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1

Ash after forest fires. Effects on soil hydrology and erosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hillslopes were though to be most susceptible to enhanced hydro-geomorphological responses immediately following burning, with susceptibility declining during the first months or years depending on the soil and vegetation recovery. However, Cerdà (1998) found some indices in that immediately after the fire, the thin wettable ash layer that typically covers the ground could absorb rainfall and prevent or delay the onset of overland flow and associated erosion. Therefore the time lag while ash remains on the ground become of crucial importance to protect the soil after a wildfire. The effect of this ash layer was rarely been considered in detail because ash has often been reduced or redistributed by wind or water erosion before the onset of monitoring and thus the data collection typically begun some weeks or month after the fire. The first papers focussed only on ash and its hydrological effects were published by Cerdà and Doerr (2008) and by Woods and Balfour (2008). The results showed that the soil covered with ash indeed reduced and delayed surface runoff, reduced soil splash detachment and produced lower sediment yield compared to bare terrain. However, these findings arose more questions, as for instance: Why in other research there were indices that ash reduces infiltration? what is the mechanism by which why ash reduces overland flow? The research went further with Bodí PhD. First of all, it was crucial the agreement on the fact that the material "ash" is very variable depending on the original vegetation and the type and temperature of combustion. Therefore ash properties are different between wildfires even and within a fire. This is the main reason of its different effects and thus ash not always reduces runoff and sediment yield. In this way, depending on the nature of ash, it can increase overland flow if it is crusted (usually it contains a high content of calcium carbonate), it is water repellent (with high contents of organic carbon and specially from certain Eucaliptus and Pinus), or if clog soil pores (depending also on the soil type). If ash is wettable, it can store even 80% of its volume and then it will delay and reduce overland flow proportionally to the thickness of the ash layer. Once ash gets saturated, the flow tends to adjust to an infiltration rate similar to the soil itself, or sometimes higher due to the protection of ash that can reduce soil water repellency and soil sealing (Bodí et al. 2011, 2012). Still, many other aspects on ash remain unknown and ash present us more questions like, what it is its role on the carbon cycle? what is the extent of the ahs effects at basin scale? what is the fate of ash and how long it remains in the ecosystem? are there specific effects of ash depending on the ecosystem and so the type of ash? Acknowledgements This work was supported financially by a research fellowship (AP2007-04602) from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (M.B. Bodí) and the projects PT2009-0073 and CGL2010-21670-C02-01. References Bodí, M.B., Mataix-Solera, J., Doerr, S.H., Cerdà, A., 2011, The wettability of ash from burned vegetation and its relationship to Mediterranean plant species type, burn severity and total organic carbon content. Geoderma 160, 599-607. Bodí, M.B., Doerr, S.H., Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J., 2012, Hydrological effects of a layer of vegetation ash on underlying wettable and water repellent soil. Geoderma 191, 14-23 Cerdà, A., 1998, Changes in overland flow and infiltration after a rangeland fire in a Mediterranean scrubland. Hydrological Processes 12, 1031-1042. Cerdà, A., Doerr, S.H., 2008, The effect of ash and needle cover on surface runoff and erosion in the immediate post-fire period. Catena 74, 256-263. Woods, S.W., Balfour, V., 2008, The effect of ash on runoff and erosion after a forest wildfire, Montana, U.S.A. International Journal of Wildland Fire 17, 535-548.

Bodí, Merche B.

2013-04-01

2

Concordant 241Pu-241Am Dating of Environmental Samples: Results from Forest Fire Ash  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have measured the Pu, 237Np, 241Am, and 151Sm isotopic systematics for a set of forest fire ash samples from various locations in the western U.S. including Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, and New Mexico. The goal of this study is to develop a concordant 241Pu (t1/2 = 14.4 y)-241Am dating method for environmental collections. Environmental samples often contain mixtures of components including global fallout. There are a number of approaches for subtracting the global fallout component for such samples. One approach is to use 242Pu/239Pu as a normalizing isotope ratio in a three-isotope plot, where this ratio for the non-global fallout component can be estimated or assumed to be small. This study investigates a new, complementary method of normalization using the long-lived fission product, 151Sm (t1/2 = 90 y). We find that forest fire ash concentrates actinides and fission products with ~1E10 atoms 239Pu/g and ~1E8 atoms 151Sm/g, allowing us to measure these nuclides by mass spectrometric (MIC-TIMS) and radiometric (liquid scintillation counting) methods. The forest fire ash samples are characterized by a western U.S. regional isotopic signature representing varying mixtures of global fallout with a local component from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Our results also show that 151Sm is well correlated with the Pu nuclides in the forest fire ash, suggesting that these nuclides have similar geochemical behavior in the environment. Results of this correlation indicate that the 151Sm/239Pu atom ratio for global fallout is ~0.164, in agreement with an independent estimate of 0.165 based on 137Cs fission yields for atmospheric weapons tests at the NTS. 241Pu-241Am dating of the non-global fallout component in the forest fire ash samples yield ages in the late 1950’s-early 1960’s, consistent with a peak in NTS weapons testing at that time. The age results for this component are in agreement using both 242Pu and 151Sm normalizations, although the errors for the 151Sm correction are currently larger due to the greater uncertainty of their measurements. Additional efforts to develop a concordant 241Pu-241Am dating method for environmental collections are underway with emphasis on soil cores.

Goldstein, S. J.; Oldham, W. J.; Murrell, M. T.; Katzman, D.

2010-12-01

3

Concordant plutonium-241-americium-241 dating of environmental samples: results from forest fire ash  

SciTech Connect

We have measured the Pu, {sup 237}Np, {sup 241}Am, and {sup 151}Sm isotopic systematics for a set of forest fire ash samples from various locations in the western U.S. including Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, and New Mexico. The goal of this study is to develop a concordant {sup 241}Pu (t{sub 1/2} = 14.4 y)-{sup 241}Am dating method for environmental collections. Environmental samples often contain mixtures of components including global fallout. There are a number of approaches for subtracting the global fallout component for such samples. One approach is to use {sup 242}/{sup 239}Pu as a normalizing isotope ratio in a three-isotope plot, where this ratio for the nonglobal fallout component can be estimated or assumed to be small. This study investigates a new, complementary method of normalization using the long-lived fission product, {sup 151}Sm (t{sub 1/2} = 90 y). We find that forest fire ash concentrates actinides and fission products with {approx}1E10 atoms {sup 239}Pu/g and {approx}1E8 atoms {sup 151}Sm/g, allowing us to measure these nuclides by mass spectrometric (MIC-TIMS) and radiometric (liquid scintillation counting) methods. The forest fire ash samples are characterized by a western U.S. regional isotopic signature representing varying mixtures of global fallout with a local component from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Our results also show that {sup 151}Sm is well correlated with the Pu nuclides in the forest fire ash, suggesting that these nuclides have similar geochemical behavior in the environment. Results of this correlation indicate that the {sup 151}Sm/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio for global fallout is {approx}0.164, in agreement with an independent estimate of 0.165 based on {sup 137}Cs fission yields for atmospheric weapons tests at the NTS. {sup 241}Pu-{sup 241}Am dating of the non-global fallout component in the forest fire ash samples yield ages in the late 1950's-early 1960's, consistent with a peak in NTS weapons testing at that time. The age results for this component are in agreement using both {sup 242}Pu and {sup 151}Sm normalizations, although the errors for the {sup 151}Sm correction are currently larger due to the greater uncertainty of their measurements. Additional efforts to develop a concordant {sup 241}Pu-{sup 241}Am dating method for environmental collections are underway with emphasis on soil cores.

Goldstein, Steven J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oldham, Warren J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Murrell, Michael T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Katzman, Danny [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-07

4

Modelling ash extractable Total Phosphorous and Total Sulphur distribution after a forest fire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ash distribution in the immediate period after the fire assumes an extreme importance and this depends especially of fire severity. Due the different conditions of combustion, the fire severity can be very heterogeneous, even in small scale distances. Different fire severities produced ash with different physical and chemical properties. One of the main effects of this is the complex and very heterogenic disposition of ash nutrients that will play an important role on plant recuperation. Spatial models help to have a better picture of ash properties distribution. However, it is important to find the best model that interpolate with best accuracy the studied the variable. In this work we test several interpolation methods, namely Inverse Distance to a Weight (IDW) (with the power of 1,2,3,4 and 5), Local Polynomial with the first and second polynomial order, Polynomial Regression (PR), Radial Basis Functions (RBF) as Multilog (MTG), Natural Cubic Spline (NCS), Multiquadratic (MTQ), Inverse Multiquadratic (IMTQ) and Thin plate Spline (TPS) and Ordinary Kriging, in order to identify the best spatial predictor for Total Phosphorous (TP) and Total Sulphur (TS) after a forest fire in Portugal. Inside the burned area we designed a small plot (27x9 m) and we collected a total of 40 samples of ash. Interpolation accuracy was observed with the cross-validation method that is achieved by taking each observation in turn out of the sample and estimating from the remaining ones. The errors produced in each interpolation allowed us to calculate the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). The results showed that on average ash extractable TP were 92.42 (±77.34) mg/l, with a Coefficient of variation (CV%) of 83.68. The distribution was positively skewed and non-normal distributed. This previously to modelling we transformed it with a neperian logarithm, in order to respect the normality assumptions. From all the tested methods the best predictor for TP was the IDW 1 and the less precise the NCS. This shows the heterogenic character of TP distribution, since IDW 1 is more accurate to interpolate variables with small distance variability. The distribution of TP was heterogenic and did not respond to a specific spatial pattern, with some higher values in the northwest and southwest parts of the plot. TS presented on average 1690 (±468.72), with CV% of 27.73%. In this case the variable distribution was normally distributed and no transformation was needed previous to data modelling. As TP the most precise interpolator was IDW 1 and the less accurate was also NCS. This reflects also the heterogenic distribution of TS, however small than TP, due the reduced CV%. The models presented showed important differences among interpolation tests, in both variables, and this shown that the test of interpolation methods is fundamental to have a correct evaluation of the spatial distribution of the variables. Keywords: Ash, fire severity, interpolation methods, heterogenic distribution

Pereira, P.; Ubeda, X.

2012-04-01

5

Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals in ashes released from a forest fire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires have become a permanent source of environmental and societal concerns. Whilst the impacts of wildfire on hydrological and erosion processes are well documented, the stocks and export of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals have received considerably less research attention. The ashes produced by wildfires, which include polluting substances such as PAHs and metals, are subject to transport processes by wind and especially by overland flow and water infiltrating into the soil and possibly reaching ground water bodies. In the framework of the FIRECNUTS project, we are studying the stocks of PAHs and selected metals in recently burnt forest stands in north-central Portugal, and their subsequent export by overland flow. The present work, however, will focus on the stocks in the ashes, both immediately after wildfire and three months later. These ashes were collected at two burnt slopes with contrasting forest types, i.e. a eucalypt and a maritime pine stand, the two pre-dominant forest types in the study region. The sixteen PAHs identified by US EPA as priority contaminants were analysed by gas chromatograph, after extraction and column clean up. The contents of vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were analysed by inductively coupled plasma- mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), after an acid digestion, while mercury (Hg) was analysed by pyrolysis atomic absorption spectrometry with gold amalgamation. The total concentration of PAHs immediately after the wildfire ranged from 314 ng/g dry weight in the maritime pine stand to 597 ng/g dry weight in the eucalypt stand. Three months later, the total concentration has decreased with 33% in the pine stand but only half (16%) in the eucalypt stand. The composition the PAHs by ring size was dominated by three-rings PAHs. This was true for all samples. The concentrations of various metals differed for the two sampling occasions but not in straightforward manners. Some metals (Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and Hg) revealed higher contents immediately after the fire, whereas others (V, Cr and As) did three months later. The present results underline the importance of furthering the knowledge about contamination of soil and water by ashes from wildfires and the associated risks in terms of ecotoxicological effects, both in-situ and in downstream aquatic systems. Keywords: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); heavy metals; stocks; ash; wildfires

Campos, I.; Abrantes, N.; Pereira, P.; Vale, C.; Ferreira, A.; Keizer, J. J.

2012-04-01

6

Forest Fires  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will assume the role of a Department of Forestry Ranger one of whose major concerns is forest fires. Using NASA Surface Scene Type data (biomes) and Monthly Equivalent Water Thickness Land Mass Change Data from 2006, the students will determine areas at high risk for forest fire development.

7

The ash in forest fire affected soils control the soil losses. Part 2. Current and future research challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ash distribution on soil surface and impacts on soil properties received a great attention in recently (Pereira et al., 2010; Pereira et al., 2013). Ash it is a highly mobile material that can be easily transported wind, especially in severe wildland fires, where organic matter is reduced to dust, due the high temperatures of combustion. In the immediate period after the fire, ash cover rules soil erosion as previous researchers observed (Cerdà, 1998a; 1998b) and have strong influence on soil hydrological properties, such as water retention (Stoof et al. 2011 ) and wettability (Bodi et al., 2011). Ash it is also a valuable source of nutrients important for plant recuperation (Pereira et al., 2011; Pereira et al., 2012), but can act also as a source contamination, since are also rich in heavy metals (Pereira and Ubeda, 2010). Ash has different physical and chemical properties according the temperature of combustion, burned specie and time of exposition (Pereira et al., 2010). Thus this different properties will have different implications on soil properties including erosion that can increase due soil sealing (Onda et al. 2008) or decrease as consequence of raindrop impact reduction (Cerdà and Doerr, 2008). The current knowledge shows that ash has different impacts on soil properties and this depends not only from the type of ash produced, but of the soil properties (Woods and Balfour, 2010). After fire wind and water strong redistribute ash on soil surface, increasing the vulnerability of soil erosion in some areas, and reducing in others. Understand this mobility is fundamental have a better comprehension about the spatial and temporal effects of ash in soil erosion. Have a better knowledge about this mobility is a priority to future research. Other important aspects to have to be assessed in the future are how ash particulates percolate on soil and how ash chemical composition is important to induce soil aggregation and dispersion. How soil micro topography have implications on ash spatial distribution and if soil micro topography changes with time? What the factors that controls it? What it is the impact of ash in vegetation recuperation and the implications of this recover in ash spatial distribution? We need studies with better spatial and temporal resolution, especially in the immediate period after the fire, when the major spatial and temporal changes on ash distribution and impacts occur. Based on high level research conducted by Artemi Cerdà and others, our future research will be focused in these and other aspects in order to have a better knowledge about the impacts of ash on post-fire spatio-temporal erosion. Acknowledgements, Lithuanian Research Council. Project LITFIRE, Fire effects on Lithuanian soils and ecosystems (MIP-48/2011) and the research projects GL2008-02879/BTE and LEDDRA 243857. References Bodí, M., Mataix-Solera, J., Doerr, S., and Cerdà, A. 2011b. The wettability of ash from burned vegetation and its relationship to Mediterranean plant species type, burn severity and total organic carbon content. Geoderma, 160, 599-607. Cerdà, A. 1998a. Postfire dynamics of erosional processes under mediterranean climatic conditions. Z. Geomorphol., 42 (3) 373-398. Cerdà, A. 1998b. Changes in overland flow and infiltration after a rangeland fire in a Mediterranean scrubland.Hydrological Processes, 12, 1031-1042. Cerdà, A., and Doerr, S.H. 2008. The effect of ash and needle cover on surface runoff and erosion in the immediate post-fire period. Catena, 74, 256-263. Onda, Y., Dietrich W. E., and Booker, F. 2008. Evolution of overland flow after severe forest fire, Point Reyes, California, Catena, 72, 13-20. Pereira, P. Cerdà, A., Úbeda, X., Mataix-Solera, J. Arcenegui, V., Zavala, L. 2013. Modelling the impacts of wildfire on ash thickness in a short-term period, Land Degradation and Development, (In press) Pereira, P., Bodi. M., Úbeda, X., Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Balfour, V, Woods, S. 2010. Las cenizas y el ecosistema suelo, In: Cerdà, A. Jordan, A. (eds) Actualización en métodos y técnica

Pereira, Paulo; Cerdà, Artemi

2013-04-01

8

Airborne forest fire research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research relating to airborne fire fighting systems is reviewed to provide NASA/Langley Research Center with current information on the use of aircraft in forest fire operations, and to identify research requirements for future operations. A literature survey, interview of forest fire service personnel, analysis and synthesis of data from research reports and independent conclusions, and recommendations for future NASA-LRC programs are included.

Mattingly, G. S.

1974-01-01

9

Fighting Forest Fires  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Firefly is an airborne system for imaging forest fires. It uses satellite-based navigation for greater positioning accuracy and offers timeliness in fire location data delivery with on board data processing and a direct aircraft-to-fire camp communications link. Developed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the USFS, it has an infrared line scanner to identify fire boundaries and an infrared sensor system that can penetrate smoke to image the ground. Firefly is an outgrowth of a previous collaboration that produced FLAME, an airborne fire mapping instrument. Further refinements are anticipated by NASA and the United States Forest Service (USFS).

1993-01-01

10

Wildland fire ash: future research directions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ash is a key component of the forest fires affected land (Cerdà, 1998; Bodí et al., 2011; Pereira et al., 2013a). Ash controls the hydrological processes and determines the water repellency (Dlapa et al., 2012) and the infiltration rates (Cerdà and Doerr, 2008;). Moreover, ash is the key factor on runoff initiation and then on the soil erosion. Little is known about the impact of ash in different ecosystems, but during the last decade a substantial increase in the papers that show the role of ash in the Earth and Soil System were published (Bodí et al., 2012; Pereira et al., 2013b).. Ash is being found as the key component of the post-fire pedological, geomorphological and hydrological response after forest fires (Fernández et al., 2012; Martín et al., 2012; Bodí et al., 2013; Guénon et al., 2013; Pereira et al., 2013c). A recent State-of-the-Art review about wildland fire ash (Bodí et al., 2014) compiles the knowledge regarding the production, composition and eco-hydro-geomorphic effects of wildland fire ash. In the present paper we indicate the knowledge gaps detected and suggest topics that need more research effort concerning: i) data collection and analysis techniques: a) To develop standardized sampling techniques that allow cross comparison among sites and avoid inclusion of the underlying soil unless the burned surface soil forms part of the ash layer, b) To develop standardized methods to define and characterize ash, including its color, physical properties such as particle size distribution or density, proportion of pyrogenic C, chemical and biological reactivity and persistence in the environment, c) To validate, calibrate and test measurements collected through remote sensing with on-the-ground measurements. ii) ash production, deposition redistribution and fate: d) To untangle the significance of the effects of maximum temperature reached during combustion versus the duration of heating, e) To understand the production of ash by measuring its depth, density, and size fraction distribution compared to that of the underlying soil, f) To measure the spatial variability of ash at the plot or hillslope scale, g) To address issues of how much ash stays on site after fire, especially how much is incorporated into underlying soil layers, compared to how much is eroded by wind and water and becomes incorporated into depositional environments located away from the site. iii) ash effects h) To study the connectivity of patches of ash to make progress in understanding the role of ash in infiltration, the generation of runoff and erosion, i) To take into account the role of ash in the fate of the ecosystem immediately after the fire, as well as the combination of ash and other cover, such as the needles, in the post-fire period, j) To study the amount and forms of C in ash, including studies characterizing its chemical and biological reactivity and degradability in soil and sedimentary environments, k) To understanding the legacy of atmospherically-deposited elements (e.g. P, Si, Mn) and dust to fully understand the complex chemistry of ash, and at the same time assess its effects on human health. iii) enhance collaboration across the globe on the multidisciplinary topic of ash research since research in large areas of the world that burn (e.g., Africa and Russia) is underrepresented. We are sure that several activities, such as land and water supply management, risk reduction, and planning for societal and ecosystem resilience in the face of a changing climate, will benefit from the insights gained from the ash research community. Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and RECARE FP7 project 603498 supported this research. References: Bodí, M. B., Mataix-Solera, J., Doerr, S. H., Cerdà, A. 2011.The wettability of ash from burned vegetation and its relatioship to Mediterranean plant species type, burn. Geoderma 160: 599-607. Bodí, M.B. Doerr, S.H., Cerdà, A. and Mataix-Solera, J. 2012. Hydrological effects of a layer of vegetation ash on underlying wettable and water repellent

Bodí, Merche B.; Martins, Deborah A.; Cerdà, Artemi; Balfour, Victoria N.; Santin, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan H.; Pereira, Paulo; Mataix-Solera, Jorge

2014-05-01

11

Forest Fire Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a model that integrates high school science with the needs of the local scientific community. Describes how a high school ecology class conducted scientific research in fire ecology that benefited the students and a state park forest ecologist. (MKR)

Zucca, Carol; And Others

1995-01-01

12

Forest Fire Mapping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Fire Logistics Airborne Mapping Equipment (FLAME) system, mounted in a twin-engine and airplane operated by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), is an airborne instrument for detecting and pinpointing forest fires that might escape ground detection. The FLAME equipment rack includes the operator interface, a video monitor, the system's control panel and film output. FLAME's fire detection sensor is an infrared line scanner system that identifies fire boundaries. Sensor's information is correlated with the aircraft's position and altitude at the time the infrared imagery is acquired to fix the fire's location on a map. System can be sent to a fire locale anywhere in the U.S. at the request of a regional forester. USFS felt a need for a more advanced system to deliver timely fire information to fire management personnel in the decade of the 1990s. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) conducted a study, jointly sponsored by NASA and USDA, on what advanced technologies might be employed to produce an end-to-end thermal infrared fire detection and mapping system. That led to initiation of the Firefly system, currently in development at JPL and targeted for operational service beginning in 1992. Firefly will employ satellite-reference position fixing and provide performance superior to FLAME.

1990-01-01

13

Ash handling systems for coal fired boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of the types of ash handling systems that can and are being used to handle the ash waste products from burning coal. The paper discusses systems for the two broad industry subdivisions of bottom ash and fly ash and discusses pulverized coal fired boilers as well as coal versus coal\\/oil direct combinations.

G. D. Mooney; J. Murphy

1982-01-01

14

Forest Fires and Respiratory Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Protecting Your Health > What Makes Air Unhealthy Forest Fires and Respiratory Health Fact Sheet Wildfires are an ... area may be suffering the effects of forest fire smoke. The American Lung Association urges those with ...

15

Fighting Forest Fires  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Canadian Broadcasting Company opened their vaults, with historical and current stories about wildfires and wildfire defense from both television and radio. Featured is a TV broadcast about 1958 forest closures during a dry Canadian summer, a radio piece about using wind tunnels to examine fire behavior, and a video piece about satellite uplinks that are beginning to replace old radio technology at fire lookout stations in Alberta.

Company, Canadian B.

16

Forest Fire Observation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conditions on the perimeter of a forest fire can be obtained by use of airborne remote sensing techniques demonstrated by Ames Research Center. An Ames U-2 high-altitude survey aircraft served as an aerial fire observation system. Equipped with two types of sensors, the U-2 produces real-time infrared images of fireground scenes. Information acquired by the U-2's scanners defines the fire boundary and aids fire management decisions by showing the size, shape and direction of burn and the locations of hot spots in the fire zone. U-2 sends sensor date in digital form to an antenna at Ames Research Center. There the data is computer processed into images which are overlaid on U.S. Geological Survey topographical maps of the fire area. Maps are then transmitted by telecopy machine directly to fire control center. Whole process takes less than 10 minutes and the U-2 can provide information for up to five hours. Ames antenna can pick up signals from the U-2 anywhere within a 300 mile radius from Ames.

1982-01-01

17

Forest Fires in a Random Forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fires in Canton Ticino (Switzerland) are very complex phenomena. Meteorological data can explain some occurrences of fires in time, but not necessarily in space. Using anthropogenic and geographical feature data with the random forest algorithm, this study tries to highlight factors that most influence the fire-ignition and to identify areas under risk. The fundamental scientific problem considered in the present research deals with an application of random forest algorithms for the analysis and modeling of forest fires patterns in a high dimensional input feature space. This study is focused on the 2,224 anthropogenic forest fires among the 2,401 forest fire ignition points that have occurred in Canton Ticino from 1969 to 2008. Provided by the Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL), the database characterizes each fire by their location (x,y coordinates of the ignition point), start date, duration, burned area, and other information such as ignition cause and topographic features such as slope, aspect, altitude, etc. In addition, the database VECTOR25 from SwissTopo was used to extract information of the distances between fire ignition points and anthropogenic structures like buildings, road network, rail network, etc. Developed by L. Breiman and A. Cutler, the Random Forests (RF) algorithm provides an ensemble of classification and regression trees. By a pseudo-random variable selection for each split node, this method grows a variety of decision trees that do not return the same results, and thus by a committee system, returns a value that has a better accuracy than other machine learning methods. This algorithm incorporates directly measurement of importance variable which is used to display factors affecting forest fires. Dealing with this parameter, several models can be fit, and thus, a prediction can be made throughout the validity domain of Canton Ticino. Comprehensive RF analysis was carried out in order to 1) understand the importance of environmental features, 2) to assess the predictability of forest fires using environmental variables, and 3) to compare RF with other machine learning algorithms for this particular case study. Risk maps were plotted by estimating the burned area taking into account the environmental variables and according to the most relevant selected variables. Key words: Random Forest, classification and regression trees, forest fires, risk maps. Acknowledgements This work was partly supported by the SNFS Project No. 200021-140658, "Analysis and Modelling of Space-Time Patterns in Complex Regions". References - Breiman L., 2001, Random Forest, Machine Learning, vol. 45-1: 5-32. - Oliveira S., Oehler F., San-Miguel-Ayanz J., Camia A., Pereira J.M.C., 2012, Modeling spatial patterns of fire occurrence in Mediterranean Europe, Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 275: 117-129.

Leuenberger, Michael; Kanevski, Mikhaïl; Vega Orozco, Carmen D.

2013-04-01

18

MY NASA DATA: Forest Fires  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a problem based learning activity which asks students to utilize NASA data to determine areas at high risk for forest fire development. Students will pretend to be Rangers of the Department of Forestry, and will have to draw conclusions from the data in order to attempt to prevent forest fires. Detailed procedures, materials list, vocabulary linked to an online glossary, and teachers notes are provided.

Schnekser, Becky

2010-08-31

19

Amazon RainForest Fires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charcoal is common in the soils of mature rain forests within 75 kilometers of San Carlos de Rio Negro in the north central Amazon Basin. Carbon-14 dates of soil charcoal from this region indicate that numerous fires have occurred since the mid-Holocene epoch. Charcoal is most common in tierra firme forest Oxisols and Ultisols and less common in caatinga and

Robert L. Sanford; Juan Saldarriaga; Kathleen E. Clark; Christopher Uhl; Rafael Herrera

1985-01-01

20

Forest fire monitoring with multiple small UAVs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frequent updates concerning the progress of a forest fire are essential for effective and safe fire fighting. Since a forest fire is typically inaccessible by ground vehicles due to mountainous terrain, small unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) are emerging as a promising means of monitoring large forest fires. We present an effective UAV path planning algorithm utilizing infrared images that are

David W. Casbeer; Randal W. Beard; T. W. McLain; Sai-Ming Li; R. K. Mehra

2005-01-01

21

Land application of wood-fired and combination boiler ashes: An overview  

SciTech Connect

Ashes from the burning of wood and other plant-derived materials have been used a soil amendments for centuries. Although historical interest in land application of ashes declined following the advent of commercial fertilizers and alternative liming materials, additional incentives for this beneficial use have arisen in recent years. The first is from rapidly rising landfill costs for disposal of by-product ashes produced from the paper and electric utility industries. Secondly, the produced from the paper and electric utility industries. Secondly, the environmental ethic of sustainable management and the concept of recycling have provided incentives. Field and greenhouse studies show that wood-fired boiler ashes can be successfully used as a replacement for agricultural lime with additional nutrient benefits. Ash application on forest land is less common, but Scandinavian studies indicate that ashes can enhance long-term productivity of some forested sites. The use of ashes alone or combined with other mill residues, fertilizers, or agricultural wastes could prove particularly valuable for sustaining productivity of intensively managed forests over successive rotations. This overview provides an introduction to a subset of papers presented at the {open_quotes}NCASI Symposium on Land Application of Wood-Fired and Combination Boiler Ashes.{close_quotes} 86 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Vance, E.D. [National Council of the Paper Industry for Air and Stream Improvement, Gainesville, FL (United States)

1996-09-01

22

Catastrophic Fires in Russian Forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We evaluated the contribution of catastrophic fires to the total burned area and the amount of tree mortality in Russia since the 1970’s. Such fires occurred in the central regions of European Russia (1972, 1976, 1989, 2002, 2010), Khabarovsk krai (1976, 1988, 1998), Amur region (1997-2002), Republics of Yakutia and Tuva (2002), Magadan and Kamchatka oblast (1984, 2001, 2010), and Irkutsk, Chita, Amur regions, Buryat, Agin national districts (2003, 2007-08). We define a catastrophic fire as a single high-severity fire that covers more than 10,000 ha and results in total consumption of the litter and humus layers and in high tree mortality, or the simultaneous occurrence of several high-severity fires in a given region with a total area exceeding 10,000 km2. Fires on this scale can cause substantial economic, social and environmental effects, with regional to global impacts. We hypothesize that there is a positive feedback between anticyclone growth and energy release from wildfires burning over large areas. Usually the first blocking anticyclone appears in June in Russia, bringing with it dry weather that increases fire hazard. The anticyclonic pattern has maximum activity in the end of July and disappears around the middle of August. When high fire activity occurs, the anticyclone may strengthen and develop a blocking character that prevents cyclonic patterns from moving into anticyclone-dominated areas, where the fire danger index may be more than six times the average maximum. The likelihood of uncontrolled fire situations developing increases greatly when the fire number and burned area exceed critical values as a function of conditions that favor high intensity fires. In such situations fire suppression by regional forest protection services becomes impossible and federal resources are required. If the appearance of a blocking anticyclone is forecast, active fire prevention and suppression of small fires (most of which appear to be human caused) is critical. Based on NOAA and TOMS daily data, we estimated fire emissions (including CO2, CO, CH4 and other smoke aerosols) of over 70 Tg Carbon for Yakutian fires in 2002 and more than 120 Tg C for all Russian fires in 2010. We note the potential for increasing amounts of methane emissions when fires occur in permafrost zones and peat bogs. Post-fire changes in permafrost and vegetation cover are discussed in the connection changes in solar radiance balance. During the fire season of 2006 in the Eastern-Siberian, Transbaikal, and Far East regions we identified more than 15,000 fires with a total area of 120,000 km2. From 2002-2010 the annual number of fires in this area ranged from 10,000 to 16,500, and annual burned areas ranged from a low of 30 000 km2 in 2004 to a high of 145,000 km2 in 2003.

Sukhinin, A. I.; McRae, D. J.; Stocks, B. J.; Conard, S. G.; Hao, W.; Soja, A. J.; Cahoon, D.

2010-12-01

23

Smoke from Agricultural and Forest Fires  

MedlinePLUS

... Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : National Summary Smoke from Agricultural and Forest Fires Fires and smoke ... Protect Your Family from the Health Effects of Smoke Pay attention to local air quality reports and ...

24

Fire and forest history at Mount Rushmore.  

PubMed

Mount Rushmore National Memorial in the Black Hills of South Dakota is known worldwide for its massive sculpture of four of the United States' most respected presidents. The Memorial landscape also is covered by extensive ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forest that has not burned in over a century. We compiled dendroecological and forest structural data from 29 plots across the 517-ha Memorial and used fire behavior modeling to reconstruct the historical fire regime and forest structure and compare them to current conditions. The historical fire regime is best characterized as one of low-severity surface fires with occasional (> 100 years) patches (< 100 ha) of passive crown fire. We estimate that only approximately 3.3% of the landscape burned as crown fire during 22 landscape fire years (recorded at > or = 25% of plots) between 1529 and 1893. The last landscape fire was in 1893. Mean fire intervals before 1893 varied depending on spatial scale, from 34 years based on scar-to-scar intervals on individual trees to 16 years between landscape fire years. Modal fire intervals were 11-15 years and did not vary with scale. Fire rotation (the time to burn an area the size of the study area) was estimated to be 30 years for surface fire and 800+ years for crown fire. The current forest is denser and contains more small trees, fewer large trees, lower canopy base heights, and greater canopy bulk density than a reconstructed historical (1870) forest. Fire behavior modeling using the NEXUS program suggests that surface fires would have dominated fire behavior in the 1870 forest during both moderate and severe weather conditions, while crown fire would dominate in the current forest especially under severe weather. Changes in the fire regime and forest structure at Mount Rushmore parallel those seen in ponderosa pine forests from the southwestern United States. Shifts from historical to current forest structure and the increased likelihood of crown fire justify the need for forest restoration before a catastrophic wildfire occurs and adversely impacts the ecological and aesthetic setting of the Mount Rushmore sculpture. PMID:19263892

Brown, Peter M; Wienk, Cody L; Symstad, Amy J

2008-12-01

25

Statistical analysis on current status of China forest fire safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

In China, forests are a very rare natural resource. Forest fires happen frequently and the loss is very serious each year. In this paper, statistical data on forest fires in China are analyzed in order to reveal new features regarding the forest fire safety situation as the economy of China is growing. The causes of forest fires in China are

Maohua Zhong; Weicheng Fan; Tiemin Liu; Peide Li

2003-01-01

26

Forest Fire Mangement in Guyana 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of the world's vegetation fires is caused by man and occurs in the tropics and sub-tropics. These are as a result of increasing human population pressures on those areas where fire is used as a land treatment tool for the conversion of forested lands into agricultural lands, grazing lands and for facilitating the utilization of non-timber forest products

Pradeepa Bholanath

27

Evolving Neural Networks for Forest Fire Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest fire control is a challenging research problem involving a non-stationary environ- ment and multiple cooperating agents. In this paper we describe the application of en- forced sub-populations (ESP) to evolve neu- ral network controllers that solve dierent instances of the forest fire control problem. Our system works by initially generating sub- goals and assigning subgoals to the dierent agents.

Marco Wiering; Filippo Mignogna; Bernard Maassen

2005-01-01

28

High fire resistance in blocks containing coal combustion fly ashes and bottom ash.  

PubMed

Fire resistance recycled blocks, containing fly ash and bottom ash from coal combustion power plants with a high fire resistance, are studied in this paper by testing different compositions using Portland cement type II, sand, coarse aggregate and fly ash (up to 50% of total weight) and bottom ash (up to 30% of total weight). The fire resistance, physical-chemical (density, pH, humidity, and water absorption capacity), mechanical (compressive and flexural strength), and leaching properties are measured on blocks made with different proportions of fly ash and bottom ash. The standard fire resistance test is reproduced on 28cm-high, 18cm-wide and 3cm-thick units, and is measured as the time needed to reach a temperature of 180°C on the non-exposed surface of the blocks for the different compositions. The results show that the replacement of fine aggregate with fly ash and of coarse aggregate with bottom ash have a remarkable influence on fire resistance and cause no detriment to the mechanical properties of the product. Additionally, according to the leaching tests, no environmental problems have been detected in the product. These results lead to an analysis of the recycling possibilities of these by-products in useful construction applications for the passive protection against fire. PMID:21511456

García Arenas, Celia; Marrero, Madelyn; Leiva, Carlos; Solís-Guzmán, Jaime; Vilches Arenas, Luis F

2011-08-01

29

Observe forest fires as seen from space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Earth science resource shows students how atmospheric scientists use infrared imaging to detect and locate forest fires. The introduction explains how visible-light images recorded by satellites are unable to distinguish smoke from clouds. In contrast, infrared imaging, which detects heat, can detect hot spots that indicate the location of forest fires. The resource provides two different sets of satellite pictures. Students are instructed to toggle between the visible-light and infrared images of each set to see how scientists use information from both types of images to identify forest fires. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Education, Terc. C.; Littell, Mcdougal

2003-01-01

30

Modeling forest fire severity in California, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A long history of fire suppression in the western United States has interrupted the fire regimes of many forest types. This interruption has significantly changed forest structure and ecological function and led to increasingly uncharacteristic fires in terms of size and severity. Identifying areas at risk for fires whose severity is outside the natural fire regime will allow for targeted fuel reduction and mitigation to preserve ecosystem integrity. The probability of large fire occurrence has been successfully predicted and forecast using hydro-climate variables and statistical modeling techniques. We are employing similar statistical techniques to test the potential for predicting and forecasting forest fire severity for California, USA under current and future climate scenarios. We have a mapped fire severity dataset for forest fires spanning twenty-two years (1984-2006) for California as well as a suite of topographic and vegetation data layers from the Landfire project. Our hydro-climate dataset was developed using the VIC hydrologic model with the LDAS parameterization; we thus used the LDAS 1/8° grid to sample our fire severity, topographic and vegetation datasets. Initial exploratory analyses of the hydro-climate data show that low fractional fire severity is positively correlated to cumulative precipitation for the 12-month prior period and the 12-month period ending 6-month prior to the month of the fire, while moderate to high fractional severity is negatively correlated. Relationships opposite in sign, but comparative in magnitude, were found for cumulative adjusted moisture deficit for 12 months prior to the month of fire and the 12-month period ending 6 months prior to the fire. Additionally, fire area was positively correlated to both cumulative moisture deficit variables. Current year March and April snow water equivalent were negatively correlated to moderate and high fractional fire severity. Using only hydro-climate data predictors, we were able to predict high severity fraction (fraction of the fire in the high severity category relative to fire size) using a third order polynomial regression with the following independent variables: one year moisture deficit, average relative humidity, monthly average temperature, mean elevation, the latter three for month of fire. These relationships are expected as we know that fuel moisture is an important control on potential fire severity and all will affect fuel moisture content. We also know that vegetation, fuels, and topography affect potential fire severity. We will add these data layers to the aforementioned hydro-climate variables to improve our predictive capability. A refined prediction model will be presented with forecast of potential changes in fire severity under climate change scenarios.

Keyser, A.; Westerling, A. L.

2009-12-01

31

Forest Fire Retardant Research: A Status Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Forest fire retardant research was divided into five different study areas: (1) retardant effectiveness; (2) retardant physical properties; (3) retardant delivery systems; (4) retardant-caused corrosion; and (5) retardant environmental impact. Past resear...

C. W. George A. D. Blakely G. M. Johnson

1976-01-01

32

Fire severity effects on ash extractable Total Phosphorous  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorous (P) is a crucial element to plant nutrition and limits vegetal production. The amounts of P in soil are lower and great part of this nutrient is absorbed or precipitated. It is well known that fire has important implications on P cycle, that can be lost throughout volatilization, evacuated with the smoke, but also more available to transport after organic matter mineralization imposed by the fire. The release of P depends on ash pH and their chemical and physical characteristics. Fire temperatures impose different severities, according to the specie affected and contact time. Fire severity is often evaluated by ash colour and this is a low-cost and excellent methodology to assess the fire effects on ecosystems. The aim of this work is study the ash properties physical and chemical properties on ash extractable Total Phosphorous (TP), collected in three wildfires, occured in Portugal, (named, (1) Quinta do Conde, (2) Quinta da Areia and (3) Casal do Sapo) composed mainly by Quercus suber and Pinus pinaster trees. The ash colour was assessed using the Munsell color chart. From all three plots we analyzed a total of 102 ash samples and we identified 5 different ash colours, ordered in an increasing order of severity, Very Dark Brown, Black, Dark Grey, Very Dark Grey and Light Grey. In order to observe significant differences between extractable TP and ash colours, we applied an ANOVA One Way test, and considered the differences significant at a p<0.05. The results showed that significant differences in the extractable TP among the different ash colours. Hence, to identify specific differences between each ash colour, we applied a post-hoc Fisher LSD test, significant at a p<0.05. The results obtained showed significant differences between the extractable TP from Very dark Brown and Black ash, produced at lower severities, in relation to Dark Grey, Very Dark Grey and Light Grey ash, generated at higher severities. The means of the first group were higher than the observed in the second one. This indicates that ash produced lower temperatures release in solution higher amounts of TP. These divergences occur due temperature of combustion, affected specie, ash pH values and CaCO3 content, which affects the quantity of this element in solution. Discussions about these effects will be accurate in the communication.

Pereira, Paulo; Úbeda, Xavier; Martin, Deborah

2010-05-01

33

Fire in Tropical Forests and Grasslands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fire in the tropics has a long history in which frequent wide-spread burning has profoundly altered physical and cultural environments. A vast and diverse literature pertaining to fire and its effects in tropical forests and grasslands was evaluated, clas...

R. B. Batchelder H. F. Hirt

1966-01-01

34

Aerial monitoring and measurement of forest fires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a system for forest fire monitoring using aerial images. The system uses the images taken from a helicopter, the GPS position of the helicopter, and information from a Geographic Information System (GIS) to locate the fire and to estimate in real-time their properties. Currently, the images are taken by a non-stabilized camera. Then, image processing for image stabilization and movement estimation is applied to cancel the vibration and to estimate the change in the camera orientation. Another image processing stage is the computation of the fire front and flame height features in the images. This process is based on color processing and thresholding, followed by contour computation. Finally, the fire front is automatically geo-located by projecting the features over the terrain model obtained from the GIS. Furthermore, an estimation of the flame height is obtained. The aerial image processing, automatic georeferencing and measurement has been integrated in a forest fire fire monitoring system in which several moving or fixed visual and infrared cameras can be used. The system provides in real-time the evolution of the fire-front and the flame height, and obtains a 3D perception model of the fire. The paper shows some results obtained with the application with images taken in real forest-fire experiments, in the framework of the INFLAME project funded by the European Commission.

Merino, Luis; Gomez-Rodriguez, Francisco; Arrue, Begona C.; Ollero, Anibal

2002-07-01

35

Fire vegetative ash and erosion in the Mediterranean areas. State of the art and future perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire is a global phenomenon with important ecological impacts. Among all ecosystems, the Mediterranean is frequently visited by severe wildfires with serious impacts on soil properties and increase soil vulnerability to erosion due vegetation removal. After the fire the ash distributed in soil surface can mitigate soil exposition to erosion and rain splash (Cerda and Doerr, 2008), however, this depends on the fire severity that have implications on the type of ash produced (Pereira et al., 2010). High fire severities produced thinner ash that it is easily transported by wind, contrary to low severity wildfires where combustion is not so intense and the mass loss is less, providing a better soil protection in the immediate period after the fire. Soil protection after the fire highly depends on fire severity (Pereira et al. 2013a; Pereira et al. 2013b). Ash it is a highly mobile material, thus this protection can change in space and time, providing a better cover in some areas and worst in others. In the period immediate after the fire, ash can change soil hydrological properties, increasing water retention and reducing sediment transport in relation to bare soil areas (Cerda and Doerr, 2008), but also clog soil pores, seal the soil and increase erosion (Onda et al., 2008). In fact results are controversial and the impacts of vegetative ash in soil erosion may rely on the proprieties of ash produced, that can be extremely variable, even in small distances (Pereira and Úbeda, 2010), due the different conditions of combustions. Ash produced at low severity temperatures can be highly hydrophilic (Bodi et al., 2011) and induce soil hydrophobicity (Bodi et al., 2012). Other mechanisms as the direct impact of fire in soil, can induce soil water repellency, and do not have any interference of vegetative ash. This fire can induce direct (e.g temperature) and indirect (e.g. ash properties) on soil wettability, with obvious implications on spatio-temporal pattern of soil erosion. At this point we are dealing with a complex interaction since interactions, since low severity fires due ash, and high severity fires, due temperature induce soil hydrophobicity. After the fire, other ash properties may interact with soil erosion, as particulate size, and chemical composition, that can induce soil particulates flocculation or dispersion. Ash chemistry is strongly related with fire severity (Pereira et al., 2012). Further studies may be directed in the complex interaction between ash physico-chemical properties interaction with the degree of fire impacts on soil. These and other ideas will be discussed during the session. Acknowledgements, The authors appreciated the support of the project "Litfire", Fire effects in Lithuanian soils and ecosystems (MIP-048/2011) funded by the Lithuanian Research Council and FUEGORED (Spanish Network of Forest Fire Effects on Soils http://grupo.us.es/fuegored/). References Bodi, M., Doerr, S., Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J. (2012) Hydrological effects of a layer of vegetation ash on underlying wettable and water repellent soil. Geoderma 191: 14-13. Bodi, M., Mataix-Solera, J., Doerr, S., Cerdà, A. (2011) The wettability of ash from burned vegetation and its relationship to Mediterranean plant species type, burn severity and total organic matter content. Geoderma, 160, 599-607. Cerdà, A., Doerr, S.H. (2008). The effect of ash and needle cover on surface runoff and erosion in the immediate post-fire period. Catena, 74, 256-263. Onda Y, Dietrich WE, Booker F. 2008. Evolution of overland flow after a severe forest fire, Point Reyes, California. Catena. 72, 13-20. Pereira, P., Bodi. M., Úbeda, X., Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Balfour, V, Woods, S. (2010) Las cenizas y el ecosistema suelo, In: Cerdà, A. Jordan, A. (eds) Actualización en métodos y técnicas para el estudio de los suelos afectados por incendios forestales, 345-398. Càtedra de Divulgació de la Ciència. Universitat de Valencia. ISBN: 978-84-370-7887-8. Deposito Legal: V-3541-2010. Pereira, P., Cerdà, A., Úbeda, X., Mataix-Solera,

Pereira, Paulo; Cerdà, Artemi

2013-04-01

36

Self-organized criticality of forest fire in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-organized criticality (SOC) of forest fire is studied from an analysis of a large series of forest-fire records from 1950 to 1989 in China. The time-invariant, scale-invariant characteristics of SOC of forest fire in China are analyzed in detail. The deviations between the occurrence frequency of very large fires and the power-law relation are explained by the forest-fire model with

Weiguo Song; Fan Weicheng; Wang Binghong; Zhou Jianjun

2001-01-01

37

Phase inversions during the firing of ash-clay materials  

SciTech Connect

The use of industrial waste, particularly power station ash, to obtain ceramic materials would enable the expansion of the raw material base as well as help keep the environment cleaner. The authors used petrographic, x-ray and IR-spectroscopic methods to investigate the all-around influence of the degree of densification and the duration of the isothermal soaking of the specimens on the physicochemical inversions during firing of ash-clay materials. It is established that during firing, when the density of the ash-clay specimen is increased, the process of formation of alpha-cristobalite is retarded, and the crystallization of anorthite is speeded up. With an increase in the soaking time, there is an intensification of the polymorphic conversion of Beta-quartz into alpha-cristobalite, and the formation of mullite, which provides excellent physicomechanical properties to the ash ceramics.

De, I.M.; Kulbekov, M.K.; Saibulatov, S.Z.; Suleimanov, K.T.; Suleimov, S.T.; Vasil'chenko, N.A.

1985-11-01

38

Boreal Forest Fires - Behavior and Atmospheric Impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire is a natural and essential stand-renewing agent in circumboreal forests, and eliminating fire in this region is neither economically possible nor ecologically desirable. In general, boreal fire is managed on the basis of values-at-risk, with high levels of protection afforded to economically and recreationally important areas, while fire is permitted to burn naturally in many remote areas. Current estimates are that an average of 5-15 million hectares burn annually across the boreal zone, with at least 50% of the area burning in largely unmanaged forest. High-intensity crown fires account for the vast majority of the area burned in the boreal zone, particularly in North America. These fires typically consume 20-30 tonnes/ha of fuel, spread at rates up to 100 m/min, and generate intensity levels (or energy release rates) approaching 100,000 kW/m of fire front. Deep forest floor (organic) layers common to boreal forests contribute significantly to high levels of fuel consumption and assist in the propagation of crown fires. When crown fires are sustained through a peak afternoon burning period, they usually produce towering convection columns that can reach the upper troposphere directly. Numerous boreal fires columns reaching 11-14 kilometres in height have been documented in the fire literature. Given the lower altitude of the tropopause at boreal zone latitudes it is not surprising that some boreal fire columns have been recently reported reaching the lower stratosphere. Current global and regional climate models suggest a significant increase in both the severity and frequency of boreal fires under a changing climate, with potentially major impacts on terrestrial carbon storage and the global carbon budget, as well as hemispheric smoke transport. Modelling convection column dynamics is essential to predicting the future transport and atmospheric impacts of boreal fire smoke, and this science requires a solid understanding of fuel consumption and fire behavior on the ground, presenting a solid opportunity for mutually-beneficial collaboration between atmospheric modelers and the wildland fire research community.

Stocks, B. J.

