solera et al., 2004; González-Pelayo et al., 2006; Arcenegui et al., 2008; Campo et al., 2008; Bodí et al., 2012), in post-fire vegetation patterns (Gimeno-García et al., 2007) and, studies on mitigation strategies (Bautista et al., 1996; Abad et al., 2000). b) Progress to understanding post-fire erosion mechanism and sediment movement (Boix-Fayós et al., 2005) by definition of thresholds for sediment losses; fire severity, slope angle, bedrock, rain characteristics, vegetation pattern and ecosystem resilience (Mayor et al., 2007; González-Pelayo et al., 2010b). The knowledge achieved on post-fire erosion must very valuable for new insights and new strategies for landscape management. This research will review the State-of-the-Art of the contribution of the research on soil erosion as a consequence of forest fires in the Valencia Region. The review will show the contribution of the pioneers in the 80's when the USLE and mapping was the main too, the use of plots under simulated and natural rainfall, and also the strategies to control the soil erosion. Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and RECARE FP7 project 603498 supported this research. References Abad, N., Bautista, S., Blade, C., Caturla, R.N. 2000. Seeding and mulching as erosion control techniques after wildfires in the Valencia region. En P. Balabanis, D. Peter, A. Ghazi y M. Tsogas (Eds.), Mediterranean Desertification Research Results and Policy Implications. Directorate-General Research, vol. 2. European Commission, Brussels, 419-429. Andreu, V., Imeson, A.C., Rubio, J.L. 2001. Temporal changes in soil aggregates and water erosion after a wildfire in a Mediterranean pine forest. Catena. 44, 69-84. Arcenegui, V., Mataix-Solera, J., Guerrero, C., Zornoza, R., Mataix-Beneyto, J., García-Orenes, F., 2008. Immediate effects of wildfires on water repellency and aggregate stability in Mediterranean calcareous soils. Catena 74, 219-226. Bautista, S., Bellot, J., Vallejo, R. 1996. Mulching treatment for postfire soil conservation in a semiarid ecosystem. Arid Soil Research and Rehabilitation 10, 235-242. Bodí, M., Mataix-Solera, J., Stefan H. Doerr, S.H., Cerdà, A. 2012. The wettability of ash from burned vegetation and its relationship to Mediterranean plant species type, burn severity and total organic carbon content. Geoderma 160, 599-607. Boix-Fayos, C. 1997. The roles of texture and structure in the water retention capacity of burnt Mediterranean soils with varying rainfall. Catena 31, 219-236. Boix-Fayos, C., Martínez-Mena, M., Calvo-Cases, A., Castillo, V.M., Albad

González-Pelayo, Óscar; Keizer, Jan Jacob; Cerdà, Artemi

2014-05-01

146

Mapping a recent forest fire with ERTS-1 MSS data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accurate fire boundary delineation provides essential information to forest managers in allocating suppression costs and planning regeneration efforts. The objective of this study was to test the capability of computer-aided analysis of ERTS-1 MSS data to accurately define the boundary of a recent forest fire and to discriminate spectral classes within the perimeter. Two frames of ERTS-1 MSS data were selected for analysis of the Moccasin Mesa Fire in Mesa Verde National Park. Data sets were collected one-half growing season and one full growing season after the fire. Results indicate that computer-aided analysis of ERTS-1 MSS data has the capability for accurately delineating fire boundaries and determining acreage of the burned area. Distinct spectral classes may also be defined within the fire perimeter.

Hitchcock, H. C.; Hoffer, R. M.

1974-01-01

147

A Forest Fire Sensor Web Concept with UAVSAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a forest fire sensor web concept with a UAVSAR-based smart sensor and onboard automated response capability that will allow us to monitor fire progression based on coarse initial information provided by an external source. This autonomous disturbance detection and monitoring system combines the unique capabilities of imaging radar with high throughput onboard processing technology and onboard automated response

Yunling Lou; Steve Chien; Duane Clark; Joshua Doubleday; Ron Muellerschoen; Y. Zheng

2008-01-01

148

Extreme fire seasons in the forests of Evenkia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A specialist on the fire hazard in larch forest in permafrost areas of the Evenki Autonomous Okrug of East Siberia's Krasnoyarsk Kray examines the conditions leading to extreme fire outbreaks in the okrug, the periodicity of such extreme seasons, and the frequency and spatial distribution of blazes that result. Special attention is focused on how the information obtained can be

G. A. Ivanova

1995-01-01

149

Targeting Audiences and Content for Forest Fire Information Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses opinion survey results for the purpose of improving the capabilities of forest managers to effectively communicate new fire management objectives and plans. Includes recommendations based on the analysis concerning the appropriate audiences and content to target in the design of fire information programs. (ML)

Carpenter, Edwin H.; And Others

1986-01-01

150

PCDD/F EMISSIONS FROM FOREST FIRE SIMULATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) emissions from combustion of forest biomass were sampled to obtain an estimated emission factor for forest fires. An equal composition of live shoot and litter biomass from Oregon and North Carolina was b...

151

Predicting Fire Susceptibility in the Forests of Amazonia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although fire is the single greatest threat to the ecological integrity of Amazon forests, our ability to predict the occurrence of Amazon forest fires is rudimentary. Part of the difficulty encountered in making such predictions is the remarkable capacity of Amazon forests to tolerate drought by tapping moisture stored in deep soil. These forests can avoid drought-induced leaf shedding by withdrawing moisture to depths of 8 meters and more. Hence, the absorption of deep soil moisture allows these forests to maintain their leaf canopies following droughts of several months duration, thereby maintaining the deep shade and high relative humidity of the forest interior that prevents these ecosystems from burning. But the drought- and fire-avoidance that is conferred by this deep-rooting phenomenon is not unlimited. During successive years of drought, such as those provoked by El Nino episodes, deep soil moisture can be depleted, and drought-induced leaf shedding begins. The goal of this project was to incorporate this knowledge of Amazon forest fire ecology into a predictive model of forest flammability.

Nepstad, Daniel C.; Brown, I. Foster; Setzer, Alberto

2000-01-01

152

Appendix 30 Fire Effects on Key Ecological Processes in Forested  

E-print Network

paragraphs on fire effects on forest succession are from Stickney (1982) Forest Succession ...the severity survivors derive from plants already established at the time of disturbance, it is possible...to determine becomes more favorable as a site for germination and establishment of colonizer plants. Increases

153

Solar activity as a possible cause of large forest fires — A case study: Analysis of the Portuguese forest fires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fires of large dimension destroy forests, harvests and housing objects. Apart from that combustion products and burned surfaces become large ecological problems. Very often fires emerge simultaneously on different locations of a region so a question could be asked if they always have been a consequence of negligence, pyromania, high temperatures or maybe there has been some other cause. This

J. F. P. Gomes; M. Radovanovic

2008-01-01

154

Ash fouling and erosion of silicon-based ceramic expanders in coal-fired power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lysholm-type helical-screw engines (expanders) are proposed as a means of generating electrical power from coal-fired power plants (topping cycle). Ash erosion and deposition (fouling) of silicon-based ceramic materials exposed to coal ash at topping-cycle temperatures (approximately 1270 K) was studied at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory to select suitable expander materials. Silicon carbide (SiC) or silicon nitride (SiâNâ) blocks exposed to

R. W. Taylor; T. E. Shell

1978-01-01

155

Spatial and temporal variations in fire frequency in the boreal forest of northern Alberta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest fires occur frequently in the boreal forest of North America and greatly affect vegetation dynamics, biogeochemical cycles and resident human populations. Estimates of the frequency of boreal forest fires would be useful for understanding boreal ecosystems and managing that affects of fires on human populations. The objectives of this work were to investigate relations between fire frequency and climate

Christopher Poul Storm Larsen

1995-01-01

156

Satellite analysis of the severe 1987 forest fires in northern China and southeastern Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Meteorological conditions, extremely conducive to fire development and spread in the spring of 1987, resulted in forest fires burning over extremely large areas in the boreal forest zone in northeastern China and the southeastern region of Siberia. The great China fire, one of the largest and most destructive forest fires in recent history, occurred during this period in the

Donald R. Cahoon Jr; Brian J. Stocks; Joel S. Levine; Wesley R. Cofer III; Joseph M. Pierson

1994-01-01

157

Forest fire occurrence increases the distribution of a scarce forest type in the Mediterranean Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we report how fire recurrence increases the distribution of a scarce forest type in NE Spain that is dominated by the resprouter tree species Arbutus unedo. We used a combination of GIS and field surveys to determine the effect of fire and pre-fire vegetation on the appearance of A. unedo forests. In the field, we also analyzed the factors that promote fire and lead to the appearance of A. unedo forests. Our results reveal an increased occurrence of A. unedo forests in NE Spain in recent years; this phenomenon was strongly related to fire recurrence and the vegetation type present prior to fire. Most Pinus halepensis forests that burned more than once gave rise to A. unedo forests. Our results indicate that these conversions were related to a reduction in pine density coupled with increases in the density and size of A. unedo trees due to recurrent fires. Given that fires are increasing in number and magnitude in the Mediterranean, we predict a major change in landscape structure and composition at the regional scale.

Arnan, Xavier; Quevedo, Lídia; Rodrigo, Anselm

2013-01-01

158

ORIGINAL PAPER Effect of wildfires and post-fire forest treatments  

E-print Network

years after the fire, but decreased or even disappeared in unburnt ones, indicating that forest firesORIGINAL PAPER Effect of wildfires and post-fire forest treatments on rabbit abundance Ã?lex Rollan after a wildfire in Catalonia (NE Spain): (A) unburnt forests, (B) burnt forests with removal of burnt

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

159

Advanced coal-fired and biomass ash and char formations  

SciTech Connect

In a continuing effort to characterize the morphology and composition of ash and char formations that collect along high temperature porous ceramic barrier filters, the authors describe some of their most recent results for materials deposited in pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and biomass gasification applications. In addition, the impact of ash formation on the load bearing capability of the porous ceramic barrier filter elements will be discussed.

Alvin, M.A. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Science and Technology Center

1995-12-31

160

The tropical forest and fire emissions experiment: laboratory fire measurements and synthesis of campaign data  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the Tropical Forest and Fire Emissions Experiment (TROFFEE), tropical forest fuels were burned in a large, biomass-fire simulation facility and the smoke was characterized with open-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), proton-transfer reaction mass spec- trometry (PTR-MS), gas chromatography (GC), GC\\/PTR- MS, and filter sampling of the particles. In most cases, about one-third of the fuel chlorine

R. J. Yokelson; T. J. Christian; T. G. Karl; A. Guenther

2008-01-01

161

The tropical forest and fire emissions experiment: laboratory fire measurements and synthesis of campaign data  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the Tropical Forest and Fire Emissions Experiment (TROFFEE), tropical forest fuels were burned in a large, biomass-fire simulation facility and the smoke was characterized with open-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), gas chromatography (GC), GC\\/PTR-MS, and filter sampling of the particles. In most cases, about one-third of the fuel chlorine ended up

R. J. Yokelson; T. J. Christian; T. G. Karl; A. Guenther

2008-01-01

162

SMALL MAMMALS AND FOREST FUEL REDUCTION: NATIONAL-SCALE RESPONSES TO FIRE AND FIRE SURROGATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest fuel reduction treatments are increasingly used by managers to reduce the risk of high-severity wildfire and to manage changes in the ecological function of forests. However, comparative ecological effects of the various types of treatments are poorly understood. We examined short-term patterns in small-mammal responses to mechanical thinning, prescribed-fire, and mechanical thinning\\/prescribed-fire combination treatments at eight different study areas

Sarah J. Converse; Gary C. White; Kerry L. Farris; Steve Zack

2006-01-01

163

Estimating emissions from forest fires in Thailand using MODIS active fire product and country specific data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies on air pollution and climate change have shown that forest fires constitute one of the major sources of atmospheric trace gases and particulate matter, especially during the dry season. However, these emissions remain difficult to quantify due to uncertainty on the extent of burned areas and deficient knowledge on the forest fire behaviours in each country. This study aims to estimate emissions from forest fires in Thailand by using the combination of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for active fire products and country-specific data based on prescribed burning experiments. The results indicate that 27817 fire hotspots (FHS) associated with forest fires were detected by the MODIS during 2005-2009. These FHS mainly occurred in the northern, western, and upper north-eastern parts of Thailand. Each year, the most significant fires were observed during January-May, with a peak in March. The majority of forest FHS were detected in the afternoon. According to the prescribed burning experiments, the average area of forest burned per fire event was found to fall within the range 1.09 to 12.47 ha, depending upon the terrain slope and weather conditions. The total burned area was computed at 159309 ha corresponding to the surface biomass fuel of 541515 tons dry matter. The forest fire emissions were computed at 855593 tons of CO2, 56318 tons of CO, 3682 tons of CH4, 108 tons of N2O, 4928 tons of PM2.5, 4603 tons of PM10, 357 tons of BC and 2816 tons of OC.

Junpen, Agapol; Garivait, Savitri; Bonnet, Sebastien

2013-05-01

164

The Zoning of Forest Fire Potential of Gulestan Province Forests Using Granular Computing and MODIS Images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many vegetation in Iran. This is because of extent of Iran and its width. One of these vegetation is forest vegetation most prevalent in Northern provinces named Guilan, Mazandaran, Gulestan, Ardebil as well as East Azerbaijan. These forests are always threatened by natural forest fires so much so that there have been reports of tens of fires in recent years. Forest fires are one of the major environmental as well as economic, social and security concerns in the world causing much damages. According to climatology, forest fires are one of the important factors in the formation and dispersion of vegetation. Also, regarding the environment, forest fires cause the emission of considerable amounts of greenhouse gases, smoke and dust into the atmosphere which in turn causes the earth temperature to rise up and are unhealthy to humans, animals and vegetation. In agriculture droughts are the usual side effects of these fires. The causes of forest fires could be categorized as either Human or Natural Causes. Naturally, it is impossible to completely contain forest fires; however, areas with high potentials of fire could be designated and analysed to decrease the risk of fires. The zoning of forest fire potential is a multi-criteria problem always accompanied by inherent uncertainty like other multi-criteria problems. So far, various methods and algorithm for zoning hazardous areas via Remote Sensing (RS) and Geospatial Information System (GIS) have been offered. This paper aims at zoning forest fire potential of Gulestan Province of Iran forests utilizing Remote Sensing, Geospatial Information System, meteorological data, MODIS images and granular computing method. Granular computing is part of granular mathematical and one way of solving multi-criteria problems such forest fire potential zoning supervised by one expert or some experts , and it offers rules for classification with the least inconsistencies. On the basis of the experts' opinion, 6 determinative criterias contributing to forest fires have been designated as follows: vegetation (NDVI), slope, aspect, temperature, humidity and proximity to roadways. By applying these variables on several tentatively selected areas and formation information tables and producing granular decision tree and extraction of rules, the zoning rules (for the areas in question) were extracted. According to them the zoning of the entire area has been conducted. The zoned areas have been classified into 5 categories: high hazard, medium hazard (high), medium hazard (low), low hazard (high), low hazard (low). According to the map, the zoning of most of the areas fall into the low hazard (high) class while the least number of areas have been classified as low hazard (low). Comparing the forest fires in these regions in 2010 with the MODIS data base for forest fires, it is concluded that areas with high hazards of forest fire have been classified with a 64 percent precision. In other word 64 percent of pixels that are in high hazard classification are classified according to MODIS data base. Using this method we obtain a good range of Perception. Manager will reduce forest fire concern using precautionary proceeding on hazardous area.

Jalilzadeh Shadlouei, A.; Delavar, M. R.

2013-09-01

165

Fire risk and adaptation strategies in Northern Eurasian forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On-going climatic changes substantially accelerate current fire regimes in Northern Eurasian ecosystems, particularly in forests. During 1998-2012, wildfires enveloped on average ~10.5 M ha year-1 in Russia with a large annual variation (between 3 and 30 M ha) and average direct carbon emissions at ~150 Tg C year-1. Catastrophic fires, which envelope large areas, spread in usually incombustible wetlands, escape from control and provide extraordinary negative impacts on ecosystems, biodiversity, economics, infrastructure, environment, and health of population, become a typical feature of the current fire regimes. There are new evidences of correlation between catastrophic fires and large-scale climatic anomalies at a continental scale. While current climatic predictions suggest the dramatic warming (at the average at 6-7 °C for the country and up to 10-12°C in some northern continental regions), any substantial increase of summer precipitation does not expected. Increase of dryness and instability of climate will impact fire risk and severity of consequences. Current models suggest a 2-3 fold increase of the number of fires by the end of this century in the boreal zone. They predict increases of the number of catastrophic fires; a significant increase in the intensity of fire and amount of consumed fuel; synergies between different types of disturbances (outbreaks of insects, unregulated anthropogenic impacts); acceleration of composition of the gas emissions due to enhanced soil burning. If boreal forests would become a typing element, the mass mortality of trees would increase fire risk and severity. Permafrost melting and subsequent change of hydrological regimes very likely will lead to the degradation and destruction of boreal forests, as well as to the widespread irreversible replacement of forests by other underproductive vegetation types. A significant feedback between warming and escalating fire regimes is very probable in Russia and particularly in the permafrost areas. Overall, Russia should expect a disproportionate escalation of fire regimes compared to increasing climatic fire danger. Thus, development and implementation of an efficient adaptation strategy is a pressing problem of current forest management of the country. An appropriate system of forest fire protection which would be able to meet challenges of future climates is a corner stone of such a strategy. We consider possible systems solutions of this complex problem including (1) integrated ecological and socio-economic analysis of current and future fire regimes; (2) regional requirements to and specific features of a new paradigm of forest fire protection in the boreal zone of Northern Eurasia; (3) anticipatory strategy of the prevention of large-scale disturbances in forests, including adaptation of forest landscapes to the future climates (regulation of tree composition; setup of relevant spatial structure of forest landscapes; etc.); (4) implementation of an effective system of forest monitoring as part of integrated observing systems; (5) transition to ecologically-friendly systems of industrial development of northern territories; (6) development of new/ improvement of existing legislation and institutional frameworks of forest management which would be satisfactory to react on challenges of climate change; and (6) international cooperation.

Shvidenko, Anatoly; Schepaschenko, Dmitry

2013-04-01

166

Soil respiration from a boreal forest fire scar chronosequence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change predictions suggest that warming is to be most pronounced at high latitudes, with a possibility of boreal forest warming of 4-6°C in the next 50-100 years. This has lead to the suggestion that changes in boreal forest soil carbon (C) storage could significantly alter the global soil C balance. Fire is the most significant factor controlling succession in the boreal forest biome and it is possible that climate change will lead to an increase in fire regime e.g. size, frequency, intensity, or any combination of these. Our research is investigating C flux dynamics in a Canadian boreal forest jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) dominated fire scar chronosequence. Fieldwork is carried out at Sharpsand Creek experimental burn site, near Thessalon, Ontario, Canada, where there are numerous fire scars of different ages. In June 2006 soil respiration (Rs), soil temperature (Ts) and soil moisture (Ms) were measured on three replicate scars selected from plot last burnt in 1948 and 1991. Rs values were later adjusted for Ts using a Q10 value of 2. There was no significant difference in mean adjusted Rs between the two scar age categories. It is likely that sample sizes were not large enough here to detect significant differences. In May 2007, large areas of the field site burnt as a result of wildfire; this provided an opportunity to take a large number of Rs measurements from recently burnt fire scars, as well as from those areas unaffected by the burn. Rs, Ts and Ms measurements were taken from 1948, 1975 and 1991 scar age categories (three replicate scars each) that were burnt in 2007, as well as a 1948 and 1991 fire scar that was unaffected by the wildfire. Soil samples were taken from three locations per fire scar surveyed and analysed in the laboratory for total C content. There was a significant difference in mean Rs adjusted for Ts and Ms (Rsadj) between the three pre-2007 fire scar age categories 1948, 1975 and 1991, that were all burnt in 2007. Mean Rsadj differed significantly between the 1948 and 1991 scars that were not burnt in 2007. A significant difference was apparent in mean Rsadj between the 1948 scar not burnt in 2007 and the three 1948 scars that were burnt in 2007. There was a significant difference in mean Rsadj between the 1991 scar not burnt in 2007 and the three 1991 scars burnt in 2007. Finally mean (Rsadj) differed significantly between the 1948 scar not burned in 2007, 1991 scar not burnt in 2007 and the 9 scars burnt in 2007. Our results indicate that Rs rates vary between fire scars of different ages and it seems that this is also apparent days after burning of scars that differ in their burn history. It appears that Rs from fire scars previously burnt in 1948 and subjected to fire in 2007, decreased as a direct result of the fire. In contrast, Rs from fire scars previously burnt in 1991 and subjected to fire in 2007, increased as a result of the fire. These results suggest that Rs is dominated by autotrophic components in mature forest (59 years post fire), but heterotrophic components in younger forest (16 years post fire). The possibility that Rs is increased directly after burning of younger fire scars is an important finding considering the view that climate change in boreal systems may increase the frequency of forest fires, and hence the proportion of younger forest. More research is needed in other boreal systems and in monitoring Rs for longer time periods after fire on scars with different burn histories.

Smith, D.; Kaduk, J.; Balzter, H.; Wooster, M.; Mottram, G.

2007-12-01

167

Reintroducing Fire in Regenerated Dry Forests Following Stand-Replacing Wildfire1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prescribed fire use may be effective for increasing fire resilience in young coniferous forests by reducing surface fuels, modifying overstory stand structure, and promoting development of large trees of fire resistant species. Questions remain, however, about when and how to reintroduce fire in regenerated forests, and to what end. We studied the effects of spring prescribed fires on stand structure

David W. Peterson; Paul F. Hessburg; Brion Salter; Kevin M. James; Matthew C. Dahlgreen; John A. Barnes

168

Fire History of a Temperate Forest with an Endemic Fire-Dependent Herb  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dendroecological fire history study was conducted for The Nature Conser- vancy's Narrows Preserve on Peters Mountain, Virginia, where the predominant vegetation is oak (Quercus L.)-dominated forest containing some other hardwoods and pines (Pinus L.). The site encompasses all the known habitat of the endangered and endemic Peters Mountain mallow (Iliamna corei Sherff.), a perennial herb that requires fire for

Jennifer A. Hoss; Charles W. Lafon; Henri D. Grissino-Mayer; Serena R. Aldrich; Georgina G. DeWeese

2008-01-01

169

Forest Interpreter's Primer on Fire Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Specifically prepared for the use of Forest Service field-based interpreters of the management, protection, and use of forest and range resources and the associated human, cultural, and natural history found on these lands, this book is the second in a series of six primers on the multiple use of forest and range resources. Following an…

Zelker, Thomas M.

170

Ash fouling in coal-fired utility boilers. Monitoring and optimization of on-load cleaning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even though considerable advances have been made in the fields of boiler design and coal characterization, ash deposition on heat transfer surfaces continues to be a significant problem in existing conventional utility boilers. A cost effective way to deal with this difficulty is the continuous monitoring of fouling tendencies. These techniques have become a widespread practice in coal-fired power stations

A Valero; C Cortés

1996-01-01

171

Aerosol spectral optical depths - Jet fuel and forest fire smokes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ames autotracking airborne sun photometer was used to investigate the spectral depth between 380 and 1020 nm of smokes from a jet fuel pool fire and a forest fire in May and August 1988, respectively. Results show that the forest fire smoke exhibited a stronger wavelength dependence of optical depths than did the jet fuel fire smoke at optical depths less than unity. At optical depths greater than or equal to 1, both smokes showed neutral wavelength dependence, similar to that of an optically thin stratus deck. These results verify findings of earlier investigations and have implications both on the climatic impact of large-scale smokes and on the wavelength-dependent transmission of electromagnetic signals.

Pueschel, R. F.; Livingston, J. M.

1990-01-01

172

Fuel loads, fire regimes, and post-fire fuel dynamics in Florida Keys pine forests  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In forests, the effects of different life forms on fire behavior may vary depending on their contributions to total fuel loads. We examined the distribution of fuel components before fire, their effects on fire behavior, and the effects of fire on subsequent fuel recovery in pine forests within the National Key Deer Refuge in the Florida Keys. We conducted a burning experiment in six blocks, within each of which we assigned 1-ha plots to three treatments: control, summer, and winter burn. Owing to logistical constraints, we burned only 11 plots, three in winter and eight in summer, over a 4-year period from 1998 to 2001. We used path analysis to model the effects of fuel type and char height, an indicator of fire intensity, on fuel consumption. Fire intensity increased with surface fuel loads, but was negatively related to the quantity of hardwood shrub fuels, probably because these fuels are associated with a moist microenvironment within hardwood patches, and therefore tend to resist fire. Winter fires were milder than summer fires, and were less effective at inhibiting shrub encroachment. A mixed seasonal approach is suggested for fire management, with burns applied opportunistically under a range of winter and summer conditions, but more frequently than that prevalent in the recent past. ?? IAWF 2006.

Sah, J. P.; Ross, M. S.; Snyder, J. R.; Koptur, S.; Cooley, H. C.

2006-01-01

173

A SYNTHESIS ON CROWN FIRES IN CONIFER FORESTS IS UNDERWAY  

E-print Network

(JFSP) has elected to support a project aimed at synthesizing the currently available information on the characteristics and prediction of crown fire behavior in conifer forests (Alexander and others 2010). This would include such facets of crown fire behavior as the onset of crowning and the type of crown fire (passive, active, independent) and the associated spread rate and fireline intensity in relation to the wildland fire environment (i.e., fuels, weather, and topography). While the focus is on North American forests, the synthesis is intended to be global in nature and is intended for multiple audiences ranging from the general public to college students, fire and land managers, university professors, and other researchers. In addition to summarizing the existing scientific and technical literature on the subject, project members are also actively seeking assistance from individuals in the form of field observations of crown fires and related experiences as well as still pictures and video footage. We are interested in hearing from you, the wildland fire community, as to your opinions on the sub-Dr. Marty Alexander is an adjunct professor of wildland fire science and management

unknown authors

174

Solar activity as a possible cause of large forest fires--a case study: analysis of the Portuguese forest fires.  

PubMed

Fires of large dimension destroy forests, harvests and housing objects. Apart from that combustion products and burned surfaces become large ecological problems. Very often fires emerge simultaneously on different locations of a region so a question could be asked if they always have been a consequence of negligence, pyromania, high temperatures or maybe there has been some other cause. This paper is an attempt of establishing the possible connection between forest fires that numerous satellites registered and activities happening on the Sun immediately before fires ignite. Fires emerged on relatively large areas from Portugal and Spain on August 2005, as well as on other regions of Europe. The cases that have been analyzed show that, in every concrete situation, an emission of strong electromagnetic and thermal corpuscular energy from highly energetic regions that were in geo-effective position had preceded the fires. Such emissions have, usually, very high energy and high speeds of particles and come from coronary holes that also have been either in the very structure or in the immediate closeness of the geo-effective position. It should also be noted that the solar wind directed towards the Earth becomes weaker with deeper penetration towards the topographic surface. However, the results presented in this paper suggest that, there is a strong causality relationship between solar activity and the ignition of these forest fires taking place in South-western Europe. PMID:18291443

Gomes, J F P; Radovanovic, M

2008-05-01

175

Changes in nutritive value of browse plants following forest fires  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Studies were conducted to determine chemical composition and nutritive value of four species of plants commonly used as browse by deer and to determine effects of low- and high-intensity fires upon chemical composition. Total solids, ash, ether extract, crude fiber and nitrogen-free extract contents of red maple, flowering dogwood, white oak and roundleaf greenbrier were not affected by either type of fire. Protein contents of roundleaf greenbrier, red maple and flowering dogwood foliage were significantly higher in the season following the low-intensity fire, but no effects could be determined in the second year. The high-intensity fire produced significant increases in protein contents of all four species, and effects were still apparent at the end of two years.

DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V.,Jr.

1955-01-01

176

Logging and Fire Effects in Siberian Boreal Forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Russian boreal zone supports a huge terrestrial carbon pool. Moreover, it is a tremendous reservoir of wood products concentrated mainly in Siberia. The main natural disturbance in these forests is wildfire, which modifies the carbon budget and has potentially important climate feedbacks. In addition, both legal and illegal logging increase landscape complexity and fire hazard. We investigated a number of sites in different regions of Siberia to evaluate the impacts of fire and logging on fuel loads, carbon emissions, tree regeneration, soil respiration, and microbocenosis. We found large variations of fire and logging effects among regions depending on growing conditions and type of logging activity. Partial logging had no negative impact on forest conditions and carbon cycle. Illegal logging resulted in increase of fire hazard, and higher carbon emissions than legal logging. The highest fuel loads and carbon emissions were found on repeatedly burned unlogged sites where first fire resulted in total tree mortality. Repeated fires together with logging activities in drier conditions and on large burned sites resulted in insufficient regeneration, or even total lack of tree seedlings. Soil respiration was less on both burned and logged areas than in undisturbed forest. The highest structural and functional disturbances of the soil microbocenosis were observed on logged burned sites. Understanding current interactions between fire and logging is important for modeling ecosystem processes and for managers to develop strategies of sustainable forest management. Changing patterns in the harvest of wood products increase landscape complexity and can be expected to increase emissions and ecosystem damage from wildfires, inhibit recovery of natural ecosystems, and exacerbate impacts of wildland fire on changing climate and air quality. The research was supported by NASA LCLUC Program, RFBR grant # 12-04-31258, and Russian Academy of Sciences.

