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1

Ash after forest fires. Effects on soil hydrology and erosion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hillslopes were though to be most susceptible to enhanced hydro-geomorphological responses immediately following burning, with susceptibility declining during the first months or years depending on the soil and vegetation recovery. However, Cerdà (1998) found some indices in that immediately after the fire, the thin wettable ash layer that typically covers the ground could absorb rainfall and prevent or delay the onset of overland flow and associated erosion. Therefore the time lag while ash remains on the ground become of crucial importance to protect the soil after a wildfire. The effect of this ash layer was rarely been considered in detail because ash has often been reduced or redistributed by wind or water erosion before the onset of monitoring and thus the data collection typically begun some weeks or month after the fire. The first papers focussed only on ash and its hydrological effects were published by Cerdà and Doerr (2008) and by Woods and Balfour (2008). The results showed that the soil covered with ash indeed reduced and delayed surface runoff, reduced soil splash detachment and produced lower sediment yield compared to bare terrain. However, these findings arose more questions, as for instance: Why in other research there were indices that ash reduces infiltration? what is the mechanism by which why ash reduces overland flow? The research went further with Bodí PhD. First of all, it was crucial the agreement on the fact that the material "ash" is very variable depending on the original vegetation and the type and temperature of combustion. Therefore ash properties are different between wildfires even and within a fire. This is the main reason of its different effects and thus ash not always reduces runoff and sediment yield. In this way, depending on the nature of ash, it can increase overland flow if it is crusted (usually it contains a high content of calcium carbonate), it is water repellent (with high contents of organic carbon and specially from certain Eucaliptus and Pinus), or if clog soil pores (depending also on the soil type). If ash is wettable, it can store even 80% of its volume and then it will delay and reduce overland flow proportionally to the thickness of the ash layer. Once ash gets saturated, the flow tends to adjust to an infiltration rate similar to the soil itself, or sometimes higher due to the protection of ash that can reduce soil water repellency and soil sealing (Bodí et al. 2011, 2012). Still, many other aspects on ash remain unknown and ash present us more questions like, what it is its role on the carbon cycle? what is the extent of the ahs effects at basin scale? what is the fate of ash and how long it remains in the ecosystem? are there specific effects of ash depending on the ecosystem and so the type of ash? Acknowledgements This work was supported financially by a research fellowship (AP2007-04602) from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (M.B. Bodí) and the projects PT2009-0073 and CGL2010-21670-C02-01. References Bodí, M.B., Mataix-Solera, J., Doerr, S.H., Cerdà, A., 2011, The wettability of ash from burned vegetation and its relationship to Mediterranean plant species type, burn severity and total organic carbon content. Geoderma 160, 599-607. Bodí, M.B., Doerr, S.H., Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J., 2012, Hydrological effects of a layer of vegetation ash on underlying wettable and water repellent soil. Geoderma 191, 14-23 Cerdà, A., 1998, Changes in overland flow and infiltration after a rangeland fire in a Mediterranean scrubland. Hydrological Processes 12, 1031-1042. Cerdà, A., Doerr, S.H., 2008, The effect of ash and needle cover on surface runoff and erosion in the immediate post-fire period. Catena 74, 256-263. Woods, S.W., Balfour, V., 2008, The effect of ash on runoff and erosion after a forest wildfire, Montana, U.S.A. International Journal of Wildland Fire 17, 535-548.

Bodí, Merche B.

2013-04-01

2

Impacts of fire on forest age and runoff in mountain ash forests  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Runoff from mountain ash (Eucalyptus regnans F.Muell.) forested catchments has been shown to decline significantly in the few decades following fire - returning to pre-fire levels in the following centuries - owing to changes in ecosystem water use with stand age in a relationship known as Kuczera's model. We examined this relationship between catchment runoff and stand age by measuring whole-ecosystem exchanges of water using an eddy covariance system measuring forest evapotranspiration (ET) combined with sap-flow measurements of tree water use, with measurements made across a chronosequence of three sites (24, 80 and 296 years since fire). At the 296-year old site eddy covariance systems were installed above the E. regnans overstorey and above the distinct rainforest understorey. Contrary to predictions from the Kuczera curve, we found that measurements of whole-forest ET decreased by far less across stand age between 24 and 296 years. Although the overstorey tree water use declined by 1.8 mm day-1 with increasing forest age (an annual decrease of 657 mm) the understorey ET contributed between 1.2 and 1.5 mm day-1, 45% of the total ET (3 mm day-1) at the old growth forest. ?? CSIRO 2008.

Wood, S.A.; Beringer, J.; Hutley, L.B.; McGuire, A.D.; Van Dijk, A.; Kilinc, M.

2008-01-01

3

Concordant plutonium-241-americium-241 dating of environmental samples: results from forest fire ash  

SciTech Connect

We have measured the Pu, {sup 237}Np, {sup 241}Am, and {sup 151}Sm isotopic systematics for a set of forest fire ash samples from various locations in the western U.S. including Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, and New Mexico. The goal of this study is to develop a concordant {sup 241}Pu (t{sub 1/2} = 14.4 y)-{sup 241}Am dating method for environmental collections. Environmental samples often contain mixtures of components including global fallout. There are a number of approaches for subtracting the global fallout component for such samples. One approach is to use {sup 242}/{sup 239}Pu as a normalizing isotope ratio in a three-isotope plot, where this ratio for the nonglobal fallout component can be estimated or assumed to be small. This study investigates a new, complementary method of normalization using the long-lived fission product, {sup 151}Sm (t{sub 1/2} = 90 y). We find that forest fire ash concentrates actinides and fission products with {approx}1E10 atoms {sup 239}Pu/g and {approx}1E8 atoms {sup 151}Sm/g, allowing us to measure these nuclides by mass spectrometric (MIC-TIMS) and radiometric (liquid scintillation counting) methods. The forest fire ash samples are characterized by a western U.S. regional isotopic signature representing varying mixtures of global fallout with a local component from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Our results also show that {sup 151}Sm is well correlated with the Pu nuclides in the forest fire ash, suggesting that these nuclides have similar geochemical behavior in the environment. Results of this correlation indicate that the {sup 151}Sm/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio for global fallout is {approx}0.164, in agreement with an independent estimate of 0.165 based on {sup 137}Cs fission yields for atmospheric weapons tests at the NTS. {sup 241}Pu-{sup 241}Am dating of the non-global fallout component in the forest fire ash samples yield ages in the late 1950's-early 1960's, consistent with a peak in NTS weapons testing at that time. The age results for this component are in agreement using both {sup 242}Pu and {sup 151}Sm normalizations, although the errors for the {sup 151}Sm correction are currently larger due to the greater uncertainty of their measurements. Additional efforts to develop a concordant {sup 241}Pu-{sup 241}Am dating method for environmental collections are underway with emphasis on soil cores.

Goldstein, Steven J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oldham, Warren J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Murrell, Michael T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Katzman, Danny [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-07

4

Modelling ash extractable Total Phosphorous and Total Sulphur distribution after a forest fire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ash distribution in the immediate period after the fire assumes an extreme importance and this depends especially of fire severity. Due the different conditions of combustion, the fire severity can be very heterogeneous, even in small scale distances. Different fire severities produced ash with different physical and chemical properties. One of the main effects of this is the complex and very heterogenic disposition of ash nutrients that will play an important role on plant recuperation. Spatial models help to have a better picture of ash properties distribution. However, it is important to find the best model that interpolate with best accuracy the studied the variable. In this work we test several interpolation methods, namely Inverse Distance to a Weight (IDW) (with the power of 1,2,3,4 and 5), Local Polynomial with the first and second polynomial order, Polynomial Regression (PR), Radial Basis Functions (RBF) as Multilog (MTG), Natural Cubic Spline (NCS), Multiquadratic (MTQ), Inverse Multiquadratic (IMTQ) and Thin plate Spline (TPS) and Ordinary Kriging, in order to identify the best spatial predictor for Total Phosphorous (TP) and Total Sulphur (TS) after a forest fire in Portugal. Inside the burned area we designed a small plot (27x9 m) and we collected a total of 40 samples of ash. Interpolation accuracy was observed with the cross-validation method that is achieved by taking each observation in turn out of the sample and estimating from the remaining ones. The errors produced in each interpolation allowed us to calculate the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). The results showed that on average ash extractable TP were 92.42 (±77.34) mg/l, with a Coefficient of variation (CV%) of 83.68. The distribution was positively skewed and non-normal distributed. This previously to modelling we transformed it with a neperian logarithm, in order to respect the normality assumptions. From all the tested methods the best predictor for TP was the IDW 1 and the less precise the NCS. This shows the heterogenic character of TP distribution, since IDW 1 is more accurate to interpolate variables with small distance variability. The distribution of TP was heterogenic and did not respond to a specific spatial pattern, with some higher values in the northwest and southwest parts of the plot. TS presented on average 1690 (±468.72), with CV% of 27.73%. In this case the variable distribution was normally distributed and no transformation was needed previous to data modelling. As TP the most precise interpolator was IDW 1 and the less accurate was also NCS. This reflects also the heterogenic distribution of TS, however small than TP, due the reduced CV%. The models presented showed important differences among interpolation tests, in both variables, and this shown that the test of interpolation methods is fundamental to have a correct evaluation of the spatial distribution of the variables. Keywords: Ash, fire severity, interpolation methods, heterogenic distribution

Pereira, P.; Ubeda, X.

2012-04-01

5

Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals in ashes released from a forest fire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires have become a permanent source of environmental and societal concerns. Whilst the impacts of wildfire on hydrological and erosion processes are well documented, the stocks and export of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals have received considerably less research attention. The ashes produced by wildfires, which include polluting substances such as PAHs and metals, are subject to transport processes by wind and especially by overland flow and water infiltrating into the soil and possibly reaching ground water bodies. In the framework of the FIRECNUTS project, we are studying the stocks of PAHs and selected metals in recently burnt forest stands in north-central Portugal, and their subsequent export by overland flow. The present work, however, will focus on the stocks in the ashes, both immediately after wildfire and three months later. These ashes were collected at two burnt slopes with contrasting forest types, i.e. a eucalypt and a maritime pine stand, the two pre-dominant forest types in the study region. The sixteen PAHs identified by US EPA as priority contaminants were analysed by gas chromatograph, after extraction and column clean up. The contents of vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were analysed by inductively coupled plasma- mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), after an acid digestion, while mercury (Hg) was analysed by pyrolysis atomic absorption spectrometry with gold amalgamation. The total concentration of PAHs immediately after the wildfire ranged from 314 ng/g dry weight in the maritime pine stand to 597 ng/g dry weight in the eucalypt stand. Three months later, the total concentration has decreased with 33% in the pine stand but only half (16%) in the eucalypt stand. The composition the PAHs by ring size was dominated by three-rings PAHs. This was true for all samples. The concentrations of various metals differed for the two sampling occasions but not in straightforward manners. Some metals (Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and Hg) revealed higher contents immediately after the fire, whereas others (V, Cr and As) did three months later. The present results underline the importance of furthering the knowledge about contamination of soil and water by ashes from wildfires and the associated risks in terms of ecotoxicological effects, both in-situ and in downstream aquatic systems. Keywords: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); heavy metals; stocks; ash; wildfires

Campos, I.; Abrantes, N.; Pereira, P.; Vale, C.; Ferreira, A.; Keizer, J. J.

2012-04-01

6

Forest Fires  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will assume the role of a Department of Forestry Ranger one of whose major concerns is forest fires. Using NASA Surface Scene Type data (biomes) and Monthly Equivalent Water Thickness Land Mass Change Data from 2006, the students will determine areas at high risk for forest fire development.

7

Forest Fires  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The objectives of this lesson plan are twofold: to have students understand the benefits and problems associated with fire and to understand the role that fire plays in maintaining healthy ecosystems. Emphasis throughout the lesson plan is placed on manager-ignited prescribed burns and natural fires, and their relevance and importance to various types of fire-adapted ecosystems such as chaparral, prairie grasslands, and lodgepole pine forests. The lesson entails initiating a discussion about the positive and negative powers of fire, introducing terms such as surface fire, crown fire, and fire triangle, and having the students produce a public service announcement, brochure, or television spot on both accidental forest fires and the benefits of prescribed burns. The web site includes a list of suggested materials, procedures, adaptations, discussion questions, extension projects, an evaluation of student learning, suggested readings, relevant web links, a vocabulary list, and relevance to the academic standards set forth by Content Knowledge: A Compendium of Standards and Benchmarks for K-12 Education: Second Edition.

Bailey, Joyce

8

The ash in forest fire affected soils control the soil losses. Part 2. Current and future research challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ash distribution on soil surface and impacts on soil properties received a great attention in recently (Pereira et al., 2010; Pereira et al., 2013). Ash it is a highly mobile material that can be easily transported wind, especially in severe wildland fires, where organic matter is reduced to dust, due the high temperatures of combustion. In the immediate period after the fire, ash cover rules soil erosion as previous researchers observed (Cerdà, 1998a; 1998b) and have strong influence on soil hydrological properties, such as water retention (Stoof et al. 2011 ) and wettability (Bodi et al., 2011). Ash it is also a valuable source of nutrients important for plant recuperation (Pereira et al., 2011; Pereira et al., 2012), but can act also as a source contamination, since are also rich in heavy metals (Pereira and Ubeda, 2010). Ash has different physical and chemical properties according the temperature of combustion, burned specie and time of exposition (Pereira et al., 2010). Thus this different properties will have different implications on soil properties including erosion that can increase due soil sealing (Onda et al. 2008) or decrease as consequence of raindrop impact reduction (Cerdà and Doerr, 2008). The current knowledge shows that ash has different impacts on soil properties and this depends not only from the type of ash produced, but of the soil properties (Woods and Balfour, 2010). After fire wind and water strong redistribute ash on soil surface, increasing the vulnerability of soil erosion in some areas, and reducing in others. Understand this mobility is fundamental have a better comprehension about the spatial and temporal effects of ash in soil erosion. Have a better knowledge about this mobility is a priority to future research. Other important aspects to have to be assessed in the future are how ash particulates percolate on soil and how ash chemical composition is important to induce soil aggregation and dispersion. How soil micro topography have implications on ash spatial distribution and if soil micro topography changes with time? What the factors that controls it? What it is the impact of ash in vegetation recuperation and the implications of this recover in ash spatial distribution? We need studies with better spatial and temporal resolution, especially in the immediate period after the fire, when the major spatial and temporal changes on ash distribution and impacts occur. Based on high level research conducted by Artemi Cerdà and others, our future research will be focused in these and other aspects in order to have a better knowledge about the impacts of ash on post-fire spatio-temporal erosion. Acknowledgements, Lithuanian Research Council. Project LITFIRE, Fire effects on Lithuanian soils and ecosystems (MIP-48/2011) and the research projects GL2008-02879/BTE and LEDDRA 243857. References Bodí, M., Mataix-Solera, J., Doerr, S., and Cerdà, A. 2011b. The wettability of ash from burned vegetation and its relationship to Mediterranean plant species type, burn severity and total organic carbon content. Geoderma, 160, 599-607. Cerdà, A. 1998a. Postfire dynamics of erosional processes under mediterranean climatic conditions. Z. Geomorphol., 42 (3) 373-398. Cerdà, A. 1998b. Changes in overland flow and infiltration after a rangeland fire in a Mediterranean scrubland.Hydrological Processes, 12, 1031-1042. Cerdà, A., and Doerr, S.H. 2008. The effect of ash and needle cover on surface runoff and erosion in the immediate post-fire period. Catena, 74, 256-263. Onda, Y., Dietrich W. E., and Booker, F. 2008. Evolution of overland flow after severe forest fire, Point Reyes, California, Catena, 72, 13-20. Pereira, P. Cerdà, A., Úbeda, X., Mataix-Solera, J. Arcenegui, V., Zavala, L. 2013. Modelling the impacts of wildfire on ash thickness in a short-term period, Land Degradation and Development, (In press) Pereira, P., Bodi. M., Úbeda, X., Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Balfour, V, Woods, S. 2010. Las cenizas y el ecosistema suelo, In: Cerdà, A. Jordan, A. (eds) Actualización en métodos y técnica

Pereira, Paulo; Cerdà, Artemi

2013-04-01

9

Chemical and physical properties of cyclone fly ash from the grate-fired boiler incinerating forest residues at a small municipal district heating plant (6MW).  

PubMed

In Finland, the new limit values for maximal allowable heavy metal concentrations for materials used as an earth construction agent came into force in July 2006. These limit values are applied if ash is utilized, e.g. in roads, cycling paths, pavements, car parks, sport fields, etc. In this study we have determined the most important chemical and physical properties of the cyclone fly ash originating from the grate-fired boiler incinerating forest residues (i.e. wood chips, sawdust and bark) at a small municipal district heating plant (6 MW), Northern Finland. This study clearly shows that elements are enriched in cyclone fly ash, since the total element concentrations in the cyclone fly ash were within 0.2-10 times higher than those in the bottom ash. The total concentrations of Cd (25 mg kg(-1); d.w.), Zn (3630 mg kg(-1); d.w.), Ba (4260 mg kg(-1); d.w.) and Hg (1.7 mg kg(-1); d.w.) exceeded the limit values, and therefore the cyclone fly ash cannot be used as an earth construction agent. According to the leached amounts of Cr (38 mg kg(-1); d.w.), Zn (51 mg kg(-1); d.w.) and sulphate (50,000 mg kg(-1); d.w.), the cyclone fly ash is classified as a hazardous waste, and it has to be deposited in a hazardous waste landfill. PMID:18603362

Pöykiö, R; Rönkkömäki, H; Nurmesniemi, H; Perämäki, P; Popov, K; Välimäki, I; Tuomi, T

2009-03-15

10

Wildland fire ash: future research directions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ash is a key component of the forest fires affected land (Cerdà, 1998; Bodí et al., 2011; Pereira et al., 2013a). Ash controls the hydrological processes and determines the water repellency (Dlapa et al., 2012) and the infiltration rates (Cerdà and Doerr, 2008;). Moreover, ash is the key factor on runoff initiation and then on the soil erosion. Little is known about the impact of ash in different ecosystems, but during the last decade a substantial increase in the papers that show the role of ash in the Earth and Soil System were published (Bodí et al., 2012; Pereira et al., 2013b).. Ash is being found as the key component of the post-fire pedological, geomorphological and hydrological response after forest fires (Fernández et al., 2012; Martín et al., 2012; Bodí et al., 2013; Guénon et al., 2013; Pereira et al., 2013c). A recent State-of-the-Art review about wildland fire ash (Bodí et al., 2014) compiles the knowledge regarding the production, composition and eco-hydro-geomorphic effects of wildland fire ash. In the present paper we indicate the knowledge gaps detected and suggest topics that need more research effort concerning: i) data collection and analysis techniques: a) To develop standardized sampling techniques that allow cross comparison among sites and avoid inclusion of the underlying soil unless the burned surface soil forms part of the ash layer, b) To develop standardized methods to define and characterize ash, including its color, physical properties such as particle size distribution or density, proportion of pyrogenic C, chemical and biological reactivity and persistence in the environment, c) To validate, calibrate and test measurements collected through remote sensing with on-the-ground measurements. ii) ash production, deposition redistribution and fate: d) To untangle the significance of the effects of maximum temperature reached during combustion versus the duration of heating, e) To understand the production of ash by measuring its depth, density, and size fraction distribution compared to that of the underlying soil, f) To measure the spatial variability of ash at the plot or hillslope scale, g) To address issues of how much ash stays on site after fire, especially how much is incorporated into underlying soil layers, compared to how much is eroded by wind and water and becomes incorporated into depositional environments located away from the site. iii) ash effects h) To study the connectivity of patches of ash to make progress in understanding the role of ash in infiltration, the generation of runoff and erosion, i) To take into account the role of ash in the fate of the ecosystem immediately after the fire, as well as the combination of ash and other cover, such as the needles, in the post-fire period, j) To study the amount and forms of C in ash, including studies characterizing its chemical and biological reactivity and degradability in soil and sedimentary environments, k) To understanding the legacy of atmospherically-deposited elements (e.g. P, Si, Mn) and dust to fully understand the complex chemistry of ash, and at the same time assess its effects on human health. iii) enhance collaboration across the globe on the multidisciplinary topic of ash research since research in large areas of the world that burn (e.g., Africa and Russia) is underrepresented. We are sure that several activities, such as land and water supply management, risk reduction, and planning for societal and ecosystem resilience in the face of a changing climate, will benefit from the insights gained from the ash research community. Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and RECARE FP7 project 603498 supported this research. References: Bodí, M. B., Mataix-Solera, J., Doerr, S. H., Cerdà, A. 2011.The wettability of ash from burned vegetation and its relatioship to Mediterranean plant species type, burn. Geoderma 160: 599-607. Bodí, M.B. Doerr, S.H., Cerdà, A. and Mataix-Solera, J. 2012. Hydrological effects of a layer of vegetation ash on underlying wettable and water repellent

Bodí, Merche B.; Martins, Deborah A.; Cerdà, Artemi; Balfour, Victoria N.; Santin, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan H.; Pereira, Paulo; Mataix-Solera, Jorge

2014-05-01

11

Fighting Forest Fires  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Firefly is an airborne system for imaging forest fires. It uses satellite-based navigation for greater positioning accuracy and offers timeliness in fire location data delivery with on board data processing and a direct aircraft-to-fire camp communications link. Developed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the USFS, it has an infrared line scanner to identify fire boundaries and an infrared sensor system that can penetrate smoke to image the ground. Firefly is an outgrowth of a previous collaboration that produced FLAME, an airborne fire mapping instrument. Further refinements are anticipated by NASA and the United States Forest Service (USFS).

1993-01-01

12

Airborne forest fire research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research relating to airborne fire fighting systems is reviewed to provide NASA/Langley Research Center with current information on the use of aircraft in forest fire operations, and to identify research requirements for future operations. A literature survey, interview of forest fire service personnel, analysis and synthesis of data from research reports and independent conclusions, and recommendations for future NASA-LRC programs are included.

Mattingly, G. S.

1974-01-01

13

Forest Management Helps Save Chadron State Park from Fire  

E-print Network

Forest Management Helps Save Chadron State Park from Fire OVER THE PAST HALF-CENTURY, wildfire has "holes" in the dwindling forest resource of northwest Nebraska, when the Park fell victim to the West Ash Creek Fire on its deadly rampage across the Pine Ridge. The good news is that due to active forest

Farritor, Shane

14

Forest Fire Mapping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Fire Logistics Airborne Mapping Equipment (FLAME) system, mounted in a twin-engine and airplane operated by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), is an airborne instrument for detecting and pinpointing forest fires that might escape ground detection. The FLAME equipment rack includes the operator interface, a video monitor, the system's control panel and film output. FLAME's fire detection sensor is an infrared line scanner system that identifies fire boundaries. Sensor's information is correlated with the aircraft's position and altitude at the time the infrared imagery is acquired to fix the fire's location on a map. System can be sent to a fire locale anywhere in the U.S. at the request of a regional forester. USFS felt a need for a more advanced system to deliver timely fire information to fire management personnel in the decade of the 1990s. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) conducted a study, jointly sponsored by NASA and USDA, on what advanced technologies might be employed to produce an end-to-end thermal infrared fire detection and mapping system. That led to initiation of the Firefly system, currently in development at JPL and targeted for operational service beginning in 1992. Firefly will employ satellite-reference position fixing and provide performance superior to FLAME.

1990-01-01

15

Forest Fires and Respiratory Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Outdoor > Protecting Your Health > What Makes Air Unhealthy Forest Fires and Respiratory Health Fact Sheet Wildfires are ... the surrounding area may suffer the effects of forest fire smoke. If you have respiratory problems such ...

16

Fighting Forest Fires  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Canadian Broadcasting Company opened their vaults, with historical and current stories about wildfires and wildfire defense from both television and radio. Featured is a TV broadcast about 1958 forest closures during a dry Canadian summer, a radio piece about using wind tunnels to examine fire behavior, and a video piece about satellite uplinks that are beginning to replace old radio technology at fire lookout stations in Alberta.

Company, Canadian B.

17

Forest Fire Observation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Conditions on the perimeter of a forest fire can be obtained by use of airborne remote sensing techniques demonstrated by Ames Research Center. An Ames U-2 high-altitude survey aircraft served as an aerial fire observation system. Equipped with two types of sensors, the U-2 produces real-time infrared images of fireground scenes. Information acquired by the U-2's scanners defines the fire boundary and aids fire management decisions by showing the size, shape and direction of burn and the locations of hot spots in the fire zone. U-2 sends sensor date in digital form to an antenna at Ames Research Center. There the data is computer processed into images which are overlaid on U.S. Geological Survey topographical maps of the fire area. Maps are then transmitted by telecopy machine directly to fire control center. Whole process takes less than 10 minutes and the U-2 can provide information for up to five hours. Ames antenna can pick up signals from the U-2 anywhere within a 300 mile radius from Ames.

1982-01-01

18

Effects of a low severity prescribed fire on water-soluble elements in ash from a cork oak (Quercus suber) forest located in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula.  

PubMed

Wildfire is the major disturbance in Mediterranean forests. Prescribed fire can be an alternative to reduce the amount of fuel and hence decrease the wildfire risk. However the effects of prescribed fire must be studied, especially on ash properties, because ash is an important nutrient source for ecosystem recovery. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of a low severity prescribed fire on water-soluble elements in ash including pH, electrical conductivity (EC), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), potassium (K), aluminum (Al), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), silica (SiO(2)) and total sulphur (TS). A prescribed fire was conducted in a cork oak (Quercus suber) (Q.S) forest located in the northeast part of the Iberian Peninsula. Samples were collected from a flat plot of 40×70m mainly composed of Q.S and Quercus robur (Q.R) trees. In order to understand the effects of the prescribed fire on the soluble elements in ash, we conducted our data analysis on three data groups: all samples, only Q.S samples and only Q.R samples. All three sample groups exhibited a significant increase in pH, EC (p<0.001), water-soluble Ca, Mg, Na, SiO(2) and TS and a decrease in water-soluble Mn, Fe and Zn. Differences were identified between oak species for water-soluble K, Al and Fe. In Q.S samples we registered a significant increase in the first two elements p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively, and a non-significant impact in the third, at p<0.05. In Q.R data we identified a non-significant impact on water-soluble K and Al and a significant decrease in water-soluble Fe (p<0.05). These differences are probably due to vegetation characteristics and burn severity. The fire induced a higher variability in the ash soluble elements, especially in Q.S samples, that at some points burned with higher severity. The increase of pH, EC, Ca, Mg, Na and K will improve soil fertility, mainly in the study area where soils are acidic. The application of this low severity prescribed fire will improve soil nutrient status without causing soil degradation and thus is considered to be a good management strategy. PMID:20869047

Pereira, Paulo; Ubeda, Xavier; Martin, Deborah; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Guerrero, César

2011-02-01

19

Effects of a low severity prescribed fire on water-soluble elements in ash from a cork oak (Quercus suber) forest located in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wildfire is the major disturbance in Mediterranean forests. Prescribed fire can be an alternative to reduce the amount of fuel and hence decrease the wildfire risk. However the effects of prescribed fire must be studied, especially on ash properties, because ash is an important nutrient source for ecosystem recovery. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of a low severity prescribed fire on water-soluble elements in ash including pH, electrical conductivity (EC), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), potassium (K), aluminum (Al), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), silica (SiO2) and total sulphur (TS). A prescribed fire was conducted in a cork oak (Quercus suber) (Q.S) forest located in the northeast part of the Iberian Peninsula. Samples were collected from a flat plot of 40??70m mainly composed of Q.S and Quercus robur (Q.R) trees. In order to understand the effects of the prescribed fire on the soluble elements in ash, we conducted our data analysis on three data groups: all samples, only Q.S samples and only Q.R samples. All three sample groups exhibited a significant increase in pH, EC (p<0.001), water-soluble Ca, Mg, Na, SiO2 and TS and a decrease in water-soluble Mn, Fe and Zn. Differences were identified between oak species for water-soluble K, Al and Fe. In Q.S samples we registered a significant increase in the first two elements p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively, and a non-significant impact in the third, at p<0.05. In Q.R data we identified a non-significant impact on water-soluble K and Al and a significant decrease in water-soluble Fe (p<0.05). These differences are probably due to vegetation characteristics and burn severity. The fire induced a higher variability in the ash soluble elements, especially in Q.S samples, that at some points burned with higher severity. The increase of pH, EC, Ca, Mg, Na and K will improve soil fertility, mainly in the study area where soils are acidic. The application of this low severity prescribed fire will improve soil nutrient status without causing soil degradation and thus is considered to be a good management strategy. ?? 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Pereira, P.; beda, X.; Martin, D.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Guerrero, C.

2011-01-01

20

MY NASA DATA: Forest Fires  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a problem based learning activity which asks students to utilize NASA data to determine areas at high risk for forest fire development. Students will pretend to be Rangers of the Department of Forestry, and will have to draw conclusions from the data in order to attempt to prevent forest fires. Detailed procedures, materials list, vocabulary linked to an online glossary, and teachers notes are provided.

Schnekser, Becky

2010-08-31

21

Amazon RainForest Fires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charcoal is common in the soils of mature rain forests within 75 kilometers of San Carlos de Rio Negro in the north central Amazon Basin. Carbon-14 dates of soil charcoal from this region indicate that numerous fires have occurred since the mid-Holocene epoch. Charcoal is most common in tierra firme forest Oxisols and Ultisols and less common in caatinga and

Robert L. Sanford; Juan Saldarriaga; Kathleen E. Clark; Christopher Uhl; Rafael Herrera

1985-01-01

22

Abrupt fire regime change may cause landscape-wide loss of mature obligate seeder forests.  

PubMed

Obligate seeder trees requiring high-severity fires to regenerate may be vulnerable to population collapse if fire frequency increases abruptly. We tested this proposition using a long-lived obligate seeding forest tree, alpine ash (Eucalyptus delegatensis), in the Australian Alps. Since 2002, 85% of the Alps bioregion has been burnt by several very large fires, tracking the regional trend of more frequent extreme fire weather. High-severity fires removed 25% of aboveground tree biomass, and switched fuel arrays from low loads of herbaceous and litter fuels to high loads of flammable shrubs and juvenile trees, priming regenerating stands for subsequent fires. Single high-severity fires caused adult mortality and triggered mass regeneration, but a second fire in quick succession killed 97% of the regenerating alpine ash. Our results indicate that without interventions to reduce fire severity, interactions between flammability of regenerating stands and increased extreme fire weather will eliminate much of the remaining mature alpine ash forest. PMID:24132866

Bowman, David M J S; Murphy, Brett P; Neyland, Dominic L J; Williamson, Grant J; Prior, Lynda D

2014-03-01

23

Forest fire monitoring with multiple small UAVs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frequent updates concerning the progress of a forest fire are essential for effective and safe fire fighting. Since a forest fire is typically inaccessible by ground vehicles due to mountainous terrain, small unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) are emerging as a promising means of monitoring large forest fires. We present an effective UAV path planning algorithm utilizing infrared images that are

David W. Casbeer; Randal W. Beard; T. W. McLain; Sai-Ming Li; R. K. Mehra

2005-01-01

24

29 CFR 570.54 - Forest fire fighting and forest fire prevention occupations, timber tract occupations, forestry...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Forest fire fighting and forest fire prevention occupations, timber tract occupations...Detrimental to Their Health or Well-Being § 570.54 Forest fire fighting and forest fire prevention...