2003-12-01

39

Mapping fire effects on ash and soil properties. Current knowledge and future perspectives.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire has heterogeneous impacts on ash and soil properties, depending on severity, topography of the burned area, type of soil and vegetation affected, and meteorological conditions during and post-fire. The heterogeneous impacts of fire and the complex topography of wildland environments impose the challenge of understand fire effects at diverse scales in space and time. Mapping is fundamental to identify the impacts of fire on ash and soil properties because allow us to recognize the degree of the fire impact, vulnerable areas, soil protection and distribution of ash and soil nutrients, important to landscape recuperation. Several methodologies have been used to map fire impacts on ash soil properties. Burn severity maps are very useful to understand the immediate and long-term impacts of fire on the ecosystems (Wagtendonk et al., 2004; Kokaly et al., 2007). These studies normally are carried out with remote sensing techniques and study large burned areas. On a large scale it is very important to detect the most vulnerable areas (e.g. with risk of runoff increase, flooding, erosion, sedimentation and debris flow) and propose -if necessary- immediate rehabilitation measures. Post-fire rehabilitation measures can be extremely costly. Thus the identification of the most affected areas will reduce the erosion risks and soil degradation (Miller and Yool, 2002; Robichaud et al., 2007; Robichaud, 2009), as the consequent economical, social and ecological impacts. Recently, the United States Department of Agriculture created a field guide to map post-fire burn severity, based on remote sensing and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) technologies. The map produced should reflect the effects of fire on soil properties, and identify areas where fire was more severe (Parsons et al. 2010). Remote sensing studies have made attempts to estimate soil and ash properties after the fire, as hydrophobicity (Lewis et al., 2008), water infiltration (Finnley and Glenn, 2010), forest floor consumption (Lewis et al., 2011), ash cover (Robichaud et al., 2007) and other aspects related with soil as the vegetation factors that affect post-fire erosion risk (Fox et al., 2008). Field studies had also indented to estimate and map the impacts of fire in soil properties. Contrary to remote sensing studies, the mapping of fire effects on ash and soil properties in the field is specially carried out at small scale (e.g. slope or plot). The small scale resolution studies are important because identify small patterns that are normally ignored by remote sensing studies, but fundamental to understand the post-fire evolution of the burned areas. One of the important aspects of the small scale studies of fire effect on ash and soil properties is the great spatial variability, showing that the impact of fire is extremely heterogeneous in space and time (Outeiro et al., 2008; Pereira et al. in press). The small scale mapping of fire effects on soil properties normally is carried out using Geostatistical methods or using deterministic interpolation methods (Robichaud and Miller, 1999; Pereira et al., 2013). Several reports were published on the spatial distribution and mapping of ash and duff thickness (Robichaud and Miller, 1999; Pereira et al., 2013; Pereira et al. in press), fire severity (Pereira et al., 2014), ash chemical characteristics as total nitrogen (Pereira et al., 2010a), and ash extractable elements (Pereira et al., 2010b). Also, previous works mapped fire effects on soil temperature (Gimeno-Garcia et al., 2004), soil hydrophobicity (Woods et al., 2007), total nitrogen (Hirobe et al., 2003), phosphorous (Rodriguez et al., 2009) and major cations (Outeiro et al., 2008). It is important to integrate remote sensing and field based works of fire effects on ash and soil properties in order to have a better validation of the models predicted. The aim of this work is present the current knowledge about mapping fire effects in ash and soil properties at diverse scales and the future perspectives. References Finley, C.D., Glenn, N.F. (2010) Fire and vege

Pereira, Paulo; Cerda, Artemi; Strielko, Irina

2014-05-01

40

Forest fire risk zonation mapping using remote sensing technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fires cause major losses to forest cover and disturb the ecological balance in our region. Rise in temperature during summer season causing increased dryness, increased activity of human beings in the forest areas, and the type of forest cover in the Garhwal Himalayas are some of the reasons that lead to forest fires. Therefore, generation of forest fire risk maps becomes necessary so that preventive measures can be taken at appropriate time. These risk maps shall indicate the zonation of the areas which are in very high, high, medium and low risk zones with regard to forest fire in the region. In this paper, an attempt has been made to generate the forest fire risk maps based on remote sensing data and other geographical variables responsible for the occurrence of fire. These include altitude, temperature and soil variations. Key thematic data layers pertaining to these variables have been generated using various techniques. A rule-based approach has been used and implemented in GIS environment to estimate fuel load and fuel index leading to the derivation of fire risk zonation index and subsequently to fire risk zonation maps. The fire risk maps thus generated have been validated on the ground for forest types as well as for forest fire risk areas. These maps would help the state forest departments in prioritizing their strategy for combating forest fires particularly during the fire seasons.

Chandra, Sunil; Arora, M. K.

2006-12-01

41

GIS-Based Forest Fire Risk Assessment and Mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest fire is a usual disaster in real life, causing huge live, property and ecology losses. A risk assessment model to identify, classify and map forest fire risk areas is presented in this paper. This model considers three parts, i.e. hazards identification, vulnerability analysis, and emergency response capacity analysis. The first part concentrates on several influence factors in forest fires,

Chengcheng Gai; Wenguo Weng; Hongyong Yuan

2011-01-01

42

Forest Fires in Russia and Northern China  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Smoke plumes from forest fires scattered along the border between the Russian Far East and northern China are clearly visible in this true-color image from the Sea-viewing Wide-Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) on June 16, 2000. Fires in Siberia occur every summer, and severe outbreaks occur every ten years or so, with the most recent in 1998. The fires are ignited by lightning, and are so remote that it is impossible to fight them effectively. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

2002-01-01

43

Wireless Sensor Networks for Early Detection of Forest Fires  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the design and evaluation of a wireless sensor network for early detection of forest fires. We first present the key aspects in modeling forest fires. We do this by analyzing the Fire Weather Index (FWI) System, and show how its different components can be used in designing efficient fire detection systems. The FWI System is one of the

Mohamed Hefeeda; Majid Bagheri

2007-01-01

44

Managing fire-prone forests in the western United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

5 The management of fire-prone forests is one of the most controversial natural resource issues in the US today, particularly in the west of the country. Although vegetation and wildlife in these forests are adapted to fire, the historical range of fire frequency and severity was huge. When fire regimes are altered by human activity, major effects on biodiversity and

Reed F. Noss; Jerry F. Franklin; William L. Baker; Tania Schoennagel; Peter B. Moyle

2006-01-01

45

Forest Fire: A Crisis Reality for Camp.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two camp directors were interviewed about evacuations from their camps due to forest fires. Topics covered include descriptions of the events; actions taken; aspects of advance planning that proved helpful; unexpected portions of the experience and resultant changes made in plans; relations with outside agencies, the media, and parents; working…

Brown, Don; Mickelson, Rhonda

2002-01-01

46

Emissions from Forest Fires near Mexico City  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The emissions of NOx (defined as NO (nitric oxide) + NO2 (nitrogen dioxide)) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN), per unit amount of fuel burned, from fires in the pine forests that dominate the mountains surrounding Mexico City (MC) are about 2 times higher than normally observed for forest burning. The ammonia (NH3) emissions are about average for forest burning. The upper limit for the mass ratio of NOX to volatile organic compounds (VOC) for these MC-area mountain fires was approximately 0.38, which is similar to the NOx/VOC ratio in the MC urban area emissions inventory of 0.34, but much larger than the NOx/VOC ratio for tropical forest fires in Brazil (approximately 0.068). The nitrogen enrichment in the fire emissions may be due to deposition of nitrogen-containing pollutants in the outflow from the MC urban area. This effect may occur worldwide wherever biomass burning coexists with large urban areas (e.g. the tropics, southeastern US, Los Angeles Basin). The molar emission ratio of HCN to carbon monoxide (CO) for the mountain fires was 0.012 +/- 0.007, which is 2-9 times higher than widely used literature values for biomass burning. The ambient molar ratio HCN/CO in the MC-area outflow is about 0.003 +/- 0.0003. Thus, if only mountain fires emit significant amounts of HCN, these fires may be contributing about 25% of the CO production in the MCarea (approximately 98-100 W and 19-20 N). Comparing the PM10/CO and PM2.5/CO mass ratios in the MC Metropolitan Area emission inventory (0.01 15 and 0.0037) to the PM1/CO mass ratio for the mountain fires (0.133) then suggests that these fires could produce as much as approximately 79-92% of the primary fine particle mass generated in the MC-area. Considering both the uncertainty in the HCN/CO ratios and secondary aerosol formation in the urban and fire emissions implies that about 50 +/- 30% of the "aged" fine particle mass in the March 2006 MC-area outflow could be from these fires.

Yokelson, R.; Urbanski, S.; Atlas, E.; Toohey, D.; Alvarado, E.; Crounse, J.; Wennberg, P.; Fisher, M.; Wold, C.; Campos, T.; Adachi, K.; Buseck, P. R.; Hao, W. M.

2007-01-01

47

Firing dynamics of ash-ceramic materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mineralogical composition of the ash mainly consists of amorphized clay aggreBates (50%), glass phase (30%), feldspars (5-7%), organic substances (7-9), calcite (3-5%), hydrated garnets, mul!ite, iron oxides (2-5%), and other impurities. The highly plastic Ainabulaks clay has a polymineral composition with a predominance of montmorillonite (30%). The clay also contained quartz (20%), feldspar (10%), carbonates (5-10%), iron oxides (5%),

M. K. Kulbekov; S. Zh. Saibulatov; A. A. Suleimenov

1990-01-01

48

Spatio-temporal vulnerability of forest fire to climate change in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate is known as crucial factor on forest fire occurrence. Although most of forest fires occurred by human activities, climate factor is the most important cause for forest fire due to moisture containment of fuel. The objective of this study is to estimate forest fire occurrence according to the past forest fire and to assess the vulnerability with forest cover

H. Kwak; W. Lee; S. Lee; M. Lee; K. Koo; M. Won

2009-01-01

49

Twentieth-Century Fire Patterns on Forest Service Lands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maps of twentieth-century fires on Forest Service lands were ana- lyzed. Time trends showed no overall trend in acreage, but human- caused fires decreased and lightning fires increased. The increase in lightning fire was dominated by two recent years (1987 and 1990), but more subtle trends prior to 1987 indicated that lightning fires were following a trajectory separate from that

KEVIN S. McKELVEY; KELLY K. BUSSE

50

Cause of the Interannual Variation of Boreal-Forest Fires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The boreal-forest rainbelts are maintained by transient disturbances ahead of subarctic troughs over Central Asia, the Bering Sea, and the Labrador Sea (Yoon and Chen 2006). The interannual variation of the subarctic circulation is reflected by the filling/deepening of these troughs. The response to this subarctic circulation variation is the reduction (enhancement) of rainfall along boreal forests. Thus, the consequence of this annual variation in boreal-forest rainbelts should be reflected by the increase (decrease) of forest fires along the boreal forests over Siberia and the Alaska-Mackenzie River basin, because of the lack (oversupply) of water vapor to maintain boreal-forest rainbelts. The forest fire data issued by several sources including Russia Federal Forest Agency, U.S. Alaska Fire Service, Canadian Wildland Fire Information System, and the Worldfire data from European Space Agency Earth Resource Satellite-2 over the period of 1960-2009 were used to compile/analyze the interannual variation of forest fires along the boreal forests of two continents. The rainfall data of GPCP and GHCN, the re-analysis data of ERA-40 and GEOS-5, and the initial analysis of NCEP GFS were employed to identify/depict the interannual variation of the subarctic summer circulation and the maintenance of boreal-forest rainbelts. The consistency of interannual variations between the occurrence frequency of forest fires and the subarctic circulation/boreal-forest rainbelts confirms our argument about the cause of the interannual variation in the boreal forest fires.

Chen, Tsing-Chang(Mike); Tsay, Jenq-Dar

2010-05-01

51

Lightning in Colorado forest fire smoke plumes during summer 2012  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

May and June 2012 were unusually hot and dry in Colorado, which was suffering from a strong drought. A major consequence of this climatic regime was one of the most destructive forest fire seasons in state history, with hundreds of thousands of acres of forest and grassland consumed by flames, hundreds of homes burned, and several lives lost. Many of these fires occurred within range of the newly installed Colorado Lightning Mapping Array (COLMA), which provides high-resolution observations of discharges over a large portion of the state. The COLMA was installed in advance of the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) project. High-altitude lightning was observed to occur sporadically in the smoke plumes over three major fires that occurred during early summer: Hewlett Gulch, High Park, and Waldo Canyon. Additionally, the Colorado State University CHILL (CSU-CHILL) and Pawnee radars observed the Hewlett Gulch plume electrify with detailed polarimetric and dual-Doppler measurements, and also provided these same measurements for the High Park plume when it was not producing lightning. Meanwhile, local Next Generation Radars (NEXRADs) provided observations of the electrified High Park and Waldo Canyon plumes. All of these plumes also were observed by geostationary meteorological satellites. These observations provide an unprecedented dataset with which to study smoke plume and pyrocumulus electrification. The polarimetric data - low reflectivity, high differential reflectivity, low correlation coefficient, and noisy differential phase - were consistent with the smoke plumes and associated pyrocumulus being filled primarily with irregularly shaped ash particles. Lightning was not observed in the plumes until they reached over 10 km above mean sea level, which was an uncommon occurrence requiring explosive fire growth combined with increased meteorological instability and reduced wind shear. Plume updraft intensification and echo-top growth led the occurrence of lightning by 10-15 minutes. Discharges typically only occurred over the span of a few minutes thereafter, or sporadically over the course of one of more hours. Plume lightning was intra-cloud and relatively small in size, and featured extensive precursor activity. Due to the preponderance of ash in the plumes and the lack of precipitation-sized ice, electrification had to occur via some other mechanism besides standard graupel-based non-inductive mechanisms. Triboelectric charging of the ash particles, aided by reduced breakdown fields at high altitudes, is posited as the primary mechanism behind the lightning in these smoke plumes.

Lang, T. J.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Dolan, B.; Lindsey, D.; Rutledge, S. A.; Rison, W.

2012-12-01

52

Time fluctuation analysis of forest fire sequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fires are complex events involving both space and time fluctuations. Understanding of their dynamics and pattern distribution is of great importance in order to improve the resource allocation and support fire management actions at local and global levels. This study aims at characterizing the temporal fluctuations of forest fire sequences observed in Portugal, which is the country that holds the largest wildfire land dataset in Europe. This research applies several exploratory data analysis measures to 302,000 forest fires occurred from 1980 to 2007. The applied clustering measures are: Morisita clustering index, fractal and multifractal dimensions (box-counting), Ripley's K-function, Allan Factor, and variography. These algorithms enable a global time structural analysis describing the degree of clustering of a point pattern and defining whether the observed events occur randomly, in clusters or in a regular pattern. The considered methods are of general importance and can be used for other spatio-temporal events (i.e. crime, epidemiology, biodiversity, geomarketing, etc.). An important contribution of this research deals with the analysis and estimation of local measures of clustering that helps understanding their temporal structure. Each measure is described and executed for the raw data (forest fires geo-database) and results are compared to reference patterns generated under the null hypothesis of randomness (Poisson processes) embedded in the same time period of the raw data. This comparison enables estimating the degree of the deviation of the real data from a Poisson process. Generalizations to functional measures of these clustering methods, taking into account the phenomena, were also applied and adapted to detect time dependences in a measured variable (i.e. burned area). The time clustering of the raw data is compared several times with the Poisson processes at different thresholds of the measured function. Then, the clustering measure value depends on the threshold which helps to understand the time pattern of the studied events. Our findings detected the presence of overdensity of events in particular time periods and showed that the forest fire sequences in Portugal can be considered as a multifractal process with a degree of time-clustering of the events. Key words: time sequences, Morisita index, fractals, multifractals, box-counting, Ripley's K-function, Allan Factor, variography, forest fires, point process. Acknowledgements This work was partly supported by the SNFS Project No. 200021-140658, "Analysis and Modelling of Space-Time Patterns in Complex Regions". References - Kanevski M. (Editor). 2008. Advanced Mapping of Environmental Data: Geostatistics, Machine Learning and Bayesian Maximum Entropy. London / Hoboken: iSTE / Wiley. - Telesca L. and Pereira M.G. 2010. Time-clustering investigation of fire temporal fluctuations in Portugal, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., vol. 10(4): 661-666. - Vega Orozco C., Tonini M., Conedera M., Kanevski M. (2012) Cluster recognition in spatial-temporal sequences: the case of forest fires, Geoinformatica, vol. 16(4): 653-673.

Vega Orozco, Carmen D.; Kanevski, Mikhaïl; Tonini, Marj; Golay, Jean; Pereira, Mário J. G.

2013-04-01

53

Forest Fire Potential Index for Navarra Autonomic Community (Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents the development of a Forest Fire Potential Index at a regional scale for the Autonomic Community of Navarra at 500 meters spatial resolution. The index developed is based on the Fire Potential Index (FPI) applied by Sebastián (2001) at European scale and designed originally by Burgan (1998). The FPI is a dynamic Forest Fire Potential Index based

Margarita Huesca Martínez; Alicia Palacios-Orueta; Ana Sebastián; Paula Escribano

54

Health consequences of forest fires in Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We combined data from a population-based longitudinal survey with satellite measures of aerosol levels to assess the impact\\u000a of smoke from forest fires that blanketed the Indonesian islands of Kalimantan and Sumatra in late 1997 on adult health. To\\u000a account for unobserved differences between haze and nonhaze areas, we compared changes in the health of individual respondents.\\u000a Between 1993 and

Elizabeth Frankenberg; Douglas McKee; Duncan Thomas

2005-01-01

55

Noise Exposure Quantification Analysis for Forest Fire Fighters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to quantify noise exposures of USDA Forest Service personnel while fighting forest fires. Noise-producing equipment items used to fight forest fires were inventoried and typical noise levels for each item were determined usin...

A. Gharabegian K. M. Cosgrove J. R. Pehrson T. D. Trinh

1984-01-01

56

Fly ash and concrete: a study determines whether biomass, or coal co-firing fly ash, can be used in concrete  

SciTech Connect

Current US national standards for using fly ash in concrete (ASTM C618) state that fly ash must come from coal combustion, thus precluding biomass-coal co-firing fly ash. The co-fired ash comes from a large and increasing fraction of US power plants due to rapid increases in co-firing opportunity fuels with coal. The fly ashes include coal fly ash, wood fly ash from pure wood combustion, biomass and coal co-fired fly ash SW1 and SW2. Also wood fly ash is blended with Class C or Class F to produce Wood C and Wood E. Concrete samples were prepared with fly ash replacing cement by 25%. All fly ash mixes except wood have a lower water demand than the pure cement mix. Fly ashes, either from coal or non coal combustion, increase the required air entraining agent (AEA) to meet the design specification of the mixes. If AEA is added arbitrarily without considering the amount or existence of fly ash results could lead to air content in concrete that is either too low or too high. Biomass fly ash does not impact concrete setting behaviour disproportionately. Switch grass-coal co-fired fly ash and blended wood fly ash generally lie within the range of pure coal fly ash strength. The 56 day flexure strength of all the fly ash mixes is comparable to that of the pure cement mix. The flexure strength from the coal-biomass co-fired fly ash does not differ much from pure coal fly ash. All fly ash concrete mixes exhibit lower chloride permeability than the pure cement mixes. In conclusion biomass coal co-fired fly ash perform similarly to coal fly ash in fresh and hardened concrete. As a result, there is no reason to exclude biomass-coal co-fired fly ash in concrete.

Wang, Shuangzhen; Baxter, Larry

2006-08-01

57

Modeling Forest Understory Fires in an Eastern Amazonian Landscape  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Forest understory fires are an increasingly important cause of forest impoverishment in Ammonia, but little is known of the landscape characteristics and climatic phenomena that determine their occurrence. We developed empirical functions relating the occurrence of understory fires to landscape features near Paragominas, a 35- yr-old ranching and logging center in eastern Ammonia. An historical sequence of maps of forest understory fire was created based on field interviews With local farmers and Landsat TM images. Several landscape features that might explain spatial variations in the occurrence of understory fires were also mapped and co-registered for each of the sample dates, including: forest fragment size and shape, forest impoverishment through logging and understory fires, source of ignition (settlements and charcoal pits), roads, forest edges, and others. The spatial relationship between forest understory fire and each landscape characteristic was tested by regression analyses. Fire probability models were then developed for various combinations of landscape characteristics. The analyses were conducted separately for years of the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which are associated with severe drought in eastern Amazonia, and non-ENS0 years. Most (91 %) of the forest area that burned during the 10-yr sequence caught fire during ENSO years, when severe drought may have increased both forest flammability and the escape of agricultural management fires. Forest understory fires were associated with forest edges, as reported in previous studies from Ammonia. But the strongest predictor of forest fire was the percentage of the forest fragment that had been previously logged or burned. Forest fragment size, distance to charcoal pits, distance to agricultural settlement, proximity to forest edge, and distance to roads were also correlated with forest understory fire. Logistic regression models using information on fragment degradation and distance to ignition sources accurately predicted the location of lss than 80% of the forest fires observed during the ENSO event of 1997- 1998. In this Amazon landscape, forest understory fire is a complex function of several variables that influence both the flammability and ignition exposure of the forest.

Alencar, A. A. C.; Solorzano, L. A.; Nepstad, D. C.

2004-01-01

58

Satellite imagery gives clear picture of Russia's boreal forest fires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boreal forest fires in Russia in 1998 may have covered a much larger area than originally reported and may have been mostly crown fires, releasing more greenhouse gases into the atmosphere than surface fires. These conclusions are based on analysis of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data and discussions with Russian fire officials. A more complete analysis of AVHRR

Eric S. Kasischke; Kathleen Bergen; R. Fennimore; F. Sotelo; G. Stephens; Anthony Janetos; H. Hank Shugart

1999-01-01

59

Early Forest Fire Detection Using Radio-Acoustic Sounding System  

PubMed Central

Automated early fire detection systems have recently received a significant amount of attention due to their importance in protecting the global environment. Some emergent technologies such as ground-based, satellite-based remote sensing and distributed sensor networks systems have been used to detect forest fires in the early stages. In this study, a radio-acoustic sounding system with fine space and time resolution capabilities for continuous monitoring and early detection of forest fires is proposed. Simulations show that remote thermal mapping of a particular forest region by the proposed system could be a potential solution to the problem of early detection of forest fires.

Sahin, Yasar Guneri; Ince, Turker

2009-01-01

60

75 FR 52713 - Nationwide Aerial Application of Fire Retardant on National Forest System Lands  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Service Nationwide Aerial Application of Fire Retardant on National Forest System Lands...continued nationwide aerial application of fire retardant on National Forest System lands...The Forest Service is working to restore fire-adapted ecosystems through...

2010-08-27

61

Forest Fires from Thunderstorms in Northern Forests (Lesnye Pozhari ot Groz v Lesakh Severa).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is known that forest fires in the USSR rarely occur from thunderstorms. The data of three big forestry farms collected in the course of several years, indicate that thunderstorms may cause a heavy damage to forests. The author analyzed 22 forest fires ...

A. A. Listov

1973-01-01

62

Forest fire spatial pattern analysis in Galicia (NW Spain).  

PubMed

Knowledge of fire behaviour is of key importance in forest management. In the present study, we analysed the spatial structure of forest fire with spatial point pattern analysis and inference techniques recently developed in the Spatstat package of R. Wildfires have been the primary threat to Galician forests in recent years. The district of Fonsagrada-Ancares is one of the most seriously affected by fire in the region and, therefore, the central focus of the study. Our main goal was to determine the spatial distribution of ignition points to model and predict fire occurrence. These data are of great value in establishing enhanced fire prevention and fire fighting plans. We found that the spatial distribution of wildfires is not random and that fire occurrence may depend on ownership conflicts. We also found positive interaction between small and large fires and spatial independence between wildfires in consecutive years. PMID:23714585

Fuentes-Santos, I; Marey-Pérez, M F; González-Manteiga, W

2013-10-15

63

Intelligent software agents for forest fire prevention and fighting  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the design and the development of an original information system based on intelligent agent technologies and dedicated to forest fire prevention and fighting. It describes the work to be carried out in order to achieve and formalise knowledge in the field of forest fires. It presents a detailed demonstration built around two realistic scenarios, where several actors

A. Jaber; F. Guarnieri; J. L. Wybo

2001-01-01

64

Mapping the Spatial Distribution of Forest Fire Danger Using GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A geographical information system (GIS) is proposed as a suitable tool for mapping the spatial distribution of forest fire danger. Using a region severely affected by forest fires in Central Spain as the study area, topography, meteorological data, fuel models and human-caused risk were mapped and incorporated within a GIS. Three danger maps were generated: probability of ignition, fuel hazard

Emilio Chuvieco; Javier Salas

1996-01-01

65

INFLUENCE OF FIRE ON MAMMALS IN EASTERN OAK FORESTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the exception of small mammals, little research has been conducted in eastern oak forests on the influence of fire on mammals. Several studies have documented little or no change in relative abundance or community measures for non-volant small mammals in eastern oak (Quercus spp.) forests following fires despite reductions in leaf litter, small woody debris, and changes in understory

Patrick D. Keyser; W. Mark Ford

66

Swirling Melting Characteristics of Fly Ashes from Co-Firing of MSWI in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melting treatment is an efficient for heavy metal stabilization in MSW fly ash. The fly ashes from co-firing of municipal solid waste and coal incinerator were melted in the swirling melting furnace system under various temperatures. The melting characteristics and behavior of heavy metals of fly ashes were investigated in detail under different melting temperatures. The results showed that the

Wang Xue-tao; Jiao You-zhou; Xu Bin; Jin Bao-sheng

2009-01-01

67

Transport of boreal forest fire emissions from Canada to Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

In August 1998, severe forest fires occurred in many parts of Canada, especially in the Northwest Territories. In the week from August 5 to 11, more than 1000 different fires burned >1×106ha of boreal forest, the highest 1-week sum ever reported throughout the 1990s. In this study we can unambigously show for the first time that these fires caused pronounced

Caroline Forster; Ulla Wandinger; Gerhard Wotawa; Paul James; Ina Mattis; Dietrich Althausen; Peter Simmonds; S. O'Doherty; S. Gerard Jennings; Christoph Kleefeld; Johannes Schneider; Thomas Trickl; Stephan Kreipl; Horst Jäger; Andreas Stohl

2001-01-01

68

Temporal scaling behavior of forest and urban fires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been found that many natural systems are characterized by scaling behavior. In such systems natural factors dominate the event dynamics. Forest fires in different countries have been found to exhibit frequency-size power law over many orders of magnitude and with similar value of parameters. But in countries with high population density such as China and Japan, more than 95% of the forest fire disasters are caused by human activities. Furthermore, with the development of society, the wildland-urban interface (WUI) area is becoming more and more populated, and the forest fire is much connected with urban fire. Therefore exploring the scaling behavior of fires dominated by human-related factors is very challenging. The present paper explores the temporal scaling behavior of forest fires and urban fires in Japan with mathematical methods. Two factors, Allan factor (AF) and Fano factor (FF) are used to investigate time-scaling of fire systems. It is found that the FF for both forest fires and urban fires increases linearly in log-log scales, and this indicates that it behaves as a power-law for all the investigated timescales. From the AF plot a 7 days cycle is found, which indicates a weekly cycle. This may be caused by human activities which has a weekly periodicity because on weekends people usually have more outdoor activities, which may cause more hidden trouble of fire disasters. Our findings point out that although the human factors are the main cause, both the forest fires and urban fires exhibit time-scaling behavior. At the same time, the scaling exponents for urban fires are larger than forest fires, signifying a more intense clustering. The reason may be that fires are affected not only by weather condition, but also by human activities, which play a more important role for urban fires than forest fires and have a power law distribution and scaling behavior. Then some work is done to the relative humidity. Similar distribution law characterizes the relative humidity. The AF plot and FF plot of relative humidity validate the existence of a strong link between weather and fires, and it is very likely that the daily humidity cycle determines the daily fire periodicity.

Wang, J.; Song, W.; Zheng, H.; Telesca, L.

2009-04-01

69

Oak woodlands and forests fire consortium: A regional view of fire science sharing  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Joint Fire Science Program established 14 regional fire science knowledge exchange consortia to improve the delivery of fire science information and communication among fire managers and researchers. Consortia were developed regionally to ensure that fire science information is tailored to meet regional needs. In this paper, emphasis was placed on the Oak Woodlands and Forests Fire Consortium to provide an inside view of how one regional consortium is organized and its experiences in sharing fire science through various social media, conference, and workshop-based fire science events.

Grabner, Keith W.; Stambaugh, Michael C.; Marschall, Joseph M.; Abadir, Erin R.

2013-01-01

70

Economic vulnerability of timber resources to forest fires.  

PubMed

The temporal-spatial planning of activities for a territorial fire management program requires knowing the value of forest ecosystems. In this paper we extend to and apply the economic valuation principle to the concept of economic vulnerability and present a methodology for the economic valuation of the forest production ecosystems. The forest vulnerability is analyzed from criteria intrinsically associated to the forest characterization, and to the potential behavior of surface fires. Integrating a mapping process of fire potential and analytical valuation algorithms facilitates the implementation of fire prevention planning. The availability of cartography of economic vulnerability of the forest ecosystems is fundamental for budget optimization, and to help in the decision making process. PMID:22343614

y Silva, Francisco Rodríguez; Molina, Juan Ramón; González-Cabán, Armando; Machuca, Miguel Ángel Herrera

2012-06-15

71

Fire history and fire-climate relationships in upper elevation forests of the southwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire history and fire-climate relationships of upper elevation forests of the southwestern United States are imperative for informing management decisions in the face of increased crown fire occurrence and climate change. I used dendroecological techniques to reconstruct fires and stand-replacing fire patch size in the Madrean Sky Islands and Mogollon Plateau. Reconstructed patch size (1685-1904) was compared with contemporary patch

Ellis Quinn Margolis

2007-01-01

72

Assessing fire emissions from tropical savanna and forests of central Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wildfires in tropical forest and savanna are a strong source of trace gas and particulate emissions to the atmosphere, but estimates of the continental-scale impacts are limited by large uncertainties in the rates of fire occurrence and biomass combustion. Satellite-based remote sensing offers promise for characterizing fire physical properties and impacts on the environment, but currently available sensors saturate over high-radiance targets and provide only indications of regions and times at which fires are extensive and their areal rate of growing as recorded in ash layers. Here we describe an approach combining satellite- and aircraft-based remote sensing with in situ measurements of smoke to estimate emissions from central Brazil. These estimates will improve global accounting of radiation-absorbing gases and particulates that may be contributing to climate change and will provide strategic data for fire management.

Riggan, Philip J.; Brass, James A.; Lockwood, Robert N.

1993-01-01

73

Mercury loss from the forest floor during wildland fire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gaseous elemental mercury in the atmosphere is transferred into a forest environment by wet or dry deposition onto the forest floor, creating a repository of mercury that is bound to organic carbon. During forest fires, biomass burning and soil heating can release mercury by vaporization and combustion. The USGS is conducting research to quantify mercury sources and sinks in forested ecosystems including mercury emissions during and after wildland fire. Concurrently, we are developing sampling and analytical techniques that will standardize sample and data collection. Samples of forest floor material and organic soils were collected before and after a prescribed burn at 10 sites in a northern hardwood/pine forest in Minnesota and at 18 sites in a black spruce/feathermoss forest in interior Alaska. In Minnesota, all of the forest litter and duff, originally 1- 4 cm thick, was burned from four of the samples sites, exposing bare mineral soil. The calculated average mercury emission from burned organic material varies from 0.001 to 0.005 g Hg/ m2 of area burned. In Alaska, about 1/3 of the forest floor, originally 20 cm thick, was consumed by the fire, with losses of approximately 0.001 g Hg/m2. In both studies, the calculated mercury emissions are highly dependent on the original nature of the forest floor and fire severity. These two studies indicate a significant global source of mercury emissions during wildfires.

Woodruff, L. G.; Harden, J. W.; Cannon, W. F.; Gough, L. P.

2001-12-01

74

SPATIAL PATTERNS AND CONTROLS ON HISTORICAL FIRE REGIMES AND FOREST STRUCTURE IN THE KLAMATH MOUNTAINS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire exclusion in mixed conifer forests has increased the risk of fire due to decades of fuel accumulation. Restoration of fire into altered forests is a challenge because of a poor understanding of the spatial and temporal dynamics of fire regimes. In this study the spatial and temporal characteristics of fire regimes and forest age structure are recon- structed in

Alan H. Taylor; Carl N. Skinner

2003-01-01

75

Road paving, fire regime feedbacks, and the future of Amazon forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire poses the greatest threat to the forests of Amazônia. The magnitude of this threat is amplified by three positive feedback loops that drive the expansion of forest fire in the region: (1) Fire promotes drought, and therefore more fire, by releasing smoke into the atmosphere, thus reducing rainfall. Fire-assisted conversion of forests to pastures may also promote drought by

Daniel Nepstad; Georgia Carvalho; Ana Cristina Barros; Ane Alencar; João Paulo Capobianco; Josh Bishop; Paulo Moutinho; Paul Lefebvre; Urbano Lopes Silva; Elaine Prins

2001-01-01

76

Effect of Forest Fires on Hydrology and Biogeochemistry of Watersheds  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Forest fire generally includes both natural wildfire and human-induced fire (e.g., slash-and-burn agriculture and accidental\\u000a fire). Areas burned by forest fire are relatively widespread across the world (Table 30.1), but vary substantially across\\u000a continents. For example, burned areas account for about two thirds of the total area in Africa, yet only approximately 1%\\u000a in North America (Roy et al. 2008). Wildfire

Shin-ichi Onodera; John T. Van Stan

77

Seasonal Variations in Ash Content of Some Michigan Forest Floor Fuels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Samples from the forest floor litter layer were collected seasonally from under medium to fully stocked large sapling to sawtimber stands in Lower Michigan to study seasonal ash content changes. The total ash and silica-free ash content of tree foliage in...

R. E. Loomis

1982-01-01

78

Carbonation of Wood Ash Recycled to a Forest Soil as Measured by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

leaching process, it is desirable to control the dissolution rate of wood ash. This can be achieved by controlling In Sweden, large-scale recycling of wood ash to forests is considered the chemical composition of the wood ash as well as a means of replenishing base cations, particularly Ca, taken up by through modification of physical characteristics, such as the trees

K. E. Anders Ohlsson

2000-01-01

79

Forest Fire Effects on Mercury and Other Trace Metal Concentrations in a Rocky Mountain Forest Ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impacts of forest fires on pools of major elements including carbon, calcium, and sulfur, have been extensively studied while their effects on potentially toxic trace metals are not as well understood. We examined the effect of the summer 2001, 4470 acre Green Knoll Fire (GKF) in northeastern Wyoming on mercury (Hg) and other trace metal concentrations in forest ecosystem

A. Biswas; J. D. Blum; G. J. Keeler

2003-01-01

80

Fire effects on infiltration rates after prescribed fire in Northern Rocky Mountain forests, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infiltration rates in undisturbed forest environments are generally high. These high infiltration rates may be reduced when forest management activities such as timber harvesting and\\/or prescribed fires are used. Post-harvest residue burning is a common site preparation treatment used in the Northern Rocky Mountains, USA, to reduce forest fuels and to prepare sites for natural and artificial tree regeneration. Prescribed

P. R. Robichaud

2000-01-01

81

Impact of Prescribed Fire on Understory and Forest Floor Nutrients.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The impact of low-intensity prescribed fires on slash pine/saw-palmetto/gallberry understory and forest floor nutrients was estimated from measurements before and after burning. Highly significant correlations existed between weight loss of these fuel com...

W. A. Hough

1981-01-01

82

Calculation of forest biomass indices as a tool to fight forest fires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wildfires are mainly responsible for economical and ecological disasters both in forests and forest resources all over the world. In this article, we report a method which allows the calculation of risk indices to be used in campaigns designed for preventing and\\/or fighting forest fires. The method is based on the determination of calorific values using a static bomb calorimeter

L Núñez-Regueira; J. A Rodr??guez-Añón; J Proup??n-Castiñeiras; O Núñez-Fernández

2001-01-01

83

A Forest Fire Sensor Web Concept with UAVSAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a forest fire sensor web concept with a UAVSAR-based smart sensor and onboard automated response capability that will allow us to monitor fire progression based on coarse initial information provided by an external source. This autonomous disturbance detection and monitoring system combines the unique capabilities of imaging radar with high throughput onboard processing technology and onboard automated response capability based on specific science algorithms. In this forest fire sensor web scenario, a fire is initially located by MODIS/RapidFire or a ground-based fire observer. This information is transmitted to the UAVSAR onboard automated response system (CASPER). CASPER generates a flight plan to cover the alerted fire area and executes the flight plan. The onboard processor generates the fuel load map from raw radar data, used with wind and elevation information, predicts the likely fire progression. CASPER then autonomously alters the flight plan to track the fire progression, providing this information to the fire fighting team on the ground. We can also relay the precise fire location to other remote sensing assets with autonomous response capability such as Earth Observation-1 (EO-1)'s hyper-spectral imager to acquire the fire data.

Lou, Y.; Chien, S.; Clark, D.; Doubleday, J.; Muellerschoen, R.; Zheng, Y.

2008-12-01

84

Impact of forest fires on particulate matter and ozone levels during the 2003, 2004 and 2005 fire seasons in Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of this work is to estimate the impact of forest fires on air pollution applying the LOTOS-EUROS air quality modeling system in Portugal for three consecutive years, 2003–2005. Forest fire emissions have been included in the modeling system through the development of a numerical module, which takes into account the most suitable parameters for Portuguese forest fire

V. Martins; A. I. Miranda; A. Carvalho; M. Schaap; C. Borrego; E. Sá

85

Is fire a long term sink or source of atmospheric carbon? A comprehensive evaluation of a boreal forest fire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fires lead to a rapid release of carbon (C) from forest and other fire-prone ecosystems, emitting important quantities of C to the atmosphere. Every year 300-600 Mill. ha burn around the globe, generating CO2 emissions equivalent to half of the current annual global from fossil fuel combustion. Over the longer-term vegetation fires are widely considered as 'net zero Carbon (C) emission events', because C emissions from fires, excluding those associated with deforestation, are balanced by C uptake by regenerating vegetation. This 'zero C emission' scenario, however, may be flawed, as it does not consider the role of pyrogenic C (PyC). During fire, some of the fuel is transformed into PyC (i.e. charcoal, black C, soot), which is characterized by an enhanced recalcitrance and a longer mean residence time in the environment than its 'fresh' precursors. Therefore, after complete regeneration of the vegetation, the PyC generated represents an additional longer-term C pool and, hence, recurring fire-regrowth cycles could be considered as a 'net sink of atmospheric C'. To test the validity of this hypothesis, and to estimate how quantitatively important this PyC pool might be, accurate data on PyC production with respect to the fuel combusted are needed. Unfortunately, detailed quantification of fuel prior to fire is normally only available for prescribed and experimental fires, which are usually of low-intensity and therefore not representative of higher-intensity wildfires. Furthermore, what little data is available is usually based on only a specific fraction of the PyC present following burning rather than the whole range of PyC products and stores (i.e. PyC in soil, ash, downed wood and standing vegetation). The FireSmart project (Ft. Providence, NWT, Canada, June 2012) provided the ideal framework to address this research gap. This experimental fire reproduced wildfire conditions in boreal forest, i.e. stand-replacing crown fire and, at the same time, allowed i) pre-fire fuel assessment, ii) fire behaviour monitoring and iii) immediate post-fire fuel and PyC inventory. Before the fire, fuel characteristics were established and the site was instrumented with auto-logging thermocouples to provide temperature-duration profiles during burning. Also, different types of PyC were placed on the ground to determine PyC loss during the fire. Immediately after fire, the various post-burn PyC products and stores were sampled. Total PyC was quantified and the chemical recalcitrance of the different PyC forms found was determined. The results obtained will be discussed in the context of PyC production, and its different forms and quantities, with respect to (i) fire characteristics and fuel consumed, and (ii) the long term carbon balance in this boreal forest environment for recurring fire-regrowth cycles under current and predicted future climatic conditions.

Santin, C.; Doerr, S. H.; Preston, C.; Bryant, R.

2012-12-01

86

Soil erosion after forest fires in the Valencia region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil erosion after forest fire is triggered by the lack of vegetation cover and the degradation of the physical, biological and chemical properties (Martí et al., 2012; Fernández et al., 2012; Guénon, 2013). Valencia region belongs to the west Mediterranean basin ("Csa", Köppen climate classification), with drought summer periods that enhance forest fire risk. The characteristics of the climate, lithology and land use history makes this region more vulnerable to soil erosion. In this area, fire recurrence is being increased since late 50s (Pausas, 2004) and post-fire erosion studies became more popular from 80's until nowadays (Cerdá and Mataix-Solera, 2009). Research in Valencia region has contributed significantly to a better understanding of the effect of spatial and temporal scale on runoff and sediment yield measurements. The main achievements concerns: a) direct measurement of erosion rates under a wide range of methodologies (natural vs simulated rainfall, open vs closed plots); from micro- to meso-plot and catchment scale in single (Rubio et al., 1994; Cerdà et al., 1995; Cerdà 1998a; 1998b; Llovet et al., 1998; Cerdà, 2001; Calvo-Cases et al., 2003; Andreu et al., 2001; Mayor et al., 2007; Cerdà and Doerr, 2008) and multiples fires (Campo et al., 2006; González-Pelayo et al., 2010a). Changes in soil properties (Sanroque et al., 1985; Rubio et al., 1997; Boix-Fayós, 1997; Gimeno-Garcia et al., 2000; Guerrero et al., 2001; Mataix-Solera et al., 2004; González-Pelayo et al., 2006; Arcenegui et al., 2008; Campo et al., 2008; Bodí et al., 2012), in post-fire vegetation patterns (Gimeno-García et al., 2007) and, studies on mitigation strategies (Bautista et al., 1996; Abad et al., 2000). b) Progress to understanding post-fire erosion mechanism and sediment movement (Boix-Fayós et al., 2005) by definition of thresholds for sediment losses; fire severity, slope angle, bedrock, rain characteristics, vegetation pattern and ecosystem resilience (Mayor et al., 2007; González-Pelayo et al., 2010b). The knowledge achieved on post-fire erosion must very valuable for new insights and new strategies for landscape management. This research will review the State-of-the-Art of the contribution of the research on soil erosion as a consequence of forest fires in the Valencia Region. The review will show the contribution of the pioneers in the 80's when the USLE and mapping was the main too, the use of plots under simulated and natural rainfall, and also the strategies to control the soil erosion. Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and RECARE FP7 project 603498 supported this research. References Abad, N., Bautista, S., Blade, C., Caturla, R.N. 2000. Seeding and mulching as erosion control techniques after wildfires in the Valencia region. En P. Balabanis, D. Peter, A. Ghazi y M. Tsogas (Eds.), Mediterranean Desertification Research Results and Policy Implications. Directorate-General Research, vol. 2. European Commission, Brussels, 419-429. Andreu, V., Imeson, A.C., Rubio, J.L. 2001. Temporal changes in soil aggregates and water erosion after a wildfire in a Mediterranean pine forest. Catena. 44, 69-84. Arcenegui, V., Mataix-Solera, J., Guerrero, C., Zornoza, R., Mataix-Beneyto, J., García-Orenes, F., 2008. Immediate effects of wildfires on water repellency and aggregate stability in Mediterranean calcareous soils. Catena 74, 219-226. Bautista, S., Bellot, J., Vallejo, R. 1996. Mulching treatment for postfire soil conservation in a semiarid ecosystem. Arid Soil Research and Rehabilitation 10, 235-242. Bodí, M., Mataix-Solera, J., Stefan H. Doerr, S.H., Cerdà, A. 2012. The wettability of ash from burned vegetation and its relationship to Mediterranean plant species type, burn severity and total organic carbon content. Geoderma 160, 599-607. Boix-Fayos, C. 1997. The roles of texture and structure in the water retention capacity of burnt Mediterranean soils with varying rainfall. Catena 31, 219-236. Boix-Fayos, C., Martínez-Mena, M., Calvo-Cases, A., Castillo, V.M., Albad

González-Pelayo, Óscar; Keizer, Jan Jacob; Cerdà, Artemi

2014-05-01

87

Integrating Fire Management Into Land Management Planning for Westside Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire management's integration into land management planning is critical to the successful management of nearly all wildland ecosystems, including westside forests, which lie west of the Cascade crest in Oregon and the northern coastal ranges in California. Restoration and maintenance of fire as an ecosystem process is critical to retention of biological diversity and ecosystem sustainability. Knowl- edge of the

Peter D. Teensma

88

Targeting Audiences and Content for Forest Fire Information Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses opinion survey results for the purpose of improving the capabilities of forest managers to effectively communicate new fire management objectives and plans. Includes recommendations based on the analysis concerning the appropriate audiences and content to target in the design of fire information programs. (ML)

Carpenter, Edwin H.; And Others

1986-01-01

89

Theory of the one-dimensional forest-fire model  

SciTech Connect

Turbulent cascade processes are studied in terms of a one-dimensional forest-fire model. A hier- archy of steady-state equations for the forests and the holes between them is constructed and solved within a mean-field closure scheme. The exact hole distribution function is found to be [ital N][sub [ital H

Paczuski, M.; Bak, P. (Department of Physics, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States))

1993-11-01

90

Towards an integrated framework for forest fire control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the development of an integrated system for forest fire control. The system consists of a geo- graphical information system (GIS) module, a mathematical programming (MP) module and a simulation module. The GIS is used to represent geographical information regarding the forest area and to transform the spatial characteristics in a format readable by the MP models. The

Maria Dimopoulou; Ioannis Giannikos

2004-01-01

91

Predicting Fire Susceptibility in the Forests of Amazonia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although fire is the single greatest threat to the ecological integrity of Amazon forests, our ability to predict the occurrence of Amazon forest fires is rudimentary. Part of the difficulty encountered in making such predictions is the remarkable capacity of Amazon forests to tolerate drought by tapping moisture stored in deep soil. These forests can avoid drought-induced leaf shedding by withdrawing moisture to depths of 8 meters and more. Hence, the absorption of deep soil moisture allows these forests to maintain their leaf canopies following droughts of several months duration, thereby maintaining the deep shade and high relative humidity of the forest interior that prevents these ecosystems from burning. But the drought- and fire-avoidance that is conferred by this deep-rooting phenomenon is not unlimited. During successive years of drought, such as those provoked by El Nino episodes, deep soil moisture can be depleted, and drought-induced leaf shedding begins. The goal of this project was to incorporate this knowledge of Amazon forest fire ecology into a predictive model of forest flammability.

Nepstad, Daniel C.; Brown, I. Foster; Setzer, Alberto

2000-01-01

92

Fire Effects in Northeastern Forests: Oak.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Effects of fire on the oak timber type are reviewed. Many oak stands of today originated under severe fire regimes. Fire can kill or injure oak trees. Factors determining direct injury or mortality from fire include: season of year; bark characteristics; ...

C. Rouse

1986-01-01

93

A study of the extraction of vanadium and nickel in oil-fired fly ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Annual production of oil-fired fly ash in Taiwan is approximately 43?000 tons, of this approximately 13?000 tons is electrostatically precipitated, the rest is cyclonically collected. Structurewise, both consist of porous unburned carbon, vanadium and nickel oxide, and water-soluble sulfate. Electrostatically precipitated fly ash contains large amounts of ammonium sulfate. If these ashes are not properly disposed of, they become environmental

Shang-Lin Tsai; Min-Shing Tsai

1998-01-01

94

PATHOLOGIC CHANGES INDUCED BY COAL-FIRED FLY ASH IN HAMSTER TRACHEAL GRAFTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The toxicity of fly ash from a coal-fired power plant for respiratory tract epithelium was studied in heterotropic tracheal grafts. Hamster tracheal grafts were continuously exposed to beeswax-cholesterol pellets containing 100, 1000 and 5000 micrograms fly ash and evaluated at 1...

95

EFFECT OF ASH DISPOSAL PONDS ON GROUNDWATER QUALITY AT A COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

The impact of fly and bottom ash disposal ponds on groundwater quality was investigated at the coal-fired Columbia Power Plant at Portage, WI. Groundwater sampling was conducted utilizing a network of piezometers and multilevel wells located at various cross-sections of the ash d...