Kukavskaya, E.; Buryak, L.; Ivanova, G.; Kalenskaya, O.; Bogorodskaya, A.; Zhila, S.; McRae, D.; Conard, S. G.

2013-12-01

177

Climate Change and Forest Fire Potential in Russian and Canadian Boreal Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study outputs from four current General Circulation Models (GCMs) were used to project forest fire danger levels in Canada and Russia under a warmer climate. Temperature and precipitation anomalies between 1 × CO2 and 2 × CO2 runs were combined with baseline observed weather data for both countries for the 1980–1989 period. Forecast seasonal fire weather severity was

B. J. Stocks; M. A. Fosberg; T. J. Lynham; L. Mearns; B. M. Wotton; Q. Yang; J. Z. Jin; K. Lawrence; G. R. Hartley; J. A. Mason; D. W. McKENNEY

1998-01-01

178

Spatiotemporal dynamics of forest degradation by selective logging and forest fire in the Brazilian Amazon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Selective logging and forest fires have increased at a rapid pace in tropical regions in recent decades. Forest disturbances caused by selective logging and forest fires may vary in scale, ranging from local damage to forest canopy, habitats, soils, and biodiversity, to global changes caused by logging-related release of carbon into the atmosphere. This study provides a regional assessment of forest impacts by selective logging and forest fires for 1992, 1996, and 1999. Multivariate statistical models, remote sensing approaches, Geographic Information System (GIS), and remotely sensed imagery combined with field data were applied to verify the scale of environmental changes associated with these processes of forest disturbance. In this regard, the study widens the current knowledge on land use and land cover classifications to include selectively logged and burned forests as additional thematic classes. These classes have not yet been properly accounted for by conventional remote sensing approaches of deforestation assessment, despite their relevance for the understanding of the changes affecting tropical forests. This study is the first multi-temporal and spatial assessment of the selective logging and forest fire impacts in the Brazilian Amazon. The resulting estimates show that at least 11800 km 2, 16500 km2, and 35600 km2 of natural forests were selectively logged and/or burned by 1992, 1996, and 1999, respectively. More than 60% of these forest disturbances observed in the Brazilian Amazon during those years were due to selective logging activities. However, forest fires were responsible for the greatest impacts on natural forests, causing an estimated loss of 18.8% of forest canopy in the study region. I also estimated that approximately 5467 km2, 7618 km2, and 17437 km2 were active areas of selective logging and/or forest fires in 1992, 1996, and 1999, respectively. In addition, approximately 4% of total forest disturbed by selective logging and forest fires was geographically located within protected areas. Areas affected by selective logging and forest fire corresponded to 2.7%, 3.2%, and 6.3% of total deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon by 1992, 1996, and 1999, respectively. Altogether, the present study demonstrated not only the importance of the selective logging and forest fires as important drivers of forest change in the tropics, but improved the existing knowledge of their combined impacts in forested lands in the Brazilian Amazon. Furthermore, the results of this research are expected to support and enhance the scope of global climate change studies associated with environmental changes caused by economic activities based on the exploitation of natural resources available in tropical forests. In terms of its applications to normative efforts, this study could be used to enlighten authorities and staff of environmental agencies working to develop sustainable management programs and environmental policies in Brazil and other tropical countries.

Matricardi, Eraldo A. T.

179

Climate change and forest fires in a Mediterranean environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mediterranean region is a "hot-spot" of climate change and wildfires, where about 50000 fires burn 500000 hectares every year. However, in spite of the growing concerns of the climate change impacts on Mediterranean wildfires, there are aspects of this topic that remain largely to be investigated. The main scientific objective of this study is to investigate the climate-driven changes on fires in a typical Mediterranean environment (Catalonia, NE of Spain). To achieve this goal, the following specific aims have been identified: (1) Analysis of the recent evolution of fires; (2) Evaluation of the climate-fire relationship; (3) Estimation of the impacts of observed and future climate change. First, we examine a homogeneous series of forest fires in the period 1970-2010. Our analysis shows that both the burned area and number of fire series display a decreasing trend. After the large fires of 1986 and 1994, the increased effort in fire prevention and suppression could explain part of this decreasing trend. Although it is often stated that fires have increased in Mediterranean regions, the higher efficiency in fire detection could have led to spurious trends and misleading conclusions [1]. Secondly, we show that the interannual variability of summer fires is significantly related to antecedent and concurrent climate conditions, highlighting the importance of climate not only in regulating fuel flammability, but also fuel load. On the basis of these results, we develop a simple regression model that produces reliable out-of-sample predictions of the impact of climate variability on summer forest fires [2]. Finally we apply this model to estimate the impacts of observed climate trends on summer fires and the possible fire response to different regional climate change scenarios. We show that a transition toward warmer conditions has already started to occur and it is possible that they continue by mid-century (under the A1B scenario), and that these changes promote more fires, with similar or lower extension [3]. *References [1] M. Turco, M. C. Llasat, A. Tudela, X. Castro, and A. Provenzale. Brief communication Decreasing fires in a Mediterranean region (1970-2010, NE Spain). Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, 13(3):649-652, 2013. [2] M. Turco, M. C. Llasat, J. von Hardenberg, and A. Provenzale. Impact of climate variability on summer fires in a mediterranean environment (northeastern iberian peninsula). Climatic Change, 116:665-678, 2013. [3] M. Turco, M. C. Llasat, J. von Hardenberg, and A. Provenzale. Climate change impacts on wildfires in a Mediterranean environment. In preparation.

Turco, Marco; Llasat, Maria-Carmen; von Hardenberg, Jost; Provenzale, Antonello

2014-05-01

180

Spatiotemporal Variations of Fire Frequency in Central Boreal Forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determination of the direct causal factors controlling wildfires is key to understanding wildfire–vegetation–climate dynamics in a changing climate and for developing sustainable management strategies for biodiversity conservation and maintenance of long-term forest productivity. In this study, we sought to understand how the fire frequency of a large mixedwood forest in the central boreal shield varies as a result of temporal

Dominic Senici; Han Y. H. Chen; Yves Bergeron; Dominic Cyr

2010-01-01

181

Self-organized critical forest-fire model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A forest-fire model is introduced which contains a lightning probability f. This leads to a self-organized critical state in the limit f-->0 provided that the time scales of tree growth and burning down of forest clusters are separated. We derive scaling laws and calculate all critical exponents. The values of the critical exponents are confirmed by computer simulations. For a

B. Drossel; F. Schwabl

1992-01-01

182

Self-organized criticality in a forest-fire model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A forest-fire model is introduced which contains a lightning probability f. This leads to a self-organized critical state in the limit f-->0 provided that the time scales of free growth and burning down of forest clusters are separated. We derive scaling laws and calculate all critical exponents. The values of the critical exponents are confirmed by computer simulations. For a

B. Drossel; F. Schwabl

1992-01-01

183

Trace Metal Inventories and Lead Isotopic Composition Chronicle a Forest Fire's Remobilization of Industrial Contaminants Deposited in the Angeles National Forest.  

PubMed

The amounts of labile trace metals: [Co] (3 to 11 µg g-1), [Cu] (15 to 69 µg g-1), [Ni] (6 to 15 µg g-1), [Pb] (7 to 42 µg g-1), and [Zn] (65 to 500 µg g-1) in ash collected from the 2012 Williams Fire in Los Angeles, California attest to the role of fires in remobilizing industrial metals deposited in forests. These remobilized trace metals may be dispersed by winds, increasing human exposures, and they may be deposited in water bodies, increasing exposures in aquatic ecosystems. Correlations between the concentrations of these trace metals, normalized to Fe, in ash from the fire suggest that Co, Cu, and Ni in most of those samples were predominantly from natural sources, whereas Pb and Zn were enriched in some ash samples. The predominantly anthropogenic source of excess Pb in the ash was further demonstrated by its isotopic ratios (208Pb/207Pb: 206Pb/207Pb) that fell between those of natural Pb and leaded gasoline sold in California during the previous century. These analyses substantiate current human and environmental health concerns with the pyrogenic remobilization of toxic metals, which are compounded by projections of increases in the intensity and frequency of wildfires associated with climate change. PMID:25259524

Odigie, Kingsley O; Flegal, A Russell

2014-01-01

184

Trace Metal Inventories and Lead Isotopic Composition Chronicle a Forest Fire's Remobilization of Industrial Contaminants Deposited in the Angeles National Forest  

PubMed Central

The amounts of labile trace metals: [Co] (3 to 11 µg g?1), [Cu] (15 to 69 µg g?1), [Ni] (6 to 15 µg g?1), [Pb] (7 to 42 µg g?1), and [Zn] (65 to 500 µg g?1) in ash collected from the 2012 Williams Fire in Los Angeles, California attest to the role of fires in remobilizing industrial metals deposited in forests. These remobilized trace metals may be dispersed by winds, increasing human exposures, and they may be deposited in water bodies, increasing exposures in aquatic ecosystems. Correlations between the concentrations of these trace metals, normalized to Fe, in ash from the fire suggest that Co, Cu, and Ni in most of those samples were predominantly from natural sources, whereas Pb and Zn were enriched in some ash samples. The predominantly anthropogenic source of excess Pb in the ash was further demonstrated by its isotopic ratios (208Pb/207Pb: 206Pb/207Pb) that fell between those of natural Pb and leaded gasoline sold in California during the previous century. These analyses substantiate current human and environmental health concerns with the pyrogenic remobilization of toxic metals, which are compounded by projections of increases in the intensity and frequency of wildfires associated with climate change. PMID:25259524

Odigie, Kingsley O.; Flegal, A. Russell

2014-01-01

185

Scan statistics analysis of forest fire clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatio-temporal clusters in 1997-2003 fire sequences of Tuscany region (central Italy) have been identified and analysed by using the scan statistic, a method which was devised to evidence clusters in epidemiology. Results showed that the method is reliable to find clusters of events and to evaluate their significance via Monte Carlo replication. The evaluation of the presence of spatial and temporal patterns in fire occurrence and their significance could have a great impact in forthcoming studies on fire occurrences prediction.

Tuia, Devis; Ratle, Fréderic; Lasaponara, Rosa; Telesca, Luciano; Kanevski, Mikhail

2008-10-01

186

A pilot study of mercury liberation and capture from coal-fired power plant fly ash.  

PubMed

The coal-fired electric utility generation industry has been identified as the largest anthropogenic source of mercury (Hg) emissions in the United States. One of the promising techniques for Hg removal from flue gas is activated carbon injection (ACI). The aim of this project was to liberate Hg bound to fly ash and activated carbon after ACI and provide high-quality coal combustion products for use in construction materials. Both bench- and pilot-scale tests were conducted to liberate Hg using a thermal desorption process. The results indicated that up to 90% of the Hg could be liberated from the fly ash or fly-ash-and-activated-carbon mixture using a pilot-scale apparatus (air slide) at 538 degrees C with a very short retention time (less than 1 min). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) evaluation indicated no significant change in fly ash carbon particle morphology following the thermal treatment. Fly ash particles collected in the baghouse of the pilot-scale apparatus were smaller in size than those collected at the exit of the air slide. A similar trend was observed in carbon particles separated from the fly ash using froth flotation. The results of this study suggest a means for power plants to reduce the level of Hg in coal-combustion products and potentially recycle activated carbon while maintaining the resale value of fly ash. This technology is in the process of being patented. PMID:15828667

Li, Jin; Gao, Xiaobing; Goeckner, Bryna; Kollakowsky, Dave; Ramme, Bruce

2005-03-01

187

Qualitative Analysis in a Second-Order Impact Model for Forest Fires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural forest fires are the problems that influence ecosystems, and they have been researched from of old. For solving this problem, a prediction model for forest fires was proposed. The model imitates fires that are seen in mediterranean forests, boreal forests and savannas. In recent years, it was simplified a second-order impact model. Furthermore, the model of mediterranean forests have been analyzed. However, the others are insufficient yet, and the qualitative property of forest fires has not been discussed enough. In this letter, we analyze the second-order impact model that is seen in boreal forests and savannas. Moreover, we consider what bifurcation phenomena essentially influences some periodic solutions.

Tomonaga, Shingo; Kousaka, Takuji

188

FOREST FIRE DETECTION BASED ON GAUSSIAN FIELD ANALYSIS Florent Lafarge, Xavier Descombes, Josiane Zerubia  

E-print Network

FOREST FIRE DETECTION BASED ON GAUSSIAN FIELD ANALYSIS Florent Lafarge, Xavier Descombes, Josiane sensitive to the emission of heat. The forest fires can be char- acterized by intensity peaks on TIR images. We present a fully automatic method of forest fire detection from TIR satel- lite images based

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

189

V International Conference on Forest Fire Research D. X. Viegas (Ed.), 2006  

E-print Network

after fire in mountain forests of the Central Alps Wohlgemuth T. Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, questions on the ecological resilience of these mountain forests after fires arise. On an 300 ha forest fire- and partially also man-induced wildfires were registered in the Alpine valleys (Tinner et al., 2006). Because

190

Future fire in Canada's boreal forest: paleoecology results and general circulation model - regional climate model simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

General circulation model simulations suggest the Earth's climate will be 1-3.5°C warmer by AD 2100. This will influence disturbances such as forest fires, which are important to circumpolar boreal forest dynamics and, hence, the global carbon cycle. Many suggest climate warming will cause increased fire activity and area burned. Here, we use the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index to simulate

Mike Flannigan; Ian Campbell; Mike Wotton; Christopher Carcaillet; Pierre Richard; Yves Bergeron

2001-01-01

191

BIOTIC AND ABIOTIC REGULATION OF LIGHTNING FIRE INITIATION IN THE MIXEDWOOD BOREAL FOREST  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lightning fire is the dominant natural disturbance of the western mixedwood boreal forest of North America. We quantified the independent effects of weather and forest composition on lightning fire initiation (a detected and recorded fire start) patterns in Alberta, Canada, to demonstrate how these biotic and abiotic components contribute to ecosystem dynamics in the mixedwood boreal forest. We used logistic

M. A. Krawchuk; S. G. Cumming; M. D. Flannigan; R. W. Wein

2006-01-01

192

Telemetry Speeds Forest-Fire Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Airborne system rapidly delivers hard copy to firefighters. Sensors in airplane send data to ground station for image processing. Imagery immediately transferred to U.S. Geologic Survey (USGS) maps by photo interpreter. Maps transmitted by telecopies directly to fire-control camps. Receipt by fire camp less than 10 minutes. Information aids in decisions involving deployment of firefighters and equipment, flood control, monitoring oilspills, observing thermal currents, and pollutions monitoring.

Arvesen, J. C.; Cherbonneaux, J. W.

1984-01-01

193

Application of Infrared Scanners to Forest Fire Detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential of using infrared scanners for the detection of forest fires is discussed. An experiment is described in which infrared and visual detection systems were used jointly to study timber fire detection. Many fires were detected visually but missed by the airborne IR system, and many fires were detected by the IR system but missed visually. Until more is learned about the relationship between heat output and smoke output from latent fires, the relative effectiveness of visual and IR systems cannot be determined. The 1970 tests indicated that IR used in combination with visual detection will result in a more efficient system than visual alone. Even with limited knowledge of the relative effectiveness of the two systems, operational use of a combined system can be used to substantially reduce total firefighting costs.

Hirsch, S. N.

1971-01-01

194

Forest responses to the large-scale east coast fires in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The east coast forest fires of April 2000 were Korea’s largest recorded fires. This, along with the fact that they took place in the region most frequently affected by fire, attracted a great deal of attention. Due to the variations in wind, topography and pre-fire forest stands, a heterogeneous landscape mosaic of burn severity was created across the region. It

Yeonsook CHOUNG; Byung-Chun LEE; Jae-Hyoung CHO; Kyu-Song LEE; In-Soo JANG; Sun-Hee KIM; Sun-Kee HONG; Hui-Cheul JUNG; Heung-Lak CHOUNG

2004-01-01

195

IMPLEMENTING THE EXPANDED PRESCRIBED FIRE PROGRAM ON THE GILA NATIONAL FOREST, NEW MEXICO  

E-print Network

silviculture and vegetation management. Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference Proceedings, No. 21. Tall Timbers the fire and satisfy ecological and safety concerns. keywords: fire, ponderosa pine forests, snags. Pages 104-1 13 in W. Keith Moser and Cynthia E Moser (eds.). Fire and forest ecology: innovative

196

Dendrochronology-based fire history of mixed-conifer forests in the San Jacinto Mountains, California  

E-print Network

.2 years. The majority of fires occurred within latewood or at the ring boundary. Graphic modelling of firDendrochronology-based fire history of mixed-conifer forests in the San Jacinto Mountains. Introduction Characterizing fire regimes and fire seasonality in Californian mixed-conifer forests is difficult

Stephens, Scott L.

197

Increased damage from fires in logged forests during droughts caused by El Niño  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1997-98, fires associated with an exceptional drought caused by the El Niño\\/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) devastated large areas of tropical rain forests worldwide. Evidence suggests that in tropical rainforest environments selective logging may lead to an increased susceptibility of forests to fire. We investigated whether this was true in the Indonesian fires, the largest fire disaster ever observed. We performed

F. Siegert; G. Ruecker; A. A. Hoffmann

2001-01-01

198

THE ECONOMICAL MICROBOLOMETER-BASED ENVIRONMENTAL RADIOMETER SATELLITE (EMBERSAT) DESIGNED FOR FOREST FIRE DETECTION AND MONITORING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal infrared imagery from several satellite instruments, such as the NOAA AVHRR and the NASA MODIS, is presently used to detect and map forest fires. But while these radiometers can identify fires they are designed and optimized for cloud detection, providing relatively low spatial resolution and quickly saturating even for small fires. Efforts to de tect and monitor forest fires

Redgie S. Lancaster; David R. Skillman; Wayne C. Welch; James D. Spinhirne; Katherine F. Manizade; Brian P. Beecken

199

Fire regimes and forest changes in mid and upper montane forests of the southern Cascades, Lassen Volcanic National Park, California, U.S.A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim Spatial and temporal variation in fire regime parameters and forest structure were assessed. Location A 2630-ha area of mid- and upper montane forest in Lassen Volcanic National Park (LVNP). Methods Two hypotheses were tested concerned with fire-vegetation relationships in southern Cascades forests: (1) fire regime parameters (return interval, season of burn, fire size, rotation period) vary by forest dominant,

A. H. Taylor

2000-01-01

200

Mapping of forest fire damages using imaging spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An airborne spectroscopic imager (casi) was flown over a region which was damaged by a forest fire while the radiance from the ground was measured from the blue to the near-IR spectral region. A correlation matrix analysis and the normalized difference vegetation index reveals different degrees (classes) of destruction. More details however can be extracted from a neural analysis in

C. Olbert; M. Schaale; R. Furrer

1995-01-01

201

Prediction of Forest Fires using Data Mining Methods  

E-print Network

occurence, automatic meteorological satations are often available, and such data can be collected in real-time and non-costly meteorological data to predict the burned area of forest fires. The data was collected from, four meteorological attributes, and the response variable, the burned area. The data is consist of 12

McLeod, Ian

202

The Impact of Boreal Forest Fire on Climate Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report measurements and analysis of a boreal forest fire, integrating the effects of greenhouse gases, aerosols, black carbon deposition on snow and sea ice, and postfire changes in surface albedo. The net effect of all agents was to increase radiative forcing during the first year (34 ± 31 Watts per square meter of burned area), but to decrease radiative

Randerson J. T; Liu H; Flanner M. G; Chambers S. D; Jin Y; Hess P. G; Pfister G; Mack M. C; Treseder K. K; Welp L. R; Chapin F. S; Harden J. W; Goulden M. L; Lyons E; J. C. Neff; Schuur E. A. G; C. S. Zender

2006-01-01

203

A forest-fire model and some thoughts on turbulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of a forest-fire model we demonstrate critical scaling behavior in a ``turbulent'' non-equilibrium system. Energy is injected uniformly, and dissipated on a fractal. Critical exponents are estimated by means of a Monte Carlo renormalization- group calculation.

Per Bak; Kan Chen; Chao Tang

1990-01-01

204

Airborne Studies of Particles and Gases from Forest Fires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airborne measurements have been made in the emissions from several prescribed (deliberate) forest fires in Western Washington State. Particle measurements in the size range of 0.01 to 60 fim diameter show a multimodal character with the majority of the mass contained in particles between 0.1 to 1 pm in diameter. A particle emission factor (mass of particles produced per unit

Lawrence F. Radke; Jeffrey L. Stith; Dean A. Hegg; Peter V. Hobbs

1978-01-01

205

Dynamic Analysis and Pattern Visualization of Forest Fires  

PubMed Central

This paper analyses forest fires in the perspective of dynamical systems. Forest fires exhibit complex correlations in size, space and time, revealing features often present in complex systems, such as the absence of a characteristic length-scale, or the emergence of long range correlations and persistent memory. This study addresses a public domain forest fires catalogue, containing information of events for Portugal, during the period from 1980 up to 2012. The data is analysed in an annual basis, modelling the occurrences as sequences of Dirac impulses with amplitude proportional to the burnt area. First, we consider mutual information to correlate annual patterns. We use visualization trees, generated by hierarchical clustering algorithms, in order to compare and to extract relationships among the data. Second, we adopt the Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) visualization tool. MDS generates maps where each object corresponds to a point. Objects that are perceived to be similar to each other are placed on the map forming clusters. The results are analysed in order to extract relationships among the data and to identify forest fire patterns. PMID:25137393

Lopes, Antonio M.; Tenreiro Machado, J. A.

2014-01-01

206

Empirical models of forest fire initial attack success probabilities: the effects of fuels, anthropogenic linear features, fire weather, and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canadian fire managers seek to contain fires below some target size (here 3 ha) by initial attack (IA). Sup- pression failures occur when fire size at IA exceeds this target (a response failure) or if an initially small fire cannot be contained below it (a containment failure). We examined the effects of cause, season, forest fuels, anthropogenic lin- ear features,

M. Cecilia Arienti; Steven G. Cumming; Stan Boutin

2006-01-01

207

The national Fire and Fire Surrogate study: effects of fuel reduction methods on forest vegetation structure and fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in vegetation and fuels were evaluated from measurements taken before and after fuel reduction treatments (prescribed fire, mechanical treatments, and the combination of the two) at 12 Fire and Fire Surrogate (FFS) sites located in forests with a surface fire regime across the conterminous United States. To test the relative effectiveness of fuel reduction treatments and their effect on

Dylan W. Schwilk; Jon E. Keeley; Eric E. Knapp; James McIver; John D. Bailey; Christopher J. Fettig; Carl E. Fiedler; Richy J. Harrod; Jason J. Moghaddas; Kenneth W. Outcalt; Carl N. Skinner; Scott L. Stephens; Thomas A. Waldrop; Daniel A. Yaussy; Andrew Youngblood

2009-01-01

208

Fire history of a prairie/forest boundary: more than 250 years of frequent fire in a North American tallgrass  

E-print Network

history; Fire suppression; Osage Nation; Quercus stellata; Tallgrass prairie; Tree ring. Abbreviations EAS. Dendrochronological methods were used to identify years of formation for tree rings and fire scars. Superposed epochFire history of a prairie/forest boundary: more than 250 years of frequent fire in a North American

Palmer, Michael W.

209

Historical Susceptibility of Forest Fires in the Carajas Region, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Carajas Region in the Para state, nowadays keeps a vast area of forests protected by Units of Conservation and Indigenous Land. Despite the efforts and investments done by private companies and government agencies to prevent forest fires, they are still registered, being one of the major factors of degradation of forests, flora and fauna. Thus there is a need to improve the understanding of these burning processes at present, and its evolution in different time scales, which allows comparison between patterns of fire occurrences related to climate and human reasons. This study aims to assess the evolution of the climate of Carajas region along the Quaternary, with emphasis on natural occurrence of fires related to historical events palaeoclimatic. For this a sediment core of a lake with 450 cm of depth was collected. Chronology is being determined by the radiocarbon method. Ours specific objectives are quantify and qualify the source of sedimentary material, determine concentrations of biogenic elements and minerals, through granulometric and mineralogical analyses and of quality and quantity of organic matter through the establishment of elementary (the C/N) and isotopic ratios (ä13C and ä15N). The dimensions of processes linked to the biomass burning will be determined by quantifying of charcoal fragments resulting from fires through microscopic analysis. This seeks to reconstruct the environmental scene and paleoclimatics conditions related to events of biomass burning, demonstrating the susceptibility of this historic region to the occurrence of fires according to the different climate stages identified.

Conceicao, M. C.; Rodrigues, R. A.; Cordeiro, R. C.; Barbosa, M. R.; Santos, D. D.; Turcq, B. J.; Seoane, J. S.; Sifeddine, A.

2008-12-01

210

Remediation of ash problems in pulverised coal-fired boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the control methods for mitigating fouling and slagging in brown coal-fired power utilities. Two control methods were investigated, i.e. wet pretreatment of coal and the use of mineral additives. By the first technique, samples of brown coal were treated with aluminium solutions to adjust the levels of Na, Al and Cl. The effect of cleaning was tested

H. B. Vuthaluru

1999-01-01

211

Forest fires, woodland caribou and land use policies in northwestern Ontario (Rangifer tarandus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) are a threatened species in Ontario's boreal forest. Caribou require habitat that supports appropriate forage, including large areas of lichen rich forests. This research examines two dynamics that influence woodland caribou habitat in northwestern Ontario. These dynamics are forest fires and land use policies. The effects of forest fires are assessed quantitatively at both the

Brian Frederick Kutas

2004-01-01

212

Effects of repeated fires on ecosystem C and N stocks along a fire induced forest/grassland gradient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Repeated fires might have different effect on ecosystem carbon storage than a single fire event, but information on repeated fires and their effects on forest ecosystems and carbon storage is scarce. However, changes in climate, vegetation composition, and human activities are expected to make forests more susceptible to fires that recur with relatively high frequency. In this study, the effects of repeated fires on ecosystem carbon and nitrogen stocks were examined along a fire-induced forest/grassland gradient wherein the fire events varied from an unburned forest to repeatedly burned grassland. Results from the study show repeated fires drastically decreased ecosystem carbon and nitrogen stocks along the forest/grassland gradient. The reduction began with the disappearance of living tree biomass, and followed by the loss of soil carbon and nitrogen. Within 4 years of the onset of repeated fires on the unburned forest, the original ecosystem carbon and nitrogen stocks were reduced by 42% and 21%, respectively. Subsequent fires caused cumulative reductions in ecosystem carbon and nitrogen stocks by 68% and 44% from the original ecosystem carbon and nitrogen stocks, respectively. The analyses of carbon budgets calculated by vegetation composition and stable isotopic ?13C values indicate that 84% of forest-derived carbon is lost at grassland, whereas the gain of grass-derived carbon only compensates 18% for this loss. Such significant losses in ecosystem carbon and nitrogen stocks suggest that the effects of repeated fires have substantial impacts on ecosystem and soil carbon and nitrogen cycling.

Cheng, Chih-Hsin; Chen, Yung-Sheng; Huang, Yu-Hsuan; Chiou, Chyi-Rong; Lin, Chau-Chih; Menyailo, Oleg V.

2013-03-01

213

A feasibility study: Forest Fire Advanced System Technology (FFAST)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service completed a feasibility study that examined the potential uses of advanced technology in forest fires mapping and detection. The current and future (1990's) information needs in forest fire management were determined through interviews. Analysis shows that integrated information gathering and processing is needed. The emerging technologies that were surveyed and identified as possible candidates for use in an end to end system include ""push broom'' sensor arrays, automatic georeferencing, satellite communication links, near real or real time image processing, and data integration. Matching the user requirements and the technologies yielded a ""strawman'' system configuration. The feasibility study recommends and outlines the implementation of the next phase for this project, a two year, conceptual design phase to define a system that warrants continued development.

Mcleod, R. G.; Martin, T. Z.; Warren, J.

1983-01-01

214

Production and Transport of Ozone From Boreal Forest Fires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the summer of 2010, the BORTAS (Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites) mission was planned by several universities and government agencies in the United Kingdom, Canada, and USA. Nearly 100 ozone soundings were made at 13 stations through the BORTAS Intensive Sounding Network, although aircraft measurements were unfortunately cancelled due to the volcanic eruption in Iceland. 2010 was actually an exceptional year for Canadian boreal fires. MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) fire count data shows large fire events in Saskatchewan on several days in July. High amounts of NO2 close to the large fires are observed from OMI satellite data, indicating that not all NO2 is converted to PAN. Also associated with the fires, large amounts of CO, another precursor of ozone, are observed in MOPITT (Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere), AIRS and TES (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer) satellite data in the middle to upper troposphere. These chemical conditions combined with sunny weather all favour ozone production. Following days with large fire activity, layers of elevated ozone mixing ratio (over 100 ppbv) are observed downwind at several sites. Back-trajectories suggest the elevated ozone in the profile is traceable to the fires in Saskatchewan. Lidar profiles also detect layers of aerosol at the same heights. However, the layers of high ozone are also associated with low humidity, which is not expected from a combustion source, and suggests the possibility of entrainment of stratospheric air.