2013-07-01

25

29 CFR 570.54 - Forest fire fighting and forest fire prevention occupations, timber tract occupations, forestry...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Forest fire fighting and forest fire prevention occupations, timber tract occupations...Detrimental to Their Health or Well-Being § 570.54 Forest fire fighting and forest fire prevention...

2011-07-01

26

29 CFR 570.54 - Forest fire fighting and forest fire prevention occupations, timber tract occupations, forestry...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Forest fire fighting and forest fire prevention occupations, timber tract occupations...Detrimental to Their Health or Well-Being § 570.54 Forest fire fighting and forest fire prevention...

2012-07-01

27

29 CFR 570.54 - Forest fire fighting and forest fire prevention occupations, timber tract occupations, forestry...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Forest fire fighting and forest fire prevention occupations, timber tract occupations...Detrimental to Their Health or Well-Being § 570.54 Forest fire fighting and forest fire prevention...

2014-07-01

28

Reduction of false alarms in forest fire surveillance using water vapour concentration measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work a theoretical model to evaluate the capabilities of our lidar system in forest fire detection is reported. In particular, a new idea of minimization of false alarm is shown. In a forest fire, in fact, a lot of ashes and in the first stage a large amount of water vapour are emitted. Measurements of water vapour increase

C. Bellecci; L. De Leo; P. Gaudio; M. Gelfusa; T. Lo Feudo; S. Martellucci; M. Richetta

2009-01-01

29

Siberian forest fire detection using NOAA AVHRR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors detected forest fires in Siberian areas with NOAA AVHRR and compared the results with ground truth data. They developed a new forest fire detection with channel 3A which was newly equipped with NOAA-15. They observed forest fire areas around Novosibirsk in August 1999

Kazuhiko Fujiwara; Jun-ichi Kudoh

2001-01-01

30

Wildland Fire Protection Program NEBRASKA FOREST SERVICE  

E-print Network

Wildland Fire Protection Program NEBRASKA FOREST SERVICE HOW NEBRASKANS BENEFIT: · improved protection of life and property from wildland fires · improved firefighting capability in rural fire districts · increased firefighter knowledge of wildland fire suppression and prevention · reduced forest

Farritor, Shane

31

Forest Harvest Can Increase Subsequent Forest Fire Severity1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The USDA Forest Service is progressing from a land management strategy oriented around timber extraction towards one oriented around maintaining healthy forested lands. The healthy Forest Initiative promotes the idea of broadscale forest thinning and fuel treatments as an effective means for mitigating hazardous fuel conditions and, by extension, fire risk. Fuels mitigation is proactive while fire suppression is reactive

Carter Stone; Andrew Hudak; Penelope Morgan

32

Concentration of heavy metals in ash produced from Lithuanian forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wood ash contains important amounts of heavy metals. This quantity depends on burned specie, temperature of exposition and heat duration time. Due the high mineralization imposed by the temperatures, ash is used as lime product in agriculture and forests. Also, after a forest fire large quantities of ash are produced and distributed in soil surface. This mineralized organic matter can induce important environmental problems, including soil toxicity provoked by heavy metals leachates from ash. There is an extensive literature about heavy metals contents on ash in different species. However, it recently highlighted that the same species placed in different environments can respond diversely to same temperatures. This question is of major importance because temperature effects on severity can be a function of the plant communities instead of specie characteristics. These findings add a higher degree of complexity in the understanding of temperature effects on ash composition and consequent availability of heavy metals. The aim of this study is to compare the ash chemical heavy metal composition, Cobalt (Co), Chromium (Cr), Cooper (Cu), Silver (Ag), Lead (Pb), Nickel (Ni), Manganese (Mn) and Zinc (Zn), from Pinus sylvestris and Betula pendula, collected in key and representative areas of Lithuanian forests, located in southern, coastal and central part. Samples were collected from alive trees, taken to laboratory and air dried. Subsequently were crushed and submitted to muffle furnace at temperature of 550°C during two hours. The ash samples were digested and in a HNO3-HCl solution and then analysed with AAS. Comparisons between species and sites were performed with a Non-parametric one-way ANOVA‘s on rank transformed data followed by Tukey‘s HSD, significant at a p<0.05. Results showed significant difference between Co and Ag concentrations between Pinus sylvestris and Betula pendula. Also, significantly different concentrations of Pb, Cu, Ni and Mn were determined among investigated sites. No significant difference was found for Zn and Cr among investigated sites. Variation of metals between sites and stands can be explained by their age, flammability difference between plant communities and anthropogenic heavy metal load. These and other aspects will be discussed with more detail in the communication.

Baltrenaite, Edita; Pereira, Paulo; Butkus, Donatas; Úbeda, Xavier

2010-05-01

33

Seed germination of montane forest species in response to ash, smoke and heat shock in Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many fire-prone ecosystems, seed germination is triggered by heat shock, smoke, ash and charred wood. However, few studies concerning the effect of these fire products on the germination of tropical and subtropical species exist. We assessed the effect of fire products and their interactions on seed germination in 12 species that frequently grow in burned areas of pine-oak and mixed forest in a mountainous subtropical area. Each species was exposed to a predetermined treatment of heat shock, which was optimised in accordance with a previous study. For smoke treatments, seeds were immersed in smoke water, whereas for ash treatments, 1.5 g of ash was added to the incubation medium. Germination increased in 92% of the species in response to the products of fire. Both the smoke water and the ash treatments promoted germination in four species that had permeable seed covers and physiological dormancy. Six species with physical dormancy required both heat shock and smoke water or ash to break dormancy. Our results indicate that seed germination response to fire products depends on the species and/or dormancy type. The germination response to the fire products varied between species; therefore, fire products may influence the species composition in post-fire regeneration.

Zuloaga-Aguilar, Susana; Briones, Oscar; Orozco-Segovia, Alma

2011-05-01

34

Animation of Sequoia Forest Fire  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Continued hot, dry weather in the American west contributed to the spread of numerous fires over the weekend of July 29-30, 2000. This is the most active fire season in the United States since 1988, when large portions of Yellowstone National Park burned. One of the largest fires currently burning has consumed more than 63,000 acres in Sequoia National Forest. This NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) image shows the fire on the afternoon of July 30, 2000. Note the clouds above the smoke plume. These often form during large fires because updrafts lift warm air near the ground high into the atmosphere, cooling the air and causing the water vapor it contains to condense into droplets. The soot particles in the smoke also act as condensation nuclei for the droplets. View the animation of GOES data to see the smoke forming clouds. Image and Animation by Robert Simmon and Marit-Jentoft Nilsen, NASA GSFC, based on data from NOAA.

2002-01-01

35

Recovery of Forest Vegetation After Fire Disturbance  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Fire is the dominant form of disturbance in boreal forests (Wein and MacLean 1983; Van Cleve et al. 1986; Payette 1992; Rees\\u000a and Juday 2002). In the Siberian cryolithic zone, ground fires are predominant among the disturbance factors; about 1.5% of\\u000a the total forested area is damaged annually by wild fires (Sofronov et al. 1998). Fire frequency of northern taiga

O. A. Zyryanova; A. P. Abaimov; T. N. Bugaenko; N. N. Bugaenko

36

Fire and forest history at Mount Rushmore.  

PubMed

Mount Rushmore National Memorial in the Black Hills of South Dakota is known worldwide for its massive sculpture of four of the United States' most respected presidents. The Memorial landscape also is covered by extensive ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forest that has not burned in over a century. We compiled dendroecological and forest structural data from 29 plots across the 517-ha Memorial and used fire behavior modeling to reconstruct the historical fire regime and forest structure and compare them to current conditions. The historical fire regime is best characterized as one of low-severity surface fires with occasional (> 100 years) patches (< 100 ha) of passive crown fire. We estimate that only approximately 3.3% of the landscape burned as crown fire during 22 landscape fire years (recorded at > or = 25% of plots) between 1529 and 1893. The last landscape fire was in 1893. Mean fire intervals before 1893 varied depending on spatial scale, from 34 years based on scar-to-scar intervals on individual trees to 16 years between landscape fire years. Modal fire intervals were 11-15 years and did not vary with scale. Fire rotation (the time to burn an area the size of the study area) was estimated to be 30 years for surface fire and 800+ years for crown fire. The current forest is denser and contains more small trees, fewer large trees, lower canopy base heights, and greater canopy bulk density than a reconstructed historical (1870) forest. Fire behavior modeling using the NEXUS program suggests that surface fires would have dominated fire behavior in the 1870 forest during both moderate and severe weather conditions, while crown fire would dominate in the current forest especially under severe weather. Changes in the fire regime and forest structure at Mount Rushmore parallel those seen in ponderosa pine forests from the southwestern United States. Shifts from historical to current forest structure and the increased likelihood of crown fire justify the need for forest restoration before a catastrophic wildfire occurs and adversely impacts the ecological and aesthetic setting of the Mount Rushmore sculpture. PMID:19263892

Brown, Peter M; Wienk, Cody L; Symstad, Amy J

2008-12-01

37

Fire severity effects on ash extractable Total Phosphorous  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorous (P) is a crucial element to plant nutrition and limits vegetal production. The amounts of P in soil are lower and great part of this nutrient is absorbed or precipitated. It is well known that fire has important implications on P cycle, that can be lost throughout volatilization, evacuated with the smoke, but also more available to transport after organic matter mineralization imposed by the fire. The release of P depends on ash pH and their chemical and physical characteristics. Fire temperatures impose different severities, according to the specie affected and contact time. Fire severity is often evaluated by ash colour and this is a low-cost and excellent methodology to assess the fire effects on ecosystems. The aim of this work is study the ash properties physical and chemical properties on ash extractable Total Phosphorous (TP), collected in three wildfires, occured in Portugal, (named, (1) Quinta do Conde, (2) Quinta da Areia and (3) Casal do Sapo) composed mainly by Quercus suber and Pinus pinaster trees. The ash colour was assessed using the Munsell color chart. From all three plots we analyzed a total of 102 ash samples and we identified 5 different ash colours, ordered in an increasing order of severity, Very Dark Brown, Black, Dark Grey, Very Dark Grey and Light Grey. In order to observe significant differences between extractable TP and ash colours, we applied an ANOVA One Way test, and considered the differences significant at a p<0.05. The results showed that significant differences in the extractable TP among the different ash colours. Hence, to identify specific differences between each ash colour, we applied a post-hoc Fisher LSD test, significant at a p<0.05. The results obtained showed significant differences between the extractable TP from Very dark Brown and Black ash, produced at lower severities, in relation to Dark Grey, Very Dark Grey and Light Grey ash, generated at higher severities. The means of the first group were higher than the observed in the second one. This indicates that ash produced lower temperatures release in solution higher amounts of TP. These divergences occur due temperature of combustion, affected specie, ash pH values and CaCO3 content, which affects the quantity of this element in solution. Discussions about these effects will be accurate in the communication.

Pereira, Paulo; Úbeda, Xavier; Martin, Deborah

2010-05-01

38

USDA Forest Service: Emerald Ash Borer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Emerald Ash Borer(EAB) has become a pesky problem in North America in recent years, after being introduced into the ecosystem in the early 1990s. This information site from the USDA Forest Service is dedicated to providing the northeastern part of North America (where the bug has become a big problem) with information on identifying the insect, its infestations, and quarantine information, as well as control and management resources. The "Infestations" section contains several maps outlining the infected and quarantined ares of Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Maryland, and the United States as a whole. This is a great resource for anyone interested or concerned about the current EAB problem.

39

6, 32273264, 2006 Forest fire smoke  

E-print Network

air quality on local scales. The deterio- ration of air quality due to smoke includes reduced the short-term effects25 of forest fires on air quality in North America, particularly in urban and semi-friendly Version Interactive Discussion EGU eas (Wong and Li, 2002). The impact of such forest fires on ozone

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

40

Natural Variability of Mexican Forest Fires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper was 1) to present a new algorithm for analyzing the forest fires, 2) to discuss the present understanding of the natural variability at different scales with special emphasis on Mexico conditions since 1972, 3) to analyze the internal and external factors affecting forest fires for example ENSO and Total Solar Irradiance, and 4) to discuss the implications of this knowledge, on research and on restoration and management methods, which purpose is to enhance forest biodiversity conservation. 5) We present an estimate of the Mexican forest fires for the next decade. These results may be useful to minimize human and economic losses.

Velasco-Herrera, Graciela; Velasco Herrera, Victor Manuel; Kemper-Valverdea, N.

41

Ectomycorrhizal colonisation of roots and ash granules in a spruce forest treated with granulated wood ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Granulated wood ash has been proposed as a slow release fertiliser suitable for forest soils. In this study ectomycorrhizal colonisation of roots and ash granules was studied in a 40-year-old spruce forest treated with 0, 3 or 6tha?1 granulated wood ash. We used PCR-RFLP methods for ITS-typing and identification of ectomycorrhizal fungi. In total 20 different ITS-types were recognised on

Shahid Mahmood; Roger D Finlay; Håkan Wallander; Susanne Erland

2002-01-01

42

Fire vegetative ash and erosion in the Mediterranean areas. State of the art and future perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire is a global phenomenon with important ecological impacts. Among all ecosystems, the Mediterranean is frequently visited by severe wildfires with serious impacts on soil properties and increase soil vulnerability to erosion due vegetation removal. After the fire the ash distributed in soil surface can mitigate soil exposition to erosion and rain splash (Cerda and Doerr, 2008), however, this depends on the fire severity that have implications on the type of ash produced (Pereira et al., 2010). High fire severities produced thinner ash that it is easily transported by wind, contrary to low severity wildfires where combustion is not so intense and the mass loss is less, providing a better soil protection in the immediate period after the fire. Soil protection after the fire highly depends on fire severity (Pereira et al. 2013a; Pereira et al. 2013b). Ash it is a highly mobile material, thus this protection can change in space and time, providing a better cover in some areas and worst in others. In the period immediate after the fire, ash can change soil hydrological properties, increasing water retention and reducing sediment transport in relation to bare soil areas (Cerda and Doerr, 2008), but also clog soil pores, seal the soil and increase erosion (Onda et al., 2008). In fact results are controversial and the impacts of vegetative ash in soil erosion may rely on the proprieties of ash produced, that can be extremely variable, even in small distances (Pereira and Úbeda, 2010), due the different conditions of combustions. Ash produced at low severity temperatures can be highly hydrophilic (Bodi et al., 2011) and induce soil hydrophobicity (Bodi et al., 2012). Other mechanisms as the direct impact of fire in soil, can induce soil water repellency, and do not have any interference of vegetative ash. This fire can induce direct (e.g temperature) and indirect (e.g. ash properties) on soil wettability, with obvious implications on spatio-temporal pattern of soil erosion. At this point we are dealing with a complex interaction since interactions, since low severity fires due ash, and high severity fires, due temperature induce soil hydrophobicity. After the fire, other ash properties may interact with soil erosion, as particulate size, and chemical composition, that can induce soil particulates flocculation or dispersion. Ash chemistry is strongly related with fire severity (Pereira et al., 2012). Further studies may be directed in the complex interaction between ash physico-chemical properties interaction with the degree of fire impacts on soil. These and other ideas will be discussed during the session. Acknowledgements, The authors appreciated the support of the project "Litfire", Fire effects in Lithuanian soils and ecosystems (MIP-048/2011) funded by the Lithuanian Research Council and FUEGORED (Spanish Network of Forest Fire Effects on Soils http://grupo.us.es/fuegored/). References Bodi, M., Doerr, S., Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J. (2012) Hydrological effects of a layer of vegetation ash on underlying wettable and water repellent soil. Geoderma 191: 14-13. Bodi, M., Mataix-Solera, J., Doerr, S., Cerdà, A. (2011) The wettability of ash from burned vegetation and its relationship to Mediterranean plant species type, burn severity and total organic matter content. Geoderma, 160, 599-607. Cerdà, A., Doerr, S.H. (2008). The effect of ash and needle cover on surface runoff and erosion in the immediate post-fire period. Catena, 74, 256-263. Onda Y, Dietrich WE, Booker F. 2008. Evolution of overland flow after a severe forest fire, Point Reyes, California. Catena. 72, 13-20. Pereira, P., Bodi. M., Úbeda, X., Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Balfour, V, Woods, S. (2010) Las cenizas y el ecosistema suelo, In: Cerdà, A. Jordan, A. (eds) Actualización en métodos y técnicas para el estudio de los suelos afectados por incendios forestales, 345-398. Càtedra de Divulgació de la Ciència. Universitat de Valencia. ISBN: 978-84-370-7887-8. Deposito Legal: V-3541-2010. Pereira, P., Cerdà, A., Úbeda, X., Mataix-Solera,

Pereira, Paulo; Cerdà, Artemi

2013-04-01

43

Emissions from forest fires near Mexico City  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emissions of NOx (defined as NO (nitric oxide) + NO2 (nitrogen dioxide)) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN), per unit amount of fuel burned, from fires in the pine forests that dominate the mountains surrounding Mexico City (MC) are about 2 times higher than normally observed for forest burning. The ammonia (NH3) emissions are about average for forest burning. The upper

R. J. Yokelson; S. P. Urbanski; E. L. Atlas; D. W. Toohey; E. C. Alvarado; J. D. Crounse; P. O. Wennberg; M. E. Fisher; C. E. Wold; T. L. Campos; K. Adachi; P. R. Buseck; W. M. Hao

2007-01-01

44

Wildfire ash: its production and hydro-eco-geomorphic effects in forested landscapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire, whether ignited naturally or by humans, is one of the most important disturbance agents in many of the world's forested ecosystems. Amongst its direct consequences is the deposition of a range of solid and largely powdery residues on the ground consisting of charred organic material including charcoal and residual mineral material. This fragile 'ash' layer can be removed in large quantities from hillslopes within days by wind or water erosion, with the latter facilitating its transfer to the hydrological system. Probably as a result of its ephemeral nature and not being soil, vegetation or litter, ash has seen limited attention in studies on hydrological impacts of wildfire. Those few studies available show that ash can substantially affect the hydrological system. When present on hillslopes as a water-absorbent layer, it can reduce surface runoff, protect soil against rainsplash erosion, and its leachates can reportedly reduce soil erodibility by promoting flocculation of dispersed clays. In contrast, however, ash can also increase surface runoff by blocking soil pores or by forming a crust. Furthermore, ash is thought capable of promoting debris flows. Its net effect probably depends on the nature of the ash and soil including their respective water repellency levels, the pore size distribution of the soil, and general terrain and rainfall characteristics. Being very mobile, ash can be the source of substantial organic and inorganic sediment inputs, and of solute influxes into the fluvial system. These can affect water quality sometimes with detrimental effects on aquatic organisms and domestic water supply. This presentation aims to provide an overview of the current knowledge base regarding the production and potential effects of wildfire ash on the hydrological system in and beyond forested landscapes..The late Scott Woods examining a thick ash layer following a severe fire in a conifer forest. Montana, USA.

Doerr, S. H.; Bodi, M.; Santin, C.; Balfour, V.; Woods, S.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Cerda, A.; Shakesby, R.

2012-12-01

45

Fire effects on ecosystem nitrogen cycling in a Californian bishop pine forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire can cause severe nitrogen (N) losses from grassland, chaparral, and temperate and boreal forest ecosystems. Paradoxically,\\u000a soil ammonium levels are markedly increased by fire, resulting in high rates of primary production in re-establishing plant\\u000a communities. In a manipulative experiment, we examined the influence of wild-fire ash residues on soil, microbial and plant\\u000a N pools in a recently burned Californian

P. Grogan; T. D. Burns; F. S. Chapin III

2000-01-01

46

Forest Fire Modeling and Early Detection using Wireless Sensor Networks  

E-print Network

Forest Fire Modeling and Early Detection using Wireless Sensor Networks MOHAMED HEFEEDA Simon Fraser University, Canada Forest fires cost millions of dollars in damages and claim many human lives for early detection of forest fires. We first present the key aspects in modeling forest fires. We do

Zhang, Richard "Hao"

47

Observe forest fires as seen from space  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Earth science resource shows students how atmospheric scientists use infrared imaging to detect and locate forest fires. The introduction explains how visible-light images recorded by satellites are unable to distinguish smoke from clouds. In contrast, infrared imaging, which detects heat, can detect hot spots that indicate the location of forest fires. The resource provides two different sets of satellite pictures. Students are instructed to toggle between the visible-light and infrared images of each set to see how scientists use information from both types of images to identify forest fires. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Education, Terc. C.; Littell, Mcdougal

2003-01-01

48

Mapping fire effects on ash and soil properties. Current knowledge and future perspectives.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire has heterogeneous impacts on ash and soil properties, depending on severity, topography of the burned area, type of soil and vegetation affected, and meteorological conditions during and post-fire. The heterogeneous impacts of fire and the complex topography of wildland environments impose the challenge of understand fire effects at diverse scales in space and time. Mapping is fundamental to identify the impacts of fire on ash and soil properties because allow us to recognize the degree of the fire impact, vulnerable areas, soil protection and distribution of ash and soil nutrients, important to landscape recuperation. Several methodologies have been used to map fire impacts on ash soil properties. Burn severity maps are very useful to understand the immediate and long-term impacts of fire on the ecosystems (Wagtendonk et al., 2004; Kokaly et al., 2007). These studies normally are carried out with remote sensing techniques and study large burned areas. On a large scale it is very important to detect the most vulnerable areas (e.g. with risk of runoff increase, flooding, erosion, sedimentation and debris flow) and propose -if necessary- immediate rehabilitation measures. Post-fire rehabilitation measures can be extremely costly. Thus the identification of the most affected areas will reduce the erosion risks and soil degradation (Miller and Yool, 2002; Robichaud et al., 2007; Robichaud, 2009), as the consequent economical, social and ecological impacts. Recently, the United States Department of Agriculture created a field guide to map post-fire burn severity, based on remote sensing and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) technologies. The map produced should reflect the effects of fire on soil properties, and identify areas where fire was more severe (Parsons et al. 2010). Remote sensing studies have made attempts to estimate soil and ash properties after the fire, as hydrophobicity (Lewis et al., 2008), water infiltration (Finnley and Glenn, 2010), forest floor consumption (Lewis et al., 2011), ash cover (Robichaud et al., 2007) and other aspects related with soil as the vegetation factors that affect post-fire erosion risk (Fox et al., 2008). Field studies had also indented to estimate and map the impacts of fire in soil properties. Contrary to remote sensing studies, the mapping of fire effects on ash and soil properties in the field is specially carried out at small scale (e.g. slope or plot). The small scale resolution studies are important because identify small patterns that are normally ignored by remote sensing studies, but fundamental to understand the post-fire evolution of the burned areas. One of the important aspects of the small scale studies of fire effect on ash and soil properties is the great spatial variability, showing that the impact of fire is extremely heterogeneous in space and time (Outeiro et al., 2008; Pereira et al. in press). The small scale mapping of fire effects on soil properties normally is carried out using Geostatistical methods or using deterministic interpolation methods (Robichaud and Miller, 1999; Pereira et al., 2013). Several reports were published on the spatial distribution and mapping of ash and duff thickness (Robichaud and Miller, 1999; Pereira et al., 2013; Pereira et al. in press), fire severity (Pereira et al., 2014), ash chemical characteristics as total nitrogen (Pereira et al., 2010a), and ash extractable elements (Pereira et al., 2010b). Also, previous works mapped fire effects on soil temperature (Gimeno-Garcia et al., 2004), soil hydrophobicity (Woods et al., 2007), total nitrogen (Hirobe et al., 2003), phosphorous (Rodriguez et al., 2009) and major cations (Outeiro et al., 2008). It is important to integrate remote sensing and field based works of fire effects on ash and soil properties in order to have a better validation of the models predicted. The aim of this work is present the current knowledge about mapping fire effects in ash and soil properties at diverse scales and the future perspectives. References Finley, C.D., Glenn, N.F. (2010) Fire and vege

Pereira, Paulo; Cerda, Artemi; Strielko, Irina

2014-05-01

49

The impact of bushfires on water yield from south-east Australia's ash forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Widespread disturbance within forested catchments typically increases runoff. However, following widespread fire in 1939 throughout south-east Australia, Kuczera (1987) reported persistent reductions in runoff that were attributed to increased evapotranspiration from regenerating "ash" forests. Kuczera projected ongoing reductions of water yield for ˜150 years. In 2003, widespread fire in the headwaters of the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB) again stimulated extensive regeneration of ash forests, raising the prospect of subsequent water yield reductions. To understand the potential impact of the 2003 bushfires, we re-evaluated yield reductions from three of the catchments originally studied by Kuczera using the same calibration period. We also used an expanded prefire calibration period (1908-1938) based on data not originally available to Kuczera. The trend of postfire water yield that we observed in 1939-affected catchments is qualitatively consistent with Kuczera's projections, but the quantitative details were, as expected, sensitive to the prefire calibration period used. We then used a simplified method to examine a further five ash-dominated catchments affected by the 2003 fires. We report relative reductions in mean annual stream flow in all five catchments and a statistically significant (? = 0.05) postfire reduction in one of five catchments. Postfire yield reductions during the austral summer (October to April) were greater in relative magnitude in all five catchments and were statistically significant (? = 0.05) in three of five catchments. We conclude that a postbushfire Kuczera-type response may be widespread in regenerating ash forests. On that basis, we anticipate postfire yield reductions in ash forests elsewhere and conclude that further reductions in stream flow are likely in the MDB for at least another decade.

Brookhouse, Matthew T.; Farquhar, Graham D.; Roderick, Michael L.

2013-07-01

50

Stabilisation of biofuel ashes for recycling to forest soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Swedish research program concerning the technical and ecological effects of wood fuel ash recycling to forest biotopes has been on-going for several years. Within this program, a study of the stabilisation of ash by the so-called self-hardening process was carried out. Chemical reactions occurring in the ash materials on water addition and during solidification were identified based on results

B.-M. Steenari; O. Lindqvist

1997-01-01

51

Fly ash and concrete: a study determines whether biomass, or coal co-firing fly ash, can be used in concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current US national standards for using fly ash in concrete (ASTM C618) state that fly ash must come from coal combustion, thus precluding biomass-coal co-firing fly ash. The co-fired ash comes from a large and increasing fraction of US power plants due to rapid increases in co-firing opportunity fuels with coal. The fly ashes include coal fly ash, wood fly

Shuangzhen Wang; Larry Baxter

2006-01-01

52

Prediction of water yield reductions following a bushfire in ash-mixed species eucalypt forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous work on long-term yield trends following the 1939 bushfire in mountain ash eucalypt catchments near Melbourne concluded that a relationship exists between the age of the ash forest and average annual streamflow yield. In the light of additional hydrologic and forest data, this study reassesses and extends the earlier work. A two-parameter model of the long-term yield trend following a bushfire is proposed. It is shown to satisfactorily fit rainfall-runoff data for eight catchments affected by the 1939 fires. In addition, the fits confirm earlier findings of significant yield reductions and, moreover, suggest possible recovery in yields. Despite insufficient hydrologic data to confirm these recovery trends, forest age and composition data indicate that recovery in yield should be practically complete by the time the ash forest reaches maturity (about 100-150 yr after regeneration). The yield trend model is consistent with this information. Using a generalized least squares approach, regional models for the long-term yield trend parameters Lmax (the maximum yield reduction) and log K (the response time) are developed. Unlike an earlier regional model only one forest parameter, namely the percentage of 1939 regrowth ash, was found to be significant in the prediction of Lmax. A simple simulation model based on the regional models is then developed enabling evaluation of the effect of future bushfire (and logging) on catchment yield. This was used to resolve contradictory conclusions about the significance of yield trends in the O'Shannassy catchment where the effect of fires prior to 1939 was shown to obscure the yield trends due to the 1939 fire. In addition, the simulation model was used to illustrate the potential vulnerability of Melbourne's water supply to a major bushfire.

Kuczera, George

1987-10-01

53

Long-distance transport of terrestrial plant material by convection resulting from forest fires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paleoecologists widely accept macroscopic plant remains preserved in lake sediment as good indicators of the vegetation communities growing within and adjacent to the margin of a lake or mire. However, the study of ash fallout from a small to moderate size forest fire in a low elevation Pseudotsuga menziesii\\/Pinus contorta\\/Abies lasiocarpa stand near Bozeman, Montana suggests that certain macroscopic plant

Michael F. J. Pisaric

2002-01-01

54

Remote Sensing of Forest Fires from Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Forest fires, and fires used for deforestation and agriculture are sporadic. Some may last an hour others several days. It is difficult to find the fires or to estimate their effect on atmospheric pollution without an "eye in the sky" a satellite or an array of satellites that monitors them routinely from space. Since fires have a significant effect on the quality of air that we breath, on the surface vegetation, on clouds and precipitation and even on climate, NASA and other space agencies try to develop fire monitoring capability from space. Presently satellites were not designed to monitor fires. But the AVHRR and GOES satellites were used for fire monitoring. AVHRR is an orbiter that passes over the same area twice a day with detailed observations of fires from a distance of 800 km, GOES is a stationary satellite located above the equator, and observes the larger fires from a distance of 20,000 km. Field experiments, such as the "SCAR-B" experiment in Brazil conducted in 1995 by INPE, NASA and Universities of Sao Paulo, Washington and Wisconsin, were used to determine the ability of satellites to observe fires and the emitted pollution. They are the basis of a new system of satellites designed by NASA to observe fires and pollution, the Earth Observing System AM1 and PM1. NASA plans to use the information for four observations a day of the fires and the emitted smoke. The information can be used to determine the location of the fires, to distinguish between small and large fires and monitor their development. The satellites will measure the emitted smoke and with trajectory models can be used to predict the density and spread of the smoke.

Kaufman, Y.

1999-01-01

55

Universal scaling of forest fire propagation  

E-print Network

In this paper we use a variant of the Watts-Strogatz small-world model to predict wildfire behavior near the critical propagation/nonpropagation threshold. We find that forest fire patterns are fractal and that critical exponents are universal, which suggests that the propagation/nonpropagation transition is a second-order transition. Universality tells us that the characteristic critical behaviour of propagation in real (amorphous) forest landscapes can be extracted from the simplest network model.