96

Modeling stand level carbon emissions from Canadian forest fires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildland fires in Canada burn an average of 2.8 million ha of forest annually. In years of extreme forest fire activity, total carbon emissions from wildland fires approach levels similar to Canadian industrial carbon emissions. There is large variability in carbon emissions rate (t per ha) within an individual fire due to fire behaviour and fuel variability. Large ( greater than 200 ha) fires account for about 97 percent of the annual area burned in Canada and they typically burn a wide range of fuel types and fuel loads under weather conditions that change as the fire spreads across the landscape. This causes large spatial and temporal variation in fuel consumption and therefore, carbon emissions. Variability in fuel consumption is well- documented by previous experimental burning projects in jack pine (Pinus banksiana) stands, a frequently burned component of the Canadian forest. Detailed fuel data from those studies show total fuel consumption rates of 0.8 to 5.4 kg per sq m in fires with intensities of 134 to 93 476 kW per m. The greatest range in fuel consumption rate occurred in the forest floor component where 28 to 74 percent of the initial forest floor material was burned, representing fuel consumption of 0.2 to 2.8 kg per sq m. By contrast, the overstory fuel consumption rate was 10 to 25 percent (0.6 to 2.2 kg per sq m) of the initial fuel load. Dead and downed woody fuel consumption generally represented a small amount of the total fuel consumption due to the limited initial fuel load. The wide range of total fuel consumption in this single fuel type was caused by variability in pre-fire fuel characteristics (fuel size, distribution, and total load), and burning conditions as influenced by weather, which affected fuel moisture content. In other fuel types characterized by deeper organic soils such as black spruce (Picea marianna), there is greater potential for a wider range of total fuel consumption due to higher forest floor fuel loads. To estimate wildland fire carbon emissions in Canada for international reporting, fire weather (FWI System) and pre-burn fuel data are used to calculate fire behaviour and determine fuel consumption for individual stand components (forest floor, aboveground live trees, standing dead snags, dead and downed woody debris) using the Boreal Fire Effects Model. A summary of these models, procedures, and levels of uncertainty, are presented.

de Groot, W. J.; McRae, D.

2008-12-01

97

Siberian forest fires and soil moisture anomalies observed with C-band scatterometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest fires are frequent in the Siberian taiga and are predicted to increase in frequency as a result of increased fire risk under drought conditions caused by climate change. There is, however, some uncertainty as to the extent to which drought influences forest fire frequency. Both, forest fires and drought conditions can be observed with satellite data. Here, we present

A. Bartsch; H. Balzter; C. George

2009-01-01

98

Satellite analysis of the severe 1987 forest fires in northern China and southeastern Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Meteorological conditions, extremely conducive to fire development and spread in the spring of 1987, resulted in forest fires burning over extremely large areas in the boreal forest zone in northeastern China and the southeastern region of Siberia. The great China fire, one of the largest and most destructive forest fires in recent history, occurred during this period in the

Donald R. Cahoon Jr; Brian J. Stocks; Joel S. Levine; Wesley R. Cofer III; Joseph M. Pierson

1994-01-01

99

Decision Support for Forest Fire Risk Evaluation: Dynamic Modelling and Spatio-Temporal Integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land cover quickly changes in the Mediterranean area: forest progress on agricultural abandoned lands when scattered urban zone progress into forest areas. As forest fire risk in linked to spatial arrangements, land cover change implies quick changes in forest fire risk level. Cartographic fire risk models elaborated by research for engineering are usually static, and do not take into account

Eric Maille; Bernard Espinasse

2006-01-01

100

The Zoning of Forest Fire Potential of Gulestan Province Forests Using Granular Computing and MODIS Images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many vegetation in Iran. This is because of extent of Iran and its width. One of these vegetation is forest vegetation most prevalent in Northern provinces named Guilan, Mazandaran, Gulestan, Ardebil as well as East Azerbaijan. These forests are always threatened by natural forest fires so much so that there have been reports of tens of fires in recent years. Forest fires are one of the major environmental as well as economic, social and security concerns in the world causing much damages. According to climatology, forest fires are one of the important factors in the formation and dispersion of vegetation. Also, regarding the environment, forest fires cause the emission of considerable amounts of greenhouse gases, smoke and dust into the atmosphere which in turn causes the earth temperature to rise up and are unhealthy to humans, animals and vegetation. In agriculture droughts are the usual side effects of these fires. The causes of forest fires could be categorized as either Human or Natural Causes. Naturally, it is impossible to completely contain forest fires; however, areas with high potentials of fire could be designated and analysed to decrease the risk of fires. The zoning of forest fire potential is a multi-criteria problem always accompanied by inherent uncertainty like other multi-criteria problems. So far, various methods and algorithm for zoning hazardous areas via Remote Sensing (RS) and Geospatial Information System (GIS) have been offered. This paper aims at zoning forest fire potential of Gulestan Province of Iran forests utilizing Remote Sensing, Geospatial Information System, meteorological data, MODIS images and granular computing method. Granular computing is part of granular mathematical and one way of solving multi-criteria problems such forest fire potential zoning supervised by one expert or some experts , and it offers rules for classification with the least inconsistencies. On the basis of the experts' opinion, 6 determinative criterias contributing to forest fires have been designated as follows: vegetation (NDVI), slope, aspect, temperature, humidity and proximity to roadways. By applying these variables on several tentatively selected areas and formation information tables and producing granular decision tree and extraction of rules, the zoning rules (for the areas in question) were extracted. According to them the zoning of the entire area has been conducted. The zoned areas have been classified into 5 categories: high hazard, medium hazard (high), medium hazard (low), low hazard (high), low hazard (low). According to the map, the zoning of most of the areas fall into the low hazard (high) class while the least number of areas have been classified as low hazard (low). Comparing the forest fires in these regions in 2010 with the MODIS data base for forest fires, it is concluded that areas with high hazards of forest fire have been classified with a 64 percent precision. In other word 64 percent of pixels that are in high hazard classification are classified according to MODIS data base. Using this method we obtain a good range of Perception. Manager will reduce forest fire concern using precautionary proceeding on hazardous area.

Jalilzadeh Shadlouei, A.; Delavar, M. R.

2013-09-01

101

CHARACTERIZATION OF ASH FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes existing data on the chemical and physical characteristics of ashes produced by the burning of coal in steam-electric generating plants. It summarizes several recent coal or ash characterization studies, emphasizing the elemental chemical composition, partic...

102

Wildfire-ash: Relationships between colour, water repellency and organic carbon content  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a forest fire, a layer of vegetative ash is often deposited over soil surface. The amount of ash deposited as well as its physical and chemical properties are highly variable. These parameters are influenced particularly by vegetation type and fire severity, resulting in a differing ash colour. This ash remains over the soil until it is redistributed by water

M. B. Bodí; J. Mataix-Solera; S. H. Doerr; A. Cerdà

2009-01-01

103

Geostatistical Analysis of Spatio-Temporal Forest Fire Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fire is one of the major phenomena causing degradation of environment, landscape, natural ecosystems, human health and economy. One of the main topic in forest fire data studies deals with the detection, analysis and modelling of spatio-temporal patterns of clustering. Spatial patterns of forest fire locations, their sizes and their sequence in time are of great interest for fire prediction and for forest fire management planning and distribution in optimal way necessary resources. Currently, fires can be analyzed and monitored by using different statistical tools, for example, Ripley's k-function, fractals, Allan factor, scan statistics, etc. Some of them are adapted to temporal or spatial data and are either local or global. In the present study the main attention is paid to the application of geostatistical tools - variography and methods for the analysis of monitoring networks (MN) clustering techniques (topological, statistical and fractal measures), in order to detect and to characterize spatio-temporal forest fire patterns. The main studies performed include: a) analysis of forest fires temporal sequences; b) spatial clustering of forest fires; c) geostatistical spatial analysis of burnt areas. Variography was carried out both for temporal and spatial data. Real case study is based on the forest-fire event data from Canton of Ticino (Switzerland) for a period of 1969 to 2008. The results from temporal analysis show the presence of clustering and seasonal periodicities. Comprehensive analysis of the variograms shows an anisotropy in the direction 30° East-North where smooth changes are detected, while on the direction 30° North-West a greater variability was identified. The research was completed with an application of different MN analysis techniques including, analysis of distributions of distances between events, Morisita Index (MI), fractal dimensions (sandbox counting and box counting methods) and functional fractal dimensions, adapted and applied to characterize spatio-temporal events. The results are compared with the reference patterns (no spatial clustering) simulated within the natural validity domains (forests). The research was partly supported by SNSF projects IZAIZO-12777 and 200020-121835.

Vega Orozco, Carmen D.; Kanevski, Mikhail; Tonini, Marj; Conedera, Marc

2010-05-01

104

Forest Fire-Conducive Drought Variability in the Southern Canadian Boreal Forest and Associated Climatology Inferred from Tree Rings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest fires in Canada are directly influenced by the state of the climate system. The strong connection between climate and fire, along with the dynamic nature of the climate system, causes the extent, severity and frequency of fires to change over time. For instance, many reconstructions of the history of forest fires across boreal Canada report a general decrease in

Martin P. Girardin; Jacques C. Tardif; Mike D. Flannigan; Yves Bergeron

2006-01-01

105

Spatio-temporal vulnerability of forest fire to climate change in Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate is known as crucial factor on forest fire occurrence. Although most of forest fires occurred by human activities, climate factor is the most important cause for forest fire due to moisture containment of fuel. The objective of this study is to estimate forest fire occurrence according to the past forest fire and to assess the vulnerability with forest cover map. Spatial data of forest fire was prepared from forest fire record of Korea Forest Service (KFS). The forest fire record consists of date, time and XY coordination of the forest fires between 1991 and 2006. Past climate data obtained at 75 weather stations was rearranged with Inverse Distance Weighted Interpolation. The climate data included temperature, relative humidity, cloudness and precipitation. We considered the laps rate temperature depending on elevation. The 10 days accumulation of rainfall data was used to the precipitation data. Forest fire point data and climate data were matched according to time and location. Prepared data was analyzed in statistical method, Poisson regression. And also, we estimated the probability of forest fire occurrence with future climate data which was simulated by A1B scenario of IPCC. This future climate data was prepared with ECHO-G model by Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA). Finally, the forest fire risk map was overwrapped on forest cover map. Because fire occurrence depends on the species of forest, the fire occurrence probability was weighted according to the forest cover information. In this way, the vulnerability was assessed. Our results showed that relative humidity has a significant effect on forest fire. Using these results, forest fire danger map of the future was derived.

Kwak, H.; Lee, W.; Lee, S.; Lee, M.; Koo, K.; Won, M.

2009-12-01

106

Forest Interpreter's Primer on Fire Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Specifically prepared for the use of Forest Service field-based interpreters of the management, protection, and use of forest and range resources and the associated human, cultural, and natural history found on these lands, this book is the second in a series of six primers on the multiple use of forest and range resources. Following an…

Zelker, Thomas M.

107

Leaching of PCDD\\/F from fly ash and soil with fire-extinguishing water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaching experiments from fly ash and soil with fire-extinguishing water result in significant amounts of PCDD\\/F in the related leachates. In contrast to the water solubilities the higher chlorinated congeners are leached more easily than the low chlorinated tetra- and penta-congeners. Obviously, the cosolvents present in the fire-extinguishing water enhances PCDD\\/F solubilities.

K.-W. Schramm; M. Merk; B. Henkelmann; A. Kettrup

1995-01-01

108

Fly ash grout snuffs stubborn coal refuse fire. [Ohio Edison power station  

Microsoft Academic Search

A slurry made of fly ash and water can be used to extinguish a particularly difficult kind of fire--a burning pile of coal refuse. Not an uncommon problem in coal mining areas, such a fire had smoldered for several decades at a coal slag pile behind an Ohio Edison generating plant. The basic procedure involved driving pipes into and through

Ryan

1976-01-01

109

A decision support system for managing forest fire casualties.  

PubMed

Southern Europe is exposed to anthropogenic and natural forest fires. These result in loss of lives, goods and infrastructure, but also deteriorate the natural environment and degrade ecosystems. The early detection and combating of such catastrophes requires the use of a decision support system (DSS) for emergency management. The current literature reports on a series of efforts aimed to deliver DSSs for the management of the forest fires by utilising technologies like remote sensing and geographical information systems (GIS), yet no integrated system exists. This manuscript presents the results of scientific research aiming to the development of a DSS for managing forest fires. The system provides a series of software tools for the assessment of the propagation and combating of forest fires based on Arc/Info, ArcView, Arc Spatial Analyst, Arc Avenue, and Visual C++ technologies. The system integrates GIS technologies under the same data environment and utilises a common user interface to produce an integrated computer system based on semi-automatic satellite image processing (fuel maps), socio-economic risk modelling and probabilistic models that would serve as a useful tool for forest fire prevention, planning and management. Its performance has been demonstrated via real time up-to-date accurate information on the position and evolution of the fire. The system can assist emergency assessment, management and combating of the incident. A site demonstration and validation has been accomplished for the island of Evoia, Greece, an area particularly vulnerable to forest fires due to its ecological characteristics and prevailing wind patterns. PMID:16928418

Bonazountas, Marc; Kallidromitou, Despina; Kassomenos, Pavlos; Passas, Nikos

2007-09-01

110

An intelligent system for forest fire risk prediction and fire fighting management in Galicia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last two decades in southern Europe, more than 10 million hectares of forest have been damaged by fire. Due to the costs and complications of fire-fighting a number of technical developments in the field have been appeared in recent years. This paper describes a system developed for the region of Galicia in NW Spain, one of the regions

Amparo Alonso-betanzos; Oscar Fontenla-romero; Bertha Guijarro-berdiñas; Elena Hernández-pereira; Mar??a Inmaculada Paz Andrade; Eulogio Jimenez; Jose Luis Legido; Tarsy Carballas

2003-01-01

111

Chemical and engineering properties of fired bricks containing 50 weight percent of class F fly ash  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The generation of fly ash during coal combustion represents a considerable solid waste disposal problem in the state of Illinois and nationwide. In fact, the majority of the three million tons of fly ash produced from burning Illinois bituminous coals is disposed of in landfills. The purpose of this study was to obtain a preliminary assessment of the technical feasibility of mitigating this solid waste problem by making fired bricks with the large volume of fly ash generated from burning Illinois coals. Test bricks were produced by the extrusion method with increasing amounts (20-50% by weight) of fly ash as a replacement for conventional raw materials. The chemical characteristics and engineering properties of the test bricks produced with and without 50 wt% of fly ash substitutions were analyzed and compared. The properties of the test bricks containing fly ash were at least comparable to, if not better than, those of standard test bricks made without fly ash and met the commercial specifications for fired bricks. The positive results of this study suggest that further study on test bricks with fly ash substitutions of greater than 50wt% is warranted. Successful results could have an important impact in reducing the waste disposal problem related to class F fly ash while providing the brick industry with a new low cost raw material. Copyright ?? 2001 Taylor & Francis.

Chou, M. -I. M.; Patel, V.; Laird, C. J.; Ho, K. K.

2001-01-01

112

An evaluation of land suitability for forest fertilization with biofuel ash on organic soils in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nutrients removed from the forest when branches and tree tops are harvested for fuel can be returned to the site by bringing back the wood-ash from the burning. In Sweden, this compensation measure is not carried out to any appreciable extent, mostly because there is no economic incentive to the landowner. The ash contains all the elements required for

Björn Hånell; Tord Magnusson

2005-01-01

113

Volcanic ash additions control soil carbon accumulation in brown forest soils in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study was to clarify the influence of volcanic ash addition on soil carbon stocks and the carbon accumulation process in brown forest soils (BFS) in Japan. The degree of volcanic ash addition to the soil was estimated according to the acid ammonium oxalate extractable aluminum (Alox) and lithic fragment contents, and their vertical distribution patterns.

Akihiro IMAYA; Shuichiro YOSHINAGA; Yoshiyuki INAGAKI; Nagaharu TANAKA; Seiichi OHTA

2010-01-01

114

Forest fire causes and extent on United States Forest Service lands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nationally, the causes and extent of fire on lands administrated by the United States Forest Service varied significantly from 1940 to 2000, with California experiencing the largest relative annual burned areas. The south-east and California experienced the largest relative area burned by fires from human ignitions. No significant differences were detected in the relative area burned by lightning in California,

Scott L. Stephens

2005-01-01

115

The response of mammals to forest fire and timber harvest in the North American boreal forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews and compares the effects of forest fire and timber harvest on mamma- lian abundance and diversity, throughout successional time in the boreal forest of North America. 2. Temporal trends in mammal abundance and diversity are generally similar for both harvested and burned stands, with some differences occurring in the initiation stage (0- 10 years post disturbance). 3.

JASON T. FISHER; LISA WILKINSON

2005-01-01

116

Logging and Fire Effects in Siberian Boreal Forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Russian boreal zone supports a huge terrestrial carbon pool. Moreover, it is a tremendous reservoir of wood products concentrated mainly in Siberia. The main natural disturbance in these forests is wildfire, which modifies the carbon budget and has potentially important climate feedbacks. In addition, both legal and illegal logging increase landscape complexity and fire hazard. We investigated a number of sites in different regions of Siberia to evaluate the impacts of fire and logging on fuel loads, carbon emissions, tree regeneration, soil respiration, and microbocenosis. We found large variations of fire and logging effects among regions depending on growing conditions and type of logging activity. Partial logging had no negative impact on forest conditions and carbon cycle. Illegal logging resulted in increase of fire hazard, and higher carbon emissions than legal logging. The highest fuel loads and carbon emissions were found on repeatedly burned unlogged sites where first fire resulted in total tree mortality. Repeated fires together with logging activities in drier conditions and on large burned sites resulted in insufficient regeneration, or even total lack of tree seedlings. Soil respiration was less on both burned and logged areas than in undisturbed forest. The highest structural and functional disturbances of the soil microbocenosis were observed on logged burned sites. Understanding current interactions between fire and logging is important for modeling ecosystem processes and for managers to develop strategies of sustainable forest management. Changing patterns in the harvest of wood products increase landscape complexity and can be expected to increase emissions and ecosystem damage from wildfires, inhibit recovery of natural ecosystems, and exacerbate impacts of wildland fire on changing climate and air quality. The research was supported by NASA LCLUC Program, RFBR grant # 12-04-31258, and Russian Academy of Sciences.

Kukavskaya, E.; Buryak, L.; Ivanova, G.; Kalenskaya, O.; Bogorodskaya, A.; Zhila, S.; McRae, D.; Conard, S. G.

2013-12-01

117

Self-organized criticality in a forest-fire model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A forest-fire model is introduced which contains a lightning probability f. This leads to a self-organized critical state in the limit f-->0 provided that the time scales of free growth and burning down of forest clusters are separated. We derive scaling laws and calculate all critical exponents. The values of the critical exponents are confirmed by computer simulations. For a

B. Drossel; F. Schwabl

1992-01-01

118

Self-organized critical forest-fire model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A forest-fire model is introduced which contains a lightning probability f. This leads to a self-organized critical state in the limit f-->0 provided that the time scales of tree growth and burning down of forest clusters are separated. We derive scaling laws and calculate all critical exponents. The values of the critical exponents are confirmed by computer simulations. For a

B. Drossel; F. Schwabl

1992-01-01

119

Fire and Fire Surrogate Study in the Sierra Nevada: Evaluating Restoration Treatments at Blodgett Forest and Sequoia National Park1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management practices have altered both the structure and function of forests throughout the United States. Some of the most dramatic changes have resulted from fire exclusion, especially in forests that historically experienced relatively frequent, low- to moderate- intensity fire regimes. In the Sierra Nevada, fire exclusion is believed to have resulted in widespread vegetation changes, including greater density and cover

Eric E. Knapp; Scott L. Stephens; James D. McIver; Jason J. Moghaddas; Jon E. Keeley

120

Simulating Fire Disturbance in the Canadian Boreal Forest Using TRIPLEX Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fire is a natural part of forest ecosystems and plays an important role in fuel load reduction, tree growth and mortality, and carbon/nitrogen cycling. Over the past century, the changes in land use and land management activities have changed the regime of forest fires. To better understand the effects of forest fires on forests as well as the interactions between human activities and forest fire regime, a fire module has been developed and incorporated into the TRIPLEX forest ecosystem model (TRIPLEX-Fire). TRIPLEX-Fire can be divided into three parts: fire ignition, fire intensity, and fire effects. Fire ignition is simulated as a spatially stochastic process under specific conditions of climate, fuel loadings and fuel moisture. Combustible areas, fireline intensity, and scorch height are major variables for simulating fire intensity. Fire-induced tree mortality, fuel load reduction, carbon emissions to the atmosphere, and soil carbon/nitrogen transformation are simulated and incorporated with post-fire regeneration as a part of fire effects. Observations from two sites in BOREAS study areas were used to calibrate and verify the TRIPLEX-Fire model. Simulations were performed under different scenarios of land use and management to investigate the possible impacts of fire disturbances on the Canadian boreal forest.

Hua, D.; Peng, C.; Zhou, X.; Cui, J.; Dang, Q.

2004-05-01

121

Climate change and forest fires in a Mediterranean environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mediterranean region is a "hot-spot" of climate change and wildfires, where about 50000 fires burn 500000 hectares every year. However, in spite of the growing concerns of the climate change impacts on Mediterranean wildfires, there are aspects of this topic that remain largely to be investigated. The main scientific objective of this study is to investigate the climate-driven changes on fires in a typical Mediterranean environment (Catalonia, NE of Spain). To achieve this goal, the following specific aims have been identified: (1) Analysis of the recent evolution of fires; (2) Evaluation of the climate-fire relationship; (3) Estimation of the impacts of observed and future climate change. First, we examine a homogeneous series of forest fires in the period 1970-2010. Our analysis shows that both the burned area and number of fire series display a decreasing trend. After the large fires of 1986 and 1994, the increased effort in fire prevention and suppression could explain part of this decreasing trend. Although it is often stated that fires have increased in Mediterranean regions, the higher efficiency in fire detection could have led to spurious trends and misleading conclusions [1]. Secondly, we show that the interannual variability of summer fires is significantly related to antecedent and concurrent climate conditions, highlighting the importance of climate not only in regulating fuel flammability, but also fuel load. On the basis of these results, we develop a simple regression model that produces reliable out-of-sample predictions of the impact of climate variability on summer forest fires [2]. Finally we apply this model to estimate the impacts of observed climate trends on summer fires and the possible fire response to different regional climate change scenarios. We show that a transition toward warmer conditions has already started to occur and it is possible that they continue by mid-century (under the A1B scenario), and that these changes promote more fires, with similar or lower extension [3]. *References [1] M. Turco, M. C. Llasat, A. Tudela, X. Castro, and A. Provenzale. Brief communication Decreasing fires in a Mediterranean region (1970-2010, NE Spain). Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, 13(3):649-652, 2013. [2] M. Turco, M. C. Llasat, J. von Hardenberg, and A. Provenzale. Impact of climate variability on summer fires in a mediterranean environment (northeastern iberian peninsula). Climatic Change, 116:665-678, 2013. [3] M. Turco, M. C. Llasat, J. von Hardenberg, and A. Provenzale. Climate change impacts on wildfires in a Mediterranean environment. In preparation.

Turco, Marco; Llasat, Maria-Carmen; von Hardenberg, Jost; Provenzale, Antonello

2014-05-01

122

Changes in nutritive value of browse plants following forest fires  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Studies were conducted to determine chemical composition and nutritive value of four species of plants commonly used as browse by deer and to determine effects of low- and high-intensity fires upon chemical composition. Total solids, ash, ether extract, crude fiber and nitrogen-free extract contents of red maple, flowering dogwood, white oak and roundleaf greenbrier were not affected by either type of fire. Protein contents of roundleaf greenbrier, red maple and flowering dogwood foliage were significantly higher in the season following the low-intensity fire, but no effects could be determined in the second year. The high-intensity fire produced significant increases in protein contents of all four species, and effects were still apparent at the end of two years.

DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V.,Jr.

1955-01-01

123

Scan statistics analysis of forest fire clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatio-temporal clusters in 1997-2003 fire sequences of Tuscany region (central Italy) have been identified and analysed by using the scan statistic, a method which was devised to evidence clusters in epidemiology. Results showed that the method is reliable to find clusters of events and to evaluate their significance via Monte Carlo replication. The evaluation of the presence of spatial and temporal patterns in fire occurrence and their significance could have a great impact in forthcoming studies on fire occurrences prediction.

Tuia, Devis; Ratle, Fréderic; Lasaponara, Rosa; Telesca, Luciano; Kanevski, Mikhail

2008-10-01

124

A multidisciplinary decision support system for forest fire crisis management.  

PubMed

A wildland fire is a serious threat for forest ecosystems in Southern Europe affecting severely and irreversibly regions of significant ecological value as well as human communities. To support decision makers during large-scale forest fire incidents, a multidisciplinary system has been developed that provides rational and quantitative information based on the site-specific circumstances and the possible consequences. The system's architecture consists of several distinct supplementary modules of near real-time satellite monitoring and fire forecast using an integrated framework of satellite Remote Sensing, GIS, and RDBMS technologies equipped with interactive communication capabilities. The system may handle multiple fire ignitions and support decisions regarding dispatching of utilities, equipment, and personnel that would appropriately attack the fire front. The operational system was developed for the region of Penteli Mountain in Attika, Greece, one of the mountain areas in the country most hit by fires. Starting from a real fire incident in August 2000, a scenario is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. PMID:15285399

Keramitsoglou, Iphigenia; Kiranoudis, Chris T; Sarimveis, Haralambos; Sifakis, Nicolaos

2004-02-01

125

Multifractal analysis of forest fires in complex regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fires can be studied as point processes where the ignition points represent the set of locations of the observed events in a defined study region. Their spatial and temporal patterns can be characterized by their fractal properties; which quantify the global aspect of the geometry of the support data. However, a monofractal dimension can not completely describe the pattern structure and related scaling properties. Enhancements in fractal theory had developed the multifractal concept which describes the measures from which interlinked fractal sets can be retrieved and characterized by their fractal dimension and singularity strength [1, 2]. The spatial variability of forest fires is conditioned by an intermixture of human, topographic, meteorological and vegetation factors. This heterogeneity makes fire patterns complex scale-invariant processes difficult to be depicted by a single scale. Therefore, this study proposes an exploratory data analysis through a multifractal formalism to characterize and quantify the multiscaling behaviour of the spatial distribution pattern of this phenomenon in a complex region like the Swiss Alps. The studied dataset is represented by 2,401 georeferenced forest fire ignition points in canton Ticino, Switzerland, in a 40-years period from 1969 to 2008. Three multifractal analyses are performed: one assesses the multiscaling behaviour of fire occurrence probability of the support data (raw data) and four random patterns simulated within three different support domains; second analysis studies the multifractal behavior of patterns from anthropogenic and natural ignited fires (arson-, accident- and lightning-caused fires); and third analysis aims at detecting scale-dependency of the size of burned area. To calculate the generalized dimensions, Dq, a generalization of the box counting methods is carried out based on the generalization of Rényi information of the qth order moment of the probability distribution. For q > 0, Dq indicates the scaling of overdense regions and strong singularities, and for q < 0, Dq exhibits the behaviour of small fluctuations (underdense regions) [2]. Multifractal analysis for forest fires in canton Ticino are performed using raw data, the anthropogenic- and natural-caused patterns and the random patterns simulated within the three different support domains. Results of these different patterns are compared. These analyses revealed non-linear behaviour of the generalized dimensions Dq, depicting inhomogeneous nature of the physical fire-ignition conditions as well as the presence of nonlinear interactions between scales. Keywords: forest fires, point process, box counting, fractal dimension, multifractal. [1] Mandelbrot, B. (1982). The Fractal Geometry of Nature. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman. [2] Seuront, L. (2009). Fractals and Multifractals in Ecology and Aquatic Science. Boca Raton (USA): CRC Press.

Vega Orozco, C. D.; Kanevski, M.; Golay, J.; Tonini, M.; Conedera, M.

2012-04-01

126

The influence of regional surface soil moisture anomalies on forest fires in Siberia observed from satellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest fires are frequent in the Siberian taiga and are predicted to increase in frequency as a result of increased fire risk under drought conditions, and prolonged fire seasons caused by climate change. There is, however, some uncertainty as to the extent to which drought influences forest fire frequency at a regional scale. Here, we present an analysis of satellite

A. Bartsch; H. Balzter; C. George

2009-01-01

127

Assessment of a Forest-fire Danger Index for Russia Using Remote Sensing Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intensive exploitation of Siberian forest resources requires to increase the level of their protection. In Russia, forests annually disturbed by fire make up about 6% of the total forest area, whereas they account for hundredth or even thousandth of percent in the West European countries and Canada. Devastating forest fires associated with long draughts have become very common over recent

Anatoly Sukhinin; Douglas McRae; Jin Ji-Zhong; Olga Dubrovskaya; Eugene Ponomarev

2010-01-01

128

Modeling and evaluating the effect of forest fire control on the CO 2 cycle in Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The forests of Siberia play an important role in absorbing carbon dioxide. Resent increases in forest fires, due to both human negligence and global warming, appear to cause significant damage to the forests. In the present research, basic models were established to evaluate changes in land area and carbon flux by forest fires and by disturbances of permafrost. Basic data

T. Chikahisa; H. Anzai; Y. Hishinuma; K. Kudo

2005-01-01

129

Telemetry Speeds Forest-Fire Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Airborne system rapidly delivers hard copy to firefighters. Sensors in airplane send data to ground station for image processing. Imagery immediately transferred to U.S. Geologic Survey (USGS) maps by photo interpreter. Maps transmitted by telecopies directly to fire-control camps. Receipt by fire camp less than 10 minutes. Information aids in decisions involving deployment of firefighters and equipment, flood control, monitoring oilspills, observing thermal currents, and pollutions monitoring.

Arvesen, J. C.; Cherbonneaux, J. W.

1984-01-01

130

Study of forest surface-fire spread simulation based on DEM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper uses the McArthur forest fire spread model, takes Visual C++ and OpenGL(Open Graphics Library) development kit, and experiments on the region of the Zhejiang Province Linan by using this city 1: 50000 DEM(Digital Elevation Model) data, investigations data of forest resources, unifies the real-time meteorological data, and researches the method of forest-fire spread simulation based on the 3D(three-dimension), which studies Forest fire production and the spread simulator method with its related algorithm in emphasis. The paper takes the forest fire production and spread method as the foundation to propose and design six algorithms to successively simulate the forest fire spread. Respectively: The fire that spreads in different directions algorithm, distributed fire points algorithm, scene of a fire region computation algorithm, mapping fire particle algorithm, flame production algorithm, and billboard technology application algorithm.

Xu, Ai-jun; Li, Qing-quan

2006-10-01

131

Forest Fire Hazard Model Using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems: Toward understanding of Land and Forest Degradation in Lowland areas of East Kalimantan, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heavy scale of forest fire occurred during the year of 1997\\/1998 in Indonesia, which burnt millions hectares of the tropical rain forest. The Indonesian East Kalimantan province was the most severely affected by this forest fire, which have destructed a natural forest and induced accelerated soil erosion. A repetitive forest fires in this province lead to bring a land

Mulyanto Darmawan; Masamu Aniya

132

A decision support system for managing forest fire casualties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Southern Europe is exposed to anthropogenic and natural forest fires. These result in loss of lives, goods and infrastructure, but also deteriorate the natural environment and degrade ecosystems. The early detection and combating of such catastrophes requires the use of a decision support system (DSS) for emergency management. The current literature reports on a series of efforts aimed to deliver

Marc Bonazountas; Despina Kallidromitou; Pavlos Kassomenos; Nikos Passas

2007-01-01

133

A forest-fire model and some thoughts on turbulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of a forest-fire model we demonstrate critical scaling behavior in a ``turbulent'' non-equilibrium system. Energy is injected uniformly, and dissipated on a fractal. Critical exponents are estimated by means of a Monte Carlo renormalization- group calculation.

Per Bak; Kan Chen; Chao Tang

1990-01-01

134

Historical Susceptibility of Forest Fires in the Carajas Region, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Carajas Region in the Para state, nowadays keeps a vast area of forests protected by Units of Conservation and Indigenous Land. Despite the efforts and investments done by private companies and government agencies to prevent forest fires, they are still registered, being one of the major factors of degradation of forests, flora and fauna. Thus there is a need to improve the understanding of these burning processes at present, and its evolution in different time scales, which allows comparison between patterns of fire occurrences related to climate and human reasons. This study aims to assess the evolution of the climate of Carajas region along the Quaternary, with emphasis on natural occurrence of fires related to historical events palaeoclimatic. For this a sediment core of a lake with 450 cm of depth was collected. Chronology is being determined by the radiocarbon method. Ours specific objectives are quantify and qualify the source of sedimentary material, determine concentrations of biogenic elements and minerals, through granulometric and mineralogical analyses and of quality and quantity of organic matter through the establishment of elementary (the C/N) and isotopic ratios (ä13C and ä15N). The dimensions of processes linked to the biomass burning will be determined by quantifying of charcoal fragments resulting from fires through microscopic analysis. This seeks to reconstruct the environmental scene and paleoclimatics conditions related to events of biomass burning, demonstrating the susceptibility of this historic region to the occurrence of fires according to the different climate stages identified.

Conceicao, M. C.; Rodrigues, R. A.; Cordeiro, R. C.; Barbosa, M. R.; Santos, D. D.; Turcq, B. J.; Seoane, J. S.; Sifeddine, A.

2008-12-01

135

Fire drives functional thresholds on the savanna-forest transition.  

PubMed

In tropical landscapes, vegetation patches with contrasting tree densities are distributed as mosaics. However, the locations of patches and densities of trees within them cannot be predicted by climate models alone. It has been proposed that plant-fire feedbacks drive functional thresholds at a landscape scale, thereby maintaining open (savanna) and closed (forest) communities as two distinct stable states. However, there is little rigorous field evidence for this threshold model. Here we aim to provide support for such a model from a field perspective and to analyze the functional and phylogenetic consequences of fire in a Brazilian savanna landscape (Cerrado). We hypothesize that, in tropical landscapes, savanna and forest are two stable states maintained by plant-fire feedbacks. If so, their functional and diversity attributes should change abruptly along a community closure gradient. We set 98 plots along a gradient from open savanna to closed forest in the Brazilian Cerrado and tested for a threshold pattern in nine functional traits, five soil features, and seven diversity indicators. We then tested whether the threshold pattern was associated with different fire regimes. Most community attributes presented a threshold pattern on the savanna-forest transition with coinciding breakpoints. The thresholds separated two community states: (1) open environments with low-diversity communities growing in poor soils and dominated by plants that are highly resistant to high-intensity fires; and (2) closed environments with highly diverse plant communities growing in more fertile soils and dominated by shade-tolerant species that efficiently prevent light from reaching the understory. In addition, each state was associated with contrasting fire regimes. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that forests and savannas are two coexisting stable states with contrasting patterns of function and diversity that are regulated by fire-plant feedbacks; our results also shed light on the mechanism driving each state. Overall, our results support the idea that fire plays an important role in regulating the distribution of savanna and forest biomes in tropical landscapes. PMID:24400497

Dantas, Vinícius de L; Batalha, Marco A; Pausas, Juli G

2013-11-01

136

A feasibility study: Forest Fire Advanced System Technology (FFAST)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service completed a feasibility study that examined the potential uses of advanced technology in forest fires mapping and detection. The current and future (1990's) information needs in forest fire management were determined through interviews. Analysis shows that integrated information gathering and processing is needed. The emerging technologies that were surveyed and identified as possible candidates for use in an end to end system include ""push broom'' sensor arrays, automatic georeferencing, satellite communication links, near real or real time image processing, and data integration. Matching the user requirements and the technologies yielded a ""strawman'' system configuration. The feasibility study recommends and outlines the implementation of the next phase for this project, a two year, conceptual design phase to define a system that warrants continued development.

Mcleod, R. G.; Martin, T. Z.; Warren, J.

1983-01-01

137

Scan statistics analysis of forest fire clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatio-temporal clusters in 1997–2003 fire sequences of Tuscany region (central Italy) have been identified and analysed by using the scan statistic, a method which was devised to evidence clusters in epidemiology. Results showed that the method is reliable to find clusters of events and to evaluate their significance via Monte Carlo replication. The evaluation of the presence of spatial and

Devis Tuia; Fréderic Ratle; Rosa Lasaponara; Luciano Telesca; Mikhail Kanevski

2008-01-01

138

Climatic stress increases forest fire severity across the western United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pervasive warming can lead to chronic stress on forest trees, which may contribute to mortality resulting from fire-caused injuries. Longitudinal analyses of forest plots from across the western US show that high pre-fire climatic water deficit was related to increased post-fire tree mortality probabilities. This relationship between climate and fire was present after accounting for fire defences and injuries, and appeared to influence the effects of crown and stem injuries. Climate and fire interactions did not vary substantially across geographical regions, major genera and tree sizes. Our findings support recent physiological evidence showing that both drought and heating from fire can impair xylem conductivity. Warming trends have been linked to increasing probabilities of severe fire weather and fire spread; our results suggest that warming may also increase forest fire severity (the number of trees killed) independent of fire intensity (the amount of heat released during a fire).

van Mantgem, Philip J.; Nesmith, Jonathan C. B.; Keifer, MaryBeth; Knapp, Eric E.; Flint, Alan; Flint, Lorriane

2013-01-01

139

A Pilot Study of Mercury Liberation and Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plant Fly Ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coal-fired electric utility generation industry has been identified as the largest anthropogenic source of mercury (Hg) emissions in the United States. One of the promising techniques for Hg removal from flue gas is activated carbon injection (ACI). The aim of this project was to liberate Hg bound to fly ash and activated carbon after ACI and provide high-quality coal

Jin Li; Xiaobing Gao; Bryna Goeckner; Dave Kollakowsky; Bruce Ramme

2005-01-01

140

Wildland fire ash: Production, composition and eco-hydro-geomorphic effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire transforms fuels (i.e. biomass, necromass, soil organic matter) into materials with different chemical and physical properties. One of these materials is ash, which is the particulate residue remaining or deposited on the ground that consists of mineral materials and charred organic components. The quantity and characteristics of ash produced during a wildland fire depend mainly on (1) the total burned fuel (i.e. fuel load), (2) fuel type and (3) its combustion completeness. For a given fuel load and type, a higher combustion completeness will reduce the ash organic carbon content, increasing the relative mineral content, and hence reducing total mass of ash produced. The homogeneity and thickness of the ash layer can vary substantially in space and time and reported average thicknesses range from close to 0 to 50 mm. Ash is a highly mobile material that, after its deposition, may be incorporated into the soil profile, redistributed or removed from a burned site within days or weeks by wind and water erosion to surface depressions, footslopes, streams, lakes, reservoirs and, potentially, into marine deposits.

Bodí, Merche B.; Martin, Deborah A.; Balfour, Victoria N.; Santín, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan H.; Pereira, Paulo; Cerdà, Artemi; Mataix-Solera, Jorge

2014-03-01

141

Near-infrared forest fire detection concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system concept is described for a pushbroom airborne optical fire detection instrument operating in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions. In the design concept, several detection modules are used simultaneously, each having a camera lens, beam splitter, spectral filters, silicon linear array, InGaAs linear array, and signal processing. Calculations indicate that dual-wavelength signal processing should allow cool (600 K)

Paul J. Thomas; O. Nixon

1993-01-01

142

Forest and agroecosystem fire management in Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The threat of wildfires to the economic potential of forestry and agriculture is one of the persistent national and international\\u000a concerns. Improving and applying indigenous wildfire management (IWM) approaches is seen as one of the main hopes for mitigating\\u000a and adapting to this threat to rural forest communities. Identifying the contextual causes and adaptation measures practiced\\u000a by local people is

Mark Appiah; Lawrence Damnyag; Dominic Blay; Ari Pappinen

2010-01-01

143

Control of ash deposition in pulverized coal fired boiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the ash generated through the combustion process of solid fuels, such as pulverized coal, adheres to the tube surface during heat exchange. This causes problems of heat transfer inhibition such as slagging and fouling as well as boiler drive troubles. In this research the surface characteristics of a heat exchanger tube were changed using thermal spraying and an

Hiroshi Naganuma; Nobuya Ikeda; Takayuki Kawai; Tsuyoshi Takuwa; Tadashi Ito; Yoshiaki Igarashi; Ryo Yoshiie; Ichiro Naruse

2009-01-01

144

Modelling ash deposition in pulverized coal-fired applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A predictive scheme based on CCSEM flyash data and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was developed to study the slagging propensity of coals. The model was applied to predict the deposition potential of three UK coals; Bentinck, Daw Mill and Silverdale, in a pilot scale single burner ash deposition test facility. The project is part of a collaborative research programme sponsored

F. C. C. Lee; F. C. Lockwood

1998-01-01

145

Understorey fire frequency and the fate of burned forests in southern Amazonia  

PubMed Central

Recent drought events underscore the vulnerability of Amazon forests to understorey fires. The long-term impact of fires on biodiversity and forest carbon stocks depends on the frequency of fire damages and deforestation rates of burned forests. Here, we characterized the spatial and temporal dynamics of understorey fires (1999–2010) and deforestation (2001–2010) in southern Amazonia using new satellite-based estimates of annual fire activity (greater than 50 ha) and deforestation (greater than 10 ha). Understorey forest fires burned more than 85 500 km2 between 1999 and 2010 (2.8% of all forests). Forests that burned more than once accounted for 16 per cent of all understorey fires. Repeated fire activity was concentrated in Mato Grosso and eastern Pará, whereas single fires were widespread across the arc of deforestation. Routine fire activity in Mato Grosso coincided with annual periods of low night-time relative humidity, suggesting a strong climate control on both single and repeated fires. Understorey fires occurred in regions with active deforestation, yet the interannual variability of fire and deforestation were uncorrelated, and only 2.6 per cent of forests that burned between 1999 and 2008 were deforested for agricultural use by 2010. Evidence from the past decade suggests that future projections of frontier landscapes in Amazonia should separately consider economic drivers to project future deforestation and climate to project fire risk.

Morton, D. C.; Le Page, Y.; DeFries, R.; Collatz, G. J.; Hurtt, G. C.

2013-01-01

146

[Estimation of carbon emission from forest fires in Zhejiang Province of China in 1991-2006].  

PubMed

Forest fire is an important disturbance factor of natural ecosystem, which can release great amount of greenhouse gases. With the persistent global warming, forest fire tends to happen more frequently. Based on the statistical data of forest fires and the biomass data of dominant forest types in Zhejiang Province in 1991-2006, the annual greenhouse gases emission from forest fires in the Province was estimated by using emission factors and emission ratio. The results showed that the annual emissions of CO2, CO, CH4, and non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) from forest fires were 127930, 7672.8, 3098.7, and 1475.5 t, and the amounts of annually consumed biomass and carbon were 86148.1 and 38776.7 t, respectively, suggesting that forest fire had definite effects on the regional carbon budget. PMID:19803157

Yang, Guo-Fu; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Shu-Quan; Zhou, Guo-Mo; Jia, Wei-Jiang

2009-05-01

147

Seed colour and post-fire bird predation in a Mediterranean pine forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a Pinus halepensis Mill. forest, a field experiment was designed to evaluate post-fire seed predation as affected by combinations of seed colour and soil substrates: light grey and black seeds combined with light grey ash, dark grey ash and pale brown sand. A survey of bird species inhabiting the area was also carried out and polyphenolic content of seed coat was assessed in seed lots of different colour. Light grey seeds were observed to be less predated on light grey ash, suggesting eucrypsis as a protective strategy against bird predation. On the contrary, no clear pattern was observed for the predation of black seeds on different substrates. In the study area both bird species breaking the seed coat and eating the endosperm and bird species swallowing the whole seed were monitored. We have estimated that more seeds were swallowed than broken, in all colour categories. Light grey seeds, which were found to have a higher content of polyphenols, were predated more than black seeds when exposed on the same substrate. Thus, no evidence was produced that the amount of polyphenols in seed coat could protect seeds from predation.

Saracino, Antonio; D'Alessandro, Carmela Miriam; Borghetti, Marco

2004-12-01

148

Conceptual design study: Forest Fire Advanced System Technology (FFAST)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An integrated forest fire detection and mapping system that will be based upon technology available in the 1990s was defined. Uncertainties in emerging and advanced technologies related to the conceptual design were identified and recommended for inclusion as preferred system components. System component technologies identified for an end-to-end system include thermal infrared, linear array detectors, automatic georeferencing and signal processing, geosynchronous satellite communication links, and advanced data integration and display. Potential system configuration options were developed and examined for possible inclusion in the preferred system configuration. The preferred system configuration will provide increased performance and be cost effective over the system currently in use. Forest fire management user requirements and the system component emerging technologies were the basis for the system configuration design. A preferred system configuration was defined that warrants continued refinement and development, examined economic aspects of the current and preferred system, and provided preliminary cost estimates for follow-on system prototype development.

Nichols, J. D.; Warren, J. R.

1986-01-01

149

Temporal variations and change of forest fire danger in Europe in 1960-2012  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding how fire-weather danger indices changed in the past, and detecting how changes affected forest fire activity is important in changing climate. We used the Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI), calculated from two reanalysis datasets, ERA 40 and ERA Interim, to examine the temporal variation of forest fire danger in Europe in 1960-2012. Additionally, we used national forest-fires statistical data from Greece and Spain to relate fire danger and fire activity. There is no obvious trend in fire danger for the time period covered by ERA 40 (1960-1999) whereas for the period 1980-2012 covered by ERA Interim, the mean FWI and the number of high fire risk days shows an increasing trend which is significant at the 99% confidence level for South and East Europe. The cross-correlation calculated at national level in Greece and Spain between mean yearly area burned and mean FWI of the current season is of the order 0.5-0.6, and demonstrates the importance of the fire-season weather on forest fires. Our results show that, fire risk is multifaceted, and factors like changes in fire fighting capacity, ignition patterns, or landscapes might have played a role in forest fires trends. However, weather trends remain as important determinants of forest fires.

Venäläinen, A.; Korhonen, N.; Koutsias, N.; Xystrakis, F.; Urbieta, I. R.; Moreno, J. M.

2013-11-01

150

A pilot study of mercury liberation and capture from coal-fired power plant fly ash.  

PubMed

The coal-fired electric utility generation industry has been identified as the largest anthropogenic source of mercury (Hg) emissions in the United States. One of the promising techniques for Hg removal from flue gas is activated carbon injection (ACI). The aim of this project was to liberate Hg bound to fly ash and activated carbon after ACI and provide high-quality coal combustion products for use in construction materials. Both bench- and pilot-scale tests were conducted to liberate Hg using a thermal desorption process. The results indicated that up to 90% of the Hg could be liberated from the fly ash or fly-ash-and-activated-carbon mixture using a pilot-scale apparatus (air slide) at 538 degrees C with a very short retention time (less than 1 min). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) evaluation indicated no significant change in fly ash carbon particle morphology following the thermal treatment. Fly ash particles collected in the baghouse of the pilot-scale apparatus were smaller in size than those collected at the exit of the air slide. A similar trend was observed in carbon particles separated from the fly ash using froth flotation. The results of this study suggest a means for power plants to reduce the level of Hg in coal-combustion products and potentially recycle activated carbon while maintaining the resale value of fly ash. This technology is in the process of being patented. PMID:15828667

Li, Jin; Gao, Xiaobing; Goeckner, Bryna; Kollakowsky, Dave; Ramme, Bruce

2005-03-01

151

Surface Fire Influence on Carbon Balance Components in Scots Pine Forest of Siberia, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wildfire is one of the most important disturbances in boreal forests, and it can have a profound effect on forest-atmosphere carbon exchange. Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine) stands of Siberia are strongly impacted by fires of low to high severity. Biomass distribution in mature lichen\\/feathermoss Scots pine stands indicates that they are carbon sinks before fire. Fires contribute significantly to the

E. Kukavskaya; G. A. Ivanova; S. G. Conard; A. J. Soja

2008-01-01

152

Adaptive Weighted Fusion Algorithm for Monitoring System of Forest Fire Based on Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest fires have drawn increasing attention in recent years due to their tremendous effects on environment, humans and wild life, ecosystem function, weather, and climate. Accurate monitoring of forest fires field is important since it contributes in fire effects assessing and controlling. This study attempts to apply adaptive weighted fusion algorithm in a wireless sensor networks (WSNs) system for the

Guang Lu; Wei Xue

2010-01-01

153

Forest fire aerosol over the Mediterranean basin during summer 2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations at Lampedusa show that long-lasting intense episodes of fine (Ångström exponent, alpha, > 1.5) light absorbing aerosol occurred in the central Mediterranean during summer 2003, along with exceptionally hot and dry conditions throughout continental Europe and the Mediterranean basin. The absorbing particles appear to be produced mostly by large-scale intense forest fires in southern Europe. In this paper Moderate

G. Pace; D. Meloni; A. di Sarra

2005-01-01

154

Self-organized criticality in forest-fire models  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review properties of the self-organized critical (SOC) forest-fire model (FFM). Self-organized critical systems drive themselves into a critical state without fine-tuning of parameters. After an introduction, the rules of the model, and the conditions for spiral shaped and SOC large-scale structures are given. For the SOC state, critical exponents and scaling relations are introduced. The existence of an upper

S. Clar; B. Drossel; K. Schenk; F. Schwabl

1999-01-01

155

Fire Regimes of Forests in the Peninsular and Transverse Ranges of Southern California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this project was to provide fire regime reference data for conifer forests to assist in the development of fire management and forest plans soon to be developed or revised for the four national forests in southern California. The science of de...