Tarasick, David; Liu, Jane; Osman, Mohammed; Sioris, Christopher; Liu, Xiong; Najafabadi, Omid; Parrington, Mark; Palmer, Paul; Strawbridge, Kevin; Duck, Thomas

2013-04-01

215

Spatial models for monitoring the spatio-temporal evolution of ashes after fire - a case study of a burnt grassland in Lithuania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ash thickness is a key variable in the protection of soil against erosion agents after planned and unplanned fires. Ash thickness measurements were conducted along two transects (flat and sloping areas) following a grided experimental design. In order to interpolate data with accuracy and identify the techniques with the least bias, several interpolation methods were tested in the grided plot. Overall, the fire had a low severity. However, the fire significantly reduced the ground cover, especially on sloping areas, owing to the higher fire severity and/or less biomass previous to the fire. Ash thickness depended on fire severity and was thin where fire severity was higher and thicker in lower fire severity sites. The ash thickness decreased with time after the fire. Between 4 and 16 days after the fire, ash was transported by wind. The greatest reduction took place between 16 and 34 days after the fire as a result of rainfall, and was more efficient where fire severity was higher. Between 34 and 45 days after the fire, no significant differences in ash thickness were identified among ash colours and only traces of the ash layer remained. The omni-directional experimental variograms showed that variable structure did not change significantly with time. The ash spatial variability increased with time, particularly on the slope, as a result of water erosion.

Pereira, P.; Cerdà, A.; Úbeda, X.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Martin, D.; Jordán, A.; Burguet, M.

2013-05-01

216

Fire and Forest Structure Across Vegetation Gradients in San Juan National Forest, Colorado: A Multi-scaled Historical Analysis. (Project 01-3-3-13).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We used tree-ring and forest structural data to document fire regimes, forest structure, and relationships between climate change, fires, and tree recruitment across gradients in forest types, elevation, and landscape physiography in the middle Piedra Riv...

J. J. O'Brien, P. M. Brown, R. Wu R. J. Mitchell

2006-01-01

217

2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 97 EMERALD ASH BORER AFTERMATH FORESTS  

E-print Network

2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 97 EMERALD ASH BORER AFTERMATH FORESTS, with individual species distributions dependent on geography, habitat, and land use history. Invasive plant and Michigan. In long-infested plots where 99.9 percent of ash trees have died, there are many established ash

218

Modelling ash thickness spatial distribution after a grassland fire. The effect of sampling distance.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After fire ash is distributed heterogeneously in the soil surface, providing different levels of soil protection and nutrient inputs. In the immediate period post-fire ash is the most valuable soil protection against erosion and understand ash distribution patterns is of major importance, because, because allow us to identify the most vulnerable areas to soil erosion. Modelling accuracy depends on the data density and the best method for data interpolation. In this communication we aim to study the effects of ash thickness samples, separated by 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 cm on the modelling performance in a west faced slope with 15 % of inclination in an area of 80 m2. We tested the experimental variogram for each data density and some well known interpolation methods as Inverse Distance to a Weight (IDW) (with the power of 1,2,3,4 and 5), Local Polynomial with the first and second polynomial order, Polynomial Regression (PR), Radial Basis Functions (RBF) as Multilog (MTG), Natural Cubic Spline (NCS), Multiquadratic (MTQ), Inverse Multiquadratic (IMTQ) and Thin plate Spline (TPS) and Ordinary Kriging. Overall we tested 16 methods of interpolation. Interpolation accuracy was observed with the cross-validation method that is achieved by taking each observation in turn out of the sample and estimating from the remaining ones. The errors produced in each interpolation allowed us to calculate the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). The method with smaller RMSE is the most accurate to interpolation of ash thickness in each considered distance. The results showed that ash sampling distance has important implications on variogram properties. Spherical model fits better with the sampling distance of 20 cm, Gaussian model with the distance of 40 and 100 cm, Linear model with the distance of 60 cm and Wave Hole Effect model with the distance of 80 cm. This means that sample designing had implications on the spatial structure and evolution of ash thickness properties across the studied area. From all the interpolation methods the most accurate for 20 cm, 40 cm and 60 cm of distance was IDW 1, for 80 cm and 100 cm IMTQ. This reveals that the small scale variability of ash distribution is detected until 60 cm of distance and data heterogeneity is very high. At the sampling distances of 80 cm and 100 cm IMPQ identified some patterns of ash thickness distribution. Among all sampling distances, on average, 60 cm presented less error and 20 the high error in sample prediction. Keywords: Ash thickness, modelling, sampling distance, interpolation methods

Pereira, P.; Cepanko, V.; Vaitkute, D.; Pundyte, N.; Pranskevicius, M.; Ubeda, X.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Cerda, A.

2012-04-01

219

The management of fire-prone forests, especially within the national forests of the west, is one of the  

E-print Network

conducted before, during, and after wildfires. Our focus is primarily on wildlands, rather than the wildland and implementing fire and fuel management policies for forests before, during, and after wildfires. Fire exclusion

California at Berkeley, University of

220

Assessing skill of operational forest fire emissions model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Across the continental United States, the BlueSky Smoke Modeling Framework provides hourly forest fire emissions forecasts and calculates the concentrations of hazardous compounds 72 hours in advance. Though a traditional computational model itself, the BlueSky Framework pulls together the results from a number of different independent models for fire and fuel information, combustion of fuel, and speciated emissions calculations to produce its operational forecasts of fire-related emissions and smoke dispersals. One aspect of forest fire emissions that is of particular concern is small particulate matter, particularly microscopic particles with diameters less than 2.5 micrometers. These particles, known as PM2.5, are small enough to penetrate lung tissue and cause serious health problems in high concentrations. To assess the skill of the BlueSky Gateway, a system that uses the BlueSky Framework and the Community MultiScale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to forecast PM2.5 surface concentrations, Strand et al. compared the modeled estimates for two Californian forest wildfire events against observations.

Schultz, Colin

2012-10-01

221

Climatic stress increases forest fire severity across the western United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pervasive warming can lead to chronic stress on forest trees, which may contribute to mortality resulting from fire-caused injuries. Longitudinal analyses of forest plots from across the western US show that high pre-fire climatic water deficit was related to increased post-fire tree mortality probabilities. This relationship between climate and fire was present after accounting for fire defences and injuries, and appeared to influence the effects of crown and stem injuries. Climate and fire interactions did not vary substantially across geographical regions, major genera and tree sizes. Our findings support recent physiological evidence showing that both drought and heating from fire can impair xylem conductivity. Warming trends have been linked to increasing probabilities of severe fire weather and fire spread; our results suggest that warming may also increase forest fire severity (the number of trees killed) independent of fire intensity (the amount of heat released during a fire).

van Mantgem, Philip J.; Nesmith, Jonathan C. B.; Keifer, MaryBeth; Knapp, Eric E.; Flint, Alan; Flint, Lorriane

2013-01-01

222

Long-term dynamics of fire refuges in boreal mixedwood forests  

E-print Network

fire, including tree species composition, stand structure, abundance of woody debris and thicknessLong-term dynamics of fire refuges in boreal mixedwood forests SAMIRA OUARMIM,1,2 * HUGO ASSELIN,1 that partially or entirely escaped fire. Some of these post-fire residual stands ­ called fire refuges ­ can

Asselin, Hugo

223

Late Holocene geomorphic record of fire in ponderosa pine and mixed-conifer forests, Kendrick Mountain,  

E-print Network

in forested ecosystems. We used 14 C ages on charcoal from fire-induced debris-flow deposits to date prehistoric fires on Kendrick Mountain, northern Arizona, USA. Fire-related debris-flow sedimentation), suggesting that interannual moisture variability may determine fire year. Fire-debris flow sequences

224

Absorption characteristics of forest fire particulate matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

* coefficient B, values ranging from 0.04 m g -r for smoldering combustion to 1 m2 g-i at 632.8 nm for flaming combustion. These measured optical properties and previously measured size data were used in Mie calculations to determine the overall radiative properties for the smokes from these fires. Mie calculations for 1 = 550nm indicate that, somewhat less than

E. M. PATTERSON; C MCMAHON

1984-01-01

225

Erosion-corrosion of coatings by biomass-fired boiler fly ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

The erosion-corrosion (E-C) behavior of two steels (AISI 1018 low carbon steel, Type 304 stainless steel) and several thermal spray coatings by fly ash from a biomass-fired boiler was determined in laboratory tests using a nozzle type elevated temperature erosion tester. The coatings included Hypersonic Velocity Oxygen Fuel (HVOF) thermal sprayed coatings on the mild steel (Cr3Cr2?NiCr, Cr3C2, NiCrSi, NiCrMo,

Bu-Qian Wang

1995-01-01

226

Phosphorus release from ash and remaining tissues of two wetland species after a prescribed fire.  

PubMed

Dead plant tissues and ash from a prescribed fire play an important role in nutrient balance and cycling in the Florida Everglades ecosystem. The objective of this study was to assess the dynamic changes in total phosphorus release (TPr) from ash or tissues of either cattail (Typha domingensis Pers.) or sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense Crantz) to water. Natural-dead (senesced-dead) and burning-dead (standing-dead due to a prescribed fire) cattail and sawgrass were collected from highly (H) and moderately (M) impacted zones in the Florida Everglades. This experiment was conducted by incubation and water-extraction of the materials in plastic bottles for 65 d at room temperature (24 +/- 1 degrees C). Results showed that 63 to 88%, 17 to 48%, 9 to 20%, and 13 to 28% of total P (TPp) were released as TPr from cattail and sawgrass ash, cattail tissues from the H zone, cattail tissues, and sawgrass tissues from the M zone, respectively. TPp means total P of plant tissues, whereas TPr is total P release from the tissues or ash. Most of the TPr was released within 24 h after burning. The quick release of TPr observed in this experiment may help explain the P surge in the surface water immediately following a fire in the marsh. These findings suggest that prescribed burning accelerates P release from cattail and sawgrass. They also imply that it is very important to keep the water stagnant in the first 24 h to maximize the benefits of a prescribed fire in the Everglades. PMID:21043264

Liu, G D; Gu, B; Miao, S L; Li, Y C; Migliaccio, K W; Qian, Y

2010-01-01

227

Calibration of FARSITE fire area simulator in Iranian northern forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfire simulators based on empirical or physical models need to be locally calibrated and validated when used under conditions that differ from those where the simulators were originally developed. This study aims to calibrate FARSITE fire spread model considering a set of recent wildfires occurred in Northern Iran forests. Site specific fuel models in the study areas were selected by sampling the main natural vegetation type complexes and assigning standard fuel models. Overall, simulated fires presented reliable outputs that accurately replicated the observed fire perimeters and behavior. Standard fuel models of Scott and Burgan (2005) afforded better accuracy in the simulated fire perimeters than the standard fuel models of Anderson (1982). The best match between observed and modeled burned areas was observed on herbaceous type fuel models. Fire modeling showed a high potential for estimating spatial variability in fire spread and behavior in the study areas. This work represents a first step in the application of fire spread modeling on Northern Iran for wildfire risk monitoring and management.

Jahdi, R.; Salis, M.; Darvishsefat, A. A.; Alcasena Urdiroz, F. J.; Etemad, V.; Mostafavi, M. A.; Lozano, O. M.; Spano, D.

2014-09-01

228

Post-fire regeneration in a Mediterranean pine forest with historically low fire frequency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Species of Mediterranean vegetation are known to regenerate directly after fire. The phenomenon of autosuccession (direct regeneration) has been found to be often combined with an increase of species richness during the first years after fire due to the high abundance of short-lived herbaceous plants facilitated by plentiful nutrients and light. The high degree of vegetation resilience, which is expressed in terms of autosuccession, has been explained by the selective pressure of fire in historic times. According to existing palaeoecological data, however, the Pinus halepensis forests in the Ricote Mountains (Province of Murcia, SE Spain) did not experience substantial fire impact before the presence of man nor are they especially fire-prone today. Therefore, we studied post-fire regeneration to find out if direct succession is present or if species from pre-fire vegetation are absent during the post-fire regeneration stages. Patterns of succession were deduced from observations made in sample plots on sites of a known regeneration age as well as in adjacent unburnt areas. The results of the vegetation analyses, including a Detrended Correspondence Analysis, indicate that Pinus halepensis forest regeneration after fire resembles autosuccession. As regards the presence of woody species, there is a high percentage similarity on north (83%) and south (70%) facing slopes during the first year after fire vs. reference areas which is due, for example, to direct regeneration of the resprouting Quercus coccifera or seeders like Pinus halepensis or Fumana laevipes. However, if herbaceous species are included in the comparison, the similarity on north-facing sites decreases (to 53%) with the presence of additional species, mainly ruderals like Anagallis arvensis or Reseda phyteuma, and even woody species on the burnt plots. This effect indicates "enhanced autosuccession", which was not found on south-facing sites where overall species richness was very high irrespective of the impact of fire. Locally we found limited regeneration of some species, for example Pinus halepensis at high altitudes (1000 m), even 22 years after fire. As we assume that historical fires did not play an important role in the area and direct succession is present nevertheless, our results support the theory that autosuccession is not a process restricted to fire-prone areas. Fire has been only one of several selective forces since human settlement that probably led to a set of species pre-adapted against recurrent disturbance.

Buhk, Constanze; Götzenberger, Lars; Wesche, Karsten; Gómez, Pedro Sánchez; Hensen, Isabell

2006-11-01

229

Influence of Pre-Fire Tree Mortality on Fire Severity in Conifer Forests of the San Bernardino Mountains, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

High tree mortality due to drought and insects often is assumed to increase fire severity once ignition occurs. In 2002-2003, coniferous forests in the San Bernardino Mountains, California experienced a significant tree mortality event due to drought and an outbreak of western pine beetles (Dendroctonus brevicomis). In October 2003, fire burned approximately 5,860 ha of conifer forest types in many

Monica L. Bond; Derek E. Lee; Curtis M. Bradley; Chad T. Hanson

2009-01-01

230

Fire, Carbon and Climate Change in Boreal Forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disturbances are the major stand-renewing agents for much of the circumboreal forest. In Canada, fire has received much of the attention in carbon cycle science because it affects about 3 million ha of Canadian forest annually, impacts air quality, and can threaten life, property and infrastructure. Fire affects the carbon balance through three processes. First, carbon and other greenhouse gases are emitted to the atmosphere during the combustion process. We estimate this to average about 27 Tg C/year in Canada over the past 40 years, which is close to 20% of industrial carbon emissions. However, in some years this can exceed 100 Tg C. Efforts are underway to estimate global fire activity and greenhouse gas emissions using observations, remote sensing and modelling. The second process is the decomposition of fire-killed vegetation. This forms a pool of coarse woody debris that can take decades to decompose, or can be quite rapid, depending on the post-fire environment. The third process is succession of vegetation following fire, a dynamic process that involves the interplay among species establishment and competition. Weather and climate affects all of these processes. Estimates of the future environment indicate that much of boreal Canada will experience warmer and drier conditions, although there will be regional differences and transient effects. The projections suggest that we may experience a doubling of area burned over the next century because of anthropogenic climate changes. This may have further implications to the global carbon budget by increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. This increase in fire activity may lead to a positive feedback cycle with the increased release of greenhouse gases. A run-away scenario is unlikely because young successional boreal vegetation often does not burn as readily and would limit the positive feedback cycle. Also, changes to the forest composition following fire increases surface albedo and alters the energy balance; effects that may cause climate cooling. However, the impacts of landscape feedbacks and human intervention limiting future fire are not well known.

Flannigan, M. D.; Amiro, B. D.; Logan, K. A.

2005-12-01

231

An approach to the real time risk evaluation system of boreal forest fire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Huge boreal forest fire may cause massive impacts not only on global warming gas emission but also local communities. Thus, it is important to control forest fire. We collected data about boreal forest fire as satellite imagery and fire observation simultaneously in Alaska and east Siberia in summer fire seasons for these three years. Fire observation data was collected from aircraft flying between Japan and Europe. Fire detection results were compared with observed data to evaluate the accuracy and earliness of automatic detection. NOAA and MODIS satellite images covering Alaska and East Siberia are collected. We are also developing fire expansion simulation model to forecast the possible fire expansion area. On the basis of fire expansion forecast, risk analysis of possible fire expansion for decision aid of fire-fighting activities will be analyzed. To identify the risk of boreal forest fire and public concern about forest fire, we collected local news paper in Fairbanks, AK and discuss the statistics of articles related to forest fire on the newspaper.

Nakau, K.; Fukuda, M.; Kimura, K.; Hayasaka, H.; Tani, H.; Kushida, K.

2005-12-01

232

Conceptual design study: Forest Fire Advanced System Technology (FFAST)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An integrated forest fire detection and mapping system that will be based upon technology available in the 1990s was defined. Uncertainties in emerging and advanced technologies related to the conceptual design were identified and recommended for inclusion as preferred system components. System component technologies identified for an end-to-end system include thermal infrared, linear array detectors, automatic georeferencing and signal processing, geosynchronous satellite communication links, and advanced data integration and display. Potential system configuration options were developed and examined for possible inclusion in the preferred system configuration. The preferred system configuration will provide increased performance and be cost effective over the system currently in use. Forest fire management user requirements and the system component emerging technologies were the basis for the system configuration design. A preferred system configuration was defined that warrants continued refinement and development, examined economic aspects of the current and preferred system, and provided preliminary cost estimates for follow-on system prototype development.

Nichols, J. D.; Warren, J. R.

1986-01-01

233

Post-fire water quality in forest catchments: a review with implications for potable water supply  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many locations fire-prone forest catchments are utilised for the supply of potable water to small communities up to large cities. For example, in south-eastern Australia, wildfires have burned part or all of forest catchments supplying drinking water to Sydney (2001 wildfire), Canberra (2003), Adelaide (2007), Melbourne (2009), as well as various regional towns. Generally, undisturbed forest catchments are a source of high quality water. However, increases in erosion and sediment flux, runoff generation, and changes to the supply of key constituents after wildfire may result in contamination of water supplies. In this review, we present key physical and chemical constituents from a drinking water perspective that may be generated in burned forest catchments and examine post-fire changes to concentrations of these constituents in streams and reservoirs. The World Health Organisation (WHO) drinking water guideline values were used to assess reported post-fire constituent concentrations. Constituents examined include suspended sediment, ash, nutrients, trace metals, anions (Cl-, SO42-), cyanides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Constituent concentrations in streams and reservoirs vary substantially following wildfire. In streams, maximum reported total suspended solid concentrations (SSC) in the first year after fire ranged from 11 to 143,000 mg L-1. SSC is often measured in studies of post-fire stream water quality, whereas turbidity is used in drinking water guidelines and more commonly monitored in water supply reservoirs. For burned catchment reservoirs in south-eastern Australia, peak turbidities increased over pre-fire conditions, as did the frequency of exceedance of the turbidity guideline. NO3-, NO2-, and NH4+ may increase after wildfire but maximum recorded concentrations have not exceeded WHO guideline values. Large post-fire increases in total N and total P concentrations in streams and reservoirs have been observed, although there are no guideline values for total N or P. Studies of post-fire concentrations of dissolved organic carbon are mostly from North America and report generally minor increases after fire, with elevated concentrations reflecting background conditions. The few observations of trace metal concentrations in streams after wildfire found high concentrations that exceeded guideline values for Fe, Mn, As, Cr, Al, Ba, and Pb, which were associated with highly elevated sediment concentrations. In contrast, Cu, Zn, and Hg were below or only slightly above (?1.2 times) guideline values. Reports of Cl- and SO42- concentrations after wildfire are mostly confined to coniferous forest areas, where maximum sampled values were well below WHO guidelines. Total cyanide concentrations have been observed to exceed guidelines values, although increases are likely to be short-lived. Post-fire stream concentrations of PAHs have been found to increase but were below levels of concern. In assessing the risk to water supply from wildfires, constituents of concern may be identified according to both the reason for concern (health or aesthetic) and treatability. Determining the risk to human health from short duration exposure to elevated concentrations of many contaminants (such as toxic metals, PAHs) is problematic, given that the guideline values are based on a life-time of exposure. Other constituents may have more rapid health effects from consumption of contaminated water (e.g. cyanides, Cu, NO2-) or aesthetic concerns (e.g. Fe, Mn, SO42-, Zn). The increased flux of suspended sediment and sediment-associated constituents (particularly metals, nutrients and organic carbon) that can occur after wildfire may necessitate water treatment by coagulation and filtration. At very high sediment concentrations treatment problems may be encountered that reduce or delay the rate of water processing, potentially causing disruptions in supply. For other constituents, such as NO3-, NO2-, Cl-, SO42-, amenable cyanides, and PAHs, it appears the likelihood that concentrations of concern will occur in water suppl

Smith, Hugh; Sheridan, Gary; Lane, Patrick; Nyman, Petter; Haydon, Shane

2010-05-01

234

Fire impact on forest soils evaluated using near-infrared spectroscopy and multivariate calibration  

E-print Network

Fire impact on forest soils evaluated using near-infrared spectroscopy and multivariate calibration_vergnoux@hotmail.com Abstract The assessment of physico-chemical properties in forest soils affected by fires was evaluated in addition to NIR spectra. Then, a fire recurrence index was defined and calculated according

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

235

Post-fire geomorphic response in steep, forested landscapes: Oregon Coast Range, USA  

E-print Network

Post-fire geomorphic response in steep, forested landscapes: Oregon Coast Range, USA Molly Jackson Accepted 7 May 2008 a b s t r a c t The role of fire in shaping steep, forested landscapes depends, several studies postulate that fire primarily modulates sediment production via root reinforcement

Roering, Joshua J.

236

Climate change impacts on fire regimes and key ecosystem services in Rocky Mountain forests  

E-print Network

Climate change impacts on fire regimes and key ecosystem services in Rocky Mountain forests Monique Collins, CO 80523-1476, USA b Rocky Mountain Tree-Ring Research, 2901 Moore Lane, Fort Collins, CO 80526 Mountains Climate change Fire regime Prescribed fire Ecosystem services a b s t r a c t Forests

MacDonald, Lee

237

Mapping and inventory of forest fires from digital processing of tm data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of space?borne sensors to forest fire mapping and inventory was evaluated. Digital image processing of Thematic Mapper data was used to study a big forest fire on the Mediterranean coast of Spain. The results showed that image processing techniques cannot discriminate perfectly the area affected by the fire. The main problem was spectral overlapping between burned and unburned

Emilio Chuvieco; Russell G. Congalton

1988-01-01

238

Fire dynamics and implications for nitrogen cycling in boreal forests  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We used a dynamic, long-term mass balance approach to track cumulative carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) losses to fire in boreal Manitoba over the 6500 years since deglaciation. Estimated C losses to decomposition and fire, combined with measurements of N pools in mature and burned forest floors, suggest that loss of N by combustion has likely resulted in a long-term loss that exceeds the amount of N stored in soil today by 2 to 3 times. These estimates imply that biological N fixation rates could be as high as 5 to 10 times atmospheric deposition rates in boreal regions. At the site scale, the amount of N lost is due to N content of fuels, which varies by stand type and fire severity, which in turn vary with climate and fire dynamics. The interplay of fire frequency, fire severity, and N partitioning during regrowth are important for understanding rates and sustainability of nutrient and carbon cycling over millenia and over broad regions.

Harden, J. W.; Mack, M.; Veldhuis, H.; Gower, S. T.

2003-01-01

239

Characterizing forest fire activity in Turkey by compound Poisson and time series models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large forest fires are major disturbances that strongly influence the carbon cycling and vegetation dynamics of Turkish ecosystems. We suggest that compound Poisson model could provide suitable description for the total annual area burned by forest fires and for fire size distribution in Turkey. This paper also provides a time series model that reveals trends in annual number of fires and area burned in Turkey. We support this argument using forest fires occurred in Turkey between 1937 and 2009. We also find that the Poisson model simulates large fire occurrences well and the total burned area is modeled by a compound Poisson process.

Çekim, Hatice Ö.; Kad?lar, Cem; Özel, Gamze

2013-10-01

240

Forest fires and lightning activity during the outstanding 2003 and 2005 fire seasons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires in southern Europe cause frequent extensive economical and ecological losses and, even human casualties. Comparatively to other Mediterranean countries, Portugal is the country with more burnt area and fires per unit area in the last decade, mainly during the summer season (Pereira et al., 2011). According to the fire records available, between 1980 and 2009, wildfires have affected over 3 million hectares in Portugal (JRC, 2011), which corresponds to approximately a third of the Portuguese Continental territory. The main factors that influence fire ignition and propagation are: (1) the presence of fuel (i.e. vegetation); (2) climate and weather; (3) socioeconomic conditions that affect land use/land cover patterns, fire-prevention and fire-fighting capacity and (4) topography. Specifically, weather (e.g. wind, temperature, precipitation, humidity, and lightning occurrence) plays an important role in fire behavior, affecting both ignition and spread of wildfires. Some countries have a relatively large fraction of fires caused by lightning, e.g. northwestern USA, Canada, Russia (). In contrast, Portugal has only a small percentage of fire records caused by lightning. Although significant doubts remain for the majority of fires in the catalog since they were cataloged without a likely cause. The recent years of 2003 and 2005 were particularly outstanding for fire activity in Portugal, registering, respectively, total burned areas of 425 726 ha and 338 262 ha. However, while the 2003 was triggered by an exceptional heatwave that struck the entire western Europe, the 2005 fire season registered was coincident with one of the most severe droughts of the 20th century. In this work we have used mainly two different databases: 1) the Portuguese Rural Fire Database (PRFD) which is representative of rural fires that have occurred in Continental Portugal, 2001-2011, with the original data provided by the Autoridade Florestal Nacional (AFN, 2011); 2) lightning discharges location which were extracted from the Portuguese Lightning Location System that has been in service since June of 2002 and is operated by the national weather service - Instituto de Meteorologia (IM). The main objective of this work is to analyze for possible relations between the PRFD and the Portuguese lightning database for the 2003 and 2005 extreme fire seasons. In particularly we were able to verify the forest fires labeled as "ignited by lightning" by comparing its location to the lightning discharges location database. Furthermore we have also investigated possible fire ignition by lightning discharges that have not yet been labeled in the PRFD by comparing daily data from both datasets.

Russo, Ana; Ramos, Alexandre; Trigo, Ricardo

2013-04-01

241

Targeting Forest Management through Fire and Erosion Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forests deliver a number of ecosystem services, including clean water. When forests are disturbed by wildfire, the timing and quantity of runoff can be altered, and the quality can be severely degraded. A modeling study for about 1500 km2 in the Upper Mokelumne River Watershed in California was conducted to determine the risk of wildfire and the associated potential sediment delivery should a wildfire occur, and to calculate the potential reduction in sediment delivery that might result from fuel reduction treatments. The first step was to predict wildfire severity and probability of occurrence under current vegetation conditions with FlamMap fire prediction tool. FlamMap uses current vegetation, topography, and wind characteristics to predict the speed, flame length, and direction of a simulated flame front for each 30-m pixel. As the first step in the erosion modeling, a geospatial interface for the WEPP model (GeoWEPP) was used to delineate approximately 6-ha hillslope polygons for the study area. The flame length values from FlamMap were then aggregated for each hillslope polygon to yield a predicted fire intensity. Fire intensity and pre-fire vegetation conditions were used to estimate fire severity (either unburned, low, moderate or high). The fire severity was combined with soil properties from the STATSGO database to build the vegetation and soil files needed to run WEPP for each polygon. Eight different stochastic climates were generated to account for the weather variability within the basin. A modified batching version of GeoWEPP was used to predict the first-year post-fire sediment yield from each hillslope and subwatershed. Estimated sediment yields ranged from 0 to more than 100 Mg/ha, and were typical of observed values. The polygons that generated the greatest amount of sediment or that were critical for reducing fire spread were identified, and these were "treated" by reducing the amount of fuel available for a wildfire. The erosion associated with these fuel treatments was estimated using WEPP. FlamMap and WEPP were run a second time to determine the extent to which the imposed treatments reduced fire intensity, fire severity, and the predicted sediment yields. The results allowed managers to quantify the net reduction in sediment delivery due to the prescribed treatments. The modeling also identified those polygons with the greatest net decline in sediment delivery, with the expectation that these polygons would have the highest priority for fuel reduction treatments. An economic value can be assigned to the predicted net change in sediment delivered to a reservoir or a specified decline in water quality. The estimated avoided costs due to the reduction in sediment delivery can help justify the optimized fuel treatments.

Elliot, William J.; Miller, Mary Ellen; MacDonald, Lee H.

2013-04-01

242

Fire in the seasonal semideciduous forest: impact evaluation and regeneration processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire is one of the main factors causing biodiversity losses in tropical forests and such losses are reported to be still more intense in forest edges. With the aim of quantifying the damages by fire on the seasonal semideciduous forest, and verifying weather their extension and the ecosystem resilience are correlated to the border distance or not, we analyzed the

Antônio Carlos; Galvão de Melo; Giselda Durigan

2009-01-01

243

Runoff and erosion processes after a forest fire in Mount Carmel, a Mediterranean area  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Mediterranean forest area of Israel, fires increase runoff and sediment yield rates relative to undisturbed forested land. The September 1989 fire covered an area of 4 km2 in the main recreation area of Mount Carmel, a typical Mediterranean forest area. The lithology is chalk and limestone, and about 40% of the burnt area has steep slopes, exceeding 30%.

M. Inbar; M Tamir; L Wittenberg

1998-01-01

244

Fire Regimes and Successional Dynamics of Pine and Oak Forests in the Central Appalachian Mountains  

E-print Network

The role of fire in determining the structure and composition of many forested ecosystems is well documented (e.g. North American boreal forests; piñon-juniper woodlands of the western US). Fire is also believed to be important in temperate forests...