Bernard, Porterie; Pierre, Clerc Jean; Nouredine, Zekri; Zekri, Lotfi

2008-01-01

56

Forest Fires in Russia and Northern China  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Smoke plumes from forest fires scattered along the border between the Russian Far East and northern China are clearly visible in this true-color image from the Sea-viewing Wide-Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) on June 16, 2000. Fires in Siberia occur every summer, and severe outbreaks occur every ten years or so, with the most recent in 1998. The fires are ignited by lightning, and are so remote that it is impossible to fight them effectively. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

2002-01-01

57

APPLICATIONS Forest Fire Spread and Suppression in DEVS  

E-print Network

APPLICATIONS Forest Fire Spread and Suppression in DEVS Lewis Ntaimo Department of Industrial. Speedway Tucson, AZ 85721 In this article, the authors discuss modeling and simulation of forest fire to obtain timely simulation-based predictions of forest fire spread and suppression in uniform

Ntaimo, Lewis

58

Forest fires, explosions, and random trees Edward Crane  

E-print Network

Forest fires, explosions, and random trees Edward Crane HIMR, UoB 13th January 2014 #12 and James Martin at the University of Oxford. Edward Crane (HIMR, UoB) Forest fires, explosions, and random trees 13th January 2014 2 / 20 #12;Overview This talk is about the mean field forest fire model

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

59

Forest fire risk zonation mapping using remote sensing technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fires cause major losses to forest cover and disturb the ecological balance in our region. Rise in temperature during summer season causing increased dryness, increased activity of human beings in the forest areas, and the type of forest cover in the Garhwal Himalayas are some of the reasons that lead to forest fires. Therefore, generation of forest fire risk maps becomes necessary so that preventive measures can be taken at appropriate time. These risk maps shall indicate the zonation of the areas which are in very high, high, medium and low risk zones with regard to forest fire in the region. In this paper, an attempt has been made to generate the forest fire risk maps based on remote sensing data and other geographical variables responsible for the occurrence of fire. These include altitude, temperature and soil variations. Key thematic data layers pertaining to these variables have been generated using various techniques. A rule-based approach has been used and implemented in GIS environment to estimate fuel load and fuel index leading to the derivation of fire risk zonation index and subsequently to fire risk zonation maps. The fire risk maps thus generated have been validated on the ground for forest types as well as for forest fire risk areas. These maps would help the state forest departments in prioritizing their strategy for combating forest fires particularly during the fire seasons.

Chandra, Sunil; Arora, M. K.

2006-12-01

60

Forest Fire Spread and Suppression in DEVS Lewis Ntaimo1  

E-print Network

fire spread that includes response to control measures. DEVS provides a sound modeling and simulation fires [1]. Forest fires destroy important resources such as plant life, animal life, houses, and other

61

Fly ash and concrete: a study determines whether biomass, or coal co-firing fly ash, can be used in concrete  

SciTech Connect

Current US national standards for using fly ash in concrete (ASTM C618) state that fly ash must come from coal combustion, thus precluding biomass-coal co-firing fly ash. The co-fired ash comes from a large and increasing fraction of US power plants due to rapid increases in co-firing opportunity fuels with coal. The fly ashes include coal fly ash, wood fly ash from pure wood combustion, biomass and coal co-fired fly ash SW1 and SW2. Also wood fly ash is blended with Class C or Class F to produce Wood C and Wood E. Concrete samples were prepared with fly ash replacing cement by 25%. All fly ash mixes except wood have a lower water demand than the pure cement mix. Fly ashes, either from coal or non coal combustion, increase the required air entraining agent (AEA) to meet the design specification of the mixes. If AEA is added arbitrarily without considering the amount or existence of fly ash results could lead to air content in concrete that is either too low or too high. Biomass fly ash does not impact concrete setting behaviour disproportionately. Switch grass-coal co-fired fly ash and blended wood fly ash generally lie within the range of pure coal fly ash strength. The 56 day flexure strength of all the fly ash mixes is comparable to that of the pure cement mix. The flexure strength from the coal-biomass co-fired fly ash does not differ much from pure coal fly ash. All fly ash concrete mixes exhibit lower chloride permeability than the pure cement mixes. In conclusion biomass coal co-fired fly ash perform similarly to coal fly ash in fresh and hardened concrete. As a result, there is no reason to exclude biomass-coal co-fired fly ash in concrete.

Wang, Shuangzhen; Baxter, Larry

2006-08-01

62

Leaching of elements from bottom ash, economizer fly ash, and fly ash from two coal-fired power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess how elements leach from several types of coal combustion products (CCPs) and to better understand possible risks from CCP use or disposal, coal ashes were sampled from two bituminous-coal-fired power plants. One plant located in Ohio burns high-sulfur (about 3.9%) Upper Pennsylvanian Pittsburgh coal from the Monongahela Group of the Central Appalachian Basin; the other in New Mexico

Kevin B. Jones; Leslie F. Ruppert; Sharon M. Swanson

63

Managing fire-prone forests in the western United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

5 The management of fire-prone forests is one of the most controversial natural resource issues in the US today, particularly in the west of the country. Although vegetation and wildlife in these forests are adapted to fire, the historical range of fire frequency and severity was huge. When fire regimes are altered by human activity, major effects on biodiversity and

Reed F. Noss; Jerry F. Franklin; William L. Baker; Tania Schoennagel; Peter B. Moyle

2006-01-01

64

Emissions from forest fires near Mexico City  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emissions of NOx and HCN (per unit amount of fuel burned) from fires in the pine-savannas that dominate the mountains surrounding Mexico City (MC) are about 2 times higher than normally observed for forest burning. The NH3 emissions are about average for forest burning. The NOx/VOC mass ratio for the MC-area mountain fires was ~0.38, which is similar to the NOx/VOC ratio in the MC urban area emissions inventory of 0.43, but much larger than the NOx/VOC ratio for tropical forest fires in Brazil (~0.068). The nitrogen enrichment in the fire emissions may be due to deposition of nitrogen-containing pollutants in the outflow from the MC urban area. This effect may occur worldwide wherever biomass burning coexists with large urban areas (e.g. the tropics, southeastern US, Los Angeles Basin). The molar emission ratio HCN/CO for the mountain fires was ~0.0128±0.0096: 2-9 times higher than widely used literature values for biomass burning. The MC-area/downwind molar ratio of HCN/CO is about 0.003±0.0003. Thus, if other types of biomass burning are relatively insignificant, the mountain fires may be contributing about 23% of the CO production in the MC-area (~98-100 W and 19-20 N). Comparing the PM10/CO mass ratio in the MC Metropolitan Area emission inventory (0.011) to the PM1/CO mass ratio for the mountain fires (0.133) then suggests that these fires could produce as much as ~78% of the fine particle mass generated in the MC-area.

Yokelson, R.; Urbanski, S.; Atlas, E.; Toohey, D.; Alvarado, E.; Crounse, J.; Wennberg, P.; Fisher, M.; Wold, C.; Campos, T.; Adachi, K.; Buseck, P. R.; Hao, W. M.

2007-05-01

65

Emissions from forest fires near Mexico City  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emissions of NOx (defined as NO (nitric oxide) + NO2 (nitrogen dioxide)) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN), per unit amount of fuel burned, from fires in the pine forests that dominate the mountains surrounding Mexico City (MC) are about 2 times higher than normally observed for forest burning. The ammonia (NH3) emissions are about average for forest burning. The upper limit for the mass ratio of NOx to volatile organic compounds (VOC) for these MC-area mountain fires was ~0.38, which is similar to the NOx/VOC ratio in the MC urban area emissions inventory of 0.34, but much larger than the NOx/VOC ratio for tropical forest fires in Brazil (~0.068). The nitrogen enrichment in the fire emissions may be due to deposition of nitrogen-containing pollutants in the outflow from the MC urban area. This effect may occur worldwide wherever biomass burning coexists with large urban areas (e.g. the tropics, southeastern US, Los Angeles Basin). The molar emission ratio of HCN to carbon monoxide (CO) for the mountain fires was 0.012±0.007, which is 2-9 times higher than widely used literature values for biomass burning. The ambient molar ratio HCN/CO in the MC-area outflow is about 0.003±0.0003. Thus, if only mountain fires emit significant amounts of HCN, these fires may be contributing about 25% of the CO production in the MC-area (~98-100 W and 19-20 N). Comparing the PM10/CO and PM2.5/CO mass ratios in the MC Metropolitan Area emission inventory (0.0115 and 0.0037) to the PM1/CO mass ratio for the mountain fires (0.133) then suggests that these fires could produce as much as ~79-92% of the primary fine particle mass generated in the MC-area. Considering both the uncertainty in the HCN/CO ratios and secondary aerosol formation in the urban and fire emissions implies that about 50±30% of the "aged" fine particle mass in the March 2006 MC-area outflow could be from these fires.

Yokelson, R. J.; Urbanski, S. P.; Atlas, E. L.; Toohey, D. W.; Alvarado, E. C.; Crounse, J. D.; Wennberg, P. O.; Fisher, M. E.; Wold, C. E.; Campos, T. L.; Adachi, K.; Buseck, P. R.; Hao, W. M.

2007-11-01

66

SPOT VEGETATION for characterizing boreal forest fires  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of the recent SPOT VEGETATION (VGT) sensor for characterizing boreal forest fires was investigated. Its capability for hotspot detection and burned area mapping was assessed by analysing a series of VGT, NOAA\\/AVHRR, and Landsat TM images over a 1541 km

R. H. Fraser; Z. Li; R. Landry

2000-01-01

67

Fire disturbance and forest structure in an old-growth Pinus ponderosa forest, southern Cascades, USA  

E-print Network

Fire disturbance and forest structure in an old-growth Pinus ponderosa forest, southern Cascades, USA Alan H. Taylor Abstract Questions: Did fire regimes in old-growth Pinus ponderosa forest change, Californian Pinus ponderosa forest structure and composition was dramatically altered through fire suppression

Taylor, Alan

68

Forest fire scar detection in the boreal forest with multitemporal SPOT-VEGETATION data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disturbance events, such as fire, have a major impact on boreal forest dynamics, succession, and the global carbon cycle. Methods using satellite imagery are well established for detecting forest fires in real time and mapping the burned area (fire scars) within one year of the fire. This paper focuses on the detection of older fire disturbance-regeneration patterns in the boreal

France Gerard; Stephen Plummer; Richard Wadsworth; Andrea Ferreruela Sanfeliu; Luke Iliffe; Heiko Balzter; Barry Wyatt

2003-01-01

69

Forecasting method of nationak-level forest fire risk rating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The risk level of forest fire not only depends on weather, topography, human activities, socio-economic conditions, but is also closely related to the types, growth, moisture content, and quantity of forest fuel on the ground. How to timely acquire information about the growth and moisture content of forest fuel and climate for the whole country is critical to national-level forest fire risk forecasting. The development and application of remote sensing (RS), geographic information system (GIS), databases, internet, and other modern information technologies has provided important technical means for macro-regional forest fire risk forecasting. In this paper, quantified forecasting of national-level forest fire risk was studied using Fuel State Index (FSI) and Background Composite Index (BCI). The FSI was estimated using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiaometer (MODIS) data. National meteorological data and other basic data on distribution of fuel types and forest fire risk rating were standardized in ArcGIS platform to calculate BCI. The FSI and the BCI were used to calculate the Forest Fire Danger Index (FFDI), which is regarded as a quantitative indicator for national forest fire risk forecasting and forest fire risk rating, shifting from qualitative description to quantitative estimation. The major forest fires occurred in recent years were taken as examples to validate the above method, and results indicated that the method can be used for quantitative forecasting of national-level forest fire risks.

Qin, Xian-lin; Zhang, Zi-hui; Li, Zeng-yuan; Yi, Hao-ruo

2008-11-01

70

Fuel loads, fire regimes, and post-fire fuel dynamics in Florida Keys pine forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

In forests, the effects of different life forms on fire behavior may vary depending on their contributions to total fuel loads. We examined the distribution of fuel components before fire, their effects on fire behavior, and the effects of fire on subsequent fuel recovery in pine forests within the National Key Deer Refuge in the Florida Keys. We conducted a

Jay P. Sah; Michael S. RossA; James R. SnyderB; Hillary C. CooleyD

71

Lightning in Colorado forest fire smoke plumes during summer 2012  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

May and June 2012 were unusually hot and dry in Colorado, which was suffering from a strong drought. A major consequence of this climatic regime was one of the most destructive forest fire seasons in state history, with hundreds of thousands of acres of forest and grassland consumed by flames, hundreds of homes burned, and several lives lost. Many of these fires occurred within range of the newly installed Colorado Lightning Mapping Array (COLMA), which provides high-resolution observations of discharges over a large portion of the state. The COLMA was installed in advance of the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) project. High-altitude lightning was observed to occur sporadically in the smoke plumes over three major fires that occurred during early summer: Hewlett Gulch, High Park, and Waldo Canyon. Additionally, the Colorado State University CHILL (CSU-CHILL) and Pawnee radars observed the Hewlett Gulch plume electrify with detailed polarimetric and dual-Doppler measurements, and also provided these same measurements for the High Park plume when it was not producing lightning. Meanwhile, local Next Generation Radars (NEXRADs) provided observations of the electrified High Park and Waldo Canyon plumes. All of these plumes also were observed by geostationary meteorological satellites. These observations provide an unprecedented dataset with which to study smoke plume and pyrocumulus electrification. The polarimetric data - low reflectivity, high differential reflectivity, low correlation coefficient, and noisy differential phase - were consistent with the smoke plumes and associated pyrocumulus being filled primarily with irregularly shaped ash particles. Lightning was not observed in the plumes until they reached over 10 km above mean sea level, which was an uncommon occurrence requiring explosive fire growth combined with increased meteorological instability and reduced wind shear. Plume updraft intensification and echo-top growth led the occurrence of lightning by 10-15 minutes. Discharges typically only occurred over the span of a few minutes thereafter, or sporadically over the course of one of more hours. Plume lightning was intra-cloud and relatively small in size, and featured extensive precursor activity. Due to the preponderance of ash in the plumes and the lack of precipitation-sized ice, electrification had to occur via some other mechanism besides standard graupel-based non-inductive mechanisms. Triboelectric charging of the ash particles, aided by reduced breakdown fields at high altitudes, is posited as the primary mechanism behind the lightning in these smoke plumes.

Lang, T. J.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Dolan, B.; Lindsey, D.; Rutledge, S. A.; Rison, W.

2012-12-01

72

Monitoring Fires in Southwestern Amazonia Rain Forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From mid-July to mid-October 2005, an environmental disaster unfolded in the trinational region of Madre de Dios, Peru; Acre, Brazil; and Pando, Bolivia (the MAP region), in southwestern Amazonia. A prolonged dry season and human-initiated fires resulted in smoke pollution affecting more than 400,000 persons, fire damage to over 300,000 hectares of rain forest, and over US$50 million of direct economic losses. Indicators suggest that anomalous drought conditions could occur again this year.

Brown, I. Foster; Schroeder, Wilfrid; Setzer, Alberto; de Los Rios Maldonado, Monica; Pantoja, Nara; Duarte, Alejandro; Marengo, Jose

2006-06-01

73

forest ecology Using Fire to Increase the Scale, Benefits, and  

E-print Network

restoration, Forest Service planning rule, managed wildfire, Sierra Nevada T he USDA Forest Service (2012aforest ecology Using Fire to Increase the Scale, Benefits, and Future Maintenance of Fuels a new planning rule and starting to revise forest plans for many of the 155 National Forests. In forests

North, Malcolm

74

Forest fire scenario and challenges of mitigation during fire season in North East India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fires are a major environmental problem in North East Region (NER) with large tracts of forest areas being affected in every season. Forest fires have become a major threat to the forest ecosystems in the region, leading to loss of timber, biodiversity, wildlife habitat and loss to other natural resources. Studies on forest fire have reported that about 50% of forest fire in the country takes place in NE region. The forest fire in NER is anthropogenic in nature. The forest fire hazard map generated based on appropriate weightage given to the factors affecting fire behavior like topography, fuel characteristic and proximity to roads, settlements and also historical fire locations helped to demarcate the fire prone zones. Whereas, during fire season the weather pattern also governs the fire spread in the given area. Therefore, various data on fuel characteristics (land use/land cover, forest type map, forest density map), topography (DEM, slope, aspect) proximity to settlement, road, waterbodies, meteorological data from AWS on wind speed, wind direction, dew point have been used for each fire point to rank its possible hazard level. Near real time fire location data obtained from MODIS/FIRMSwere used to generate the fire alerts. This work demonstrates dissemination of information in the form of maps and tables containing information of latitude and longitude of fire location, fire occurrence date, state and district name, LULC, road connectivity, slope and aspect, settlements/water bodies and meteorological data and the corresponding rating of possibility of fire spread to the respective fire control authorities during fire season.

Chakraborty, K.; Mondal, P. P.; Chabukdhara, M.; Sudhakar, S.

2014-11-01

75

Carbon dioxide emission during forest fires ignited by lightning  

E-print Network

In this paper we developed the model for the carbon dioxide emission from forest fire. The master equation for the spreading of the carbon dioxide to atmosphere is the hyperbolic diffusion equation. In the paper we study forest fire ignited by lightning. In that case the fores fire has the well defined front which propagates with finite velocity.

Pelc, Magdalena

2009-01-01

76

5th Symposium on Fire and Forest Meteorology and the 2nd International Wildland Fire Ecology and Fire Management Congress  

E-print Network

More 5th Symposium on Fire and Forest Meteorology and the 2nd International Wildland Fire Ecology and Fire Management Congress Monday, 17 November 2003 Fire severity classification: uses and abuses Theresa to as fire severity) is not a single definition, but rather a concept and its classification is a function

Fried, Jeremy S.

77

Health consequences of forest fires in Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We combined data from a population-based longitudinal survey with satellite measures of aerosol levels to assess the impact\\u000a of smoke from forest fires that blanketed the Indonesian islands of Kalimantan and Sumatra in late 1997 on adult health. To\\u000a account for unobserved differences between haze and nonhaze areas, we compared changes in the health of individual respondents.\\u000a Between 1993 and

Elizabeth Frankenberg; Douglas McKee; Duncan Thomas

2005-01-01

78

Forest fire hazard rating assessment in peat swamp forest using Landsat thematic mapper image  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fires are one of the major causes of the deforestation of tropical peat swamps in Malaysia. One way of trying to identify which peat swamp forests are vulnerable to forest fire is to develop a forest fire risk index. The objectives of this study were to develop both a fuel-type map and a forest fire hazard rating assessment for the peat swamp forests. The study was conducted in a peat swamp forest located at Batu Enam, Penor/Kuantan District of Pahang. This area suffered a severe forest fire on 12 March 1998 which degraded the peat swamp area. Digitally processed Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite image were integrated with geographic information layer of fuel type, roads and canal layer to derive a fire hazard rating map of the area. Using the superior spectral and temporal resolution of a Landsat TM, five fire hazard rating classifications were defined. A forest fire hazard rating map was produced showing that 49% of the area was 'low' fire hazard rating, 23% was 'high', 17% was 'moderate', 10% was 'extreme' and 1% was 'null'. Peat lands within 150 meters of roads and of a canal were identified as having an 'extreme' fire hazard rating. Both the fire hazard rating map and the forest fire hazard rating assessment can be used in future forest fire management planning.

Razali, Sheriza M.; Nuruddin, A. Ainuddin; Malek, Ismail A.; Patah, Norizan A.

2010-05-01

79

Modeling impacts of fire severity on successional trajectories and future fire behavior in Alaskan boreal forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the boreal forest in western North America and Alaska experiences frequent, stand-replacing wildfires. Secondary succession\\u000a after fire initiates most forest stands and variations in fire characteristics can have strong effects on pathways of succession.\\u000a Variations in surface fire severity that influence whether regenerating forests are dominated by coniferous or deciduous species\\u000a can feedback to influence future fire behaviour

Jill F. JohnstoneT; T. Scott Rupp; Mark Olson; David Verbyla

2011-01-01

80

Solubilisation and colonisation of wood ash by ectomycorrhizal fungi isolated from a wood ash fertilised spruce forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Sweden application of granulated wood ash has been suggested as a method to supplement nutrient loss resulting from harvesting of forest residues for bioenergy production. Mycelia of two ectomycorrhizal fungi Piloderma sp. 1 and Ha-96-3, were commonly found to colonise ash granules in a wood ash fertilised spruce forest. Thirty-eight fungal isolates were selected from 10 taxa to investigate

Shahid Mahmood; Roger D Finlay; Susanne Erland; Håkan Wallander

2001-01-01

81

Western Pine Forests with Continuing Frequent Fire Regimes  

E-print Network

pine, ponderosa pine, Mexico T o describe reference conditions in surface-fire­adapted forests, manWestern Pine Forests with Continuing Frequent Fire Regimes: Possible Reference Sites for Management disturbance regions (Table 1). In this article we summarize informa- tion on pine-dominated forests in south

Stephens, Scott L.

82

Gaseous emissions from Canadian boreal forest fires  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CO2-normalized emission ratios for carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen (H2), methane (CH4), total nonmethane hydrocarbons (TNMHC), and nitrous oxide (N2O) were determined from smoke samples collected during low-altitude helicopter flights over two prescribed fires in northern Ontario, Canada. The emission ratios determined from these prescribed boreal forest fires are compared to emission ratios determined over two graminoid (grass) wetlands fires in central Florida and are found to be substantially higher (elevated levels of reduced gas production relative to CO2) during all stages of combustion. These results argue strongly for the need to characterize biomass burning emissions from the major global vegetation/ecosystems in order to couple combustion emissions to their vegetation/ecosystem type.

Cofer, Wesley R., III; Levine, Joel S.; Winstead, Edward L.; Stocks, Brian J.

1990-01-01

83

Surface cooling due to forest fire smoke  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In four different cases of extensive forest fire smoke the surface temperature effects were determined under the smoke cloud. In all cases, daytime cooling and no nighttime effects were found. The locations of smoke clouds from extensive forest fires in western Canada in 1981 and 1982, in northern China and Siberia in 1987, and in Yellowstone National Park in northwestern Wyoming in 1988 were determined from satellite imagery. As these smoke clouds passed over the midwestern United States for the Canadian and Yellow-stone fires and over Alaska for the Chinese/Siberian fires, surface air temperature effects were determined by comparing actual surface air temperatures with those forecast by model output statistics (MOS) of the United States National Weather Service. MOS error fields corresponding to the smoke cloud locations showed day-time cooling of 1.5° to 7°C under the smoke but no nighttime effects. These results correspond to theoretical estimates of the effects of smoke, and they serve as observational confirmation of a portion of the nuclear winter theory. This also implies that smoke from biomass burning can have a daytime cooling effect of a few degrees over seasonal time scales. In order to properly simulate the present climate with a numerical climate model in regions of regular burning it may be necessary to include this smoke effect.

Robock, Alan

1991-11-01

84

Characteristics and composition of fly ash from Canadian coal-fired power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fly ashes were collected from the electrostatic precipitator (ESPs) and\\/or the baghouse of seven coal-fired power plants. The fly ashes were sampled from power plants that use pulverized subbituminous and bituminous feed coals. Fly ash from bituminous coals and limestone feed coals from fluidized-bed power plant were also sampled. The fly ashes were examined for their mineralogies and elemental compositions.

Fariborz Goodarzi

2006-01-01

85

Spatiotemporal dynamics of forest degradation by selective logging and forest fire in the Brazilian Amazon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selective logging and forest fires have increased at a rapid pace in tropical regions in recent decades. Forest disturbances caused by selective logging and forest fires may vary in scale, ranging from local damage to forest canopy, habitats, soils, and biodiversity, to global changes caused by logging-related release of carbon into the atmosphere. This study provides a regional assessment of

Eraldo A. T. Matricardi

2007-01-01

86

Effects of fire on properties of forest soils: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many physical, chemical, mineralogical, and biological soil properties can be affected by forest fires. The effects are chiefly a result of burn severity, which consists of peak temperatures and duration of the fire. Climate, vegetation, and topography of the burnt area control the resilience of the soil system; some fire-induced changes can even be permanent. Low to moderate severity fires,

Giacomo Certini

2005-01-01

87

How resilient are southwestern ponderosa pine forests after crown fires?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exclusion of low-severity surface fire from ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa P. & C. Lawson) forests of the Southwest has changed ecosystem structure and function such that severe crown fires are increasingly causing ex- tensive stand mortality. This altered fire regime has resulted from the intersection of natural drought cycles with human activities that have suppressed natural fires for over

Melissa Savage; Joy Nystrom Mast

2005-01-01

88

Trace Metal Inventories and Lead Isotopic Composition Chronicle a Forest Fire’s Remobilization of Industrial Contaminants Deposited in the Angeles National Forest  

PubMed Central

The amounts of labile trace metals: [Co] (3 to 11 µg g?1), [Cu] (15 to 69 µg g?1), [Ni] (6 to 15 µg g?1), [Pb] (7 to 42 µg g?1), and [Zn] (65 to 500 µg g?1) in ash collected from the 2012 Williams Fire in Los Angeles, California attest to the role of fires in remobilizing industrial metals deposited in forests. These remobilized trace metals may be dispersed by winds, increasing human exposures, and they may be deposited in water bodies, increasing exposures in aquatic ecosystems. Correlations between the concentrations of these trace metals, normalized to Fe, in ash from the fire suggest that Co, Cu, and Ni in most of those samples were predominantly from natural sources, whereas Pb and Zn were enriched in some ash samples. The predominantly anthropogenic source of excess Pb in the ash was further demonstrated by its isotopic ratios (208Pb/207Pb: 206Pb/207Pb) that fell between those of natural Pb and leaded gasoline sold in California during the previous century. These analyses substantiate current human and environmental health concerns with the pyrogenic remobilization of toxic metals, which are compounded by projections of increases in the intensity and frequency of wildfires associated with climate change. PMID:25259524

Odigie, Kingsley O.; Flegal, A. Russell

2014-01-01

89

Fire, global warming, and the carbon balance of boreal forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire strongly influences carbon cycling and storage in boreal forests. In the near-term, if global warming occurs, the frequency and intensity of fires in boreal forests are likely to increase significantly. A sensitivity analysis on the relationship between fire and carbon storage in the living-biomass and ground-layer compartments of boreal forests was performed to determine how the carbon stocks would

E. S. Kasischke; N. L. Jr. Christensen; B. J. Stocks

1995-01-01

90

Modeling Forest Understory Fires in an Eastern Amazonian Landscape  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Forest understory fires are an increasingly important cause of forest impoverishment in Ammonia, but little is known of the landscape characteristics and climatic phenomena that determine their occurrence. We developed empirical functions relating the occurrence of understory fires to landscape features near Paragominas, a 35- yr-old ranching and logging center in eastern Ammonia. An historical sequence of maps of forest understory fire was created based on field interviews With local farmers and Landsat TM images. Several landscape features that might explain spatial variations in the occurrence of understory fires were also mapped and co-registered for each of the sample dates, including: forest fragment size and shape, forest impoverishment through logging and understory fires, source of ignition (settlements and charcoal pits), roads, forest edges, and others. The spatial relationship between forest understory fire and each landscape characteristic was tested by regression analyses. Fire probability models were then developed for various combinations of landscape characteristics. The analyses were conducted separately for years of the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which are associated with severe drought in eastern Amazonia, and non-ENS0 years. Most (91 %) of the forest area that burned during the 10-yr sequence caught fire during ENSO years, when severe drought may have increased both forest flammability and the escape of agricultural management fires. Forest understory fires were associated with forest edges, as reported in previous studies from Ammonia. But the strongest predictor of forest fire was the percentage of the forest fragment that had been previously logged or burned. Forest fragment size, distance to charcoal pits, distance to agricultural settlement, proximity to forest edge, and distance to roads were also correlated with forest understory fire. Logistic regression models using information on fragment degradation and distance to ignition sources accurately predicted the location of lss than 80% of the forest fires observed during the ENSO event of 1997- 1998. In this Amazon landscape, forest understory fire is a complex function of several variables that influence both the flammability and ignition exposure of the forest.

Alencar, A. A. C.; Solorzano, L. A.; Nepstad, D. C.

2004-01-01

91

Forest Application of Granulated Wood Ash on Mineral Soils in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the wood ash produced in Sweden today is disposed of in landfills. Ash application to forests is an alternative use. Possible environmental risks of ash fertilization in forests are heavy metal contamination, N- leaching, formation of greenhouse gases, and damage to soil vegetation, roots, and mycorrhiza. These risks are mainly associated with application of \\

STAFFAN JACOBSON

92

Simulation for the expansion of the Boreal Forest Fire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1. Background Now, frequent occurrence of a forest fire serves as a situation which should be careful of in international society. In the boreal forest, the main reason of the forest reduction is considered as climate change. The NOAA satellite image could detect lots of forest fire in Siberia. The forest fire can be found by only satellite because the area is enormous. After forest fire is detected, some of them will be extinguished by fire service. The fire service must go to distinguish the important fire, but now, there is not a standard which fire should distinguish first or propose to fire control zone (trench or cutting) Our purpose is to make the forest fire spread simulation in large area (about 300km x 300km or larger). We think this is very useful to help fire fighting. 2. Forest Fire Detection and Spread Simulation NOAA satellite images were analyzed with the detection method by Kawano and Kudoh (2003). For the fire spread simulation, the natural environmental information is very important. We made the database of vegetation and topology. The metrological data is also important. Simulation of fire spread is mainly used with the cellular automata and the time shearing methods by Fire and Disaster Management Agency in Japan (1984). 3. Stop Line of the Forest Fire Spread If the forest fire simulation continue for many steps, all the forest in the simulation area is burned out because the stop lines have not been considered yet. Now we think about the stop lines with the topology and the wind direction. (Of course the rain is the best way to distinguish the forest fire. But that is neglected.) It has been proven that as a tendency in the forest fire in a past, the fire does not spread in the place like the following, and that the burn stops: (1) Windward side and down slope (2) Lee side We analyzed the coupling of them. The best parameter of the burn stop probability is the proportion of the wind speed. The proportion constant is calculated by the generic algorism. When we use these parameters, the precision between the detected fire stop and the simulated fire stop is 44.3%. 4. The Simulation Results We could get all parameter to the simulate the forest fire spread in the study area. We show the examples of the results. In the figures, the color of the cell is changed by spread time. Vivid red is the earlier burned cell. Darker red shows the later burned cell. In this method, it is possible that the simulation is expanded in whole the boreal forest where the satellite images ware obtained. 5. Conclusion With the NOAA satellite images, the forest fire spread in Siberian boreal forest. This method expands to the real-time forecast of the forest fire. In present simulation, the boreal forest was made to be an object. Using the similar method, the application to tropical forests is also sufficiently possible, if the parameter is examined and changed. As further work, with not the NOAA satellite images but the MODIS images, the higher resolution is taken. Especially in the tropical area, it will be necessary to consider the more accurate weather prediction data because it rains more in the tropical than in high latitude dry area.

Kimura, K.; Honma, T.; Nakau, K.; Kushida, K.; Fukuda, M.; Hayasaka, H.