C. Skinner M. Borchert M. Dietrich R. Everett R. Hawkins S. Stephenss

2006-01-01

156

Characterizing forest fire activity in Turkey by compound Poisson and time series models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large forest fires are major disturbances that strongly influence the carbon cycling and vegetation dynamics of Turkish ecosystems. We suggest that compound Poisson model could provide suitable description for the total annual area burned by forest fires and for fire size distribution in Turkey. This paper also provides a time series model that reveals trends in annual number of fires and area burned in Turkey. We support this argument using forest fires occurred in Turkey between 1937 and 2009. We also find that the Poisson model simulates large fire occurrences well and the total burned area is modeled by a compound Poisson process.

Çekim, Hatice Ö.; Kad?lar, Cem; Özel, Gamze

2013-10-01

157

Parameterizing fire effects on the carbon balance of western United States (U.S.) forests: Accounting for variation across forest types, fire severity, and carbon pools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fires are known to alter the carbon balance of forests by direct/consumptive or indirect/non-consumptive effects, but detailed representation of fire-induced combustion and mortality is generally lacking in carbon cycle models. Existing approaches fail to incorporate details on the direct and indirect consumption of carbon in individual pools (e.g. foliage, stem, and roots), and ignore severity-dependence of these effects. The few studies that do incorporate detailed parameterization have focused only on localized areas or single fires. Still other studies lack representation of fire associated inter-pool carbon transfer processes needed to characterize post-fire carbon dynamics through time. This study reviews the existing literature (e.g. restoration ecology and post-fire mortality studies) on fires across the whole of western U.S. forests to derive a comprehensive and detailed parameterization of fire effects suitable for incorporation in the Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach (CASA) carbon cycle model. This study relies on a comprehensive integration of remote sensing, field observations and biogeochemical modeling based analysis. Post-fire carbon fluxes are derived as a function of forest type, productivity and fire severity using a technique based on merging Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data, CASA carbon cycle modeling, 30 m spatial resolution Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) fire severity observations, and additional remotely sensed observations (e.g. temperature, precipitation and Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR)). As such, we obtain characteristic carbon trajectories and regional carbon flux estimates specific to forest types and fire severity levels in the western U.S. forests. This research elucidates new insights on carbon fluxes by performing an intensive and detailed literature survey of post-fire vegetation mortality studies in order to parameterize forest type and fire severity associated effects and processes in the CASA carbon cycle model at a regional landscape level scale.

Ghimire, B.; Williams, C. A.; Collatz, G. J.

2010-12-01

158

Post-fire water quality in forest catchments: a review with implications for potable water supply  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many locations fire-prone forest catchments are utilised for the supply of potable water to small communities up to large cities. For example, in south-eastern Australia, wildfires have burned part or all of forest catchments supplying drinking water to Sydney (2001 wildfire), Canberra (2003), Adelaide (2007), Melbourne (2009), as well as various regional towns. Generally, undisturbed forest catchments are a source of high quality water. However, increases in erosion and sediment flux, runoff generation, and changes to the supply of key constituents after wildfire may result in contamination of water supplies. In this review, we present key physical and chemical constituents from a drinking water perspective that may be generated in burned forest catchments and examine post-fire changes to concentrations of these constituents in streams and reservoirs. The World Health Organisation (WHO) drinking water guideline values were used to assess reported post-fire constituent concentrations. Constituents examined include suspended sediment, ash, nutrients, trace metals, anions (Cl-, SO42-), cyanides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Constituent concentrations in streams and reservoirs vary substantially following wildfire. In streams, maximum reported total suspended solid concentrations (SSC) in the first year after fire ranged from 11 to 143,000 mg L-1. SSC is often measured in studies of post-fire stream water quality, whereas turbidity is used in drinking water guidelines and more commonly monitored in water supply reservoirs. For burned catchment reservoirs in south-eastern Australia, peak turbidities increased over pre-fire conditions, as did the frequency of exceedance of the turbidity guideline. NO3-, NO2-, and NH4+ may increase after wildfire but maximum recorded concentrations have not exceeded WHO guideline values. Large post-fire increases in total N and total P concentrations in streams and reservoirs have been observed, although there are no guideline values for total N or P. Studies of post-fire concentrations of dissolved organic carbon are mostly from North America and report generally minor increases after fire, with elevated concentrations reflecting background conditions. The few observations of trace metal concentrations in streams after wildfire found high concentrations that exceeded guideline values for Fe, Mn, As, Cr, Al, Ba, and Pb, which were associated with highly elevated sediment concentrations. In contrast, Cu, Zn, and Hg were below or only slightly above (?1.2 times) guideline values. Reports of Cl- and SO42- concentrations after wildfire are mostly confined to coniferous forest areas, where maximum sampled values were well below WHO guidelines. Total cyanide concentrations have been observed to exceed guidelines values, although increases are likely to be short-lived. Post-fire stream concentrations of PAHs have been found to increase but were below levels of concern. In assessing the risk to water supply from wildfires, constituents of concern may be identified according to both the reason for concern (health or aesthetic) and treatability. Determining the risk to human health from short duration exposure to elevated concentrations of many contaminants (such as toxic metals, PAHs) is problematic, given that the guideline values are based on a life-time of exposure. Other constituents may have more rapid health effects from consumption of contaminated water (e.g. cyanides, Cu, NO2-) or aesthetic concerns (e.g. Fe, Mn, SO42-, Zn). The increased flux of suspended sediment and sediment-associated constituents (particularly metals, nutrients and organic carbon) that can occur after wildfire may necessitate water treatment by coagulation and filtration. At very high sediment concentrations treatment problems may be encountered that reduce or delay the rate of water processing, potentially causing disruptions in supply. For other constituents, such as NO3-, NO2-, Cl-, SO42-, amenable cyanides, and PAHs, it appears the likelihood that concentrations of concern will occur in water suppl

Smith, Hugh; Sheridan, Gary; Lane, Patrick; Nyman, Petter; Haydon, Shane

2010-05-01

159

Fire induced changes in aggregate stability: the interacting effects of soil heating and ash leachate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increases in runoff and erosion after wildfires are typically attributed to the combined effects of the loss of ground cover, water repellency and surface sealing. Surface sealing in burned areas is caused by raindrop compaction of mineral soils (structural seal formation), the clogging of soil pores by fine soil and ash, or the formation of low conductivity ash crusts (depositional seal formation). Structural sealing is more likely to occur if the fire reduces the aggregate stability of the mineral soil. Soil heating tends to reduce aggregate stability by combusting soil organic matter. Effects due to soil heating may be amplified or reduced by interactions between soil clays and ash leachate, but these effects are poorly understood. We are investigating the interacting effects of soil heating and exposure to ash leachate on the stability of soil aggregates in burned areas. During the 2011 fire season in the Rocky Mountains we collected soil samples (~1000g) from unburned areas adjacent to three recent wildfires. Soils were obtained from areas with sharply contrasting parent materials, leading to differences in the soil mineralogy. High severity ash was collected from within the burned areas. Each soil sample was divided into 6 subsamples with the first subsample acting as a control. The remaining five subsamples were heated to 100, 200, 300, 500, and 700C respectively. After heating, each subsample was split in two. Ash leachate was added to one half and DI water was added to the other half. The ash leachate was prepared by mixing 10 g of ash with 1000 mL of water in accordance with previous studies. All samples were then air dried and analyzed for porosity, bulk density, aggregate size distribution, aggregate stability and water repellency. Initial results suggest that there is an interacting effect of soil heating and exposure to ash leachate on the stability of soil aggregates, but the effect varies depending on the mineralogy of soil clays and the type of cations in the leachate. Thus, in order to predict effects of fire on soil aggregate stability it is necessary to determine not only the intensity of soil heating but also the soil clay mineralogy and the ash cation chemistry.

Balfour, V.; Hatley, D.; Woods, S.

2011-12-01

160

Initial watershed response to boreal forest fires in Interior Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The summer of 2004 in Alaska was characterized by enormous and devastating boreal forest fires. Small streams draining water from areas affected by fires in different proportions (i.e.: unburned, partially and severally burned) were systematically sampled during the summer of 2005. All the streams were located in watersheds underlain by discontinuous permafrost, perennially frozen soils, in Interior Alaska. In order to collect daily water samples, autosamplers were deployed in the streams after spring breakup. Pressure transducers and dataloggers in conjunction with velocity measurements were used to estimate water discharge in the streams. Human influence is negligible in the study areas, with the exception of modifications caused by the firefighters. Thus, collected data from these areas can be considered as a natural system response to forest fires. Preliminary results from samples collected from two watersheds with similar percentage of underlain permafrost (around 18 % of the total area) indicate a consistent trend of higher suspended loads in the stream located in a partially burned area compared to the stream located in a pristine, fire-free basin.

Toniolo, H. A.; Kodial, P.

2005-12-01

161

Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy application for ash characterisation for a coal fired power plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work was to apply the LIBS technique for the analysis of fly ash and bottom ash resulting from the coal combustion in a coal fired power plant. The steps of presented LIBS analysis were pelletizing of powdered samples, firing with laser and spectroscopic detection. The analysis "on tape" was presented as an alternative fast sampling approach. This procedure was compared with the usual steps of normalized chemical analysis methods for coal which are coal calcination, fluxing in high temperature plasma, dilution in strong acids and analyzing by means of ICP-OES and/or AAS. First, the single pulse LIBS approach was used for determination and quantification of elemental content in fly ash and bottom ash on the exit of the boiler. For pellet preparation, ash has to be mixed with proper binder to assure the sample resistance. Preparation of the samples (binder selection and pressing/pelletizing conditions) was determined and LIBS experimental conditions optimized. No preparation is necessary in "on tape" sampling. Moreover, double-pulse approach in orthogonal reheating configuration was applied to enhance the repeatability and precision of the LIBS results and to surpass the matrix effect influencing the calibration curves in case of some elements. Obtained results showed that LIBS responses are comparable to the normalized analytical methods. Once optimized the experimental conditions and features, application of LIBS may be a promising technique for combustion process control even in on-line mode.

Ctvrtnickova, T.; Mateo, M. P.; Yañez, A.; Nicolas, G.

2010-08-01

162

Forest fires and lightning activity during the outstanding 2003 and 2005 fire seasons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires in southern Europe cause frequent extensive economical and ecological losses and, even human casualties. Comparatively to other Mediterranean countries, Portugal is the country with more burnt area and fires per unit area in the last decade, mainly during the summer season (Pereira et al., 2011). According to the fire records available, between 1980 and 2009, wildfires have affected over 3 million hectares in Portugal (JRC, 2011), which corresponds to approximately a third of the Portuguese Continental territory. The main factors that influence fire ignition and propagation are: (1) the presence of fuel (i.e. vegetation); (2) climate and weather; (3) socioeconomic conditions that affect land use/land cover patterns, fire-prevention and fire-fighting capacity and (4) topography. Specifically, weather (e.g. wind, temperature, precipitation, humidity, and lightning occurrence) plays an important role in fire behavior, affecting both ignition and spread of wildfires. Some countries have a relatively large fraction of fires caused by lightning, e.g. northwestern USA, Canada, Russia (). In contrast, Portugal has only a small percentage of fire records caused by lightning. Although significant doubts remain for the majority of fires in the catalog since they were cataloged without a likely cause. The recent years of 2003 and 2005 were particularly outstanding for fire activity in Portugal, registering, respectively, total burned areas of 425 726 ha and 338 262 ha. However, while the 2003 was triggered by an exceptional heatwave that struck the entire western Europe, the 2005 fire season registered was coincident with one of the most severe droughts of the 20th century. In this work we have used mainly two different databases: 1) the Portuguese Rural Fire Database (PRFD) which is representative of rural fires that have occurred in Continental Portugal, 2001-2011, with the original data provided by the Autoridade Florestal Nacional (AFN, 2011); 2) lightning discharges location which were extracted from the Portuguese Lightning Location System that has been in service since June of 2002 and is operated by the national weather service - Instituto de Meteorologia (IM). The main objective of this work is to analyze for possible relations between the PRFD and the Portuguese lightning database for the 2003 and 2005 extreme fire seasons. In particularly we were able to verify the forest fires labeled as "ignited by lightning" by comparing its location to the lightning discharges location database. Furthermore we have also investigated possible fire ignition by lightning discharges that have not yet been labeled in the PRFD by comparing daily data from both datasets.

Russo, Ana; Ramos, Alexandre; Trigo, Ricardo

2013-04-01

163

Satellite analysis of the severe 1987 forest fires in northern China and southeastern Siberia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Meteorological conditions, extremely conducive to fire development and spread in the spring of 1987, resulted in forest fires burning over extremely large areas in the boreal forest zone in northeastern China and the southeastern region of Siberia. The great China fire, one of the largest and most destructive forest fires in recent history, occurred during this period in the Heilongjiang Province of China. Satellite imagery is used to examine the development and areal distribution of 1987 forest fires in this region. Overall trace gas emissions to the atmosphere from these fires are determined using a satellite-derived estimate of area burned in combination with fuel consumption figures and carbon emission ratios for boreal forest fires.

Cahoon, Donald R, Jr.; Stocks, Brian J.; Levine, Joel S.; Cofer, Wesley R., III; Pierson, Joseph M.

1994-01-01

164

Fire dynamic and forest cover loss in Russia, 2000-2012 (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires play an important role in the ecosystem dynamics of Russia. A number of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-based burned area and forest fire loss products for Russia were created in recent years (Bartalev et al. 2008, Loupian et al. 2011, Giglio et al. 2009). However, characterizing the drivers and consequences of forest fires in Russia is challenging with the use of coarse spatial resolution products. Specifically, these burned area products do not discriminate between forest and agriculture fires within areas of fine-scale forest/cropland mosaics or in the regions with extensive agricultural land abandonment and recent afforestation. The use of 30 m spatial resolution Landsat-based products allows for more accurate detection of forest areas damaged or destroyed by fires, especially on the boundaries between forests and agricultural lands. Forest cover loss was mapped annually using Landsat archive data. Fire-induced loss was separated from other stand-replacement dynamics using annual 500 m MODIS-based burned area products and 1 km MODIS active fire hotspots. Fire date was assigned for every forest burned area using MODIS hotspots. Preliminary analysis indicates that the southern parts of Siberia and Far East Russia have short fire return intervals and a small proportion of the fire is stand replacement. Conversely, the areas of European Russia, Northern Siberia and Far East Russia predominately experience stand replacement fires. The proportion of stand replacement fires in these regions is larger than was estimated before (Korovin, 1998). The majority of forests were burned during large, catastrophic fire events in dry years. Timing of these forest fire events (July-September) is different from the period of active agricultural burning (April-May) in the region. Stand replacement forest fires were typically located within large forested landscapes away from active agriculture regions. Therefore cropland fires are presumably not the major driver of forest fire initiation. Agriculture fires can contribute to the degradation of forests bordering croplands; however, this process is difficult to quantify at the regional scale using Landsat data. Our results are important for developing a regional forest fire mitigation strategy in Russia.

Krylov, A.; McCarty, J. L.; Potapov, P.; Loboda, T. V.; Tyukavina, A.; Turubanova, S.; Hansen, M.

2013-12-01

165

Remotely Sensed Fire Type Classification of the Brazilian Tropical Moist Forest Biome  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetation fires in the Brazilian Tropical Moist Forest Biome can be broadly classified into three types: i) Deforestation fires, lit to aid deforestation by burning of slashed, piled and dried forest biomass, ii) Maintenance fires, lit on agricultural fields or pasture areas to maintain and clear woody material and to rehabilitate degraded pasture areas, iii) Forest fires, associated with escaped anthropogenic fires or, less frequently, caused by lightning. Information on the incidence and spatial distribution of fire types is important as they have widely varying atmospheric emissions and ecological impacts. Satellite remote sensing offers a practical means of monitoring fires over areas as extensive as the Brazilian Tropical Moist Forest Biome which spans almost 4 million square kilometers. To date, fire type has been inferred based on the geographic context and proximity of satellite active fire detections relative to thematic land cover classes, roads, and forest edges, or by empirical consideration of the active fire detection frequency. In this paper a classification methodology is presented that demonstrates a way to classify the fire type of MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) active fire detections. Training and validation fire type data are defined conservatively for MODIS active fire detections using a land cover transition matrix that labels MODIS active fires by consideration of the PRODES 120m land cover for the previous year and the year of fire detection. The training data are used with a random forest classifier and remotely sensed predictor variables including the number of MODIS Aqua and Terra satellite detections, the maximum and median Fire Radiative Power (FRP) [MW km-2], the scaling parameter of the FRP power law distribution, the number of day and night detections, and the fire surrounding "background" surface brightness temperature [K]. In addition, the total rainfall over periods from 1 to 24 months prior to fire detection and the fire detection proximity to official and unofficial roads and navigable rivers are included as predictor variables. Results are illustrated for eight years (2003-2010) of MODIS active fire detections with a cross validation showing greater than 70% fire type classification accuracy. The spatio-temporal distribution of fire types across the Brazilian Tropical Moist Forest Biome are presented with higher incidences of deforestation fires in the "arc of deforestation" and similar proportions of forest and maintenance fires for all years except for 2007 and 2010 that exhibited a relatively higher proportion of forest fires.

Kumar, S.; Roy, D. P.

2012-12-01

166

Landslides, forest fires, and earthquakes: examples of self-organized critical behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Per Bak conceived self-organized criticality as an explanation for the behavior of the sandpile model. Subsequently, many cellular automata models were found to exhibit similar behavior. Two examples are the forest-fire and slider-block models. Each of these models can be associated with a serious natural hazard: the sandpile model with landslides, the forest-fire model with actual forest fires, and the

Donald L Turcotte; Bruce D Malamud

2004-01-01

167

Forest fire detection system based on a ZigBee wireless sensor network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared with the traditional techniques of forest fire detection, a wireless sensor network paradigm based on a ZigBee technique\\u000a was proposed. The proposed technique is in real time, given the exigencies of forest fires. The architecture of a wireless\\u000a sensor network for forest fire detection is described. The hardware circuitry of the network node is designed based on a CC2430

Junguo Zhang; Wenbin Li; Ning Han; Jiangming Kan

2008-01-01

168

Some power law and scaling behaviors of forest and urban fire disasters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Power-law distribution have been found in many actual systems, such as the earthquake, rainfall and forest fires etc, and considered as one of the characteristics of SOC(Self-Organized Critical) systems (introduced by P. Bak in 1987). It is found that there are three types of power-law relations in forest fire system, i.e. frequency-size distribution, frequency-interval distribution, and the relation between population density and fire probability. Some of these characteristics are attributed to the SOC. The frequency-interval distribution of forest fires showes periodic change, different to that of frequency-size distribution. On the base of the traditional forest fire model proposed by Drossel and Schwabl in 1992 (DS model), the effects of influencing factors to the forest fire are studied. A Weather-Driven forest fire model (WD model) was built, in which the igniting probability is calculated with the weather parameter, i.e. relative humility, instead of a constant. The results demonstrate that the temporal distribution agrees well with that of actual forest fire data. Furthermore, it is found that the change of weather data also exhibits a power-law relation with periodic fluctuations, implying that the external driving from weather parameters is the essential reason for the power-law behavior of fire intervals. In order to explore the temporal scaling behavior of forest and urban fires, Allan factor (AF), Fano factor (FF) and Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) are used to investigate the fire data in different countries or regions. It is found that both the forest and urban fires exhibit time-scaling behavior, and the scaling exponents of urban fires are larger than forest fires, signifying a more intense clustering. Similar power-law characterizes the relative humidity, and its AF and FF plot validate the existence of a strong link between weather and fires. By studying the forest fire area series, it is found that both the forest fire and the weather parameters, including temperature, relative humidity and rainfall, all have similar "crossover" points and behave persistent long-range power-law correlations in large timescales. The long-range correlation of urban fires seems weaker than that of forest fire, and the human behavior or uneven population density may effect the relation in some way. Similar results are obtained analyzing Chinese urban fires. The suty may be useful to understand the scaling behaviors and their origins.

Song, Weiguo; Zheng, Hongyang

2010-05-01

169

Proteccion de los Bosques Contra el Fuego (Protecting the Forest from Fires).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The pamphlet of techniques for prevention and control of forest fires chronicles the damage caused by them, and their causes. Various prevention techniques are covered, particularly patrols of forest areas and public information campaigns. Although no two...

1967-01-01

170

Fire History in the Yellow Pine Forest of Kings Canyon National Park1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary results of an on-going fire scar study in the yellow pine forest of Kings Canyon National Park indicate a mean fire frequency per individual tree of approximately 11 years for the period 1775 until 1909, the date of the last recorded fire scar on sampled trees. For the entire area sampled (approximately 400 acres) there was a fire on

Thomas E. Warner

1980-01-01

171

Degradation of forests through logging and fire in the eastern Brazilian Amazon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The status of tropical forests in the Amazon basin is often expressed in terms of deforestation extent. However, in the eastern Brazilian Amazon logging and ground fires degrade forest structure and create land cover types that are intermediate between intact and cleared forest. The objective of this study was to provide a basis for understanding the implications of forest degradation

Jeffrey J Gerwing

2002-01-01

172

Degradation of forests through logging and fire in the eastern Brazilian Amazon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The status of tropical forests in the Amazon basin is often expressed in terms of deforestation extent. However, in the eastern Brazilian Amazon logging and ground fires degrade forest structure and create land cover types that are intermediate between intact and cleared forest. The objective of this study was to provide a basis for understanding the implications of forest degradation

Jeffrey J. Gerwinga

173

A model of surface fire, climate and forest pattern in the Sierra Nevada, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spatially explicit forest gap model was developed for the Sierra Nevada, California, and is the first of its kind because it integrates climate, fire and forest pattern. The model simulates a forest stand as a grid of 15×15 m forest plots and simulates the growth of individual trees within each plot. Fuel inputs are generated from each individual tree

Carol Miller; Dean L Urban

1999-01-01

174

Fire, climate change, carbon and fuel management in the Canadian boreal forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire is the dominant stand-renewing disturbance through much of the Canadian boreal forest, with large high-intensity crown fires being common. From 1 to 3 million ha have burned on average during the past 80 years, with 6 years in the past two decades experiencing more than 4 million ha burned. A large-fire database that maps forest fires greater than 200

B. D. AmiroAC; B. J. StocksB; M. E. AlexanderA; B. M. WottonB

175

Climatic and Human Influences on Fire Regimes in Ponderosa Pine Forests in the Colorado Front Range  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the northern Colorado Front Range, fire suppression during the 20th cen- tury is believed to have created a high hazard of catastrophic fire in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests. Since the early 1990s, resource managers have increased the use of prescribed fires to re-create fire regimes and forest structures similar to those of the pre- Euro-American settlement period in

Thomas T. Veblen; Thomas Kitzberger; Joseph Donnegan

2000-01-01

176

Forest fire aerosol over the Mediterranean basin during summer 2003  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations at Lampedusa show that long-lasting intense episodes of fine (Ångström exponent, ?, > 1.5) light absorbing aerosol occurred in the central Mediterranean during summer 2003, along with exceptionally hot and dry conditions throughout continental Europe and the Mediterranean basin. The absorbing particles appear to be produced mostly by large-scale intense forest fires in southern Europe. In this paper Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations are used to determine the spatial and temporal extent of the summer 2003 forest fire aerosol episode over the Mediterranean sea. MODIS observations are first compared to measurements obtained with a multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer, MFRSR, at Lampedusa in July and August 2003. Values of the optical depth, ?, at 550 nm show a good agreement (linear correlation coefficient of 0.67, slope of 0.85). Ångström exponents retrieved from MODIS are larger than those from MFRSR at low values of ? and are smaller than those from MFRSR at high values of ?. In addition to Lampedusa, five other open sea locations representative of different sectors of the Mediterranean basin were chosen to study the evolution of the aerosol properties during July and August 2003. MODIS observations reveal that particles displaying ? > 1.3 and relatively large aerosol optical depth are present at four out of the six locations for an extended period (11-16 days) in August. Trajectories ending at the four locations show that in all cases, air masses overpass active fires in southern Europe. MODIS observations between 2000 and 2004 show that the summer 2003 forest fire aerosol episode was the longest lasting and covered the largest area. Normally, summertime episodes lasted about 4-6 days and only covered two locations at a time. The aerosol optical properties observed at Lampedusa are used as input to a radiative transfer model to estimate the absorbing aerosol radiative effects. Aerosol radiative forcing in the 300-800 nm range and atmospheric heating rates are calculated assuming different aerosol vertical distributions. It is estimated that forest fire particles produce an increase in heating rate as large as 2.8 K/day at 20° solar zenith angle at the altitude of the aerosol layer. This large heating may have increased the atmospheric stability that helped to maintain the anomalously hot and dry conditions during summer 2003.

Pace, G.; Meloni, D.; di Sarra, A.

2005-11-01

177

Assessment of post forest fire reclamation in Algarve, Portugal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire is a common phenomenon in Mediterranean landscapes and it plays a crucial role in its transformations, making the determination of its impact on the ecosystem essential for land management. During summer of 2012, a wildfire took place in Algarve, Portugal, on an area mainly covered by sclerophyllous vegetation (39.44%, 10080ha), broad-leaved forest (20.80%, 5300ha), agriculture land with significant areas of natural vegetation (17.40%, 4400ha) and transitional woodlands-shrubs (16.17%, 4100ha). The objective of the study was to determine fire severity in order to plan post-fire treatments and to aid vegetation recovery and land reclamation. Satellite imagery was used to estimate burn severity by detecting physical and ecological changes in the landscape caused by fire. Differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (DNBR) was used to measure burn severity with pre and post fire data of four Landsat images acquired in October 2011, February and August 2012 and April 2013. The initial and extended differenced normalized burn ratio (DiNBR and DeNBR) were calculated. The calculated burned area of 24291 ha was 552ha lower than the map data determined with field reports. The 19.5% of that area was burned with high severity, 45% with moderate severity and 28.3% with low severity. Comparing fire severity and regrowth with land use, it is shown in DiNBR that the most severely burned areas were predominantly sclerophyllous vegetation (37.6%) and broad-leaved forests (31.1%). From the DeNRB it was found that the reestablishment of vegetation was slower in mixed forests and higher in sclerophyllous vegetation and in land with significant areas of natural vegetation. Faster recovery was calculated for the land uses of sclerophyllous vegetation (46.7%) and significant regrowth in areas of natural vegetation and lands occupied by agriculture (25.4%). Next steps of the study are field validation and crossing with erosion risk maps before to take land reclamation decisions.

Andrade, Rita; Panagopoulos, Thomas; Guerrero, Carlos; Martins, Fernando; Zdruli, Pandi; Ladisa, Gaetano

2014-05-01

178

Response of plant communities to fire in an Acacia woodland and a dry Afromontane forest, southern Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the role of fire in degrading tropical dry forest ecosystems of north-east Africa, fire potential was studied within two vegetation types: Acacia woodland and dry Afromontane forest. Fire behaviour was analysed in experimental fires late in the dry season (February) and the potential response of the soil seed bank was studied on samples taken before and after fire

Ingalill Eriksson; Demel Teketay; Anders Granström

2003-01-01

179

Modeling the long-term effects of fire suppression on central hardwood forests in Missouri Ozarks, using LANDIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire suppression has been found to dramatically change fire regimes, lead to accumulation of fuels, and alter forest composition and species abundance in the Central Hardwood Forests in the Missouri Ozarks, United States. After a half century of fire suppression, fire hazards have increased to a high level and high intensity fires are more likely to occur. We used LANDIS,

ZongBo Shang; Hong S. He; David E. Lytle; Stephen R. Shifley; Thomas R. Crow

2007-01-01

180

Evaluation of low ash impact sorbent injection technologies for mercury control at a Texas lignite\\/PRB fired power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sorbent injection test program was carried out at NRG Texas Power LLC's (NRG) Limestone Electric Generating Station (LMS). LMS fires a 30\\/70 blend of Powder River Basin (PRB) and Texas Lignite, and is equipped with a cold-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet scrubber. The plant markets its fly ash for beneficial use, so development of a low ash impact

Katherine Dombrowski; Carl Richardson; Jackie Padilla; Kevin Fisher; Tom Campbell; Ramsay Chang; Craig Eckberg; John Hudspeth; Andrew O'Palko; Sara Pletcher

2009-01-01

181

Hazard rating of ash and slag dumps of thermal power plants firing Kuznetskii coal  

SciTech Connect

Results of a study of the degree of toxicity and of the hazard rating of ash and slag waste due to firing Kuznetskii coals at thermal power plants are presented. Computation shows and biological tests prove that the waste belongs to the fifth hazard class, i.e., is virtually safe. Comparison of the results obtained with foreign data shows that the waste in question belongs to the safe category in accordance with foreign standards as well.

E.P. Dik; A.N. Soboleva [All-Russia Thermal Engineering Institute (VTI), Moscow (Russian Federation)

2006-03-15

182

Phosphorus release from ash and remaining tissues of two wetland species after a prescribed fire.  

PubMed

Dead plant tissues and ash from a prescribed fire play an important role in nutrient balance and cycling in the Florida Everglades ecosystem. The objective of this study was to assess the dynamic changes in total phosphorus release (TPr) from ash or tissues of either cattail (Typha domingensis Pers.) or sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense Crantz) to water. Natural-dead (senesced-dead) and burning-dead (standing-dead due to a prescribed fire) cattail and sawgrass were collected from highly (H) and moderately (M) impacted zones in the Florida Everglades. This experiment was conducted by incubation and water-extraction of the materials in plastic bottles for 65 d at room temperature (24 +/- 1 degrees C). Results showed that 63 to 88%, 17 to 48%, 9 to 20%, and 13 to 28% of total P (TPp) were released as TPr from cattail and sawgrass ash, cattail tissues from the H zone, cattail tissues, and sawgrass tissues from the M zone, respectively. TPp means total P of plant tissues, whereas TPr is total P release from the tissues or ash. Most of the TPr was released within 24 h after burning. The quick release of TPr observed in this experiment may help explain the P surge in the surface water immediately following a fire in the marsh. These findings suggest that prescribed burning accelerates P release from cattail and sawgrass. They also imply that it is very important to keep the water stagnant in the first 24 h to maximize the benefits of a prescribed fire in the Everglades. PMID:21043264

Liu, G D; Gu, B; Miao, S L; Li, Y C; Migliaccio, K W; Qian, Y

2010-01-01

183

Frequency comparative study of coal-fired fly ash acoustic agglomeration.  

PubMed

Particulate pollution is main kind of atmospheric pollution. The fine particles are seriously harmful to human health and environment. Acoustic agglomeration is considered as a promising pretreatment technology for fine particle agglomeration. The mechanisms of acoustic agglomeration are very complex and the agglomeration efficiency is affected by many factors. The most important and controversial factor is frequency. Comparative studies between high-frequency and low-frequency sound source to agglomerate coal-fired fly ash were carried out to investigate the influence of frequency on agglomeration efficiency. Acoustic agglomeration theoretical analysis, experimental particle size distributions (PSDs) and orthogonal design were examined. The results showed that the 20 kHz high-frequency sound source was not suitable to agglomerate coal-fired fly ash. Only within the size ranging from 0.2 to 0.25 microm the particles agglomerated to adhere together, and the agglomerated particles were smaller than 2.5 microm. The application of low-frequency (1000-1800 Hz) sound source was proved as an advisable pretreatment with the highest agglomeration efficiency of 75.3%, and all the number concentrations within the measuring range decreased. Orthogonal design L16 (4)3 was introduced to determine the optimum frequency and optimize acoustic agglomeration condition. According to the results of orthogonal analysis, frequency was the dominant factor of coal-fired fly ash acoustic agglomeration and the optimum frequency was 1400 Hz. PMID:22432309

Liu, Jianzhong; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Guangxue; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

2011-01-01

184

Analysis of forest fires spatial clustering using local fractal measure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research deals with an application of local fractal measure - local sandbox counting or mass counting, for the characterization of patterns of spatial clustering. The main application concerns the simulated (random patterns within validity domain in forest regions) and real data (forest fires in Ticino, Switzerland) case studies. The global patterns of spatial clustering of forest fires were extensively studied using different topological (nearest-neighbours, Voronoi polygons), statistical (Ripley's k-function, Morisita diagram) and fractal/multifractal measures (box-counting, sandbox counting, lacunarity) (Kanevski, 2008). Generalizations of these measures to functional ones can reveal the structure of the phenomena, e.g. burned areas. All these measures are valuable and complementary tools to study spatial clustering. Moreover, application of the validity domain (complex domain where phenomena is studied) concept helps in understanding and interpretation of the results. In the present paper a sandbox counting method was applied locally, i.e. each point of ignition was considered as a centre of events counting with an increasing search radius. Then, the local relationships between the radius and the number of ignition points within the given radius were examined. Finally, the results are mapped using an interpolation algorithm for the visualization and analytical purposes. Both 2d (X,Y) and 3d (X,Y,Z) cases were studied and compared. Local "fractal" study gives an interesting spatially distributed picture of clustering. The real data case study was compared with a reference homogeneous pattern - complete spatial randomness. The difference between two patterns clearly indicates the regions with important spatial clustering. An extension to the local functional measure was applied taking into account the surface of burned area, i.e. by analysing only data with the fires above some threshold of burned area. Such analysis is similar to marked point processes and helps to understand the spatial structure of the phenomenon itself. The cross analysis, when forest fires are compared with random pattern was performed as well. Finally, in order to better characterize all patterns an anisotropic variography was performed to study their spatial correlations. In comparison with the global measures, the produced results gave very detailed local information on the distribution of ignition points and the spatial structure of the phenomenon. Acknowledgements This work was partly supported by the SNFS Project No. 200021-140658, "Analysis and Modelling of Space-Time Patterns in Complex Regions". References Kanevski M. (Editor). Advanced Mapping of Environmental Data. Geostatistics, machine Learning and Bayesian Maximum Entropy. ISTE and Wiley, London, 2008.

Kanevski, Mikhail; Rochat, Mikael; Timonin, Vadim

2013-04-01

185

Saskatchewan Forest Fire Control Centre Surface Meteorological Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Saskatchewan Forest Fire Control Centre (SFFCC) provided surface meteorological data to BOREAS from its archive. This data set contains hourly surface meteorological data from 18 of the Meteorological stations located across Saskatchewan. Included in these data are parameters of date, time, temperature, relative humidity, wind direction, wind speed, and precipitation. Temporally, the data cover the period of May through September of 1994 and 1995. The data are provided in comma-delimited ASCII files, and are classified as AFM-Staff data. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Funk, Barry; Strub, Richard

2000-01-01

186

Legislative and environmental issues on the use of ash from coal and municipal sewage sludge co-firing as construction material  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the economy of any co-firing process, it is important that the common waste management options of ash remain practical. Ash from bituminous coal combustion is typically handed to the construction industry. This paper describes the current European legislation on use of ash for construction purposes. Also, it presents an experimental study on the suitability of fly ash from combustion

R Cenni; B Janisch; H Spliethoff; K. R. G Hein

2001-01-01

187

Large-Scale Forest Fires and Resulting Alterations to the Hydrologic Cycle in the Western U.S  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent changes in climate have resulted in a decrease in precipitation and snowpack amounts and increased temperatures in the western United States. Drier and warmer conditions coupled with forest management issues have led to an increase in the frequency and size of forest fires. The 2000 Cerro Grande fire in Los Alamos, New Mexico burned over 43,000 acres and 200 structures. Eleven years later, the Las Conchas fire burned over 156,000 acres and 100 structures, including areas previously burned in 2000, and was considered the largest fire in New Mexico's history. Both fires burned ponderosa, juniper, piñon and mixed conifer forests, resulting in dramatic decreases in vegetation, changes to surface soils, and alterations to the hydrologic cycle (decreased evapotranspiration, decreased infiltration, increased runoff volume and peak discharge, and decreased time to peak discharge) in surrounding watersheds. Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams need to determine the flash-flood danger quickly in order to protect residents, fire-fighters, BAER-team field personnel, and property at risk. The USGS developed an analytical method for predicting post-fire peak discharges using data collected from eight different fires throughout the western United States. We use this method to predict peak discharge in Los Alamos watersheds post-Cerro Grande and post-Las Conchas, then compare predicted to measured peak discharge. We will evaluate the effectiveness of the three methodology levels presented by the USGS, which include varying levels of data input and processing. We expect the peak discharges to be similar in magnitude; however, we will also investigate different influential factors such as burn severity, soil type, vegetation type and density, ecological connectivity, topography, pre- and post-fire weather conditions, etc., as they relate to the fires and the results seen from the measured versus the analytical method. Determining the relative influence of these factors may be important in establishing the comprehensive nature of the methodology. The frequency of large, intense "mega-fires" are predicted to increase, thus there is a potential for more post-fire flood damage and more surface water resources to be altered due to water quality issues. For example, the Whitewater-Baldy Complex fire became the largest fire in New Mexico's history one year after the Las Conchas fire by burning almost 300,000 acres in the Gila National Forest in southern New Mexico, the Little Bear fire in 2012 forced the closure of Alto Reservoir for the foreseeable future due to ash and debris, and the Las Conchas fire forced several surface water treatment facilities serving Santa Fe and Albuquerque to shut down. As these fires become more frequent, there is a potential that less surface water will be available and more groundwater will be pumped for human and agricultural use in the western U.S., where water scarcity is already a pressing problem. Understanding how these fires alter the hydrologic cycle is critical to water policy and planning and this research will help advance that understanding.

Carr, J.; White, A. B.; Thomson, B.

2012-12-01

188

SIADEX: an interactive artificial intelligence planner for decision support and training in forest fire fighting  

Microsoft Academic Search

SIADEX is a complex framework that integrates sev- eral AI techniques able to design and redesign fighting plans against forest fires. This capability may be exploited either to assist techni- cal staff in the decision making stages of a real forest fire fighting episode, or to train staff by reproducing past episodes and allowing them to share decisions with the

Luis Castillo; Juan Fern; Oscar Garc; Antonio Gonz; Francisco Palao

189

Soil moisture dynamics and forest fire risk in the Upper North Saskatchewan Watershed, Alberta  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key objective of this research is to assess soil moisture dynamics and forest fire risk as part of an ongoing study assessing water quantity and quality in the Upper North Saskatchewan watershed. The 20, 000 km2 watershed is located in the Rocky Mountains of west-central Alberta. Forest fires are becoming an increasing concern as climate change advances along the

S. A. Dalla Vicenza; J. M. Byrne; M. G. Letts

2010-01-01

190

Enhancement of greenhouse gases associated with Canadian forest fire using multi sensor data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest fire is a common natural hazard that takes lives of people and billion dollar loss of properties almost every year. In the recent past frequency of forest fires have increased in Canada and throughout the world that is associated with the changes in land use and land cover practice. Multi sensor satellites are now capable in providing information about

Rachita Singh; Ritu Chaturvedi

2008-01-01

191

A Hybrid Mesh, Ad Hoc, and Sensor Network for Forest Fire Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of forest fire management, wireless communication is an indispensable tool. It insures events information transmission and communication between fire defenders. Traditionally, cellular networks (CNs) are used during crisis. However due to the lack of population in far forests, CNs suffer from coverage problems. In addition, the experience has proved some reachability and capacity problems of CNs. In

A. El Masri; A. Sardouk; L. Khoukhi; L. Merghem-Boulahia; D. Gaiti; R. Rahim-Amoud

2011-01-01

192

Microbial community structure in forest soils treated with a fire retardant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of a fire retardant (Firesorb, an acrylic–acrylamide copolymer) on the microbial community structure determined by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis was examined under laboratory conditions using two different textured soils under pine forest. Firesorb was added to unheated and heated soil samples (350°C for 10 min followed by reinoculation, to mimic a forest fire) at three levels of application

M. Díaz-Raviña; E. Bååth; A. Martín; T. Carballas

2006-01-01

193

Increased damage from fires in logged forests during droughts caused by El Niño.  

PubMed

In 1997-98, fires associated with an exceptional drought caused by the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) devastated large areas of tropical rain forests worldwide. Evidence suggests that in tropical rainforest environments selective logging may lead to an increased susceptibility of forests to fire. We investigated whether this was true in the Indonesian fires, the largest fire disaster ever observed. We performed a multiscale analysis using coarse- and high-resolution optical and radar satellite imagery assisted by ground and aerial surveys to assess the extent of the fire-damaged area and the effect on vegetation in East Kalimantan on the island of Borneo. A total of 5.2 +/- 0.3 million hectares including 2.6 million hectares of forest was burned with varying degrees of damage. Forest fires primarily affected recently logged forests; primary forests or those logged long ago were less affected. These results support the hypothesis of positive feedback between logging and fire occurrence. The fires severely damaged the remaining forests and significantly increased the risk of recurrent fire disasters by leaving huge amounts of dead flammable wood. PMID:11719802

Siegert, F; Ruecker, G; Hinrichs, A; Hoffmann, A A

2001-11-22

194

Short- and long-term effects of fire on carbon in US dry temperate forest systems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Forests sequester carbon from the atmosphere, and in so doing can mitigate the effects of climate change. Fire is a natural disturbance process in many forest systems that releases carbon back to the atmosphere. In dry temperate forests, fires historically burned with greater frequency and lower severity than they do today. Frequent fires consumed fuels on the forest floor and maintained open stand structures. Fire suppression has resulted in increased understory fuel loads and tree density; a change in structure that has caused a shift from low- to high-severity fires. More severe fires, resulting in greater tree mortality, have caused a decrease in forest carbon stability. Fire management actions can mitigate the risk of high-severity fires, but these actions often require a trade-off between maximizing carbon stocks and carbon stability. We discuss the effects of fire on forest carbon stocks and recommend that managing forests on the basis of their specific ecologies should be the foremost goal, with carbon sequestration being an ancillary benefit. ?? 2011 by American Institute of Biological Sciences. All rights reserved.

Hurteau, M. D.; Brooks, M. L.

2011-01-01

195

Simulating the Effects of Fire on Forests in the Russian Far East: Integrating a Fire Danger Model and the FAREAST Forest Growth Model Across a Complex Landscape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The remaining natural habitat of the critically endangered Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) and Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) is a vast, biologically and topographically diverse area in the Russian Far East (RFE). Although wildland fire is a natural component of ecosystem functioning in the RFE, severe or repeated fires frequently re-set the process of forest succession, which may take centuries to return the affected forests to the pre-fire state and thus significantly alters habitat quality and long-term availability. The frequency of severe fire events has increased over the last 25 years, leading to irreversible modifications of some parts of the species' habitats. Moreover, fire regimes are expected to continue to change toward more frequent and severe events under the influence of climate change. Here we present an approach to developing capabilities for a comprehensive assessment of potential Amur tiger and leopard habitat availability throughout the 21st century by integrating regionally parameterized fire danger and forest growth models. The FAREAST model is an individual, gap-based model that simulates forest growth in a single location and demonstrates temporally explicit forest succession leading to mature forests. Including spatially explicit information on probabilities of fire occurrence at 1 km resolution developed from the regionally specific remotely -sensed data-driven fire danger model improves our ability to provide realistic long-term projections of potential forest composition in the RFE. This work presents the first attempt to merge the FAREAST model with a fire disturbance model, to validate its outputs across a large region, and to compare it to remotely-sensed data products as well as in situ assessments of forest structure. We ran the FAREAST model at 1,000 randomly selected points within forested areas in the RFE. At each point, the model was calibrated for temperature, precipitation, slope, elevation, and fire probability. The output of the model includes biomass estimates for 44 tree species that occur in the RFE, grouped by genus. We compared the model outputs with land cover classifications derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data and LIDAR-based estimates of biomass across the entire region, and Russian forest inventory records at selected sites. Overall, we find that the FAREAST estimates of forest biomass and general composition are consistent with the observed distribution of forest types.

Sherman, N. J.; Loboda, T.; Sun, G.; Shugart, H. H.; Csiszar, I.

2008-12-01

196

Research about the location technologies of forest fire detecting based on GIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fire caused damages of property and loss of human life. Detecting a forest fire and get the location is very significant in the fire early warning. More early and more prompt detecting fire and determining fire position as far as possible could avoid and reduce loss of the disaster. At present there are three ways regarding the forest fire early warning and location determining which included: monitoring form Remote Sense Satellite image, manual observation and patrols, and automatic monitoring through CCD camera long-distance video. Overall evaluation regarding the three location technologies in forest fire early warning, the CCD camera detecting method is suitable in the fire rapid Response. An automatic forest fire surveillance system was running to detect the fire by using visible light images from the remote cameras. If a forest fire was detected, an alarm will be activated. The observation point elevation values, vertical offsets, horizontal and vertical scanning angles, and scanning distances will be also be sent to the central control room. The spatial orientation will be computed and showed on the electronic map. Key location technologies based on CCD camera included the image processing technique for automatically detecting forest fire and the visibility analyzes technique for the digital elevation model. Jing gang Mountain which locates in Jiangxi province of China is taken as an example. With the help of this automatic monitoring through CCD camera long-distance video and visibility analyzes, scientists and government administrators can make decision-supporting easily when they know exactly where a forest fire is. At last the shortage of CCD camera detecting method was discussed. We cannot depend on CCD camera detecting equipment and technologies only. With foundation of the automatic video frequency supervisory system, we should also strengthen manual observation and satellite remote sensing monitor.

Zhang, An; Qi, Qingwen; Jiang, Lili; Guo, Chaohui

2007-08-01

197

Alaska's Changing Fire Regime - Implications for the Vulnerability of Its Boreal Forests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A synthesis was carried out to examine Alaska s boreal forest fire regime. During the 2000s, an average of 767 000 ha/year burned, 50% higher than in any previous decade since the 1940s. Over the past 60 years, there was a decrease in the number of lightning-ignited fires, an increase in extreme lightning-ignited fire events, an increase in human-ignited fires, and a decrease in the number of extreme human-ignited fire events. The fraction of area burned from humanignited fires fell from 26% for the 1950s and 1960s to 5% for the 1990s and 2000s, a result from the change in fire policy that gave the highest suppression priorities to fire events that occurred near human settlements. The amount of area burned during late-season fires increased over the past two decades. Deeper burning of surface organic layers in black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) forests occurred during late-growing-season fires and on more well-drained sites. These trends all point to black spruce forests becoming increasingly vulnerable to the combined changes of key characteristics of Alaska s fire regime, except on poorly drained sites, which are resistant to deep burning. The implications of these fire regime changes to the vulnerability and resilience of Alaska s boreal forests and land and fire management are discussed.

Kasischke, E. S.; Hoy, E. E.; Verbyla, D. L.; Rupp, T. S.; Duffy, P. A.; McGuire, A. D.; Murphy, K. A.; Jandt, R.; Barnes, J. L.; Calef, M.; Turetsky, M. R.

2010-01-01

198

Fire treatment effects on vegetation structure, fuels, and potential fire severity in western U.S. forests.  