Aldrich, Serena Rose

2012-07-16

245

Fire treatment effects on vegetation structure, fuels, and potential fire severity in western U.S. forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest structure and species composition in many western U.S. coniferous forests have been altered through fire exclusion, past and ongoing harvesting practices, and livestock grazing over the 20th century. The effects of these activities have been most pronounced in seasonally dry, low and mid-elevation coniferous forests that once experienced frequent, low to moderate intensity, fire regimes. In this paper, we

Scott L. Stephens; Jason J. Moghaddas; Carl Edminster; Carl E. Fiedler; Sally Haase; Michael Harrington; Jon E. Keeley; Eric E. Knapp; James D. McIver; Kerry Metlen; Carl N. Skinner; Andrew Youngblood

2009-01-01

246

Evolving forest fire burn severity classification algorithms for multispectral imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between May 6 and May 18, 2000, the Cerro Grande/Los Alamos wildfire burned approximately 43,000 acres (17,500 ha) and 235 residences in the town of Los Alamos, NM. Initial estimates of forest damage included 17,000 acres (6,900 ha) of 70-100% tree mortality. Restoration efforts following the fire were complicated by the large scale of the fire, and by the presence of extensive natural and man-made hazards. These conditions forced a reliance on remote sensing techniques for mapping and classifying the burn region. During and after the fire, remote-sensing data was acquired from a variety of aircraft-based and satellite-based sensors, including Landsat 7. We now report on the application of a machine learning technique, implemented in a software package called GENIE, to the classification of forest fire burn severity using Landsat 7 ETM+ multispectral imagery. The details of this automatic classification are compared to the manually produced burn classification, which was derived from field observations and manual interpretation of high-resolution aerial color/infrared photography.

Brumby, Steven P.; Harvey, Neal R.; Bloch, Jeffrey J.; Theiler, James P.; Perkins, Simon J.; Young, Aaron C.; Szymanski, John J.

2001-08-01

247

Initial watershed response to boreal forest fires in Interior Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The summer of 2004 in Alaska was characterized by enormous and devastating boreal forest fires. Small streams draining water from areas affected by fires in different proportions (i.e.: unburned, partially and severally burned) were systematically sampled during the summer of 2005. All the streams were located in watersheds underlain by discontinuous permafrost, perennially frozen soils, in Interior Alaska. In order to collect daily water samples, autosamplers were deployed in the streams after spring breakup. Pressure transducers and dataloggers in conjunction with velocity measurements were used to estimate water discharge in the streams. Human influence is negligible in the study areas, with the exception of modifications caused by the firefighters. Thus, collected data from these areas can be considered as a natural system response to forest fires. Preliminary results from samples collected from two watersheds with similar percentage of underlain permafrost (around 18 % of the total area) indicate a consistent trend of higher suspended loads in the stream located in a partially burned area compared to the stream located in a pristine, fire-free basin.

Toniolo, H. A.; Kodial, P.

2005-12-01

248

Spatial and temporal corroboration of a fire-scar-based fire history in a frequently burned ponderosa pine forest.  

PubMed

Fire scars are used widely to reconstruct historical fire regime parameters in forests around the world. Because fire scars provide incomplete records of past fire occurrence at discrete points in space, inferences must be made to reconstruct fire frequency and extent across landscapes using spatial networks of fire-scar samples. Assessing the relative accuracy of fire-scar fire history reconstructions has been hampered due to a lack of empirical comparisons with independent fire history data sources. We carried out such a comparison in a 2780-ha ponderosa pine forest on Mica Mountain in southern Arizona (USA) for the time period 1937-2000. Using documentary records of fire perimeter maps and ignition locations, we compared reconstructions of key spatial and temporal fire regime parameters developed from documentary fire maps and independently collected fire-scar data (n = 60 plots). We found that fire-scar data provided spatially representative and complete inventories of all major fire years (> 100 ha) in the study area but failed to detect most small fires. There was a strong linear relationship between the percentage of samples recording fire scars in a given year (i.e., fire-scar synchrony) and total area burned for that year (y = 0.0003x + 0.0087, r2 = 0.96). There was also strong spatial coherence between cumulative fire frequency maps interpolated from fire-scar data and ground-mapped fire perimeters. Widely reported fire frequency summary statistics varied little between fire history data sets: fire-scar natural fire rotations (NFR) differed by < 3 yr from documentary records (29.6 yr); mean fire return intervals (MFI) for large-fire years (i.e., > or = 25% of study area burned) were identical between data sets (25.5 yr); fire-scar MFIs for all fire years differed by 1.2 yr from documentary records. The known seasonal timing of past fires based on documentary records was furthermore reconstructed accurately by observing intra-annual ring position of fire scars and using knowledge of tree-ring growth phenology in the Southwest. Our results demonstrate clearly that representative landscape-scale fire histories can be reconstructed accurately from spatially distributed fire-scar samples. PMID:20945762

Farris, Calvin A; Baisan, Christopher H; Falk, Donald A; Yool, Stephen R; Swetnam, Thomas W

2010-09-01

249

Characterizations of Deposited Ash During Co-Firing of White Pine and Lignite in Fluidized Bed Combustor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characterizations of ash deposits from co-firing/co-combusting of a woody biomass (i.e., white pine) and lignite coal were investigated in a fluidized-bed combustor using a custom designed air-cooled probe installed in the freeboard region of the reactor. Ash deposition behaviors on a heat transfer surface were comprehensively investigated and discussed under different conditions including fuel type, fuel blending ratios (20-80% biomass on a thermal basis), and moisture contents. For the combustion of 100% lignite, the compositions of the deposited ash were very similar to those of the fuel ash, while in the combustion of 100% white pine pellets or sawdust the deposited ash contained a much lower contents of CaO, SO3, K2O and P2O5 compared with the fuel ash, but the deposited ash was enriched with SiO2, Al2O3 and MgO. A small addition of white pine (20% on a heat input basis) to the coal led to the highest ash deposition rates likely due to the strong interaction of the CaO and MgO (from the biomass ash) with the alumina and silica (from the lignite ash) during the co-combustion process, evidenced by the detection of high concentrations of calcium/magnesium sulfates, aluminates and silicates in the ash deposits. Interestingly, co-firing of white pine pellets and lignite at a 50% blending ratio led to the lowest ash deposition rates. Ash deposition rates in combustion of fuels as received with a higher moisture content was found to be much lower than those of oven-dried fuels.

Shao, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Jesse; Preto, Fernando; Tourigny, Guy; Wang, Jinsheng; Badour, Chadi; Li, Hanning; Xu, Chunbao Charles

250

Slow recolonization of burned oak–juniper woodlands by Ashe juniper ( Juniperus ashei): Ten years of succession after crown fire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire is an important control on the distribution of plant communities on the Edwards Plateau in central Texas. Although the effects of fire in grasslands have been well studied, little is known about the recovery of mature oak–Ashe juniper (Quercus spp.–Juniperus ashei) woodlands after crown fire. These woodlands are the only nesting habitat of the endangered golden-cheeked warbler (Dendroica chrysoparia).

Charlotte M. Reemts; Laura L. Hansen

2008-01-01

251

Satellite analysis of the severe 1987 forest fires in northern China and southeastern Siberia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Meteorological conditions, extremely conducive to fire development and spread in the spring of 1987, resulted in forest fires burning over extremely large areas in the boreal forest zone in northeastern China and the southeastern region of Siberia. The great China fire, one of the largest and most destructive forest fires in recent history, occurred during this period in the Heilongjiang Province of China. Satellite imagery is used to examine the development and areal distribution of 1987 forest fires in this region. Overall trace gas emissions to the atmosphere from these fires are determined using a satellite-derived estimate of area burned in combination with fuel consumption figures and carbon emission ratios for boreal forest fires.

Cahoon, Donald R, Jr.; Stocks, Brian J.; Levine, Joel S.; Cofer, Wesley R., III; Pierson, Joseph M.

1994-01-01

252

Satellite Analysis of the Severe 1987 Forest Fires in Northern China and Southeastern Siberia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Meteorological conditions, extremely conducive to fire development and spread in the spring of 1987, resulted in forest fires burning over extremely large areas in the boreal forest zone in northeastern China and the southeastern region of Siberia. The great China fire, one of the largest and most destructive forest fires in recent history, occurred during this period in the Heilongjiang Province of China. Satellite imagery is used to examine the development and areal distribution of 1987 forest fires in this region. Overall trace gas emissions to the atmosphere from these fires are determined using a satellite-derived estimate of area burned in combination with fuel consumption figures and carbon emission ratios for boreal forest fires.

Cahoon, Donald R., Jr.; Stocks, Brian J.; Levine, Joel S.; Cofer, Wesley R., III; Pierson, Joseph M.

1994-01-01

253

Remotely Sensed Fire Type Classification of the Brazilian Tropical Moist Forest Biome  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetation fires in the Brazilian Tropical Moist Forest Biome can be broadly classified into three types: i) Deforestation fires, lit to aid deforestation by burning of slashed, piled and dried forest biomass, ii) Maintenance fires, lit on agricultural fields or pasture areas to maintain and clear woody material and to rehabilitate degraded pasture areas, iii) Forest fires, associated with escaped anthropogenic fires or, less frequently, caused by lightning. Information on the incidence and spatial distribution of fire types is important as they have widely varying atmospheric emissions and ecological impacts. Satellite remote sensing offers a practical means of monitoring fires over areas as extensive as the Brazilian Tropical Moist Forest Biome which spans almost 4 million square kilometers. To date, fire type has been inferred based on the geographic context and proximity of satellite active fire detections relative to thematic land cover classes, roads, and forest edges, or by empirical consideration of the active fire detection frequency. In this paper a classification methodology is presented that demonstrates a way to classify the fire type of MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) active fire detections. Training and validation fire type data are defined conservatively for MODIS active fire detections using a land cover transition matrix that labels MODIS active fires by consideration of the PRODES 120m land cover for the previous year and the year of fire detection. The training data are used with a random forest classifier and remotely sensed predictor variables including the number of MODIS Aqua and Terra satellite detections, the maximum and median Fire Radiative Power (FRP) [MW km-2], the scaling parameter of the FRP power law distribution, the number of day and night detections, and the fire surrounding "background" surface brightness temperature [K]. In addition, the total rainfall over periods from 1 to 24 months prior to fire detection and the fire detection proximity to official and unofficial roads and navigable rivers are included as predictor variables. Results are illustrated for eight years (2003-2010) of MODIS active fire detections with a cross validation showing greater than 70% fire type classification accuracy. The spatio-temporal distribution of fire types across the Brazilian Tropical Moist Forest Biome are presented with higher incidences of deforestation fires in the "arc of deforestation" and similar proportions of forest and maintenance fires for all years except for 2007 and 2010 that exhibited a relatively higher proportion of forest fires.

Kumar, S.; Roy, D. P.

2012-12-01

254

Fire dynamic and forest cover loss in Russia, 2000-2012 (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires play an important role in the ecosystem dynamics of Russia. A number of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-based burned area and forest fire loss products for Russia were created in recent years (Bartalev et al. 2008, Loupian et al. 2011, Giglio et al. 2009). However, characterizing the drivers and consequences of forest fires in Russia is challenging with the use of coarse spatial resolution products. Specifically, these burned area products do not discriminate between forest and agriculture fires within areas of fine-scale forest/cropland mosaics or in the regions with extensive agricultural land abandonment and recent afforestation. The use of 30 m spatial resolution Landsat-based products allows for more accurate detection of forest areas damaged or destroyed by fires, especially on the boundaries between forests and agricultural lands. Forest cover loss was mapped annually using Landsat archive data. Fire-induced loss was separated from other stand-replacement dynamics using annual 500 m MODIS-based burned area products and 1 km MODIS active fire hotspots. Fire date was assigned for every forest burned area using MODIS hotspots. Preliminary analysis indicates that the southern parts of Siberia and Far East Russia have short fire return intervals and a small proportion of the fire is stand replacement. Conversely, the areas of European Russia, Northern Siberia and Far East Russia predominately experience stand replacement fires. The proportion of stand replacement fires in these regions is larger than was estimated before (Korovin, 1998). The majority of forests were burned during large, catastrophic fire events in dry years. Timing of these forest fire events (July-September) is different from the period of active agricultural burning (April-May) in the region. Stand replacement forest fires were typically located within large forested landscapes away from active agriculture regions. Therefore cropland fires are presumably not the major driver of forest fire initiation. Agriculture fires can contribute to the degradation of forests bordering croplands; however, this process is difficult to quantify at the regional scale using Landsat data. Our results are important for developing a regional forest fire mitigation strategy in Russia.

Krylov, A.; McCarty, J. L.; Potapov, P.; Loboda, T. V.; Tyukavina, A.; Turubanova, S.; Hansen, M.

2013-12-01

255

Radioactivity of coals and ashes from Catala?zi coal-fired power plant in Turkey.  

PubMed

The Çatala?z? coal-fired power plant (CFPP) is the Turkish CFPP that uses the hard coals produced in Zonguldak, located in the West Black Sea region of the country. Gamma-ray spectrometry was used to determine (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K contents in pulverised coal, bottom ash and fly ash samples. The natural radionuclide concentrations in pulverised coal ranged from 29 to 61 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, from 32 to 55 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th and from 229 to 414 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K. The fly ash fraction gave concentrations ranging from 80 to 98 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, from 64 to 85 Bq kg(-1) for Th and from 754 to 992 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K, respectively. The enrichment factors from coal to fly ashes are 1.7, 2.24 and 2.6 for (232)Th, (226)Ra and (40)K, respectively. Therefore, it is advisable to monitor the environmental impact of the power plant. PMID:21632583

Aytekin, Hüseyin; Baldik, Ridvan

2012-04-01

256

Mercury capture by native fly ash carbons in coal-fired power plants  

PubMed Central

The control of mercury in the air emissions from coal-fired power plants is an on-going challenge. The native unburned carbons in fly ash can capture varying amounts of Hg depending upon the temperature and composition of the flue gas at the air pollution control device, with Hg capture increasing with a decrease in temperature; the amount of carbon in the fly ash, with Hg capture increasing with an increase in carbon; and the form of the carbon and the consequent surface area of the carbon, with Hg capture increasing with an increase in surface area. The latter is influenced by the rank of the feed coal, with carbons derived from the combustion of low-rank coals having a greater surface area than carbons from bituminous- and anthracite-rank coals. The chemistry of the feed coal and the resulting composition of the flue gas enhances Hg capture by fly ash carbons. This is particularly evident in the correlation of feed coal Cl content to Hg oxidation to HgCl2, enhancing Hg capture. Acid gases, including HCl and H2SO4 and the combination of HCl and NO2, in the flue gas can enhance the oxidation of Hg. In this presentation, we discuss the transport of Hg through the boiler and pollution control systems, the mechanisms of Hg oxidation, and the parameters controlling Hg capture by coal-derived fly ash carbons. PMID:24223466

Hower, James C.; Senior, Constance L.; Suuberg, Eric M.; Hurt, Robert H.; Wilcox, Jennifer L.; Olson, Edwin S.

2013-01-01

257

Snag abundance 20, 30, and 40 years following fire and harvesting in boreal forests1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The retention of standing dead trees (snags) has become an important conservation concern, especially when forest management efforts attempt to emulate natural disturbance. We investigate the abundance of snags within Ontario's boreal forest following 10-20, 21-30, and 31-40 years of both fire and forest harvest disturbance over a 24 000-km2 area. Fire frequency varied considerably, with 90% of the fires

Steven H. Ferguson; Philip C. Elkie

258

Quantifying the effect of fuel reduction treatments on fire behavior in boreal forests  

E-print Network

and piling the debris in windrows (SHEAR-ROW). Fire burned through treatments 1, 3, and 4 and one controlNOTE Quantifying the effect of fuel reduction treatments on fire behavior in boreal forests B have become the preferred strategy of many fire managers and agencies for reducing fire hazard

Ickert-Bond, Steffi

259

Absorption properties and graphitic carbon emission factors of forest fire aerosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on the optical absorption prop- erties (expressed as a specific absorption, Ba) of the smoke emissions from fires with forest fuels have been determined for a series of low-intensity field fires and a series of laboratory scale fires. The B, data have been used to estimate the emission factors for graphitic carbon (EF(c~)) for these test fires to provide

E. M. Patterson; C. K. McMahon; D. E. Ward

1986-01-01

260

Effects of fire disturbance on the forest structure and succession in the natural broad-leaved\\/Korean pine forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations on charcoal in the soil, fire-scarred trees, stand composition, forest structure as well as regeneration status\\u000a were carried out in the natural broad-leaved\\/Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) forest after fire disturbance at Liangshui Nature Reserve on the mid-north of Xiaoxing’an Mountains from 1990 to 1992, and\\u000a the ecological effects of fire disturbance on the formation and succession of this kind

Liu Li-juan; Ge Jian-ping

2003-01-01

261

PCDD/F and Aromatic Emissions from Simulated Forest and Grassland Fires  

EPA Science Inventory

Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzodioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) from simulated grassland and forest fires were quantitatively sampled to derive emission factors in support of PCDD/F inventory development. Grasses from Kentucky and Minnesota; forest shrubs fro...

262

Adapting fire management to future fire regimes: impacts on boreal forest composition and carbon balance in Canadian National Parks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of future fire regimes altered by climate change, and fire management in adaptation to climate change were studied in the boreal forest region of western Canada. Present (1975-90) and future (2080-2100) fire regimes were simulated for several National Parks using data from the Canadian (CGCM1) and Hadley (HadCM3) Global Climate Models (GCM) in separate simulation scenarios. The long-term effects of the different fire regimes on forests were simulated using a stand-level, boreal fire effects model (BORFIRE). Changes in forest composition and biomass storage due to future altered fire regimes were determined by comparing current and future simulation results. This was used to assess the ecological impact of altered fire regimes on boreal forests, and the future role of these forests as carbon sinks or sources. Additional future simulations were run using adapted fire management strategies, including increased fire suppression and the use of prescribed fire to meet fire cycle objectives. Future forest composition, carbon storage and emissions under current and adapted fire management strategies were also compared to determine the impact of various future fire management options. Both of the GCM's showed more severe burning conditions under future fire regimes. This includes fires with higher intensity, greater depth of burn, greater total fuel consumption and shorter fire cycles (or higher rates of annual area burned). The Canadian GCM indicated burning conditions more severe than the Hadley GCM. Shorter fire cycles of future fire regimes generally favoured aspen, birch, and jack pine because it provided more frequent regeneration opportunity for these pioneer species. Black spruce was only minimally influenced by future fire regimes, although white spruce declined sharply. Maintaining representation of pure and mixed white spruce ecosystems in natural areas will be a concern under future fire regimes. Active fire suppression is required in these areas. In other areas where recent fire suppression history has been very successful, prescribed fire will be an important fire management activity to maintain current forest, shrubland, and grassland ecosystems. The model simulations showed that total fire exclusion would effectively lead to the loss of jack pine, and cause a sharp decline in aspen and birch stands. Increased future fire activity caused a general decrease in total carbon storage, but this impact was moderated by two other related impacts. Shorter fire cycles created a younger age-class distribution, which was represented by more fast-growing, high density stands with high detrital output. The second factor was a general forest composition shift towards faster growing species. Increased fire suppression caused an increase in long-term total biomass storage, but prescribed burning could also have a similar impact if controlled fires were used to replace wildfires and conducted during periods of reduced fire behaviour.

de Groot, W. J.; Flannigan, M. D.; Cantin, A.

2009-04-01

263

Forest fire advanced system technology (FFAST) conceptual design study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service completed a conceptual design study that defined an integrated forest fire detection and mapping system that will be based upon technology available in the 1990s. Potential system configuration options in emerging and advanced technologies related to the conceptual design were identified and recommended for inclusion as preferred system components. System component technologies identified for an end-to-end system include airborne mounted, thermal infrared (IR) linear array detectors, automatic onboard georeferencing and signal processing, geosynchronous satellite communications links, and advanced data integration and display. Potential system configuration options were developed and examined for possible inclusion in the preferred system configuration. The preferred system configuration will provide increased performance and be cost effective over the system currently in use. Forest fire management user requirements and the system component emerging technologies were the basis for the system configuration design. The conceptual design study defined the preferred system configuration that warrants continued refinement and development, examined economic aspects of the current and preferred system, and provided preliminary cost estimates for follow-on system prototype development.

Nichols, J. David; Warren, John R.

1987-01-01

264

Degradation of forests through logging and fire in the eastern Brazilian Amazon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The status of tropical forests in the Amazon basin is often expressed in terms of deforestation extent. However, in the eastern Brazilian Amazon logging and ground fires degrade forest structure and create land cover types that are intermediate between intact and cleared forest. The objective of this study was to provide a basis for understanding the implications of forest degradation

Jeffrey J Gerwing

2002-01-01

265

A model of surface fire, climate and forest pattern in the Sierra Nevada, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spatially explicit forest gap model was developed for the Sierra Nevada, California, and is the first of its kind because it integrates climate, fire and forest pattern. The model simulates a forest stand as a grid of 15×15 m forest plots and simulates the growth of individual trees within each plot. Fuel inputs are generated from each individual tree

Carol Miller; Dean L Urban

1999-01-01

266

Fire history differences in adjacent Jeffrey pine and upper montane forests in the eastern Sierra Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire history and forest structural characteristics of adjacent Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi) and upper montane forests was investigated in the eastern Sierra Nevada at the University of California Valentine Natural Reserve. Jeffrey pine forests had lower canopy cover, higher amounts of fine fuels, and higher shrub cover when compared to upper montane forest that were dominated by red fir (Abies

Scott L. Stephens

2001-01-01

267

Litterfall dynamics and forest floor litter as influenced by fire in a secondary lowland rain forest in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Litter fall, litter standing crop and changes in litter fall were studied in a secondary lowland rainforest at Ile-Ife (7o 29' N, 4o 34' E), Nigeria 14 years after a ground fire ravaged the forest. Two sample areas, one in the burnt part of the forest (burnt area) and the other in the part of the forest not affected by

A. I. ODIWE; J. I. MUOGHALU

268

Management of forest fires to maximize carbon sequestration in temperate and boreal forests  

SciTech Connect

This study examines opportunities for applying prescribed burning strategies to forest stands to enhance net carbon sequestration and compared prescribed burning strategies with more conventional forestry-based climate change mitigation alternatives, including fire suppression and afforestation. Biomass burning is a major contributor to greenhouse gas accumulation in the atmosphere. Biomass burning has increased by 50% since 1850. Since 1977, the annual extent of burning in the northern temperate and boreal forests has increased dramatically, from six- to nine-fold. Long-term suppression of fires in North America, Russia, and other parts of the world has led to accumulated fuel load and an increase in the destructive power of wildfires. Prescribed burning has been used successfully to reduce the destructiveness of wildfires. However, across vast areas of Russia and other regions, prescribed burning is not a component of forest management practices. Given these factors and the sheer size of the temperate-boreal carbon sink, increasing attention is being focused on the role of these forests in mitigating climate change, and the role of fire management strategies, such as prescribed burning, which could work alongside more conventional forestry-based greenhouse gas offset strategies, such as afforestation.

Guggenheim, D.E. [Applied Environmental Research, Inc., Falls Church, VA (United States); [George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States). Program on Global Change

1996-12-31

269

Large-Scale Forest Fires and Resulting Alterations to the Hydrologic Cycle in the Western U.S  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent changes in climate have resulted in a decrease in precipitation and snowpack amounts and increased temperatures in the western United States. Drier and warmer conditions coupled with forest management issues have led to an increase in the frequency and size of forest fires. The 2000 Cerro Grande fire in Los Alamos, New Mexico burned over 43,000 acres and 200 structures. Eleven years later, the Las Conchas fire burned over 156,000 acres and 100 structures, including areas previously burned in 2000, and was considered the largest fire in New Mexico's history. Both fires burned ponderosa, juniper, piñon and mixed conifer forests, resulting in dramatic decreases in vegetation, changes to surface soils, and alterations to the hydrologic cycle (decreased evapotranspiration, decreased infiltration, increased runoff volume and peak discharge, and decreased time to peak discharge) in surrounding watersheds. Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams need to determine the flash-flood danger quickly in order to protect residents, fire-fighters, BAER-team field personnel, and property at risk. The USGS developed an analytical method for predicting post-fire peak discharges using data collected from eight different fires throughout the western United States. We use this method to predict peak discharge in Los Alamos watersheds post-Cerro Grande and post-Las Conchas, then compare predicted to measured peak discharge. We will evaluate the effectiveness of the three methodology levels presented by the USGS, which include varying levels of data input and processing. We expect the peak discharges to be similar in magnitude; however, we will also investigate different influential factors such as burn severity, soil type, vegetation type and density, ecological connectivity, topography, pre- and post-fire weather conditions, etc., as they relate to the fires and the results seen from the measured versus the analytical method. Determining the relative influence of these factors may be important in establishing the comprehensive nature of the methodology. The frequency of large, intense "mega-fires" are predicted to increase, thus there is a potential for more post-fire flood damage and more surface water resources to be altered due to water quality issues. For example, the Whitewater-Baldy Complex fire became the largest fire in New Mexico's history one year after the Las Conchas fire by burning almost 300,000 acres in the Gila National Forest in southern New Mexico, the Little Bear fire in 2012 forced the closure of Alto Reservoir for the foreseeable future due to ash and debris, and the Las Conchas fire forced several surface water treatment facilities serving Santa Fe and Albuquerque to shut down. As these fires become more frequent, there is a potential that less surface water will be available and more groundwater will be pumped for human and agricultural use in the western U.S., where water scarcity is already a pressing problem. Understanding how these fires alter the hydrologic cycle is critical to water policy and planning and this research will help advance that understanding.

Carr, J.; White, A. B.; Thomson, B.

2012-12-01

270

The effects of fire severity on black carbon additions to forest soils - 10 years post fire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires play an active role in the global carbon cycle. While large amounts of carbon dioxide are released, a small fraction of the biomass consumed by the fire is only partially combusted, yielding soot and charcoal. These products, also called black carbon (BC) make up only 1-5% of the biomass burnt, yet they can have a disproportionate effect on both the atmosphere and fluxes in long-term carbon pools. This project specifically considers the fraction that is sequestered in forest soils. Black carbon is not a specific compound, and exists along a continuum ranging from partially burned biomass to pure carbon or graphite. Increasing aromaticity as the result of partial combustion means charcoal is highly resistant to oxidation. Although debated, most studies indicate a turnover time on the order of 500-1,000 years in warm, wet, aerobic soils. Charcoal may function as a long-term carbon sink, however its overall significance depends on its rate of formation and loss. At the landscape level, fire characteristics are one of the major factors controlling charcoal production. A few studies suggest that charcoal production increases with cooler, less-severe fires. However, there are many factors to tease apart, partly because of a lack of specificity in how fire severity is defined. Within this greater context, our lab has been working on a landscape-level study within Routt National Forest, north of Steamboat Springs, Colorado. In 2002, a large fire swept through a subalpine spruce, fir and lodgepole pine forest. In 2011-2013 we sampled BC pools in 44 plots across a range of fire severities from unburned to severe crown We hypothesized that charcoal stocks will be higher in areas of low severity fire as compared to high severity because of decreased re-combustion of charcoal in the organic soil and increased overall charcoal production due to lower temperatures. In each of our plots we measured charcoal on snags and coarse woody debris, sampled the entire organic horizon and the top 10cm mineral horizon. The soils were sieved to 2mm and their BC content measured using the Kurth-MacKenzie-DeLuca method of digesting labile carbon using nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide at 95C for 20hrs. We integrated both remotely sensed data and field observations. We used the Relative Difference Normalized Burn Ratio (RdNBR) calculated by Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS). This index used Landsat images from July in the years before and after the fire and is based on differences in bands 4 and 7, with the aim of assessing coarse scale changes in soil and vegetation post fire. For each plot we also collected data on tree mortality and organic soil depth. These metrics were chosen from the Composite Burn Index as those that were most reliable even 10 years after the fire. We observed no significant differences in BC totals between high severity fire and unburned plots, although BC increased slightly on burned plots. Early results for low severity sites (analysis still in progress) suggest that BC increased in plots experiencing lower severity fires compared to unburned and high severity plots. Comparing carbon and BC totals on unburned and severely burned plots, and assuming no loss of BC from mineral soil during the fire, we observed a 1.2% conversion of burned biomass to BC, which corresponds with literature estimates of 1-4%.

Poore, R.; Wessman, C. A.; Buma, B.