2005-12-01

93

Fire Effects on Carbon and Nitrogen Budgets in Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimates of C and N loss by gasification during a wildfire in a Jeffrey pine (Pinus Jeffreyii [Grev. and Balf.]) forest in Little Valley, Nevada are compared to potential losses in more mesic forests in the Integrated Forest Study (IFS). In Little Valley, the fire consumed the forest floor, foliage, and an unknown amount of soil organic matter, but little

D. W. Johnson; R. B. Susfalk; T. G. Caldwell; J. D. Murphy; W. W. Miller; R. F. Walker

2004-01-01

94

75 FR 52713 - Nationwide Aerial Application of Fire Retardant on National Forest System Lands  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Service Nationwide Aerial Application of Fire Retardant on National Forest System Lands...continued nationwide aerial application of fire retardant on National Forest System lands...The Forest Service is working to restore fire-adapted ecosystems through...

2010-08-27

95

Sustainable use of biofuel by recycling ash to forests: treatment of biofuel ash.  

PubMed

The influence of treatment techniques on leaching properties of alkaline species from biofuel ash is investigated in this paper. Ash samples from combustion of biofuels in a circulating fluidized bed and grate-firing combustion plants are studied. The samples are treated using three different treatment techniques; self-hardening, thermal treatment, and hardening bythe addition of binding materials. Nontreated and treated samples are evaluated for the leaching properties of the alkaline compounds and, furthermore, are characterized with respect to both physical and chemical characteristics. The results show the influence of treatment techniques on the physical structure and leaching characteristics of alkaline species. Results also indicate that ash samples show different behavior when treated with different methods, i.e., the influence of treatment technique on controlling the leaching properties is highly dependent on the initial chemical composition of ash. It was also found that there is an interaction between leaching of limited and easily soluble species, e.g., calcium and potassium leaching. Therefore, to control the leaching rate of alkaline species from ash, the characteristics that correlate the leaching properties of both easily and limited soluble species need to be adjusted. PMID:17612199

Mahmoudkhani, Maryam; Richards, Tobias; Theliander, Hans

2007-06-01

96

Design and realization of disaster assessment algorithm after forest fire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on GIS technology, this paper mainly focuses on the application of disaster assessment algorithm after forest fire and studies on the design and realization of disaster assessment based on GIS. After forest fire through the analysis and processing of multi-sources and heterogeneous data, this paper integrates the foundation that the domestic and foreign scholars laid of the research on assessment for forest fire loss with the related knowledge of assessment, accounting and forest resources appraisal so as to study and approach the theory framework and assessment index of the research on assessment for forest fire loss. The technologies of extracting boundary, overlay analysis, and division processing of multi-sources spatial data are available to realize the application of the investigation method of the burnt forest area and the computation of the fire area. The assessment provides evidence for fire cleaning in burnt areas and new policy making on restoration in terms of the direct and the indirect economic loss and ecological and environmental damage caused by forest fire under the condition of different fire danger classes and different amounts of forest accumulation, thus makes forest resources protection operated in a faster, more efficient and more economical way. Finally, this paper takes Lin'an city of Zhejiang province as a test area to confirm the method mentioned in the paper in terms of key technologies.

Xu, Aijun; Wang, Danfeng; Tang, Lihua

2008-10-01

97

Recent Extreme Forest Fire Activity in Western Russia: Fire Danger Conditions, Fire Behavior and Smoke Transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the summer of 2010, widespread forest and peatland fires in western Russia burned over hundreds of thousands of hectares, burning over croplands, destroying hundreds of homes, and directly causing the death of more than 50 people. Unprecedented drought conditions, combined with an extended heat wave, resulted in extreme fire danger conditions and explosive fire behavior in a region of Russia not noted for large fires. Several fires exhibited pyroconvection, injecting smoke directly into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, while deep-burning fires created major regional smoke problems. This smoke persisted in the heavily-populated areas around Moscow, exposing millions to high levels of ozone and particulate matter, and creating both immediate and longer-term health risks. This presentation will explore the drought conditions leading to the catastrophic fire behavior experienced in western Russia, and analyze fire behavior in terms of fuel consumption, smoke production, fire intensity levels, and pyroconvection. Impacts of regional and long-range smoke transport will also be discussed.

Stocks, B. J.; Fromm, M.; Goldammer, J.; Carr, R.; Sukhinin, A. I.

2010-12-01

98

Effects of fire on ash thickness in a Lithuanian grassland and short-term spatio-temporal changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ash thickness is a key variable in the protection of soil against erosion agents after planned and unplanned fires. Thicker ash provides better protection against raindrop impact and reduces the runoff response by retaining water and promoting water infiltration although little is known about the distribution and the evolution of the ash layer after the fires. Ash thickness measurements were conducted along two transects (flat and sloping areas) following a a grid experimental design. Both transects extended from the burned area into an adjacent unburned area. We analysed ash thickness evolution according to time and fire severity. In order to interpolate data with accuracy and identify the techniques with the least bias, several interpolation methods were tested in the grid plot. Overall, the fire had a low severity. The fire significantly reduced the ground cover, especially on sloping areas owing to the higher fire severity and/or less biomass previous to the fire. Ash thickness depends on fire severity and is thin where fire severity was higher and thicker in lower fire severity sites. The ash thickness decreased with time after the fire. Between 4 and 16 days after the fire, ash was transported by wind. The major reduction took place between 16 and 34 days after the fire as a result of rainfall, and was more efficient where fire severity was higher. Between 34 and 45 days after the fire no significant differences in ash thickness were identified among ash colours and only traces of the ash layer remained. The omni-directional experimental variograms shown that variable structure did not change importantly with the time, however, the most accurate interpolation methods were different highlighting the slight different patterns of ash thickness distribution with the time. The ash spatial variability increased with the time, particularly on the slope, as a result of water erosion.

Pereira, P.; Cerdà, A.; Úbeda, X.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Martin, D.; Jordán, A.; Burguet, M.

2012-12-01

99

Wood and combination wood-fired boiler ash characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ashes resulting from the combustion of wood residues in industrial boilers are characterized relative to (i) macroelement compositions, (ii) trace and heavy metal microelement compositions, (iii) organics, and (iv) polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and -furans (PCDD\\/Fs). Ash compositions, both macro- and microelements, are compared with coal ash and limestone. Microelements in wood ashes are also compared with other potential soil amendments such

Arun V. Someshwar

1996-01-01

100

Release of mercury from Rocky Mountain forest fires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of mercury (Hg) in soil profiles and vegetation were examined in unburned areas and in areas recently burned by wildfires of low, medium, and high fire severities in western Wyoming. Paired unburned and burned sampling sites with similar tree species composition, forest stand age, climate, and geological substrate were studied. Results indicate that Hg release from forest fires is

Abir Biswas; Joel D. Blum; Bjoern Klaue; Gerald J. Keeler

2007-01-01

101

INFLUENCE OF FIRE ON MAMMALS IN EASTERN OAK FORESTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the exception of small mammals, little research has been conducted in eastern oak forests on the influence of fire on mammals. Several studies have documented little or no change in relative abundance or community measures for non-volant small mammals in eastern oak (Quercus spp.) forests following fires despite reductions in leaf litter, small woody debris, and changes in understory

Patrick D. Keyser; W. Mark Ford

102

Forest fire detection based on video multi-feature fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the light of the problem of monitoring forest fire, the design strategy and practical implementation of establishing the monitor system based on digital image information are proposed. The system is based on the CCD configuration characteristics and color information to detect and locate fire. Manned lookout posts are commonly installed in the forests all around the world. In this

Li Jie; Xiao Jiang

2009-01-01

103

Fire, Carbon and Climate Change in Boreal Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disturbances are the major stand-renewing agents for much of the circumboreal forest. In Canada, fire has received much of the attention in carbon cycle science because it affects about 3 million ha of Canadian forest annually, impacts air quality, and can threaten life, property and infrastructure. Fire affects the carbon balance through three processes. First, carbon and other greenhouse gases

M. D. Flannigan; B. D. Amiro; K. A. Logan

2005-01-01

104

Fire and Forest History in Mixed-Conifer Forests of Southwest Colorado  

E-print Network

Fire and Forest History in Mixed-Conifer Forests of Southwest Colorado Peter M. Brown, Rocky pines Fuels plentiful; dry conditions limit fire occurrence and spread The "goldilocks effect" Desert WARM, DRY Piñon-juniper woodland Juniper-shrub-savanna Modified from Bob Martin, 1982; Fire history

105

Research about the location technologies of forest fire detecting based on GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest fire caused damages of property and loss of human life. Detecting a forest fire and get the location is very significant in the fire early warning. More early and more prompt detecting fire and determining fire position as far as possible could avoid and reduce loss of the disaster. At present there are three ways regarding the forest fire

An Zhang; Qingwen Qi; Lili Jiang; Chaohui Guo

2007-01-01

106

Forest fire in the central Himalaya: climate and recovery of trees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A forest fire event is influenced by climatic conditions and is supported by accumulation of fuel on forest floor. After forest fire, photosynthetically active solar radiation was reduced due to accumulation of ash and dust particles in atmosphere. Post-fire impacts on Quercus leucotrichophora, Rhododendron arboreum and Lyonia ovalifolia in a broadleaf forest were analysed after a wild fire. Bark depth damage was greatest for L. ovalifolia and least for Q. leucotrichophora. Regeneration of saplings was observed for all the tree species through sprouting. Epicormic recovery was observed for the trees of all the species. Young trees of Q. leucotrichophora (<40 cm circumference at breast height) were susceptible to fire as evident by the lack of sprouting. Under-canopy tree species have a high potential for recovery as evident by greater length and diameter of shoots and numbers of buds and leaves per shoot than canopy species. Leaf area, leaf moisture and specific leaf area were greater in the deciduous species, with few exceptions, than in evergreen species.

Sharma, Subrat; Rikhari, H. C.

107

Acoustic and thermal characterization of a forest fire event  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a methodology to perform thermal and acoustic characterization of a forest fire event is reported. The analysis of fire emission properties has been carried out through laboratory and field testing, consisted in the burning of different fuels placed on tables or on field plots. The objectives of the trials have been the evaluation of fire radiated heat

D. X. Viegas; L. P. Pita; F. Nielsen; K. Haddad; C. Calisti Tassini; G. D'Altrui; V. Quaranta; I. Dimino

2008-01-01

108

Optimisation of forest fire sensor network using GIS technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Dalmatia (Croatia) during the summer, forest fires occur very frequently causing catastrophic damage to the environment, affecting tourism and other activities. Therefore a MIS (management information system) for fire protection was conceptualised. The MIS is based on the integration of a fire protection system and a GIS of the Split-Dalmatia County with management models that evaluate ambient characteristics. GIS

Nenad Mladineo; S. Knezic

2000-01-01

109

Net primary productivity following forest fire for Canadian ecoregions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent modelling results indicate that forest fires and other disturbances determine the magnitude of the Canadian forest carbon balance. The regeneration of post-fire vegetation is key to the recovery of net primary produc- tivity (NPP) following fire. We geographically co-registered pixels classed using the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator, a process-based model with AVHRR (advanced very-high resolution radiometer) satellite estimates of

B. D. Amiro; J. M. Chen; Jinjun Liu

2000-01-01

110

Transport of boreal forest fire emissions from Canada to Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

In August 1998, severe forest fires occurred in many parts of Canada, especially in the Northwest Territories. In the week from August 5 to 11, more than 1000 different fires burned >1×106ha of boreal forest, the highest 1-week sum ever reported throughout the 1990s. In this study we can unambigously show for the first time that these fires caused pronounced

Caroline Forster; Ulla Wandinger; Gerhard Wotawa; Paul James; Ina Mattis; Dietrich Althausen; Peter Simmonds; S. O'Doherty; S. Gerard Jennings; Christoph Kleefeld; Johannes Schneider; Thomas Trickl; Stephan Kreipl; Horst Jäger; Andreas Stohl

2001-01-01

111

Strontium isotopes as tracers of airborne fly ash from coal-fired power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fly ash generated by coal-fired power plants is in part collected by filters in the emission stacks while a small portion is vented into the atmosphere. Since many of the coalfired power plants in the western United States are located in the desnrt, the ability to monitor fly ash emissions requires a chemical tracer that utilizes desert soil and plant

R. W. Hurst; T. E. Davis

1981-01-01

112

PATHOLOGIC CHANGES INDUCED BY COAL-FIRED FLY ASH IN HAMSTER TRACHEAL GRAFTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The toxicity of fly ash from a coal-fired power plant for respiratory tract epithelium was studied in heterotropic tracheal grafts. Hamster tracheal grafts were continuously exposed to beeswax-cholesterol pellets containing 100, 1000 and 5000 micrograms fly ash and evaluated at 1...

113

EFFECT OF ASH DISPOSAL PONDS ON GROUNDWATER QUALITY AT A COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT  

EPA Science Inventory

The impact of fly and bottom ash disposal ponds on groundwater quality was investigated at the coal-fired Columbia Power Plant at Portage, WI. Groundwater sampling was conducted utilizing a network of piezometers and multilevel wells located at various cross-sections of the ash d...

114

FOREST FIRES AND OIL FIELDS AS PERCOLATION PHENOMENA.  

E-print Network

FOREST FIRES AND OIL FIELDS AS PERCOLATION PHENOMENA. William J. Reed #3; JUNE, 1999. Abstract A probability distribution derived from percolation theory is #12;tted to large datasets on the sizes of forest forest #12;res and oil #12;elds as percolation phenomena as well as suggesting the consideration of a new

Reed, W.J.

115

Modern fire regime resembles historical fire regime in a ponderosa pine forest on Native American lands  

E-print Network

-tribal lands. We examined the surface fire regime in a ponderosa pine- dominated (Pinus ponderosa) forest models, Hualapai Tribe, logistic regression models, Pinus ponderosa, prescribed fire, south on non-tribal lands. Prescribed burning was first implemented in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests

116

CHARACTERIZATION OF ASH FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarizes existing data on the chemical and physical characteristics of ashes produced by the burning of coal in steam-electric generating plants. It summarizes several recent coal or ash characterization studies, emphasizing the elemental chemical composition, partic...

117

Characterization of fly ash from coal-fired power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

X-ray analysis shows that mullite and silica are the major crystalline phases in fly ash. The “method of known additions” from X-ray diffraction techniques was used to calculate changes in the significant peak intensities of mullite and silica to determine their weight fractions in fly ash. This furthers the efforts of characterizing fly ash, which are being conducted to supplement

S. C. White; E. D. Case

1990-01-01

118

Protection against fire in the mountainous forests of Greece case study: forest complex of W. Nestos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fires are an ancient phenomenon. Appear, however, with devastating frequency and intensity over the last 30 years. In our country, the climatic conditions in combination with the intense relief, favor their rapid spread. Considering the fact that environmental conditions provided for decades even worse (increased temperature, drought and vegetation), then the problem of forest fires in our country, is expected to become more intense. The work focuses on the optimization model of the opening up of the forest mountain areas taking into account the prevention and suppression of forest fires. Research area is the mountain forest complex of W. Nestos of Drama Prefecture. The percentage of forest protection area is examined under the light whether the total hose length corresponds to the actual operational capacity to reach a fire source. For this reason are decided to present a three case study concerning area of the forest being protected by fire extinguishing vehicles. The first one corresponds to a fire suppression bandwidth (buffer zone) with a capacity radius of 150m uphill and 250m downhill from the origin point where the fire extinguishing vehicle stands. The second one corresponds to a fire suppression capacity of 200m uphill and 400m downhill and the third one corresponds to a fire suppression capacity of 300m uphill and 500m downhill. The most important forest technical infrastructures to prevent fire are roads network (opening up) for fire protection and buffer zones. Patrols of small and agile 4 × 4 appropriately equipped (pipe length of 500 meters and putting pressure on uphill to 300 meters) for the first attack of the fire in the summer months coupled with early warning of fire observatories adequately cover the forest protection of W. Nestos complex. But spatial distribution needed improvements to a road density of the optimum economic Dec, both forest protection and for better management (skidding) of woody capital.

Drosos, Vasileios C.; Giannoulas, Vasileios J.; Stergiadou, Anastasia; Karagiannis, Evaggelos; Doukas, Aristotelis-Kosmas G.

2014-08-01

119

Carbonation of Wood Ash Recycled to a Forest Soil as Measured by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

leaching process, it is desirable to control the dissolution rate of wood ash. This can be achieved by controlling In Sweden, large-scale recycling of wood ash to forests is considered the chemical composition of the wood ash as well as a means of replenishing base cations, particularly Ca, taken up by through modification of physical characteristics, such as the trees

K. E. Anders Ohlsson

2000-01-01

120

Temporal variability of forest fires in eastern Amazonia.  

PubMed

Widespread occurrence of fires in Amazonian forests is known to be associated with extreme droughts, but historical data on the location and extent of forest fires are fundamental to determining the degree to which climate conditions and droughts have affected fire occurrence in the region. We used remote sensing to derive a 23-year time series of annual landscape-level burn scars in a fragmented forest of the eastern Amazon. Our burn scar data set is based on a new routine developed for the Carnegie Landsat Analysis System (CLAS), called CLAS-BURN, to calculate a physically based burn scar index (BSI) with an overall accuracy of 93% (Kappa coefficient 0.84). This index uses sub-pixel cover fractions of photosynthetic vegetation, non-photosynthetic vegetation, and shade/burn scar spectral end members. From 23 consecutive Landsat images processed with the CLAS-BURN algorithm, we quantified fire frequencies, the variation in fire return intervals, and rates of conversion of burned forest to other land uses in a 32 400 km2 area. From 1983 to 2007, 15% of the forest burned; 38% of these burned forests were subsequently deforested, representing 19% of the area cleared during the period of observation. While 72% of the fire-affected forest burned only once during the 23-year study period, 20% burned twice, 6% burned three times, and 2% burned four or more times, with the maximum of seven times. These frequencies suggest that the current fire return interval is 5-11 times more frequent than the estimated natural fire regime. Our results also quantify the substantial influence of climate and extreme droughts caused by a strong El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the extent and likelihood of returning forest fires mainly in fragmented landscapes. These results are an important indication of the role of future warmer climate and deforestation in enhancing emissions from more frequently burned forests in the Amazon. PMID:22073631

Alencar, Ane; Asner, Gregory P; Knapp, David; Zarin, Daniel

2011-10-01

121

Multisensor analysis of the effects of fire in the Alaskan boreal forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire is a significant natural process throughout the world's boreal forests, with 10 to 25 million acres burning annually. These fires tend to cover large areas. During severe fire years, forest fires >100,000 acres in size are the norm, and fires >1 million acres are not uncommon. Because of the remote location of boreal forests and the large size of

N. H. F. French; E. S. Kasischke; L. L. Bourgeau-Chavez

1994-01-01

122

Road paving, fire regime feedbacks, and the future of Amazon forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire poses the greatest threat to the forests of Amazônia. The magnitude of this threat is amplified by three positive feedback loops that drive the expansion of forest fire in the region: (1) Fire promotes drought, and therefore more fire, by releasing smoke into the atmosphere, thus reducing rainfall. Fire-assisted conversion of forests to pastures may also promote drought by

Daniel Nepstad; Georgia Carvalho; Ana Cristina Barros; Ane Alencar; João Paulo Capobianco; Josh Bishop; Paulo Moutinho; Paul Lefebvre; Urbano Lopes Silva; Elaine Prins

2001-01-01

123

Characterization of forest fires in the Mediterranean area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fires cause important economic losses and deaths every year, as well as deteriorating natural resources and increasing pollution. In order to reduce their effects we need rigorous analysis of the factors that cause them, and to develop tools that minimize their effects. In this paper, a land zoning of a Mediterranean area (Autonomous Region of Valencia) was carried out. We selected the main variables for the classification from the human and socioeconomic factors and the characteristics of the forest fires, and we classified the municipalities with homogeneous characteristics of incidence and causes of forest fires using multivariate techniques and Geographical Information Systems (GIS).

Marí-Benlloch, M.; Martínez-Gómez, M.; Maroto, C.; Suárez, J.; Crespo, F.

2012-12-01

124

Does wood ash application increase heavy metal accumulation in forest berries and mushrooms?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of experiments have been established at the Finnish Forest Research Institute during the last few decades to study the effect of wood ash application on soil substrate, ground vegetation and stand growth on drained mires and mineral soil forests. In this study, the plots of 23 experiments were sampled to determine whether ash application significantly increases heavy metal

Mikko Moilanen; Hannu Fritze; Mika Nieminen; Sirpa Piirainen; Jorma Issakainen; Juha Piispanen

2006-01-01

125

Spring, 2006 Fire History and Climate Influences 115 FIRE HISTORY AND CLIMATE INFLUENCES FROM FORESTS IN  

E-print Network

intervals, dendrochronology, fire climate interactions, mixed conifer, ponderosa pine, Jeffrey pine forests; Skinner and Chang, 1996). Mid-elevation forest types in the Sierra Nevada, such as ponderosa pine (Pinus, University of California, 137 Mulford Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-3114 2 USDA Forest Service, Adaptive

Stephens, Scott L.

126

Is fire a long term sink or source of atmospheric carbon? A comprehensive evaluation of a boreal forest fire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fires lead to a rapid release of carbon (C) from forest and other fire-prone ecosystems, emitting important quantities of C to the atmosphere. Every year 300-600 Mill. ha burn around the globe, generating CO2 emissions equivalent to half of the current annual global from fossil fuel combustion. Over the longer-term vegetation fires are widely considered as 'net zero Carbon (C) emission events', because C emissions from fires, excluding those associated with deforestation, are balanced by C uptake by regenerating vegetation. This 'zero C emission' scenario, however, may be flawed, as it does not consider the role of pyrogenic C (PyC). During fire, some of the fuel is transformed into PyC (i.e. charcoal, black C, soot), which is characterized by an enhanced recalcitrance and a longer mean residence time in the environment than its 'fresh' precursors. Therefore, after complete regeneration of the vegetation, the PyC generated represents an additional longer-term C pool and, hence, recurring fire-regrowth cycles could be considered as a 'net sink of atmospheric C'. To test the validity of this hypothesis, and to estimate how quantitatively important this PyC pool might be, accurate data on PyC production with respect to the fuel combusted are needed. Unfortunately, detailed quantification of fuel prior to fire is normally only available for prescribed and experimental fires, which are usually of low-intensity and therefore not representative of higher-intensity wildfires. Furthermore, what little data is available is usually based on only a specific fraction of the PyC present following burning rather than the whole range of PyC products and stores (i.e. PyC in soil, ash, downed wood and standing vegetation). The FireSmart project (Ft. Providence, NWT, Canada, June 2012) provided the ideal framework to address this research gap. This experimental fire reproduced wildfire conditions in boreal forest, i.e. stand-replacing crown fire and, at the same time, allowed i) pre-fire fuel assessment, ii) fire behaviour monitoring and iii) immediate post-fire fuel and PyC inventory. Before the fire, fuel characteristics were established and the site was instrumented with auto-logging thermocouples to provide temperature-duration profiles during burning. Also, different types of PyC were placed on the ground to determine PyC loss during the fire. Immediately after fire, the various post-burn PyC products and stores were sampled. Total PyC was quantified and the chemical recalcitrance of the different PyC forms found was determined. The results obtained will be discussed in the context of PyC production, and its different forms and quantities, with respect to (i) fire characteristics and fuel consumed, and (ii) the long term carbon balance in this boreal forest environment for recurring fire-regrowth cycles under current and predicted future climatic conditions.

Santin, C.; Doerr, S. H.; Preston, C.; Bryant, R.

2012-12-01

127

The costs and profitability of using granulated wood ash as a forest fertilizer in drained peatland forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing and more intensive energy wood harvesting from forests necessitate efforts to ensure that adequate amounts of nutrients are recycled back onto the site. Recycling nutrients back to the forest in the form of wood ash is a natural means to correct the nutrient imbalance and acidity of forest soils that can occur from intensive management, as well as to

Kari Väätäinen; Esko Sirparanta; Mikko Räisänen; Timo Tahvanainen

2011-01-01

128

Impact of forest fires on particulate matter and ozone levels during the 2003, 2004 and 2005 fire seasons in Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of this work is to estimate the impact of forest fires on air pollution applying the LOTOS-EUROS air quality modeling system in Portugal for three consecutive years, 2003–2005. Forest fire emissions have been included in the modeling system through the development of a numerical module, which takes into account the most suitable parameters for Portuguese forest fire

V. Martins; A. I. Miranda; A. Carvalho; M. Schaap; C. Borrego; E. Sá

129

Forest construction infrastructures for the prevision, suppression, and protection before and after forest fires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climatic changes cause temperature rise and thus increase the risk of forest fires. In Greece the forests with the greatest risk to fire are usually those located near residential and tourist areas where there are major pressures on land use changes, while there are no currently guaranteed cadastral maps and defined title deeds because of the lack of National and Forest Cadastre. In these areas the deliberate causes of forest fires are at a percentage more than 50%. This study focuses on the forest opening up model concerning both the prevention and suppression of forest fires. The most urgent interventions that can be done after the fire destructions is also studied in relation to soil protection constructions, in order to minimize the erosion and the torrential conditions. Digital orthophotos were used in order to produce and analyze spatial data using Geographical Information Systems (GIS). Initially, Digital Elevation Models were generated, based on photogrammetry and forest areas as well as the forest road network were mapped. Road density, road distance, skidding distance and the opening up percentage were accurately measured for a forest complex. Finally, conclusions and suggestions have been drawn about the environmental compatibility of forest protection and wood harvesting works. In particular the contribution of modern technologies such as digital photogrammetry, remote sensing and Geographical Information Systems is very important, allowing reliable, effective and fast process of spatial analysis contributing to a successful planning of opening up works and fire protection.

Drosos, Vasileios C.; Giannoulas, Vasileios J.; Daoutis, Christodoulos

2014-08-01

130

Smoke Considerations for Using Fire in Maintaining Healthy Forest Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire is the single most important ecological disturbance process throughout the interior Pacific Northwest (Mutch and others 1993; Agee 1994). It is also a natural process that helps maintain a diverse ecological landscape. Fire suppression and timber harvesting have drastically altered this process during the past 50 to 90 years. Natural resource specialists generally agree that the forests of the

Roger D. Ottmar; Mark D. Schaaf; Ernesto Alvarado

131

The Evolution of a WILDLAND Forest FIRE FRONT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate of the spread and shape of a forest fire front is a problem that has not been thoughtfully studied from a computer graphics perspective. Here, using physically based computer graphics modeling, we propose a model for the simulation of wildland fires over 3D complex terrain. The model is based on conservation laws of energy and species, which includes

Francisco J. Serón; Diego Gutierrez; Juan A. Magallon; Luis Ferragut; M. Isabel Asensio

2005-01-01

132

Targeting Audiences and Content for Forest Fire Information Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses opinion survey results for the purpose of improving the capabilities of forest managers to effectively communicate new fire management objectives and plans. Includes recommendations based on the analysis concerning the appropriate audiences and content to target in the design of fire information programs. (ML)

Carpenter, Edwin H.; And Others

1986-01-01

133

Predicting Fire Susceptibility in the Forests of Amazonia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although fire is the single greatest threat to the ecological integrity of Amazon forests, our ability to predict the occurrence of Amazon forest fires is rudimentary. Part of the difficulty encountered in making such predictions is the remarkable capacity of Amazon forests to tolerate drought by tapping moisture stored in deep soil. These forests can avoid drought-induced leaf shedding by withdrawing moisture to depths of 8 meters and more. Hence, the absorption of deep soil moisture allows these forests to maintain their leaf canopies following droughts of several months duration, thereby maintaining the deep shade and high relative humidity of the forest interior that prevents these ecosystems from burning. But the drought- and fire-avoidance that is conferred by this deep-rooting phenomenon is not unlimited. During successive years of drought, such as those provoked by El Nino episodes, deep soil moisture can be depleted, and drought-induced leaf shedding begins. The goal of this project was to incorporate this knowledge of Amazon forest fire ecology into a predictive model of forest flammability.

Nepstad, Daniel C.; Brown, I. Foster; Setzer, Alberto

2000-01-01

134

Evaluating the use of minerals as forest fire retardants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fire retardancy of carbonate minerals hydromagnesite, huntite and natural mixtures of hydromagnesite and huntite, on forest species was tested by analytical (differential thermogravimetry under air atmosphere) and laboratory-scale (flame spread test) methods. The selected forest species (Pinus halepensis Mill. and Cistus incanus L.) were collected from a wildland\\/urban interface zone near Athens and were treated with 5%, 10%, 15%

S. Liodakis; I. Antonopoulos; T. Kakardakis

2010-01-01

135

Strontium isotopes as tracers of airborne fly ash from coal-fired power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fly ash generated by coal-fired power plants is in part collected by filters in the emission stacks while a small portion\\u000a is vented into the atmosphere. Since many of the coalfired power plants in the western United States are located in the desnrt,\\u000a the ability to monitor fly ash emissions requires a chemical tracer that utilizes desert soil and plant

R. W. Hurst; T. EL DAVIS

1981-01-01

136

An Experimental Study of the Effects of Litter and Duff Consumption and Ash Formation on Post-Fire Runoff.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Consumption of the litter and duff layers in forest wildfires can lead to substantial increases in the frequency and magnitude of overland flow. These increases result from the loss of storage in the organic surface layer, reduced surface roughness, and from sealing of the exposed mineral soil surface. The presence of an ash layer may accentuate surface sealing by providing an additional source of fine material, or it may reduce runoff by storing rainfall and by protecting the soil surface from raindrop impacts. We used simulated rainfall experiments to assess the effects of litter and duff consumption and the presence of ash layers of varying thickness on post fire runoff at two forested sites in western Montana, one with sandy loam soils formed out of granodiorite and the other with gravelly silt loam soils formed out of argillite. At each site we measured the runoff from simulated rainfall in replicated 0.5 m2 plots before and after application of the following treatments: 1) burning with a fuel load of 90 Mg ha-1, 2) manual removal of the litter and duff layers, 3) addition of 0.5, 2.5 and 5 cm of ash to plots from which the litter and duff had previously been removed, and 4) addition of the same depths of ash to burned plots at the sandy loam site. In the burned plots the surface litter and duff layers were completely consumed and a <1cm layer of black and gray ash and char was formed, indicating a moderate severity burn. The mean soil temperature in the upper 1 cm of the mineral soil was 70° C, and there was no detectable increase in water repellency. The mean final infiltration capacity of the burned sandy loam plots was 35 mm hr-1 compared to a pre-fire mean of 87 mm hr-1, while in the gravelly silt loam plots the pre- and post burn infiltration capacities (27 and 31 mm hr- 1) were not significantly different. Manual removal of the litter and duff layers reduced the mean final infiltration capacity in the sandy loam plots from 64 mm hr-1 to 40 mm hr-1 and in the gravelly silt loam plots from 23 mm hr-1 to 16 mm hr-1. We attribute decreases in infiltration due to the burning and duff removal treatments primarily to surface sealing. In the sandy loam plots, burning may have had a greater effect on infiltration than duff removal because the thin ash layer in the burned plots provided an additional source of fine material. In the gravelly silt loam plots, macropores located around rock fragments helped to minimize sealing effects. The addition of 0.5 cm of ash to the burned granitic plots resulted in a 20 mm hr-1 decrease in the final infiltration rate, and this was also probably due to surface sealing. However, the overall effect of ash addition was to increase the cumulative infiltration in proportion to the ash thickness and to maintain a higher average infiltration rate, indicating that while thin (<1 cm) ash layers may promote sealing, thicker ash layers help to reduce the runoff rate by providing additional storage for rainfall and by protecting the soil surface from raindrop impacts.