PubMed

Forest structure and species composition in many western U.S. coniferous forests have been altered through fire exclusion, past and ongoing harvesting practices, and livestock grazing over the 20th century. The effects of these activities have been most pronounced in seasonally dry, low and mid-elevation coniferous forests that once experienced frequent, low to moderate intensity, fire regimes. In this paper, we report the effects of Fire and Fire Surrogate (FFS) forest stand treatments on fuel load profiles, potential fire behavior, and fire severity under three weather scenarios from six western U.S. FFS sites. This replicated, multisite experiment provides a framework for drawing broad generalizations about the effectiveness of prescribed fire and mechanical treatments on surface fuel loads, forest structure, and potential fire severity. Mechanical treatments without fire resulted in combined 1-, 10-, and 100-hour surface fuel loads that were significantly greater than controls at three of five FFS sites. Canopy cover was significantly lower than controls at three of five FFS sites with mechanical-only treatments and at all five FFS sites with the mechanical plus burning treatment; fire-only treatments reduced canopy cover at only one site. For the combined treatment of mechanical plus fire, all five FFS sites with this treatment had a substantially lower likelihood of passive crown fire as indicated by the very high torching indices. FFS sites that experienced significant increases in 1-, 10-, and 100-hour combined surface fuel loads utilized harvest systems that left all activity fuels within experimental units. When mechanical treatments were followed by prescribed burning or pile burning, they were the most effective treatment for reducing crown fire potential and predicted tree mortality because of low surface fuel loads and increased vertical and horizontal canopy separation. Results indicate that mechanical plus fire, fire-only, and mechanical-only treatments using whole-tree harvest systems were all effective at reducing potential fire severity under severe fire weather conditions. Retaining the largest trees within stands also increased fire resistance. PMID:19323192

Stephens, Scott L; Moghaddas, Jason J; Edminster, Carl; Fiedler, Carl E; Haase, Sally; Harrington, Michael; Keeley, Jon E; Knapp, Eric E; McIver, James D; Metlen, Kerry; Skinner, Carl N; Youngblood, Andrew

2009-03-01

199

Characterizations of Deposited Ash During Co-Firing of White Pine and Lignite in Fluidized Bed Combustor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characterizations of ash deposits from co-firing/co-combusting of a woody biomass (i.e., white pine) and lignite coal were investigated in a fluidized-bed combustor using a custom designed air-cooled probe installed in the freeboard region of the reactor. Ash deposition behaviors on a heat transfer surface were comprehensively investigated and discussed under different conditions including fuel type, fuel blending ratios (20-80% biomass on a thermal basis), and moisture contents. For the combustion of 100% lignite, the compositions of the deposited ash were very similar to those of the fuel ash, while in the combustion of 100% white pine pellets or sawdust the deposited ash contained a much lower contents of CaO, SO3, K2O and P2O5 compared with the fuel ash, but the deposited ash was enriched with SiO2, Al2O3 and MgO. A small addition of white pine (20% on a heat input basis) to the coal led to the highest ash deposition rates likely due to the strong interaction of the CaO and MgO (from the biomass ash) with the alumina and silica (from the lignite ash) during the co-combustion process, evidenced by the detection of high concentrations of calcium/magnesium sulfates, aluminates and silicates in the ash deposits. Interestingly, co-firing of white pine pellets and lignite at a 50% blending ratio led to the lowest ash deposition rates. Ash deposition rates in combustion of fuels as received with a higher moisture content was found to be much lower than those of oven-dried fuels.

Shao, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Jesse; Preto, Fernando; Tourigny, Guy; Wang, Jinsheng; Badour, Chadi; Li, Hanning; Xu, Chunbao Charles

200

Latent resilience in ponderosa pine forest: effects of resumed frequent fire.  

PubMed

Ecological systems often exhibit resilient states that are maintained through negative feedbacks. In ponderosa pine forests, fire historically represented the negative feedback mechanism that maintained ecosystem resilience; fire exclusion reduced that resilience, predisposing the transition to an alternative ecosystem state upon reintroduction of fire. We evaluated the effects of reintroduced frequent wildfire in unlogged, fire-excluded, ponderosa pine forest in the Bob Marshall Wilderness, Montana, USA. Initial reintroduction of fire in 2003 reduced tree density and consumed surface fuels, but also stimulated establishment of a dense cohort of lodgepole pine, maintaining a trajectory toward an alternative state. Resumption of a frequent fire regime by a second fire in 2011 restored a low-density forest dominated by large-diameter ponderosa pine by eliminating many regenerating lodgepole pines and by continuing to remove surface fuels and small-diameter lodgepole pine and Douglas-fir that established during the fire suppression era. Our data demonstrate that some unlogged, fire-excluded, ponderosa pine forests possess latent resilience to reintroduced fire. A passive model of simply allowing lightning-ignited fires to burn appears to be a viable approach to restoration of such forests. PMID:24147398

Larson, Andrew J; Belote, R Travis; Cansler, C Alina; Parks, Sean A; Dietz, Matthew S

2013-09-01

201

Fire Control: Manual of Prevention, Fighting and Extinguishing Forest Fires (Guardafuego: Manual de Prevencion, Combate y Extincion de Incedios Forestales).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes in simple, everyday Spanish language, the many ways in which any concerned citizen can help prevent forest fires. It includes general instructions on preventive measures, immediate steps to be taken when a fire is detected and, the o...

1981-01-01

202

Characterization of individual fly ash particles emitted from coal- and oil-fired power plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Individual particles from coal- and oil-fired power plants were analyzed by scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer to investigate size, morphology, and composition. Samples were collected on filters by dichotomous sampler in the fine ( <2.5 ?m aerodynamic diameter) and coarse (2.5 to 5-10 ?m) fractions. In both fractions coal fly ash particles were predominantly ( > 95%) smooth, mineral spheres. No cenospheres (perforated hollow spheres) were detected, and almost 90% of the mass concentrations occurred in the coarse fraction. Sulfur as lared as a surface layer on the mineral core; the abundances of Fe and S were highly variable. The Al/Si ratio was fairly constant for most of the spheres but not for the relatively few Fe-rich or non-spherical coal fly ash particles. Over 90% of the mass of oil fly ash occurred in the fine fraction. The size distribution of chemical and morphological properties of individual oil fly ash particles was found to be trimodal. Oil fly ash particles smaller than 0.7 ? (geometric diameter) were non-spherical and relatively pure in sulfate, and 90% of such particles were smaller than 0.5 ?m; V or Ni could be detected in 50% to 60% of such particles larger than 0.3 ?m. Those particles in the 0.7-3 ?m range of geometric diameters were predominantly spherical and of mineral composition, highly variable in Al, Si, P, Ca, Ti and Fe; 50-60% of them contained detectable amounts of V or Ni. Larger oil fly ash particles had a lacy morphology and consisted of carbonaceous material and sulfur.

Mamane, Y.; Miller, J. L.; Dzubay, T. G.

203

Effectiveness of wood ash containing charcoal as a fertilizer for a forest plantation in a temperate region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amendment of forest soils with mixed wood ash (MWA) generated in biomass power plants can prevent the depletion of soil nutrients\\u000a that results from the intensive harvesting of forest plantations. Unlike fly wood ash, MWA contains charcoal and is characterized\\u000a by a lower release of nutrients, so that it might be useful as a long term source of nutrients and

Martín Santalla; Beatriz Omil; Roque Rodríguez-Soalleiro; Agustín Merino

204

Assessment of a Forest-fire Danger Index for Russia Using Remote Sensing Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intensive exploitation of Siberian forest resources requires to increase the level of their protection. In Russia, forests annually disturbed by fire make up about 6% of the total forest area, whereas they account for hundredth or even thousandth of percent in the West European countries and Canada. Devastating forest fires associated with long draughts have become very common over recent decades in some parts of Siberia and the Russian Far East. Fires burning under these conditions disturb hundreds of thousands hectares of forest lands. Forest fires impact essentially on different biogeocenosis and on ecological situation in region as well. Thus their detrimental effects, including economic damage, are hard to overestimate. Remote sensing data using is more perspective method for forests monitoring in Russia. Moreover satellite data is only available information for non-protected Russian boreal forests and tundra also. To be efficient, modern forest fire managers require a reliable method for estimating fire danger. For large remote forested areas, such as found in Russia where a dense network of local weather station needed to calculate fire danger does not exist, this can be a major problem. However, remote sensing using satellite data can provide reasonable estimates of fire danger across Russia to allow for an understanding of the current fire situation. An algorithm has been developed that can assess current fire danger by inputting ambient weather conditions derived from remote sensing data obtained from NOAA, TERRA-series satellites. Necessary inputs for calculating fire danger, such as surface temperature, dew-point temperature, and precipitation, are obtained from AVHRR, MODIS and ATOVS satellite data. By generating the final products as maps a concise picture can be presented of fire danger across Russia. In order to understand future fire suppression needs, fire danger predictions for an advanced 7-day period can be made using meteorological forecasts of near surface pressure and air temperatures. The only problem with this type of forecasting is the absence of knowing exactly what precipitation will occur during the forecasted period. This is resolved using an interactive method that continually updates the forecasted fire danger map using current precipitation. One important application of this product for remote sensing will be the ability to classify fire severity on burn scar areas for predicting carbon release better over the vast areas of Russia. This will require the development of fire behavior models that use components of the fire danger systems as key independent variables. Modern wildfire prevention programs cannot be successful unless they are fully supported by fire-danger analysis acquired from detailed daily fire-danger mapping. This enables better coordination and potential success of limited suppression forces. Currently the existing network of weather stations in Russia, especially in remote areas, does not allow for the estimation of fire danger over the entire country. Thus, northern forests are deprived of badly needed fire protection information because of the lack of weather stations. Remote sensing analysis and diagnosis of forest fire danger conditions is an emerging field both in Russia and abroad. V.N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, located in Krasnoyarsk, is supporting research this field and is proposing the development of methodology for generating daily fire weather danger maps based on the digital multispectral images obtained from satellites. This will allow the computation of fire danger for remote areas without the need for supplementary on-ground weather stations. KEYWORDS: Fire weather danger system, meteorological data, remote sensing data, wildfires, Siberian boreal forests.

Sukhinin, Anatoly; McRae, Douglas; Ji-Zhong, Jin; Dubrovskaya, Olga; Ponomarev, Eugene

2010-05-01

205

Preliminary assessment of night vision goggles in airborne forest fire suppression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Helicopters are widely used in daytime forest fire suppression, conducting diverse tasks such as spotting, re-supply, medical evacuation and airborne delivery. However, they are not used at night for forest fire suppression operations. There would be many challenges when operating in the vicinity of forest fires at night, including scene obscuration from smoke and dynamic changes in lighting conditions. There is little data on the use of Night Vision Goggles (NVGs) for airborne forest fire suppression. The National Research Council of Canada (NRC), in collaboration with the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR), performed a preliminary flight test to examine the use of NVGs while operating near forest fires. The study also simulated limited aspects of night time water bucketing. The preliminary observations from this study suggest that NVGs have potential to improve the safety and efficiency of airborne forest fire suppression, including forest fire perimeter mapping and take-off and landing in the vicinity of open fires. NVG operations at some distance from the fire pose minimal risk to flight, and provide an enhanced capability to identify areas of combustion at greater distances and accuracy. Closer to the fire, NVG flight becomes more risk intensive as a consequence of a reduction in visibility attributable to the adverse effects on NVG performance of the excess radiation and smoke emitted by the fire. The preliminary results of this study suggest that water bucketing at night is a difficult operation with elevated risk. Further research is necessary to clarify the operational limitations and implementation of these devices in forest fire suppression.

Jennings, Sion; Craig, Greg; Erdos, Rob; Filiter, Don; Crowell, Bob; Macuda, Todd

2007-05-01

206

Self-organized critical forest-fire model on large scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the scaling behavior of the self-organized critical forest-fire model on large length scales. As indicated in earlier publications, the forest-fire model does not show conventional critical scaling, but has two qualitatively different types of fires that superimpose to give the effective exponents typically measured in simulations. We show that this explains not only why the exponent characterizing the

Klaus Schenk; Barbara Drossel; Franz Schwabl

2002-01-01

207

Fire Impact on Phytomass and Carbon Emissions in the Forests of Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Siberian boreal forests contribute considerably to the global carbon budget, since they take up vast areas, accumulate large amount of carbon, and are sensitive to climatic changes. Fire is the main forest disturbance factor, covering up to millions of hectares of boreal forests annually, of which the majority is in Siberia. Carbon emissions released from phytomass burning influence atmospheric chemistry and global carbon cycling. Changing climate and land use influence the number and intensity of wildfires, forest state, and productivity, as well as global carbon balance. Fire effects on forest overstory, subcanopy woody layer, and ground vegetation phytomass were estimated on sites in light-conifer forests of the Central Siberia as a part of the project "The Influence of Changing Forestry Practices on the Effects of Wildfire and on Interactions Between Fire and Changing Climate in Central Siberia" supported by NASA (NEESPI). This study focuses on collecting quantitative data and modeling the influence of fires of varying intensity on fire emissions, carbon budget, and ecosystem processes in coniferous stands. Fires have a profound impact on forest-atmospheric carbon exchange and transform forests from carbon sinks to carbon sources lasting long after the time of burning. Our long-term experiments allowed us to identify vegetation succession patterns in taiga Scots pine stands after fires of known behavior. Estimating fire contributions to the carbon budget requires consideration of many factors, including vegetation type and fire type and intensity. Carbon emissions were found to depend on fire intensity and weather. In the first several years after fire, the above-ground phytomass appeared to be strongly controlled by fire intensity. However, the influence of burning intensity on organic matter accumulation was found to decrease with time.

Ivanova, Galina A.; Zhila, Sergei V.; Ivanov, Valery A.; Kovaleva, Nataly M.; Kukavskaya, Elena A.; Platonova, Irina A.; Conard, Susan G.

2014-05-01

208

A Simulation-Based Decision Support System for Forest Fire Fighting  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The objective of this paper is to design and develop the efficient decision support system for forest managers that would\\u000a help them in their decision-making tasks during the forest fire. To do this, we have adopted the advanced simulation techniques\\u000a as well as the genetic algorithm for generating the forest fire fighting strategy. The GIS database with 3-D graphics has

Sung-do Chi; Ye-hwan Lim; Jong-keun Lee; Jang-se Lee; Soo-chan Hwang; Byung-heum Song

2003-01-01

209

Predicted changes in fire weather suggest increases in lightning fire initiation and future area burned in the mixedwood boreal forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forecasting future fire activity as a function of climate change is a step towards understanding the future state of the western\\u000a mixedwood boreal ecosystem. We developed five annual weather indices based on the Daily Severity Rating (DSR) of the Canadian\\u000a Forest Fire Weather Index System and estimated their relationship with annual, empirical counts of lightning fire initiation\\u000a for 588 landscapes

Meg A. Krawchuk; Steve G. Cumming; Mike D. Flannigan

2009-01-01

210

Fuel load and tree density changes following prescribed fire in the giant sequoia-mixed conifer forest: the first 14 years of fire effects monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding both short- and long-term effects of prescribed fire is critical for successful fire management. Fire effects monitoring results are used to assess fire management objective achievement for Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks. Forest floor fuel load and tree density in a network of 0.1 hectare permanent plots are monitored prior to and following prescribed fires in the parks.

MaryBeth Keifer

211

Fire impact on carbon storage in light conifer forests of the Lower Angara region, Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focused on structural analysis of ground carbon storage following fires in light conifer stands of the Lower Angara region (Siberia, Russia). Experimental fires of varying frontal intensity were conducted at Scots pine and mixed larch forests of southern taiga. Considerable amounts of surface and ground forest fuels (21-38 tC ha - 1) enhanced low- to high-intensity fires. Post-fire carbon storage decreased by 16-49% depending on fire intensity and rate of spread, with depth of burn being 0.9-6.6 cm. Carbon emissions varied from 4.48 to 15.89 t ha - 1 depending on fire intensity and forest type. Depth of burn and carbon emissions for four major site types were correlated with a weather-based fire hazard index.

Ivanova, G. A.; Conard, S. G.; Kukavskaya, E. A.; McRae, D. J.

2011-10-01

212

A soil burn severity index for understanding soil-fire relations in tropical forests  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Methods for evaluating the impact of fires within tropical forests are needed as fires become more frequent and human populations and demands on forests increase. Short- and long-term fire effects on soils are determined by the prefire, fire, and postfire environments. We placed these components within a fire-disturbance continuum to guide our literature synthesis and develop an integrated soil burn severity index. The soil burn severity index provides a set of indicators that reflect the range of conditions present after a fire. The index consists of seven levels, an unburned level and six other levels that describe a range of postfire soil conditions. We view this index as a tool for understanding the effects of fires on the forest floor, with the realization that as new information is gained, the index may be modified as warranted. ?? Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2008.

Jain, T. B.; Gould, W. A.; Graham, R. T.; Pilliod, D. S.; Lentile, L. B.; Gonzalez, G.

2008-01-01

213

Radioactivity of coals and ashes from Catala?zi coal-fired power plant in Turkey.  

PubMed

The Çatala?z? coal-fired power plant (CFPP) is the Turkish CFPP that uses the hard coals produced in Zonguldak, located in the West Black Sea region of the country. Gamma-ray spectrometry was used to determine (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K contents in pulverised coal, bottom ash and fly ash samples. The natural radionuclide concentrations in pulverised coal ranged from 29 to 61 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, from 32 to 55 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th and from 229 to 414 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K. The fly ash fraction gave concentrations ranging from 80 to 98 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, from 64 to 85 Bq kg(-1) for Th and from 754 to 992 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K, respectively. The enrichment factors from coal to fly ashes are 1.7, 2.24 and 2.6 for (232)Th, (226)Ra and (40)K, respectively. Therefore, it is advisable to monitor the environmental impact of the power plant. PMID:21632583

Aytekin, Hüseyin; Baldik, Ridvan

2012-04-01

214

Estimating the direct radiative forcing due to haze from the 1997 forest fires in Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The El Niño event of 1997–1998 caused a severe reduction of rainfall in Indonesia that promoted the spread of forest fires, leading to a pervasive haze in the region. Here we use fire coverage data from the 1997 World Fire Atlas with a review of other available data and literature to estimate the distribution of particulate emissions from August to

P. S. Davison; D. L. Roberts; R. T. Arnold; R. N. Colvile

2004-01-01

215

Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Forest Fire Risk and Danger Using LANDSAT Imagery  

PubMed Central

Computing fire danger and fire risk on a spatio-temporal scale is of crucial importance in fire management planning, and in the simulation of fire growth and development across a landscape. However, due to the complex nature of forests, fire risk and danger potential maps are considered one of the most difficult thematic layers to build up. Remote sensing and digital terrain data have been introduced for efficient discrete classification of fire risk and fire danger potential. In this study, two time-series data of Landsat imagery were used for determining spatio-temporal change of fire risk and danger potential in Korudag forest planning unit in northwestern Turkey. The method comprised the following two steps: (1) creation of indices of the factors influencing fire risk and danger; (2) evaluation of spatio-temporal changes in fire risk and danger of given areas using remote sensing as a quick and inexpensive means and determining the pace of forest cover change. Fire risk and danger potential indices were based on species composition, stand crown closure, stand development stage, insolation, slope and, proximity of agricultural lands to forest and distance from settlement areas. Using the indices generated, fire risk and danger maps were produced for the years 1987 and 2000. Spatio-temporal analyses were then realized based on the maps produced. Results obtained from the study showed that the use of Landsat imagery provided a valuable characterization and mapping of vegetation structure and type with overall classification accuracy higher than 83%.

Saglam, Bulent; Bilgili, Ertugrul; Durmaz, Bahar Dinc; Kad?ogullar?, Ali Ihsan; Kucuk, Omer

2008-01-01

216

Post-fire water quality in forest catchments: a review with implications for potable water supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many locations fire-prone forest catchments are utilised for the supply of potable water to small communities up to large cities. For example, in south-eastern Australia, wildfires have burned part or all of forest catchments supplying drinking water to Sydney (2001 wildfire), Canberra (2003), Adelaide (2007), Melbourne (2009), as well as various regional towns. Generally, undisturbed forest catchments are a

Hugh Smith; Gary Sheridan; Petter Nyman; Shane Haydon

2010-01-01

217

Strategies for preventing invasive plant outbreaks after prescribed fire in ponderosa pine forest  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Land managers use prescribed fire to return a vital process to fire-adapted ecosystems, restore forest structure from a state altered by long-term fire suppression, and reduce wildfire intensity. However, fire often produces favorable conditions for invasive plant species, particularly if it is intense enough to reveal bare mineral soil and open previously closed canopies. Understanding the environmental or fire characteristics that explain post-fire invasive plant abundance would aid managers in efficiently finding and quickly responding to fire-caused infestations. To that end, we used an information-theoretic model-selection approach to assess the relative importance of abiotic environmental characteristics (topoedaphic position, distance from roads), pre-and post-fire biotic environmental characteristics (forest structure, understory vegetation, fuel load), and prescribed fire severity (measured in four different ways) in explaining invasive plant cover in ponderosa pine forest in South Dakota’s Black Hills. Environmental characteristics (distance from roads and post-fire forest structure) alone provided the most explanation of variation (26%) in post-fire cover of Verbascum thapsus (common mullein), but a combination of surface fire severity and environmental characteristics (pre-fire forest structure and distance from roads) explained 36–39% of the variation in post-fire cover of Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle) and all invasives together. For four species and all invasives together, their pre-fire cover explained more variation (26–82%) in post-fire cover than environmental and fire characteristics did, suggesting one strategy for reducing post-fire invasive outbreaks may be to find and control invasives before the fire. Finding them may be difficult, however, since pre-fire environmental characteristics explained only 20% of variation in pre-fire total invasive cover, and less for individual species. Thus, moderating fire intensity or targeting areas of high severity for post-fire invasive control may be the most efficient means for reducing the chances of post-fire invasive plant outbreaks when conducting prescribed fires in this region.

Symstad, Amy J.; Newton, Wesley E.; Swanson, Daniel J.

2014-01-01

218

The ash-fall pattern of the Fire Clay tonstein, central Appalachian basin: Paleogeographic and plate tectonic implications  

SciTech Connect

Thickness data for the Fire Clay tonstein bed (Middle Pennsylvania, Breathitt Formation) of Kentucky and its correlatives in West Virginia, Virginia, and Tennessee show a moderately complex ash-fall pattern across the central Appalachian basin. Within the tonstein bed are four or possibly more distinct graded units, which may represent multiple ash-fall events. The mineralogical and chemical signatures for all tonstein beds are similar and suggest a single magmatic source. The absence of coal or non-ash-fall detrital bands between the individual graded units demonstrates that the events occurred in rapid succession. The ash-fall deposits are elongated and thin generally from southwest to northeast. The longest and thickest part of the deposits lies along the southeastern side of the basin, where the deposit's southwestern end is up to 12 in. thick. The areal distribution indicates ash deposition on unstable surfaces and probably changes in wind patterns. Paleogeographic interpretation suggest that the Fire Clay ash fall or falls were deposited from a western source near the paleoequator. This source is thought to be on the Yucatan block, which was involved in collisional tectonics and eastward-directed subduction during the Middle Pennsylvanian. The block contained a volcanic chain from which the deposits may have originated. This composite ash-fall bed, which became the Fire Clay tonstein, formed the most important isochron in the Middle Pennsylvanian of North America.

Outerbridge, W.F.; Lyons, P.C. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)); Keiser, A.F. (West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey, Morgantown (United States))

1991-08-01

219

Wildfire and drought dynamics destabilize carbon stores of fire-suppressed forests.  

PubMed

Widespread fire suppression and thinning have altered the structure and composition of many forests in the western United States, making them more susceptible to the synergy of large-scale drought and fire events. We examine how these changes affect carbon storage and stability compared to historic fire-adapted conditions. We modeled carbon dynamics under possible drought and fire conditions over a 300-year simulation period in two mixed-conifer conditions common in the western United States: (1) pine-dominated with an active fire regime and (2) fir-dominated, fire suppressed forests. Fir-dominated stands, with higher live- and dead-wood density, had much lower carbon stability as drought and fire frequency increased compared to pine-dominated forest. Carbon instability resulted from species (i.e., fir's greater susceptibility to drought and fire) and stand (i.e., high density of smaller trees) conditions that develop in the absence of active management. Our modeling suggests restoring historic species composition and active fire regimes can significantly increase carbon stability in fire-suppressed, mixed-conifer forests. Long-term management of forest carbon should consider the relative resilience of stand structure and composition to possible increases in disturbance frequency and intensity under changing climate. PMID:24988771

Earles, J Mason; North, Malcolm P; Hurteau, Matthew D

2014-06-01

220

Prospective impact of forest fire on Mass Movement events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mass Movement (MM) has always been one of the main natural hazards that threatened both the natural and human environments of Lebanon and their occurrence has increased by almost 60% between 1956 and 2008. On the other hand, Forest Fire (FF) has emerged to impose as another natural hazard that has destroyed more than 25 % of Lebanon's forests in less than 40 years. The increased FF occurrence is one of the potential detrimental impacts of anthropogenic climate change where high temperatures and current-year drought are strongly associated with an increase in the number of fires and area burned in a variety of forest types. A simple observation shows the coincident trends between MM and FF. This paper investigates the potential impact of FF on MM occurrence in Damour and Nahr Ibrahim watersheds in Lebanon. Preconditioning factors taken into consideration were topography, soil, geology, mean annual precipitation and land cover maps. MM and FF inventory maps were produced through Remote Sensing (RS) using aerial (1956 and 2008) and satellite images (2005 and 2011) in addition to Google Earth Timeline. Furthermore, FF was introduced as the inducing factor whose impact was assessed by the calculation of FF burn severity. This burn severity was extracted from Landsat images (1986-2011) through the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) index. A field study was carried out in order to substantiate the MM inventory. Furthermore, the burn index maps were validated through the Mini-Disk Infiltrometer (MDI), a device which supplies the soil infiltration rate usually after a fire. Following the standardization of the impact factors into layers using Geographic Information System (GIS), the relative importance of these layers for causing MM has been evaluated using modified InfoVal method and a MM Susceptibility Map (MMSM) was generated. Hence, every factor obtained a weight that shows its impact on MM occurrence. Preceded only by Land Cover change, NBR obtained the highest weight making FF burn severity the second highest impacting factor on MM occurrence in our study areas. Testing was performed by comparing a previously extracted 30% of the MM inventory to the MMSM. It has been observed that 84.79% of the existing MM falls in predicted high susceptibility zone.

Ziade, Rouba; Abdallah, Chadi; Baghdadi, Nicolas

2013-04-01

221

A stand-replacing fire history in upper montane forests of the southern Rocky Mountains  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dendroecological techniques were applied to reconstruct stand-replacing fire history in upper montane forests in northern New Mexico and southern Colorado. Fourteen stand-replacing fires were dated to 8 unique fire years (1842-1901) using four lines of evidence at each of 12 sites within the upper Rio Grande Basin. The four lines of evidence were (i) quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) inner-ring dates, (ii) fire-killed conifer bark-ring dates, (iii) tree-ring width changes or other morphological indicators of injury, and (iv) fire scars. The annual precision of dating allowed the identification of synchronous stand-replacing fire years among the sites, and co-occurrence with regional surface fire events previously reconstructed from a network of fire scar collections in lower elevation pine forests across the southwestern United States. Nearly all of the synchronous stand-replacing and surface fire years coincided with severe droughts, because climate variability created regional conditions where stand-replacing fires and surface fires burned across ecosystems. Reconstructed stand-replacing fires that predate substantial Anglo-American settlement in this region provide direct evidence that stand-replacing fires were a feature of high-elevation forests before extensive and intensive land-use practices (e.g., logging, railroad, and mining) began in the late 19th century. ?? 2007 NRC.

Margolis, E. Q.; Swetnam, T. W.; Allen, C. D.

2007-01-01

222

Temporal variations and change in forest fire danger in Europe for 1960-2012  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding how fire weather danger indices changed in the past and how such changes affected forest fire activity is important in a changing climate. We used the Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI), calculated from two reanalysis data sets, ERA-40 and ERA Interim, to examine the temporal variation of forest fire danger in Europe in 1960-2012. Additionally, we used national forest fire statistics from Greece, Spain and Finland to examine the relationship between fire danger and fires. There is no obvious trend in fire danger for the time period covered by ERA-40 (1960-1999), whereas for the period 1980-2012 covered by ERA Interim, the mean FWI shows an increasing trend for southern and eastern Europe which is significant at the 99% confidence level. The cross correlations calculated at the national level in Greece, Spain and Finland between total area burned and mean FWI of the current season is of the order of 0.6, demonstrating the extent to which the current fire-season weather can explain forest fires. To summarize, fire risk is multifaceted, and while climate is a major determinant, other factors can contribute to it, either positively or negatively.

Venäläinen, A.; Korhonen, N.; Hyvärinen, O.; Koutsias, N.; Xystrakis, F.; Urbieta, I. R.; Moreno, J. M.

2014-06-01

223

Prescribed Fire as the Minimum Tool for Wilderness Forest and Fire Regime Restoration: A Case Study From the Sierra Nevada, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in forest structure were monitored in areas treated with prescribed fire in Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks. Five years after the initial prescribed fires, tree density was reduced by 61% in the giant sequoia-mixed conifer forest, with the greatest reduction in the smaller trees. This post-burn forest struc- ture falls within the range that may have been present

MaryBeth Keifer; Nathan L. Stephenson; Jeff Manley

224

Prescribed Fire as the Minimum Tool for Wilderness Forest and Fire Regime Restoration: A Case Study from the Sierra Nevada, CA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in forest structure were monitored in areas treated with prescribed fire in Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks. Five years after the initial prescribed fires, tree density was reduced by 61% in the giant sequoia-mixed conifer forest, with the greatest reduction in the smaller trees. This post-burn forest structure falls within the range that may have been present prior

MaryBeth Keifer; Nathan L. Stephenson; Jeff Manley

2000-01-01

225

Biophysical and anthropogenic controls of forest fires in the Deccan Plateau, India.  

PubMed

Forest fires constitute one of the most serious environmental problems in several forested regions of India. In the Indian sub-continent, relatively few studies have focused on the assessment of biophysical and anthropogenic controls of forest fires at a landscape scale and the spatial aspects of these relationships. In this study, we used fire count data sets from satellite remote sensing data covering 78 districts over four different states of the Deccan Plateau, India, for assessing the underlying causes of fires. Spatial data for explanatory variables of fires pertaining to topography, vegetation, climate, anthropogenic and accessibility factors have been gathered corresponding with fire presence/absence. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the probability of the presence of fires as a function of the explanatory variables. Results for fire area estimates suggested that, of the total fires covering 47,043km(2) that occurred during the year 2000 for the entire Indian region, 29.0% occurred in the Deccan Plateau, with Andhra Pradesh having 13.5%, Karnataka 14.7%, Kerala 0.1%, and Tamilnadu 1.15%. Results from the logistic regression suggest that the strongest influences on the fire occurrences were the amount of forest area, biomass densities, rural population density (PD), average precipitation of the warmest quarter, elevation (ELE) and mean annual temperature (MAT). Among these variables, biomass density (BD) and average precipitation of the warmest quarter had the highest significance, followed by others. These results on the best predictors of forest fires can be used both as a strategic planning tool to address broad scale fire risk concerns, and also as a tactical guide to help forest managers to design fire mitigation measures at the district level. PMID:17275159

Prasad, V Krishna; Badarinath, K V S; Eaturu, Anuradha

2008-01-01

226

Rocket-triggered lightning strikes and forest fire ignition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following are presented: (1) background information on the rocket-triggered lightning project an Kennedy Space Center (KSC); (2) a summary of the forecasting problem; (3) the facilities and equipment available for undertaking field experiments at KSC; (4) previous research activity performed; (5) a description of the atmospheric science field laboratory near Mosquito Lagoon on the KSC complex; (6) methods of data acquisition; and (7) present results. New sources of data for the 1990 field experiment include measuring the electric field in the lower few thousand feet of the atmosphere by suspending field measuring devices below a tethered balloon, and measuring the electric field intensity in clouds and in the atmosphere with aircraft. The latter program began in July of 1990. Also, future prospects for both triggered lightning and forest fire research at KSC are listed.

Fenner, James

1990-01-01

227

Late-Holocene response of limber pine (Pinus flexilis) forests to fire disturbance in the Pine Forest Range, Nevada, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite growing concerns that ecological stressors (fire, insect and pathogen outbreaks) may force vegetation change, few studies have attempted to use paleoecological data to understand small-scale interactions between disturbance and vegetation. Using charcoal and pollen data, we infer past fire episodes and subsequent vegetation responses for a limber pine (Pinus flexilis) forest in northwestern Nevada, USA, to determine local vegetation recovery from disturbance. Using superimposed epoch analysis we examined average-vegetation and individual-taxon responses to eight randomly selected fire events over the past 4.0 ka. Pollen evidence shows that on average fires produce a weak response of declining Pinus while other taxa including Artemisia and Poaceae increase directly after fire episodes. Within 30 yr of a disturbance, pollen data indicate ecosystem recovery to pre-fire composition, consistent with modern studies of fire recovery of limber pine forests. Similar to short-term changes of pollen abundance, long-term vegetation responses indicate Pinus abundance weakly declining and Artemisia increasing when fire episodes are frequent. However, despite fire-episode frequencies varying between 75 and 250 yr, the overall vegetation structure has remained relatively stable over the past 4.0 ka. Our study contributes to the limited information on the disturbance ecology of isolated, subalpine forests in the intermountain West.

Shriver, Robert K.; Minckley, Thomas A.

2012-11-01

228

Influence of Antecedent Precipitation on MODIS Active Fire and Fire Radiative Power Retrievals in the Brazilian Tropical Moist Forest Biome  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Brazilian Tropical Moist Forest Biome (BTMFB) is the world's largest contiguous area of tropical forests and is prone to frequent burning. Although fire ignitions are predominantly anthropogenic, set deliberately to clear forest land and for agricultural and pastoral maintenance, the timing and extent of fire may largely be governed by local environmental conditions and the time since previous fire occurrence. Precipitation controls the fuel flammability and also the biomass accumulation. Previous research has indicated that the number of satellite detected fires follow lagged cyclic patterns of precipitation. In this research eight years (2003-2010) of MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra and Aqua satellite active fire detections and their Fire Radiative Power (FRP) retrievals (related to the fire intensity) are considered for all the BTMBF. The antecedent precipitation derived from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) best-estimate precipitation rate product accumulated for periods from one month to six months prior to each active fire detection date and location are considered. The regional number of MODIS active fire detections and the FRP values exhibit an inverse exponential decrease with the antecedent precipitation. The strongest relationships are observed for antecedent accumulated precipitation over three months and one month for the number of active fire detections and the FRP respectively. The relationships are similar across the seven Brazilian States within the BTMFB and among the eight years. The results indicate that wetter conditions reduce fuel flammability and result in fewer fires burning with lower intensity. The quantitative relationships developed in this study are expected to be useful for fire occurrence and emissions modeling in the BTMF.

Sathyachandran, S.; Roy, D. P.

2013-12-01

229

A review of the main driving factors of forest fire ignition over Europe.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the causes of forest fires, and of the main driving factors of ignition, is an indispensable step towards effective fire prevention policies. This study analyses the factors driving forest fire ignition in the Mediterranean region including the most common human and environmental factors used for modelling in the European context. Fire ignition factors are compared to spatial and temporal variations of fire occurrence in the region, then are compared to results obtained in other areas of the world, with a special focus on North America (US and Canada) where a significant number of studies has been carried out on this topic. The causes of forest fires are varied and their distribution differs among countries, but may also differ spatially and temporally within the same country. In Europe, and especially in the Mediterranean basin, fires are mostly human-caused mainly due arson. The distance to transport networks and the distance to urban or recreation areas are among the most frequently used human factors in modelling exercises and the Wildland-Urban Interface is increasingly taken into account in the modelling of fire occurrence. Depending on the socio-economic context of the region concerned, factors such as the unemployment rate or variables linked to agricultural activity can explain the ignition of intentional and unintentional fires. Regarding environmental factors, those related to weather, fuel and topography are the most significant drivers of ignition of forest fires, especially in Mediterranean-type regions. For both human and lightning-caused fires, there is a geographical gradient of fire ignition, mainly due to variations in climate and fuel composition but also to population density for instance. The timing of fires depends on their causes. In populated areas, the timing of human-caused fires is closely linked to human activities and peaks in the afternoon whereas, in remote areas, the timing of lightning-caused fires is more linked to weather conditions and the season, with most such fires occurring in summer. PMID:23086400

Ganteaume, Anne; Camia, Andrea; Jappiot, Marielle; San-Miguel-Ayanz, Jesus; Long-Fournel, Marlène; Lampin, Corinne

2013-03-01

230

Post-Fire Erosion Control Research on the San Dimas Experimental Forest: Past and Present  

Microsoft Academic Search

The San Dimas Experimental Forest (SDEF) was established in the early 1930s to document and quantify wildland hydrology in the semiarid chaparral-covered steeplands of southern California. Concomitantly, the nearly seventy years of accumulated watershed research in this fire-prone ecosystem has produced invaluable information on post-fire erosion and the effectiveness and consequences of post-fire erosion control treatments. On average, first-year post-fire

Peter M. Wohlgemuth

231

A Review of the Main Driving Factors of Forest Fire Ignition Over Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of the causes of forest fires, and of the main driving factors of ignition, is an indispensable step towards effective fire prevention policies. This study analyses the factors driving forest fire ignition in the Mediterranean region including the most common human and environmental factors used for modelling in the European context. Fire ignition factors are compared to spatial and temporal variations of fire occurrence in the region, then are compared to results obtained in other areas of the world, with a special focus on North America (US and Canada) where a significant number of studies has been carried out on this topic. The causes of forest fires are varied and their distribution differs among countries, but may also differ spatially and temporally within the same country. In Europe, and especially in the Mediterranean basin, fires are mostly human-caused mainly due arson. The distance to transport networks and the distance to urban or recreation areas are among the most frequently used human factors in modelling exercises and the Wildland-Urban Interface is increasingly taken into account in the modelling of fire occurrence. Depending on the socio-economic context of the region concerned, factors such as the unemployment rate or variables linked to agricultural activity can explain the ignition of intentional and unintentional fires. Regarding environmental factors, those related to weather, fuel and topography are the most significant drivers of ignition of forest fires, especially in Mediterranean-type regions. For both human and lightning-caused fires, there is a geographical gradient of fire ignition, mainly due to variations in climate and fuel composition but also to population density for instance. The timing of fires depends on their causes. In populated areas, the timing of human-caused fires is closely linked to human activities and peaks in the afternoon whereas, in remote areas, the timing of lightning-caused fires is more linked to weather conditions and the season, with most such fires occurring in summer.

Ganteaume, Anne; Camia, Andrea; Jappiot, Marielle; San-Miguel-Ayanz, Jesus; Long-Fournel, Marlène; Lampin, Corinne

2013-03-01

232

Mapping Pre-Fire Forest Conditions with NOAA-AVHRR Images in the Northwest Territories, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Canada, fire danger maps are generated daily by the Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System from weather station records. Such maps are limited spatially because they are produced from point-source weather measurements. Thus, remote sensing was investigated as an alternative. Thermal infrared NOAA-AVHRR images were used to describe pre-fire conditions of 24 large fires, occurring in 1994 in the

Steven Oldford; Brigitte Leblon; Lisa Gallant; M. E. Alexander

2002-01-01

233

Forest fires in Northern region of Portugal: Impact on PM levels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Every year European citizens become victims of devastating fires, which are especially disastrous for Southern European countries. Apart from the numerous health and economic consequences, fires generate hazardous pollutants that are introduced into the environment, thus representing serious risks for public health. In that regard, particulate matter (PM) is of a major concern. Thus, the objectives of this work were to characterize the trend of forest fire occurrences and burnt area during the period of 2005 and 2010 and to study the influence of forest fires on levels of particulate matter PM10 and PM2.5. In 2010, 22,026 forest fires occurred in Portugal. The northern region was the most affected by forest fires, with 27% of occurrences in Oporto district. The annual means of PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations at two urban background sites were 25 ± 14 ?g m- 3 and 8.2 ± 4.9 ?g m- 3, and 17 ± 13 ?g m- 3 and 7.3 ± 5.9 ?g m- 3, respectively. At both sites the highest levels of PM fractions were observed during July and August of 2010, corresponding to the periods when majority (66%) of forest fires occurred. Furthermore, PM10 daily limit at the two sites was exceeded during 20 and 5 days, respectively; 56%, and respectively 60% of those exceedances occurred during the forest fire season. Considering that the risks of forest fire ignition and severity are enhanced with elevated temperatures, the climate change might increase the environmental impacts of forest fires.

Slezakova, Klara; Morais, Simone; Pereira, Maria do Carmo

2013-06-01

234

Fire Impact on Carbon Emissions on Logged and Unlogged Scots pine Forest Sites in Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fires cover millions ha of boreal forests of Russia annually, mostly in Siberia. Wildfire and forest harvesting are the major disturbances in Siberia's boreal zone. Logged areas appear to be highly susceptible to fire due to a combination of high fuel loads and accessibility for human-caused ignition. Fire spreading from logging sites to surrounding forest is a common situation in this region. Changing patterns of timber harvesting increase landscape complexity and can be expected to increase the emissions and ecosystem damage from wildfires, inhibit recovery of natural ecosystems, and exacerbate impacts of wildfire on changing climate and on air quality. Fire effects on pine stands and biomass of surface vegetation were estimated on logged and unlogged sites in the Central Siberia region as a part of the project "The Influence of Changing Forestry Practices on the Effects of Wildfire and on Interactions Between Fire and Changing Climate in Central Siberia" supported by NASA (NEESPI). Fires occurring on logged areas were typically of higher severity than those in unlogged forests, but the specific effects of fire and logging varied widely among forest types and as a result of weather patterns during and prior to the fire. Consumption of surface and ground fuels in spring fires was 25% to 50% of that in summer fires. Estimated carbon emissions due to fire were 2-5 times higher on logged areas compared to undisturbed sites. Post-fire soil respiration decreases found for both site types partially offset carbon losses. Carbon emissions from fire and post-fire ecosystem damage on logged sites are expected to increase under changing climate conditions in Siberia.

Ivanova, G.; Kukavskaya, E.; Buryak, L.; Kalenskaya, O.; Bogorodskaya, A.; Conard, S. G.

2012-12-01

235

Emissions Of Forest Fires In The Amazon: Impact On The Tropical Mountain Forest In Ecuador  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomass burning is a source of carbon, sulphur, and nitrogen compounds which, along with their photochemically generated reaction products, can be transported over very large distances, even traversing oceans. Four years of regular rain and fog-water measurements in the tropical mountain forest at the eastern slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes, along an altitude profile between 1800 m and 3185 m, have been carried out. The ion composition of rain and fog-water samples shows frequent episodes of significantly enhanced nitrogen and sulphur, resulting in annual deposition rates of about 5 kg N/ha and 10 kg S/ha into this ecosystem, which are comparable to those of polluted central Europe. By relating back trajectories calculated by means of the FLEXTRA model to the distributions of satellite derived forest fire pixels, it can be shown that most episodes of enhanced ion concentration, with pH values as low as 4.0, can be attributed to biomass burning in the Amazon. First analyses of oxygen isotopes 16O, 17O, and 18O of nitrate in fogwater samples show mass independent fractionation values ranging between 15 and 20 per mille, clearly indicating that nitrate in the samples is a product of atmospheric conversion of precursors, while the isotope data of river samples taken downstream of the research area are grouped in the region of microbial nitrate. This strongly supports the aforementioned trajectory results and shows that the tropical mountain forest in Ecuador, with local pollution sources missing,is "fertilized" by long-range transport of substances originating from forest fires in Colombia, Venezuela, Brazil, and Peru, far upwind of the research site.

Fabian, P.; Rollenbeck, R.; Thiemens, M. H.; Brothers, L.

2006-12-01

236

Impact of Fly Ash from Coal-Fired Power Stations in Delhi, with Particular Reference to Metal Contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indraprastha Power Station (IPP Stn) and Rajghat Power House (RPH), owned by Delhi Electric Supply Undertaking, are both coal-fired power stations located on Ring Road in New Delhi. Ash content of the coal used ranges between 38–47%. The ash is collected in electrostatic precipitators which have an efficiency of 99.3% (IPP station), and 99.7% (RPH). There are instances of major

A. Mehra; M. E. Farago; D. K. Banerjee

1998-01-01

237

The effect of fly ash on fluid dynamics of CO 2 scrubber in coal-fired power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uncaptured fly ash and\\/or suspended solids from wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) scrubbing solutions are one of several factors that will influence the performance and robustness of carbon dioxide capture systems in coal-fired power plants which will be installed prior to the exhaust stack. In this study, a 100mm ID packed column scrubber was tested with different concentrations of ash

Zhisheng Chen; Derek Yates; James K. Neathery; Kunlei Liu

238

Radioactivity of coals and ash and slag wastes at coal-fired thermal power plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an analysis of published data on the content of radioactive nuclides in coals originating from various coal deposits, and in ash and slag wastes produced at coal-fired thermal power plants, as well as in fly ash emitted from thermal power plants into the atmosphere. Problems related to the use of coals with an elevated content of natural radionuclides (NRNs) and methods of their solution implemented at the Urtuyskoe coalfield are dealt with. Data on the analysis of Transbaikal coals for the NRN content, as well as weighted mean content of uranium and thorium in coals from the Siberian Region, are given. In order to reduce irradiation of plant personnel and the population of the areas where coal producers and coal-fired thermal power plants are located, it is necessary to organize very careful control of the NRN content in both coals and products of their combustion that are released into the environment. To solve the problem related to the control of radioactivity, the centralized approach and creation of a proper normative base are needed. Experience gained in developing the Urtuyskoe coalfield shows that it is possible to create an efficient system of coal quality control with respect to the radiation hygiene factor and provide protection of the environment and health of the population.

Krylov, D. A.; Sidorova, G. P.

2013-04-01

239

Characterization of individual fly-ash particles emitted from coal- and oil-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect

Individual particles from coal- and oil-fired power plants were analyzed by a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer to investigate the morphology and composition as a function of size. Samples were collected on filters by a dichotomous sampler in the fine (<2.5 micrometer aerodynamic diameter) and the coarse fractions (2.5 to 5-10 micrometers). In both fractions, coal fly-ash particles were predominantly smooth spheres, and no cenospheres (perforated hollow spheres) were detected. Almost 90% of the mass concentration occurred in the coarse fraction; the major elements included Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, and Fe. Sulfur appeared as a surface layer on the mineral core. The abundances of Fe and S in each particle were highly variable. The ratio of Al to Si was fairly constant for most of the spheres but not for the relatively few Fe-rich or non-spherical coal fly ash particles. Over 90% of the mass of oil fly-ash occurred in the fine fraction.

Mamane, Y.; Miller, J.L.; Dzubay, T.G.

1986-01-01

240

Innovative technologies for full utilization of ash generated at coal-fired thermal power stations for producing alumina and construction materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility of full 100% usage of ash from coal-fired thermal power stations for producing raw materials for the cement and alumina industries is considered, and it is shown that comprehensive processing of ash from coal-fired thermal power stations is required for this purpose.

Delitsyn, L. M.; Vlasov, A. S.; Borodina, T. I.; Ezhova, N. N.; Sudareva, S. V.

2013-04-01

241

COAL BLENDING, ASH SEPARATION, ASH RE INJECTION, ASH CONDITIONING, AND OTHER NOVEL APPROACHES TO ENHANCE HG UPTAKE BY ASH IN COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC POWER STATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in coal type and pollution control devices make it necessary to develop customized solutions for each utility, which will be most effective and economical for each configuration. In addition, the complicated chemistry and multiple mechanisms governing mercury speciation in coal-fired boilers makes it necessary to investigate Hg emission control technologies at conditions relevant to full-scale units. Experiments were performed

Thomas K. Gale; Randy L. Merritt

242

Roost tree selection by northern myotis ( Myotis septentrionalis) maternity colonies following prescribed fire in a Central Appalachian Mountains hardwood forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following decades of fire suppression in eastern forests, prescribed fire as a tool to restore or enhance oak (Quercus spp.)-dominated communities is gaining widespread acceptance in the Appalachian Mountains and elsewhere. However, the interactions of fire with biotic components such as wildlife that might be impacted by prescribed fire are poorly documented. For tree-roosting bats, fire can enhance roosting habitat

Joshua B. Johnson; John W. Edwards; W. Mark Ford; J. Edward Gates

2009-01-01

243

An approach to decision aid of boreal forest fire control using both of ground observation and remote sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Burned area of boreal forest fires is increasing in these decades. Two thirds of forest fires are judged as man-made in Siberia. On the other hand, for boreal forest fire emits global warming gas due to combustion and to change of land coverage, forest fire may accelerate global warming. In 2003 summer, 17million hectares are burned in Siberia and CO2 emission is estimated as 3 hundred million tons. Thus, it is important to control forest fire. Toward this aim, we collected data of boreal forest fire in Alaska and east Siberia in summer fire seasons for two years. Data were acquired from each of ground observation, observation from aircraft and remotely sensed fire detection in June and July. Remotely detected fire using some algorisms were compared with observed data to evaluate the accuracy and earliness of automatic detection. Study areas are Alaska and East Siberia in this year and squares of 1000km centered on Yakutsk, Irkutsk and Krasnoyarsk for each in 2003. Daily NOAA and MODIS satellite images are corrected and used for fire detection. 750 ground observation reports are corrected from Russian agency including location, weather and fire front size and severity. 178 reports are corrected from JAL aircraft flying across Siberia including location and time. Comparison between ground truth data and satellite images was done for validation of automatic forest fire detection. Almost all location of ground and aircraft observation data of forest fires as large as 1 hectare were automatically detected at almost same time using satellite images where whether permitting. We are developing connection of fire detection algorithm and fire expansion simulation model to forecast the possible burned area. On the basis of fire expansion forecast, risk analysis of possible fire expansion for decision aid of fire-fighting activities will be analyzed.@@On the basis of these analyses, we will discuss some possible utilizations of remotely sensed forest fire to control them.