2013-12-01

271

Saskatchewan Forest Fire Control Centre Surface Meteorological Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Saskatchewan Forest Fire Control Centre (SFFCC) provided surface meteorological data to BOREAS from its archive. This data set contains hourly surface meteorological data from 18 of the Meteorological stations located across Saskatchewan. Included in these data are parameters of date, time, temperature, relative humidity, wind direction, wind speed, and precipitation. Temporally, the data cover the period of May through September of 1994 and 1995. The data are provided in comma-delimited ASCII files, and are classified as AFM-Staff data. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Funk, Barry; Strub, Richard

2000-01-01

272

Controls on variations in MODIS fire radiative power in Alaskan boreal forests: implications for fire severity conditions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fire activity in the Alaskan boreal forest, though episodic at annual and intra-annual time scales, has experienced an increase over the last several decades. Increases in burned area and fire severity are not only releasing more carbon to the atmosphere, but likely shifting vegetation composition in the region towards greater deciduous dominance and a reduction in coniferous stands. While some recent studies have addressed qualitative differences between large and small fire years in the Alaskan boreal forest, the ecological effects of a greater proportion of burning occurring during large fire years and during late season fires have not yet been examined. Some characteristics of wildfires that can be detected remotely are related to fire severity and can provide new information on spatial and temporal patterns of burning. This analysis focused on boreal wildfire intensity (fire radiative power, or FRP) contained in the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) daily active fire product from 2003 to 2010. We found that differences in FRP resulted from seasonality and intra-annual variability in fire activity levels, vegetation composition, latitudinal variation, and fire spread behavior. Our studies determined two general categories of active fire detections: new detections associated with the spread of the fire front and residual pixels in areas that had already experienced front burning. Residual pixels had a lower average FRP than front pixels, but represented a high percentage of all pixels during periods of high fire activity (large fire years, late season burning, and seasonal periods of high fire activity). As a result, the FRP from periods of high fire activity was less intense than those from periods of low fire activity. Differences related to latitude were greater than expected, with higher latitudes burning later in the season and at a higher intensity than lower latitudes. Differences in vegetation type indicate that coniferous vegetation is the most fire prone, but deciduous vegetation is not particularly fire resistant, as the proportion of active fire detections in deciduous stands is roughly the same as the fraction of deciduous vegetation in the region. Qualitative differences between periods of high and low fire activity are likely to reflect important differences in fire severity. Large fire years are likely to be more severe, characterized by more late season fires and a greater proportion of residual burning. Given the potential for severe fires to effect changes in vegetation cover, the shift toward a greater proportion of area burning during large fire years may influence vegetation patterns in the region over the medium to long term.

Barrett, Kirsten; Kasischke, Eric S.

2013-01-01

273

COAL BLENDING, ASH SEPARATION, ASH RE INJECTION, ASH CONDITIONING, AND OTHER NOVEL APPROACHES TO ENHANCE HG UPTAKE BY ASH IN COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC POWER STATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in coal type and pollution control devices make it necessary to develop customized solutions for each utility, which will be most effective and economical for each configuration. In addition, the complicated chemistry and multiple mechanisms governing mercury speciation in coal-fired boilers makes it necessary to investigate Hg emission control technologies at conditions relevant to full-scale units. Experiments were performed

Thomas K. Gale; Randy L. Merritt

274

Microfungi in coniferous forest soils treated with lime or wood ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microfungal species composition was studied in coniferous forest soils which had been treated with lime or wood ash. The pH increased by about 2.5 units at the highest rate of application. Fungi were isolated 4–5 years after the treatments using a soil washing technique. At one site, Öringe, clear differences in species composition due to liming were found. Penicillium spinulosum,

E. Bååth; K. Arnebrant

1993-01-01

275

Utilization of geoinformation tools for the development of forest fire hazard mapping system: example of Pekan fire, Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study in modeling fire hazard assessment will be essential in establishing an effective forest fire management system especially in controlling and preventing peat fire. In this paper, we have used geographic information system (GIS), in combination with other geoinformation technologies such as remote sensing and computer modeling, for all aspects of wild land fire management. Identifying areas that have a high probability of burning is an important component of fire management planning. The development of spatially explicit GIS models has greatly facilitated this process by allowing managers to map and analyze variables contributing to fire occurrence across large, unique geographic units. Using the model and its associated software engine, the fire hazard map was produced. Extensive avenue programming scripts were written to provide additional capabilities in the development of these interfaces to meet the full complement of operational software considering various users requirements. The system developed not only possesses user friendly step by step operations to deliver the fire vulnerability mapping but also allows authorized users to edit, add or modify parameters whenever necessary. Results from the model can support fire hazard mapping in the forest and enhance alert system function by simulating and visualizing forest fire and helps for contingency planning.

Mahmud, Ahmad Rodzi; Setiawan, Iwan; Mansor, Shattri; Shariff, Abdul Rashid Mohamed; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Nuruddin, Ahmed

2009-12-01

276

Large-scale impoverishment of Amazonian forests by logging and fire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amazonian deforestation rates are used to determine human effects on the global carbon cycle and to measure Brazil's progress in curbing forest impoverishment,,. But this widely used measure of tropical land use tells only part of the story. Here we present field surveys of wood mills and forest burning across Brazilian Amazonia which show that logging crews severely damage 10,000 to 15,000km2yr-1 of forest that are not included in deforestation mapping programmes. Moreover, we find that surface fires burn additional large areas of standing forest, the destruction of which is normally not documented. Forest impoverishment due to such fires may increase dramatically when severe droughts provoke forest leaf-shedding and greater flammability; our regional water-balance model indicates that an estimated 270,000km2 of forest became vulnerable to fire in the 1998 dry season. Overall, we find that present estimates of annual deforestation for Brazilian Amazonia capture less than half of the forest area that is impoverished each year, and even less during years of severe drought. Both logging and fire increase forest vulnerability to future burning, and release forest carbon stocks to the atmosphere, potentially doubling net carbon emissions from regional land-use during severe El Niño episodes. If this forest impoverishment is to be controlled, then logging activities need to be restricted or replaced with low-impact timber harvest techniques, and more effective strategies to prevent accidental forest fires need to be implemented.

Nepstad, Daniel C.; Verssimo, Adalberto; Alencar, Ane; Nobre, Carlos; Lima, Eirivelthon; Lefebvre, Paul; Schlesinger, Peter; Potter, Christopher; Moutinho, Paulo; Mendoza, Elsa; Cochrane, Mark; Brooks, Vanessa

1999-04-01

277

Fire treatment effects on vegetation structure, fuels, and potential fire severity in western U.S. forests  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Abstract. Forest structure and species composition in many western U.S. coniferous forests have been altered through fire exclusion, past and ongoing harvesting practices, and livestock grazing over the 20th century. The effects of these activities have been most pronounced in seasonally dry, low and mid-elevation coniferous forests that once experienced frequent, low to moderate intensity, fire regimes. In this paper, we report the effects of Fire and Fire Surrogate (FFS) forest stand treatments on fuel load profiles, potential fire behavior, and fire severity under three weather scenarios from six western U.S. FFS sites. This replicated, multisite experiment provides a framework for drawing broad generalizations about the effectiveness of prescribed fire and mechanical treatments on surface fuel loads, forest structure, and potential fire severity. Mechanical treatments without fire resulted in combined 1-, 10-, and 100-hour surface fuel loads that were significantly greater than controls at three of five FFS sites. Canopy cover was significantly lower than controls at three of five FFS sites with mechanical-only treatments and at all five FFS sites with the mechanical plus burning treatment; fire-only treatments reduced canopy cover at only one site. For the combined treatment of mechanical plus fire, all five FFS sites with this treatment had a substantially lower likelihood of passive crown fire as indicated by the very high torching indices. FFS sites that experienced significant increases in 1-, 10-, and 100-hour combined surface fuel loads utilized harvest systems that left all activity fuels within experimental units. When mechanical treatments were followed by prescribed burning or pile burning, they were the most effective treatment for reducing crown fire potential and predicted tree mortality because of low surface fuel loads and increased vertical and horizontal canopy separation. Results indicate that mechanical plus fire, fire-only, and mechanical-only treatments using whole-tree harvest systems were all effective at reducing potential fire severity under severe fire weather conditions. Retaining the largest trees within stands also increased fire resistance. ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society of America.

Stephens, S. L.; Moghaddas, J. J.; Edminster, C.; Fiedler, C. E.; Haase, S.; Harrington, M.; Keeley, J. E.; Knapp, E. E.; Mciver, J. D.; Metlen, K.; Skinner, C. N.; Youngblood, A.

2009-01-01

278

Innovative technologies for full utilization of ash generated at coal-fired thermal power stations for producing alumina and construction materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility of full 100% usage of ash from coal-fired thermal power stations for producing raw materials for the cement and alumina industries is considered, and it is shown that comprehensive processing of ash from coal-fired thermal power stations is required for this purpose.

Delitsyn, L. M.; Vlasov, A. S.; Borodina, T. I.; Ezhova, N. N.; Sudareva, S. V.

2013-04-01

279

Using Oak Characteristics to Guide Fire Regime Restoration in Mexican Pine-Oak and Oak Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

: Pine-oak forests cover 14.2 million hectares in Mexico, a country that has the richest pine and oak diversity in the world. These diverse forests are a source of goods and services for rural and urban society, but they are being degraded and deforested. A cause of degradation is the alteration of the fire regime caused by fire exclusion or

Dante Arturo Rodríguez-Trejo; Ronald L. Myers

2010-01-01

280

Impact of the Arctic Oscillation pattern on interannual forest fire variability in Central Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Russia's forests play an important role in the global carbon cycle. Because of their scale and interannual variability, forest fires can change the direction of the net carbon flux over Eurasia. 2002 and 2003 were the first two consecutive years in the atmospheric record in which the carbon content rose by more than 2 ppm per year. Northern Hemisphere fires

Heiko Balzter; France F. Gerard; Charles T. George; Clare S. Rowland; Tim E. Jupp; Ian McCallum; Anatoly Shvidenko; Sten Nilsson; Anatoly Sukhinin; Alexander Onuchin; Christiane Schmullius

2005-01-01

281

GENERAL TECHNICAL REPORT PSW-GTR-245 Adaptive Management of Forest Fires in  

E-print Network

GENERAL TECHNICAL REPORT PSW-GTR-245 246 Adaptive Management of Forest Fires in Periurban Areas District (DF), Brazil, suffers every year with the forest fires in suburban areas. The National Institute in the Federal District, Brazil: A Case Study From the Urubu Valley Rural Community1 Gabriel Constantino

Standiford, Richard B.

282

Fire resistance of tree species explains historical gallery forest community composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire, climatic variability, and grazing by large herbivores have historically limited woody vegetation in the tallgrass prairie region of North America to gallery forests in protected areas along rivers and streams. Fire, in particular, has been a strong selective pressure against woody vegetation. Consequently, we expect that dominant tree species in these forests have developed mechanisms for tolerating periodic surface

Benjamin L. VanderWeide; David C. Hartnett

2011-01-01

283

Forest Fire Advanced System Technology (FFAST): A Conceptual Design for Detection and Mapping  

E-print Network

Forest Fire Advanced System Technology (FFAST): A Conceptual Design for Detection and Mapping 1 J. David Nichols and John R. Warren2 Abstract: The Forest Fire Advanced System Technology (FFAST) project and mapping system that is based upon technology available in the 1990's. System component technologies

Standiford, Richard B.

284

Design of automatic forest fire positioning system based on video monitoring system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest fire prevention is always the focus of attention worldwide, and an important aspect on which governments invest heavily in ecological protection. All of the geographic information (such as latitude and longitude, elevation) has become the public data at the areas deployed forest fire prevention system based on the video monitoring system. It is more expediently to set up the

Han Ning; Yang Guang-qun; Wang Yuan-yuan

2010-01-01

285

The impact of the 1998 boreal forest fires on oxidant chemistry in the global troposphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The highest surface measurements of northern mid and high latitude CO in the past 15 years were recorded in the summer and fall of 1998. These high values have been linked with anomalously large boreal forest fires associated with El Nino conditions. To study the impact of these forest fires on oxidant chemistry in the global troposphere, we use the

F. T. Leung; J. A. Logan; D. G. Streets; E. S. Kasischke; E. Hyer

2003-01-01

286

Efficient Forest Fire Detection System: A Spatial Data Mining and Image Processing Based Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The drastic ascent in the volume of spatial data owes its growth to the technical advancements in technologies that aid in spatial data acquisition, mass storage and network interconnection. Thus the necessity for automated detection of spatial knowledge from voluminous spatial data arises. Fire plays a vital role in a majority of the forest ecosystems. Forest fires are serious

K. Angayarkkani; N. Radhakrishnan

2009-01-01

287

Economic estimation of forest fire damage in N-E Italy1 Eva Valese2  

E-print Network

Economic estimation of forest fire damage in N-E Italy1 Eva Valese2 , Daniele Lubello2 ,Tommaso2 , Emanuela Ramon4 , Alice Lemessi4 . Abstract In Italy, about 45,000 ha of forest areas are burned the method to a specific area (Veneto region) of the north-eastern Italy. The costs of active fire

Tempesta, Tiziano

288

Emissions of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane from boreal forest fires in 1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global boreal forest region experienced some 17.9 million ha of fire in 1998, which could be the highest level of the decade. Through the analysis of fire statistics from North America and satellite data from Russia, semimonthly estimates of area burned for five different regions in the boreal forest were generated and used to estimate total carbon release and

Eric S. Kasischke; Lori P. Bruhwiler

2003-01-01

289

EVALUATION OF EFFECTS OF FOREST-FIRE SMOKE/HAZE ON BASIN-WIDE STREAM TEMPERATURES  

EPA Science Inventory

The effects of forest fires on ecological resources in the area experiencing the burn are well documented in the literature. What is not well known is the effect of smoke and haze generated from forest fires on ecological resources adjacent to or at great distances from the burn ...

290

Fire and Vegetation History from the Coastal Rain Forest of the Western Oregon Coast Range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution charcoal and pollen analyses were used to reconstruct a 4600-yr-long history of fire and vegetation near Taylor Lake in the wettest forests of coastal Oregon. Today, fires in these forests are rare because the season of ignition does not coincide with months of dry fuels. From ca. 4600 to 2700 cal yr B.P. fire episodes occurred at intervals of 140±30 yr while forest vegetation was dominated by disturbance-adapted taxa such as Alnus rubra. From ca. 2700 cal yr B.P. to the present, fire episodes have become less common, occurring at intervals of 240±30 yr, and fire-sensitive forest taxa, such as Tsuga heterophylla and Picea sitchensis, have become more prominent. Fire occurrence during the mid-Holocene was similar to that of the more xeric forests in the eastern Coast Range and suggests that summer drought was widespread. After ca. 2700 cal yr B.P., a decrease in fire episode frequency suggests that cooler conditions and possibly increased summer fog allowed the establishment of present-day Picea sitchensis forests within the watershed. These results provide evidence that fire has been an important disturbance agent in the Coast Range of Oregon, and variations in fire frequency and climate have led to the establishment of present-day forests.

Long, Colin J.; Whitlock, Cathy

291

Simulating the Effects of Fire on Forests in the Russian Far East: Integrating a Fire Danger Model and the FAREAST Forest Growth Model Across a Complex Landscape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The remaining natural habitat of the critically endangered Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) and Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) is a vast, biologically and topographically diverse area in the Russian Far East (RFE). Although wildland fire is a natural component of ecosystem functioning in the RFE, severe or repeated fires frequently re-set the process of forest succession, which may take centuries to return the affected forests to the pre-fire state and thus significantly alters habitat quality and long-term availability. The frequency of severe fire events has increased over the last 25 years, leading to irreversible modifications of some parts of the species' habitats. Moreover, fire regimes are expected to continue to change toward more frequent and severe events under the influence of climate change. Here we present an approach to developing capabilities for a comprehensive assessment of potential Amur tiger and leopard habitat availability throughout the 21st century by integrating regionally parameterized fire danger and forest growth models. The FAREAST model is an individual, gap-based model that simulates forest growth in a single location and demonstrates temporally explicit forest succession leading to mature forests. Including spatially explicit information on probabilities of fire occurrence at 1 km resolution developed from the regionally specific remotely -sensed data-driven fire danger model improves our ability to provide realistic long-term projections of potential forest composition in the RFE. This work presents the first attempt to merge the FAREAST model with a fire disturbance model, to validate its outputs across a large region, and to compare it to remotely-sensed data products as well as in situ assessments of forest structure. We ran the FAREAST model at 1,000 randomly selected points within forested areas in the RFE. At each point, the model was calibrated for temperature, precipitation, slope, elevation, and fire probability. The output of the model includes biomass estimates for 44 tree species that occur in the RFE, grouped by genus. We compared the model outputs with land cover classifications derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data and LIDAR-based estimates of biomass across the entire region, and Russian forest inventory records at selected sites. Overall, we find that the FAREAST estimates of forest biomass and general composition are consistent with the observed distribution of forest types.

Sherman, N. J.; Loboda, T.; Sun, G.; Shugart, H. H.; Csiszar, I.

2008-12-01

292

Alaska's Changing Fire Regime - Implications for the Vulnerability of Its Boreal Forests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A synthesis was carried out to examine Alaska s boreal forest fire regime. During the 2000s, an average of 767 000 ha/year burned, 50% higher than in any previous decade since the 1940s. Over the past 60 years, there was a decrease in the number of lightning-ignited fires, an increase in extreme lightning-ignited fire events, an increase in human-ignited fires, and a decrease in the number of extreme human-ignited fire events. The fraction of area burned from humanignited fires fell from 26% for the 1950s and 1960s to 5% for the 1990s and 2000s, a result from the change in fire policy that gave the highest suppression priorities to fire events that occurred near human settlements. The amount of area burned during late-season fires increased over the past two decades. Deeper burning of surface organic layers in black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) forests occurred during late-growing-season fires and on more well-drained sites. These trends all point to black spruce forests becoming increasingly vulnerable to the combined changes of key characteristics of Alaska s fire regime, except on poorly drained sites, which are resistant to deep burning. The implications of these fire regime changes to the vulnerability and resilience of Alaska s boreal forests and land and fire management are discussed.

Kasischke, E. S.; Hoy, E. E.; Verbyla, D. L.; Rupp, T. S.; Duffy, P. A.; McGuire, A. D.; Murphy, K. A.; Jandt, R.; Barnes, J. L.; Calef, M.; Turetsky, M. R.

2010-01-01

293

Modeling the Effects of Fire Frequency and Severity on Forests in the Northwestern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study used a model of forest dynamics (FORCLIM) and actual forest survey data to demonstrate the effects of various fire regimes on different forest types in the Pacific Northwest. We examined forests in eight ecoregions ranging from wet coastal forests dominated by Pseudotsuga menziesii and other tall conifers to dry interior forests dominated by Pinus ponderosa. Fire effects simulated as elevated mortality of trees based on their species and size did alter forest structure and species composition. Low frequency fires characteristic of wetter forests (return interval >200 yr) had minor effects on composition. When fires were severe, they tended to reduce total basal area with little regard to species differences. High frequency fires characteristic of drier forests (return interval <30 yr) had major effects on species composition and on total basal area. Typically, they caused substantial reductions in total basal area and shifts in dominance toward highly fire tolerant species. With the addition of fire, simulated basal areas averaged across ecoregions were reduced to levels approximating observed basal areas.

Busing, Richard T.; Solomon, Allen M.

2006-01-01

294

Fire Control: Manual of Prevention, Fighting and Extinguishing Forest Fires (Guardafuego: Manual de Prevencion, Combate y Extincion de Incedios Forestales).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes in simple, everyday Spanish language, the many ways in which any concerned citizen can help prevent forest fires. It includes general instructions on preventive measures, immediate steps to be taken when a fire is detected and, the o...

1981-01-01

295

Latent resilience in ponderosa pine forest: effects of resumed frequent fire.  

PubMed

Ecological systems often exhibit resilient states that are maintained through negative feedbacks. In ponderosa pine forests, fire historically represented the negative feedback mechanism that maintained ecosystem resilience; fire exclusion reduced that resilience, predisposing the transition to an alternative ecosystem state upon reintroduction of fire. We evaluated the effects of reintroduced frequent wildfire in unlogged, fire-excluded, ponderosa pine forest in the Bob Marshall Wilderness, Montana, USA. Initial reintroduction of fire in 2003 reduced tree density and consumed surface fuels, but also stimulated establishment of a dense cohort of lodgepole pine, maintaining a trajectory toward an alternative state. Resumption of a frequent fire regime by a second fire in 2011 restored a low-density forest dominated by large-diameter ponderosa pine by eliminating many regenerating lodgepole pines and by continuing to remove surface fuels and small-diameter lodgepole pine and Douglas-fir that established during the fire suppression era. Our data demonstrate that some unlogged, fire-excluded, ponderosa pine forests possess latent resilience to reintroduced fire. A passive model of simply allowing lightning-ignited fires to burn appears to be a viable approach to restoration of such forests. PMID:24147398

Larson, Andrew J; Belote, R Travis; Cansler, C Alina; Parks, Sean A; Dietz, Matthew S

2013-09-01

296

Uncertainty in surface-fire history: the case of ponderosa pine forests in the western United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present understanding of fire ecology in forests subject to surface fires is based on fire-scar evidence. We present theory and empirical results that suggest that fire-history data have uncertainties and biases when used to esti - mate the population mean fire interval (FI) or other parameters of the fire regime. First, the population mean FI is dif - ficult to

William L. Baker; Donna Ehle

2001-01-01

297

Radiological characteristics and investigation of the radioactive equilibrium in the ashes produced in lignite-fired power plants.  

PubMed

Coal- and lignite-fired power plants produce significant amounts of ashes, which are quite often being used as additives in cement and other building materials. In many cases, coal and lignite present high concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides, such as 238U, 226Ra, 210Pb, 232Th and 40K. During the combustion process, the produced ashes are enriched in the above radionuclides. The different enrichment of the various radionuclides within a radioactive series, such as that of 238U, results in the disturbance of radioactive secular equilibrium. An extensive research project for the determination of the natural radioactivity of lignite and ashes from Greek lignite-fired power plants is in progress in the Nuclear Engineering Department of the National Technical University of Athens (NED-NTUA) since 1983. This paper presents detailed results for the natural radioactivity, the secular radioactive equilibrium disturbance and the radon exhalation rate of the fly-ash collected at the different stages along the emission control system of a lignite-fired power plant as well as of the bottom-ash. From the results obtained so far, it may be concluded that 226Ra radioactivity of fly-ash in some cases exceeds 1 kBq kg(-1), which is much higher than the mean 226Ra radioactivity of surface soils in Greece (25 Bq kg(-1)). Furthermore, the radioactivity of 210Pb in fly-ash may reach 4 kBq kg(-1). These results are interpreted in relation to the physical properties of the investigated nuclides, the temperature in the flue-gas pathway, as well as the fly-ash grain size distribution. It is concluded that towards the coldest parts of the emission control system of the power plant, the radioactivity of some natural nuclides is gradually enhanced, secular radioactive equilibrium is significantly disturbed and the radon exhalation rate tends to increase. PMID:15381319

Karangelos, D J; Petropoulos, N P; Anagnostakis, M J; Hinis, E P; Simopoulos, S E

2004-01-01

298

Development of Customized Fire Behavior Fuel Models for Boreal Forests of Northeastern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of forest fuels and their potential fire behavior across a landscape is essential in fire management. Four customized\\u000a fire behavior fuel models that differed significantly in fuels characteristics and environmental conditions were identified\\u000a using hierarchical cluster analysis based on fuels data collected across a boreal forest landscape in northeastern China.\\u000a Fuel model I represented the dense and heavily branched

Zhi Wei Wu; Hong Shi He; Yu Chang; Zhi Hua Liu; Hong Wei Chen

299

Assessing the Impact of Recurrent Fires on Forests in Southern Amazonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human-caused fires in Amazon forests alter forest structure, species composition, and the likelihood of future disturbance. Repeated exposure to fire may eventually convert tropical forest into fire-adapted grasslands, a process described as savannization, with dramatic consequences for carbon storage, regional climate, and biodiversity. We tested the savannization hypothesis for a study area in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso using annual satellite data to determine the frequency of fire damages and characterize vegetation recovery following repeated burning. We then incorporated results from the remote sensing analysis into the Ecosystem Demography (ED) model to quantify the long-term carbon consequences of recurrent forest fire damages in southern Amazonia. Our analysis of time series data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) revealed that burned forests are an extensive and long-term component of the frontier landscape, but recurrent fire damages did not lead to evidence of savannization in MODIS-based measures of vegetation greenness following fire. Comparable recovery of dry-season vegetation greenness in the years following first, second, and third fires suggests that tree sprouts and other woody vegetation quickly regained dominance following initial and repeated burning. ED model results demonstrated that establishment of pioneer tree species in fire-damaged forests leads to a short-term increase in the risk of future fires and a long-term decrease in aboveground biomass. Without widespread conversion of forests to grasslands, the long-term impacts from fire in southern Amazonia could still be large if frequent fires trap burned forests in early succession.

Morton, D. C.; Defries, R. S.; Hurtt, G. C.; Dubayah, R.

2008-12-01

300

Fire Impact on Phytomass and Carbon Emissions in the Forests of Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Siberian boreal forests contribute considerably to the global carbon budget, since they take up vast areas, accumulate large amount of carbon, and are sensitive to climatic changes. Fire is the main forest disturbance factor, covering up to millions of hectares of boreal forests annually, of which the majority is in Siberia. Carbon emissions released from phytomass burning influence atmospheric chemistry and global carbon cycling. Changing climate and land use influence the number and intensity of wildfires, forest state, and productivity, as well as global carbon balance. Fire effects on forest overstory, subcanopy woody layer, and ground vegetation phytomass were estimated on sites in light-conifer forests of the Central Siberia as a part of the project "The Influence of Changing Forestry Practices on the Effects of Wildfire and on Interactions Between Fire and Changing Climate in Central Siberia" supported by NASA (NEESPI). This study focuses on collecting quantitative data and modeling the influence of fires of varying intensity on fire emissions, carbon budget, and ecosystem processes in coniferous stands. Fires have a profound impact on forest-atmospheric carbon exchange and transform forests from carbon sinks to carbon sources lasting long after the time of burning. Our long-term experiments allowed us to identify vegetation succession patterns in taiga Scots pine stands after fires of known behavior. Estimating fire contributions to the carbon budget requires consideration of many factors, including vegetation type and fire type and intensity. Carbon emissions were found to depend on fire intensity and weather. In the first several years after fire, the above-ground phytomass appeared to be strongly controlled by fire intensity. However, the influence of burning intensity on organic matter accumulation was found to decrease with time.

Ivanova, Galina A.; Zhila, Sergei V.; Ivanov, Valery A.; Kovaleva, Nataly M.; Kukavskaya, Elena A.; Platonova, Irina A.; Conard, Susan G.

2014-05-01

301

Causal Explanation of Indonesian Forest Fires: Concepts, Applications, and Research Priorities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problems with studies, claims, and assumptions that have been made about the causes of fires in Indonesia's tropical moist forests are identified, and the kinds of concepts, methods, prioritizing, and data needed to resolve the problems are discussed. Separate sections are devoted to studying ignitions, studying fire susceptibility and fire behavior, and using the goal of causal explanation to guide

Andrew P. Vayda

2006-01-01

302

Interactions between fire and bark beetles in an old growth pine forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management strategies for old growth pine forests have recently begun to include prescribed burns. Fire could influence interactions between bark beetles and mature pine trees, but we cannot predict the effects because we know too little about the numeric and functional responses of bark beetle populations to fire, and because we do not know how fire affects the oleoresin defense

Alyson E. Santoro; Maria J. Lombardero; Matthew P. Ayres; Jonathan J. Ruel

303

Interactions between fire and bark beetles in an old growth pine forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management strategies for old growth pine forests have recently begun to include prescribed burns. Fire could influence interactions between bark beetles and mature pine trees, but we cannot predict the effects because we know too little about the numeric and functional responses of bark beetle populations to fire, and because we do not know how fire affects the oleoresin defense

Alyson E Santoro; Mar??a J Lombardero; Matthew P Ayres; Jonathan J Ruel

2001-01-01

304

Managing forests with prescribed fire: Implications for a cavity-dwelling bat species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prescribed burning is used as a restoration and management technique in many deciduous forests of eastern North America. The effects of fire have been studied on habitat selection of many vertebrate species, but no studies have reported the effect of fire on bat roosting habitat. Fire initially leads to an influx of dead and dying trees, an increase of light

Justin G. Boyles; Doug P. Aubrey

2006-01-01

305

Bi-spectral infrared forest fire detection and analysis using classification techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infrared cameras are well established as a useful tool for fire detection, but their use for quantitative forest fire measurements faces difficulties, due to the complex spatial and spectral structure of fires. In this work it is shown that some of these difficulties can be overcome by applying classification techniques, a standard tool for the analysis of satellite multispectral images,

Jose M. Aranda; Juan Meléndez; Antonio J. de Castro; Fernando López

2004-01-01

306

A stand-replacing fire history in upper montane forests of the southern Rocky Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dendroecological techniques were applied to reconstruct stand-replacing fire history in upper montane forests in northern New Mexico and southern Colorado. Fourteen stand-replacing fires were dated to 8 unique fire years (1842- 1901) using four lines of evidence at each of 12 sites within the upper Rio Grande Basin. The four lines of evidence were (i) quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.)

Ellis Q. Margolis; Thomas W. Swetnam; Craig D. Allen

2007-01-01

307

Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Forest Fire Risk and Danger Using LANDSAT Imagery  

PubMed Central

Computing fire danger and fire risk on a spatio-temporal scale is of crucial importance in fire management planning, and in the simulation of fire growth and development across a landscape. However, due to the complex nature of forests, fire risk and danger potential maps are considered one of the most difficult thematic layers to build up. Remote sensing and digital terrain data have been introduced for efficient discrete classification of fire risk and fire danger potential. In this study, two time-series data of Landsat imagery were used for determining spatio-temporal change of fire risk and danger potential in Korudag forest planning unit in northwestern Turkey. The method comprised the following two steps: (1) creation of indices of the factors influencing fire risk and danger; (2) evaluation of spatio-temporal changes in fire risk and danger of given areas using remote sensing as a quick and inexpensive means and determining the pace of forest cover change. Fire risk and danger potential indices were based on species composition, stand crown closure, stand development stage, insolation, slope and, proximity of agricultural lands to forest and distance from settlement areas. Using the indices generated, fire risk and danger maps were produced for the years 1987 and 2000. Spatio-temporal analyses were then realized based on the maps produced. Results obtained from the study showed that the use of Landsat imagery provided a valuable characterization and mapping of vegetation structure and type with overall classification accuracy higher than 83%.