Woods, S. W.; Balfour, V.

2007-12-01

137

Water evaporation particularities in the process of forest fire extinguishing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical simulation of water massif motion through the high temperature gases corresponding to the typical conditions of forest fires was carried out. Maximal values of part by volume of liquid evaporating from water massif under its motion through the flaming burning area were determined when solving the heat and mass transfer problem under the conditions of endothermic phase transformations. Influence of liquid phase transition heat on the heat and mass transfer conditions on the track of water massif was determined. The expediency of polydisperse interspaced in time and space atomization of water massifs under the large-scale (especially, forest fires) fire extinguishing was proved.

Strizhak, Pavel A.; Volkov, Roman S.; Vysokomornaya, Olga V.; Voytkov, Ivan S.

2015-01-01

138

Forest Fire Advanced System Technology (FFAST): A Conceptual Design for Detection and Mapping  

E-print Network

is developing a data system to provide near-real-time forest fire information to fire management at the fire, and real-time video display and storage. 85 #12;The Forest Service airborne sensor systems in useForest Fire Advanced System Technology (FFAST): A Conceptual Design for Detection and Mapping 1 J

Standiford, Richard B.

139

A Remote Sensing and GIS Based Investigation of a Boreal Forest Coal Fire  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coal seam fire in interior Alaska was suspected to have started the Rex Creek forest fire in the summer of 2009. With prevailing winds, the forest fire spread rapidly to the north and within eleven days it burned about 410km2 of boreal forest. Coal seam fires can go unnoticed and unreported when present in remote and inaccessible areas. However,

Anupma Prakash; Kate Schaefer; William K. Witte; Kim Collins; Rudiger Gens; Michael P. Goyette

2011-01-01

140

Satellite analysis of the severe 1987 forest fires in northern China and southeastern Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Meteorological conditions, extremely conducive to fire development and spread in the spring of 1987, resulted in forest fires burning over extremely large areas in the boreal forest zone in northeastern China and the southeastern region of Siberia. The great China fire, one of the largest and most destructive forest fires in recent history, occurred during this period in the

Donald R. Cahoon Jr; Brian J. Stocks; Joel S. Levine; Wesley R. Cofer III; Joseph M. Pierson

1994-01-01

141

IMPLEMENTING THE EXPANDED PRESCRIBED FIRE PROGRAM ON THE GILA NATIONAL FOREST, NEW MEXICO  

E-print Network

in fire-adapted ponderosa pine forests of the southwestern United States. Preliminary results suggest the fire and satisfy ecological and safety concerns. keywords: fire, ponderosa pine forests, snags Research Station, Tallahassee, FL. INTRODUCTION Fire Ecology of Ponderosa Pine Forests in the American

142

SMALL MAMMALS AND FOREST FUEL REDUCTION: NATIONAL-SCALE RESPONSES TO FIRE AND FIRE SURROGATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest fuel reduction treatments are increasingly used by managers to reduce the risk of high-severity wildfire and to manage changes in the ecological function of forests. However, comparative ecological effects of the various types of treatments are poorly understood. We examined short-term patterns in small-mammal responses to mechanical thinning, prescribed-fire, and mechanical thinning\\/prescribed-fire combination treatments at eight different study areas

Sarah J. Converse; Gary C. White; Kerry L. Farris; Steve Zack

2006-01-01

143

Forest fire occurrence increases the distribution of a scarce forest type in the Mediterranean Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we report how fire recurrence increases the distribution of a scarce forest type in NE Spain that is dominated by the resprouter tree species Arbutus unedo. We used a combination of GIS and field surveys to determine the effect of fire and pre-fire vegetation on the appearance of A. unedo forests. In the field, we also analyzed the factors that promote fire and lead to the appearance of A. unedo forests. Our results reveal an increased occurrence of A. unedo forests in NE Spain in recent years; this phenomenon was strongly related to fire recurrence and the vegetation type present prior to fire. Most Pinus halepensis forests that burned more than once gave rise to A. unedo forests. Our results indicate that these conversions were related to a reduction in pine density coupled with increases in the density and size of A. unedo trees due to recurrent fires. Given that fires are increasing in number and magnitude in the Mediterranean, we predict a major change in landscape structure and composition at the regional scale.

Arnan, Xavier; Quevedo, Lídia; Rodrigo, Anselm

2013-01-01

144

Wildland fire effects on forest structure over an altitudinal gradient, Grand Canyon National Park, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Restoration of wildland fire to forests is a challenge when historical fire regimes have been altered. We studied four fires that burned over approximately 7865 ha on an altitudinal gradient in Grand Canyon National Park, USA, in 2003. The fires met criteria for the current USA policy allowing the restoration of fire's ecological role in forest landscapes: Wildland

PETER Z. FULÉ; DANIEL C. LAUGHLIN

145

Dendrochronology-based fire history of mixed-conifer forests in the San Jacinto Mountains, California  

E-print Network

Dendrochronology-based fire history of mixed-conifer forests in the San Jacinto Mountains fire-scar dendrochronology. Fire seasonality for mixed-conifer forests in this region also requires fire-scar dendrochronology. As such this is the first reconstruction of fire history in the mixed

Stephens, Scott L.

146

A Forest Fire Simulation Tool for Economic Planning in Fire Suppression Management  

E-print Network

of different suppression strategies and preventive planning associated with vegetation management for defense programs against forest fires. The organization and structure of the program at the user level) by adapting them to the Mediterranean ecosystems. The advance of the fire is reproduced as a function

Standiford, Richard B.

147

Fire History of a Temperate Forest with an Endemic Fire-Dependent Herb  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dendroecological fire history study was conducted for The Nature Conser- vancy's Narrows Preserve on Peters Mountain, Virginia, where the predominant vegetation is oak (Quercus L.)-dominated forest containing some other hardwoods and pines (Pinus L.). The site encompasses all the known habitat of the endangered and endemic Peters Mountain mallow (Iliamna corei Sherff.), a perennial herb that requires fire for

Jennifer A. Hoss; Charles W. Lafon; Henri D. Grissino-Mayer; Serena R. Aldrich; Georgina G. DeWeese

2008-01-01

148

The impact of boreal forest fire on climate warming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We report measurements and analysis of a boreal forest fire, integrating the effects of greenhouse gases, aerosols, black carbon deposition on snow and sea ice, and postfire changes in surface albedo. The net effect of all agents was to increase radiative forcing during the first year (34 ?? 31 Watts per square meter of burned area), but to decrease radiative forcing when averaged over an 80-year fire cycle (-2.3 ?? 2.2 Watts per square meter) because multidecadal increases in surface albedo had a larger impact than fire-emitted greenhouse gases. This result implies that future increases in boreal fire may not accelerate climate warming.

Randerson, J.T.; Liu, H.; Flanner, M.G.; Chambers, S.D.; Jin, Y.; Hess, P.G.; Pfister, G.; Mack, M.C.; Treseder, K.K.; Welp, L.R.; Chapin, F.S.; Harden, J.W.; Goulden, M.L.; Lyons, E.; Neff, J.C.; Schuur, E.A.G.; Zender, C.S.

2006-01-01

149

The impact of boreal forest fire on climate warming.  

PubMed

We report measurements and analysis of a boreal forest fire, integrating the effects of greenhouse gases, aerosols, black carbon deposition on snow and sea ice, and postfire changes in surface albedo. The net effect of all agents was to increase radiative forcing during the first year (34 +/- 31 Watts per square meter of burned area), but to decrease radiative forcing when averaged over an 80-year fire cycle (-2.3 +/- 2.2 Watts per square meter) because multidecadal increases in surface albedo had a larger impact than fire-emitted greenhouse gases. This result implies that future increases in boreal fire may not accelerate climate warming. PMID:17110574

Randerson, J T; Liu, H; Flanner, M G; Chambers, S D; Jin, Y; Hess, P G; Pfister, G; Mack, M C; Treseder, K K; Welp, L R; Chapin, F S; Harden, J W; Goulden, M L; Lyons, E; Neff, J C; Schuur, E A G; Zender, C S

2006-11-17

150

Factors influencing plant succession following fire in Ashe juniper woodland types in Real County, Texas  

E-print Network

Germination 10 12 12 PHYSIOGRAPHIC TYPES J ND THETR "EG "TATION Divide Flintrock Divide Divide Hsrgin Slopes Steep Rocky Slopes Outlying Foothills Hill Toi!s Valley Stream Channel Age Analysis of Ashe Juniper SUCCESSIONAL i'ATTaRNS FOLLOMIUG... as related to degree of slope. 72 LIST OF FIGS!KS Figure Page Apparatus for recording temperatures during fire in tests of fire-induced gemination. 13 Threeawn litter burning in a flat in test of i'ire in- duced germination...

Huss, Donald Lee

1954-01-01

151

Vapor pressure deficit controls on fire ignition and fire spread in boreal forest ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate-driven changes in the fire regime within boreal forest ecosystems are likely to have important effects on carbon cycling and species composition. In the context of improving fire management options and developing more realistic scenarios of future change, it is important to understand how meteorology regulates different fire processes, including ignition, daily fire spread rates, and cumulative annual burned area. Here we combined MODIS active fires (MCD14ML), MODIS imagery (MOD13A1) and ancillary historic fire perimeter information to produce a dataset of daily fire spread maps of Alaska for the period 2002-2011. This approach provided a spatial and temporally continuous representation of fire progression and a precise identification of ignition and extinction locations and dates for each wildfire. The fire-spread maps were analyzed together with daily vapor pressure deficit (VPD) observations from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) and lightning strikes from the Alaska Lightning Detection Network (ALDN). We found a significant relationship between daily VPD and probability that a lightning strike would develop into a fire ignition. In the first 5 days after ignition, above average VPD increased the probability that fires would grow to large or very large sizes. Strong relationships also were identified between VPD and burned area at several levels of temporal and spatial aggregation. As a consequence of regional coherence in meteorology, ignition, daily fire spread rates, and fire extinction events were often synchronized across different fires in interior Alaska. At a regional scale, the sum of positive VPD anomalies during the fire season was positively correlated with annual burned area during the NARR era (1979-2011; R2 = 0.45). Some of the largest fires we mapped had slow initial growth, indicating opportunities may exist for suppression efforts to adaptively manage these forests for climate change. The results of our spatiotemporal analysis provide new information about temporal and spatial dynamics of wildfires and have implications for modeling the terrestrial carbon cycle.

Sedano, F.; Randerson, J. T.

2014-01-01

152

MISR Images Forest Fires and Hurricane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These images show forest fires raging in Montana and Hurricane Hector swirling in the Pacific. These two unrelated, large-scale examples of nature's fury were captured by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer(MISR) during a single orbit of NASA's Terra satellite on August 14, 2000.

In the left image, huge smoke plumes rise from devastating wildfires in the Bitterroot Mountain Range near the Montana-Idaho border. Flathead Lake is near the upper left, and the Great Salt Lake is at the bottom right. Smoke accumulating in the canyons and plains is also visible. This image was generated from the MISR camera that looks forward at a steep angle (60 degrees); the instrument has nine different cameras viewing Earth at different angles. The smoke is far more visible when seen at this highly oblique angle than it would be in a conventional, straight-downward (nadir)view. The wide extent of the smoke is evident from comparison with the image on the right, a view of Hurricane Hector acquired from MISR's nadir-viewing camera. Both images show an area of approximately 400 kilometers (250 miles)in width and about 850 kilometers (530 miles) in length.

When this image of Hector was taken, the eastern Pacific tropical cyclone was located approximately 1,100 kilometers (680 miles) west of the southern tip of Baja California, Mexico. The eye is faintly visible and measures 25 kilometers (16 miles) in diameter. The storm was beginning to weaken, and 24hours later the National Weather Service downgraded Hector from a hurricane to a tropical storm.

MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

For more information: http://www-misr.jpl.nasa.gov

2000-01-01

153

Distribution of forest fire prevention resources based on GIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viewshed analysis is a method and technology, which manages geometry principles and computer graphic technology to resolve the problem of geographic aggregation of monitoring points. This paper analyses the forest resources and its main fire prevention factors, such as forest types, forest ages and forest shade density etc., within the scope of the visible monitoring points, and discusses how to maximize the area under forest fire monitoring without increasing the number of monitoring points and changing equipments performance. With the target of maximuming monitoring area, the paper studies on the best monitoring position within certain area, and to convert it into how to optimize the visible area so as to make locating monitoring points much more scientific, reasonable and efficient.

Xu, Aijun; Tang, Lihua; Chen, Zhengchao; Zhang, Xia

2008-11-01

154

Forest-climate feedbacks mediated through fire in the Eastern boreal forests of Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boreal forests are one of the largest biomes on earth, covering 27% of the world’s forests. In Canada, the dynamics of the boreal forests are largely dominated by large scale disturbances, with crown fires being the most geographically and temporally common. The probability of fire occurrence is strongly coupled to climate, making fire regimes quite variable across the country. Recent trends in fire regimes as well as predicted trends under climate scenarios also vary spatially. We present the results of two studies in which we have evaluated the climate - fire - forest feedbacks in parts of the boreal forest. Results show that feedbacks can be substantial and can alter the importance and even the direction of forest impacts on the climate system. The first feedback investigated was the link between fire-driven changes in forest cover properties and albedo in the boreal forests of Eastern Canada. Repeated disturbances in closed canopy forest dominated by black spruce (Picea mariana) on coarse soils sometimes push stands into an alternate stable open lichen woodland state. These lichen woodlands have a high albedo on account of the pale ground cover. Calculations show that the increase in albedo due to the opening of the canopy has a greater radiative forcing effect than that of the CO2 emitted to the atmosphere on account of the burning of the original forest. In these regions, climate-driven fire regimes thus generate a negative feedback to the climate system through their effects on forest cover properties. The second feedback investigated is linked to a recent decrease in fire frequency in Eastern Canada, and how this decrease might be affecting the growth-enhancing effect of a warmer climate because of its impact on the age-class distribution of the forest. The fire regime drives the age class distribution of forest landscapes. Since age class distribution drives landscape-level productivity, we have studied how this effect interacts with climate warming in terms of overall productivity signal of climate change through an analysis combining process-based modelling and dendroclimatology. Results to date indicate that the aging of the forest in the Eastern Boreal landscapes of Canada due to recent decrease in fire frequency has been counteracting the effect of climate warming, masking potential signals of increased growth and reducing the carbon sequestration potential of these landscapes.

Bernier, P. Y.; Girardin, M. P.; Desjardins, R. L.; Gauthier, S.; Karimi-Zindashty, Y.; Worth, D.; Beaudoin, A.; Luo, Y.; Wang, S.

2010-12-01

155

Climate effect on forest fire static risk assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The availability of a long data series of fire perimeters combined with a detailed knowledge of topography and land cover allow to understand which are the main features involved in forest fire occurrences and their behaviour. In addition, climate indexes obtained from the analysis of time series with more than 20 years of complete records allow to understand the role of climate on fire regime, both in terms of direct effects on fire behaviour and the effect on vegetation cover. In particular, indices of extreme events have been considered like CDD (maximum number of consecutive dry days) and HWDI (heat wave duration index: maximum period > 5 consecutive days with Tmax >5°C above the 1961-1990 daily Tmax normal), together with the usual indices describing rainfall and temperature regimes. As a matter of fact, based on this information it is possible to develop statistical methods for the objective classification of forest fire static risk at regional scale. Two different case studies are presented in this work: Regione Liguria and Regione Sardegna (Italy). Both regions are in the center of the Mediterranean and are characterized by a high number of fires and burned area. However, the two regions have very different fire regimes. Sardinia is affected by the fire phenomenon only in summer whilst Liguria is affected by fires also in winter, with higher number of fires and larger burned area. In addition, the two region are very different in vegetation cover. The presence of Mediterranean conifers, (Pinus Pinaster, Pinus Nigra, Pinus halepensis) is quite spread in Liguria and is almost absent in Sardinia. What is common in the two regions is the widespread presence of shrub species frequently spread by fire. The analysis in the two regions thus allows in a rather limited area to consider almost all the species and the climate conditions that characterize the Mediterranean region. More than 10000 fire perimeters that burnt about 800 km2 were considered in the analysis. The analysis has been carried out at 20 m spatial resolution. Some important considerations relating to climate and the territorial features that characterize the fire regime in the considered regions contribute to better understand the forest fire phenomena. These results allow to define new strategies for forest fire prevention and management extendable to other geographical areas. This research is part of the project PROTERINA C, funded by the EU under the Italy-France Maritime Programme, aiming at investigating the effects that climate change could have on the environment (fuels).

Bodini, Antonella; Cossu, Antonello; Entrade, Erika; Fiorucci, Paolo; Gaetani, Francesco; Parodi, Ulderica

2010-05-01

156

A decision support system for managing forest fire casualties.  

PubMed

Southern Europe is exposed to anthropogenic and natural forest fires. These result in loss of lives, goods and infrastructure, but also deteriorate the natural environment and degrade ecosystems. The early detection and combating of such catastrophes requires the use of a decision support system (DSS) for emergency management. The current literature reports on a series of efforts aimed to deliver DSSs for the management of the forest fires by utilising technologies like remote sensing and geographical information systems (GIS), yet no integrated system exists. This manuscript presents the results of scientific research aiming to the development of a DSS for managing forest fires. The system provides a series of software tools for the assessment of the propagation and combating of forest fires based on Arc/Info, ArcView, Arc Spatial Analyst, Arc Avenue, and Visual C++ technologies. The system integrates GIS technologies under the same data environment and utilises a common user interface to produce an integrated computer system based on semi-automatic satellite image processing (fuel maps), socio-economic risk modelling and probabilistic models that would serve as a useful tool for forest fire prevention, planning and management. Its performance has been demonstrated via real time up-to-date accurate information on the position and evolution of the fire. The system can assist emergency assessment, management and combating of the incident. A site demonstration and validation has been accomplished for the island of Evoia, Greece, an area particularly vulnerable to forest fires due to its ecological characteristics and prevailing wind patterns. PMID:16928418

Bonazountas, Marc; Kallidromitou, Despina; Kassomenos, Pavlos; Passas, Nikos

2007-09-01

157

Forest Interpreter's Primer on Fire Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Specifically prepared for the use of Forest Service field-based interpreters of the management, protection, and use of forest and range resources and the associated human, cultural, and natural history found on these lands, this book is the second in a series of six primers on the multiple use of forest and range resources. Following an…

Zelker, Thomas M.

158

Ash fouling in coal-fired utility boilers. Monitoring and optimization of on-load cleaning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even though considerable advances have been made in the fields of boiler design and coal characterization, ash deposition on heat transfer surfaces continues to be a significant problem in existing conventional utility boilers. A cost effective way to deal with this difficulty is the continuous monitoring of fouling tendencies. These techniques have become a widespread practice in coal-fired power stations

A Valero; C Cortés

1996-01-01

159

Wildland fire ash: Production, composition and eco-hydro-geomorphic effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire transforms fuels (i.e. biomass, necromass, soil organic matter) into materials with different chemical and physical properties. One of these materials is ash, which is the particulate residue remaining or deposited on the ground that consists of mineral materials and charred organic components. The quantity and characteristics of ash produced during a wildland fire depend mainly on (1) the total burned fuel (i.e. fuel load), (2) fuel type and (3) its combustion completeness. For a given fuel load and type, a higher combustion completeness will reduce the ash organic carbon content, increasing the relative mineral content, and hence reducing total mass of ash produced. The homogeneity and thickness of the ash layer can vary substantially in space and time and reported average thicknesses range from close to 0 to 50 mm. Ash is a highly mobile material that, after its deposition, may be incorporated into the soil profile, redistributed or removed from a burned site within days or weeks by wind and water erosion to surface depressions, footslopes, streams, lakes, reservoirs and, potentially, into marine deposits.

Bodí, Merche B.; Martin, Deborah A.; Balfour, Victoria N.; Santín, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan H.; Pereira, Paulo; Cerdà, Artemi; Mataix-Solera, Jorge

2014-03-01

160

(Submitted: International Journal of Wildland Fire)1 Predicting post-fire forest erosion in the Western US2  

E-print Network

1 (Submitted: International Journal of Wildland Fire)1 Predicting post-fire forest erosion erosion rates and21 adversely affect aquatic resources. Extensive fuels treatments are being proposed)23 predict potential post-fire erosion rates for forests and shrublands in the Western US; and24 (2) assess

MacDonald, Lee

161

Changes in nutritive value of browse plants following forest fires  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Studies were conducted to determine chemical composition and nutritive value of four species of plants commonly used as browse by deer and to determine effects of low- and high-intensity fires upon chemical composition. Total solids, ash, ether extract, crude fiber and nitrogen-free extract contents of red maple, flowering dogwood, white oak and roundleaf greenbrier were not affected by either type of fire. Protein contents of roundleaf greenbrier, red maple and flowering dogwood foliage were significantly higher in the season following the low-intensity fire, but no effects could be determined in the second year. The high-intensity fire produced significant increases in protein contents of all four species, and effects were still apparent at the end of two years.

DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V., Jr.

1955-01-01

162

Levels and patterns of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in coal-fired power plant bottom ash and fly ash from Huainan, China.  

PubMed

Fly ash and bottom ash samples were collected from a coal-fired power plant located in Anhui province, China. Mineral phases and morphologies of the samples were determined by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH; 16 compounds specified in United States Environmental Protection Agency Method 610) properties in ash samples were investigated. In fly ashes, ?16PAH (total amount of 16 PAHs) and ?CPAH (total amount of 8 carcinogenic PAHs) levels varied from 0.93 to 2.08 ?g/g and from 0.26 to 0.87 ?g/g, respectively. In bottom ashes, ?16PAH and ?CPAH levels varied from 2.83 to 5.32 and 1.76 to 3.76 ?g/g, respectively. Fly ashes were dominated by medium molecular-weight PAHs and low molecular-weight PAHs, whereas bottom ashes were abundant in 5- and 6-ring PAH species. The CPAHs levels of some ashes, especially bottom ashes, are greater than the limits regulated by several countries, indicating that this type of coal combustion product requires special treatment before landfill. PAH levels and patterns in fly ash were evidently affected by particle size, and total organic content had a closer correlation with PAH content than particle size in bottom and fly ash, which may be due to unburned carbon existing in bottom ash. PMID:23591765

Ruwei, Wang; Jiamei, Zhang; Jingjing, Liu; Liu, Guijian

2013-08-01

163

Logging and Fire Effects in Siberian Boreal Forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Russian boreal zone supports a huge terrestrial carbon pool. Moreover, it is a tremendous reservoir of wood products concentrated mainly in Siberia. The main natural disturbance in these forests is wildfire, which modifies the carbon budget and has potentially important climate feedbacks. In addition, both legal and illegal logging increase landscape complexity and fire hazard. We investigated a number of sites in different regions of Siberia to evaluate the impacts of fire and logging on fuel loads, carbon emissions, tree regeneration, soil respiration, and microbocenosis. We found large variations of fire and logging effects among regions depending on growing conditions and type of logging activity. Partial logging had no negative impact on forest conditions and carbon cycle. Illegal logging resulted in increase of fire hazard, and higher carbon emissions than legal logging. The highest fuel loads and carbon emissions were found on repeatedly burned unlogged sites where first fire resulted in total tree mortality. Repeated fires together with logging activities in drier conditions and on large burned sites resulted in insufficient regeneration, or even total lack of tree seedlings. Soil respiration was less on both burned and logged areas than in undisturbed forest. The highest structural and functional disturbances of the soil microbocenosis were observed on logged burned sites. Understanding current interactions between fire and logging is important for modeling ecosystem processes and for managers to develop strategies of sustainable forest management. Changing patterns in the harvest of wood products increase landscape complexity and can be expected to increase emissions and ecosystem damage from wildfires, inhibit recovery of natural ecosystems, and exacerbate impacts of wildland fire on changing climate and air quality. The research was supported by NASA LCLUC Program, RFBR grant # 12-04-31258, and Russian Academy of Sciences.

Kukavskaya, E.; Buryak, L.; Ivanova, G.; Kalenskaya, O.; Bogorodskaya, A.; Zhila, S.; McRae, D.; Conard, S. G.

2013-12-01

164

Proceedings of the 4th Fire in Eastern Oak Forests Conference GTR-NRS-P-102 FIRE HISTORY IN A SOUTHERN APPALACHIAN DECIDUOUS FOREST  

E-print Network

IN A SOUTHERN APPALACHIAN DECIDUOUS FOREST Norman L. Christensen, Jr. and Kurt Fesenmeyer Research Professor an important part of eastern deciduous forest ecosystems through much of the Holocene. Nevertheless, fire deciduous forests. Nowhere is fire mentioned in E. Lucy Braun's monographic treatment of this biome (Braun

165

Future fire in Canada's boreal forest: paleoecology results and general circulation model - regional climate model simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

General circulation model simulations suggest the Earth's climate will be 1-3.5°C warmer by AD 2100. This will influence disturbances such as forest fires, which are important to circumpolar boreal forest dynamics and, hence, the global carbon cycle. Many suggest climate warming will cause increased fire activity and area burned. Here, we use the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index to simulate

Mike Flannigan; Ian Campbell; Mike Wotton; Christopher Carcaillet; Pierre Richard; Yves Bergeron

2001-01-01

166

FOREST FIRE DETECTION BASED ON GAUSSIAN FIELD ANALYSIS Florent Lafarge, Xavier Descombes, Josiane Zerubia  

E-print Network

FOREST FIRE DETECTION BASED ON GAUSSIAN FIELD ANALYSIS Florent Lafarge, Xavier Descombes, Josiane sensitive to the emission of heat. The forest fires can be char- acterized by intensity peaks on TIR images. We present a fully automatic method of forest fire detection from TIR satel- lite images based

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

167

Reestablishing Fire-Adapted Communities to Riparian Forests in the Ponderosa Pine Zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological research has implicated the practice of fire exclusion as a major contributor to forest health problems in the semiarid ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) zone of the Inland West (Mutch and others 1993; Sampson and others 1994). Prior to 1900, frequent, low-intensity fires occurred on upland forests in this forest zone at intervals of 5 to 30 years. With fire

Matthew K. Arno

168

An intelligent system for false alarm reduction in infrared forest-fire detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest fires cause many environmental disasters, creating economical and ecological damage as well as endangering people's lives. Heightened interest in automatic surveillance and early forest-fire detection has taken precedence over traditional human surveillance because the latter's subjectivity affects detection reliability, which is the main issue for forest-fire detection systems. In current systems, the process is tedious, and human operators must

Begoña C. Arrue; Aníbal Ollero; J. R. Matinez de Dios

2000-01-01

169

Dendrochronology-based fire history of mixed-conifer forests in the San Jacinto Mountains, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing public awareness of the increasing number of large wildfires across forested landscapes, coupled with needs of resource base management has accelerated research into forest reference conditions and the historical role of fire in coniferous ecosystems. This work investigates historical fire regimes of mixed-conifer forests in the San Jacinto Mountains of southern California using fire-scar dendrochronology. As such this

Richard G. Everett

2008-01-01

170

Spatiotemporal dynamics of forest degradation by selective logging and forest fire in the Brazilian Amazon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Selective logging and forest fires have increased at a rapid pace in tropical regions in recent decades. Forest disturbances caused by selective logging and forest fires may vary in scale, ranging from local damage to forest canopy, habitats, soils, and biodiversity, to global changes caused by logging-related release of carbon into the atmosphere. This study provides a regional assessment of forest impacts by selective logging and forest fires for 1992, 1996, and 1999. Multivariate statistical models, remote sensing approaches, Geographic Information System (GIS), and remotely sensed imagery combined with field data were applied to verify the scale of environmental changes associated with these processes of forest disturbance. In this regard, the study widens the current knowledge on land use and land cover classifications to include selectively logged and burned forests as additional thematic classes. These classes have not yet been properly accounted for by conventional remote sensing approaches of deforestation assessment, despite their relevance for the understanding of the changes affecting tropical forests. This study is the first multi-temporal and spatial assessment of the selective logging and forest fire impacts in the Brazilian Amazon. The resulting estimates show that at least 11800 km 2, 16500 km2, and 35600 km2 of natural forests were selectively logged and/or burned by 1992, 1996, and 1999, respectively. More than 60% of these forest disturbances observed in the Brazilian Amazon during those years were due to selective logging activities. However, forest fires were responsible for the greatest impacts on natural forests, causing an estimated loss of 18.8% of forest canopy in the study region. I also estimated that approximately 5467 km2, 7618 km2, and 17437 km2 were active areas of selective logging and/or forest fires in 1992, 1996, and 1999, respectively. In addition, approximately 4% of total forest disturbed by selective logging and forest fires was geographically located within protected areas. Areas affected by selective logging and forest fire corresponded to 2.7%, 3.2%, and 6.3% of total deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon by 1992, 1996, and 1999, respectively. Altogether, the present study demonstrated not only the importance of the selective logging and forest fires as important drivers of forest change in the tropics, but improved the existing knowledge of their combined impacts in forested lands in the Brazilian Amazon. Furthermore, the results of this research are expected to support and enhance the scope of global climate change studies associated with environmental changes caused by economic activities based on the exploitation of natural resources available in tropical forests. In terms of its applications to normative efforts, this study could be used to enlighten authorities and staff of environmental agencies working to develop sustainable management programs and environmental policies in Brazil and other tropical countries.

Matricardi, Eraldo A. T.

171

Effects of climate, fire, and humans on forest dynamics: forest simulations compared to the palaeological record  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to find out which factors influenced the forest dynamics in northern Italy during the Holocene, a palaeoecological approach involving pollen analysis was combined with ecosystem modelling. The dynamic and distribution based forest model DisCForm was run with different input scenarios for climate, species immigration, fire, and human impact and the similarity of the simulations with the original pollen

Franziska Keller; Heike Lischke; Thomas Mathis; Adrian Möhl; Lucia Wick; Brigitta Ammann; Felix Kienast

2002-01-01

172

A multidisciplinary decision support system for forest fire crisis management.  