Nakau, K.; Fukuda, M.; Hayasaka, H.; Kimura, K.; Kushida, K.; Matsuura, N.

2004-12-01

244

Copper and cadmium adsorption on pellets made from fired coal fly ash.  

PubMed

Studies on the utilization of low cost adsorbents for removal of heavy metals from wastewaters are gaining attention. Fired coal fly ash, a solid by-product that is produced in power plants worldwide in million of tonnes, has attracted researchers' interest. In this work, fly ash was shaped into pellets that have diameter in-between 3-8mm, high relative porosity and very good mechanical strength. The pellets were used in adsorption experiments for the removal of copper and cadmium ions from aqueous solutions. The effect of agitation rate, equilibration time, pH of solution and initial metal concentration were studied. The adsorption of both cations follows pseudo-second order kinetics reaching equilibrium after an equilibration time of 72 h. The experimental results for copper and cadmium adsorption fit well to a Langmuirian type isotherm. The calculated adsorption capacities of pellets for copper and cadmium were 20.92 and 18.98 mg/g, respectively. Desorption experiments were performed in several extraction media. The results showed that both metals were desorbed substantially from pellets under acidic solutions. For this reason, metal saturated pellets were encapsulated in concrete blocks synthesized from cement and raw pulverized fly ash in order to avoid metal desorption. The heavy metals immobilization after encapsulation in concrete blocks was tested through desorption tests in several aqueous media. The results showed that after 2 months in acidic media with pH 2.88 and 4.98 neither copper nor cadmium were desorbed thus indicating excellent stabilization of heavy metals in the concrete matrix. As a conclusion, the results showed that fly ash shaped into pellets could be considered as a potential adsorbent for the removal of copper and cadmium from wastewaters. Moreover, the paper proposes an efficient and simple stabilization process of the utilized adsorbents thus guarantying their safe disposal in industrial landfills and eliminating the risk of pollution for groundwater and other natural water receivers. PMID:17416461

Papandreou, A; Stournaras, C J; Panias, D

2007-09-30

245

Assessment of a Forest Fire Danger Index for Russia Using NOAA Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To be efficient, modern forest fire managers require a reliable method for estimating fire danger. For large remote forested areas, such as found in Russia where a local weather station network does not exist, this can be a major problem. However, remote sensing can provide reasonable estimates of fire danger across Russia to allow for an understanding of the present fire situation. An algorithm has been developed that can assess current fire danger by inputting ambient weather conditions derived from remote sensing data obtained from NOAA series satellites. Necessary inputs for calculating fire danger, such as surface temperature, dew-point temperature, and precipitation, are obtained from AVHRR and TOVS satellites. By generating maps a concise picture can be presented of fire danger across Russia. Fire danger estimates made during the 1996-2000 fire season reveals close correlation between the Russian Nesterov Index (r ¯ 0.9) and the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index System (r ¯ 0.8). In order to understand future fire-fighting resourcing needs, fire danger predictions for an advanced 7-day period can be made using meteorological forecasts of near surface pressure and air temperatures. The only problem with this type of forecasting is the absence of knowing exactly what precipitation will fall during the period. This is resolved using an interactive method that updates the forecasted fire danger map using current precipitation. One important application of this product for remote sensing will be the ability on burn scar areas to classify fire severity for predicting better carbon release over vast areas. This will require the development of fire behavior models that use components of the fire danger systems as a key independent variable.

Sukhinin, A. I.; McRae, D. J.; Ponomarev, E. I.

2002-05-01

246

Smoke Dispersal from a Controlled Fire in Logging Debris over a Cleared Pine Forest Area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The dispersion of smoke in the atmosphere was studied during a controlled fire of forest debris. An instrumented aircraft measured smoke density and other parameters in multiple traverses through the smoke plume. The data permitted contour maps of constan...

C. E. Murphy J. T. Sigmon D. T. Williams P. W. Ryan W. H. McNab

1976-01-01

247

The Influence of Proximity to a National Forest on Emotions and Fire-Management Decisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because American national forests are managed for all citizens, it is important that researchers explore the differences and similarities between citizens living both near and far from publicly managed land. We surveyed residents living at various distances from nationally managed land to collect resident perceptions of different forest fire-management techniques, to determine public preferences for these techniques, and to examine the motivations behind these preferences. Participants both close to and far away from national forests tended to favor a multipronged approach to fire management by preferring the use of a combination of two or more fire-management techniques. There were no significant differences by proximity in participants’ self-rated emotions, types of fire-management techniques preferred, or the reasons and rationales for their preferred fire-management technique(s), indicating that the proximity variable may not be as significant as previously thought.

Vining, Joanne; Merrick, Melinda S.

2008-02-01

248

Investigation on Temporal Changes of Relative Variables to Forest Fire using Spatial Statistical Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to analyze spatial and temporal changes of forest fire. The most important characteristic of forest fire occurrence in South Korea is that all fires are human-caused. It is very difficult to estimating the relationship between human and a fire occurrence using general method, such as GIS, statistics and process modeling, since forest fire is related to spatial condition as well as temporal variety of climate factors. And the situation related to fire occurrence is being changed through time passes. Thus, integration of analysis on space and time can be a key in terms of a method. However, before this integration, to examine which factors have more relation to forest fire is very important to estimate the occurrence. And spatial autocorrelation is also important to estimate the occurrence of forest fire in South Korea because the forest fires have strong spatial dependency according to previous studies. In this study, we tried to examine the varieties on coefficients of independent variables of statistical model consider spatial autocorrelation. We used generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) which can consider spatial autocorrelation as the series of temporal variation changes. The variables which are used in this statistical model can be classified four categories, human accessibility, topography, forest cover and meteorological factors. The meteorological factors are used to know changes of fire occurrence pattern from the temporal variations. Time scale is set up by 10-days data. In the result, it showed that the range of spatial autocorrelation was changed by the temporal variance. The more fire occurs the more spatial autocorrelation showed. The estimated coefficients of fixed factors are also changed by the temporal series. In April, the significances of factors of human accessibility were increased. These result is attributed to the fact that national and traditional holidays in April made people visit mountain. However, the relationship between forest fire occurrence and weather showed low significance from end of February to mid of March. It seems that mean value of ten-days of meteorological data couldn't have relationship to forest fire occurrence because the variance of weather in that season is higher than any other period.

Kwak, H.; Kim, M.; Lee, W.; Won, M.; Koo, K.

2011-12-01

249

Drought, fire and tree survival in a Borneo rain forest, East Kalimantan, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1 Droughts and fires are increasingly recognized as a significant component of tropical rain forest dynamics but detailed large-scale assessments of such events are scarce. Here we examine tree mortality in a lowland rainforest in East Kalimantan after an extreme drought (the most severe ever reported in a tropical forest study), and a subsequent fire. Eighteen 1.8-ha paired permanent

MARK G. L. VAN NIEUWSTADT; DOUGLAS SHEIL

2005-01-01

250

Forest fires caused by lightning as an indicator of connections between atmosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant positive correlation between the density of lightning fires and the horizontal gradient of anomalous geomagnetic\\u000a field is demonstrated on the basis of studies on lichen pine forests in the Konda River basin (Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area,\\u000a Western Siberia) and analysis of published data. Schematic hypotheses of global connections in the atmosphere-lithosphere-forest-lightning\\u000a fire are proposed.

S. N. Sannikov; A. I. Zakharov; L. G. Smol’nikova; N. S. Sannikova

2010-01-01

251

Alterations following a fire in a forest community of Alto Rio Xingu  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study records the consequences of fire upon the soil and structure of the Amazonian Forest of Gaúcha do Norte, Mato Grosso state, Brazil (13°12?S and 53°20?W). For this, the number of individuals sampled in 1ha of the forest, during a phytosociological survey completed 2 days before the accidental fire, was compared with the survivors recorded afterwards in the reinventory

Natália Macedo Ivanauskas; Reinaldo Monteiro; Ricardo Ribeiro Rodrigues

2003-01-01

252

Distribution of dicarboxylic acids and carbon isotopic compositions in aerosols from 1997 Indonesian forest fires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fine aerosol particles collected in Southeast Asia during 1997 Indonesian forest fires were studied for the concentrations of total carbon (TC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and low molecular weight dicarboxylic acids (C2-C12) as well as carbon isotopic ratios of TC (delta13CTC). TC and WSOC showed a large increase during the heavy forest fire event. At the same period, dicarboxylic acids,

M. Narukawa; K. Kawamura; N. Takeuchi; T. Nakajima

1999-01-01

253

Early Forest Fire Detection with Sensor Networks: Sliding Window Skylines Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless sensor networks are widely used in environmental applications, like forest fire detection. Although forest fires\\u000a occur relatively rarely, their number is increasing in Europe in the last years, so their manifestation must be early detected\\u000a in order to prevent higher damages. To minimize needless communication between the sensor nodes for this usage, new data suppression\\u000a technique using sliding window

Kresimir Pripuzic; Hrvoje Belani; Marin Vukovic

2008-01-01

254

Changes in escape fire occurrence rate in Canada's boreal forest under climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies have shown that fire occurrence (from both human and lightning causes) is expected to increase across the boreal forest in Canada (and in many other regions of the world) with the fire weather expected to accompany climatic change in the 21st Century. Knowing total number of fires on the landscape is important for fire managers as part of their determination of load on the suppression organization's resources; however in terms of impact on the landscape (e.g., area burned or loss of values) it is that very small number of fires that escape initial attack that have the greatest impact. In this study, which covers the forest area of Canada, models of the probability of a fire escaping initial attack are developed based on the outputs of the Canadian FWI System, general fire cause and fire load. Using these models with outputs from recent General Circulation Model scenarios from the Hadley and Canadian Climate Centre were used and indicated an overall increase in expected fire escapes across the forested region of Canada. These increases are spatially quite variable however, due to the interaction between increased temperature and increased precipitation. Results between these two GCM scenarios do show some variation in parts of the country however, leading to some uncertainty in the absolute level of predicted change. The basic assumption of this analysis is that Canadian fire management agency efforts, in terms of response time and suppression resource levels, remain constant over time.

Wotton, Mike

2010-05-01

255

Long-range forecasting of forest fire danger index based on PLAV model outputs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that the forest fire is natural disaster with the fast spreading and encompassing large territories. It is believed that occurrence of forest fires can be connected in two-way direction with climate change conditions. For effective work to prevent and liquidate forest fires and its consequences it is necessary to have effective system of direct and distant monitoring, and reliable prediction system to forecast fire danger risk. In this investigation, the long-range forecasting scheme of forest fire danger has been proposed. This approach is based on using forecasted precipitation and temperature data from hydrodynamical model PLAV and Nesterov index. To develop forecast scheme the climate snow cover information has also been used. It is proposed to use instead of traditional 5 classes of fire danger risk the 3 gradation, namely "above norm", "near norm", "below norm". Results of verification using hindcast data for 6 years were shown. The approaches to improve long-range forecasting of forest fire danger were discussed.

Khan, V.

2012-04-01

256

Process model of fire ecology and succession in a mixed-conifer forest  

SciTech Connect

A forest succession simulator, SILVA, has been developed for the mixed-conifer forest (seven major species) of the Sierra Nevada, California, to simulate the effects of fire on forest dynamics. SILVA is an extensive modification of a simulator for forests of the northeastern United States. The simulation includes the time development of the growth in tree diameter, tree height, and leaf-area index. Recruitment and mortality are modeled stochastically. Modifications include fire ecology, temporal seed-crop patterns, and seedling-survival factors unique to Sierra Nevada forests. The probability of mortality from fire is determined by the height of crown scorch (a function of fire intensity, diameter at breast height, and bark thickness). The model simulates the dynamic and structural responses of communities to many factors. For 500-yr simulations from an initial clear-cut condition, the time-averaged basal-area ratios of Pinus ponderosa to Abies concolor were 5.2:1 and 1:16 for elevations of 1524 m and 1829 m, respectively. At 1524 m, the ratio of P. ponderosa to A. concolor decreased 59% when fire suppression was introduced. Fire provides P. ponderosa with a strong competitive advantage. Its growth form and growth rate are significant factors in its ability to evade fire. Rank correlations of species were compared with data for stands of ponderosa pine and white fir. Correlations were significant at 1% and 10% levels, respectively.

Kercher, J.R.; Axelrod, M.C.

1984-01-01

257

Planned burning vs. wildfire impact on soil methane flux - implications for forest fire management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soils in forests ecosystem represent the largest land based methane sink and therefore provide an important ecosystem service. Fire can alter soil properties linked to soil methane uptake potential but this has rarely been studied to date. We measured soil methane flux in a dry-sclerophyll eucalypt forest (Victoria, Australia) that had different planned burning frequency treatments applied (every 3 and 10 years) in the last 27 years. We also studied soil methane flux along a wildfire chronosequence spanning over 200 years (Tasmania, Australia). Our data show that planned fires and wildfires had contrasting effects on methane uptake of the forest soils. The repeated planned burning treatments did not alter methane flux patterns of forest soil. In the wildfire chronosequence the methane uptake capacity of the forest soil was closely related to structural changes during stand development likely linked to stand water use, with drier forest stands having greater methane uptake. Our data demonstrate that unmanaged wildfire can have substantial impact on the methane sink capacity of forest ecosystems in Australia while the less intense planned fires have little effect. The effects of fire were more related to changes in stand structure rather than impacts of fire on soils per se.

Fest, Benedikt; Wardlaw, Tim; Livesley, Stephen; Arndt, Stefan

2014-05-01

258

Effect of fire residues (ash and char) on microbial activity, respiration and methanogenesis in three subtropical wetland soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prescribed fire is a common restoration and maintenance technique in the southern United States. Prescribed burns coupled with frequent natural fires in South Florida can have devastating effects on ecosystem function. To determine the effect fire residues have on carbon biogeochemical cycling litter material was obtained from two restored and one native marl wetland in Everglades National Park and manipulated in a laboratory setting to produce ash and vegetation derived char. Based on vegetation biomass removal pre and post fire (insitu) appropriate aliquots of each fire residue was added to experimental microcosms as a soil amendment. Soil enzymes (?-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, phosphatase, bis-phosphate and leucine amino peptidase), aerobic and anaerobic respiration (CO2) potentials, extractable C and methanogenesis were measured over a 25 day period. Regardless of site C enzymes responded to both amendments within 5 days of addition. Similarly amended soil contained more extractable carbon in the reference and one of the restored sites. In the restored sites ash and char inhibited methanogenesis, had no effect on anaerobic CO2 potentials, but stimulated aerobic respiration after ten days. In contrast, within the first ten days phosphatase enzyme activity was lower in the ash treatment when compared to the control treatment and stimulation of aerobic respiration was observed in both treatment soils. After ten days ash stimulated methanogenic processing while suppressing anaerobic CO2 production suggesting methanogens in this ecosystem may be dependant on usable carbon substrates derived from aerobic microbial processing. This study illustrates the variable response of C parameters to complete and incomplete combusted materials produced from both prescribed and natural fires with particular importance to fire adapted ecosystems.

Medvedeff, C.; Hogue, B.; Inglett, P.

2011-12-01

259

Did the summer 2003 forest fires in Portugal affect air quality over Europe?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A forest fire is a large-scale natural combustion process consuming various types, sizes and ages of botanical specimen growing outdoors in a defined geographical area. Although wildland fires are an integral part of ecosystems management and are essential to maintain functional ecosystems their dimensions can give rise to disastrous results. Due to the frequency of occurrence and the magnitude of

A. I. Miranda; V. Martins; E. Sá; A. Carvalho; J. H. Amorim; C. Borrego

2009-01-01

260

Impact of multiple fires on stand structure and tree regeneration in central Appalachian oak forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Guard Training Center at Fort Indiantown Gap (NGTC-FIG) near Harrisburg, PA, has experienced frequent fires since the 1950s on the ridges and 1980s in the valleys as a result of military training exercises. This represented a unique opportunity to investigate the role of recent and repeated fire in oak (Quercus) forests in the eastern USA. We investigated four

Stephen A. Signell; Marc D. Abrams; Joseph C. Hovis; Shannon W. Henry

2005-01-01

261

TESTING FOR DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF FOREST FIRES ON HIKING AND MOUNTAIN BIKING DEMAND AND BENEFITS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveys of visitors to National Forests in Colorado were conducted to determine whether different fire ages and presence of crown fires have different effects on hiking and mountain biking recreation visits and benefits. Actual and intended behavior data were combined using a count-data travel cost model. The intended behavior trip questions asked about changes in number of trips due to

John B. Loomis; Armando Gonzalez-Caban; Jeffrey E. Englin

2001-01-01

262

Estimating fire-related parameters in boreal forest using SPOT VEGETATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of burning in the boreal forest zone consists of stand replacement fires larger than 10 km2 occurring in remote, sparsely populated regions. Satellite remote sensing using coarse resolution (?1 km) sensors is thus well suited in documenting the spatial and temporal distribution of fires in this zone. The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of

R. H. Fraser; Z. Lib

2002-01-01

263

The Role of Woody Debris in Boreal Forest Recovery After Fire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boreal forests are an important component of the global carbon cycle due to the large amount of carbon this ecosystem stores and, therefore, can exchange with the atmosphere. The two main pathways of carbon release for this ecosystem, decomposition and fire emissions, are poorly understood. These pathways are related because fire-killed material (i.e., moss and trees) provides a source of

K. L. Manies; J. W. Harden; S. L. King

2001-01-01

264

Bark Beetle Outbreaks Increase Fire Probability in Western United States Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the direct influences of disturbances such as fire or insects on ecosystem function are well known. In contrast, the interactions among disturbances are less well understood. In the forests of the western United States, the interaction between bark beetle outbreaks and subsequent fires is a pressing management concern for a diverse political, economic, and ecological community but the

S. A. Bisrat; M. A. White

2006-01-01

265

Using satellite time-series data sets to analyze fire disturbance and forest recovery across Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The boreal forest biome is one of the largest on Earth, covering more than 14% of the total land surface. Fire disturbance plays a dominant role in boreal ecosystems, altering forest succession, biogeochemical cycling, and carbon sequestration. We used two time-series data sets of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Normalized Differenced Vegetation Index (NDVI) imagery for North America to

Scott J. Goetz; Gregory J. Fiske; Andrew G. Bunn

2006-01-01

266

Study of landscape change under forest harvesting and climate warming-induced fire disturbance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined tree species responses under forest harvesting and an increased fire disturbance scenario due to climate warming in northern Wisconsin where northern hardwood and boreal forests are currently predominant. Individual species response at the ecosystem scale was simulated with a gap model, which integrates soil, climate and species data, stratified by ecoregions. Such responses were quantified as species establishment

Hong S. He; David J. Mladenoff; Eric J. Gustafson

2002-01-01

267

Effects of a stand-replacing fire on small-mammal communities in montane forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wildfire, ubiquitous and recurring over thousands of years, is the most important natural disturbance in northern coniferous forest. Accordingly, forest fires may exert a strong influence on the structure and functioning of small-mammal communities. We compared the composition of rodent and shrew communities in burned and unburned patches of a Doug- las-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco) - western larch (Larix

Rafa? Zwolak; Kerry R. Foresman

2007-01-01

268

Recent burning of boreal forests exceeds fire regime limits of the past 10,000 years  

PubMed Central

Wildfire activity in boreal forests is anticipated to increase dramatically, with far-reaching ecological and socioeconomic consequences. Paleorecords are indispensible for elucidating boreal fire regime dynamics under changing climate, because fire return intervals and successional cycles in these ecosystems occur over decadal to centennial timescales. We present charcoal records from 14 lakes in the Yukon Flats of interior Alaska, one of the most flammable ecoregions of the boreal forest biome, to infer causes and consequences of fire regime change over the past 10,000 y. Strong correspondence between charcoal-inferred and observational fire records shows the fidelity of sedimentary charcoal records as archives of past fire regimes. Fire frequency and area burned increased ?6,000–3,000 y ago, probably as a result of elevated landscape flammability associated with increased Picea mariana in the regional vegetation. During the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA; ?1,000–500 cal B.P.), the period most similar to recent decades, warm and dry climatic conditions resulted in peak biomass burning, but severe fires favored less-flammable deciduous vegetation, such that fire frequency remained relatively stationary. These results suggest that boreal forests can sustain high-severity fire regimes for centuries under warm and dry conditions, with vegetation feedbacks modulating climate–fire linkages. The apparent limit to MCA burning has been surpassed by the regional fire regime of recent decades, which is characterized by exceptionally high fire frequency and biomass burning. This extreme combination suggests a transition to a unique regime of unprecedented fire activity. However, vegetation dynamics similar to feedbacks that occurred during the MCA may stabilize the fire regime, despite additional warming.

Kelly, Ryan; Chipman, Melissa L.; Higuera, Philip E.; Stefanova, Ivanka; Brubaker, Linda B.; Hu, Feng Sheng

2013-01-01

269

Fire detection system using random forest classification for image sequences of complex background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a fire alarm system based on image processing that detects fire accidents in various environments. To reduce false alarms that frequently appeared in earlier systems, we combined image features including color, motion, and blinking information. We specifically define the color conditions of fires in hue, saturation and value, and RGB color space. Fire features are represented as intensity variation, color mean and variance, motion, and image differences. Moreover, blinking fire features are modeled by using crossing patches. We propose an algorithm that classifies patches into fire or nonfire areas by using random forest supervised learning. We design an embedded surveillance device made with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene housing for stable fire detection in outdoor environments. The experimental results show that our algorithm works robustly in complex environments and is able to detect fires in real time.

Kim, Onecue; Kang, Dong-Joong

2013-06-01

270

Direct and indirect effects of fires on the carbon balance of tropical forest ecosystems (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fires influence the carbon budget of tropical forests directly because they account for a significant component of net emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. They also have indirect effects on nearby intact forests by modifying regional climate, atmospheric composition, and patterns of nutrient deposition. These latter pathways are not well understood and are often ignored in climate mitigation efforts such as the United Nations Program on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+). Here we used the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) and the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED3) to quantify the impacts of fire-emitted aerosols on the productivity of tropical forests. Across the tropical forest biome, fire-emitted aerosols reduced surface temperatures and increased the diffuse solar insolation fraction. These changes in surface meteorology increased gross primary production (GPP) in the Community Land Model. However, these drivers were more than offset in many regions by reductions in soil moisture and total solar radiation. The net effect of fire aerosols caused GPP to decrease by approximately 8% in equatorial Asia and 6% in the central Africa. In the Amazon, decreases in photosynthesis in the western part of the basin were nearly balanced by increases in the south and east. Using additional CAM5 and GEOS-Chem model simulations, we estimated fire contributions to surface concentrations of ozone. Using empirical relationships between ozone exposure and GPP from field studies and models, we estimated how tropical forest GPP was further modified by fire-induced ozone. Our results suggest that efforts to reduce the fire component of tropical land use fluxes may have sustainability benefits that extend beyond the balance sheet for greenhouse gases.

Randerson, J. T.; Tosca, M. G.; Ward, D. S.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; Mahowald, N. M.; Hess, P. G.

2013-12-01

271

Finite-size effects in the self-organized critical forest-fire model  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   We study finite-size effects in the self-organized critical forest-fire model by numerically evaluating the tree density and\\u000a the fire size distribution. The results show that this model does not display the finite-size scaling seen in conventional\\u000a critical systems. Rather, the system is composed of relatively homogeneous patches of different tree densities, leading to\\u000a two qualitatively different types of fires:

Klaus Schenk; Barbara Drossel; Siegfried Clar; Franz Schwabl

2000-01-01

272

Autoignition and thermogravimetric analysis of forest species treated with fire retardants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spontaneous ignition tests of various forest species were performed with a specifically designed apparatus. The forest species selected: Arbutus andrachne, Cistus incanus, Pinus brutia, Pinus halepensis, Cupressus sempervirens, Pistacia lentiscus, Abies cephalonica are very common in the Mediterranean region which is frequently devastated by forest fires. The same tests were performed in the presence of 20% (w\\/w) (NH4)2HPO4 (DAP) and

S. Liodakis; D. Bakirtzis; A. P. Dimitrakopoulos

2003-01-01

273

Climate effects on fire regimes and tree recruitment in Black Hills ponderosa pine forests.  

PubMed

Climate influences forest structure through effects on both species demography (recruitment and mortality) and disturbance regimes. Here, I compare multi-century chronologies of regional fire years and tree recruitment from ponderosa pine forests in the Black Hills of southwestern South Dakota and northeastern Wyoming to reconstructions of precipitation and global circulation indices. Regional fire years were affected by droughts and variations in both Pacific and Atlantic sea surface temperatures. Fires were synchronous with La Niñas, cool phases of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and warm phases of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). These quasi-periodic circulation features are associated with drought conditions over much of the western United States. The opposite pattern (El Niño, warm PDO, cool AMO) was associated with fewer fires than expected. Regional tree recruitment largely occurred during wet periods in precipitation reconstructions, with the most abundant recruitment coeval with an extended pluvial from the late 1700s to early 1800s. Widespread even-aged cohorts likely were not the result of large crown fires causing overstory mortality, but rather were caused by optimal climate conditions that contributed to synchronous regional recruitment and longer intervals between surface fires. Synchronous recruitment driven by climate is an example of the Moran effect. The presence of abundant fire-scarred trees in multi-aged stands supports a prevailing historical model for ponderosa pine forests in which recurrent surface fires affected heterogenous forest structure, although the Black Hills apparently had a greater range of fire behavior and resulting forest structure over multi-decadal time scales than ponderosa pine forests of the Southwest that burned more often. PMID:17089659

Brown, Peter M

2006-10-01

274

Development of customized fire behavior fuel models for boreal forests of northeastern China.  

PubMed

Knowledge of forest fuels and their potential fire behavior across a landscape is essential in fire management. Four customized fire behavior fuel models that differed significantly in fuels characteristics and environmental conditions were identified using hierarchical cluster analysis based on fuels data collected across a boreal forest landscape in northeastern China. Fuel model I represented the dense and heavily branched Pinus pumila shrubland which has significant fine live woody fuels. These forests occur mainly at higher mountain elevations. Fuel model II is applicable to forests dominated by Betula platyphylla and Populus davidiana occurring in native forests on hill slopes or at low mountain elevations. This fuel model was differentiated from other fuel models by higher herbaceous cover and lower fine live woody loading. The primary coniferous forests dominated by Larix gmelini and Pinus sylvestris L. var. mongolica were classified as fuel model III and fuel model IV. Those fuel models differed from one another in average cover and height of understory shrub and herbaceous layers as well as in aspect. The potential fire behavior for each fuel model was simulated with the BehavePlus5.0 fire behavior prediction system. The simulation results indicated that the Pinus pumila shrubland fuels had the most severe fire behavior for the 97th percentile weather condition, and had the least severe fire behavior under 90th percentile weather condition. Fuel model II presented the least severe fire potential across weather conditions. Fuel model IV resulted in greater fire severity than Fuel model III across the two weather scenarios that were examined. PMID:21691875

Wu, Zhi Wei; He, Hong Shi; Chang, Yu; Liu, Zhi Hua; Chen, Hong Wei

2011-12-01

275

Fire Return Interval Within the Northern Boundary of the Larch Forest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Larch (Larix spp.) dominant forests compose a large proportion of the forests of Russia (i.e., about 40% of forested areas). These forests range from the Yenisei ridge on the west to the Pacific Ocean on the east, and from Lake Baikal on the south to the 73rd parallel in the north. Larch stands comprise the world s northern most forest at Ary-Mas (72 deg 28' N, 102 deg 15' E). Larch dominated forests occupy about 70% of the permafrost areas in Siberia. Larch forms high closure stands as well as open forests, and is found mainly over permafrost, where other tree species barely survive. Wildfires are typical for this territory with the majority occurring as ground fires due to low crown closure. Due to the thin active layer in permafrost soils and a dense lichen-moss cover, ground fires may cause stand mortality. The vast areas of larch-dominant forests is generally considered as a "carbon sink"; however, positive long-term temperature trends at higher latitudes are expected to result in an increase of fire frequency, and thus may convert this area to a source for greenhouse gases. There are recent observations regarding the increase of fire frequency within non-protected territories. Surprisingly, there are few publications on fire chronoseqences for the huge forested territory between the Ural Mountains and the Pacific Ocean. Also there is a general understanding that bimodal (late spring -- early summer and late summer-beginning of fall) fire seasonal distribution in the south becomes uni-modal (late spring -- early summer) in the north. The purpose of this study is to investigate the wildfire history at the northern edge of the zone of larch dominance.

Kharuk, V. I.; Dvinskaya, M. L.; Ranson, K. J.

2011-01-01

276

Spatially explicit fire-climate history of the boreal forest-tundra (Eastern Canada) over the last 2000 years.  

PubMed

Across the boreal forest, fire is the main disturbance factor and driver of ecosystem changes. In this study, we reconstructed a long-term, spatially explicit fire history of a forest-tundra region in northeastern Canada. We hypothesized that current occupation of similar topographic and edaphic sites by tundra and forest was the consequence of cumulative regression with time of forest cover due to compounding fire and climate disturbances. All fires were mapped and dated per 100 year intervals over the last 2,000 years using several fire dating techniques. Past fire occurrences and post-fire regeneration at the northern forest limit indicate 70% reduction of forest cover since 1800 yr BP and nearly complete cessation of forest regeneration since 900 yr BP. Regression of forest cover was particularly important between 1500s-1700s and possibly since 900 yr BP. Although fire frequency was very low over the last 100 years, each fire event was followed by drastic removal of spruce cover. Contrary to widespread belief of northward boreal forest expansion due to recent warming, lack of post-fire recovery during the last centuries, in comparison with active tree regeneration more than 1,000 years ago, indicates that the current climate does not favour such expansion. PMID:18048298

Payette, Serge; Filion, Louise; Delwaide, Ann

2008-07-12

277

Forest fire management to avoid unintended consequences: a case study of Portugal using system dynamics.  

PubMed

Forest fires are a serious management challenge in many regions, complicating the appropriate allocation to suppression and prevention efforts. Using a System Dynamics (SD) model, this paper explores how interactions between physical and political systems in forest fire management impact the effectiveness of different allocations. A core issue is that apparently sound management can have unintended consequences. An instinctive management response to periods of worsening fire severity is to increase fire suppression capacity, an approach with immediate appeal as it directly treats the symptom of devastating fires and appeases the public. However, the SD analysis indicates that a policy emphasizing suppression can degrade the long-run effectiveness of forest fire management. By crowding out efforts to preventative fuel removal, it exacerbates fuel loads and leads to greater fires, which further balloon suppression budgets. The business management literature refers to this problem as the firefighting trap, wherein focus on fixing problems diverts attention from preventing them, and thus leads to inferior outcomes. The paper illustrates these phenomena through a case study of Portugal, showing that a balanced approach to suppression and prevention efforts can mitigate the self-reinforcing consequences of this trap, and better manage long-term fire damages. These insights can help policymakers and fire managers better appreciate the interconnected systems in which their authorities reside and the dynamics that may undermine seemingly rational management decisions. PMID:24036501

Collins, Ross D; de Neufville, Richard; Claro, João; Oliveira, Tiago; Pacheco, Abílio P

2013-11-30

278

Uptake of ¹³?Cs by berries, mushrooms and needles of Scots pine in peatland forests after wood ash application.  

PubMed

Increasing use of wood fuels for energy production in Finland since the 1990s implies that large quantities of the generated ashes will be available for forest fertilization. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of wood ash application on ¹³?Cs activity concentrations in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles and certain berries and mushrooms on drained peatlands. The study was based on field experiments carried out on two mires in Finland in 1997-1998. Two different types of wood ash were applied at dosages of 3500, 3700, 10 500 and 11 100 kg ha?¹. Wood ash did not increase ¹³?Cs activity concentration in plants in the second growing season following application. On the contrary, a decrease in ¹³?Cs activity concentration was seen in the plants of the ecosystem on drained peatlands. This result is of importance, for instance, when recycling of ash is being planned. PMID:20864229

Vetikko, Virve; Rantavaara, Aino; Moilanen, Mikko

2010-12-01

279

Transformations and affinities for sulfur of Chinese Shenmu coal ash in a pulverized coal-fired boiler  

SciTech Connect

The self-desulfurization efficiency of Shenmu coal with a high initial Ca/S molar ratio of 2.02 was measured in a 1,025 t/h pulverized coal-fired boiler. It increases from 29% to 32% when the power capacity decreases from 100% to 70%. About 60% of the mineral matter and calcium element fed into the furnace is retained in the fly ash, while less than 10% is retained in the bottom ash. About 70% of the sulfur element fed into the furnace is emitted as SO{sub 2} in the flue gas, while less than 10% is retained in the fly ash and less than 1% is retained in the bottom ash. The mineralogical compositions of feed coal, fly ash, and bottom ash were obtained by X-ray diffraction analysis. It is found that the initial amorphous phase content is 91.17% and the initial CaCO{sub 3} phase content is 2.07% in Shenmu coal. The vitreous phase and sulfation product CaSO{sub 4} contents are, respectively, 70.47% and 3.36% in the fly ash obtained at full capacity, while the retained CaCO{sub 3} and CaO contents are, respectively, 4.73% and 2.15%. However, the vitreous phase content is only 25.68% and no CaSO{sub 4} is detected in the bottom ash obtained at full capacity. When the power capacity decreases from 100% to 70%, the vitreous phase content in fly ash decreases from 70.47% to 67.41% and that in bottom ash increases from 25.68% to 28.10%.

Cheng, J.; Zhou, J.H.; Liu, J.Z.; Cao, X.Y.; Cen, K.F. [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China)

2009-07-01

280

Comparing modern and presettlement forest dynamics of a subboreal wilderness: Does spruce budworm enhance fire risk?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Insect disturbance is often thought to increase fire risk through enhanced fuel loadings, particularly in coniferous forest ecosystems. Yet insect disturbances also affect successional pathways and landscape structure that interact with fire disturbances (and vice-versa) over longer time scales. We applied a landscape succession and disturbance model (LANDIS-II) to evaluate the relative strength of interactions between spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) outbreaks and fire disturbances in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area (BWCA) in northern Minnesota (USA). Disturbance interactions were evaluated for two different scenarios: presettlement forests and fire regimes vs. contemporary forests and fire regimes. Forest composition under the contemporary scenario trended toward mixtures of deciduous species (primarily Betula papyrifera and Populus spp.) and shade-tolerant conifers (Picea mariana, Abies balsamea, Thuja occidentalis), with disturbances dominated by a combination of budworm defoliation and high-severity fires. The presettlement scenario retained comparatively more “big pines” (i.e., Pinus strobus, P. resinosa) and tamarack (L. laricina), and experienced less budworm disturbance and a comparatively less-severe fire regime. Spruce budworm disturbance decreased area burned and fire severity under both scenarios when averaged across the entire 300-year simulations. Contrary to past research, area burned and fire severity during outbreak decades were each similar to that observed in non-outbreak decades. Our analyses suggest budworm disturbances within forests of the BWCA have a comparatively weak effect on long-term forest composition due to a combination of characteristics. These include strict host specificity, fine-scaled patchiness created by defoliation damage, and advance regeneration of its primary host, balsam fir (A. balsamea) that allows its host to persist despite repeated disturbances. Understanding the nature of the three-way interaction between budworm, fire, and composition has important ramifications for both fire mitigation strategies and ecosystem restoration initiatives. We conclude that budworm disturbance can partially mitigate long-term future fire risk by periodically reducing live ladder fuel within the mixed forest types of the BWCA but will do little to reverse the compositional trends caused in part by reduced fire rotations.

Sturtevant, Brian R.; Miranda, Brian R.; Shinneman, Douglas J.; Gustafson, Eric J.; Wolter, Peter T.

2012-01-01

281

Global fire emissions and the contribution of deforestation, savanna, forest, agricultural, and peat fires (1997-2009)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New burned area datasets and top-down constraints from atmospheric concentration measurements of pyrogenic gases have decreased the large uncertainty in fire emissions estimates. However, significant gaps remain in our understanding of the contribution of deforestation, savanna, forest, agricultural waste, and peat fires to total global fire emissions. Here we used a revised version of the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford-Approach (CASA) biogeochemical model and improved satellite-derived estimates of area burned, fire activity, and plant productivity to calculate fire emissions for the 1997-2009 period on a 0.5° spatial resolution with a monthly time step. For November 2000 onwards, estimates were based on burned area, active fire detections, and plant productivity from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. For the partitioning we focused on the MODIS era. We used burned area estimates based on Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) and Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) active fire data prior to MODIS (1997-2000) and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) derived estimates of plant productivity during the same period. Average global fire carbon emissions were 2.0 Pg yr-1 with significant interannual variability during 1997-2001 (2.8 Pg/yr in 1998 and 1.6 Pg/yr in 2001). Emissions during 2002-2007 were relatively constant (around 2.1 Pg/yr) before declining in 2008 (1.7 Pg/yr) and 2009 (1.5 Pg/yr) partly due to lower deforestation fire emissions in South America and tropical Asia. During 2002-2007, emissions were highly variable from year-to-year in many regions, including in boreal Asia, South America, and Indonesia, but these regional differences cancelled out at a global level. During the MODIS era (2001-2009), most fire carbon emissions were from fires in grasslands and savannas (44%) with smaller contributions from tropical deforestation and degradation fires (20%), woodland fires (mostly confined to the tropics, 16%), forest fires (mostly in the extratropics, 15%), agricultural waste burning (3%), and tropical peat fires (3%). The contribution from agricultural waste fires was likely a lower bound because our approach for measuring burned area could not detect all of these relatively small fires. For reduced trace gases such as CO and CH4, deforestation, degradation, and peat fires were more important contributors because of higher emissions of reduced trace gases per unit carbon combusted compared to savanna fires. Carbon emissions from tropical deforestation, degradation, and peatland fires were on average 0.5 Pg C/yr. The carbon emissions from these fires may not be balanced by regrowth following fire. Our results provide the first global assessment of the contribution of different sources to total global fire emissions for the past decade, and supply the community with an improved 13-year fire emissions time series.

van der Werf, G.; Randerson, J. T.; Giglio, L.; Collatz, G. J.; Mu, M.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; Morton, D. C.; Defries, R. S.; Jin, Y.; van Leeuwen, T. T.

2010-12-01

282

Global fire emissions and the contribution of deforestation, savanna, forest, agricultural, and peat fires (1997-2009)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New burned area datasets and top-down constraints from atmospheric concentration measurements of pyrogenic gases have decreased the large uncertainty in fire emissions estimates. However, significant gaps remain in our understanding of the contribution of deforestation, savanna, forest, agricultural waste, and peat fires to total global fire emissions. Here we used a revised version of the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford-Approach (CASA) biogeochemical model and improved satellite-derived estimates of area burned, fire activity, and plant productivity to calculate fire emissions for the 1997-2009 period on a 0.5° spatial resolution with a monthly time step. For November 2000 onwards, estimates were based on burned area, active fire detections, and plant productivity from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. For the partitioning we focused on the MODIS era. We used maps of burned area derived from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) and Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) active fire data prior to MODIS (1997-2000) and estimates of plant productivity derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) observations during the same period. Average global fire carbon emissions according to this version 3 of the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED3) were 2.0 Pg C year-1 with significant interannual variability during 1997-2001 (2.8 Pg C year-1 in 1998 and 1.6 Pg C year-1 in 2001). Globally, emissions during 2002-2007 were relatively constant (around 2.1 Pg C year-1) before declining in 2008 (1.7 Pg C year-1) and 2009 (1.5 Pg C year-1) partly due to lower deforestation fire emissions in South America and tropical Asia. On a regional basis, emissions were highly variable during 2002-2007 (e.g., boreal Asia, South America, and Indonesia), but these regional differences canceled out at a global level. During the MODIS era (2001-2009), most carbon emissions were from fires in grasslands and savannas (44%) with smaller contributions from tropical deforestation and degradation fires (20%), woodland fires (mostly confined to the tropics, 16%), forest fires (mostly in the extratropics, 15%), agricultural waste burning (3%), and tropical peat fires (3%). The contribution from agricultural waste fires was likely a lower bound because our approach for measuring burned area could not detect all of these relatively small fires. Total carbon emissions were on average 13% lower than in our previous (GFED2) work. For reduced trace gases such as CO and CH4, deforestation, degradation, and peat fires were more important contributors because of higher emissions of reduced trace gases per unit carbon combusted compared to savanna fires. Carbon emissions from tropical deforestation, degradation, and peatland fires were on average 0.5 Pg C year-1. The carbon emissions from these fires may not be balanced by regrowth following fire. Our results provide the first global assessment of the contribution of different sources to total global fire emissions for the past decade, and supply the community with an improved 13-year fire emissions time series.

van der Werf, G. R.; Randerson, J. T.; Giglio, L.; Collatz, G. J.; Mu, M.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; Morton, D. C.; Defries, R. S.; Jin, Y.; van Leeuwen, T. T.

2010-12-01

283

Global fire emissions and the contribution of deforestation, savanna, forest, agricultural, and peat fires (1997-2009)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New burned area datasets and top-down constraints from atmospheric concentration measurements of pyrogenic gases have decreased the large uncertainty in fire emissions estimates. However, significant gaps remain in our understanding of the contribution of deforestation, savanna, forest, agricultural waste, and peat fires to total global fire emissions. Here we used a revised version of the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford-Approach (CASA) biogeochemical model and improved satellite-derived estimates of area burned, fire activity, and plant productivity to calculate fire emissions for the 1997-2009 period on a 0.5° spatial resolution with a monthly time step. For November 2000 onwards, estimates were based on burned area, active fire detections, and plant productivity from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. For the partitioning we focused on the MODIS era. We used burned area estimates based on Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) and Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) active fire data prior to MODIS (1997-2000) and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) derived estimates of plant productivity during the same period. Average global fire carbon emissions were 2.0 Pg yr-1 with significant interannual variability during 1997-2001 (2.8 Pg yr-1 in 1998 and 1.6 Pg yr-1 in 2001). Emissions during 2002-2007 were relatively constant (around 2.1 Pg yr-1) before declining in 2008 (1.7 Pg yr-1) and 2009 (1.5 Pg yr-1) partly due to lower deforestation fire emissions in South America and tropical Asia. During 2002-2007, emissions were highly variable from year-to-year in many regions, including in boreal Asia, South America, and Indonesia, but these regional differences cancelled out at a global level. During the MODIS era (2001-2009), most fire carbon emissions were from fires in grasslands and savannas (44%) with smaller contributions from tropical deforestation and degradation fires (20%), woodland fires (mostly confined to the tropics, 16%), forest fires (mostly in the extratropics, 15%), agricultural waste burning (3%), and tropical peat fires (3%). The contribution from agricultural waste fires was likely a lower bound because our approach for measuring burned area could not detect all of these relatively small fires. For reduced trace gases such as CO and CH4, deforestation, degradation, and peat fires were more important contributors because of higher emissions of reduced trace gases per unit carbon combusted compared to savanna fires. Carbon emissions from tropical deforestation, degradation, and peatland fires were on average 0.5 Pg C yr-1. The carbon emissions from these fires may not be balanced by regrowth following fire. Our results provide the first global assessment of the contribution of different sources to total global fire emissions for the past decade, and supply the community with an improved 13-year fire emissions time series.

van der Werf, G. R.; Randerson, J. T.; Giglio, L.; Collatz, G. J.; Mu, M.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; Morton, D. C.; Defries, R. S.; Jin, Y.; van Leeuwen, T. T.

2010-06-01

284

Contribution of forest fires to concentrations of particulate matter in Singapore  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Singapore is regularly exposed to substantial levels of transboundary air pollution arising from uncontrolled forest and peat fires from specific regions within Southeast Asia. This air pollution has detrimental impacts on the lives of Singapore residents and on sensitive ecosystems. In June 2013, forest fires resulted in concentrations of particulate matter greatly exceeding levels recommended for human health, causing substantial public concern. We apply two different methods to quantify the impact of forest fires on the concentrations of particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 micrometres (PM2.5) in Singapore. Firstly, we use a global aerosol model (GLOMAP) in combination with fire emissions from GFED3 to simulate PM2.5 concentrations over the period 1998-2009. We evaluate simulated PM2.5 concentrations against long-term observations from Singapore. To identify the contributions of fires from different source regions to PM2.5 concentrations we run multiple simulations with and without fire emissions from specific regions across Southeast Asia. Secondly, we apply an atmospheric back trajectory model in combination with the GFED3 fire emissions to calculate exposure of air masses arriving in Singapore to fire emissions. Both methods use meteorology from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts and are consistent with the large-scale atmospheric flow from the assimilated observations. We find that both methods give consistent results, with forest fires increasing PM2.5 concentrations in Singapore predominately during April to October. Forest and peat fires in Sumatra and Kalimantan cause the greatest degradation of air quality in Singapore. The contribution of fires to PM2.5 concentrations in Singapore exhibits strong interannual variability. During years with a strong contribution from fires, our simulations show that the prevention of fires in southern Sumatra would reduce regional PM2.5 concentrations around Singapore by more than a factor of two, potentially allowing Singapore to meet World Health Organisation guidelines for annual mean concentrations of PM2.5. Acting to reduce forest and peat fires in southern Sumatra, in particular provinces of Lampung, South Sumatra and Jambi, and southern Kalimantan would likely have the greatest environmental benefits to Singapore and surrounding regions.

Spracklen, D. V.; Reddington, C.; Yoshioka, M.; Arnold, S.; Balasubramanian, R.

2013-12-01

285

Optimizing Landscape Treatments for Reducing Wildfire Risk and Improving Ecological Sustainability of Ponderosa pine Forests with Mixed Severity Fire Regimes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A mixed severity fire regime historically created complex landscape structures in ponderosa pine forests of the Colorado Front Range. Mitigating present wildfire risks and restoring these forests to ecologically sustainable conditions requires new guideli...

J. Chew J. G. Jones M. R. Kaufmann P. N. Omi

2009-01-01

286

Impact of the 1988 forest fires on the chemistry of ground water in Yellowstone National Park  

SciTech Connect

Statistical tests (two-way ANOVA at 95 percent confidence interval) show that for most wells, there is no significant difference between pre-fire and post-fire chemistry of the shallow ground waters. Despite the lack of significance changes in water chemistry, there do appear to be differences in the interactions between chemical and physical parameters, as measured under pre-fire and post-fire conditions. For post-fire data from the most severely burned site, the concentrations of ground-water solutes appear to be inversely related to the depth of the water table, whereas this inverse relationship is not seen clearly for the pre-fire and control data. The apparent change in solute behavior seen in the post-fire ground water from the severely burned site may be due to the complete, although temporary, removal of the biotic component from the system, thereby altering the cycling of nutrients in this highly oligotrophic ecosystem. Although concentrations of nitrate in the ground water have not increased appreciably over the pre-fire values, samples of the soil solution from the severely burned site contained high concentrations of nitrate-N (as much as 67 mg/L). An increase in the activity of nitrifying bacteria, due to post-fire conditions, is thought to be responsible for the high concentrations of nitrate in the post-fire soil solution. Geochemical computer modeling indicates that mineral weathering by water of snowmelt composition can describe the transition in solute content from that of snowmelt to that of the ground water. In contrast, just the mixing of different solutions (i.e., a percentage of pure snowmelt plus a percentage of ash leachate) cannot create a solution approximating the chemical composition measured in samples of post-fire ground water. The modeling, however, does not rule out a combination of weathering and mixing (snow + ash) to produce the chemistry observed for the post-fire ground waters.

Siders, M.A.