Saglam, Bulent; Bilgili, Ertugrul; Durmaz, Bahar Dinc; Kad?ogullar?, Ali Ihsan; Kucuk, Omer

2008-01-01

308

A soil burn severity index for understanding soil-fire relations in tropical forests  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Methods for evaluating the impact of fires within tropical forests are needed as fires become more frequent and human populations and demands on forests increase. Short- and long-term fire effects on soils are determined by the prefire, fire, and postfire environments. We placed these components within a fire-disturbance continuum to guide our literature synthesis and develop an integrated soil burn severity index. The soil burn severity index provides a set of indicators that reflect the range of conditions present after a fire. The index consists of seven levels, an unburned level and six other levels that describe a range of postfire soil conditions. We view this index as a tool for understanding the effects of fires on the forest floor, with the realization that as new information is gained, the index may be modified as warranted. ?? Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2008.

Jain, T. B.; Gould, W. A.; Graham, R. T.; Pilliod, D. S.; Lentile, L. B.; Gonzalez, G.

2008-01-01

309

Simulating the effects of fire management on gas emissions in western forests of the United States  

SciTech Connect

The exclusion of fire from terrestrial ecosystems will result in major changes in landscape structure and composition that, in turn, will result in significant changes in gaseous emissions to the atmosphere. A mechanistic forest successional model, FIRE-BGC (a FIRE BioGeoChemical succession model) is used to investigate long-term trends in gaseous emissions (CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, non-methane hydrocarbons, and NO{sub x}) under present and historical fire regimes for a complex landscape in Glacier National Park, Montana, USA. FIRE-BGC simulates long-term fire and stand dynamics on coniferous forest landscapes of the northern Rocky Mountains. FIRE-BGC is an individual tree model created by merging the gap-phase, process-based model FIRESUM with the mechanistic ecosystem biogeochemical model FOREST-BGC.

Keane, R.E.; Hardy, C.C.; Ryan, K.C. [Forest Service, Missoula, MT (United States)

1996-12-31

310

Fire in boreal ecosystems of Eurasia: First results of the Bor Forest island fire experiment, Fire Research Campaign Asia-North (FIRESCAN)  

SciTech Connect

Fire is an important natural and anthropogenic factor in the dynamics of the boreal forest system. The ecological and environmental impacts of boreal fires depend on fire weather, fuel availability, fire behavior and history of sand development (frequency and size of fires and other biotic and abiotic disturbances, influence of surrounding landscape on successional developments). About 70% of the global boreal forest is in Eurasia, almost all of it in the Russian Federation. It is estimated that in years with high fire danger up to ca. 10 million ha of forest and other land in the Russian Federation are affected by fire. The demand for reliable information on the role of natural and anthropogenic fire and the necessity to develop adequate fire management systems is basically due to globally increasing concerns about (1) impacts of boreal wildfires on atmosphere and climate, (2) changing utilization and ecologically destructive practices in boreal forestry, and (3) possible consequences of global climate change on the boreal forest system.

Angelstam, P. (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Riddarhyttan (Sweden)); Bufetov, N.S. (Novosibirsk Inst. of Chemical Kinetics and combustion (Russian Federation)); Clark, J. (Duke Univ., Durham, SC (United States). Botany Dept.) (and others)

1994-12-01

311

Strategies for preventing invasive plant outbreaks after prescribed fire in ponderosa pine forest  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Land managers use prescribed fire to return a vital process to fire-adapted ecosystems, restore forest structure from a state altered by long-term fire suppression, and reduce wildfire intensity. However, fire often produces favorable conditions for invasive plant species, particularly if it is intense enough to reveal bare mineral soil and open previously closed canopies. Understanding the environmental or fire characteristics that explain post-fire invasive plant abundance would aid managers in efficiently finding and quickly responding to fire-caused infestations. To that end, we used an information-theoretic model-selection approach to assess the relative importance of abiotic environmental characteristics (topoedaphic position, distance from roads), pre-and post-fire biotic environmental characteristics (forest structure, understory vegetation, fuel load), and prescribed fire severity (measured in four different ways) in explaining invasive plant cover in ponderosa pine forest in South Dakota’s Black Hills. Environmental characteristics (distance from roads and post-fire forest structure) alone provided the most explanation of variation (26%) in post-fire cover of Verbascum thapsus (common mullein), but a combination of surface fire severity and environmental characteristics (pre-fire forest structure and distance from roads) explained 36–39% of the variation in post-fire cover of Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle) and all invasives together. For four species and all invasives together, their pre-fire cover explained more variation (26–82%) in post-fire cover than environmental and fire characteristics did, suggesting one strategy for reducing post-fire invasive outbreaks may be to find and control invasives before the fire. Finding them may be difficult, however, since pre-fire environmental characteristics explained only 20% of variation in pre-fire total invasive cover, and less for individual species. Thus, moderating fire intensity or targeting areas of high severity for post-fire invasive control may be the most efficient means for reducing the chances of post-fire invasive plant outbreaks when conducting prescribed fires in this region.

Symstad, Amy J.; Newton, Wesley E.; Swanson, Daniel J.

2014-01-01

312

FISHTRAP CREEK WORKSHOP Watershed Response to the McLure Forest Fire  

E-print Network

and after the fire (R.D. Moore, UBC) 10:00 ­ 10:30 Refreshment break Session 2: Channel morphology of this research has been funded by the provincial Forest Investment Account via the Forest Science Program. email: rdmoore@geog.ubc.ca Rita Winkler, PhD, RPF. Research Hydrologist, Ministry of Forests and Range

Eaton, Brett

313

Changes in O horizon mass, thickness and carbon content following fire in northern hardwood forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines temporal changes in the thickness, mass, and organic carbon content of the O horizon (forest floor) of eight forested plots in northern Michigan, USA. Each plot had experienced a recent burn (prescribed or accidental); burn dates ranged from 1798 to 1980. The climax forest in this region is mixed Pinus-Acer-Betula-Tsuga, whereas the fire successional species are predominantly

Randall J. Schaetzl

1994-01-01

314

The Perfect Fire? Aging Stands in the Alaskan Boreal Forest Encounter Global Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ecological responses of the boreal forest to climate change have global significance because of the large amount of carbon stored in its soils and biomass. Fire, mostly ignited by lightning, is the keystone disturbance agent in this forest. It triggers cycles of forest succession in its wake, and burning is the main avenue for carbon release back to the

D. Mann; S. Rupp; P. Duffy

2008-01-01

315

Effects of Water Bag of Forest Fire Suppression Hand Pump on Body Balance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Body balance function is an important ability for forest firefighters in firefighting tasks using forest fire suppression hand pumps. In order to study the influence of style and weight of water bag on body balance in forest firefighting, this paper assesses the physiological and perceptual responses of three types of water bags, by tests of balance function and perception assessment.

Jinglian Chen; Wenbin Li; Lifang Ma

2009-01-01

316

Forest Fire and the Natural Soil Erosion Regime in the Colorado Front Range  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surficial soil movement data from 80 sediment traps located within five forested catchments in the Colorado Front Range suggest that sediment flux rates after forest fires are elevated by as much as three orders of magnitude compared to rates typical of undisturbed forested areas. Sediment traps installed within a recently burned basin recorded (minimum) annual rates of surficial flux equivalent

Scott E. Morris; Todd A. Moses

1987-01-01

317

Wildfire and drought dynamics destabilize carbon stores of fire-suppressed forests.  

PubMed

Widespread fire suppression and thinning have altered the structure and composition of many forests in the western United States, making them more susceptible to the synergy of large-scale drought and fire events. We examine how these changes affect carbon storage and stability compared to historic fire-adapted conditions. We modeled carbon dynamics under possible drought and fire conditions over a 300-year simulation period in two mixed-conifer conditions common in the western United States: (1) pine-dominated with an active fire regime and (2) fir-dominated, fire suppressed forests. Fir-dominated stands, with higher live- and dead-wood density, had much lower carbon stability as drought and fire frequency increased compared to pine-dominated forest. Carbon instability resulted from species (i.e., fir's greater susceptibility to drought and fire) and stand (i.e., high density of smaller trees) conditions that develop in the absence of active management. Our modeling suggests restoring historic species composition and active fire regimes can significantly increase carbon stability in fire-suppressed, mixed-conifer forests. Long-term management of forest carbon should consider the relative resilience of stand structure and composition to possible increases in disturbance frequency and intensity under changing climate. PMID:24988771

Earles, J Mason; North, Malcolm P; Hurteau, Matthew D

2014-06-01

318

ECONOMICS OF NITROGEN OXIDES, SULFUR OXIDES, AND ASH CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR COAL-FIRED UTILITY POWER PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an EPA-sponsored economic evaluation of three processes to reduce NOx, SO2, and ash emissions from coal-fired utility power plants: one based on 3.5% sulfur eastern bituminous coal; and the other, on 0.7% sulfur western subbituminous coal. NOx control ...

319

Long-term, landscape patterns of past fire events in a montane ponderosa pine forest of central Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parameters of fire regimes, including fire frequency, spatial extent of burned areas, fire severity, and season of fire occurrence, influence vegetation patterns over multiple scales. In this study, centuries-long patterns of fire events in a montane ponderosa pine – Douglas-fir forest landscape surrounding Cheesman Lake in central Colorado were reconstructed from fire-scarred trees and inferences from forest stand ages. We

Peter M. Brown; Merrill R. Kaufmann; Wayne D. Shepperd

1999-01-01

320

A stand-replacing fire history in upper montane forests of the southern Rocky Mountains  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dendroecological techniques were applied to reconstruct stand-replacing fire history in upper montane forests in northern New Mexico and southern Colorado. Fourteen stand-replacing fires were dated to 8 unique fire years (1842-1901) using four lines of evidence at each of 12 sites within the upper Rio Grande Basin. The four lines of evidence were (i) quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) inner-ring dates, (ii) fire-killed conifer bark-ring dates, (iii) tree-ring width changes or other morphological indicators of injury, and (iv) fire scars. The annual precision of dating allowed the identification of synchronous stand-replacing fire years among the sites, and co-occurrence with regional surface fire events previously reconstructed from a network of fire scar collections in lower elevation pine forests across the southwestern United States. Nearly all of the synchronous stand-replacing and surface fire years coincided with severe droughts, because climate variability created regional conditions where stand-replacing fires and surface fires burned across ecosystems. Reconstructed stand-replacing fires that predate substantial Anglo-American settlement in this region provide direct evidence that stand-replacing fires were a feature of high-elevation forests before extensive and intensive land-use practices (e.g., logging, railroad, and mining) began in the late 19th century. ?? 2007 NRC.

Margolis, E. Q.; Swetnam, T. W.; Allen, C. D.

2007-01-01

321

Fire Regimes and Forest Structure in the Mountains of Northwestern Mexico and Southern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In contrast to a few isolated forests in northern Mexico, most forests in the western Untied States have been significantly modified by fire suppression, harvesting, and livestock grazing. The culmination of these past management activities has produced over 20 million ha of US forests with high fire hazards and many of these areas are in need of restoration. Understanding reference conditions is challenging because we have few intact forests functioning under the continuing influence of climate variation, insects, diseases, and frequent fires. This presentation summarizes information from reference sites in northwestern Mexico and contrasts it to current forest structure and fire regimes in southern California forests. Heterogeneity is common in the intact forests of northwestern Mexico. Restoration targets across similar forests in the United States and elsewhere should incorporate variation and not manage for average characteristics at the stand level, replicated for all stands across very large spatial scales. Conservation of the forests in the northwester Mexico is critical because it is the last landscape-scale, old-growth mixed conifer forest in western North America with a relatively intact frequent fire regime.

Stephens, S. L.

2004-12-01

322

Interpretation of the charcoal record in forest soils: forest fires and their production and deposition of macroscopic charcoal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traps were used to quantify charcoal production and transport during three experimental forest fires in Boreal Scandinavia. The traps were spatially arranged to collect charcoal particles inside burn areas, and outside burn areas at different distances (0.1–100 m) from the fire edge. The number of inside and outside traps was 280 and 424, respectively. Trap area was 48 cm2. After

Mikael Ohlson; Elling Tryterud

2000-01-01

323

Temporal variations and change in forest fire danger in Europe for 1960-2012  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding how fire weather danger indices changed in the past and how such changes affected forest fire activity is important in a changing climate. We used the Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI), calculated from two reanalysis data sets, ERA-40 and ERA Interim, to examine the temporal variation of forest fire danger in Europe in 1960-2012. Additionally, we used national forest fire statistics from Greece, Spain and Finland to examine the relationship between fire danger and fires. There is no obvious trend in fire danger for the time period covered by ERA-40 (1960-1999), whereas for the period 1980-2012 covered by ERA Interim, the mean FWI shows an increasing trend for southern and eastern Europe which is significant at the 99% confidence level. The cross correlations calculated at the national level in Greece, Spain and Finland between total area burned and mean FWI of the current season is of the order of 0.6, demonstrating the extent to which the current fire-season weather can explain forest fires. To summarize, fire risk is multifaceted, and while climate is a major determinant, other factors can contribute to it, either positively or negatively.

Venäläinen, A.; Korhonen, N.; Hyvärinen, O.; Koutsias, N.; Xystrakis, F.; Urbieta, I. R.; Moreno, J. M.

2014-06-01

324

Rocket-triggered lightning strikes and forest fire ignition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Background information on the rocket-triggered lightning project at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), a summary of the forecasting problem there, the facilities and equipment available for undertaking field experiments at KSC, previous research activity performed, a description of the atmospheric science field laboratory near Mosquito Lagoon on the KSC complex, methods of data acquisition, and present results are discussed. New sources of data for the 1989 field experiment include measuring the electric field in the lower few thousand feet of the atmosphere by suspending field measuring devices below a tethered balloon. Problems encountered during the 1989 field experiment are discussed. Future prospects for both triggered lightning and lightning-kindled forest fire research at KSC are listed.

Fenner, James H.

1989-01-01

325

Rocket-triggered lightning strikes and forest fire ignition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following are presented: (1) background information on the rocket-triggered lightning project an Kennedy Space Center (KSC); (2) a summary of the forecasting problem; (3) the facilities and equipment available for undertaking field experiments at KSC; (4) previous research activity performed; (5) a description of the atmospheric science field laboratory near Mosquito Lagoon on the KSC complex; (6) methods of data acquisition; and (7) present results. New sources of data for the 1990 field experiment include measuring the electric field in the lower few thousand feet of the atmosphere by suspending field measuring devices below a tethered balloon, and measuring the electric field intensity in clouds and in the atmosphere with aircraft. The latter program began in July of 1990. Also, future prospects for both triggered lightning and forest fire research at KSC are listed.

Fenner, James

1990-01-01

326

Assessing risks to spotted owls from forest thinning in fire-adapted forests of the western United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concern for viable spotted owl (Strix occidentalis) populations has played prominently in the management of western forests in the United States. Historically, much of the debate has focused on the impacts of commercial timber harvest. Increasingly, the conflict is shifting to the habitat needs of owls versus the need for active management of fire-adapted forest ecosystems to reduce the occurrence

Danny C. Lee; Larry L. Irwin

2005-01-01

327

The recurrence interval of forest fires in Cabeço da Vaca (Cabreira Mountain--northwest of Portugal).  

PubMed

The recurrence of forest fires is degrading an important part of the Portuguese natural heritage namely its forest and soils. In this paper we present the case study of Cabeço da Vaca (Cabreira Mountain-northwest Portugal), where in recent decades, particularly in the 70s, there was a significant increase in the number of forest fires and in the areas scorched annually. There is thus a turning point between a period when fire was an integral part of the ecosystems and when fire has become a serious threat to woodland management and development (Bento Gonçalves, 2006). Starting with a thorough characterization of forest fires and based on the mapping of scorched areas between 1990 and 2006, we have proceeded to identify the annual pattern of maximum recurrence and the definition of the return interval in Cabeço da Vaca, producing thus a valuable document to support management and forestry development in general. PMID:20576260

Ferreira Leite, Flora; Bento Gonçalves, António; Vieira, António

2011-02-01

328

Continuous Monitoring of Forest Fires in the Mediterranean Area Using MSG  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fires represent one of the main factors of degradation and destruction of the Mediterranean forest heritage. According to fire-fighting agencies, a satellite-based fire-detection system can be considered operationally useful for Mediterranean countries when fires with a minimum extent of 1500 m2 can be detected with a temporal resolution of 30 min. In fact, such a system should be able to

Giovanni Laneve; Marco M. Castronuovo; Enrico G. Cadau

2006-01-01

329

Glomalin content of forest soils in relation to fire frequency and landscape position  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-intensity, dormant season fires were frequent and widespread in oak-hickory ( Quercus-Carya) forests of eastern North America until widespread fire suppression began in the mid-1900s. To assess how reintroduction of fire into such ecosystems might affect the activity of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and, thereby, predict the long-term responses of plants and soils to fire, we analyzed the content of

Melissa A. Knorr; R. E. J. Boerner; Matthias C. Rillig

2003-01-01

330

A Review of the Main Driving Factors of Forest Fire Ignition Over Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of the causes of forest fires, and of the main driving factors of ignition, is an indispensable step towards effective fire prevention policies. This study analyses the factors driving forest fire ignition in the Mediterranean region including the most common human and environmental factors used for modelling in the European context. Fire ignition factors are compared to spatial and temporal variations of fire occurrence in the region, then are compared to results obtained in other areas of the world, with a special focus on North America (US and Canada) where a significant number of studies has been carried out on this topic. The causes of forest fires are varied and their distribution differs among countries, but may also differ spatially and temporally within the same country. In Europe, and especially in the Mediterranean basin, fires are mostly human-caused mainly due arson. The distance to transport networks and the distance to urban or recreation areas are among the most frequently used human factors in modelling exercises and the Wildland-Urban Interface is increasingly taken into account in the modelling of fire occurrence. Depending on the socio-economic context of the region concerned, factors such as the unemployment rate or variables linked to agricultural activity can explain the ignition of intentional and unintentional fires. Regarding environmental factors, those related to weather, fuel and topography are the most significant drivers of ignition of forest fires, especially in Mediterranean-type regions. For both human and lightning-caused fires, there is a geographical gradient of fire ignition, mainly due to variations in climate and fuel composition but also to population density for instance. The timing of fires depends on their causes. In populated areas, the timing of human-caused fires is closely linked to human activities and peaks in the afternoon whereas, in remote areas, the timing of lightning-caused fires is more linked to weather conditions and the season, with most such fires occurring in summer.

Ganteaume, Anne; Camia, Andrea; Jappiot, Marielle; San-Miguel-Ayanz, Jesus; Long-Fournel, Marlène; Lampin, Corinne

2013-03-01

331

Contribution of agricultural and forest fires in Ukraine to impact of Eurasian burnings on Arctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Burning potentially can occur on major part of lands of Ukraine (total 57.93 million ha) and, first of all, on agricultural ones - that occupy 71% of total area of the country. Forests occupy 17.6% of the area of country, where from 2 to 4 thousands fires happens annually. Good wildfire statistics, as well as proper fire management system only for part of forest lands of Ukraine - 68% is established, in particularly, for forests that managed by State Agency of Forest Resources of Ukraine. While other 2 million ha of forests that managed by other Ministries are out of regular fire management action, detection and protection. There are no reliable detection and accounting of wildfires, outdated or absent fire engines, lack of fire crews and facilities on most part of agricultural, grass, abandoned lands, pastures. During emergency wildfires situation in Ukraine in August 2010 only full mobilization of forest personal together with forces of internal affairs (police) for patrolling of wildfire situation nationwide allows to avoid catastrophic scenario in spite of general low preparedness and unsatisfactory technical provision of fire management on agricultural lands. That year in forest lands totally 3065 cases of fires were registered with total area burned 8916 ha (fire season 2010) and 3145 cases of wildfires on agricultural lands (August 2010). There are no reliable statistics and effective fire management system on grass and agricultural lands in Ukraine even agricultural fires burned much larger area of lands then forest fires and produce significant amount of black carbon both during spring and summer fire events. Results of analysis of wildfire cases in Ukraine at 1x1 km spatial resolution for the period 2006-2008 based on active detection of thermals anomaly by MODIS shows that annually, during the period nearly 20,000 cases of wildfires were detected. In extreme years like 2008, amount of fires doubled. Wildfires in Ukraine make important input in total Eurasian impact of biomass burning on Arctic. In particularly, the fire hazard period, characterized by highest fire activity - 30% of the total cases of detected active ignitions, occurs in the spring (March, April, May) and 55% in summer (July, August and September). Analysis of land use type of burnings shows that 93% of fires for the period occur on agricultural land and other 7% - on forest lands. Near 23% of forest fires could be ignited as a result of transfer of fires from nearest agricultural lands. Comparing of remote sensing data with official forest fire statistics of State Agency of Forest Resources of Ukraine shows that only 15% of the total official amount of forest fires was detected by MODIS. This is because the accordingly to statistics, average area of forest fires in Ukraine is near 1.1 ha, and large part of fires do not exceed 0.5 ha and less, while this area is lowest threshold of detection by MODIS.

Zibtsev, S.; Goldammer, J. G.; Gilitukha, D.

2012-04-01

332

Transformations and affinities for sulfur of Chinese Shenmu coal ash in a pulverized coal-fired boiler  

SciTech Connect

The self-desulfurization efficiency of Shenmu coal with a high initial Ca/S molar ratio of 2.02 was measured in a 1,025 t/h pulverized coal-fired boiler. It increases from 29% to 32% when the power capacity decreases from 100% to 70%. About 60% of the mineral matter and calcium element fed into the furnace is retained in the fly ash, while less than 10% is retained in the bottom ash. About 70% of the sulfur element fed into the furnace is emitted as SO{sub 2} in the flue gas, while less than 10% is retained in the fly ash and less than 1% is retained in the bottom ash. The mineralogical compositions of feed coal, fly ash, and bottom ash were obtained by X-ray diffraction analysis. It is found that the initial amorphous phase content is 91.17% and the initial CaCO{sub 3} phase content is 2.07% in Shenmu coal. The vitreous phase and sulfation product CaSO{sub 4} contents are, respectively, 70.47% and 3.36% in the fly ash obtained at full capacity, while the retained CaCO{sub 3} and CaO contents are, respectively, 4.73% and 2.15%. However, the vitreous phase content is only 25.68% and no CaSO{sub 4} is detected in the bottom ash obtained at full capacity. When the power capacity decreases from 100% to 70%, the vitreous phase content in fly ash decreases from 70.47% to 67.41% and that in bottom ash increases from 25.68% to 28.10%.

Cheng, J.; Zhou, J.H.; Liu, J.Z.; Cao, X.Y.; Cen, K.F. [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China)

2009-07-01

333

Fire Impact on Carbon Emissions on Logged and Unlogged Scots pine Forest Sites in Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fires cover millions ha of boreal forests of Russia annually, mostly in Siberia. Wildfire and forest harvesting are the major disturbances in Siberia's boreal zone. Logged areas appear to be highly susceptible to fire due to a combination of high fuel loads and accessibility for human-caused ignition. Fire spreading from logging sites to surrounding forest is a common situation in this region. Changing patterns of timber harvesting increase landscape complexity and can be expected to increase the emissions and ecosystem damage from wildfires, inhibit recovery of natural ecosystems, and exacerbate impacts of wildfire on changing climate and on air quality. Fire effects on pine stands and biomass of surface vegetation were estimated on logged and unlogged sites in the Central Siberia region as a part of the project "The Influence of Changing Forestry Practices on the Effects of Wildfire and on Interactions Between Fire and Changing Climate in Central Siberia" supported by NASA (NEESPI). Fires occurring on logged areas were typically of higher severity than those in unlogged forests, but the specific effects of fire and logging varied widely among forest types and as a result of weather patterns during and prior to the fire. Consumption of surface and ground fuels in spring fires was 25% to 50% of that in summer fires. Estimated carbon emissions due to fire were 2-5 times higher on logged areas compared to undisturbed sites. Post-fire soil respiration decreases found for both site types partially offset carbon losses. Carbon emissions from fire and post-fire ecosystem damage on logged sites are expected to increase under changing climate conditions in Siberia.

Ivanova, G.; Kukavskaya, E.; Buryak, L.; Kalenskaya, O.; Bogorodskaya, A.; Conard, S. G.

2012-12-01

334

Post-fire succession of ground vegetation of central Siberia in Scots pine forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extensive wildfires have affected the Russian region in the last decade. Scots pine forests (Pinus sylvestris L.) are widespread in central Siberia and fire occurrence is high in these forests, whose dominant fire regime is one of frequent surface fires. We studied post- fire succession of ground vegetation has been studied on nine experimental fires of varying severity (from 620 to 5220 kW/m) in middle taiga Scots pine forests of central Siberia (Russia). It proved from our study that all species of the succession process are present from initial stages. We did not find any trend of ground vegetation diversity with the time during 8 years after the fire. Our investigation showed that post- fire recovery of the ground vegetation is determined by initial forest type, fire severity and litter burning depth. Fire severity had a clear effect in initial succession in study area and it clearly had an impact on percentage cover, biomass and structure of ground vegetation. In a lesser degree the small shrubs are damaged during ground fires. The dominating species (Vaccinium vitis-idaea and V. myrtillus) regained the cover values above or close to 6—8 years. The post- fire biomass of ground vegetation 93—100% consists of species (Vaccinium vitis-idaea and V. myrtillus) that survived after the fire and increased in the cover with the time. In pine forests mosses and lichens suffer to a greater degree after ground fires. Lichen layer was completely lost after the fires of any severity. Decrease of mosses species diversity takes place after ground fires. The post- fire cover and species diversity of the green mosses were progressively lower with increasing the fire severity during the observation period. Maximum changes are discovered in the post- fire structure of plant microgroups after the high- severity fire which resulted in intensive invasion by the post- fire mosses (Polytrichum strictum and P. commune). There is a positive trend of green moss microgroups recovery after fires of moderate- and low- severity.

Kovaleva, N.; Ivanova, G. A.; Conard, S. G.

2012-04-01

335

Roost tree selection by northern myotis ( Myotis septentrionalis) maternity colonies following prescribed fire in a Central Appalachian Mountains hardwood forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following decades of fire suppression in eastern forests, prescribed fire as a tool to restore or enhance oak (Quercus spp.)-dominated communities is gaining widespread acceptance in the Appalachian Mountains and elsewhere. However, the interactions of fire with biotic components such as wildlife that might be impacted by prescribed fire are poorly documented. For tree-roosting bats, fire can enhance roosting habitat

Joshua B. Johnson; John W. Edwards; W. Mark Ford; J. Edward Gates

2009-01-01

336

ANALIZA EKONOMICZNA FUNKCJONOWANIA OCHRONY PRZECIWPOAROWEJ LASU W LASACH PAÑSTWOWYCH ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF FUNCTIONING OF FOREST FIRE PROTECTION IN THE STATE FORESTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the study was a detailed analysis of fire protection costs in the State Forests, taking into consideration obligatory tasks (described in the Forests Act) as well as additional tasks and categories of forest fire danger classes, with indicating possible changes in the rules of financing. The analysis was carried out on the basis of both: General Directorate

Ryszard SZCZYGIE; Józef PIWNICKI; Barbara UBYSZ

2007-01-01

337

A study on the algorithm for fire recognition for automatic forest fire detection: The International Conference on Control, Automation and Systems 2010 (ICCAS 2010)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest fire, if not detected early enough, can cause great damage. In order to reduce it, it is important to detect fire as soon as possible and take actions to it. In this paper we propose a new image detection method for identifying fire in videos. The method analyzes the frame-to-frame change in given features of potential fire regions. These

Ho-Woong Choi; In-Kyu Min; Eui-Seok Oh; Dong-Ho Park

2010-01-01

338

An approach to decision aid of boreal forest fire control using both of ground observation and remote sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Burned area of boreal forest fires is increasing in these decades. Two thirds of forest fires are judged as man-made in Siberia. On the other hand, for boreal forest fire emits global warming gas due to combustion and to change of land coverage, forest fire may accelerate global warming. In 2003 summer, 17million hectares are burned in Siberia and CO2 emission is estimated as 3 hundred million tons. Thus, it is important to control forest fire. Toward this aim, we collected data of boreal forest fire in Alaska and east Siberia in summer fire seasons for two years. Data were acquired from each of ground observation, observation from aircraft and remotely sensed fire detection in June and July. Remotely detected fire using some algorisms were compared with observed data to evaluate the accuracy and earliness of automatic detection. Study areas are Alaska and East Siberia in this year and squares of 1000km centered on Yakutsk, Irkutsk and Krasnoyarsk for each in 2003. Daily NOAA and MODIS satellite images are corrected and used for fire detection. 750 ground observation reports are corrected from Russian agency including location, weather and fire front size and severity. 178 reports are corrected from JAL aircraft flying across Siberia including location and time. Comparison between ground truth data and satellite images was done for validation of automatic forest fire detection. Almost all location of ground and aircraft observation data of forest fires as large as 1 hectare were automatically detected at almost same time using satellite images where whether permitting. We are developing connection of fire detection algorithm and fire expansion simulation model to forecast the possible burned area. On the basis of fire expansion forecast, risk analysis of possible fire expansion for decision aid of fire-fighting activities will be analyzed.@@On the basis of these analyses, we will discuss some possible utilizations of remotely sensed forest fire to control them.