PubMed

A wildland fire is a serious threat for forest ecosystems in Southern Europe affecting severely and irreversibly regions of significant ecological value as well as human communities. To support decision makers during large-scale forest fire incidents, a multidisciplinary system has been developed that provides rational and quantitative information based on the site-specific circumstances and the possible consequences. The system's architecture consists of several distinct supplementary modules of near real-time satellite monitoring and fire forecast using an integrated framework of satellite Remote Sensing, GIS, and RDBMS technologies equipped with interactive communication capabilities. The system may handle multiple fire ignitions and support decisions regarding dispatching of utilities, equipment, and personnel that would appropriately attack the fire front. The operational system was developed for the region of Penteli Mountain in Attika, Greece, one of the mountain areas in the country most hit by fires. Starting from a real fire incident in August 2000, a scenario is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. PMID:15285399

Keramitsoglou, Iphigenia; Kiranoudis, Chris T; Sarimveis, Haralambos; Sifakis, Nicolaos

2004-02-01

173

Increased damage from fires in logged forests during droughts caused by El Niño  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1997-98, fires associated with an exceptional drought caused by the El Niño\\/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) devastated large areas of tropical rain forests worldwide. Evidence suggests that in tropical rainforest environments selective logging may lead to an increased susceptibility of forests to fire. We investigated whether this was true in the Indonesian fires, the largest fire disaster ever observed. We performed

F. Siegert; G. Ruecker; A. A. Hoffmann

2001-01-01

174

Forest Fires Regional Distribution and Numerical Simulation Based on Universal Kriging Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest fires are devastating disasters, which are considered as the most serious disasters at the 21 century. When forest fires occur, ignition points have not yet developed for many unmanned area and away from the roads and railways. Therefore, precision positioning of the ignition point and fire-fighting forces and analysis of fires regional distribution are particularly important. In this paper,

Guang Lu; Wei Xue

2009-01-01

175

Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy application for ash characterisation for a coal fired power plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work was to apply the LIBS technique for the analysis of fly ash and bottom ash resulting from the coal combustion in a coal fired power plant. The steps of presented LIBS analysis were pelletizing of powdered samples, firing with laser and spectroscopic detection. The analysis "on tape" was presented as an alternative fast sampling approach. This procedure was compared with the usual steps of normalized chemical analysis methods for coal which are coal calcination, fluxing in high temperature plasma, dilution in strong acids and analyzing by means of ICP-OES and/or AAS. First, the single pulse LIBS approach was used for determination and quantification of elemental content in fly ash and bottom ash on the exit of the boiler. For pellet preparation, ash has to be mixed with proper binder to assure the sample resistance. Preparation of the samples (binder selection and pressing/pelletizing conditions) was determined and LIBS experimental conditions optimized. No preparation is necessary in "on tape" sampling. Moreover, double-pulse approach in orthogonal reheating configuration was applied to enhance the repeatability and precision of the LIBS results and to surpass the matrix effect influencing the calibration curves in case of some elements. Obtained results showed that LIBS responses are comparable to the normalized analytical methods. Once optimized the experimental conditions and features, application of LIBS may be a promising technique for combustion process control even in on-line mode.

Ctvrtnickova, T.; Mateo, M. P.; Yañez, A.; Nicolas, G.

2010-08-01

176

Smoke from Agricultural and Forest Fires  

MedlinePLUS

Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : National Summary Fires and Your Health Smoke is made up of a complex mixture ... to play outdoors. Pay attention to local air quality reports. Stay alert to smoke-related news coverage ...

177

Multifractal analysis of forest fires in complex regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fires can be studied as point processes where the ignition points represent the set of locations of the observed events in a defined study region. Their spatial and temporal patterns can be characterized by their fractal properties; which quantify the global aspect of the geometry of the support data. However, a monofractal dimension can not completely describe the pattern structure and related scaling properties. Enhancements in fractal theory had developed the multifractal concept which describes the measures from which interlinked fractal sets can be retrieved and characterized by their fractal dimension and singularity strength [1, 2]. The spatial variability of forest fires is conditioned by an intermixture of human, topographic, meteorological and vegetation factors. This heterogeneity makes fire patterns complex scale-invariant processes difficult to be depicted by a single scale. Therefore, this study proposes an exploratory data analysis through a multifractal formalism to characterize and quantify the multiscaling behaviour of the spatial distribution pattern of this phenomenon in a complex region like the Swiss Alps. The studied dataset is represented by 2,401 georeferenced forest fire ignition points in canton Ticino, Switzerland, in a 40-years period from 1969 to 2008. Three multifractal analyses are performed: one assesses the multiscaling behaviour of fire occurrence probability of the support data (raw data) and four random patterns simulated within three different support domains; second analysis studies the multifractal behavior of patterns from anthropogenic and natural ignited fires (arson-, accident- and lightning-caused fires); and third analysis aims at detecting scale-dependency of the size of burned area. To calculate the generalized dimensions, Dq, a generalization of the box counting methods is carried out based on the generalization of Rényi information of the qth order moment of the probability distribution. For q > 0, Dq indicates the scaling of overdense regions and strong singularities, and for q < 0, Dq exhibits the behaviour of small fluctuations (underdense regions) [2]. Multifractal analysis for forest fires in canton Ticino are performed using raw data, the anthropogenic- and natural-caused patterns and the random patterns simulated within the three different support domains. Results of these different patterns are compared. These analyses revealed non-linear behaviour of the generalized dimensions Dq, depicting inhomogeneous nature of the physical fire-ignition conditions as well as the presence of nonlinear interactions between scales. Keywords: forest fires, point process, box counting, fractal dimension, multifractal. [1] Mandelbrot, B. (1982). The Fractal Geometry of Nature. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman. [2] Seuront, L. (2009). Fractals and Multifractals in Ecology and Aquatic Science. Boca Raton (USA): CRC Press.

Vega Orozco, C. D.; Kanevski, M.; Golay, J.; Tonini, M.; Conedera, M.

2012-04-01

178

Telemetry Speeds Forest-Fire Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Airborne system rapidly delivers hard copy to firefighters. Sensors in airplane send data to ground station for image processing. Imagery immediately transferred to U.S. Geologic Survey (USGS) maps by photo interpreter. Maps transmitted by telecopies directly to fire-control camps. Receipt by fire camp less than 10 minutes. Information aids in decisions involving deployment of firefighters and equipment, flood control, monitoring oilspills, observing thermal currents, and pollutions monitoring.

Arvesen, J. C.; Cherbonneaux, J. W.

1984-01-01

179

Quince (Cydonia oblonga) emerges from the ashes of fire blight  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The two-decade history of fire blight in Bulgaria revealed quince as one of the most frequently attacked hosts and its production on a large scale has almost been entirely eliminated. Nevertheless, this species will play an important epidemiological role as a permanent source of inoculum for other p...

180

Effects of repeated fires on ecosystem C and N stocks along a fire induced forest/grassland gradient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Repeated fires might have different effect on ecosystem carbon storage than a single fire event, but information on repeated fires and their effects on forest ecosystems and carbon storage is scarce. However, changes in climate, vegetation composition, and human activities are expected to make forests more susceptible to fires that recur with relatively high frequency. In this study, the effects of repeated fires on ecosystem carbon and nitrogen stocks were examined along a fire-induced forest/grassland gradient wherein the fire events varied from an unburned forest to repeatedly burned grassland. Results from the study show repeated fires drastically decreased ecosystem carbon and nitrogen stocks along the forest/grassland gradient. The reduction began with the disappearance of living tree biomass, and followed by the loss of soil carbon and nitrogen. Within 4 years of the onset of repeated fires on the unburned forest, the original ecosystem carbon and nitrogen stocks were reduced by 42% and 21%, respectively. Subsequent fires caused cumulative reductions in ecosystem carbon and nitrogen stocks by 68% and 44% from the original ecosystem carbon and nitrogen stocks, respectively. The analyses of carbon budgets calculated by vegetation composition and stable isotopic ?13C values indicate that 84% of forest-derived carbon is lost at grassland, whereas the gain of grass-derived carbon only compensates 18% for this loss. Such significant losses in ecosystem carbon and nitrogen stocks suggest that the effects of repeated fires have substantial impacts on ecosystem and soil carbon and nitrogen cycling.

Cheng, Chih-Hsin; Chen, Yung-Sheng; Huang, Yu-Hsuan; Chiou, Chyi-Rong; Lin, Chau-Chih; Menyailo, Oleg V.

2013-03-01

181

Dynamic Analysis and Pattern Visualization of Forest Fires  

PubMed Central

This paper analyses forest fires in the perspective of dynamical systems. Forest fires exhibit complex correlations in size, space and time, revealing features often present in complex systems, such as the absence of a characteristic length-scale, or the emergence of long range correlations and persistent memory. This study addresses a public domain forest fires catalogue, containing information of events for Portugal, during the period from 1980 up to 2012. The data is analysed in an annual basis, modelling the occurrences as sequences of Dirac impulses with amplitude proportional to the burnt area. First, we consider mutual information to correlate annual patterns. We use visualization trees, generated by hierarchical clustering algorithms, in order to compare and to extract relationships among the data. Second, we adopt the Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) visualization tool. MDS generates maps where each object corresponds to a point. Objects that are perceived to be similar to each other are placed on the map forming clusters. The results are analysed in order to extract relationships among the data and to identify forest fire patterns. PMID:25137393

Lopes, António M.; Tenreiro Machado, J. A.

2014-01-01

182

Forest fire aerosol over the Mediterranean basin during summer 2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations at Lampedusa show that long-lasting intense episodes of fine (Ångström exponent, ?, > 1.5) light absorbing aerosol occurred in the central Mediterranean during summer 2003, along with exceptionally hot and dry conditions throughout continental Europe and the Mediterranean basin. The absorbing particles appear to be produced mostly by large-scale intense forest fires in southern Europe. In this paper Moderate

G. Pace; D. Meloni; A. di Sarra

2005-01-01

183

Holocene Fire History of an Eastern Oregon Forest Based on Soil Charcoal Radiocarbon Dates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Limited research has been done on long-term forest fire histories in northeastern Oregon. As part of an investigation to determine the minimum age of a 300 ha landslide in the Blue Mountains, a pit was excavated near the toe of the slide. The pit, located in a depression between the landslide and a ridge, contains massive clays and silts, and an 8000-year sequence of forest fires recorded in 7 buried charcoal layers. Eight- thousand-year-old Mazama Ash (Crater Lake, Oregon) is common in the area, but no tephra was found in the excavation. The upper 17 cm is organic rich soil. Seven horizons of charcoal are present; the upper six are subhorizontal and occur at depths of 17, 36, 41, 46, 52, and 57 cm. The lowest charcoal horizon follows a disconformity that cuts diagonally across the pit from 85 to 125 cm below the surface; oxidation in the form of orange mottling occurs above this disconformity (interpreted to be a paleoslope) and is prominent below it. The charcoal horizons provide evidence of large-scale forest fires in the vicinity, with differing intensities represented by the amount of charcoal in each horizon. The layers vary in thickness from 2 to 6 cm. Five charcoal horizons were radiocarbon dated (AMS) and calendar calibrated. The charcoal at the base of the soil (at 17 cm) provided an age of AD 1670 to 1960; this horizon correlates with widespread fires in the Blue Mountains in AD 1855. The horizon second closest to the surface (at 36 cm) provided an age of 1310 ± 40 B.P. The thickest horizon (at 46 cm) yielded an age of 2420 ± 40 B.P. The lowest horizontal horizon (at 57 cm) provided an age of 3460 ± 40 B.P. The lowest charcoal (at the disconformity) yielded an age of 7990 ± 40 B.P. Based on radiocarbon dates, the mean rate of sedimentation in the closed depression is approximately 1.2 cm/century. Fire episodes (which correspond remarkably well with a lake core site approximately 150 km south), indicate relatively long periods (from 400 to over 4000 years) between large, stand-replacing fires, and are suggestive of changing climate and ecological conditions in this forest setting. Past fire sequences provide important clues to predicting future climate-wildfire scenarios.

Carson, R. J.; Malkemus, D.; Clifton, C. F.

2006-12-01

184

Forest fires, woodland caribou and land use policies in northwestern Ontario (Rangifer tarandus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) are a threatened species in Ontario's boreal forest. Caribou require habitat that supports appropriate forage, including large areas of lichen rich forests. This research examines two dynamics that influence woodland caribou habitat in northwestern Ontario. These dynamics are forest fires and land use policies. The effects of forest fires are assessed quantitatively at both the

Brian Frederick Kutas

2004-01-01

185

Assessment of a Forest-fire Danger Index for Russia Using Remote Sensing Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intensive exploitation of Siberian forest resources requires to increase the level of their protection. In Russia, forests annually disturbed by fire make up about 6% of the total forest area, whereas they account for hundredth or even thousandth of percent in the West European countries and Canada. Devastating forest fires associated with long draughts have become very common over recent

Anatoly Sukhinin; Douglas McRae; Jin Ji-Zhong; Olga Dubrovskaya; Eugene Ponomarev

2010-01-01

186

Assessment of tropical forest degradation by selective logging and fire using Landsat imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies have assessed the process of forest degradation in the Brazilian Amazon using remote sensing approaches to estimate the extent and impact by selective logging and forest fires on tropical rain forest. However, only a few have estimated the combined impacts of those anthropogenic activities. We conducted a detailed analysis of selective logging and forest fire impacts on natural

Eraldo A. T. Matricardi; David L. Skole; Marcos A. Pedlowski; Walter Chomentowski; Luis Claudio Fernandes

2010-01-01

187

PCDD/F and aromatic emissions from simulated forest and grassland fires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzodioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) from simulated grassland and forest fires were quantitatively sampled to derive emission factors in support of PCDD/F inventory development. Grasses from Kentucky and Minnesota; forest shrubs from California and Florida; and pine forest biomass from the Piedmont region of North Carolina, western North Carolina, and coastal Oregon were collected and tested in a burn facility that mimicked a prescribed fire in the natural environment scenario. Ambient sampling methods for PCDD/F were variously accompanied by real-time measurements of major aromatic species, including benzene, toluene, naphthalene, and styrene. Emission factors in mass of toxic equivalent (TEQ) of PCDD/F per kg of carbon burned (kg Cb) for the two grasses averaged 0.32 ng TEQ/kg Cb. Burn tests ( n = 27) on forest biomass from the five sources show PCDD/F emission factors ranging from 0.3 to 26.3 ng TEQ/kg Cb, with a mean and median of 5.8 and 3.3 ng TEQ/kg Cb, respectively. Variation of the forest green/brown needle content, sample size, burn scenario, and facility ventilation rate showed no consistent effects on PCDD/F emissions. For forest burns, 30-35% of the PCDD and 50-55% of the PCDF emissions occurred during the flaming period from 0 to 5 min, while the highest emission factors (per mass of carbon burned) were recorded during the smoldering period from 5 to 60 min. Emissions of PCDD/F exceeded those present in the raw biomass by a factor of four, confirming PCDD/F formation from combustion rather than from simple surface volatilization. The majority of the PCDD/F partitions to the emissions rather than the ash.

Gullett, B.; Touati, A.; Oudejans, L.

188

Analysis of zone of vulnurability and impact of forest fires in forest ecosystems in north algeria by susing remote sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Forest in steppe present ecological diversity, and seen climatic unfavourable conditions in zone and impact of forest fires; we notes deterioration of physical environment particularly, deterioration of natural forest. This deterioration of forests provokes an unbalance of environment witch provokes a process of deterioration advanced in the ultimate stadium is desertification. By elsewhere, where climatic conditions are favourable, the fire is an ecological and acted agent like integral part of evolution of the ecosystems, the specific regeneration of plants are influenced greatly by the regime of fire (season of fire, intensity, interval), witch leads to the recuperation of the vegetation of meadow- fire. In this survey we used the pictures ALSAT-1 for detection of zones with risk of forest fire and their impact on the naturals forests in region named TLEMCEN in the north west of Algeria. A thematic detailed analysis of forests well attended ecosystems some processing on the picture ALSAT-1, we allowed to identify and classifying the forests in there opinion components flowers. We identified ampleness of fire on this zone also. Some parameters as the slope, the proximity to the road and the forests formations were studied in the goal of determining the zones to risk of forest fire. A crossing of diaper of information in a GIS according to a very determined logic allowed classifying the zones in degree of risk of fire in semi arid zone witch forest zone not encouraging the regeneration but permitting the installation of cash of steppe which encourages the desertification.

Zegrar, Ahmed

2010-05-01

189

Production and Transport of Ozone From Boreal Forest Fires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the summer of 2010, the BORTAS (Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites) mission was planned by several universities and government agencies in the United Kingdom, Canada, and USA. Nearly 100 ozone soundings were made at 13 stations through the BORTAS Intensive Sounding Network, although aircraft measurements were unfortunately cancelled due to the volcanic eruption in Iceland. 2010 was actually an exceptional year for Canadian boreal fires. MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) fire count data shows large fire events in Saskatchewan on several days in July. High amounts of NO2 close to the large fires are observed from OMI satellite data, indicating that not all NO2 is converted to PAN. Also associated with the fires, large amounts of CO, another precursor of ozone, are observed in MOPITT (Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere), AIRS and TES (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer) satellite data in the middle to upper troposphere. These chemical conditions combined with sunny weather all favour ozone production. Following days with large fire activity, layers of elevated ozone mixing ratio (over 100 ppbv) are observed downwind at several sites. Back-trajectories suggest the elevated ozone in the profile is traceable to the fires in Saskatchewan. Lidar profiles also detect layers of aerosol at the same heights. However, the layers of high ozone are also associated with low humidity, which is not expected from a combustion source, and suggests the possibility of entrainment of stratospheric air.

Tarasick, David; Liu, Jane; Osman, Mohammed; Sioris, Christopher; Liu, Xiong; Najafabadi, Omid; Parrington, Mark; Palmer, Paul; Strawbridge, Kevin; Duck, Thomas

2013-04-01

190

A feasibility study: Forest Fire Advanced System Technology (FFAST)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service completed a feasibility study that examined the potential uses of advanced technology in forest fires mapping and detection. The current and future (1990's) information needs in forest fire management were determined through interviews. Analysis shows that integrated information gathering and processing is needed. The emerging technologies that were surveyed and identified as possible candidates for use in an end to end system include ""push broom'' sensor arrays, automatic georeferencing, satellite communication links, near real or real time image processing, and data integration. Matching the user requirements and the technologies yielded a ""strawman'' system configuration. The feasibility study recommends and outlines the implementation of the next phase for this project, a two year, conceptual design phase to define a system that warrants continued development.

Mcleod, R. G.; Martin, T. Z.; Warren, J.

1983-01-01

191

Mapping Fine-Scale Fire Effects After Wildfires in Alaska's Boreal Forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, large, severe wildfires have burned in Alaska, which stands to continue as global climate trends continue to be warmer and drier. In 2004, 26,700 km2 (6.6 million acres) burned, and 19,000 km2 (4.7 million acres) in 2005. By these numbers, nearly 10% of Alaska's boreal forest burned in these two years. The boreal forest biome contains a significant percentage of the world's carbon stored as moss and in the highly organic soils. Thus, the extent and severity of fires in the boreal forests is important on a global scale due to the level of carbon emissions from a high amount of organic consumption. To investigate fine-scale fire effects on vegetation and soils, we collected airborne hyperspectral imagery on three interior Alaska wildfires in 2004. The interior area of Alaska is dominated by black spruce forests with dense mats of feather moss on the ground. We applied a five-endmember spectral unmixing model representing green feather moss, a green shrub species, charred feather moss, ash and rock to calibrated reflectance data. The result was fractional cover maps of each input cover type. Significant correlations between the field and remotely sensed data indicated the map was representative of the burned area. The pixel size of the hyperspectral data was 3 m on the ground, meaning the percent of charred and uncharred vegetation and exposed soil or rock was discernable at this scale. The ability to accurately map these biophysical cover fractions, especially fire effects on surface moss and organic soils, may indicate the degree or amount of consumption which can be related to carbon emissions.

Lewis, S. A.; Hudak, A. T.; Lentile, L. B.; Robichaud, P. R.; Morgan, P.

2007-12-01

192

Utilization of fly ash from coal-fired power plants in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapidly increasing demand for energy in China leads to the construction of new power plants all over the country. Coal,\\u000a as the main fuel resource of those power plants, results in increasing problems with the disposal of solid residues from combustion\\u000a and off gas cleaning. This investigation describes chances for the utilization of fly ash from coal-fired power plants

Da-zuo Cao; Eva Selic; Jan-Dirk Herbell

2008-01-01

193

Erosion-corrosion of coatings by biomass-fired boiler fly ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

The erosion-corrosion (E-C) behavior of two steels (AISI 1018 low carbon steel, Type 304 stainless steel) and several thermal spray coatings by fly ash from a biomass-fired boiler was determined in laboratory tests using a nozzle type elevated temperature erosion tester. The coatings included Hypersonic Velocity Oxygen Fuel (HVOF) thermal sprayed coatings on the mild steel (Cr3Cr2?NiCr, Cr3C2, NiCrSi, NiCrMo,

Bu-Qian Wang

1995-01-01

194

[GIS-based forest fire risk zone mapping in Daxing'an Mountains].  

PubMed

In this study, the Yuying and Fendou forest farms of Tuqiang Forest Bureau in Daxing'an Mountains were chosen as test areas, and their vegetation type, altitude, slop, aspect, and settlement buffer were selected as the main forest fire factors. The circumstances of forest fire risk were quantified by the factor-weights union method with the support of GIS. Four classes of forest fire risk ranging from low to extreme were generated. The none-, low, moderate, high, and extremely high fire risk zones accounted for 0.37%, 0.63%, 38.67%, 58.63% and 1.70%, respectively, which was in corresponding with normal distribution. About 60.33% of the test areas were predicted to be upper moderate risk zones, indicating that the forest fire management task in these areas is super onerous. There was an obvious regional difference in the distribution of forest fire risk zones, being higher in the center and lower around the center, and the difference in fire factors was also obvious. The GIS-based forest fire risk model of test areas strongly cohered with the actual fire-affected sites in 1987, which suggested that the forest fire risk zone mapping had a higher reliability, and could be used as the reference and guidance of forest fire management. PMID:16110654

Yin, Haiwei; Kong, Fanhua; Li, Xiuzhen

2005-05-01

195

Mixed-severity fire regime in a high-elevation forest of Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire regime characteristics of high-elevation forests on the North Rim of the Grand Canyon, Arizona, were reconstructed from fire scar analysis, remote sensing, tree age, and forest structure measurements, a first attempt at detailed reconstruction of the transition from surface to stand-replacing fire patterns in the Southwest. Tree densities and fire-\\/non-fire-initiated groups were highly mixed over the landscape, so distinct

Peter Z. Fulé; Joseph E. Crouse; Thomas A. Heinlein; Margaret M. Moore; W. Wallace Covington; Greg Verkamp

2003-01-01

196

Mixed-severity fire regime in a high-elevation forest of Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire regime characteristics of high-elevation forests on the North Rim of the Grand Canyon, Arizona, were re- constructed from fire scar analysis, remote sensing, tree age, and forest structure measurements, a first attempt at detailed reconstruction of the transition from surface to stand-replacing fire patterns in the Southwest. Tree den- sities and fire-\\/non-fire-initiated groups were highly mixed over the landscape,

Peter Z. Fulé; Joseph E. Crouse; Thomas A. Heinlein; Margaret M. Moore; W. Wallace Covington; Greg Verkamp

2003-01-01

197

The relative controls on forest fires and fuel source fluctuations in the Holocene deciduous forests of southern Wisconsin, USA.  

E-print Network

??Reconstructing fire regimes and fuel characteristics is an important aspect of understanding past forest ecosystem processes. Fuel sources and disturbance regimes throughout the upper Midwestern… (more)

Mueller, Joshua Robert

2013-01-01

198

Influence of Pre-Fire Tree Mortality on Fire Severity in Conifer Forests of the San Bernardino Mountains, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

High tree mortality due to drought and insects often is assumed to increase fire severity once ignition occurs. In 2002-2003, coniferous forests in the San Bernardino Mountains, California experienced a significant tree mortality event due to drought and an outbreak of western pine beetles (Dendroctonus brevicomis). In October 2003, fire burned approximately 5,860 ha of conifer forest types in many

Monica L. Bond; Derek E. Lee; Curtis M. Bradley; Chad T. Hanson

2009-01-01

199

A study of forest fire danger district division in Lushan Mountain based on RS and GIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study selected 9 factors, average maximum temperature, average temperature, average precipitation, average the longest days of continuous drought and average wind speed during fire prevention period, vegetation type, altitude, slope and aspect as the index of forest fire danger district division, which has taken the features of Lushan Mountain's forest fire history into consideration, then assigned subjective weights to each factor according to their sensitivity to fire or their fire-inducing capability. By remote sensing and GIS, vegetation information layer were gotten from Landsat TM image and DEM with a scale of 1:50000 was abstracted from the digital scanned relief map. Topography info. (elevation, slope, aspect) layers could be gotten after that. A climate resource databank that contained the data from the stations of Lushan Mountain and other nearby 7 stations was built up and extrapolated through the way of grid extrapolation in order to make the distribution map of climate resource. Finally synthetical district division maps were made by weighing and integrating all the single factor special layers,and the study area were divided into three forest fire danger district, include special fire danger district, I-fire danger district and II-fire danger district. It could be used as a basis for developing a forest fire prevention system, preparing the annual investment plan, allocating reasonably the investment of fire prevention, developing the program of forest fire prevention and handle, setting up forest fire brigade, leaders' decisions on forest fire prevention work.

Xiao, Jinxiang; Huang, Shu-E.; Zhong, Anjian; Zhu, Biqin; Ye, Qing; Sun, Lijun

2009-09-01

200

Understorey fire frequency and the fate of burned forests in southern Amazonia.  

PubMed

Recent drought events underscore the vulnerability of Amazon forests to understorey fires. The long-term impact of fires on biodiversity and forest carbon stocks depends on the frequency of fire damages and deforestation rates of burned forests. Here, we characterized the spatial and temporal dynamics of understorey fires (1999-2010) and deforestation (2001-2010) in southern Amazonia using new satellite-based estimates of annual fire activity (greater than 50 ha) and deforestation (greater than 10 ha). Understorey forest fires burned more than 85 500 km(2) between 1999 and 2010 (2.8% of all forests). Forests that burned more than once accounted for 16 per cent of all understorey fires. Repeated fire activity was concentrated in Mato Grosso and eastern Pará, whereas single fires were widespread across the arc of deforestation. Routine fire activity in Mato Grosso coincided with annual periods of low night-time relative humidity, suggesting a strong climate control on both single and repeated fires. Understorey fires occurred in regions with active deforestation, yet the interannual variability of fire and deforestation were uncorrelated, and only 2.6 per cent of forests that burned between 1999 and 2008 were deforested for agricultural use by 2010. Evidence from the past decade suggests that future projections of frontier landscapes in Amazonia should separately consider economic drivers to project future deforestation and climate to project fire risk. PMID:23610169

Morton, D C; Le Page, Y; DeFries, R; Collatz, G J; Hurtt, G C

2013-06-01

201

Evaluation of the effects of silvicultural and fuels treatments on potential fire behaviour in Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire suppression has increased fuel loads and fuel continuity in mixed-conifer ecosystems, resulting in forest structures that are vulnerable to catastrophic fire. This paper models fire behaviour in a mixed-conifer forest and investigates how silvicultural and fuels treatments affect potential fire behaviour. The computer program FARSITE was used to spatially and temporally model fire growth and behaviour. Fire modelling was

Scott Lewis Stephens

1998-01-01

202

Performance assessment of a Robust Satellite Techniques (RST-FIRES) for forest fire detection and monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, an advanced satellite technique for forest fire detection and monitoring named RST-FIRES, based on the well known Robust Satellite Techniques (RST) approach, is presented. Performances of this technique, both in terms of reliability and sensitivity, have been analyzed in different (winter/summer) fire regimes, after 3 years of pre-operational sperimentation in 3 Italian Regions (Lombardy, Sicily and Basilicata). Results achieved by using Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) have been compared with the ones obtained by using traditional multichannels and contextuals algorithms. The potential of RST-FIRES in promptly detecting the beginning of fire events by means of sensors like Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) flying aboard Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) geostationary satellites is also analyzed and discussed here. The achieved results demonstrates the high capabilities of RST-FIRES in indentifying even small fires with a very low (<10%) false positive rate under different observational conditions (day/night; winter/summer). In addition, they confirm the RST-FIRES potential to be used in operational contexts requiring to join reliable early warning and efficient support to decisions systems.

Mazzeo, G.; Filizzola, C.; Coviello, I.; Marchese, F.; Corrado, R.; Lacava, T.; Paciello, R.; Pergola, N.; Tramutoli, V.

2012-04-01

203

The spread of ash ( Fraxinus excelsior) in some European oak forests: an effect of nitrogen deposition or successional change?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of nutrient availability on the spread of the European ash (Fraxinus excelsior) in predominantly oak forests (Quercus petraea, Quercus robur) have been evaluated in forests of ?eský kras, ?eské st?edoho?í (both in the Czech Republic), southern Sweden and southwestern Slovenia. Ash has dispersed in ecosystems with lower availability of P as well as in ecosystem with lower availability

Je?ýk Hofmeister; Martin Mihaljevi?; Jan Hošek

2004-01-01

204

Fire, Carbon and Climate Change in Boreal Forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disturbances are the major stand-renewing agents for much of the circumboreal forest. In Canada, fire has received much of the attention in carbon cycle science because it affects about 3 million ha of Canadian forest annually, impacts air quality, and can threaten life, property and infrastructure. Fire affects the carbon balance through three processes. First, carbon and other greenhouse gases are emitted to the atmosphere during the combustion process. We estimate this to average about 27 Tg C/year in Canada over the past 40 years, which is close to 20% of industrial carbon emissions. However, in some years this can exceed 100 Tg C. Efforts are underway to estimate global fire activity and greenhouse gas emissions using observations, remote sensing and modelling. The second process is the decomposition of fire-killed vegetation. This forms a pool of coarse woody debris that can take decades to decompose, or can be quite rapid, depending on the post-fire environment. The third process is succession of vegetation following fire, a dynamic process that involves the interplay among species establishment and competition. Weather and climate affects all of these processes. Estimates of the future environment indicate that much of boreal Canada will experience warmer and drier conditions, although there will be regional differences and transient effects. The projections suggest that we may experience a doubling of area burned over the next century because of anthropogenic climate changes. This may have further implications to the global carbon budget by increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. This increase in fire activity may lead to a positive feedback cycle with the increased release of greenhouse gases. A run-away scenario is unlikely because young successional boreal vegetation often does not burn as readily and would limit the positive feedback cycle. Also, changes to the forest composition following fire increases surface albedo and alters the energy balance; effects that may cause climate cooling. However, the impacts of landscape feedbacks and human intervention limiting future fire are not well known.

Flannigan, M. D.; Amiro, B. D.; Logan, K. A.