1992-01-01

287

Mapping and Analysis of Forest and Land Fire Potential Using Geospatial Technology and Mathematical Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest and land fire can cause negative implications for forest ecosystems, biodiversity, air quality and soil structure. However, the implications involved can be minimized through effective disaster management system. Effective disaster management mechanisms can be developed through appropriate early warning system as well as an efficient delivery system. This study tried to focus on two aspects, namely by mapping the potential of forest fire and land as well as the delivery of information to users through WebGIS application. Geospatial technology and mathematical modeling used in this study for identifying, classifying and mapping the potential area for burning. Mathematical models used is the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), while Geospatial technologies involved include remote sensing, Geographic Information System (GIS) and digital field data collection. The entire Selangor state was chosen as our study area based on a number of cases have been reported over the last two decades. AHP modeling to assess the comparison between the three main criteria of fuel, topography and human factors design. Contributions of experts directly involved in forest fire fighting operations and land comprising officials from the Fire and Rescue Department Malaysia also evaluated in this model. The study found that about 32.83 square kilometers of the total area of Selangor state are the extreme potential for fire. Extreme potential areas identified are in Bestari Jaya and Kuala Langat High Ulu. Continuity of information and terrestrial forest fire potential was displayed in WebGIS applications on the internet. Display information through WebGIS applications is a better approach to help the decision-making process at a high level of confidence and approximate real conditions. Agencies involved in disaster management such as Jawatankuasa Pengurusan Dan Bantuan Bencana (JPBB) of District, State and the National under the National Security Division and the Fire and Rescue Department Malaysia can use the end result of this study in preparation for the land and forest fires in the future.

Suliman, M. D. H.; Mahmud, M.; Reba, M. N. M.; S, L. W.

2014-02-01

288

Synergistic effects of drought and fire on the carbon carrying capacity of tropical forests and woodlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than half of the global forest carbon stock is held in tropical forests. A relatively large proportion of the tropical forest carbon is stored in plant biomass rather than in the soil, making these stocks particularly vulnerable to disturbances such as droughts, fires and cyclones. The frequencies, duration and intensities of such disturbances may change under future climates with poorly resolved but potentially significant (synergistic) effects on the carbon carrying capacity of tropical forests and thereby on global geochemical cycles. In this study we analyse high-resolution global data sets for tropical forest biomass (Saatchi et al., 2011. PNAS) and fire affected areas (GFED4, Giglio et al.,2013. JGR 118), together with climate data (WorldClim, Hijmans et al., 2005. Int. J. Clim. 25), to quantify the sensitivity of tropical forest carbon stocks in South America, Africa and Asia/Australia to seasonal water deficits and fire. Here, the climatic water deficit (D), calculated as the difference between mean annual potential evapotranspiration and actual evapotranspiration, is used as a measure of seasonal water stress (i.e., evaporative demand not met by available water), while the mean annual burned area fraction (1995-2013) of grid cells is used as a measure of average fire activity. Tropical forest carbon stocks are maximal, as expected, where water deficits are negligible. In those densely forested environments fire tends to be extremely rare as fuels are too wet to burn for most of the time. In all three continents, potential tropical forest carbon stocks are well predicted by a non-linear decreasing function of the mean annual climatic water deficit, with a steep drop in carbon stocks at D of 700-800 mm per year. At this threshold in the climatic water deficit we observe a strong increase in fire activity that is indicative of a critical change in vegetation structure (i.e., tree/grass ratio) and associated shift in the dominant climatic constraint on fire activity from fuel dryness to fuel productivity. By comparing predictions of potential forest carbon stocks (i.e., as a function of D only) with actual carbon stocks, we quantify the sensitivity of those stocks to increasing fire activity. Finally, we map the risk of losses in carbon carrying capacity of tropical forests under scenarios of future climate.

Boer, Matthias; Bradstock, Ross

2014-05-01

289

Stabilization of lead and copper contaminated firing range soil using calcined oyster shells and fly ash.  

PubMed

A stabilization/solidification treatment scheme was devised to stabilize Pb and Cu contaminated soil from a firing range using renewable waste resources as additives, namely waste oyster shells (WOS) and fly ash (FA). The WOS, serving as the primary stabilizing agent, was pre-treated at a high temperature to activate quicklime from calcite. Class C FA was used as a secondary additive along with the calcined oyster shells (COS). The effectiveness of the treatment was evaluated by means of the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and the 0.1 M HCl extraction tests following a curing period of 28 days. The combined treatment with 10 wt% COS and 5 wt% FA cause a significant reduction in Pb (>98 %) and Cu (>96 %) leachability which was indicated by the results from both extraction tests (TCLP and 0.1 M HCl). Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) analyses are used to investigate the mechanism responsible for Pb and Cu stabilization. SEM-EDX results indicate that effective Pb and Cu immobilization using the combined COS-FA treatment is most probably associated with ettringite and pozzolanic reaction products. The treatment results suggest that the combined COS-FA treatment is a cost effective method for the stabilization of firing range soil. PMID:23709229

Moon, Deok Hyun; Park, Jae-Woo; Cheong, Kyung Hoon; Hyun, Seunghun; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon; Park, Jeong-Hun; Ok, Yong Sik

2013-12-01

290

Development at the wildland-urban interface and the mitigation of forest-fire risk  

PubMed Central

This work addresses the impacts of development at the wildland–urban interface on forest fires that spread to human habitats. Catastrophic fires in the western United States and elsewhere make these impacts a matter of urgency for decision makers, scientists, and the general public. Using a simple fire-spread model, along with housing and vegetation data, we show that fire size probability distributions can be strongly modified by the density and flammability of houses. We highlight a sharp transition zone in the parameter space of vegetation flammability and house density. Many actual fire landscapes in the United States appear to have spreading properties close to this transition. Thus, the density and flammability of buildings should be taken into account when assessing fire risk at the wildland–urban interface. Moreover, our results highlight ways for regulation at this interface to help mitigate fire risk.

Spyratos, Vassilis; Bourgeron, Patrick S.; Ghil, Michael

2007-01-01

291

The nitrogen reserves in sandy podzols after controlled fires in pine forests of Central Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of ground fires of different intensities on the nitrogen pool in the sandy soils under pine forests of the middle taiga zone after their experimental burning was studied. The contents of total nitrogen and its ammonium form increased due to the input of great amounts of plant falloff during the first year after the fire. Within two years after the fire, the content of nitrogen and the percentages of its forms approached their initial values before the fire. The adverse effect of the pyrogenic factor on the biological activity of the sandy podzols was shown.

Bezkorovainaya, I. N.; Tarasov, P. A.; Ivanova, G. A.; Bogorodskaya, A. V.; Krasnoshchekova, E. N.

2007-06-01

292

Leaching of wood ash products aimed for spreading in forest floors--influence of method and L/S ratio.  

PubMed

Use of biofuels in the form of logging residues is increasing in the European countries. This intensive forestry, where entire trees are removed from the felling sites, may contribute to a negative nutrient balance in the forest soil. Recycling of ash from the combustion of clean wood fuel, sometimes in combination with limestone or additives/binders, back into the forest soil could maintain the soil nutrient reservoir intact. Before spreading ash, it is important to determine its contents and, particularly, its decomposition pattern using reliable laboratory leaching tests. In this study, mineralogy and the leaching of Na, Ca, K, Mg, Mn, Al, Cu, Fe, P, and Zn from wood ash pellets and granules, produced both from green liquor sludge and fly ash, are examined by XRD and by subjecting these substances to three different laboratory leaching tests: upflow percolation (CEN/TS 14405), batch leaching (SS-EN12457), and a new Swedish leaching test using a magnetic stirrer. Mineral phases such as quartz, ettringite, calcite, gehlenite, and aphtitalite were identified in the ash granules and in the ash/green liquor sludge granules, by means of XRD. Six additional minerals were detected in the granules of ash only, and another six in the ash/green liquor sludge granules. At L/S 2, the batch leaching test resulted in the highest amounts of elements leached and the upflow percolation test the lowest. At L/S 10, both the batch leaching test and the upflow percolation test resulted in high amounts of elements leached. The batch leaching test at L/S 10 complies quite well with the percolation test and could be suitable for ash/green liquor sludge granule evaluation in daily practice. The magnetic stirrer test seems to underestimate the release potential of elements from granules. The batch test is simple to perform, and has the ability to dissolve 70-80% of the elements with the highest mobility from the materials under study. PMID:18083021

Mellbo, Peter; Sarenbo, Sirkku; Stålnacke, Olof; Claesson, Tommy

2008-11-01

293

Comparative study of vegetation indices to assess land cover change after forest fires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fires are a major problem in Portugal, consuming thousands of hectares per year. A great number of fires are due to arson, which most of the times is related to land use change purposes. Different Government Agencies are responsible for checking if the forest owners are in compliance with the legislation that regulates land use change after fire occurrence. Earth observation data can play a very important role in monitoring land cover transitions occurring in burnt forest areas. An exploratory analysis of a Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) multi-temporal dataset was carried out to see if pre-defined land cover transitions, within a burnt forest area, could be separated and identified. Three vegetation indices (VI) were used for this propose: NDVI, MSAVI and ARVI. The capabilities of these VI were evaluated on test areas that had pine forest before the fire, followed by a transition into eucalyptus planted in the first or second year after fire or shrub land. The three VI were ranked, in terms of separability, between these three types of transition. ARVI was found to be the one that discriminated better between the two eucalyptus transitions and shrub land.

Santos, Teresa G.; Caetano, Mario R.; Barbosa, Paulo M.; Paul, Jose U.

1999-12-01

294

Commercialization of Fired Paving Bricks with Class F Fly Ash from Illinois Basin Coals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burning coal for energy produces fly ash as one of the by-products. Fly ash is not currently regulated as a hazardous material by the US EPA and is discarded as waste, most often in impoundments or landfills. The development and marketing of commercial fly ash-containing bricks would benefit the coal industry, utilities, and brick manufacturers by converting discarded fly ash

Mei-In M. Chou; J. Chou; Vinod. Patel; Howard S. Lewis; Joseph P. Kimlinger; Mark M. Bryant; Francois Botha

295

The Demise of Fire and "Mesophication" of Forests in the Eastern United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A diverse array of fire-adapted plant communities once covered the eastern United States. European settlement greatly altered fire regimes, often increasing fire occurrence (e.g., in northern hardwoods) or substantially decreasing it (e.g., in tallgrass prairies). Notwithstanding these changes, fire suppression policies, beginning around the 1920s, greatly reduced fire throughout the East, with profound ecological consequences. Fire-maintained open lands converted to closed-canopy forests. As a result of shading, shade-tolerant, fire-sensitive plants began to replace heliophytic (sun-loving), fire-tolerant plants. A positive feedback cycle-which we term "mesophication" -ensued, whereby microenvironmental conditions (cool, damp, and shaded conditions; less flammable fuel beds) continually improve for shade-tolerant mesophytic species and deteriorate for shade-intolerant, fire-adapted species. Plant communities are undergoing rapid compositional and structural changes, some with no ecological antecedent. Stand-level species richness is declining, and will decline further, as numerous fire-adapted plants are replaced by a limited set of shade-tolerant, fire-sensitive species. As this process continues, the effort and cost required to restore fire-adapted ecosystems escalate rapidly.

Gregory J. Nowacki (US Department of Agriculture;); Marc D. Abrams (Pennsylvania State University;)

2008-02-01

296

Forest Fires in Southwestern Amazonia During 2005: Extent and Distribution in Eastern Acre State, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extended drought in western Amazonia during 2005 provided the conditions for wild fires that spread in old- growth rain forests and cleared areas of the contiguous areas of Madre de Dios, Peru, Acre, Brazil, and Pando, Bolivia, collectively known as the MAP Region. The greatest extent of the wild fires occurred in eastern Acre State with 60,000 km2 of diverse land uses that range from intensely occupied colonization areas, large cattle ranches, extractive and biological reserves and indigenous areas. At the request of the Public Ministry of Acre and other government agencies we analyzed Landsat 5 and CBERS 2 imagery for forests with canopies affected by fires, using visual interpretation and manual digitalization of polygons. Accuracy assessment was done with 180 aerial photos. The total area of forest with canopies affected by fires was 267,000 ha, roughly five times recent annual deforestation rates for Acre State. Omission and commission errors were 28% and 2%, respectively. Burn scars in non-forest areas were determined using ASTER and CBERS 2 imagery via supervised classification. Total open area with burn scars was 203,000 ha. The total of open area and forests affected by fires exceeded 470,000 ha due to three factors: (1) some images used did not include the last weeks of burning; (2) ground fires in forests that did not affect the canopy and therefore were not detected; and (3) concern of the interpreters to avoid commission errors. Of the twelve municipalities of eastern Acre, most affected were Acrelandia, Placido de Castro, Epitaciolandia with >31%, >19% and >17% of the municipality affected, respectively). The largest impact, >114,000 ha, occurred in the Rio Branco Municipality. Similar patterns of burning occurred in Pando and in Madre de Dios. The environmental, social and economic disaster that these fires produced may be a harbinger of future impacts in southwestern Amazonia if current climate predictions prove to be correct.

Brown, I.; Moulard, E. M.; Nakamura, J.; Schroeder, W.; Maldonado, M.; Vasconcelos, S. S.; Selhorst, D.

2007-05-01

297

On the forest fires and the analysis of air quality data and total atmospheric ozone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Canada about 1.3 million hectares (M ha) of forests are destroyed by wildfires each year, and about 63 % of all these fires are man-caused. During the 1980 and 1981 fire seasons, however, about 10 M ha were damaged; estimated annual emissions from forest fires were ~ 224 million tonnes (M t) of CO 2; and over 22 M t of CO, total suspended particulates (TSP), hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NO x), etc. One of the major problems resulting from these forest fires was the severe reduction of visibility over large areas. Daily values of TSP recorded at Fort McMurray, Alberta were in the range of 163-257 ?g m -3, while TSP observed at Edmonton, about 850km downstream from large fires, were in the range of 134-220 ?g m -3. Nevertheless, surface ozone (O 3) and total O 3 in vertical air columns had evidently decreased in the area affected by smoke plumes. It is plausible that the O 3 depletion might have occurred in the lower troposphere from the overwhelming existence of forest fire smoke in the region.

Chung, Y.-S.

298

Automatic forest-fire measuring using ground stations and Unmanned Aerial Systems.  

PubMed

This paper presents a novel system for automatic forest-fire measurement using cameras distributed at ground stations and mounted on Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). It can obtain geometrical measurements of forest fires in real-time such as the location and shape of the fire front, flame height and rate of spread, among others. Measurement of forest fires is a challenging problem that is affected by numerous potential sources of error. The proposed system addresses them by exploiting the complementarities between infrared and visual cameras located at different ground locations together with others onboard Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). The system applies image processing and geo-location techniques to obtain forest-fire measurements individually from each camera and then integrates the results from all the cameras using statistical data fusion techniques. The proposed system has been extensively tested and validated in close-to-operational conditions in field fire experiments with controlled safety conditions carried out in Portugal and Spain from 2001 to 2006. PMID:22163958

Martínez-de Dios, José Ramiro; Merino, Luis; Caballero, Fernando; Ollero, Anibal

2011-01-01

299

Automatic Forest-Fire Measuring Using Ground Stations and Unmanned Aerial Systems  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a novel system for automatic forest-fire measurement using cameras distributed at ground stations and mounted on Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). It can obtain geometrical measurements of forest fires in real-time such as the location and shape of the fire front, flame height and rate of spread, among others. Measurement of forest fires is a challenging problem that is affected by numerous potential sources of error. The proposed system addresses them by exploiting the complementarities between infrared and visual cameras located at different ground locations together with others onboard Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). The system applies image processing and geo-location techniques to obtain forest-fire measurements individually from each camera and then integrates the results from all the cameras using statistical data fusion techniques. The proposed system has been extensively tested and validated in close-to-operational conditions in field fire experiments with controlled safety conditions carried out in Portugal and Spain from 2001 to 2006.

Martinez-de Dios, Jose Ramiro; Merino, Luis; Caballero, Fernando; Ollero, Anibal

2011-01-01

300

Fire!!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers may use this admittedly unrealistic simulation to help students understand how the probability of an event is related to the final outcome. Teachers can explain that even in this simulation, multiple simulated forest fires with the same probability will produce cumulative results close to the selected probability.

Foundation, Shodor E.

2004-01-01

301

Trace elements in soils and plants in temperate forest plantations subjected to single and multiple applications of mixed wood ash.  

PubMed

Wood ash, a by-product generated in power plants, can be used to fertilize forest plantations to replenish nutrients lost during harvesting. Although wood ash generally contains low levels of trace metals, release of some of these may occur soon after ash application in acid soils. The risk of heavy metal contamination associated with application of mixed wood ash was assessed in six Pinus radiata D. Don plantations, on two types of mineral soil differing in texture, drainage and CECe. Four of the stands received a single application of 4500 kg ha(-1) (March 2003), and in the other two stands the same treatment was applied over three consecutive years (2003-2005). Trace metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) concentrations were monitored throughout the 3 years in different components of the forest ecosystem--soil solid fraction, soil solution, tree needles, ground vegetation and different mushroom species. Repeated applications of wood ash led to moderate increases in soil extractable Mn and Zn, and Mn in all mushrooms species. However, the maximum concentrations did not reach levels potentially harmful to organisms. Concentrations of Zn, Cu and Cd decreased in some mushroom species, probably because of increased soil pH caused by the treatment. Heavy metal concentrations in tree needles and ground vegetation were not altered. Although the risk of heavy metal contamination appears to be low, the long-term effects of wood ash application must be assessed. PMID:17499342

Omil, Beatriz; Piñeiro, Verónica; Merino, Agustín

2007-08-01

302

Estimating carbon emissions in Russia using the Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Russian boreal forest zone contains about 28 percent of the global terrestrial carbon. Wildfires in Russia burn an estimated 12-15 million ha annually. In a warming climate, fires in the boreal zone are expected to increase in area and severity, with the potential for increasing global fire emissions and decreasing carbon stored in soils and biomass. Current fire data for these forests generally do not account for the large spatial and temporal variations in fuel loads and consumption for differing forest types and weather patterns. As a result, it has been difficult to obtain good estimates of annual carbon emissions. While methods are being developed to estimate carbon emission remotely, there is an immediate need for more accurate estimates. Our previous work has indicated that the Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System (CFFDRS) is suitable for use in Russia. CFFDRS fuel consumption models can be used to estimate carbon emissions. The Canadian Forest Fire Weather Indexes (FWI) System, part of the CFFDRS, estimates the moisture content of various fuel classes and uses these estimates to generate a set of relative fire behavior indicators. As part of the Russian FIRE BEAR (Fire Effects in the Boreal Eurasia Region) Project, we conducted 14 experimental surface fires on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forest sites in Siberia under a range of weather and fuel conditions. Detailed measurements of fuel consumption on each fire provided a basis for modeling carbon emissions using the FWI System. Carbon released by these experimental surface fires ranged from 4.8 to 15.4 t C ha-1 depending on burning conditions and fuel conditions. Provided burn areas and burn dates are known, and forest type and antecedent weather data are available, these models can be used to estimate the total annual carbon emissions for forest fires in Russia. Weather data was obtained for all Russian weather stations over a 55-year period (1953-2008) from the National Climate Data Center (NCDC). After correcting for missing data, we calculated FWI System values based on a fire season running from March 15 to October 31. Since the number of stations is small relative to the area of interest, we also used station data for neighboring countries (Mongolia, northern China) to assist interpolation. Seven spatial data layers created using GIS software included daily fuel moisture code and fire behavior indices of the FWI System along with Daily Severity Index across Russia and the adjacent boundary areas (1617 maps/yr). When we compared distribution of FWI values across Russia to daily fire scar data from AVHRR imagery for selected years, distribution of fire activity appeared to be well related to the FWI values. Our goal is to develop a reasonable estimate of seasonal and interannual carbon emissions for fires burning in Siberia based on daily values of the FWI System. In a related project, we are creating a post-1979 fire burn area database for Russia using AVHRR images. Our goal is to combine historical and current burned area and weather data to develop improved estimates of annual carbon emissions for the boreal zone in Russia.

McRae, D. J.; Jin, J.; Yang, Y.; Conard, S. G.; Sukhinin, A.; Stocks, B. J.

2009-12-01

303

First order fire effects model: FOFEM 4.0, user`s guide. Forest Service general technical report  

SciTech Connect

A First Order Fire Effects Model (FOFEM) was developed to predict the direct consequences of prescribed fire and wildlife. FOFEM computes duff and woody fuel consumption, mineral soil exposure, fire-caused tree mortality, and smoke production for many forest and rangeland ecosystems. Quantitative results from many fire effects studies were summarized for inclusion into the model. FOFEM contains a fire effects calculator to predict the effects of a fire from the burning conditions necessary to achieve a desired effect. Default input values are derived from fuel models provided for natural and activity fuels by many forest cover types.

Reinhardt, E.D.; Keane, R.E.; Brown, J.K.

1997-01-01

304

How surface fire in Siberian Scots pine forests affects soil organic carbon in the forest floor: Stocks, molecular structure, and conversion to black carbon (charcoal)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In boreal forests, fire is a frequent disturbance and converts soil organic carbon (OC) to more degradation-resistant aromatic carbon, i.e., black carbon (BC) which might act as a long-term atmospheric-carbon sink. Little is known on the effects of fires on boreal soil OC stocks and molecular composition. We studied how a surface fire affected the composition of the forest floor

Claudia I. Czimczik; Caroline M. Preston; Michael W. I. Schmidt; Ernst-Detlef Schulze

2003-01-01

305

Recovery of soil carbon and nitrogen pools following forest fires in eastern Lapland, Finland.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fires have been the dominant disturbance regimes in boreal forests since the last Ice Age. Fire is the primary process which organizes the physical and biological attributes of the boreal biome and influences energy flows and biogeochemical cycles, particularly the carbon and nitrogen cycle. Forest fire activity is expected to increase significantly with changing climate, acting as a catalyst to a wide range of ecosystem processes controlling carbon storage in boreal forests. We compared the initial recovery of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) pools and dynamics following fire disturbance in Scots pine (Pinus sylvesteris) stands in the boreal forests of eastern Lapland (Värriö Strict Nature Reserve), Finland, by sampling soils and measuring soil respiration from sample plots established in a chronosequence of different forest sites with 4 age classes, ranging from 2 years to 150 years after fire disturbance (2, 40, 60, 150 years after fire). The sites are situated north of the Arctic Circle, near to the northern timberline at an average of 300 m altitude. The overall/total C and N contents in the first 10 cm of the topsoil (all soil layers taken into consideration) were highest on old areas (fire 150 years ago) and lowest on new areas (fire 2-40 years ago). The highest C pools (1071 g m-2) were measured on old areas from top soil horizons (consisting of decomposing litter). The total C pool was at the old site was 2329 g m-2. The area where the fire was 2 years ago had the lowest total C pools, 1550 g m-2 respectively. The lowest C pools were measured from area where the fire was 60 years ago, and from B horizon, where the amount of C was 103 g m-2.When we compared the total C pools, the newly burned areas (areas where the fire was 2 - 40 years ago) formed one group (had similar values of total C) and old areas (areas where the fire was 60-150 years ago) formed another group with similar values. Same tendencies occurred also in total N pools, where we had lowest values where the fire was recently and the highest values in old areas. These results are also correlating to the soil respiration measurements, where we had lowest values of soil respiration in areas where fire was 2 years ago (0,047 mg CO2 s-1 m-2) and highest values in old areas (0,144 mg CO2 s-1 m-2). Our preliminary results show that forest fire has a substantial effect on the C and N pool in the litter layer decaying forest top soil layer, but not in the humus layer and in mineral soil layers. Soil respiration and biomass development showed similar chronological response to the time since the forest fire indicating that substantial proportion of the respiration was originating from the very top of the soil.

Koster, K.; Pumpanen, J.; Berninger, F.

2012-04-01

306

Disposal, recycle, and utilization of modified fly ash from hydrated lime injection into coal-fired utility boilers  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an assessment of the disposal, utilization, and recycle of a modified fly ash from the injection of hydrated lime into a coal-fired utility boiler. The hydrated lime injection process is being developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as a low-cost alternative for achieving moderate degrees of SO/sub 2/ control at coal-fired power plants. In this process, hydrated lime is injected into the upper furnace where the flue gas temperature is about 2200{sup 0}F (1200{sup 0}C). The hydrated lime decomposes, and the resulting quicklime, CaO, captures SO/sub 2/ according to a formula given.

Dahlin, R.S.; Lishawa, C.L.; Clark, C.C. (Southern Research Inst., Birmingham, AL (USA)); Nolan, P.S. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (US))

1987-01-01

307

Organic composition of aerosols from controlled forest fires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Controlled field fires were carried-out in May 2008 in the Gestosa area, in the upper zone of the Serra da Lousã mountain range in central Portugal. Particulate matter (PM2.5-10/PM2.5) in the smoke plume of these burnings has been sampled. A portion of the filters was analysed by a thermal-optical method to determine the elemental and organic carbon (EC and OC). The PM2.5 in the smoke plumes reached average levels up to 13,000 ?g.m-3. The total carbon in the coarse fraction concentration (PM2.5-10) was find to range between 49 and 331 µg.m-3. The elemental carbon represented less than 3% of the carbonaceous content in PM2.5-10 varying from 0.02 to 0.58 µg.m-3. The total carbon in the fine fraction (PM2.5) ranged between 295 and 6,126 µg.m-3. More than 95% of total carbon in PM2.5 is organic presenting concentrations between 0.42 and 0.94 µg.m-3. The particulate organic matter was then solvent extracted and fractionated by vacuum flash chromatography into 5 different classes of compounds whose structure were characterised by Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The chromatographic results were dominated by odd -numbered alkanes and acids with and even number of carbon atoms. The organic speciation also enabled the quantification of specific molecular tracers (e.g. steradienes and amyryl-alkanoates) The carbon preference index (CPI) for higher plant waxes was 2.32 and is 12.19 for PM2.5 and PM2.5-10, respectively, indicating a major incorporation of recent biological components into aerosol samples. Sugar alcohols and anhydrosugars, which also represented a significant aerosol component, were analysed by HPLC with electrochemical (amperometric) detection. The Levoglucosan-to-mannosan ratio to this burnings carried out at shrub-dominated Mediterranean forest was 11.65, 6.09 for PM2.5-10 and PM10 respectively. This information could be conducive to source apportionment studies.

Mirante, F.; Gonçalves, C.; Rocha, A. C.; Alves, C.; Evtyugina, M.; Nunes, T.; Pio, C.; Puxbaum, H.

2009-04-01

308

Management, Drought, and Fire Interact to Pre-Adapt an Eastern Bolivian Forest to Disturbance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Logging, drought, and fire are considered to be among the largest threats facing Amazonian forests. While interactions between two of these three threats have been investigated, interactions between all three have yet to be reported. We hypothesized that logging pre-adapts forests to drought by selecting for drought-tolerant species in gaps and skid trails; that drought most severely affects trees with exposed crowns; that fires kill mostly small trees and those with thin bark; and, that the interaction of these three factors pushes forests towards a smaller-statured and lower basal-area forest that is drought- and fire-tolerant. To address these hypotheses, we complemented a 12-year biennially-censused silvicultural experimental plots that were partially burned in 2004 with a seedling drought-tolerance experiment, bark-thickness measurements, and measurements of seedling survival during the most severe drought in at least 50 years. We find that drought-tolerant seedlings have only slightly higher survival rates than drought-intolerants as climatological water deficit increases, but drought-tolerants survive substantially better than drought-intolerant seedlings in logging gaps and skid-trails, thereby pre-adapting the community of tree species to future droughts. We confirm previous findings that emergent and dominant adult trees suffer more than from drought than co-dominant and sub-canopy trees, and that fire kills mostly small and thin barked trees. Combined, drought and fire tend to reduce forest stature. Overall, we confirmed that logging, drought, and fire pushed this forest towards one that, while reduced in height and basal area, is better adapted to future disturbances.

Shenkin, A.; Putz, F. "

2012-12-01

309

Potential forest fire danger over Northern Eurasia: Changes during the 20th century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant climatic changes over Northern Eurasia during the 20th century have been reflected in numerous variables of economic, social, and ecological interest, including the natural frequency of forest fires. For the former USSR, we are now using the Global Daily Climatology Network and a new Global Synoptic Data Network archive, GSDN, created jointly by U.S. National Climatic Data Center and Russian Research Institute for Hydrometeorological Information. Data from these archives (approximately 1500 of them having sufficiently long meteorological time series suitable for participation in our analyses) are employed to estimate systematic changes in indices used in the United States and Russia to assess potential forest fire danger. We use four indices: (1) Keetch-Byram Drought Index, (KBDI; this index was developed and widely used in the United States); (2) Nesterov, (3) Modified Nesterov, and (4) Zhdanko Indices (these indices were developed and widely used in Russia). Analyses show that after calibration, time series of the days with increased potential forest fire danger constructed using each of these three indices (a) are well correlated and (b) deliver similar conclusions about systematic changes in the weather conditions conducive to forest fires. Specifically, over the Eastern half of Northern Eurasia (Siberia and the Russian Far East) statistically significant increases in indices that characterize the weather conditions conducive to forest fires were found. These areas coincide with the areas of most significant warming during the past several decades south of the Arctic Circle. West of the Ural Mountains, the same indices show a steady decrease in the frequency of "dry weather summer days" during the past 60 yr. This study is corroborated with available statistics of forest fires and with observed changes in drought statistics in agricultural regions of Northern Eurasia.

Groisman, Pavel Ya.; Sherstyukov, Boris G.; Razuvaev, Vyacheslav N.; Knight, Richard W.; Enloe, Jesse G.; Stroumentova, Nina S.; Whitfield, Paul H.; Førland, Eirik; Hannsen-Bauer, Inger; Tuomenvirta, Heikki; Aleksandersson, Hans; Mescherskaya, Anna V.; Karl, Thomas R.

2007-04-01

310

Comparing different approaches for an effective monitoring of forest fires based on MSG/SEVIRI images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The remote sensing sensors on board of geostationary satellite, as consequence of the high frequency of the observations, allow, in principle, the monitoring of these phenomena characterized by a fast dynamics. The only condition for is that the events to be monitored should be enough strong to be recognizable notwithstanding the low spatial resolution of the present geostationary systems (MSG/SEVIRI, GOES Imager, MTSAT). Apart from meteorological phenomena other events, like those associated with forest fires and/or volcanic eruption, are characterized by a very fast dynamics. These events are also associated with a very strong signal that make them observable by geostationary satellite in a quasi-continuous way. However, in order to make possible the detection of small fires by using the low resolution multi-spectral imagery provided by geostationary sensor like SEVIRI (3x3 km2 at the equator) new algorithms, capable to exploit it high observation frequency, has been developed. This paper is devoted to show the results obtained by comparing some of these algorithms trying to highlight their advantages and limits. The algorithms herein considered are these developed by CRPSM (SFIDE®), UNIBAS/CNR (RST-FIRES) and ESA-ESRIN (MDIFRM). In general, the new approaches proposed by each one of them are capable to promptly detect small fires making possible an operational utilization of the satellite based fire detection system in the fire fighting phases. In fact, these algorithms are quite different from these introduced in the past and specifically devoted to fire detection using low resolution multi-spectral imagery on LEO (Low Earth Orbit) satellite. Thanks to these differences they are capable of detecting sub-hectare (0.2 ha) forest fires providing an useful instrument for monitoring quasi-continuously forest fires, estimating the FRP (Fire Radiative Power), evaluating the burned biomass, retrieving the emission in the atmosphere.

Laneve, Giovanni

2010-05-01

311

[Forest lighting fire forecasting for Daxing'anling Mountains based on MAXENT model].  

PubMed

Daxing'anling Mountains is one of the areas with the highest occurrence of forest lighting fire in Heilongjiang Province, and developing a lightning fire forecast model to accurately predict the forest fires in this area is of importance. Based on the data of forest lightning fires and environment variables, the MAXENT model was used to predict the lightning fire in Daxing' anling region. Firstly, we studied the collinear diagnostic of each environment variable, evaluated the importance of the environmental variables using training gain and the Jackknife method, and then evaluated the prediction accuracy of the MAXENT model using the max Kappa value and the AUC value. The results showed that the variance inflation factor (VIF) values of lightning energy and neutralized charge were 5.012 and 6.230, respectively. They were collinear with the other variables, so the model could not be used for training. Daily rainfall, the number of cloud-to-ground lightning, and current intensity of cloud-to-ground lightning were the three most important factors affecting the lightning fires in the forest, while the daily average wind speed and the slope was of less importance. With the increase of the proportion of test data, the max Kappa and AUC values were increased. The max Kappa values were above 0.75 and the average value was 0.772, while all of the AUC values were above 0.5 and the average value was 0. 859. With a moderate level of prediction accuracy being achieved, the MAXENT model could be used to predict forest lightning fire in Daxing'anling Mountains. PMID:25011305

Sun, Yu; Shi, Ming-Chang; Peng, Huan; Zhu, Pei-Lin; Liu, Si-Lin; Wu, Shi-Lei; He, Cheng; Chen, Feng

2014-04-01

312

Plerosphere and its role in reduction of emitted fine fly ash particles from pulverized coal-fired power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fine particles (PM2.5) emitted from the stacks of the coal-fired power plants are of environmental concern since they can easily enter the human respiratory track. The detailed study of the fly ash particles using scanning electron microscope\\/electron dispersive spectrometry (SEM\\/EDX) show that fine solid spherical particles (microspheres) are contained by the large cenosphere particles (>50?m) during the combustion process. The

F. Goodarzi; H. Sanei

2009-01-01

313

Graphitization of unburned carbon from oil-fired fly ash applied for anode materials of high power lithium ion batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unburned carbon is an industrial waste product of oil-fired fly ash. From the viewpoint of waste recycling, using ground unburned carbon with an average size of 6?m heat treatment at 2700°C, and both charge and discharge at 0.1C, yields the first columbic efficiency of about 93.6%. Moreover, after 50 cycles, the discharge capacity is 325.5mAhg?1, and the capacity retention is

Tzoo-Shing Yeh; Yu-Shiang Wu; Yuan-Haun Lee

2011-01-01

314

Transformations and Affinities for Sulfur of Chinese Shenmu Coal Ash in a Pulverized Coal-Fired Boiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

The self-desulfurization efficiency of Shenmu coal with a high initial Ca\\/S molar ratio of 2.02 was measured in a 1,025 t\\/h pulverized coal-fired boiler. It increases from 29% to 32% when the power capacity decreases from 100% to 70%. About 60% of the mineral matter and calcium element fed into the furnace is retained in the fly ash, while less

J. Cheng; J. H. Zhou; J. Z. Liu; X. Y. Cao; K. F. Cen

2009-01-01

315

Impact of prescribed fire and other factors on cheatgrass persistence in a Sierra Nevada ponderosa pine forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the reintroduction of fire Bromus tectorum has invaded the low elevation ponderosa pine forests in parts of Kings Canyon National Park, California. We used prescribed burns, other field manipulations, germination studies, and structural equation modelling, to investigate how fire and other factors affect the persistence of cheatgrass in these forests. Our studies show that altering burning season to coincide

Jon E. KeeleyA; Thomas W. McGinnisA

316

An investigation of possible effects of global warming on forest fires in Kentucky from 1945 to 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation seeks to find a relation between the frequencies of forest fires with acreage burned in the state of Kentucky and the factors of global warming. Under global warming, we focus on the components climate change and precipitation rate in hopes of establishing this relationship. In delving deeper into the effects of forest fires, or wildfires, we explore a

Samuel J. Ivy; Jamika Baltrop; Ashley J. Sullivan; Kevin Wingfield; Amanda Eure

317

Chemical and optical properties of 2003 Siberian forest fire smoke observed at the summit of Mt. Fuji, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boreal forest fires are one of the major emission sources of trace atmospheric constituents in mid and high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. From late May through early June 2003, dense smoke aerosols that originated from large forest fires in Siberia were monitored on the summit of Mt. Fuji (3776 m msl.), Japan, a free-tropospheric height monitoring site where measurements

Naoki Kaneyasu; Yasuhito Igarashi; Yousuke Sawa; Hiroshi Takahashi; Hideshige Takada; Hidetoshi Kumata; Robert Höller

2007-01-01

318

Forest Understory Fire in the Brazilian Amazon in ENSO and Non-ENSO Years: Area Burned and Committed Carbon Emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understory fires, which burn the floor of standing forests, are one of the most important types of forest impoverishment in the Amazon, especially during the severe droughts of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) episodes. However, the authors are aware of no estimates of the areal exten to f these fires for the Brazilian Amazon and, hence, of their contribution to Ama-

Ane Alencar; Daniel Nepstad; Maria Del Carmen Vera Diaz

2006-01-01

319

Chemistry of Forest Fires and Regional Haze with Emphasis on Southeast Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

- The current state of knowledge regarding the chemistry of forest fires and regional haze is reviewed. More than 100 compounds have been identified in wood smoke and many of these have also been observed in field studies. Products of biomass combustion can have different environmental effects: CO2 and CH4 may contribute to global warming, NOx and SO2 could contribute to rainwater acidity, whereas smoke particles and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) could affect human health. Also, photochemical reactions of primary emissions from biomass fires can lead to the production of secondary pollutants such as O3. Regional haze episodes caused by forest fires have occurred in SE Asia on several occasions during the 1990s and the reported studies of these episodes are reviewed. Only total suspended particles (TSP) were determined in the earlier studies, and more comprehensive chemical investigations have only emerged during the more recent episodes, notably those of 1997 and 1998. To date, most of the measurements have centred on criteria pollutants (SO2, NO2, CO, O3 and PM10), however, other pollutants (e.g., VOCs, PAHs) have also been determined in certain studies. Rainwater analyses suggest that forest fires do not have a major acidifying effect because dissolved acidic gases (e.g., SO2) are neutralised by alkaline substances (e.g., Ca, Mg, K) that are also emitted by forest fires. There is a need for further laboratory and field studies in order to investigate important pollutant transformation mechanisms.

Radojevic, M.

320

Satellite monitoring for carbon monoxide and particulate matter during forest fire episodes in Northern Thailand.  

PubMed

This study explored the use of satellite data to monitor carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM) in Northern Thailand during the dry season when forest fires are known to be an important cause of air pollution. Satellite data, including Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) CO, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer aerosol optical depth (MODIS AOD), and MODIS fire hotspots, were analyzed with air pollution data measured at nine automatic air quality monitoring stations in the study area for February-April months of 2008-2010. The correlation analysis showed that daily CO and PM with size below 10 ?m (PM10) were associated with the forest fire hotspot counts, especially in the rural areas with the maximum correlation coefficient (R) of 0.59 for CO and 0.65 for PM10. The correlations between MODIS AOD and PM10, between MOPITT CO and CO, and between MODIS AOD and MOPITT CO were also analyzed, confirming the association between these variables. Two forest fire episodes were selected, and the dispersion of pollution plumes was studied using the MOPITT CO total column and MODIS AOD data, together with the surface wind vectors. The results showed consistency between the plume dispersion, locations of dense hotspots, ground monitoring data, and prevalent winds. The satellite data were shown to be useful in monitoring the regional transport of forest fire plumes. PMID:24326733

Sukitpaneenit, Manlika; Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi

2014-04-01

321

Forest Understory Fire in the Brazilian Amazon in ENSO and Non-ENSO Years: Area Burned and Committed Carbon Emissions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

"Understory fires" that burn the floor of standing forests are one of the most important types of forest impoverishment in the Amazon, especially during the severe droughts of El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) episodes. However, we are aware of no estimates of the areal extent of these fires for the Brazilian Amazon and, hence, of their contribution to Amazon carbon fluxes to the atmosphere. We calculated the area of forest understory fires for the Brazilian Amazon region during an El Nino (1998) and a non El Nino (1995) year based on forest fire scars mapped with satellite images for three locations in eastern and southern Amazon, where deforestation is concentrated. The three study sites represented a gradient of both forest types and dry season severity. The burning scar maps were used to determine how the percentage of forest that burned varied with distance from agricultural clearings. These spatial functions were then applied to similar forest/climate combinations outside of the study sites to derive an initial estimate for the Brazilian Amazon. Ninety-one percent of the forest area that burned in the study sites was within the first kilometer of a clearing for the non ENSO year and within the first four kilometers for the ENSO year. The area of forest burned by understory forest fire during the severe drought (ENSO) year (3.9 millions of hectares) was 13 times greater than the area burned during the average rainfall year (0.2 million hectares), and twice the area of annual deforestation rate. Dense forest was, proportionally, the forest area most affected by understory fires during the El Nino year, while understory fires were concentrated in transitional forests during the year of average rainfall. Our estimate of aboveground tree biomass killed by fire ranged from 0.06 Pg to 0.38 Pg during the ENSO and from 0,004 Pg to 0,024 Pg during the non ENSO.

Alencar, A.; Nepstad, D.; Ver-Diaz, M. Del. C.

2004-01-01

322

Biomass and nutrient dynamics associated with slash fires in neotropical dry forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unprecedented rates of deforestation and biomass burning in tropical dry forests are dramatically influencing biogeochemical cycles, resulting in resource depletion, declines in biodiversity, and atmospheric pollution. We quantified the effects of deforestation and varying levels of slash-fire severity on nutrient losses and redistribution in a second-growth tropical dry forest ([open quotes]Caatinga[close quotes]) near Serra Talhada, Pernambuco, Brazil. Total aboveground biomass

J. B. Kauffman; D. L. Cummings; R. L. Jr. Sanford; I. H. Salcedo; E. V. S. B. Sampaio

1993-01-01

323

Solution chemistry profiles of mixed-conifer forests before and after fire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solution chemistry profiles of mixed-conifer forests in granitic catchments of the Sierra Nevada were measured for three years before (1987–1990) and three years after (1990–1993) prescribed fire. Wet deposition, throughfall and soil solution samplers were installed in both white-fir and giant-sequoia dominated forest stands underlain by poorly developed inceptisols. Stream water chemistry was monitored as part of an ongoing study

Jon Chorover; Peter M. Vitousek; Daniel A. Everson; Anne M. Esperanza; Douglas Turner

1994-01-01

324

Relative effects of climatic and local factors on fire occurrence in boreal forest landscapes of northeastern China.  

PubMed

Fire significantly affects species composition, structure, and ecosystem processes in boreal forests. Our study objective was to identify the relative effects of climate, vegetation, topography, and human activity on fire occurrence in Chinese boreal forest landscapes. We used historical fire ignition for 1966-2005 and the statistical method of Kernel Density Estimation to derive fire-occurrence density (number of fires/km(2)). The Random Forest models were used to quantify the relative effects of climate, vegetation, topography, and human activity on fire-occurrence density. Our results showed that fire-occurrence density tended to be spatially clustered. Human-caused fire occurrence was highly clustered at the southern part of the region, where human population density is high (comprising about 75% of the area's population). In the north-central areas where elevations are the highest in the region and less densely populated, lightning-caused fires were clustered. Climate factors (e.g., fine fuel and duff moisture content) were important at both regional and landscape scales. Human activity factors (e.g., distance to nearest settlement and road) were secondary to climate as the primary fire occurrence factors. Predictions of fire regimes often assume a strong linkage between climate and fire but usually with less emphasis placed on the effects of local factors such as human activity. We therefore suggest that accurate forecasting of fire regime should include human influences such as those measured by forest proximity to roads and human settlements. PMID:24960228

Wu, Zhiwei; He, Hong S; Yang, Jian; Liu, Zhihua; Liang, Yu

2014-09-15

325

Fire and Aquatic Ecosystems in Forested Biomes of North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthesis of the literature suggests that physical, chemical, and biological elements of a watershed interact with long-term climate to influence fire regime, and that these factors, in concordance with the postfire vegetation mosaic, combine with local-scale weather to govern the trajectory and magnitude of change following a fire event. Perturbation associated with hydrological processes is probably the primary factor influencing

Robert E. Gresswell

1999-01-01

326

The Perfect Fire? Aging Stands in the Alaskan Boreal Forest Encounter Global Warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ecological responses of the boreal forest to climate change have global significance because of the large amount of carbon stored in its soils and biomass. Fire, mostly ignited by lightning, is the keystone disturbance agent in this forest. It triggers cycles of forest succession in its wake, and burning is the main avenue for carbon release back to the atmosphere. We studied the interactions between climate, fires, forest succession, and the age distributions of forest stands in a 60-million hectare region of Interior Alaska over the past 150 years. First we developed a statistical model relating climate to area burned over the period of record (1950-2005). Next we combined this model with climate reconstructions to extend the estimates of area burned back to A.D. 1860. We checked the resultant fire history against stand-age data from 5000 living trees sampled in the study region. Then we fed the history of area burned into a computer model that simulates forest succession on real landscapes. Results show striking changes in the means and variances of stand ages over the last 150 years in response to interactions between climate change and the successional dynamics of the boreal forest. Average stand age increased steadily between 1880 and 1940 and has fluctuated at high levels since then, indicating a historically unusual abundance of flammable stands. This accumulation of old stands has created the potential for unusually large fires. Some support for this conclusion comes from the unprecedented large sizes of the areas burned in 2004 and 2005. Further support comes when we add to the analysis the forecasts made by global climate models for Alaska over the next twenty years. Bracketing estimates for climate warming and precipitation change suggest that warmer, drier summers combined with aging forest stands will cause a series of unusually large fires, the like of which have not occurred in the region for >150 years. We infer that the enhanced burning of the Alaska boreal forest over the next 20 years will increase the release of trace gases from this region. We speculate that the forest will be transformed from being conifer dominated to one dominated by deciduous tree species, which could have sweeping effects on the region's other biota, its hydrology, and the role of the boreal forest in the global carbon cycle.

Mann, D.; Rupp, S.; Duffy, P.

2008-12-01

327

Using Unplanned Fires to Help Suppressing Future Large Fires in Mediterranean Forests  

PubMed Central

Despite the huge resources invested in fire suppression, the impact of wildfires has considerably increased across the Mediterranean region since the second half of the 20th century. Modulating fire suppression efforts in mild weather conditions is an appealing but hotly-debated strategy to use unplanned fires and associated fuel reduction to create opportunities for suppression of large fires in future adverse weather conditions. Using a spatially-explicit fire–succession model developed for Catalonia (Spain), we assessed this opportunistic policy by using two fire suppression strategies that reproduce how firefighters in extreme weather conditions exploit previous fire scars as firefighting opportunities. We designed scenarios by combining different levels of fire suppression efficiency and climatic severity for a 50-year period (2000–2050). An opportunistic fire suppression policy induced large-scale changes in fire regimes and decreased the area burnt under extreme climate conditions, but only accounted for up to 18–22% of the area to be burnt in reference scenarios. The area suppressed in adverse years tended to increase in scenarios with increasing amounts of area burnt during years dominated by mild weather. Climate change had counterintuitive effects on opportunistic fire suppression strategies. Climate warming increased the incidence of large fires under uncontrolled conditions but also indirectly increased opportunities for enhanced fire suppression. Therefore, to shift fire suppression opportunities from adverse to mild years, we would require a disproportionately large amount of area burnt in mild years. We conclude that the strategic planning of fire suppression resources has the potential to become an important cost-effective fuel-reduction strategy at large spatial scale. We do however suggest that this strategy should probably be accompanied by other fuel-reduction treatments applied at broad scales if large-scale changes in fire regimes are to be achieved, especially in the wider context of climate change.

Regos, Adrian; Aquilue, Nuria; Retana, Javier; De Caceres, Miquel; Brotons, Lluis

2014-01-01

328

Using unplanned fires to help suppressing future large fires in Mediterranean forests.  