Nakau, K.; Fukuda, M.; Hayasaka, H.; Kimura, K.; Kushida, K.; Matsuura, N.

2004-12-01

339

Small mammals and forest fuel reduction: national-scale responses to fire and fire surrogates.  

PubMed

Forest fuel reduction treatments are increasingly used by managers to reduce the risk of high-severity wildfire and to manage changes in the ecological function of forests. However, comparative ecological effects of the various types of treatments are poorly understood. We examined short-term patterns in small-mammal responses to mechanical thinning, prescribed-fire, and mechanical thinning/prescribed-fire combination treatments at eight different study areas across the United States as a part of the National Fire and Fire Surrogate (FFS) Project. Research questions included: (1) do treatments differ in their effect on small mammal densities and biomass? and (2) are effects of treatments consistent across study areas? We modeled taxa-specific densities and total small-mammal biomass as functions of treatment types and study area effects and ranked models based on an information-theoretic model selection criterion. Small-mammal taxa examined, including deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), yellow-pine chipmunks (Tamias amoenus), and golden-mantled ground squirrels (Spermophilus lateralis), as well as all Peromyscus and Tamias species, had top-ranked models with responses varying both by treatment type and study area. In each of these cases, the top-ranked model carried between 69% and 99% of the total weight in the model set, indicating strong support for the top-ranked models. However, the top-ranked model of total small-mammal biomass was a model with biomass varying only with treatment (i.e., treated vs. untreated), not by treatment type or study area; again, this model had strong support, with 75% of the total model weight. Individual species and taxa appear to have variable responses to fuel reduction treatment types in different areas; however, total small-mammal biomass appears generally to increase after any type of fuel reduction. These results suggest that there is substantial variability in taxa-specific responses to treatments and indicate that adaptive management policies may be necessary when applying fuel reduction treatments in areas where management of small-mammal populations is of interest. Adaptive management can be used by managers who are conducting fuel reduction treatments to reduce uncertainty as to which treatments are locally optimal for meeting objectives for the management of small-mammal populations. PMID:17069366

Converse, Sarah J; White, Gary C; Farris, Kerry L; Zack, Steve

2006-10-01

340

Nitrogen leaching from a forest soil exposed to fire retardant with and without fire: A laboratory study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of Long Term fire Retardants (LTRs) for forest fire prevention and\\/or suppression purposes can result in chemicals\\u000a leaching, from soil to the drainage water, during the annual rain fall period. In leachates, large concentrations of nitrogen\\u000a (N), one of the major components of LTRs, could affect the groundwater quality. N leaching due to the application of a nitrogen

Athina A. Pappa; Nikolaos E. Tzamtzis; Sofia E. Koufopoulou

2008-01-01

341

Forest fire management in Portugal : developing system insights through models of social and physical dynamics  

E-print Network

Managing forest fires is a serious national problem in Portugal. Burned area has increased steadily over the past several decades, with particularly devastating years in 2003 and 2005. Ignitions also spike dramatically in ...

Collins, Ross D. (Ross Daniel)

2012-01-01

342

Modeling interactions betweenspotted owl and barred owl populations in fire-prone forests  

EPA Science Inventory

Background / Question / Methods Efforts to conserve northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) in the eastern Cascades of Washington must merge the challenges of providing sufficient structurally complex forest habitat in a fire-prone landscape with the limitations impos...

343

Numerical Investigation of the Formation of a Convective Column and a Fire Tornado by Forest Fires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computational modeling of the formation of a convective column by forest fires has been carried out. It has been established that in the case of an unstable atmosphere stratification the basic factor influencing the thermal column formation is the intensification of the processes of turbulent mixing and that at a stable atmosphere stratification a more significant factor determining the convective column formation is the action of the buoyancy force. It has been shown that a swirling flow in the convective column is formed due to the appearance of a tangential velocity component as a consequence of the local circulation arising against the background of large-scale motion owing to the thermal and orographic inhomogeneities of the underlying surface.

Grishin, A. M.; Matvienko, O. V.

2014-09-01

344

A comparison of the thermal characteristics of active lava flows and forest fires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landsat TM data of active lava flows from Kilauea Volcano Hawaii (7\\/23\\/91) and forest fires within Yellowstone National Park (9\\/8\\/88) are compared to show the differences in the spectral and spatial distribution of radiance. At visible wavelengths, smoke from forest fires obscures terrain features, while active eruptions show little degassing at breakouts (ruptured lava tubes). Lava flows exhibit a gradual

Luke P. Flynn; Peter J. Mouginis-Mark

1995-01-01

345

Comment on "The incidence of fire in Amazonian forests with implications for REDD".  

PubMed

Aragão and Shimabukuro (Reports, 4 June 2010, p. 1275) reported that fires increase in agricultural frontiers even as deforestation decreases and concluded that these fires lead to unaccounted carbon emissions under the United Nations climate treaty's tropical deforestation and forest degradation component. Emissions from post-deforestation management activities are, in fact, included in these estimates--but burning of standing forests is not. PMID:21164000

Balch, Jennifer K; Nepstad, Daniel C; Brando, Paulo M; Alencar, Ane

2010-12-17

346

Distribution of dicarboxylic acids and carbon isotopic compositions in aerosols from 1997 Indonesian forest fires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fine aerosol particles collected in Southeast Asia during 1997 Indonesian forest fires were studied for the concentrations of total carbon (TC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and low molecular weight dicarboxylic acids (C2-C12) as well as carbon isotopic ratios of TC (delta13CTC). TC and WSOC showed a large increase during the heavy forest fire event. At the same period, dicarboxylic acids,

M. Narukawa; K. Kawamura; N. Takeuchi; T. Nakajima

1999-01-01

347

Drainage and agriculture impacts on fire frequency in a southern Illinois forested bottomland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postsettlement (1909-2003) fire history of a forested bottomland in the Mississippi Embayment of southern Illi- nois, USA, was determined using fire-scar analysis. The study area is a forested bottomland hardwood site, with remnant pockets of the dominant presettlement bald cypress - tupelo (Taxodium-Nyssa) vegetation. Ditch drainage was installed in 1919, with agricultural clearing and abandonment varying throughout the early and

John L. Nelson; Charles M. Ruffner; John W. Groninger; Ray A. Souter

2008-01-01

348

Evaluating forest fire prevention programs: an analysis of three case studies  

E-print Network

EVALUATING FOREST FIRE PREVENTION PROGRAMS; AN ANALYSIS OF THREE CASE STUDIES A Thesi. s by Shelley Renee Rigsby Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1980 jor Subject: Sociology EVALUATING FOREST FIRE PREVENTION PROGRAMS: AN ANALYSIS OF THREE CASE STUDIES A Thesis by S. Ranee Rigsby Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) p~ (Memb r) (Head f partment...

Rigsby, Shelley Renee

2012-06-07

349

Forest fires: proactive and reactive surveillance employing in-situ, aerial, and space technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Employing technological advances in communications along with the available aerial and space platforms can enable us, to setup a safety monitoring and management system for delivering proactive and reactive surveillance of our forests. This work stresses the importance of protecting our forests considering the socioeconomic impact they have on our world. It also outlines the available platform technologies and proposes a tool for setting up a monitoring system that employs current technologies. This tool simulates forest fires and uses wireless sensors to monitor the fire. Results show that the number and the location of the sensors in a forest are critical in increasing the chances of sensing the fire on time. Since positioning sensors in an organized manner within a forest is tedious if not impossible to implement, it is recommended that areas with higher flammability are equipped with greater number of sensors.

Katzis, Konstantinos; Grondoudis, Andreas; Boustras, George; Papazoglou, Pierantonios

2013-08-01

350

Fire-induced erosion and millennial-scale climate change in northern ponderosa pine forests.  

PubMed

Western US ponderosa pine forests have recently suffered extensive stand-replacing fires followed by hillslope erosion and sedimentation. These fires are usually attributed to increased stand density as a result of fire suppression, grazing and other land use, and are often considered uncharacteristic or unprecedented. Tree-ring records from the past 500 years indicate that before Euro-American settlement, frequent, low-severity fires maintained open stands. However, the pre-settlement period between about ad 1500 and ad 1900 was also generally colder than present, raising the possibility that rapid twentieth-century warming promoted recent catastrophic fires. Here we date fire-related sediment deposits in alluvial fans in central Idaho to reconstruct Holocene fire history in xeric ponderosa pine forests and examine links to climate. We find that colder periods experienced frequent low-severity fires, probably fuelled by increased understory growth. Warmer periods experienced severe droughts, stand-replacing fires and large debris-flow events that comprise a large component of long-term erosion and coincide with similar events in sub-alpine forests of Yellowstone National Park. Our results suggest that given the powerful influence of climate, restoration of processes typical of pre-settlement times may be difficult in a warmer future that promotes severe fires. PMID:15525985

Pierce, Jennifer L; Meyer, Grant A; Jull, A J Timothy

2004-11-01

351

Fire history of pinyon-juniper woodlands at upper ecotones with ponderosa pine forests in Arizona and New Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used maps of fire evidence, fire scar dendrochronology, forest age-structure analysis, and landscape analysis to investigate fire history at pinyon pine (Pinus edulis Engelm.) - juniper (Juniperus osteosperma (Torr.) Little, Juniperus scopulorum Sarg.) woodland - ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa P. & C. Lawson) forest ecotones in Arizona (Tusayan) and in New Mexico (Canjilon). Results showed that charred trees were

David W. Huffman; Peter Z. Fulé; Kristen M. Pearson; Joseph E. Crouse

2008-01-01

352

Project 01B-3-3-18 Fire Regimes of Forests in the Transverse and Peninsular Ranges of Southern  

E-print Network

.8 years. · Intra-ring locations of fire scars in mixed conifer forests in the Transverse and Peninsular to have been spring fires. · Early-wood and mid-season intra-ring locations of scars increase fromProject 01B-3-3-18 Fire Regimes of Forests in the Transverse and Peninsular Ranges of Southern

Stephens, Scott L.

353

What Constitutes a Natural Fire Regime? Insight from the Ecology and Distribution of Coniferous Forest Birds in North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bird species that specialize in the use of burned forest conditions can provide insight into the prehistoric fire regimes associated with the forest types that they have occupied over evolutionary time. The nature of their adaptations reflects the specific post-fire conditions that occurred prior to the unnatural influence of humans after European settlement. Specifically, the post-fire conditions, nest site locations,

Richard L. Hutto; Courtney J. Conway; Victoria A. Saab; Jeffrey R. Walters

2008-01-01

354

The effects of intensive forest fire on revegetation in interior Alaska (mid-term report, February 2006)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To detect the effects of large-scaled fire on the revegetation of Picea mariana forest, we set up 16 10 m × 10 m plots at Poker Flat near Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, in the spring of 2005. Forest fire occurred in this region in the summer of 2004. Owing to the fire, stem density declined 9%-100% and canopy openness increased in

TSUYUZAKI Shiro; NARITA Kenji

355

Linkages between turbidity levels in Lake Mead associated forest fire events in the lower Virgin watershed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Mead provides the source of drinking water for over 25 million people in the western United States. Different forest fire events at the northern part of the lake may intensify the concentration of total suspended sediments (TSSs) in water bodies due to the abrupt changes of land covers with accelerated soil erosion. Therefore, it is important to assess the linkage between forest fire events and TSS concentration within the lake. For this purpose, the integrated data fusion and mining (IDFM) techniques were applied in this study to generate TSS concentration maps on a daily basis with the aid of remote sensing imageries. The results of this study confirm the reliability of the IDFM method for nowcasting of TSS concentrations within the lake based on these daily TSS concentration maps. It leads to the investigation of the probable impact of forest fire events on increasing TSS concentrations. Comparing these maps with time of forest fire occurrence showed the potential linkage between increasing TSS concentrations and forest fire events. However, the negative impacts of forest fire events on soil erosion may have lag time to show up.

Chang, N. B.; Imen, S.; Yang, J.

2014-10-01

356

Planned burning vs. wildfire impact on soil methane flux - implications for forest fire management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soils in forests ecosystem represent the largest land based methane sink and therefore provide an important ecosystem service. Fire can alter soil properties linked to soil methane uptake potential but this has rarely been studied to date. We measured soil methane flux in a dry-sclerophyll eucalypt forest (Victoria, Australia) that had different planned burning frequency treatments applied (every 3 and 10 years) in the last 27 years. We also studied soil methane flux along a wildfire chronosequence spanning over 200 years (Tasmania, Australia). Our data show that planned fires and wildfires had contrasting effects on methane uptake of the forest soils. The repeated planned burning treatments did not alter methane flux patterns of forest soil. In the wildfire chronosequence the methane uptake capacity of the forest soil was closely related to structural changes during stand development likely linked to stand water use, with drier forest stands having greater methane uptake. Our data demonstrate that unmanaged wildfire can have substantial impact on the methane sink capacity of forest ecosystems in Australia while the less intense planned fires have little effect. The effects of fire were more related to changes in stand structure rather than impacts of fire on soils per se.

Fest, Benedikt; Wardlaw, Tim; Livesley, Stephen; Arndt, Stefan

2014-05-01

357

Fire and restoration of the largest urban forest of the world in Rio de Janeiro City, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

National Park of Tijuca in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) is about 3,300 ha and considered the largest urban forest in the world. Its floristic composition is typical of Atlantic Rain Forest. The reserve is being altered because of fire occurrences and urban expansion. This study identified locations and causes of forest fires, and makes management recommendations to restore damaged areas.

D. M. Silva Matos; C. Junius F. Santos; D. de R. Chevalier

2002-01-01

358

Fire and restoration of the largest urban forest of the world in Rio de Janeiro City, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

National Park of Tijuca in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) is about 3,300 ha and considered the largest urban forest in the world. Its floristic composition is typical of Atlantic Rain Forest. The reserve is being altered because of fire occurrences and urban expansion. This study identified locations and causes of forest fires, and makes management recommendations to restore damaged areas.

D. M. SILVA MATOS; Depto de Ci

2003-01-01

359

Happy 50th Birthday Smokey Bear! A Learning Kit about Forests and Fire Safety for Grades K-3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For over 50 years, the primary goal of Smokey Bear has been to introduce the forest fire prevention message to young children. This learning kit provides the K-3 teacher with activities and resources to help students learn about Smokey Bear and fire safety, about forests as habitats, and about what they can do to protect forests. Students are…

Hall, Meryl

360

Post-fire geomorphic response in steep, forested landscapes: Oregon Coast Range, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of fire in shaping steep, forested landscapes depends on a suite of hydrologic, biologic, and geological characteristics, including the propensity for hydrophobic soil layers to promote runoff erosion during subsequent rainfall events. In the Oregon Coast Range, several studies postulate that fire primarily modulates sediment production via root reinforcement and shallow landslide susceptibility, although few studies have documented

Molly Jackson; Joshua J. Roering

2009-01-01

361

Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Downwind of the 2002 Hayman Forest Fire in Colorado  

E-print Network

Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Downwind of the 2002 Hayman Forest Fire in Colorado Timothy J. Lang of the effects of increased aerosol concentration on cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning polarity. Specifically, we observations. In addition, CG lightning during the fire was compared to climatology. The 2002 period showed

Rutledge, Steven

362

Mineralogical and chemical modifications in soils affected by a forest fire in the Mediterranean area  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the mineralogical and chemical modifications in four soils in Spain produced by a forest fire: two of the soils developed under Quercus pyrenaica and two under Juniperus oxycedrus. Samples were taken 2 and 8 months after the fire. Increases in soil pH, electrical conductivity, exchangeable-bases and total Ca occurred in both soils, but were more evident under Juniperus

T. Iglesias; V. Cala; J. Gonzalez

1997-01-01

363

A New Color-Based Segmentation Method for Forest Fire from Video Image  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new color-based method for forest fire segmentation from video image. Two kinds of color features including intensity value and color distribution are used. In segmentation based on V value of HSV color model, the lower threshold is defined from experience, and the higher threshold value is computed automatically, thus the possible fire regions can be divided

Dengyi Zhang; Jinming Zhao; Jianhui Zhao; Shizhong Han; Zhong Zhang; Chengzhang Qu; Youwang Ke

2008-01-01

364

Did the summer 2003 forest fires in Portugal affect air quality over Europe?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A forest fire is a large-scale natural combustion process consuming various types, sizes and ages of botanical specimen growing outdoors in a defined geographical area. Although wildland fires are an integral part of ecosystems management and are essential to maintain functional ecosystems their dimensions can give rise to disastrous results. Due to the frequency of occurrence and the magnitude of

A. I. Miranda; V. Martins; E. Sá; A. Carvalho; J. H. Amorim; C. Borrego

2009-01-01

365

Factors Related to Communication of Forest Fire Prevention Messages, a Study of Selected Rural Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two rural Louisiana communities were selected to evaluate the effectiveness of certain types of communication in preventing man-caused forest fires. The communities were selected on the basis of differences in fire occurrence rates and other factors related to conservation. Questionnaires and personal interviews were utilized to determine views of…

Griessman, B. Eugene; Bertrand, Alvin L.

366

Observations of variations in ERS-1 SAR image intensity associated with forest fires in Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations have shown that fires in boreal forests result in characteristic responses which are recorded on ERS-1 SAR imagery. Using one of the many fire signatures observed on ERS-1 SAR imagery, the analysis of the data revealed there is >10 dB in variation in image intensity within the burned areas on the SAR images. Possible explanations for this variation include

Eric S. Kasischke; Laura L. Bourgeau-Chavez; Nancy H. F. French

1994-01-01

367

Radiative transfer modeling within a heterogeneous canopy for estimation of forest fire fuel properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imaging spectrometer data were acquired over conifer stands to retrieve spatially distributed information on canopy structure and foliage water content, which may be used to assess fire risk and to manage the impact of forest fires. The study relied on a comprehensive field campaign using stratified systematic unaligned sampling ranging from full spectroradiometric characterization of the canopy to conventional measurements

Benjamin Kötz; Michael Schaepmansupbsu; Felix Morsdorf; Paul Bowyer; Klaus Itten; Britta Allgöwer

2004-01-01

368

Spatially Explicit and Stochastic Simulation of Forest-Landscape Fire Disturbance and Succession  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding disturbance and recovery of forest landscapes is a challenge because of complex interactions over a range of temporal and spatial scales. Landscape _ O _, simulation models offer an approach to studying such systems at broad scales. Fire can be _ _ _ I:_ simulated spatially using mechanistic or stochastic approaches. We describe the fire module f0 to ;-,-

Hong S. He; David J. Mladenoff

1999-01-01

369

Ground Fires as a Factor of Maintenance of Pine–Larch Forests in the Southern Urals  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that fires not only destroy plant communities and ecosystems, but can also be a normal ecological factor of their sustainable existence. There is a series of “pyrogenic” ecosystem types that cannot exist without fires (the Mediterranean vegetation composed of xeromorphic shrubs, Australian scrubby eucalyptus forests known as mallee, etc.). Of the communities and ecosystems of the

V. B. Martynenko

2002-01-01

370

Fire detection system using random forest classification for image sequences of complex background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a fire alarm system based on image processing that detects fire accidents in various environments. To reduce false alarms that frequently appeared in earlier systems, we combined image features including color, motion, and blinking information. We specifically define the color conditions of fires in hue, saturation and value, and RGB color space. Fire features are represented as intensity variation, color mean and variance, motion, and image differences. Moreover, blinking fire features are modeled by using crossing patches. We propose an algorithm that classifies patches into fire or nonfire areas by using random forest supervised learning. We design an embedded surveillance device made with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene housing for stable fire detection in outdoor environments. The experimental results show that our algorithm works robustly in complex environments and is able to detect fires in real time.

Kim, Onecue; Kang, Dong-Joong

2013-06-01

371

Long-term fire frequency not linked to prehistoric occupations in northern Swedish boreal forest.  

PubMed

Knowledge of past fire regimes is crucial for understanding the changes in fire frequency that are likely to occur during the coming decades as a result of global warming and land-use change. This is a key issue for the sustainable management of forest biodiversity because fire regimes may be controlled by vegetation, human activities, and/or climate. The present paper aims to reconstruct the pattern of fire frequency over the Holocene at three sites located in the same region in the northern Swedish boreal forest. The fire regime is reconstructed from sedimentary charcoal analysis of small lakes or ponds. This method allows fire events to be characterized, after detrending the charcoal influx series, and allows estimation of the time elapsed between fires. The long-term fire regime, in terms of fire-free intervals, can thus be elucidated. At the three sites, the mean fire-free intervals through the Holocene were long and of similar magnitude (approximately 320 years). This similarity suggests that the ecological processes controlling fire ignition and spread were the same. At the three sites, the intervals were shorter before 8600 cal yr BP (calibrated years before present), between 7500 and 4500 cal yr BP, and after 2500 cal yr BP. Geomorphological and vegetation factors cannot explain the observed change, because the three sites are located in the same large ecological region characterized by Pinus sylvestris-Ericaceae mesic forests, established on morainic deposits at the same elevation. Archaeological chronologies also do not match the fire chronologies. A climatic interpretation is therefore the most likely explanation of the long-term regional pattern of fire. Although recent human activities between the 18th and the 20th centuries have clearly affected the fire regime, the dominant factor controlling it for 10000 years in northern Sweden has probably been climatic. PMID:17479764

Carcaillet, Christopher; Bergman, Ingela; Delorme, Séverine; Hornberg, Greger; Zackrisson, Olle

2007-02-01

372

Recent burning of boreal forests exceeds fire regime limits of the past 10,000 years  

PubMed Central

Wildfire activity in boreal forests is anticipated to increase dramatically, with far-reaching ecological and socioeconomic consequences. Paleorecords are indispensible for elucidating boreal fire regime dynamics under changing climate, because fire return intervals and successional cycles in these ecosystems occur over decadal to centennial timescales. We present charcoal records from 14 lakes in the Yukon Flats of interior Alaska, one of the most flammable ecoregions of the boreal forest biome, to infer causes and consequences of fire regime change over the past 10,000 y. Strong correspondence between charcoal-inferred and observational fire records shows the fidelity of sedimentary charcoal records as archives of past fire regimes. Fire frequency and area burned increased ?6,000–3,000 y ago, probably as a result of elevated landscape flammability associated with increased Picea mariana in the regional vegetation. During the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA; ?1,000–500 cal B.P.), the period most similar to recent decades, warm and dry climatic conditions resulted in peak biomass burning, but severe fires favored less-flammable deciduous vegetation, such that fire frequency remained relatively stationary. These results suggest that boreal forests can sustain high-severity fire regimes for centuries under warm and dry conditions, with vegetation feedbacks modulating climate–fire linkages. The apparent limit to MCA burning has been surpassed by the regional fire regime of recent decades, which is characterized by exceptionally high fire frequency and biomass burning. This extreme combination suggests a transition to a unique regime of unprecedented fire activity. However, vegetation dynamics similar to feedbacks that occurred during the MCA may stabilize the fire regime, despite additional warming. PMID:23878258

Kelly, Ryan; Chipman, Melissa L.; Higuera, Philip E.; Stefanova, Ivanka; Brubaker, Linda B.; Hu, Feng Sheng

2013-01-01

373

Long-term effects of prescribed fire on mixed conifer forest structure in the Sierra Nevada, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The capacity of prescribed fire to restore forest conditions is often judged by changes in forest structure within a few years following burning. However, prescribed fire might have longer-term effects on forest structure, potentially changing treatment assessments. We examined annual changes in forest structure in five 1 ha old-growth plots immediately before prescribed fire and up to eight years after fire at Sequoia National Park, California. Fire-induced declines in stem density (67% average decrease at eight years post-fire) were nonlinear, taking up to eight years to reach a presumed asymptote. Declines in live stem biomass were also nonlinear, but smaller in magnitude (32% average decrease at eight years post-fire) as most large trees survived the fires. The preferential survival of large trees following fire resulted in significant shifts in stem diameter distributions. Mortality rates remained significantly above background rates up to six years after the fires. Prescribed fire did not have a large influence on the representation of dominant species. Fire-caused mortality appeared to be spatially random, and therefore did not generally alter heterogeneous tree spatial patterns. Our results suggest that prescribed fire can bring about substantial changes to forest structure in old-growth mixed conifer forests in the Sierra Nevada, but that long-term observations are needed to fully describe some measures of fire effects.

van Mantgem, Phillip J.; Stephenson, Nathan L.; Knapp, Eric; Keeley, Jon E.

2011-01-01

374

MULTI-SEASON CLIMATE SYNCHRONIZED HISTORICAL FIRES IN DRY FORESTS (1650–1900), NORTHERN ROCKIES, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objective was to infer the climate drivers of regionally synchronous fire years in dry forests of the U.S. northern Rockies in Idaho and western Montana. During our analysis period (1650-1900), we reconstructed fires from 9245 fire scars on 576 trees (mostly ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa P. & C. Lawson) at 21 sites and compared them to existing tree-ring reconstructions

Emily K. Heyerdahl; Penelope Morgan; JAMES P. RISER II

2008-01-01

375

Fire intensity effects on seed germination of native and invasive Eastern deciduous forest understory plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-intensity fires were important for maintaining the structure of Eastern deciduous forests (EDFs) for thousands of years before European settlement of North America, though fire suppression became a standard management practice in the 1930s. More recently, prescribed fires have been reintroduced to EDF habitats to aid in the restoration of native plant diversity, but invasions of non-native species such as

Sarah M. Emery; Joy Uwimbabazi; S. Luke Flory

2011-01-01

376

Forest Fires in Mediterranean Countries: CO 2 Emissions and Mitigation Possibilities Through Prescribed Burning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest fires are an integral part of the ecology of the Mediterranean Basin; however, fire incidence has increased dramatically\\u000a during the past decades and fire is expected to become more prevalent in the future due to climate change. Fuel modification\\u000a by prescribed burning reduces the spread and intensity potential of subsequent wildfires. We used the most recently published\\u000a data to

Terhi VilenPaulo; Paulo M. Fernandes

2011-01-01

377

Effects of a stand-replacing fire on small-mammal communities in montane forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wildfire, ubiquitous and recurring over thousands of years, is the most important natural disturbance in northern coniferous forest. Accordingly, forest fires may exert a strong influence on the structure and functioning of small-mammal communities. We compared the composition of rodent and shrew communities in burned and unburned patches of a Doug- las-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco) - western larch (Larix

Rafa? Zwolak; Kerry R. Foresman

2007-01-01

378

Post-fire vegetative dynamics as drivers of microbial community structure and function in forest soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil microorganisms have numerous functional roles in forest ecosystems, including: serving as sources and sinks of key nutrients and catalysts of nutrient transformations; acting as engineers and maintainers of soil structure; and forming mutualistic relationships with roots that improve plant fitness. Although both prescribed and wildland fires are common in temperate forests of North America, few studies have addressed the

Stephen C. Hart; Thomas H. DeLuca; Gregory S. Newman; M. Derek MacKenzie; Sarah I. Boyle

2005-01-01

379

Dynamics of ground vegetation after surface fires in hemiboreal Pinus sylvestris forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to investigate the changes of ground vegetation (field layer: mosses, lichens; ground layer: herbs, shrubs, tree seedlings and saplings) and regeneration of tree species in pine forests after surface fires. The study area was located in Southern part of Lithuania in hemiboreal zone of Europe. The field and ground vegetation was recorded in forest

Vitas Marozas; Jonas Racinskas; Edmundas Bartkevicius

2007-01-01

380

V International Conference on Forest Fire Research D. X. Viegas (Ed.), 2006  

E-print Network

pubescens, Pinus sylvestris) at 800 m a.s.l. to spruce (Picea abies) and open larch (Larix decidua) forests to predict (Del Moral and Wood, 1993). It has been shown that fire can promote dominance of a few species ranging from mixed oak-pine forests (Quercus pubescens, Pinus sylvestris) at 800 m a.s.l. to spruce (Picea

381

Effect of accidental fire on soil mite density in a forest reserve in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mite populations in a forest reserve, where accidental fire swept through almost half of the total area covered by the forest, were enumerated at one, three, and six months after burning. Mite densities in both burnt and unburnt plots were extremely low immediately after burning. Six months after burning, the density of juvenile cryptostigmatid mites were higher in the burnt

M. A. Badejo

1994-01-01

382

Estimating release of carbon from 1990 and 1991 forest fires in Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved method to estimate the amounts of carbon released during fires in the boreal forest zone of Alaska in 1990 and 1991 is described. This method divides the state into 64 distinct physiographic regions and estimates areal extent of five different land covers: two forest types, peat land, tundra, and nonvegetated. The areal extent of each cover type was

E. S. Kaisischke; Nancy H. F. French; Laura L. Bourgeau-Chavez; N. L. Jr. Christensen

1995-01-01

383

Direct and indirect effects of fires on the carbon balance of tropical forest ecosystems (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fires influence the carbon budget of tropical forests directly because they account for a significant component of net emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. They also have indirect effects on nearby intact forests by modifying regional climate, atmospheric composition, and patterns of nutrient deposition. These latter pathways are not well understood and are often ignored in climate mitigation efforts such as the United Nations Program on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+). Here we used the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) and the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED3) to quantify the impacts of fire-emitted aerosols on the productivity of tropical forests. Across the tropical forest biome, fire-emitted aerosols reduced surface temperatures and increased the diffuse solar insolation fraction. These changes in surface meteorology increased gross primary production (GPP) in the Community Land Model. However, these drivers were more than offset in many regions by reductions in soil moisture and total solar radiation. The net effect of fire aerosols caused GPP to decrease by approximately 8% in equatorial Asia and 6% in the central Africa. In the Amazon, decreases in photosynthesis in the western part of the basin were nearly balanced by increases in the south and east. Using additional CAM5 and GEOS-Chem model simulations, we estimated fire contributions to surface concentrations of ozone. Using empirical relationships between ozone exposure and GPP from field studies and models, we estimated how tropical forest GPP was further modified by fire-induced ozone. Our results suggest that efforts to reduce the fire component of tropical land use fluxes may have sustainability benefits that extend beyond the balance sheet for greenhouse gases.