2005-12-01

205

Post-fire water quality in forest catchments: a review with implications for potable water supply  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many locations fire-prone forest catchments are utilised for the supply of potable water to small communities up to large cities. For example, in south-eastern Australia, wildfires have burned part or all of forest catchments supplying drinking water to Sydney (2001 wildfire), Canberra (2003), Adelaide (2007), Melbourne (2009), as well as various regional towns. Generally, undisturbed forest catchments are a source of high quality water. However, increases in erosion and sediment flux, runoff generation, and changes to the supply of key constituents after wildfire may result in contamination of water supplies. In this review, we present key physical and chemical constituents from a drinking water perspective that may be generated in burned forest catchments and examine post-fire changes to concentrations of these constituents in streams and reservoirs. The World Health Organisation (WHO) drinking water guideline values were used to assess reported post-fire constituent concentrations. Constituents examined include suspended sediment, ash, nutrients, trace metals, anions (Cl-, SO42-), cyanides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Constituent concentrations in streams and reservoirs vary substantially following wildfire. In streams, maximum reported total suspended solid concentrations (SSC) in the first year after fire ranged from 11 to 143,000 mg L-1. SSC is often measured in studies of post-fire stream water quality, whereas turbidity is used in drinking water guidelines and more commonly monitored in water supply reservoirs. For burned catchment reservoirs in south-eastern Australia, peak turbidities increased over pre-fire conditions, as did the frequency of exceedance of the turbidity guideline. NO3-, NO2-, and NH4+ may increase after wildfire but maximum recorded concentrations have not exceeded WHO guideline values. Large post-fire increases in total N and total P concentrations in streams and reservoirs have been observed, although there are no guideline values for total N or P. Studies of post-fire concentrations of dissolved organic carbon are mostly from North America and report generally minor increases after fire, with elevated concentrations reflecting background conditions. The few observations of trace metal concentrations in streams after wildfire found high concentrations that exceeded guideline values for Fe, Mn, As, Cr, Al, Ba, and Pb, which were associated with highly elevated sediment concentrations. In contrast, Cu, Zn, and Hg were below or only slightly above (?1.2 times) guideline values. Reports of Cl- and SO42- concentrations after wildfire are mostly confined to coniferous forest areas, where maximum sampled values were well below WHO guidelines. Total cyanide concentrations have been observed to exceed guidelines values, although increases are likely to be short-lived. Post-fire stream concentrations of PAHs have been found to increase but were below levels of concern. In assessing the risk to water supply from wildfires, constituents of concern may be identified according to both the reason for concern (health or aesthetic) and treatability. Determining the risk to human health from short duration exposure to elevated concentrations of many contaminants (such as toxic metals, PAHs) is problematic, given that the guideline values are based on a life-time of exposure. Other constituents may have more rapid health effects from consumption of contaminated water (e.g. cyanides, Cu, NO2-) or aesthetic concerns (e.g. Fe, Mn, SO42-, Zn). The increased flux of suspended sediment and sediment-associated constituents (particularly metals, nutrients and organic carbon) that can occur after wildfire may necessitate water treatment by coagulation and filtration. At very high sediment concentrations treatment problems may be encountered that reduce or delay the rate of water processing, potentially causing disruptions in supply. For other constituents, such as NO3-, NO2-, Cl-, SO42-, amenable cyanides, and PAHs, it appears the likelihood that concentrations of concern will occur in water suppl

Smith, Hugh; Sheridan, Gary; Lane, Patrick; Nyman, Petter; Haydon, Shane

2010-05-01

206

Forest fires and lightning activity during the outstanding 2003 and 2005 fire seasons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires in southern Europe cause frequent extensive economical and ecological losses and, even human casualties. Comparatively to other Mediterranean countries, Portugal is the country with more burnt area and fires per unit area in the last decade, mainly during the summer season (Pereira et al., 2011). According to the fire records available, between 1980 and 2009, wildfires have affected over 3 million hectares in Portugal (JRC, 2011), which corresponds to approximately a third of the Portuguese Continental territory. The main factors that influence fire ignition and propagation are: (1) the presence of fuel (i.e. vegetation); (2) climate and weather; (3) socioeconomic conditions that affect land use/land cover patterns, fire-prevention and fire-fighting capacity and (4) topography. Specifically, weather (e.g. wind, temperature, precipitation, humidity, and lightning occurrence) plays an important role in fire behavior, affecting both ignition and spread of wildfires. Some countries have a relatively large fraction of fires caused by lightning, e.g. northwestern USA, Canada, Russia (). In contrast, Portugal has only a small percentage of fire records caused by lightning. Although significant doubts remain for the majority of fires in the catalog since they were cataloged without a likely cause. The recent years of 2003 and 2005 were particularly outstanding for fire activity in Portugal, registering, respectively, total burned areas of 425 726 ha and 338 262 ha. However, while the 2003 was triggered by an exceptional heatwave that struck the entire western Europe, the 2005 fire season registered was coincident with one of the most severe droughts of the 20th century. In this work we have used mainly two different databases: 1) the Portuguese Rural Fire Database (PRFD) which is representative of rural fires that have occurred in Continental Portugal, 2001-2011, with the original data provided by the Autoridade Florestal Nacional (AFN, 2011); 2) lightning discharges location which were extracted from the Portuguese Lightning Location System that has been in service since June of 2002 and is operated by the national weather service - Instituto de Meteorologia (IM). The main objective of this work is to analyze for possible relations between the PRFD and the Portuguese lightning database for the 2003 and 2005 extreme fire seasons. In particularly we were able to verify the forest fires labeled as "ignited by lightning" by comparing its location to the lightning discharges location database. Furthermore we have also investigated possible fire ignition by lightning discharges that have not yet been labeled in the PRFD by comparing daily data from both datasets.

Russo, Ana; Ramos, Alexandre; Trigo, Ricardo

2013-04-01

207

Proceedings of the 4th Fire in Eastern Oak Forests Conference34 GTR-NRS-P-102 HISTORY OF FIRE IN EASTERN OAK FORESTS  

E-print Network

in restoration planning to set desired future conditions and establish silvicultural treatments that maintain oakProceedings of the 4th Fire in Eastern Oak Forests Conference34 GTR-NRS-P-102 HISTORY OF FIRE IN EASTERN OAK FORESTS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR RESTORATION Justin L. Hart and Megan L. Buchanan Assistant

Hart, Justin

208

Fire impact on forest soils evaluated using near-infrared spectroscopy and multivariate calibration  

E-print Network

Fire impact on forest soils evaluated using near-infrared spectroscopy and multivariate calibration_vergnoux@hotmail.com Abstract The assessment of physico-chemical properties in forest soils affected by fires was evaluated in addition to NIR spectra. Then, a fire recurrence index was defined and calculated according

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

209

Climate change impacts on fire regimes and key ecosystem services in Rocky Mountain forests  

E-print Network

Climate change impacts on fire regimes and key ecosystem services in Rocky Mountain forests Monique Collins, CO 80523-1476, USA b Rocky Mountain Tree-Ring Research, 2901 Moore Lane, Fort Collins, CO 80526 Mountains Climate change Fire regime Prescribed fire Ecosystem services a b s t r a c t Forests

MacDonald, Lee

210

Spatial and temporal corroboration of a fire-scar-based fire history in a frequently burned ponderosa pine forest.  

PubMed

Fire scars are used widely to reconstruct historical fire regime parameters in forests around the world. Because fire scars provide incomplete records of past fire occurrence at discrete points in space, inferences must be made to reconstruct fire frequency and extent across landscapes using spatial networks of fire-scar samples. Assessing the relative accuracy of fire-scar fire history reconstructions has been hampered due to a lack of empirical comparisons with independent fire history data sources. We carried out such a comparison in a 2780-ha ponderosa pine forest on Mica Mountain in southern Arizona (USA) for the time period 1937-2000. Using documentary records of fire perimeter maps and ignition locations, we compared reconstructions of key spatial and temporal fire regime parameters developed from documentary fire maps and independently collected fire-scar data (n = 60 plots). We found that fire-scar data provided spatially representative and complete inventories of all major fire years (> 100 ha) in the study area but failed to detect most small fires. There was a strong linear relationship between the percentage of samples recording fire scars in a given year (i.e., fire-scar synchrony) and total area burned for that year (y = 0.0003x + 0.0087, r2 = 0.96). There was also strong spatial coherence between cumulative fire frequency maps interpolated from fire-scar data and ground-mapped fire perimeters. Widely reported fire frequency summary statistics varied little between fire history data sets: fire-scar natural fire rotations (NFR) differed by < 3 yr from documentary records (29.6 yr); mean fire return intervals (MFI) for large-fire years (i.e., > or = 25% of study area burned) were identical between data sets (25.5 yr); fire-scar MFIs for all fire years differed by 1.2 yr from documentary records. The known seasonal timing of past fires based on documentary records was furthermore reconstructed accurately by observing intra-annual ring position of fire scars and using knowledge of tree-ring growth phenology in the Southwest. Our results demonstrate clearly that representative landscape-scale fire histories can be reconstructed accurately from spatially distributed fire-scar samples. PMID:20945762

Farris, Calvin A; Baisan, Christopher H; Falk, Donald A; Yool, Stephen R; Swetnam, Thomas W

2010-09-01

211

Birth-jump processes and application to forest fire spotting.  

PubMed

Birth-jump models are designed to describe population models for which growth and spatial spread cannot be decoupled. A birth-jump model is a nonlinear integro-differential equation. We present two different derivations of this equation, one based on a random walk approach and the other based on a two-compartmental reaction-diffusion model. In the case that the redistribution kernels are highly concentrated, we show that the integro-differential equation can be approximated by a reaction-diffusion equation, in which the proliferation rate contributes to both the diffusion term and the reaction term. We completely solve the corresponding critical domain size problem and the minimal wave speed problem. Birth-jump models can be applied in many areas in mathematical biology. We highlight an application of our results in the context of forest fire spread through spotting. We show that spotting increases the invasion speed of a forest fire front. PMID:25186246

Hillen, T; Greese, B; Martin, J; de Vries, G

2014-09-01

212

Conceptual design study: Forest Fire Advanced System Technology (FFAST)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An integrated forest fire detection and mapping system that will be based upon technology available in the 1990s was defined. Uncertainties in emerging and advanced technologies related to the conceptual design were identified and recommended for inclusion as preferred system components. System component technologies identified for an end-to-end system include thermal infrared, linear array detectors, automatic georeferencing and signal processing, geosynchronous satellite communication links, and advanced data integration and display. Potential system configuration options were developed and examined for possible inclusion in the preferred system configuration. The preferred system configuration will provide increased performance and be cost effective over the system currently in use. Forest fire management user requirements and the system component emerging technologies were the basis for the system configuration design. A preferred system configuration was defined that warrants continued refinement and development, examined economic aspects of the current and preferred system, and provided preliminary cost estimates for follow-on system prototype development.

Nichols, J. D.; Warren, J. R.

1986-01-01

213

Fire dynamics and implications for nitrogen cycling in boreal forests  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We used a dynamic, long-term mass balance approach to track cumulative carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) losses to fire in boreal Manitoba over the 6500 years since deglaciation. Estimated C losses to decomposition and fire, combined with measurements of N pools in mature and burned forest floors, suggest that loss of N by combustion has likely resulted in a long-term loss that exceeds the amount of N stored in soil today by 2 to 3 times. These estimates imply that biological N fixation rates could be as high as 5 to 10 times atmospheric deposition rates in boreal regions. At the site scale, the amount of N lost is due to N content of fuels, which varies by stand type and fire severity, which in turn vary with climate and fire dynamics. The interplay of fire frequency, fire severity, and N partitioning during regrowth are important for understanding rates and sustainability of nutrient and carbon cycling over millenia and over broad regions.

Harden, J.W.; Mack, M.; Veldhuis, H.; Gower, S.T.

2003-01-01

214

Log-periodic behavior in a forest-fire model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores log-periodicity in a forest-fire cellular-automata model. At each time step of this model a tree is dropped on a randomly chosen site; if the site is unoccupied, the tree is planted. Then, for a given sparking frequency, matches are dropped on a randomly chosen site; if the site is occupied by a tree, the tree ignites and

B. D. Malamud; G. Morein; D. L. Turcotte

2005-01-01

215

60 FR 9658 - China Basin Fire Recovery and Associated Activities Kootenai National Forest, Lincoln County...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Filing The draft China Basin Fire Recovery EIS...the final EIS, the Forest Service is required...Reviewer's Obligations The Forest Service believes...dismissed by the courts. City of Angoon v. Hodel...available to the Forest Service at a time...prepare the China Basin Fire Recovery...

1995-02-21

216

Distinct roles of savanna and forest tree species in regeneration under fire suppression in a  

E-print Network

Distinct roles of savanna and forest tree species in regeneration under fire suppression in a Brazilian savanna Erika L. Geiger, Sybil G. Gotsch, Gabriel Damasco, M. Haridasan, Augusto C. Franco & William A. Hoffmann Keywords Cerrado; fire; forest expansion; forest­savanna boundary; tropical savanna

Fine, Paul V.A.

217

Estimating Fire-Caused Boreal Forest Disturbances Using Remote Sensing Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Russia accounts for about half of the world's forests, most of which are in Siberia. Numerous forest fires, mostly human-caused, and extensive forest harvesting, including illegal logging, have resulted in considerable ecological damage and economic loss. At present, forest inventory agencies assess the effects of fire based on the known forest area burned. Due to potential cost and difficulty of access types and severity of fire effects are normally not assessed. The lack of reliable estimates of ecological and economic impacts of forest fires prevents development of effective approaches for forest management and forest fire protection. Remote sensing and GIS-based technologies provide for the development of fundamental new methods to assess and monitor forest condition and wildfire behavior and effects. Wildfire and insect and disease outbreaks are the main natural factors responsible for partial or complete mortality of forest stands in Siberia. Negative human influences include forest harvesting, mining, industrial pollution, and human-caused fires. Estimating the scale, rate, and severity of disturbance is of key importance for appraising the resulting ecological and economical damage. In this study, we developed a GIS- and satellite-based methodology to appraise forest damage by taking advantage of unique spectral signature of the underlying forest types. Our focus was on an area of intensive forest harvest in the Angara river basin, which includes the southern and central taiga zones. We have assessed the type, extent, and severity of disturbances in vegetation cover and mapped the current condition of disturbed forest sites.

Sukhinin, A. I.; Slinkina, O. A.; Soja, A. J.; Buryak, L. V.; Conard, S. G.; McRae, D.; Yurikova, E. Y.; Cahoon, D. R.

2008-12-01

218

Temperature monitoring and Forest Fires in Góis Council, Portugal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our school the activities linked with sciences are developed in a partnership with other school subjects. Interdisciplinary projects are always valued from beginning to end of a project. It is common for teachers of different areas to work together in a Science project. Research of English written articles is very important not only for the development of our students' scientific literacy but also as a way of widening knowledge and a view on different perspectives of life instead of being limited to research of any articles in Portuguese language. As in this area there is a strong occurrence of forest fires, we are going to study the influence of temperature and its occurrence. For this study we have selected six meteorological stations, distributed through the region and placed in different altitudes. Through the analysis of the temperatures we have verified the lack of data from some stations, so we have proceeded to the homogenisation of the series, using the correlation coefficient of a reference series. In a second stage we will analyse forest fires episodes in the region, with data collected from the Civil Protection and the Meteorological Institute from 1980 to 2010 and correlate this with the series of temperatures for the different areas selected for this study. This research allows an evaluation of the forest fire propagation in the region and recognise the most affected areas.

Rodrigues, M. A. S.; Costa, M. E. G.

2012-04-01

219

Characterizations of Deposited Ash During Co-Firing of White Pine and Lignite in Fluidized Bed Combustor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characterizations of ash deposits from co-firing/co-combusting of a woody biomass (i.e., white pine) and lignite coal were investigated in a fluidized-bed combustor using a custom designed air-cooled probe installed in the freeboard region of the reactor. Ash deposition behaviors on a heat transfer surface were comprehensively investigated and discussed under different conditions including fuel type, fuel blending ratios (20-80% biomass on a thermal basis), and moisture contents. For the combustion of 100% lignite, the compositions of the deposited ash were very similar to those of the fuel ash, while in the combustion of 100% white pine pellets or sawdust the deposited ash contained a much lower contents of CaO, SO3, K2O and P2O5 compared with the fuel ash, but the deposited ash was enriched with SiO2, Al2O3 and MgO. A small addition of white pine (20% on a heat input basis) to the coal led to the highest ash deposition rates likely due to the strong interaction of the CaO and MgO (from the biomass ash) with the alumina and silica (from the lignite ash) during the co-combustion process, evidenced by the detection of high concentrations of calcium/magnesium sulfates, aluminates and silicates in the ash deposits. Interestingly, co-firing of white pine pellets and lignite at a 50% blending ratio led to the lowest ash deposition rates. Ash deposition rates in combustion of fuels as received with a higher moisture content was found to be much lower than those of oven-dried fuels.

Shao, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Jesse; Preto, Fernando; Tourigny, Guy; Wang, Jinsheng; Badour, Chadi; Li, Hanning; Xu, Chunbao Charles

220

Slow recolonization of burned oak–juniper woodlands by Ashe juniper ( Juniperus ashei): Ten years of succession after crown fire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire is an important control on the distribution of plant communities on the Edwards Plateau in central Texas. Although the effects of fire in grasslands have been well studied, little is known about the recovery of mature oak–Ashe juniper (Quercus spp.–Juniperus ashei) woodlands after crown fire. These woodlands are the only nesting habitat of the endangered golden-cheeked warbler (Dendroica chrysoparia).

Charlotte M. Reemts; Laura L. Hansen

2008-01-01

221

Mercury capture by native fly ash carbons in coal-fired power plants  

PubMed Central

The control of mercury in the air emissions from coal-fired power plants is an on-going challenge. The native unburned carbons in fly ash can capture varying amounts of Hg depending upon the temperature and composition of the flue gas at the air pollution control device, with Hg capture increasing with a decrease in temperature; the amount of carbon in the fly ash, with Hg capture increasing with an increase in carbon; and the form of the carbon and the consequent surface area of the carbon, with Hg capture increasing with an increase in surface area. The latter is influenced by the rank of the feed coal, with carbons derived from the combustion of low-rank coals having a greater surface area than carbons from bituminous- and anthracite-rank coals. The chemistry of the feed coal and the resulting composition of the flue gas enhances Hg capture by fly ash carbons. This is particularly evident in the correlation of feed coal Cl content to Hg oxidation to HgCl2, enhancing Hg capture. Acid gases, including HCl and H2SO4 and the combination of HCl and NO2, in the flue gas can enhance the oxidation of Hg. In this presentation, we discuss the transport of Hg through the boiler and pollution control systems, the mechanisms of Hg oxidation, and the parameters controlling Hg capture by coal-derived fly ash carbons. PMID:24223466

Hower, James C.; Senior, Constance L.; Suuberg, Eric M.; Hurt, Robert H.; Wilcox, Jennifer L.; Olson, Edwin S.

2013-01-01

222

Satellite Analysis of the Severe 1987 Forest Fires in Northern China and Southeastern Siberia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Meteorological conditions, extremely conducive to fire development and spread in the spring of 1987, resulted in forest fires burning over extremely large areas in the boreal forest zone in northeastern China and the southeastern region of Siberia. The great China fire, one of the largest and most destructive forest fires in recent history, occurred during this period in the Heilongjiang Province of China. Satellite imagery is used to examine the development and areal distribution of 1987 forest fires in this region. Overall trace gas emissions to the atmosphere from these fires are determined using a satellite-derived estimate of area burned in combination with fuel consumption figures and carbon emission ratios for boreal forest fires.

Cahoon, Donald R., Jr.; Stocks, Brian J.; Levine, Joel S.; Cofer, Wesley R., III; Pierson, Joseph M.

1994-01-01

223

Fire, climate change, carbon and fuel management in the Canadian boreal forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire is the dominant stand-renewing disturbance through much of the Canadian boreal forest, with large high-intensity crown fires being common. From 1 to 3 million ha have burned on average during the past 80 years, with 6 years in the past two decades experiencing more than 4 million ha burned. A large-fire database that maps forest fires greater than 200

B. D. AmiroAC; B. J. StocksB; M. E. AlexanderA; B. M. WottonB

224

Fuel buildup and potential fire behavior after stand-replacing fires, logging fire-killed trees and herbicide shrub removal in Sierra Nevada forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Typically, after large stand-replacing fires in mid-elevation Sierra Nevada forests, dense shrub fields occupy sites formerly occupied by mature conifers, until eventually conifers overtop and shade out shrubs. Attempting to reduce fuel loads and expedite forest regeneration in these areas, the USDA Forest Service often disrupts this cycle by the logging of fire-killed trees, replanting of conifers and killing of

Thomas W. McGinnis; Jon E. Keeley; Scott L. Stephens; Gary B. Roller

2010-01-01

225

Spatiotemporal Variations in the Fire Regimes of Whitebark Pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) Forests, Western Montana, USA,  

E-print Network

Spatiotemporal Variations in the Fire Regimes of Whitebark Pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) Forests Change Research Group at the University of Tennessee. #12;v Abstract Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis

Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

226

Dendrochronology-based fire history of Jeffrey pine-mixed conifer forests in the Sierra San Pedro Ma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Conifer forests in northwestern Mexico have not experienced systematic fire suppression or logging, making them unique in western North America. Fire regimes of Pinus jeffreyi Grev. & Balf. mixed conifer forests in the Sierra San Pedro Martir, Baja California, Mexico, were determined by identifying 105 fire dates from 1034 fire scars in 105 specimens. Fires were recorded between 1521

Scott L. Stephens; Carl N. Skinner; Samantha J. Gill

2003-01-01

227

Dendrochronology-based fire history of Jeffrey pine - mixed conifer forests in the Sierra San Pedro Martir, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conifer forests in northwestern Mexico have not experienced systematic fire suppression or logging, making them unique in western North America. Fire regimes of Pinus jeffreyi Grev. & Balf. mixed conifer forests in the Sierra San Pedro Martir, Baja California, Mexico, were determined by identifying 105 fire dates from 1034 fire scars in 105 specimens. Fires were recorded between 1521 and

Scott L. Stephens; Carl N. Skinner; Samantha J. Gill

2003-01-01

228

PCDD/F and Aromatic Emissions from Simulated Forest and Grassland Fires  

EPA Science Inventory

Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzodioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) from simulated grassland and forest fires were quantitatively sampled to derive emission factors in support of PCDD/F inventory development. Grasses from Kentucky and Minnesota; forest shrubs fro...

229

Detection of forest-fire smoke plumes by satellite imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In support of the Canadian research programmes for Long-Range Transport of Air Pollutants (LRTAP), the present study was undertaken to examine the feasibility of using satellite imagery to detect large-scale pollution episodes. Atmospheric Environment Service (AES) satellite imagery records were scrutinized in conjunction with meteorological and air quality data. The LRTAP from large forest fires more than 5000 km away was identified. Further evidence was obtained from analysis of digital data from NOAA satellites by employing a 'false colour' technique. Computer enhanced images suggested that a smoke plume was well-defined and separated from clouds when smoke crossed over a lake and ocean. It is suggested that many large forest fires with resulting intense smoke were due to atmospheric lightning. In particular, the area influenced by the widespread smoke, from large fires in northwestern Canada on 27-28 August 1981, exceeded the area covered by dust and smoke clouds in the low-level atmosphere from the Mount St Helens volcanic eruption on 18 May 1980.

Chung, Y.-S.; Le, H. V.

230

Large-Scale Forest Fires and Resulting Alterations to the Hydrologic Cycle in the Western U.S  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent changes in climate have resulted in a decrease in precipitation and snowpack amounts and increased temperatures in the western United States. Drier and warmer conditions coupled with forest management issues have led to an increase in the frequency and size of forest fires. The 2000 Cerro Grande fire in Los Alamos, New Mexico burned over 43,000 acres and 200 structures. Eleven years later, the Las Conchas fire burned over 156,000 acres and 100 structures, including areas previously burned in 2000, and was considered the largest fire in New Mexico's history. Both fires burned ponderosa, juniper, piñon and mixed conifer forests, resulting in dramatic decreases in vegetation, changes to surface soils, and alterations to the hydrologic cycle (decreased evapotranspiration, decreased infiltration, increased runoff volume and peak discharge, and decreased time to peak discharge) in surrounding watersheds. Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams need to determine the flash-flood danger quickly in order to protect residents, fire-fighters, BAER-team field personnel, and property at risk. The USGS developed an analytical method for predicting post-fire peak discharges using data collected from eight different fires throughout the western United States. We use this method to predict peak discharge in Los Alamos watersheds post-Cerro Grande and post-Las Conchas, then compare predicted to measured peak discharge. We will evaluate the effectiveness of the three methodology levels presented by the USGS, which include varying levels of data input and processing. We expect the peak discharges to be similar in magnitude; however, we will also investigate different influential factors such as burn severity, soil type, vegetation type and density, ecological connectivity, topography, pre- and post-fire weather conditions, etc., as they relate to the fires and the results seen from the measured versus the analytical method. Determining the relative influence of these factors may be important in establishing the comprehensive nature of the methodology. The frequency of large, intense "mega-fires" are predicted to increase, thus there is a potential for more post-fire flood damage and more surface water resources to be altered due to water quality issues. For example, the Whitewater-Baldy Complex fire became the largest fire in New Mexico's history one year after the Las Conchas fire by burning almost 300,000 acres in the Gila National Forest in southern New Mexico, the Little Bear fire in 2012 forced the closure of Alto Reservoir for the foreseeable future due to ash and debris, and the Las Conchas fire forced several surface water treatment facilities serving Santa Fe and Albuquerque to shut down. As these fires become more frequent, there is a potential that less surface water will be available and more groundwater will be pumped for human and agricultural use in the western U.S., where water scarcity is already a pressing problem. Understanding how these fires alter the hydrologic cycle is critical to water policy and planning and this research will help advance that understanding.

Carr, J.; White, A. B.; Thomson, B.

2012-12-01

231

Fire and Forest Structure Across Vegetation Gradients in San Juan National Forest, Colorado: A Multi-scaled Historical Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem Baseline multi-scale temporal and spatial data about climate, fire and resulting forest structure, species composition, and stand density on the San Juan National Forest was lacking. Long term historical and regional data was needed to tease out the differences between local fire-caused effects and landscape climate-caused effects to forest stands. It was necessary to develop a picture of how

Peter M. Brown

232

Long-term forest floor carbon dynamics after fire in upland boreal forests of western Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examined the long-term dynamics of upland boreal forest floors after disturbance by fire. We selected two important and contrasting upland tree species, Pinus banksiana (jack pine) and Populus tremuloides (trembling aspen), in three distinct climatic zones across the boreal forest of western Canada, and sampled 80 fire-originated stands divided into six chronosequences with ages ranging from 14 to 149 years. The forest floor was a large component of carbon storage. Averaged across ages and zones, it was 1.31 and 2.78 kg C m-2 for P. banksiana and P. tremuloides, respectively, compared with 4.03 and 5.56 kg C m-2 in aboveground trees. These data exclude decomposing coarse woody debris, which was a significant component of the forest floor (0.18/0.13 kg C m-2 ) and requires further study. The contributions from shrubs (0.035/0.151 kg C m-2), ground vegetation (0.019/0.026 kg C m-2), and moss-plus-lichen (0.179/0.004 kg C m-2) were relatively small. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) model showed that forest floor carbon was positively related to stand age, as well as being affected by species and climatic zone. Much of the variability was explained by species, and species-specific regression models showed that for P. tremuloides forest floor carbon was strongly related to stand age, mean annual temperature, and mean annual precipitation, and for P. banksiana, forest floor carbon was strongly related to an index of moss dominance. The regression models suggest that the forest floor carbon pool in upland forests of the western Canadian boreal will be sensitive to climate change, but this sensitivity would need to be tested with process-based models.

Nalder, Ian A.; Wein, Ross W.

1999-12-01

233

Fire history differences in adjacent Jeffrey pine and upper montane forests in the eastern Sierra Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire history and forest structural characteristics of adjacent Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi) and upper montane forests was investigated in the eastern Sierra Nevada at the University of California Valentine Natural Reserve. Jeffrey pine forests had lower canopy cover, higher amounts of fine fuels, and higher shrub cover when compared to upper montane forest that were dominated by red fir (Abies

Scott L. Stephens

2001-01-01

234

The effects of fire severity on black carbon additions to forest soils - 10 years post fire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires play an active role in the global carbon cycle. While large amounts of carbon dioxide are released, a small fraction of the biomass consumed by the fire is only partially combusted, yielding soot and charcoal. These products, also called black carbon (BC) make up only 1-5% of the biomass burnt, yet they can have a disproportionate effect on both the atmosphere and fluxes in long-term carbon pools. This project specifically considers the fraction that is sequestered in forest soils. Black carbon is not a specific compound, and exists along a continuum ranging from partially burned biomass to pure carbon or graphite. Increasing aromaticity as the result of partial combustion means charcoal is highly resistant to oxidation. Although debated, most studies indicate a turnover time on the order of 500-1,000 years in warm, wet, aerobic soils. Charcoal may function as a long-term carbon sink, however its overall significance depends on its rate of formation and loss. At the landscape level, fire characteristics are one of the major factors controlling charcoal production. A few studies suggest that charcoal production increases with cooler, less-severe fires. However, there are many factors to tease apart, partly because of a lack of specificity in how fire severity is defined. Within this greater context, our lab has been working on a landscape-level study within Routt National Forest, north of Steamboat Springs, Colorado. In 2002, a large fire swept through a subalpine spruce, fir and lodgepole pine forest. In 2011-2013 we sampled BC pools in 44 plots across a range of fire severities from unburned to severe crown We hypothesized that charcoal stocks will be higher in areas of low severity fire as compared to high severity because of decreased re-combustion of charcoal in the organic soil and increased overall charcoal production due to lower temperatures. In each of our plots we measured charcoal on snags and coarse woody debris, sampled the entire organic horizon and the top 10cm mineral horizon. The soils were sieved to 2mm and their BC content measured using the Kurth-MacKenzie-DeLuca method of digesting labile carbon using nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide at 95C for 20hrs. We integrated both remotely sensed data and field observations. We used the Relative Difference Normalized Burn Ratio (RdNBR) calculated by Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS). This index used Landsat images from July in the years before and after the fire and is based on differences in bands 4 and 7, with the aim of assessing coarse scale changes in soil and vegetation post fire. For each plot we also collected data on tree mortality and organic soil depth. These metrics were chosen from the Composite Burn Index as those that were most reliable even 10 years after the fire. We observed no significant differences in BC totals between high severity fire and unburned plots, although BC increased slightly on burned plots. Early results for low severity sites (analysis still in progress) suggest that BC increased in plots experiencing lower severity fires compared to unburned and high severity plots. Comparing carbon and BC totals on unburned and severely burned plots, and assuming no loss of BC from mineral soil during the fire, we observed a 1.2% conversion of burned biomass to BC, which corresponds with literature estimates of 1-4%.

Poore, R.; Wessman, C. A.; Buma, B.