PubMed

Despite the huge resources invested in fire suppression, the impact of wildfires has considerably increased across the Mediterranean region since the second half of the 20th century. Modulating fire suppression efforts in mild weather conditions is an appealing but hotly-debated strategy to use unplanned fires and associated fuel reduction to create opportunities for suppression of large fires in future adverse weather conditions. Using a spatially-explicit fire-succession model developed for Catalonia (Spain), we assessed this opportunistic policy by using two fire suppression strategies that reproduce how firefighters in extreme weather conditions exploit previous fire scars as firefighting opportunities. We designed scenarios by combining different levels of fire suppression efficiency and climatic severity for a 50-year period (2000-2050). An opportunistic fire suppression policy induced large-scale changes in fire regimes and decreased the area burnt under extreme climate conditions, but only accounted for up to 18-22% of the area to be burnt in reference scenarios. The area suppressed in adverse years tended to increase in scenarios with increasing amounts of area burnt during years dominated by mild weather. Climate change had counterintuitive effects on opportunistic fire suppression strategies. Climate warming increased the incidence of large fires under uncontrolled conditions but also indirectly increased opportunities for enhanced fire suppression. Therefore, to shift fire suppression opportunities from adverse to mild years, we would require a disproportionately large amount of area burnt in mild years. We conclude that the strategic planning of fire suppression resources has the potential to become an important cost-effective fuel-reduction strategy at large spatial scale. We do however suggest that this strategy should probably be accompanied by other fuel-reduction treatments applied at broad scales if large-scale changes in fire regimes are to be achieved, especially in the wider context of climate change. PMID:24727853

Regos, Adrián; Aquilué, Núria; Retana, Javier; De Cáceres, Miquel; Brotons, Lluís

2014-01-01

329

The leaching behavior of cadmium, arsenic, zinc, and chlorine in coal and its ash from coal-fired power plant  

SciTech Connect

The leaching experiment of feed coal (c) and its laboratory high-temperature ash (HA), fly ash (FA), and bottom ash (BA) from a Chinese coal-fired power plant were carried out using column leaching under different pH conditions (pH = 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, and 7.5, respectively) and different leaching durations (up to 80 h). The leaching behaviors of As, Cd, Zn, and Cl were investigated. The results showed that the elements occurring in water-soluble, ion-exchangeable, and Fe-Mn oxide phases are potentially leachable, whereas those in association with organic matter and silicate are less likely to be leached. The cumulative percent of Zn, As, Cl, and Cd leached from C and ash samples increase with decrease in pH. The leaching rate of As and Cl in C and ash samples are higher in comparison with Zn and Cd. However, the maximum concentrations of Cd in the leachate from C, HA, FA, and BA are in excess of or very close to the maximum standard concentrations permitted in the Chinese Standards for Drinking Water and Surface Water. The ultimate concentrations of As, Cd, and Cl in the leachates did not attain equilibrium after the leaching of 80 h; therefore, longer leaching experiments are necessary to evaluate the impact of these hazardous trace elements on aqueous environment.

Zhao, F.H.; Peng, S.P.; Zheng, B.S.; Tang, Y.G.; Cong, Z.Y.; Ren, D.Y. [China University of Mining & Technology, Beijing (China). Dept. of Resource & Earth Science

2006-01-15

330

Valuing fire planning alternatives in forest restoration: Using derived demand to integrate economics with ecological restoration.  

PubMed

Assessing the value of fire planning alternatives is challenging because fire affects a wide array of ecosystem, market, and social values. Wildland fire management is increasingly used to address forest restoration while pragmatic approaches to assessing the value of fire management have yet to be developed. Earlier approaches to assessing the value of forest management relied on connecting site valuation with management variables. While sound, such analysis is too narrow to account for a broad range of ecosystem services. The metric fire regime condition class (FRCC) was developed from ecosystem management philosophy, but it is entirely biophysical. Its lack of economic information cripples its utility to support decision-making. We present a means of defining and assessing the deviation of a landscape from its desired fire management condition by re-framing the fire management problem as one of derived demand. This valued deviation establishes a performance metric for wildland fire management. Using a case study, we display the deviation across a landscape and sum the deviations to produce a summary metric. This summary metric is used to assess the value of alternative fire management strategies on improving the fire management condition toward its desired state. It enables us to identify which sites are most valuable to restore, even when they are in the same fire regime condition class. The case study site exemplifies how a wide range of disparate values, such as watershed, wildlife, property and timber, can be incorporated into a single landscape assessment. The analysis presented here leverages previous research on environmental capital value and non-market valuation by integrating ecosystem management, restoration, and microeconomics. PMID:24878985

Rideout, Douglas B; Ziesler, Pamela S; Kernohan, Nicole J

2014-08-01

331

Sensitivity analysis of a FMC model for improving forecasting forest fires: Comparison with real fires in Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fires continue to be a very dangerous and extreme violent episode jeopardizing the human lives and owns. Spain is plagued by forest and brush fires every summer, when extremely dry weather sets in along with high temperatures. The use of fire behavior models requires the availability of high resolution environmental and fuel data; in absence of realistic data, errors on the simulated fire spread con be compounded to produce o decrease of the spatial and temporal accuracy of predicted data. In this work we have carried out a sensitivity analysis of different components of the fire model and particularly the fuel moisture content (FMC) such as microphysics and solar radiation model. Three different real fire models have been used: Murcia (September, 7, 2010 19h09 and 9 hours duration), Gabiel (March, 7, 2007, 22h15 and 38 hours duration) and Culla (Marzo, 7, 2007, 23h36 and 37 hours duration). We use the 100 m European Corine Land Cover map. We use the WRF-Fire model developed by NCAR (USA). The WRF mode is run using the GFS global data and over the Iberian Peninsula with 15 km spatial resolution. We apply the nesting approach over the fires areas (located in the South East of the Iberian Peninsula) with 3 km, 1 km and 200 m spatial resolution. The Fire module included into WRF is run with 20 m spatial resolution and the landuse is interpolated from the Corine 100 m land use map. The results show that the Thompson et al. microphysics scheme and the RRTM solar radiation scheme are those with the best combination using a specific counting score to classify the goodness of the results compare with the real burned area. Those pixels not burned by the simulations but burned by the observational data sets are penalized double compare with the vice versa process. The NDVI obtained by satellite on the day of starting the fire is included in the simulations and a substantial improving in the final score is obtained.

San Jose, Roberto; Perez, Juan Luis; Gonzalez-Barras, Rosa M.; Pecci, Julia; Palacios, Marino

2014-05-01

332

Implementing watershed investment programs to restore fire-adapted forests for watershed services  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Payments for ecosystems services and watershed investment programs have created new solutions for restoring upland fire-adapted forests to support downstream surface-water and groundwater uses. Water from upland forests supports not only a significant percentage of the public water supplies in the U.S., but also extensive riparian, aquatic, and groundwater dependent ecosystems. Many rare, endemic, threatened, and endangered species are supported by the surface-water and groundwater generated from the forested uplands. In the Ponderosa pine forests of the Southwestern U.S., post Euro-American settlement forest management practices, coupled with climate change, has significantly impacted watershed functionality by increasing vegetation cover and associated evapotranspiration and decreasing runoff and groundwater recharge. A large Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program project known as the Four Forests Restoration Initiative is developing landscape scale processes to make the forests connected to these watersheds more resilient. However, there are challenges in financing the initial forest treatments and subsequent maintenance treatments while garnering supportive public opinion to forest thinning projects. A solution called the Flagstaff Watershed Protection Project is utilizing City tax dollars collected through a public bond to finance forest treatments. Exit polling from the bond election documented the reasons for the 73 % affirmative vote on the bond measure. These forest treatments have included in their actions restoration of associated ephemeral stream channels and spring ecosystems, but resources still need to be identified for these actions. A statewide strategy for developing additional forest restoration resources outside of the federal financing is being explored by state and local business and governmental leaders. Coordination, synthesis, and modeling supported by a NSF Water Sustainability and Climate project has been instrumental in facilitating the forest restoration and watershed health decision making processes.

Springer, A. E.

2013-12-01

333

Fire Severity Filters Regeneration Traits to Shape Community Assembly in Alaska's Boreal Forest  

PubMed Central

Disturbance can both initiate and shape patterns of secondary succession by affecting processes of community assembly. Thus, understanding assembly rules is a key element of predicting ecological responses to changing disturbance regimes. We measured the composition and trait characteristics of plant communities early after widespread wildfires in Alaska to assess how variations in disturbance characteristics influenced the relative success of different plant regeneration strategies. We compared patterns of post-fire community composition and abundance of regeneration traits across a range of fire severities within a single pre-fire forest type– black spruce forests of Interior Alaska. Patterns of community composition, as captured by multivariate ordination with nonmetric multidimensional scaling, were primarily related to gradients in fire severity (biomass combustion and residual vegetation) and secondarily to gradients in soil pH and regional climate. This pattern was apparent in both the full dataset (n?=?87 sites) and for a reduced subset of sites (n?=?49) that minimized the correlation between site moisture and fire severity. Changes in community composition across the fire-severity gradient in Alaska were strongly correlated to variations in plant regeneration strategy and rooting depth. The tight coupling of fire severity with regeneration traits and vegetation composition after fire supports the hypothesis that disturbance characteristics influence patterns of community assembly by affecting the relative success of different regeneration strategies. This study further demonstrated that variations in disturbance characteristics can dominate over environmental constraints in determining early patterns of community assembly. By affecting the success of regeneration traits, changes in fire regime directly shape the outcomes of community assembly, and thus may override the effects of slower environmental change on boreal forest composition.

Bernhardt, Emily L.; Chapin, F. Stuart

2013-01-01

334

Geochemistry of coals, coal ashes and combustion wastes from coal-fired power stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contents, concentration trends, and modes of occurrence of 67 elements in coals, coal ashes, and combustion wastes at eleven Bulgarian thermoelectric power stations (TPS) were studied. A number of trace elements in coal and coal ash have concentrations greater than their respective worldwide average contents (Clarke values). The highest values in coal ash are displayed by elements such as Rb,

Stanislav V Vassilev; Christina G Vassileva

1997-01-01

335

Fire resistant behavior of newly developed bottom-ash-based cementitious coating applied concrete tunnel lining under RABT fire loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

When tunnels are exposed to prolonged fires, they are likely to suffer heavy damage and partial collapse. Because of the difficulties involved in repairing tunnels damaged by fire, the application of fire protection coatings as a preventive measure has been widely used. The application of such coatings is a relatively simple construction method that is effective in protecting tunnel structures

Jang-Ho Jay Kim; Yun Mook Lim; Jong Pil Won; Hae Geun Park

2010-01-01

336

Smoke monitoring and measurement using image processing: application to forest fires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Smoke detection and monitoring is required for the implementation of advanced forest fire fighting strategies and validation of smoke dispersion models. The latter involve the measurement of smoke column properties. The method proposed in this paper is based on the application of computer-based image processing techniques to visual images taken from fire-spread tests. The method presented involves the application of wavelets and optical flow for fire smoke detection and monitoring. A set of experimental results are reported in the paper, showing the interest of the presented system.

Gomez-Rodriguez, F.; Arrue, B. C.; Ollero, A.

2003-09-01

337

Monitoring of the effects of fire in North American boreal forests using ERS SAR imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

ERS synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery represents a tool for monitoring the effects of fires in boreal regions. Fire-scar signatures from ERS SAR collected over Canada and Alaska are presented. The temporal variability exhibited throughout the growing season is underlined. The investigation showed that these signatures have a seasonal trend related to the patterns of soil moisture originating from snow melts in the spring and precipitation during the growing season. These signatures appear in all the regions of the North American boreal forest and remain visible for up to 13 years after a fire.

Kasischke, E. S.; French, N. H. F.; Bourgeau-Chavez, L. L.

1997-01-01

338

Decadal time-scale monitoring of forest fires in Similipal Biosphere Reserve, India using remote sensing and GIS.  

PubMed

Analyzing the spatial extent and distribution of forest fires is essential for sustainable forest resource management. There is no comprehensive data existing on forest fires on a regular basis in Biosphere Reserves of India. The present work have been carried out to locate and estimate the spatial extent of forest burnt areas using Resourcesat-1 data and fire frequency covering decadal fire events (2004-2013) in Similipal Biosphere Reserve. The anomalous quantity of forest burnt area was recorded during 2009 as 1,014.7 km(2). There was inconsistency in the fire susceptibility across the different vegetation types. The spatial analysis of burnt area shows that an area of 34.2 % of dry deciduous forests, followed by tree savannah, shrub savannah, and grasslands affected by fires in 2013. The analysis based on decadal time scale satellite data reveals that an area of 2,175.9 km(2) (59.6 % of total vegetation cover) has been affected by varied rate of frequency of forest fires. Fire density pattern indicates low count of burnt area patches in 2013 estimated at 1,017 and high count at 1,916 in 2004. An estimate of fire risk area over a decade identifies 12.2 km(2) is experiencing an annual fire damage. Summing the fire frequency data across the grids (each 1 km(2)) indicates 1,211 (26 %) grids are having very high disturbance regimes due to repeated fires in all the 10 years, followed by 711 grids in 9 years and 418 in 8 years and 382 in 7 years. The spatial database offers excellent opportunities to understand the ecological impact of fires on biodiversity and is helpful in formulating conservation action plans. PMID:24473680

Saranya, K R L; Reddy, C Sudhakar; Rao, P V V Prasada; Jha, C S

2014-05-01

339

Use of MODIS products to simplify and evaluate a forest fire plume dispersion model for PM 10 exposure assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plume dispersion models may improve assessment of the health effects associated with forest fire smoke, but they require considerable expertise in atmospheric and fire sciences to initialize and evaluate. Products from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) sensors can simplify the process by providing (1) estimates of fire location, size and emission rates, and (2) data useful for assessing model output.

Sarah B. Henderson; Benjamin Burkholder; Peter L. Jackson; Michael Brauer; Charles Ichoku

2008-01-01

340

The influence of fires on the properties of forest soils in the Amur River basin (the Norskii Reserve)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of forest fires on the properties of taiga brown, gley taiga brown, and alluvial bog soils widespread in the area of the Norskii Reserve (the Amur River basin) was studied. During several years after the fire, the humus content increased, especially in the soils subjected to fires of high intensity. In the soils of steep slopes, the humus

A. S. Tsibart; A. N. Gennadiev

2008-01-01

341

Forest-Fire Prevention Knowledge and Attitudes of Residents of Utah County, Utah, With Comparisons to Butte County, California  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of land for outdoor recreation is becoming more and more important, and the increased use of the land has raised the risk of man-caused forest fires. The purposes of this study were (1) to determine the kinds and numbers of visits that people are making to public forests, (2) to identify the social characteristics of forest users, (3) to…

Christiansen, John R.; And Others

342

A data model for route planning in the case of forest fires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to guide relief vehicles to safety and quickly pass through environments affected by fires is critical in fighting forest fires. In this paper, we focus on route determination in the case of forest fires, and propose a data model that supports finding paths among moving obstacles. This data model captures both static information, such as the type of the response team, the topology of the road network, and dynamic information, such as sensor information, changing availabilities of roads during disasters, and the position of the vehicle. We use a fire simulation model to calculate the fire evolution. The spread of the fire is represented as movements of obstacles that block the responders? path in the road network. To calculate safe and optimal routes avoiding obstacles, the A* algorithm is extended to consider the predicted availabilities of roads. We prove the optimality of the path calculated by our algorithm and then evaluate it in simulated scenarios. The results show that our model and algorithm are effective in planning routes that avoid one or more fire-affected areas and that the outlook for further investigation is promising.

Wang, Zhiyong; Zlatanova, Sisi; Moreno, Aitor; van Oosterom, Peter; Toro, Carlos

2014-07-01

343

Responses of endoparasites in red-backed voles (Myodes gapperi) to natural forest fires.  

PubMed

We investigated the responses of endoparasites in red-backed voles (Myodes gapperi) to fire in a boreal forest ecosystem. Because fire affects the environmental conditions and biodiversity of the forest ecosystem, the life cycle of parasites may also be affected because of the absence of intermediate hosts in the environment. We hypothesized that the prevalence of endoparasites would be influenced by the parasites' life cycle and habitat characteristics (forest vs. burned). We found that prevalence of endoparasites was different between forested and burned habitats (chi(2)=37.49, P<0.001). Cestodes, nematodes, and coccidia showed different responses to habitat alteration (chi(2)=37.43, P<0.001). There was a higher prevalence of cestodes in forested (53.5%) than burned habitats (35.0%). However, there was higher prevalence of coccidia in burned (55.0%) than forested (42.9%) habitats. Furthermore, although prevalence of cestode infection was lower in burned than forested habitat, individuals in both habitats had similar intensities of cestodes. Our study showed that habitat can significantly affect the parasite communities, depending on specific parasite life cycles. PMID:20090027

Hwang, Y T; Gardner, S L; Millar, J S

2010-01-01

344

Fuel reduction and coarse woody debris dynamics with early season and late season prescribed fire in a Sierra Nevada mixed conifer forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire exclusion has led to an unnatural accumulation and greater spatial continuity of organic material on the ground in many forests. This material serves both as potential fuel for forest fires and habitat for a large array of forest species. Managers must balance fuel reduction to reduce wildfire hazard with fuel retention targets to maintain other forest functions. This study

Eric E. Knapp; Jon E. Keeley; Elizabeth A. Ballenger; Teresa J. Brennan

2005-01-01

345

The 1998 Forest Fires in East Kalimantan (Indonesia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boosted by the 1997\\/98 El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomena, uncontrolled fires have destroyed huge areas of rainforest and bush land in Indonesia. Thick smoke covered large areas over SE Asia for months. Due to their cloud and haze penetrating capability SAR sensors could complement existing fire monitoring systems based on NOAA-AVHRR data, providing a 900 times higher spatial resolution. This

Florian Siegert; Anja A. Hoffmann

2000-01-01

346

Fire and aquatic ecosystems in forested biomes of North America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Synthesis of the literature suggests that physical, chemical, and biological elements of a watershed interact with long-term climate to influence fire regime, and that these factors, in concordance with the postfire vegetation mosaic, combine with local-scale weather to govern the trajectory and magnitude of change following a fire event. Perturbation associated with hydrological processes is probably the primary factor influencing postfire persistence of fishes, benthic macroinvertebrates, and diatoms in fluvial systems. It is apparent that salmonids have evolved strategies to survive perturbations occurring at the frequency of wildland fires (100a??102 years), but local populations of a species may be more ephemeral. Habitat alteration probably has the greatest impact on individual organisms and local populations that are the least mobile, and reinvasion will be most rapid by aquatic organisms with high mobility. It is becoming increasingly apparent that during the past century fire suppression has altered fire regimes in some vegetation types, and consequently, the probability of large stand-replacing fires has increased in those areas. Current evidence suggests, however, that even in the case of extensive high-severity fires, local extirpation of fishes is patchy, and recolonization is rapid. Lasting detrimental effects on fish populations have been limited to areas where native populations have declined and become increasingly isolated because of anthropogenic activities. A strategy of protecting robust aquatic communities and restoring aquatic habitat structure and life history complexity in degraded areas may be the most effective means for insuring the persistence of native biota where the probability of large-scale fires has increased.

Gresswell, Robert E.

1999-01-01

347

Direct identification of hazardous elements in ultra-fine and nanominerals from coal fly ash produced during diesel co-firing.  

PubMed

This study has provided an initial assessment of the environmental impacts and potential health effects associated with coal fly ash produced during diesel co-firing. Many hazardous elements that are typically detected by multifaceted chemical characterization by XRD, petrology, FE-SEM/EDS, and HR-TEM/SEAD/FFT/EDS in ultra-fine compounds and nanominerals from the co-fired coal fly ashes (CFAs). It provided an in-depth understanding of coal ash produced during diesel co-firing. Several of the neoformed ultra-fine compounds and nano-minerals found in the coal ashes are the same as those commonly associated with oxidation/transformation of aluminosilicates, carbonates, sulphides and phosphates. PMID:24157478

Martinello, Kátia; Oliveira, Marcos L S; Molossi, Fernando A; Ramos, Claudete G; Teixeira, Elba C; Kautzmann, Rubens M; Silva, Luis F O

2014-02-01

348

Persistent Effects of Fire Severity on Early Successional Forests in Interior Alaska  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There has been a recent increase in the frequency and extent of wildfires in interior Alaska, and this trend is predicted to continue under a warming climate. Although less well documented, corresponding increases in fire severity are expected. Previous research from boreal forests in Alaska and western Canada indicate that severe fire promotes the recruitment of deciduous tree species and decreases the relative abundance of black spruce (Picea mariana) immediately after fire. Here we extend these observations by (1) examining changes in patterns of aspen and spruce density and biomass that occurred during the first two decades of post-fire succession, and (2) comparing patterns of tree composition in relation to variations in post-fire organic layer depth in four burned black spruce forests in interior Alaska after 10-20 years of succession.Wefound that initial effects of fire severity on recruitment and establishment of aspen and black spruce were maintained by subsequent effects of organic layer depth and initial plant biomass on plant growth during post-fire succession. The proportional contribution of aspen (Populus tremuloides) to total stand biomass remained above 90% during the first and second decades of succession in severely burned sites, while in lightly burned sites the proportional contribution of aspen was reduced due to a 40- fold increase in spruce biomass in these sites. Relationships between organic layer depth and stem density and biomass were consistently negative for aspen, and positive or neutral for black spruce in all four burns. Our results suggest that initial effects of post-fire organic layer depths on deciduous recruitment are likely to translate into a prolonged phase of deciduous dominance during post-fire succession in severely burned stands. This shift in vegetation distribution has important implications for climate-albedo feedbacks, future fire regime, wildlife habitat quality and natural resources for indigenous subsistence activities in interior Alaska.

Shenoy, Aditi; Johnstone, Jill F.; Kasischke, Eric S.; Kielland, Knut

2011-01-01

349

Early forest fire detection using principal component analysis of infrared video  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A land-based early forest fire detection scheme which exploits the infrared (IR) temporal signature of fire plume is described. Unlike common land-based and/or satellite-based techniques which rely on measurement and discrimination of fire plume directly from its infrared and/or visible reflectance imagery, this scheme is based on exploitation of fire plume temporal signature, i.e., temperature fluctuations over the observation period. The method is simple and relatively inexpensive to implement. The false alarm rate is expected to be lower that of the existing methods. Land-based infrared (IR) cameras are installed in a step-stare-mode configuration in potential fire-prone areas. The sequence of IR video frames from each camera is digitally processed to determine if there is a fire within camera's field of view (FOV). The process involves applying a principal component transformation (PCT) to each nonoverlapping sequence of video frames from the camera to produce a corresponding sequence of temporally-uncorrelated principal component (PC) images. Since pixels that form a fire plume exhibit statistically similar temporal variation (i.e., have a unique temporal signature), PCT conveniently renders the footprint/trace of the fire plume in low-order PC images. The PC image which best reveals the trace of the fire plume is then selected and spatially filtered via simple threshold and median filter operations to remove the background clutter, such as traces of moving tree branches due to wind.

Saghri, John A.; Radjabi, Ryan; Jacobs, John T.

2011-09-01

350

The influence, implications and feedbacks of an intensifying fire regime in Alaska’s boreal forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires are the primary disturbance agent in boreal forests. Fires cause short-lived emissions but are followed by decades of vegetative regrowth with water and nutrient cycling modified relative to pre-fire conditions. In addition, surface characteristics change during both the fire event and the ensuing regrowth, thus modify albedo related radiative forcings. Extreme fire years, in terms of the number and intensity of fires and the extent of area burned, have become more prevalent in Alaska as the climate has warmed. Continuation of this trend suggests a new fire regime is likely to change successional trajectories of the boreal landscape and associated feedbacks to climate. Using a newly developed map of deciduous versus evergreen (D:E) tree cover, and a database of fire events, we investigated how increased fire severity in Alaska promotes successional trajectories that favor increased abundance of deciduous trees. The D:E map was created using MODIS observations at 500m spatial resolution and field data on stand composition, combined with higher resolution Landsat imagery. Our results indicate that burn severity influenced the relative abundance of deciduous and evergreen vegetation in the decades following fire, but varied locally with the length of the growing season and other site conditions. We combined these findings with MODIS-derived albedo products and field observations, as well as with modeled estimates of carbon pools, to estimate the changes in carbon storage and radiative forcings associated with vegetation succession following disturbance over the past half century.

Beck, P. S.; Goetz, S. J.; Mack, M. C.; Alexander, H. D.; Randerson, J. T.; Loranty, M. M.; Jin, Y.

2009-12-01

351

Assessment of forest fire danger conditions in southern Spain from NOAA images and meteorological indices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, the estimation of fire danger is performed from meteoro- logical danger indices that are computed for single locations, where the weather stations are located. Frequently, these locations are far from forested areas, and there is a need to spatially interpolate danger variables. Methods for spatial interpolation are always prone to error, especially for those variables that show a greater

I. Aguado; E. Chuvieco; P. Martín; J. Salas

2003-01-01

352

An evaluation of the utility of NOAA AVHRR images for monitoring forest fire risk in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal objective of this study is the evaluation of the potentiality of the low spatial resolution and high temporal resolution images,such as the images scanned by the AVHRR sensor of the NOAA-9 satellite. These imagesare used for detection of forest fire in areas prone to be affected and for determining physiological conditions of vegetationcover during the year, in order

S. López; F. Gonzá; R. Llop; J. M. Cuevas

1991-01-01

353

Potential forest fire danger over Northern Eurasia: Changes during the 20th century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant climatic changes over Northern Eurasia during the 20th century have been reflected in numerous variables of economic, social, and ecological interest, including the natural frequency of forest fires. For the former USSR, we are now using the Global Daily Climatology Network and a new Global Synoptic Data Network archive, GSDN, created jointly by U.S. National Climatic Data Center and

Pavel Ya. Groisman; Boris G. Sherstyukov; Vyacheslav N. Razuvaev; Richard W. Knight; Jesse G. Enloe; Nina S. Stroumentova; Paul H. Whitfield; Eirik Førland; Inger Hannsen-Bauer; Heikki Tuomenvirta; Hans Aleksandersson; Anna V. Mescherskaya; Thomas R. Karl

2007-01-01

354

SIADEX: An interactive knowledge-based planner for decision support in forest fire fighting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. SIADEX is a complex framework that integrates several AI techniques able to design fighting plans against forest fires. It is based on four main components, a web server, that centralizes all the flow of information between the system and the user, the ontol-ogy server, that is the cornerstone of the architecture as the basis for knowledge sharing and exchange

Marc De La Asunción; Luis A. Castillo; Juan Fernández-olivares; Óscar García-pérez; Antonio González; Francisco Palao

2005-01-01

355

SIADEX: an interactive knowledge-based planner for decision support in forest fire fighting  

Microsoft Academic Search

SIADEX is a complex framework that integrates several AI techniques able to design fighting plans against forest fires. It is based on four main components, a web server, that centralizes all the flow of information between the system and the user, the ontol- ogy server, that is the cornerstone of the architecture as the basis for knowledge sharing and exchange

Luis Castillo; Juan Fern; Oscar Garc; Antonio Gonz; Francisco Palao

356

Predicting Forest Fire Danger Using Improved Model Derived Soil Moisture and Antecedent Precipitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few, if any, Forest Fire Danger Index (FFDI) schemes have considered routinely, soil moisture status, which is a key factor in assessing the dryness of vegetation and hence bushfire risk. Two methods are explored in an attempt to improve FFDI prediction. Firstly, improvements are made to the HIgh RESolution meso-scale numerical weather model (HIRES), developed by one of the authors,

S. Liu; L. Leslie; M. Speer

357

Temporal evolution of the NDVI as an indicator of forest fire danger  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents a study of the possibility of estimating forest fire danger by means of the analysis of the temporal evolution of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). Images of Spain corresponding to areas of Valencia and Eastern Andalusia in 1993 have been used. The slope of the evolution curve of the NDVI

P. Illera; A. Fernández; J. A. Delgado

1996-01-01

358

Automatic mapping of surfaces affected by forest fires in Spain using AVHRR NDVI composite image data  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we describe the statistical techniques used to analyze images from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's advanced very high resolution radiometer for the calculation and mapping of surfaces affected by large forest fires in Spain in 1993 and 1994. Maximum value normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) composites (MVCs) were generated for every ten-day period over the two

Alberto Fernández; Pilar Illera; Jose Luis Casanova

1997-01-01

359

Asymptotic Density in a One-Dimensional Self-Organized Critical Forest-Fire Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Consider the following forest-fire model where the possible locations of trees are the sites of Z. Each site has two possible states: 'vacant' or 'occupied'. Vacant sites become occupied at rate 1. At each site ignition (by lightning) occurs at ignition r...

A. A. Jarai J. Van Den Berg

2003-01-01

360

Exact results for the one-dimensional self-organized critical forest-fire model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the analytic solution of the self-organized critical (SOC) forest-fire model in one dimension proving SOC in systems without conservation laws by analytic means. Under the condition that the system is in the steady state and very close to the critical point, we calculate the probability that a string of n neighboring sites is occupied by a given configuration

Barbara Drossel; Siegfried Clar; Franz Schwabl

1993-01-01

361

On a forest fire model with supposed self-organized criticality  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study a stochastic forest fire model introduced by P. Baket al. as a model showing self-organized criticality. This model involves a growth parameterp, and the criticality is supposed to show up in the limitp?0. By simulating the model on much larger lattices, and with much smaller values ofp, we find that the correlations with longest range do not show

Peter Grassberger; Holger Kantz

1991-01-01

362

Towards a destination tourism disaster management framework: Long-term lessons from a forest fire disaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is a follow-up study investigating the long-term experience of a tourism industry affected by a major forest fire disaster that occurred during the summer of 2003 near Kelowna, British Columbia, Canada. The original study determined the preparedness, responses, and recovery methods of the local tourism industry from interviews with 104 local tourism businesses, and a review of relevant

Perry W. Hystad; Peter C. Keller

2008-01-01

363

Analysis of principal parameters of forest fires and identification of desertification process in semi-arid land in Algeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In semi arid land in Algeria the ecosystem of steppe presents a different vegetal formation, generally used for pasture, and the forest are in most time composed by species like Aleppo pine sparse. And seen climatic unfavourable conditions in zone and impact of forest fires; we notes deterioration of physical environment particularly, deterioration of natural forest. This deterioration of forests provokes an unbalance of environment witch provokes a process of deterioration advanced in the ultimate stadium is desertification. The specific regeneration of plants are influenced greatly by the regime of fire (season of fire, intensity, interval), who leads to the recuperation of the vegetation of meadow- fire, but in the most case there are unfavourable climatic conditions. In this survey we used satellite data for detection of zones with risk of forest fire and their influenced parameters witch permit generally a desertification process. A thematic detailed analysis of forests ecosystems well attended, some processing on the satellite data (2003) allowed us to identify and classifying the forests in there opinion components flowers. We identified ampleness of fire on this zone also. The parameters slope, the proximity to the road and the forests formations and fire regime were studied in the goal of determining the zones to risk of fire drill. A crossing of information in a geographic information system according to a very determined logic allowed us to classify the zones in degree of risk of fire. These results compared with image data (2011) permit to conclude that in semi arid land the forest ecosystem after fire becomes steppe courses permitting installation of process of desertification.

Zegrar, Ahmed

2013-10-01

364

The 1987 forest fire disaster in California: assessment of emergency room visits.  

PubMed

During a 5-d period that commenced on August 30, 1987, dry lightning strikes ignited more than 1,500 fires that destroyed in excess of 600,000 acres of California forests. To evaluate the public health impact of the smoke on the general population, all hospital emergency rooms located in the six counties most severely affected by smoke or fire were surveyed. Selected hospital information was abstracted for a 2 1/2-wk period during the fires and during two reference periods. During the period of major forest fire activity, visits of persons with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease increased in number (observed/expected ratios of 1.4 and 1.3, respectively), as did visits of persons with sinusitis, upper respiratory infections, and laryngitis. A few patients with acute respiratory or eye irritation also visited the emergency rooms. Even recognizing the limited sensitivity of emergency room surveys, the overall public health impact was relatively modest. The increased respiratory morbidity detected in this survey, however, supports the notion that persons with pre-existing respiratory disease represent a sensitive subpopulation, who should be targeted for purposes of public health intervention when exposure to forest fire smoke is likely. PMID:2180383

Duclos, P; Sanderson, L M; Lipsett, M

1990-01-01

365

Fire!!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students burn a simulated forest and adjust the probability that the fire spreads from one tree to the other. This activity allows students to explore the idea of chaos in a simulation of a realistic scenario. This activity includes supplemental materials, including background information about the topics covered, a description of how to use the application, and exploration questions for use with the java applet.

2010-01-01

366

Elemental composition of ectomycorrhizal mycelia identified by PCR–RFLP analysis and grown in contact with apatite or wood ash in forest soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to identify ectomycorrhizal species with a potential to release elements from apatite and wood ash and accumulate them in the mycelia. Fungal rhizomorphs and mycelia were sampled from sand-filled mesh bags with or without amendment of apatite or wood ash. The mesh bags were buried in forest soil in the field for 13 or

Håkan Wallander; Shahid Mahmood; David Hagerberg; Leif Johansson; Jan Pallon

2003-01-01

367

Impact of prescribed fire and other factors on cheatgrass persistence in a Sierra Nevada ponderosa pine forest  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Following the reintroduction of fire Bromus tectorum has invaded the low elevation ponderosa pine forests in parts of Kings Canyon National Park, California. We used prescribed burns, other field manipulations, germination studies, and structural equation modelling, to investigate how fire and other factors affect the persistence of cheatgrass in these forests. Our studies show that altering burning season to coincide with seed maturation is not likely to control cheatgrass because sparse fuel loads generate low fire intensity. Increasing time between prescribed fires may inhibit cheatgrass by increasing surface fuels (both herbaceous and litter), which directly inhibit cheatgrass establishment, and by creating higher intensity fires capable of killing a much greater fraction of the seed bank. Using structural equation modelling, postfire cheatgrass dominance was shown to be most strongly controlled by the prefire cheatgrass seedbank; other factors include soil moisture, fire intensity, soil N, and duration of direct sunlight. Current fire management goals in western conifer forests are focused on restoring historical fire regimes; however, these frequent fire regimes may enhance alien plant invasion in some forest types. Where feasible, fire managers should consider the option of an appropriate compromise between reducing serious fire hazards and exacerbating alien plant invasions. ?? IAWF 2007.

Keeley, J. E.; McGinnis, T. W.

2007-01-01

368

Impact of the 2002 Canadian forest fires on particulate matter air quality in Baltimore city.  

PubMed

With increasing evidence of adverse health effects associated with particulate matter (PM), the exposure impact of natural sources, such as forest fires, has substantial public health relevance. In addition to the threat to nearby communities, pollutants released from forest fires can travel thousands of kilometers to heavily populated urban areas. There was a dramatic increase in forest fire activity in the province of Quebec, Canada, during July 2002. The transport of PM released from these forest fires was examined using a combination of a moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer satellite image, back-trajectories using a hybrid single-particle Lagrangian integrated trajectory, and local light detection and ranging measurements. Time- and size-resolved PM was evaluated at three ambient and four indoor measurement sites using a combination of direct reading instruments (laser, time-of-flight aerosol spectrometer, nephelometer, and an oscillating microbalance). The transport and monitoring results consistently identified a forest fire related PM episode in Baltimore that occurred the first weekend of July 2002 and resulted in as much as a 30-fold increase in ambientfine PM. On the basis of tapered element oscillating microbalance measurements, the 24 h PM25 concentration reached 86 microg/m3 on July 7, 2002, exceeding the 24 h national ambient air quality standard. The episode was primarily comprised of particles less than 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter, highlighting the preferential transport of the fraction of PM that is of greatest health concern. Penetration of the ambient episode indoors was efficient (median indoor-to-outdoor ratio 0.91) such that the high ambient levels were similarly experienced indoors. These results are significant in demonstrating the impact of a natural source thousands of kilometers away on ambient levels of and potential exposures to air pollution within an urban center. This research highlights the significance of transboundary air pollution and the need for studies that assess the public health impacts associated with such sources and transport processes. PMID:15667071

Sapkota, Amir; Symons, J Morel; Kleissl, Jan; Wang, Lu; Parlange, Marc B; Ondov, John; Breysse, Patrick N; Diette, Gregory B; Eggleston, Peyton A; Buckley, Timothy J

2005-01-01

369

Post-fire geomorphic response in steep, forested landscapes: Oregon Coast Range, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of fire in shaping steep, forested landscapes depends on a suite of hydrologic, biologic, and geological characteristics, including the propensity for hydrophobic soil layers to promote runoff erosion during subsequent rainfall events. In the Oregon Coast Range, several studies postulate that fire primarily modulates sediment production via root reinforcement and shallow landslide susceptibility, although few studies have documented post-fire geomorphic response. Here, we describe field observations and topographic analyses for three sites in the central Oregon Coast Range that burned in 1999, 2002, and 2003. The fires generated strongly hydrophobic soil layers that did not promote runoff erosion because the continuity of the layers was interrupted by pervasive discontinuities that facilitated rapid infiltration. At each of our sites, fire generated significant colluvial transport via dry ravel, consistent with other field-based studies in the western United States. Fire-driven dry ravel accumulation in low-order valleys of our Sulphur Creek site equated to a slope-averaged landscape lowering of 2.5 mm. Given Holocene estimates of fire frequency, these results suggest that fire may contribute 10-20% of total denudation across steep, dissected portions of the Oregon Coast Range. In addition, we documented more rapid decline of root strength at our sites than has been observed after timber harvest, suggesting that root strength was compromised prior to fire or that intense heat damaged roots in the shallow subsurface. Given that fire frequencies in the Pacific Northwest are predicted to increase with continued climate change, our findings highlight the importance of fire-induced dry ravel and post-fire debris flow activity in controlling sediment delivery to channels.

Jackson, Molly; Roering, Joshua J.

2009-06-01

370

Modeling the effects of fire severity on soil organic horizons and forest composition in Interior Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fire regime in the boreal region of interior Alaska has been intensifying in terms of both area burned and severity over the last three decades. Based on projections of climate change, this trend is expected to continue throughout the 21st century. Fire causes abrupt changes in energy, nutrient and water balances influencing habitat and vegetation composition. An important factor influencing these changes is the reduction of the soil organic horizon because of differential regeneration capabilities of conifer and evergreen shrubs vs. deciduous and herbaceous vegetation on organic vs. mineral soils. The goal of this study is to develop a prognostic model to simulate the effects of fire severity on soil organic horizons and to evaluate its long-term consequences on forest composition in interior Alaska. Existing field observations were analyzed to build a predictive model of the depth of burning of soil organic horizon after a fire. The model is driven by data sets of fire occurrence, climate, and topography. Post-fire vegetation succession was simulated as a function of post-fire organic horizon depth. The fire severity and post-fire vegetation succession models were then implemented within a biogeochemistry model, the process-based Terrestrial Ecosystem Model. Simulations for 21st century climate scenarios at a 1 by 1km resolution for the Alaska Yukon River Basin were conducted to evaluate the effects of considering vs. ignoring post-fire vegetation succession on carbon dynamics. The results of these simulations indicate that it is important for ecosystem models to represent the influence of fire severity on post-fire vegetation succession in order to fully understand the consequences of changes in climate and disturbance regimes on boreal ecosystems.

Genet, H.; Barrett, K. M.; Johnstone, J. F.; McGuire, A. D.; Yuan, F.; Euskirchen, E. S.; Kasischke, E. S.; Rupp, S. T.; Turetsky, M. R.

2012-12-01

371

29 CFR 570.54 - Forest fire fighting and forest fire prevention occupations, timber tract occupations, forestry...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...occupations, timber tract occupations, forestry service occupations, logging occupations...occupations, timber tract occupations, forestry service occupations, logging occupations...fire prevention, in timber tracts, in forestry services, logging, and the...

2013-07-01

372

Mid-term successional patterns after fire of mixed pine oak forests in NE Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study analyzes the factors affecting the current variability in density and age and size structure of mixed pine-oak forests of Pinus nigra and Quercus faginea in Central Catalonia (NE Spain), 37 years after a wildfire. The objective is to determine whether different post-disturbance responses may be obtained from the same pre-fire community and which factors can determine these different potential responses. The two factors analyzed were the distance to the unburned forest and site conditions (represented in this case by different aspects). The response of pines and oaks was different to the pattern expected for the Mediterranean Basin. Oaks resprouted immediately from stools already present before the fire and dominated during the first years, independent of both disturbance and site conditions. Pines established later, and their response depended on both factors: pine density decreased sharply from the forest edge to the burned area, and the number of pines was also higher in the more mesic than in the more xeric conditions. The age structure analysis for pines and oaks in the different aspects also revealed site-dependent rates of succession manifested by initial differences in post-fire establishment. In mesic plots, the establishment of pines occurred quite early, while in xeric plots, pine recruitment was delayed several years. These different patterns of post-fire recovery have led to pine dominance in more mesic sites and codominance of pines and oaks in more xeric ones, suggesting that different mid-term post-fire patterns can be identified for the same pre-fire forest type, depending on variations in environmental conditions.

Gracia, Marc; Retana, Javier; Roig, Pere

2002-12-01

373

Lightning Direction-Finding Systems for Forest Fire Detection.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extensive networks of magnetic direction-finding (DF) stations have been installed throughout the western United States and Alaska to facilitate early detection of lightning-caused fires. Each station contains a new wideband direction-finder that responds primarily to cloud-to-ground lightning and discriminates against cloud discharges and background noise. Good angle accuracy is obtained by measuring the lightning direction at just the time the return-stroke electro-magnetic field reaches its initial peak. Lightning locations are calculated from the intersections of direction vectors and/or from the ratio of signal strengths recorded simultaneously at two, three, or four DF sites. The development of these systems has proved to be a significant aid in the detection of lightning-caused fires and in fire weather forecasting.

Krider, E. P.; Noggle, R. C.; Pifer, A. E.; Vance, D. L.

1980-09-01

374

Investigation of a novel image segmentation method dedicated to forest fire applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To face fire it is crucial to understand its behaviour in order to maximize fighting means. To achieve this task, the development of a metrological tool is necessary for estimating both geometrical and physical parameters involved in forest fire modelling. A key parameter is to estimate fire positions accurately. In this paper an image processing tool especially dedicated to an accurate extraction of fire from an image is presented. In this work, the clustering on several colour spaces is investigated and it appears that the blue chrominance Cb from the YCbCr colour space is the most appropriate. As a consequence, a new segmentation algorithm dedicated to forest fire applications has been built using first an optimized k-means clustering in the Cb-channel and then some properties of fire pixels in the RGB colour space. Next, the performance of the proposed method is evaluated using three supervised evaluation criteria and then compared to other existing segmentation algorithms in the literature. Finally a conclusion is drawn, assessing the good behaviour of the developed algorithm. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Dr Olivier Séro-Guillaume (1950-2013), CNRS Research Director.

Rudz, S.; Chetehouna, K.; Hafiane, A.; Laurent, H.; Séro-Guillaume, O.

2013-07-01

375

Multi-trophic resilience of boreal lake ecosystems to forest fires.  

PubMed

Fires are the major natural disturbance in the boreal forest, and their frequency and intensity will likely increase as the climate warms. Terrestrial nutrients released by fires may be transported to boreal lakes, stimulating increased primary productivity, which may radiate through multiple trophic levels. Using a before-after-control-impact (BACI) design, with pre- and postfire data from burned and unburned areas, we examined effects of a natural fire across several trophic levels of boreal lakes, from nutrient and chlorophyll levels, to macroinvertebrates, to waterbirds. Concentrations of total nitrogen and phosphorus were not affected by the fire. Chlorophyll a levels were also unaffected, likely reflecting the stable nutrient concentrations. For aquatic invertebrates, we found that densities of three functional feeding groups did not respond to the fire (filterers, gatherers, scrapers), while two groups increased (shredders, predators). Amphipods accounted for 98% of shredder numbers, and we hypothesize that fire-mediated habitat changes may have favored their generalist feeding and habitat ecology. This increase in amphipods may, in turn, have driven increased predator densities, as amphipods were the most numerous invertebrate in our lakes and are commonly taken as prey. Finally, abundance of waterbird young, which feed primarily on aquatic invertebrates, was not affected by the fire. Overall, ecosystems of our study lakes were largely resilient to forest fires, likely due to their high initial nutrient concentrations and small catchment sizes. Moreover, this resilience spanned multiple trophic levels, a significant result for ecologically similar boreal regions, especially given the high potential for increased fires with future climate change. PMID:25000757

Lewis, Tyler L; Lindberg, Mark S; Schmutz, Joel A; Bertram, Mark R

2014-05-01

376

The Relationship of Forest Fires Detected by MODIS and SRTM Derived Topographic Features in Central Siberia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fires are a common occurrence in the Siberian boreal forest. The MOD14 Thermal anomalies product of the Terra MODIS Moderate Resolution Spectroradiometer) product set is designed to detect thermal anomalies (i.e. hotspots or fires) on the Earth's surface. Recent field studies showed a dependence of fire occurrence on topography. In this study MODIS thermal anomaly data and SRTM topography data were merged and analyzed to evaluate if forest fires are more likely to occur at certain combinations of elevation, slope and aspect. Using the satellite data over a large area can lead to better understanding how topography and forest fires are related. The study area covers a 2.5 Million krn(exp 2) portion of the Central Siberian southern taiga from 72 deg to 110 deg East and from 50 deg to 60 deg North. About 57% of the study area is forested and 80% of the forest grows between 200 and 1000 m. Forests with pine (Pinus sylvestris), larch (Larix sibirica, L. gmelinii), Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica), spruce (Picea obovata.) and fir (Abies sibirica) cover most of the landscape. Deciduous stands with birch (Betula pendula, B. pubescens) and aspen (Populus tremula) cover the areas of lower elevation in this region. The climate of this area is distinctly continental with long, cold winters and short hot summers. The tree line in this part of the world is around 1500 m in elevation with alpine tundra, snow and ice fields and rock outcrops extending up to over 3800 m. A 500 m resolution landcover map was developed using 2001 MODIS MOD13 Normalized Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Middle Infrared (MIR) products for seven 16-day periods. The classification accuracy was over 87%. The SRTM version 2 data, which is distributed in 1 degree by 1 degree tiles were mosaiced using the ENVI software. In this study, only those MODIS pixels were used that were flagged as "nominal or high confidence fire" by the MODIS fire product team. Using MODIS data from the years 2000 to 2005 along with the improved Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) version 2 data at 100 m resolution, the distribution of hot spots was examined by elevation, slope and aspect as well as by forest type. The results show that more forest area burns at lower elevations but a larger percentage of the available forest area burns at higher elevations. This is probably because steep slopes occur at higher elevations. Fires are only more common on slopes with a southern exposure if the slope is steeper than 15 degrees. The next step in this study will be to monitor areas where the risk of fire is high (steep slopes with a southern exposure) and to refine this method by incorporating anthropogenic features for more accurate fire disturbance monitoring.

Ranson, Jon K.; Kovacs, Katalin; Kharuk, Viatcheslav; Burke, Erin

2006-01-01

377

Pneumatic conveying of coal and ash with particular reference to coal-fired ships  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of dense-phase (non-fluidized) pneumatic conveyings of coal and ash is presented. Today, there are over 200 dense-phase coal and ash handling systems in land-based boiler plants. In this system, the volume ratio of air-to-material is 25: 1 or less. The velocities normally range from 5 to 7 in\\/s for coal and 6 to 7 m\\/s for boiler ash.

Westbrook

1981-01-01

378

Predicting Stand-Level Fire Behavior From Forest Community Data in Former Prairie and Savanna  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As development pressures continue to expand the extent of the wildland-urban interface (WUI), the ability to predict fire regimes there becomes increasingly important. Such predictions will be particularly valuable to land managers who seek to reduce wildfire risk and to restore imperiled ecosystems within the WUI. Our study focused on remnant and former upland prairie and oak savanna ecosystems in the southern Willamette Valley, Oregon, which were widespread prior to Euro-American settlement but now occupy less than 2% of their historic range. Prairie and savanna grasslands provide habitat for several endangered species, as well as important ecosystem services, such as the regulation of fire regimes. We sampled over 250 plots from seven sites that were grasslands with few to no trees circa 1850 but now have markedly different communities, ranging from prairie to dense forest. We collected data on community composition, topography and fuel loadings. With the BehavePlus fire model, we calculated surface and crown fire parameters. We built two classification and regression trees (CARTs) that used plant community data to group plots on the basis of their surface-fire and crown-fire behavior, respectively. Fuel loads differed significantly by community type, although trends in fuel loadings were neither monotonic across communities nor intuitive. Fuel characteristics were extremely sensitive to topography, and may result from successional history and the presence of exotic invasive species. Though the CARTs were statistically significant, they generally had poor predictive power, which is indicative of the amount of variability inherent in wildland fire. There was greater variability in fire behavior for more intense fires, indicating that land managers can improve the precision of their predictions by managing for less intense fire regimes. The CARTs suggested that surface fires differed among nine different community types and crown fire behavior differed among five different community types. There was poor agreement among definitions of communities as determined by the CARTs based upon fire behavior, and communities based on stand density and species composition. The CART community classifications are significantly better at predicting surface and crown fire behavior than conventional vegetation classification systems. A fire-behavior-based classification system will therefore give land managers a better understanding of potential fire behavior on their lands. Our results provide a quantitative basis for determining the relative benefits of different land management options, including oak savanna restoration, in attenuating surface or crown fire behavior.

Yospin, G. I.; Bridgham, S. D.; Kertis, J.; Johnson, B. R.

2009-05-01

379

Charcoal production, dispersal, and deposition from the Fort Providence experimental fire: interpreting fire regimes from charcoal records in boreal forests1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between charcoal production from fires and charcoal deposition in lakes is poorly under- stood, which limits the interpretation of sediment charcoal records. This calibration study assessed charcoal particle production, size, and transport during the International Cr