Randerson, J. T.; Tosca, M. G.; Ward, D. S.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; Mahowald, N. M.; Hess, P. G.

2013-12-01

384

Effects of fire on spotted owl site occupancy in a late-successional forest  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The spotted owl (Strix occidentalis) is a late-successional forest dependent species that is sensitive to forest management practices throughout its range. An increase in the frequency and spatial extent of standreplacing fires in western North America has prompted concern for the persistence of spotted owls and other sensitive late-successional forest associated species. However, there is sparse information on the effects of fire on spotted owls to guide conservation policies. In 2004-2005, we surveyed for California spotted owls during the breeding season at 32 random sites (16 burned, 16 unburned) throughout late-successional montane forest in Yosemite National Park, California. Our burned areas burned at all severities, but predominately involved low to moderate fire severity. Based on an information theoretic approach, spotted owl detection and occupancy rates were similar between burned and unburned sites. Nest and roost site occupancy was best explained by a model that combined total tree basal area (positive effect) with cover by coarse woody debris (negative effect). The density estimates of California spotted owl pairs were similar in burned and unburned forests, and the overall mean density estimate for Yosemite was higher than previously reported for montane forests. Our results indicate that low to moderate severity fires, historically common within montane forests of the Sierra Nevada, California, maintain habitat characteristics essential for spotted owl site occupancy. These results suggest that managed fires that emulate the historic fire regime of these forests may maintain spotted owl habitat and protect this species from the effects of future catastrophic fires.

Roberts, Susan L.; van Wagtendonk, Jan W.; Miles, A. Keith; Kelt, Douglas A.

2011-01-01

385

Development of customized fire behavior fuel models for boreal forests of northeastern China.  

PubMed

Knowledge of forest fuels and their potential fire behavior across a landscape is essential in fire management. Four customized fire behavior fuel models that differed significantly in fuels characteristics and environmental conditions were identified using hierarchical cluster analysis based on fuels data collected across a boreal forest landscape in northeastern China. Fuel model I represented the dense and heavily branched Pinus pumila shrubland which has significant fine live woody fuels. These forests occur mainly at higher mountain elevations. Fuel model II is applicable to forests dominated by Betula platyphylla and Populus davidiana occurring in native forests on hill slopes or at low mountain elevations. This fuel model was differentiated from other fuel models by higher herbaceous cover and lower fine live woody loading. The primary coniferous forests dominated by Larix gmelini and Pinus sylvestris L. var. mongolica were classified as fuel model III and fuel model IV. Those fuel models differed from one another in average cover and height of understory shrub and herbaceous layers as well as in aspect. The potential fire behavior for each fuel model was simulated with the BehavePlus5.0 fire behavior prediction system. The simulation results indicated that the Pinus pumila shrubland fuels had the most severe fire behavior for the 97th percentile weather condition, and had the least severe fire behavior under 90th percentile weather condition. Fuel model II presented the least severe fire potential across weather conditions. Fuel model IV resulted in greater fire severity than Fuel model III across the two weather scenarios that were examined. PMID:21691875

Wu, Zhi Wei; He, Hong Shi; Chang, Yu; Liu, Zhi Hua; Chen, Hong Wei

2011-12-01

386

Development of Customized Fire Behavior Fuel Models for Boreal Forests of Northeastern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of forest fuels and their potential fire behavior across a landscape is essential in fire management. Four customized fire behavior fuel models that differed significantly in fuels characteristics and environmental conditions were identified using hierarchical cluster analysis based on fuels data collected across a boreal forest landscape in northeastern China. Fuel model I represented the dense and heavily branched Pinus pumila shrubland which has significant fine live woody fuels. These forests occur mainly at higher mountain elevations. Fuel model II is applicable to forests dominated by Betula platyphylla and Populus davidiana occurring in native forests on hill slopes or at low mountain elevations. This fuel model was differentiated from other fuel models by higher herbaceous cover and lower fine live woody loading. The primary coniferous forests dominated by Larix gmelini and Pinus sylvestris L. var. mongolica were classified as fuel model III and fuel model IV. Those fuel models differed from one another in average cover and height of understory shrub and herbaceous layers as well as in aspect. The potential fire behavior for each fuel model was simulated with the BehavePlus5.0 fire behavior prediction system. The simulation results indicated that the Pinus pumila shrubland fuels had the most severe fire behavior for the 97th percentile weather condition, and had the least severe fire behavior under 90th percentile weather condition. Fuel model II presented the least severe fire potential across weather conditions. Fuel model IV resulted in greater fire severity than Fuel model III across the two weather scenarios that were examined.

Wu, Zhi Wei; He, Hong Shi; Chang, Yu; Liu, Zhi Hua; Chen, Hong Wei

2011-12-01

387

Climate effects on fire regimes and tree recruitment in Black Hills ponderosa pine forests.  

PubMed

Climate influences forest structure through effects on both species demography (recruitment and mortality) and disturbance regimes. Here, I compare multi-century chronologies of regional fire years and tree recruitment from ponderosa pine forests in the Black Hills of southwestern South Dakota and northeastern Wyoming to reconstructions of precipitation and global circulation indices. Regional fire years were affected by droughts and variations in both Pacific and Atlantic sea surface temperatures. Fires were synchronous with La Niñas, cool phases of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and warm phases of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). These quasi-periodic circulation features are associated with drought conditions over much of the western United States. The opposite pattern (El Niño, warm PDO, cool AMO) was associated with fewer fires than expected. Regional tree recruitment largely occurred during wet periods in precipitation reconstructions, with the most abundant recruitment coeval with an extended pluvial from the late 1700s to early 1800s. Widespread even-aged cohorts likely were not the result of large crown fires causing overstory mortality, but rather were caused by optimal climate conditions that contributed to synchronous regional recruitment and longer intervals between surface fires. Synchronous recruitment driven by climate is an example of the Moran effect. The presence of abundant fire-scarred trees in multi-aged stands supports a prevailing historical model for ponderosa pine forests in which recurrent surface fires affected heterogenous forest structure, although the Black Hills apparently had a greater range of fire behavior and resulting forest structure over multi-decadal time scales than ponderosa pine forests of the Southwest that burned more often. PMID:17089659

Brown, Peter M

2006-10-01

388

Forest fire management to avoid unintended consequences: a case study of Portugal using system dynamics.  

PubMed

Forest fires are a serious management challenge in many regions, complicating the appropriate allocation to suppression and prevention efforts. Using a System Dynamics (SD) model, this paper explores how interactions between physical and political systems in forest fire management impact the effectiveness of different allocations. A core issue is that apparently sound management can have unintended consequences. An instinctive management response to periods of worsening fire severity is to increase fire suppression capacity, an approach with immediate appeal as it directly treats the symptom of devastating fires and appeases the public. However, the SD analysis indicates that a policy emphasizing suppression can degrade the long-run effectiveness of forest fire management. By crowding out efforts to preventative fuel removal, it exacerbates fuel loads and leads to greater fires, which further balloon suppression budgets. The business management literature refers to this problem as the firefighting trap, wherein focus on fixing problems diverts attention from preventing them, and thus leads to inferior outcomes. The paper illustrates these phenomena through a case study of Portugal, showing that a balanced approach to suppression and prevention efforts can mitigate the self-reinforcing consequences of this trap, and better manage long-term fire damages. These insights can help policymakers and fire managers better appreciate the interconnected systems in which their authorities reside and the dynamics that may undermine seemingly rational management decisions. PMID:24036501

Collins, Ross D; de Neufville, Richard; Claro, João; Oliveira, Tiago; Pacheco, Abílio P

2013-11-30

389

Impact of forest fires on PAH level and distribution in soils.  

PubMed

Surface (0-5 cm) and subsurface (-5 to 15 cm) soils from burned forest areas in South of France were analyzed to determine contents of 14 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their distribution profile. The sampling procedure allowed us to study the effect of the frequency of fire as well as the influence of the time elapsed since the last fire. The contribution of forest fires to the content of PAHs in soils was demonstrated, as well as the decrease of their total level with time. The hypothesis is that a natural remediation takes place a few years after the last fire event. The lowest molecular weight studied PAHs (naphthalene, acenaphtene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene) appear to be the major ones produced by forest fire. Naphtalene levels are remarkably high in burned soils (more than 70 ?g kg(-1), i.e. more than 20 times higher than in the control soils) and still remain important years after the last fire event. The time elapsed since the last fire appears to be a more influencing factor than the fire frequency. The index defined from the PAH levels shows values reflecting the time elapsed since the last fire. PMID:20149913

Vergnoux, Aurore; Malleret, Laure; Asia, Laurence; Doumenq, Pierre; Theraulaz, Frederic

2011-02-01

390

The Impact of Precipitation Regimes on Forest Fires in Yunnan Province, Southwest China  

PubMed Central

The amount, frequency, and duration of precipitation have important impact on the occurrence and severity of forest fires. To fully understand the effects of precipitation regimes on forest fires, a drought index was developed with number of consecutive dry days (daily precipitation less than 2?mm) and total precipitation, and the relationships of drought and precipitation with fire activities were investigated over two periods (i.e., 1982–1988 and 1989–2008) in five ecoregions of Yunnan Province. The results showed that precipitation regime had a significant relationship with fire activities during the two periods. However, the influence of the drought on fire activities varied by ecoregions, with more impacts in drier ecoregions IV-V and less impacts in the more humid ecoregions I–III. The drought was more closely related to fire activities than precipitation during the two study periods, especially in the drier ecoregions, indicating that the frequency and the duration of precipitation had significant influences on forest fires in the drier areas. Drought appears to offer a better explanation than total precipitation on temporal changes in fire regimes across the five ecoregions in Yunnan. Our findings have significant implications for forecasting the local fire dangers under the future climate change. PMID:25243208

Chen, Feng; Niu, Shukui; Tong, Xiaojuan; Zhao, Jinlong; Sun, Yu; He, Tengfei

2014-01-01

391

Fire Return Interval Within the Northern Boundary of the Larch Forest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Larch (Larix spp.) dominant forests compose a large proportion of the forests of Russia (i.e., about 40% of forested areas). These forests range from the Yenisei ridge on the west to the Pacific Ocean on the east, and from Lake Baikal on the south to the 73rd parallel in the north. Larch stands comprise the world s northern most forest at Ary-Mas (72 deg 28' N, 102 deg 15' E). Larch dominated forests occupy about 70% of the permafrost areas in Siberia. Larch forms high closure stands as well as open forests, and is found mainly over permafrost, where other tree species barely survive. Wildfires are typical for this territory with the majority occurring as ground fires due to low crown closure. Due to the thin active layer in permafrost soils and a dense lichen-moss cover, ground fires may cause stand mortality. The vast areas of larch-dominant forests is generally considered as a "carbon sink"; however, positive long-term temperature trends at higher latitudes are expected to result in an increase of fire frequency, and thus may convert this area to a source for greenhouse gases. There are recent observations regarding the increase of fire frequency within non-protected territories. Surprisingly, there are few publications on fire chronoseqences for the huge forested territory between the Ural Mountains and the Pacific Ocean. Also there is a general understanding that bimodal (late spring -- early summer and late summer-beginning of fall) fire seasonal distribution in the south becomes uni-modal (late spring -- early summer) in the north. The purpose of this study is to investigate the wildfire history at the northern edge of the zone of larch dominance.

Kharuk, V. I.; Dvinskaya, M. L.; Ranson, K. J.

2011-01-01

392

Effects of fire and post-fire salvage logging on avian communities in conifer-dominated forests of the western United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Historically, fire was one of the most widespread natural disturbances in the western United States. More recently, however, significant anthropogenic activities, especially fire suppression and silvicultural practices, have altered fire regimes; as a result, landscapes and associated communities have changed as well. Herein, we review current knowledge of how fire and post-fire salvaging practices affect avian communities in conifer-dominated forests of the western United States. Specifically, we contrast avian communities in (1) burned vs. unburned forest, and (2) unsalvaged vs. salvage-logged burns. We also examine how variation in burn characteristics (e.g., severity, age, size) and salvage logging can alter avian communities in burns. Of the 41 avian species observed in three or more studies comparing early post-fire and adjacent unburned forests, 22% are consistently more abundant in burned forests, 34% are usually more abundant in unburned forests, and 44% are equally abundant in burned and unburned forests or have varied responses. In general, woodpeckers and aerial foragers are more abundant in burned forest, whereas most foliage-gleaning species are more abundant in unburned forests. Bird species that are frequently observed in stand-replacement burns are less common in understory burns; similarly, species commonly observed in unburned forests often decrease in abundance with increasing burn severity. Granivores and species common in open-canopy forests exhibit less consistency among studies. For all species, responses to fire may be influenced by a number of factors including burn severity, fire size and shape, proximity to unburned forests, pre- and post-fire cover types, and time since fire. In addition, post-fire management can alter species' responses to burns. Most cavity-nesting species do not use severely salvaged burns, whereas some cavity-nesters persist in partially salvaged burns. Early post-fire specialists, in particular, appear to prefer unsalvaged burns. We discuss several alternatives to severe salvage-logging that will help provide habitat for cavity nesters. We provide an overview of critical research questions and design considerations crucial for evaluating the effects of prescribed fire and other anthropogenic disturbances, such as forest fragmentation. Management of native avifaunas may be most successful if natural disturbance regimes, including fire, are permitted to occur when possible. Natural fires could be augmented with practices, such as prescribed fire (including high-severity fire), that mimic inherent disturbance regimes.

Kotliar, N. B.; Hejl, S. J.; Hutto, R. L.; Saab, V. A.; Melcher, C. P.; McFadzen, M. E.

2002-01-01

393

Long-term influence of fire and harvesting on boreal forest age structure and forest composition in eastern Québec  

Microsoft Academic Search

In boreal forests, historical variations in the area disturbed by natural disturbances or harvesting have rarely been compared. We measured temporal and spatial variations in areas affected by severe fires and clearcutting throughout the 20th century in a 57, 332km2 section of the eastern Canadian boreal forest. We examined the effects of these disturbances on spatio-temporal variations in the abundance

Mathieu Bouchard; David Pothier

2011-01-01

394

Legislative and environmental issues on the use of ash from coal and municipal sewage sludge co-firing as construction material.  

PubMed

For the economy of any co-firing process, it is important that the common waste management options of ash remain practical. Ash from bituminous coal combustion is typically handed to the construction industry. This paper describes the current European legislation on use of ash for construction purposes. Also, it presents an experimental study on the suitability of fly ash from combustion of mixtures of bituminous coal and municipal sewage sludge as additive to cement and concrete, and for use in open-air construction works, based on the ash chemical composition and the characteristics of the extract of the ash. Presently, two European standards forbid the use of ash from co-firing as additive to cement or concrete. This study shows that ash derived from coal and sewage sludge co-firing contains generally less unburned carbon, alkali, magnesium oxide, chlorine, and sulfate than coal ash. Only the concentration of free lime in mixed ash is higher than in coal, even though, at least up to 25% of the thermal input, still below the requirements of the standards. This ash also meets the requirements for the use of fly ash in open-air construction works--concentration and mobility of few elements--although this management option is forbidden to ash from co-firing. The leaching of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn was investigated with three leaching tests. The concentration of these metals in the extracts was below the detection limit in most cases. The concentration of Cu and Zn in the extract from fly ash was found to increase with increasing share of sewage sludge in the fuel mixture. However, the concentration of these two metals in the extract is not regulated. This study indicates that excluding a priori the use of ash from co-firing as a suitable additive for construction material could cause an unnecessary burden on the environment, since probably ash would have to be disposed of in landfill. However, allowing this requires the modification of current European standards to include limitations on all elements and compounds, absent in coal but which might be present in other fuels, that are deleterious for the quality of construction materials. PMID:11150129

Cenni, R; Janisch, B; Spliethoff, H; Hein, K R

2001-01-01

395

Comparing modern and presettlement forest dynamics of a subboreal wilderness: Does spruce budworm enhance fire risk?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Insect disturbance is often thought to increase fire risk through enhanced fuel loadings, particularly in coniferous forest ecosystems. Yet insect disturbances also affect successional pathways and landscape structure that interact with fire disturbances (and vice-versa) over longer time scales. We applied a landscape succession and disturbance model (LANDIS-II) to evaluate the relative strength of interactions between spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) outbreaks and fire disturbances in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area (BWCA) in northern Minnesota (USA). Disturbance interactions were evaluated for two different scenarios: presettlement forests and fire regimes vs. contemporary forests and fire regimes. Forest composition under the contemporary scenario trended toward mixtures of deciduous species (primarily Betula papyrifera and Populus spp.) and shade-tolerant conifers (Picea mariana, Abies balsamea, Thuja occidentalis), with disturbances dominated by a combination of budworm defoliation and high-severity fires. The presettlement scenario retained comparatively more “big pines” (i.e., Pinus strobus, P. resinosa) and tamarack (L. laricina), and experienced less budworm disturbance and a comparatively less-severe fire regime. Spruce budworm disturbance decreased area burned and fire severity under both scenarios when averaged across the entire 300-year simulations. Contrary to past research, area burned and fire severity during outbreak decades were each similar to that observed in non-outbreak decades. Our analyses suggest budworm disturbances within forests of the BWCA have a comparatively weak effect on long-term forest composition due to a combination of characteristics. These include strict host specificity, fine-scaled patchiness created by defoliation damage, and advance regeneration of its primary host, balsam fir (A. balsamea) that allows its host to persist despite repeated disturbances. Understanding the nature of the three-way interaction between budworm, fire, and composition has important ramifications for both fire mitigation strategies and ecosystem restoration initiatives. We conclude that budworm disturbance can partially mitigate long-term future fire risk by periodically reducing live ladder fuel within the mixed forest types of the BWCA but will do little to reverse the compositional trends caused in part by reduced fire rotations.

Sturtevant, Brian R.; Miranda, Brian R.; Shinneman, Douglas J.; Gustafson, Eric J.; Wolter, Peter T.

2012-01-01

396

Coal-fired power plant ash utilization in the TVA region. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The report gives results of a study: (1) to summarize (a) production of coal ash nationally and by TVA's 12 major ash-producing steam/electric power plants, and (b) the physical/chemical characteristics of coal ash that affect ash disposal and/or use; (2) to review reported methods of coal ash use, emphasizing potential markets in the TVA system; and (3) to recommend potential R and D for coal ash use in the TVA system. Uses discussed include: concrete mixtures, mineral and magnetite recovery, lightweight aggregate, wastewater treatment, sanitary landfill liners, cenosphere reuse, agriculture, mineral wool insulation, and bituminous paving mixtures. The TVA region's predominant historical use of fly ash has been as a concrete additive; however, extensive pilot scale development is underway to advance ash use in the TVA region in such areas as mineral and magnetite recovery, and mineral wool insulaton. Recommended studies include: (1) the feasibility of converting existing wet fly ash collection systems to dry collection and storage; (2) mechanical properties of ash to learn how to separate nonfloating cenospheres from ash; (3) other mineral recovery process choices (in addition to the one with Mineral Gas Co.); and (4) the potential uses, markets, generation points, transportation, and feasibility of extensive coal ash utilization in the TVA area.

Church, R.L.; Weeter, D.W.; Davis, W.T.

1980-10-01

397

The leaching behavior of cadmium, arsenic, zinc, and chlorine in coal and its ash from coal-fired power plant  

SciTech Connect

The leaching experiment of feed coal (c) and its laboratory high-temperature ash (HA), fly ash (FA), and bottom ash (BA) from a Chinese coal-fired power plant were carried out using column leaching under different pH conditions (pH = 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, and 7.5, respectively) and different leaching durations (up to 80 h). The leaching behaviors of As, Cd, Zn, and Cl were investigated. The results showed that the elements occurring in water-soluble, ion-exchangeable, and Fe-Mn oxide phases are potentially leachable, whereas those in association with organic matter and silicate are less likely to be leached. The cumulative percent of Zn, As, Cl, and Cd leached from C and ash samples increase with decrease in pH. The leaching rate of As and Cl in C and ash samples are higher in comparison with Zn and Cd. However, the maximum concentrations of Cd in the leachate from C, HA, FA, and BA are in excess of or very close to the maximum standard concentrations permitted in the Chinese Standards for Drinking Water and Surface Water. The ultimate concentrations of As, Cd, and Cl in the leachates did not attain equilibrium after the leaching of 80 h; therefore, longer leaching experiments are necessary to evaluate the impact of these hazardous trace elements on aqueous environment.

Zhao, F.H.; Peng, S.P.; Zheng, B.S.; Tang, Y.G.; Cong, Z.Y.; Ren, D.Y. [China University of Mining & Technology, Beijing (China). Dept. of Resource & Earth Science

2006-01-15

398

Comparing post forest fire erosion to erosion in vineyards in a Mediterranean environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Mediterranean France, severe soil erosion can occur in two environmental contexts: on forested slopes shortly after a forest fire and in vineyards. Soils are particularly vulnerable to erosion during the first year after a fire. Vineyards tend to occupy gentler slopes in alluvial plains and the first foothills of steeper landscapes. They can be exposed to erosion throughout the year depending on storm characteristics and inter row grass cover which is variable both spatially and temporally. The objective of this case study was to compare estimated rates of erosion and potential inputs of sediments into stream channels from post forest fire and agricultural contexts. The studied catchment has a surface area of about 234 km2, where about 199 km2 are forested, 18 km2 are vineyards, and the remaining 17 km2 are mainly grassed or urban. Forest fire records are too recent to calculate return periods for large fires but it is estimated at about 25-35 years in the study catchment. In 2003, a 2,000 ha fire burned through the catchment, and sediment traps on a N facing slope were used to estimate erosion rates during a period of about 2.5 years after the fire. Total event erosion for the burned area was estimated using non-linear curves where erosion decreased exponentially with time according to slope orientation: vegetation on N facing slopes recovers more quickly than on S facing slopes so erosion rates tend to remain greater for a longer period on the latter. Soil erosion in vineyards was estimated by adapting the Revised USLE. Conservation practises (P) were modified to account for terracing and vine row orientation with regards to slope orientation. Vegetation cover (C) was modified to account for seasonal variations in inter row grass cover. The other factors in the equation were not altered. In this case study, post forest fire erosion rates were particularly low due to an absence of significant storms during the first post fire winter. Mean soil erosion rate for the first year was about 2.7 T ha-1, and total event erosion was estimated at 5.4 T for the first year and 8.4 T over a 6 year period. Assuming a return period of 25 years for a fire of similar magnitude, this would represent the 25 year sediment input value. Mean annual vineyard erosion rate was 5.5 T ha-1. This corresponds roughly to about 9,900 T during any typical year and to about 247,500 T over a 25 year period. Several factors affect post fire erosion estimation, including return period, burned surface area, and rainfall intensities during the first year after a fire. The 2,000 ha fire used in the case study is considered a large fire in a region where fires rarely surpass 6,000 ha due to agricultural and urban densities. Post fire erosion is particularly sensitive to rainfall characteristics and the unusually low rainfall during the year of study underestimates long term post fire erosion rates. Actual long term rates may be 5 to 10 times greater for a normal rainfall year. Reasonable increases in surface area and rainfall would provide a very rough long term average estimate of about 100 T ha-1 for the first post fire year and about 150 T ha-1 for the entire forest fire event. Hence, typical sediment input from the burn scar may be as much as 10 times greater than input from vineyards the first year after a fire, but long term vineyard erosion rates may be as great as 1,000-2,000 times greater than from forest fires.

Fox, Dennis; Mir, Julien; Carrega, Pierre

2010-05-01

399

Spatial patterns and drivers of fire occurrence and its future trend under climate change in a boreal forest of  

E-print Network

Spatial patterns and drivers of fire occurrence and its future trend under climate change Understanding the spatial patterns of fire occurrence and its response to climate change is vital to fire risk to settlements. Keywords: boreal forest, climate change, fire, Northeast China, spatial point pattern analysis

Weisberg, Peter J.

400

Computational investigation of carbon-in-ash levels for a wall-fired boiler after low-NOx combustion modifications  

SciTech Connect

Many coal-fired boilers retrofitted with low NOX firing systems are experiencing significant operational difficulties due primarily to (1) increased carbon in the fly ash or (2) increased water wall wastage. This paper presents the results of a computational investigation of a wall-fired boiler that has recently been retrofitted with low NOx burners and overfire air. The focus of this paper is the effect of the retrofit on unburned carbon/NOx and the potential for applying operational and design modifications to minimize unburned carbon without adversely impacting NOx emissions. Although the magnitude of an increase in unburned carbon after a low NOx retrofit is system and coal dependent, it is often the case that reduction in emissions of nitrogen oxides is accompanied by a corresponding increase in the amount of unburned carbon in fly ash. Since low NOX firing systems increase the residence time of coal/char particles in a fuel rich environment, it might be expected that there is insufficient time under high temperature, oxidizing conditions to ensure complete carbon oxidation in a low NOx firing system. A relatively straight forward consideration of the effect of temperature and oxygen concentration on coal particle pyrolysis/oxidation can be used to provide a qualitative understanding of this effect. However, the complex flow patterns and highly nonlinear physical and chemical phenomena in a boiler make it difficult to predict carbon-in-ash (c-i-a) levels without the use of advanced computational tools. The sensitivity of c-i-a to burnout is pointed out in a figure for a coal with 10% ash. Although c-i-a changes slowly for low burnout, it changes very rapidly at the extent of burnout typical of a boiler. When the extent of burnout drops only slightly, from 99.5 to 99 percent for example, the c-i-a doubles, from 4 to 8%, which in many situations would be unacceptable. The importance of fuel efficiency and ash disposal/recycle emphasizes the need for understanding and addressing this issue. The computational tools used by Reaction Engineering International (REI) have been developed to address the operational and design considerations of a wide range of combustion systems including utility boilers, pyrolysis furnaces, rotary kilns, waste incinerators, flash smelters, and smelting cyclones. The current models simulate reacting flows and particles, including gaseous diffusion flames, pulverized-coal flames, liquid sprays, coal slurries, injected sorbents, and other oxidation/reduction systems. In particular, emphasis has been placed on simulating coal combustion and pollutant formation.

Davis, K.A.; Eddings, E.G.; Heap, M.P. [Reaction Engineering International, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Facchiano, A. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Hardman, R.R. [Mississippi Power Co. Fuel Services, Gulfport, MS (United States)

1998-12-31

401

Mapping and Analysis of Forest and Land Fire Potential Using Geospatial Technology and Mathematical Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest and land fire can cause negative implications for forest ecosystems, biodiversity, air quality and soil structure. However, the implications involved can be minimized through effective disaster management system. Effective disaster management mechanisms can be developed through appropriate early warning system as well as an efficient delivery system. This study tried to focus on two aspects, namely by mapping the potential of forest fire and land as well as the delivery of information to users through WebGIS application. Geospatial technology and mathematical modeling used in this study for identifying, classifying and mapping the potential area for burning. Mathematical models used is the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), while Geospatial technologies involved include remote sensing, Geographic Information System (GIS) and digital field data collection. The entire Selangor state was chosen as our study area based on a number of cases have been reported over the last two decades. AHP modeling to assess the comparison between the three main criteria of fuel, topography and human factors design. Contributions of experts directly involved in forest fire fighting operations and land comprising officials from the Fire and Rescue Department Malaysia also evaluated in this model. The study found that about 32.83 square kilometers of the total area of Selangor state are the extreme potential for fire. Extreme potential areas identified are in Bestari Jaya and Kuala Langat High Ulu. Continuity of information and terrestrial forest fire potential was displayed in WebGIS applications on the internet. Display information through WebGIS applications is a better approach to help the decision-making process at a high level of confidence and approximate real conditions. Agencies involved in disaster management such as Jawatankuasa Pengurusan Dan Bantuan Bencana (JPBB) of District, State and the National under the National Security Division and the Fire and Rescue Department Malaysia can use the end result of this study in preparation for the land and forest fires in the future.

Suliman, M. D. H.; Mahmud, M.; Reba, M. N. M.; S, L. W.

2014-02-01

402

Satellite remote-sensing technologies used in forest fire management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satellite remote sensing has become a primary data source for fire danger rating prediction, fuel and fire mapping, fire monitoring,\\u000a and fire ecology research. This paper summarizes the research achievements in these research fields, and discusses the future\\u000a trend in the use of satellite remote-sensing techniques in wildfire management. Fuel-type maps from remote-sensing data can\\u000a now be produced at spatial

Tian Xiao-rui; Douglas J. Mcrae; Shu Li-fu; Wang Ming-yu; Li Hong

2005-01-01

403

Vegetation dynamics and exotic plant invasion following high severity crown fire in a southern California conifer forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early post-fire vegetation dynamics following large, severe forest fires are largely unknown for the southern California mountains\\u000a owing to historic fire suppression. Vegetation in 38 forest stands was surveyed (2004, 2005, and 2007) following the 2003\\u000a Cedar Fire in the Cuyamaca Mountains, Peninsular Ranges, San Diego County, California, USA. Each stand was sampled using four\\u000a 10-m radius plots for the

Janet Franklin

2010-01-01

404