2013-12-01

235

Assessment of the radiation field from radioactive elements in a wood-ash-treated coniferous forest in Southwest Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of natural and antrophogenic radioactive elements in soil and wood was investigated in a 30-year-old forest stand of Norway spruce. Forest plots treated with a single dose of granulated wood ash in 1989 were compared with untreated control plots. It was observed that the retention of radiocesium and radiostrontium by the forest soil is rather strong in spite

Aaro Ravila; Elis Holm

1996-01-01

236

Investigation of ash deposition in a pilot-scale fluidized bed combustor co-firing biomass with lignite  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents the results from investigation of ash deposition characteristics of a high ash and sulfur content lignite co-fired with three types of biomass (olive residue, 49wt%; hazelnut shell, 42wt%; and cotton residue, 41wt%) in 0.3 MWt Middle East Technical University (METU) Atmospheric Bubbling Fluidized Bed Combustion (ABFBC) Test Rig. Deposit samples were collected on an air-cooled probe at

Zuhal Gogebakan; Yusuf Gogebakan; Nevin Selçuk; Ekrem Selçuk

2009-01-01

237

Impact of Fly Ash from Coal-Fired Power Stations in Delhi, with Particular Reference to Metal Contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indraprastha Power Station (IPP Stn) and Rajghat Power House (RPH), owned by Delhi Electric Supply Undertaking, are both coal-fired power stations located on Ring Road in New Delhi. Ash content of the coal used ranges between 38–47%. The ash is collected in electrostatic precipitators which have an efficiency of 99.3% (IPP station), and 99.7% (RPH). There are instances of major

A. Mehra; M. E. Farago; D. K. Banerjee

1998-01-01

238

Wild forest fire regime following land abandonment in the Mediterranean region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land use, climate, and fire have markedly shaped Mediterranean ecosystems. While climate and land use are external forcing, wildfire is an integral component of ecosystem functioning which inevitably poses a threat to humans. With a view to gaining an insight into the mechanisms underlying fire dynamics, fire control, and prevention, we formulated a model that predicts the wildfire regime in fire-prone Mediterranean ecoregions. The model is based on the positive feedback between forest expansion following cropland abandonment, fuel abundance, and fire. Our results demonstrate that progressive land abandonment leads to different fire dynamics in the Mediterranean forest ecosystem. Starting at a no-fire regime when the land is almost completely cultivated, the ecosystem reaches a chaotic fire regime, passing through intermediate land development stages characterized by limit cycle fire dynamics. Wildfires are more devastating, albeit more predictable, in these intermediate stages when fire frequency is higher.

Ursino, Nadia; Romano, Nunzio

2014-12-01

239

Controls on variations in MODIS fire radiative power in Alaskan boreal forests: implications for fire severity conditions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fire activity in the Alaskan boreal forest, though episodic at annual and intra-annual time scales, has experienced an increase over the last several decades. Increases in burned area and fire severity are not only releasing more carbon to the atmosphere, but likely shifting vegetation composition in the region towards greater deciduous dominance and a reduction in coniferous stands. While some recent studies have addressed qualitative differences between large and small fire years in the Alaskan boreal forest, the ecological effects of a greater proportion of burning occurring during large fire years and during late season fires have not yet been examined. Some characteristics of wildfires that can be detected remotely are related to fire severity and can provide new information on spatial and temporal patterns of burning. This analysis focused on boreal wildfire intensity (fire radiative power, or FRP) contained in the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) daily active fire product from 2003 to 2010. We found that differences in FRP resulted from seasonality and intra-annual variability in fire activity levels, vegetation composition, latitudinal variation, and fire spread behavior. Our studies determined two general categories of active fire detections: new detections associated with the spread of the fire front and residual pixels in areas that had already experienced front burning. Residual pixels had a lower average FRP than front pixels, but represented a high percentage of all pixels during periods of high fire activity (large fire years, late season burning, and seasonal periods of high fire activity). As a result, the FRP from periods of high fire activity was less intense than those from periods of low fire activity. Differences related to latitude were greater than expected, with higher latitudes burning later in the season and at a higher intensity than lower latitudes. Differences in vegetation type indicate that coniferous vegetation is the most fire prone, but deciduous vegetation is not particularly fire resistant, as the proportion of active fire detections in deciduous stands is roughly the same as the fraction of deciduous vegetation in the region. Qualitative differences between periods of high and low fire activity are likely to reflect important differences in fire severity. Large fire years are likely to be more severe, characterized by more late season fires and a greater proportion of residual burning. Given the potential for severe fires to effect changes in vegetation cover, the shift toward a greater proportion of area burning during large fire years may influence vegetation patterns in the region over the medium to long term.

Barrett, Kirsten; Kasischke, Eric S.

2013-01-01

240

Innovative technologies for full utilization of ash generated at coal-fired thermal power stations for producing alumina and construction materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility of full 100% usage of ash from coal-fired thermal power stations for producing raw materials for the cement and alumina industries is considered, and it is shown that comprehensive processing of ash from coal-fired thermal power stations is required for this purpose.

Delitsyn, L. M.; Vlasov, A. S.; Borodina, T. I.; Ezhova, N. N.; Sudareva, S. V.

2013-04-01

241

Radioactivity of coals and ash and slag wastes at coal-fired thermal power plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an analysis of published data on the content of radioactive nuclides in coals originating from various coal deposits, and in ash and slag wastes produced at coal-fired thermal power plants, as well as in fly ash emitted from thermal power plants into the atmosphere. Problems related to the use of coals with an elevated content of natural radionuclides (NRNs) and methods of their solution implemented at the Urtuyskoe coalfield are dealt with. Data on the analysis of Transbaikal coals for the NRN content, as well as weighted mean content of uranium and thorium in coals from the Siberian Region, are given. In order to reduce irradiation of plant personnel and the population of the areas where coal producers and coal-fired thermal power plants are located, it is necessary to organize very careful control of the NRN content in both coals and products of their combustion that are released into the environment. To solve the problem related to the control of radioactivity, the centralized approach and creation of a proper normative base are needed. Experience gained in developing the Urtuyskoe coalfield shows that it is possible to create an efficient system of coal quality control with respect to the radiation hygiene factor and provide protection of the environment and health of the population.

Krylov, D. A.; Sidorova, G. P.

2013-04-01

242

Saskatchewan Forest Fire Control Centre Surface Meteorological Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Saskatchewan Forest Fire Control Centre (SFFCC) provided surface meteorological data to BOREAS from its archive. This data set contains hourly surface meteorological data from 18 of the Meteorological stations located across Saskatchewan. Included in these data are parameters of date, time, temperature, relative humidity, wind direction, wind speed, and precipitation. Temporally, the data cover the period of May through September of 1994 and 1995. The data are provided in comma-delimited ASCII files, and are classified as AFM-Staff data. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Funk, Barry; Strub, Richard

2000-01-01

243

Fire histories in ponderosa pine forests of Grand Canyon are well supported: reply to Baker  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Fire scars and other paleoecological methods,are imperfect proxies for detecting past patterns of fire events. However, calculations of long fire rotations in Grand Canyon ponderosa pine forests by Baker are not convincing in methodology,or assumptions compared,with fire-scar evidence of frequent surface fires. Patches of severe disturbance are a possible hypothesis to explain the relatively short age structure at the

Peter Z. Fulé; Thomas A. Heinlein; W. Wallace Covington

2006-01-01

244

Utilization of geoinformation tools for the development of forest fire hazard mapping system: example of Pekan fire, Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study in modeling fire hazard assessment will be essential in establishing an effective forest fire management system especially in controlling and preventing peat fire. In this paper, we have used geographic information system (GIS), in combination with other geoinformation technologies such as remote sensing and computer modeling, for all aspects of wild land fire management. Identifying areas that have a high probability of burning is an important component of fire management planning. The development of spatially explicit GIS models has greatly facilitated this process by allowing managers to map and analyze variables contributing to fire occurrence across large, unique geographic units. Using the model and its associated software engine, the fire hazard map was produced. Extensive avenue programming scripts were written to provide additional capabilities in the development of these interfaces to meet the full complement of operational software considering various users requirements. The system developed not only possesses user friendly step by step operations to deliver the fire vulnerability mapping but also allows authorized users to edit, add or modify parameters whenever necessary. Results from the model can support fire hazard mapping in the forest and enhance alert system function by simulating and visualizing forest fire and helps for contingency planning.

Mahmud, Ahmad Rodzi; Setiawan, Iwan; Mansor, Shattri; Shariff, Abdul Rashid Mohamed; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Nuruddin, Ahmed

2009-12-01

245

Factors affecting collective action for forest fire management: a comparative study of community forest user groups in central siwalik, Nepal.  

PubMed

The attributes of social ecological systems affect the management of commons. Strengthening and enhancing social capital and the enforcement of rules and sanctions aid in the collective action of communities in forest fire management. Using a set of variables drawn from previous studies on the management of commons, we conducted a study across 20 community forest user groups in Central Siwalik, Nepal, by dividing the groups into two categories based on the type and level of their forest fire management response. Our study shows that the collective action in forest fire management is consistent with the collective actions in other community development activities. However, the effectiveness of collective action is primarily dependent on the complex interaction of various variables. We found that strong social capital, strong enforcement of rules and sanctions, and users' participation in crafting the rules were the major variables that strengthen collective action in forest fire management. Conversely, users' dependency on a daily wage and a lack of transparency were the variables that weaken collective action. In fire-prone forests such as the Siwalik, our results indicate that strengthening social capital and forming and enforcing forest fire management rules are important variables that encourage people to engage in collective action in fire management. PMID:25413128

Sapkota, Lok Mani; Shrestha, Rajendra Prasad; Jourdain, Damien; Shivakoti, Ganesh P

2015-01-01

246

Factors Affecting Collective Action for Forest Fire Management: A Comparative Study of Community Forest User Groups in Central Siwalik, Nepal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The attributes of social ecological systems affect the management of commons. Strengthening and enhancing social capital and the enforcement of rules and sanctions aid in the collective action of communities in forest fire management. Using a set of variables drawn from previous studies on the management of commons, we conducted a study across 20 community forest user groups in Central Siwalik, Nepal, by dividing the groups into two categories based on the type and level of their forest fire management response. Our study shows that the collective action in forest fire management is consistent with the collective actions in other community development activities. However, the effectiveness of collective action is primarily dependent on the complex interaction of various variables. We found that strong social capital, strong enforcement of rules and sanctions, and users' participation in crafting the rules were the major variables that strengthen collective action in forest fire management. Conversely, users' dependency on a daily wage and a lack of transparency were the variables that weaken collective action. In fire-prone forests such as the Siwalik, our results indicate that strengthening social capital and forming and enforcing forest fire management rules are important variables that encourage people to engage in collective action in fire management.

Sapkota, Lok Mani; Shrestha, Rajendra Prasad; Jourdain, Damien; Shivakoti, Ganesh P.

2015-01-01

247

Fire treatment effects on vegetation structure, fuels, and potential fire severity in western U.S. forests  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Abstract. Forest structure and species composition in many western U.S. coniferous forests have been altered through fire exclusion, past and ongoing harvesting practices, and livestock grazing over the 20th century. The effects of these activities have been most pronounced in seasonally dry, low and mid-elevation coniferous forests that once experienced frequent, low to moderate intensity, fire regimes. In this paper, we report the effects of Fire and Fire Surrogate (FFS) forest stand treatments on fuel load profiles, potential fire behavior, and fire severity under three weather scenarios from six western U.S. FFS sites. This replicated, multisite experiment provides a framework for drawing broad generalizations about the effectiveness of prescribed fire and mechanical treatments on surface fuel loads, forest structure, and potential fire severity. Mechanical treatments without fire resulted in combined 1-, 10-, and 100-hour surface fuel loads that were significantly greater than controls at three of five FFS sites. Canopy cover was significantly lower than controls at three of five FFS sites with mechanical-only treatments and at all five FFS sites with the mechanical plus burning treatment; fire-only treatments reduced canopy cover at only one site. For the combined treatment of mechanical plus fire, all five FFS sites with this treatment had a substantially lower likelihood of passive crown fire as indicated by the very high torching indices. FFS sites that experienced significant increases in 1-, 10-, and 100-hour combined surface fuel loads utilized harvest systems that left all activity fuels within experimental units. When mechanical treatments were followed by prescribed burning or pile burning, they were the most effective treatment for reducing crown fire potential and predicted tree mortality because of low surface fuel loads and increased vertical and horizontal canopy separation. Results indicate that mechanical plus fire, fire-only, and mechanical-only treatments using whole-tree harvest systems were all effective at reducing potential fire severity under severe fire weather conditions. Retaining the largest trees within stands also increased fire resistance. ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society of America.

Stephens, S.L.; Moghaddas, J.J.; Edminster, C.; Fiedler, C.E.; Haase, S.; Harrington, M.; Keeley, J.E.; Knapp, E.E.; Mciver, J.D.; Metlen, K.; Skinner, C.N.; Youngblood, A.

2009-01-01

248

Fire-induced Carbon Emissions and Regrowth Uptake in Western U.S. Forests: Documenting Variation Across Forest Types, Fire Severity, and Climate Regions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The forest area in the western United States that burns annually is increasing with warmer temperatures, more frequent droughts, and higher fuel densities. Studies that examine fire effects for regional carbon balances have tended to either focus on individual fires as examples or adopt generalizations without considering how forest type, fire severity, and regional climate influence carbon legacies. This study provides a more detailed characterization of fire effects and quantifies the full carbon impacts in relation to direct emissions, slow release of fire-killed biomass, and net carbon uptake from forest regrowth. We find important variations in fire-induced mortality and combustion across carbon pools (leaf, live wood, dead wood, litter, and duff) and across low- to high-severity classes. This corresponds to fire-induced direct emissions from 1984 to 2008 averaging 4 TgC/yr and biomass killed averaging 10.5 TgC/yr, with average burn area of 2723 sq km/yr across the western United States. These direct emission and biomass killed rates were 1.4 and 3.7 times higher, respectively, for high-severity fires than those for low-severity fires. The results show that forest regrowth varies greatly by forest type and with severity and that these factors impose a sustained carbon uptake legacy. The western U.S. fires between 1984 and 2008 imposed a net source of 12.3 TgC/yr in 2008, accounting for both direct fire emissions (9.5 TgC/yr) and heterotrophic decomposition of fire-killed biomass (6.1 TgC yr1) as well as contemporary regrowth sinks (3.3 TgC/yr). A sizeable trend exists toward increasing emissions as a larger area burns annually.

Ghimire, Bardan; Williams, Christopher A.; Collatz, George James; Vanderhoof, Melanie

2012-01-01

249

Spatial distribution of forest fires and controlling factors in Andhra Pradesh, India using SPOT satellite datasets.  

PubMed

Fires are one of the major causes of forest disturbance and destruction in several dry deciduous forests of southern India. In this study, we use remote sensing data sets in conjunction with topographic, vegetation, climate and socioeconomic factors for determining the potential causes of forest fires in Andhra Pradesh, India. Spatial patterns in fire characteristics were analyzed using SPOT satellite remote sensing datasets. We then used nineteen different metrics in concurrence with fire count datasets in a robust statistical framework to arrive at a predictive model that best explained the variation in fire counts across diverse geographical and climatic gradients. Results suggested that, of all the states in India, fires in Andhra Pradesh constituted nearly 13.53% of total fires. District wise estimates of fire counts for Andhra Pradesh suggested that, Adilabad, Cuddapah, Kurnool, Prakasham and Mehbubnagar had relatively highest number of fires compared to others. Results from statistical analysis suggested that of the nineteen parameters, population density, demand of metabolic energy (DME), compound topographic index, slope, aspect, average temperature of the warmest quarter (ATWQ) along with literacy rate explained 61.1% of total variation in fire datasets. Among these, DME and literacy rate were found to be negative predictors of forest fires. In overall, this study represents the first statewide effort that evaluated the causative factors of fire at district level using biophysical and socioeconomic datasets. Results from this study identify important biophysical and socioeconomic factors for assessing 'forest fire danger' in the study area. Our results also identify potential 'hotspots' of fire risk, where fire protection measures can be taken in advance. Further this study also demonstrate the usefulness of best-subset regression approach integrated with GIS, as an effective method to assess 'where and when' forest fires will most likely occur. PMID:17054011

Vadrevu, Krishna P; Eaturu, Anuradha; Badarinath, K V S

2006-12-01

250

Alaska's Changing Fire Regime - Implications for the Vulnerability of Its Boreal Forests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A synthesis was carried out to examine Alaska s boreal forest fire regime. During the 2000s, an average of 767 000 ha/year burned, 50% higher than in any previous decade since the 1940s. Over the past 60 years, there was a decrease in the number of lightning-ignited fires, an increase in extreme lightning-ignited fire events, an increase in human-ignited fires, and a decrease in the number of extreme human-ignited fire events. The fraction of area burned from humanignited fires fell from 26% for the 1950s and 1960s to 5% for the 1990s and 2000s, a result from the change in fire policy that gave the highest suppression priorities to fire events that occurred near human settlements. The amount of area burned during late-season fires increased over the past two decades. Deeper burning of surface organic layers in black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) forests occurred during late-growing-season fires and on more well-drained sites. These trends all point to black spruce forests becoming increasingly vulnerable to the combined changes of key characteristics of Alaska s fire regime, except on poorly drained sites, which are resistant to deep burning. The implications of these fire regime changes to the vulnerability and resilience of Alaska s boreal forests and land and fire management are discussed.

Kasischke, E. S.; Hoy, E. E.; Verbyla, D. L.; Rupp, T. S.; Duffy, P. A.; McGuire, A. D.; Murphy, K. A.; Jandt, R.; Barnes, J. L.; Calef, M.; Turetsky, M. R.

2010-01-01

251

Research about the location technologies of forest fire detecting based on GIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fire caused damages of property and loss of human life. Detecting a forest fire and get the location is very significant in the fire early warning. More early and more prompt detecting fire and determining fire position as far as possible could avoid and reduce loss of the disaster. At present there are three ways regarding the forest fire early warning and location determining which included: monitoring form Remote Sense Satellite image, manual observation and patrols, and automatic monitoring through CCD camera long-distance video. Overall evaluation regarding the three location technologies in forest fire early warning, the CCD camera detecting method is suitable in the fire rapid Response. An automatic forest fire surveillance system was running to detect the fire by using visible light images from the remote cameras. If a forest fire was detected, an alarm will be activated. The observation point elevation values, vertical offsets, horizontal and vertical scanning angles, and scanning distances will be also be sent to the central control room. The spatial orientation will be computed and showed on the electronic map. Key location technologies based on CCD camera included the image processing technique for automatically detecting forest fire and the visibility analyzes technique for the digital elevation model. Jing gang Mountain which locates in Jiangxi province of China is taken as an example. With the help of this automatic monitoring through CCD camera long-distance video and visibility analyzes, scientists and government administrators can make decision-supporting easily when they know exactly where a forest fire is. At last the shortage of CCD camera detecting method was discussed. We cannot depend on CCD camera detecting equipment and technologies only. With foundation of the automatic video frequency supervisory system, we should also strengthen manual observation and satellite remote sensing monitor.

Zhang, An; Qi, Qingwen; Jiang, Lili; Guo, Chaohui

2007-06-01

252

Examining injection properties of boreal forest fires using surface and satellite measurements of CO transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boreal forest fires are highly variable in space and time and also have variable vertical injection properties. We compared a University of Maryland Chemistry and Transport Model (UMD-CTM) simulation of boreal forest fire CO in the summer of 2000 to surface observations from the NOAA Cooperative Air Sampling Network and satellite observations of CO from the Measurement of Pollutants in

Edward J. Hyer; Dale J. Allen; Eric S. Kasischke

2007-01-01

253

FIRE REGIMES AT THE TRANSITION BETWEEN MIXEDWOOD AND CONIFEROUS BOREAL FOREST IN NORTHWESTERN QUEBEC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire history was reconstructed for an area of 15 000 km2 located in the transition zone between the mixed and coniferous forests in Quebec's southern boreal forest. We used aerial photographs, archives, and dendroecological data (315 sites) to reconstruct a stand initiation map for the area. The cumulative distribution of burnt area in relation to time since fire suggests that

Yves Bergeron; Sylvie Gauthier; Mike Flannigan; Victor Kafka

2004-01-01

254

A system design of the Tahe's forest -fire -prevention management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article paper aims to introduces how a system is designed for Tahe's forest-fire-prevention management in Northeast China after a brief introduction to the overall functional characteristics, the overall function flow chart and the operating environment of the forest -fire -prevention management system. firstly, and then This system design consists of seven function modules, which are geographic information system module,

Xindan Gao; Nihong Wang; Jun Li

2010-01-01

255

Efficient Forest Fire Detection System: A Spatial Data Mining and Image Processing Based Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The drastic ascent in the volume of spatial data owes its growth to the technical advancements in technologies that aid in spatial data acquisition, mass storage and network interconnection. Thus the necessity for automated detection of spatial knowledge from voluminous spatial data arises. Fire plays a vital role in a majority of the forest ecosystems. Forest fires are serious

K. Angayarkkani; N. Radhakrishnan

2009-01-01

256

Fire and other disturbances of the forests in Mount Rainier National Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent history of catastrophic disturbances in forests was reconstructed at Mount Rainier National Park. Basic data were ages of trees based on ring counts of early sera1 conifer species and maps of age-class boundaries from field work and aerial photographs. Maps illustrate age classes of the forests and show disturbances from fires, snow avalanches, and lahars (volcanic mudflows). Fires

MILES A. HEMSTROM; JERRY F. FRANKLIN

1982-01-01

257

Development of ecological restoration experiments in fire adapted forests at Grand Canyon National Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

The management of national park and wilderness areas dominated by forest ecosystems adapted to frequent, low-intensity fires, continues to be a tremendous challenge. Throughout the inland West and particularly in the Southwest, ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and mixed conifer forests have become dense and structurally homogeneous after periods of intense livestock grazing, followed by more than 100 years of fire

Thomas A. Heinlein; W. Wallace Covington; P. Z. Flue; Margaret M. Moore; Hiram B. Smith; D. N. Cole; S. F. McCool; W. T. Borrie; J. Loughlin

2000-01-01

258

Effect of thinning and prescribed burning on crown fire severity in ponderosa pine forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire exclusion policies have affected stand structure and wildfire hazard in north American ponderosa pine forests. Wildfires are becoming more severe in stands where trees are densely stocked with shade-tolerant understory trees. Although forest managers have been employing fuel treatment techniques to reduce wildfire hazard for decades, little scientific evidence documents the success of treatments in reducing fire severity. Our

Jolie PolletA; Philip N. OmiB

2002-01-01

259

Post-fire geomorphic response in steep, forested landscapes: Oregon Coast Range, USA  

E-print Network

Post-fire geomorphic response in steep, forested landscapes: Oregon Coast Range, USA Molly Jackson, Joshua J. Roering* Department of Geological Sciences, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403-1272, USA Accepted 7 May 2008 a b s t r a c t The role of fire in shaping steep, forested landscapes depends

Roering, Joshua J.

260

Comment on "Fire-Derived Charcoal Causes Loss of Forest Humus"  

E-print Network

Comment on "Fire-Derived Charcoal Causes Loss of Forest Humus" Johannes Lehmann1 * and Saran Sohi2 Wardle et al. (Brevia, 2 May 2008, p. 629) reported that fire-derived charcoal can promote loss of forest humus and belowground carbon (C). However, C loss from charcoal-humus mixtures can be explained not only

Lehmann, Johannes

261

Study on forest fires recognition and moving target tracking in video surveillance system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The forest fires are caused by extremely complex natural factors and human factors. How to convert from passive prevention taxed a lot of manpower and material resources into the active management model with automatic monitoring and alarming, it has been a technical problem for forest fires department. In digital video surveillance system, we used image recognition technology to track suspicious

Xiao-Yun Xiong; Bing Wang

2011-01-01

262

Optical properties of boreal forest fire smoke derived from Sun photometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerosol optical properties derived from Sun photometry were investigated in terms of climatological trends at two Sun photometer sites significantly affected by western Canadian boreal forest fire smoke and in terms of a 2-week series of smoke events observed at stations near and distant from boreal forest fires. Aerosol optical depth (taua) statistics for Waskesiu, Saskatchewan, and Thompson, Manitoba, were

N. T. O'Neill; T. F. Eck; B. N. Holben; A. Smirnov; A. Royer; Z. Li

2002-01-01

263

Optical properties of boreal forest fire smoke derived from Sun photometry  

E-print Network

Optical properties of boreal forest fire smoke derived from Sun photometry N. T. O'Neill,1 T. F 2001; published 13 June 2002. [1] Aerosol optical properties derived from Sun photometry were: Aerosols (0305); KEYWORDS: aerosols, forest fire smoke, Sun photometry, optics 1. Introduction [2] Smoke

Li, Zhanqing

264

Note on the determination of the ignition point in forest fires propagation using a control algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 7 This paper is devoted to the determination of the origin point in forest fires propagation using a control algorithm. The forest fires propagation are mathematically modelled starting from a reaction diffusion 9 model. A volume of fluid (V.O.F.) formulation is also used to determine the fraction of the area which is burnt. After having developed the objective functional

M. Bergmann; O. S ´ ero-Guillaume; S. Ramezani

2007-01-01

265

Uncertainty in surface-fire history: the case of ponderosa pine forests in the western United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present understanding of fire ecology in forests subject to surface fires is based on fire-scar evidence. We present theory and empirical results that suggest that fire-history data have uncertainties and biases when used to esti - mate the population mean fire interval (FI) or other parameters of the fire regime. First, the population mean FI is dif - ficult to

William L. Baker; Donna Ehle

2001-01-01

266

Fire-mediated dieback and compositional cascade in an Amazonian forest.  

PubMed

The only fully coupled land-atmosphere global climate model predicts a widespread dieback of Amazonian forest cover through reduced precipitation. Although these predictions are controversial, the structural and compositional resilience of Amazonian forests may also have been overestimated, as current vegetation models fail to consider the potential role of fire in the degradation of forest ecosystems. We examine forest structure and composition in the Arapiuns River basin in the central Brazilian Amazon, evaluating post-fire forest recovery and the consequences of recurrent fires for the patterns of dominance of tree species. We surveyed tree plots in unburned and once-burned forests examined 1, 3 and 9 years after an unprecedented fire event, in twice-burned forests examined 3 and 9 years after fire and in thrice-burned forests examined 5 years after the most recent fire event. The number of trees recorded in unburned primary forest control plots was stable over time. However, in both once- and twice-burned forest plots, there was a marked recruitment into the 10-20cm diameter at breast height tree size classes between 3 and 9 years post-fire. Considering tree assemblage composition 9 years after the first fire contact, we observed (i) a clear pattern of community turnover among small trees and the most abundant shrubs and saplings, and (ii) that species that were common in any of the four burn treatments (unburned, once-, twice- and thrice-burned) were often rare or entirely absent in other burn treatments. We conclude that episodic wildfires can lead to drastic changes in forest structure and composition, with cascading shifts in forest composition following each additional fire event. Finally, we use these results to evaluate the validity of the savannization paradigm. PMID:18267911

Barlow, Jos; Peres, Carlos A

2008-05-27

267

Latent resilience in ponderosa pine forest: effects of resumed frequent fire.  

PubMed

Ecological systems often exhibit resilient states that are maintained through negative feedbacks. In ponderosa pine forests, fire historically represented the negative feedback mechanism that maintained ecosystem resilience; fire exclusion reduced that resilience, predisposing the transition to an alternative ecosystem state upon reintroduction of fire. We evaluated the effects of reintroduced frequent wildfire in unlogged, fire-excluded, ponderosa pine forest in the Bob Marshall Wilderness, Montana, USA. Initial reintroduction of fire in 2003 reduced tree density and consumed surface fuels, but also stimulated establishment of a dense cohort of lodgepole pine, maintaining a trajectory toward an alternative state. Resumption of a frequent fire regime by a second fire in 2011 restored a low-density forest dominated by large-diameter ponderosa pine by eliminating many regenerating lodgepole pines and by continuing to remove surface fuels and small-diameter lodgepole pine and Douglas-fir that established during the fire suppression era. Our data demonstrate that some unlogged, fire-excluded, ponderosa pine forests possess latent resilience to reintroduced fire. A passive model of simply allowing lightning-ignited fires to burn appears to be a viable approach to restoration of such forests. PMID:24147398

Larson, Andrew J; Belote, R Travis; Cansler, C Alina; Parks, Sean A; Dietz, Matthew S

2013-09-01

268

Contrasting Spatial Patterns in Active-Fire and Fire-Suppressed Mediterranean Climate Old-Growth Mixed Conifer Forests  

PubMed Central

In Mediterranean environments in western North America, historic fire regimes in frequent-fire conifer forests are highly variable both temporally and spatially. This complexity influenced forest structure and spatial patterns, but some of this diversity has been lost due to anthropogenic disruption of ecosystem processes, including fire. Information from reference forest sites can help management efforts to restore forests conditions that may be more resilient to future changes in disturbance regimes and climate. In this study, we characterize tree spatial patterns using four-ha stem maps from four old-growth, Jeffrey pine-mixed conifer forests, two with active-fire regimes in northwestern Mexico and two that experienced fire exclusion in the southern Sierra Nevada. Most of the trees were in patches, averaging six to 11 trees per patch at 0.007 to 0.014 ha?1, and occupied 27–46% of the study areas. Average canopy gap sizes (0.04 ha) covering 11–20% of the area were not significantly different among sites. The putative main effects of fire exclusion were higher densities of single trees in smaller size classes, larger proportion of trees (?56%) in large patches (?10 trees), and decreases in spatial complexity. While a homogenization of forest structure has been a typical result from fire exclusion, some similarities in patch, single tree, and gap attributes were maintained at these sites. These within-stand descriptions provide spatially relevant benchmarks from which to manage for structural heterogeneity in frequent-fire forest types. PMID:24586472

Fry, Danny L.; Stephens, Scott L.; Collins, Brandon M.; North, Malcolm P.; Franco-Vizcaíno, Ernesto; Gill, Samantha J.

2014-01-01

269

Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Forest Fire Risk and Danger Using LANDSAT Imagery  

PubMed Central

Computing fire danger and fire risk on a spatio-temporal scale is of crucial importance in fire management planning, and in the simulation of fire growth and development across a landscape. However, due to the complex nature of forests, fire risk and danger potential maps are considered one of the most difficult thematic layers to build up. Remote sensing and digital terrain data have been introduced for efficient discrete classification of fire risk and fire danger potential. In this study, two time-series data of Landsat imagery were used for determining spatio-temporal change of fire risk and danger potential in Korudag forest planning unit in northwestern Turkey. The method comprised the following two steps: (1) creation of indices of the factors influencing fire risk and danger; (2) evaluation of spatio-temporal changes in fire risk and danger of given areas using remote sensing as a quick and inexpensive means and determining the pace of forest cover change. Fire risk and danger potential indices were based on species composition, stand crown closure, stand development stage, insolation, slope and, proximity of agricultural lands to forest and distance from settlement areas. Using the indices generated, fire risk and danger maps were produced for the years 1987 and 2000. Spatio-temporal analyses were then realized based on the maps produced. Results obtained from the study showed that the use of Landsat imagery provided a valuable characterization and mapping of vegetation structure and type with overall classification accuracy higher than 83%.

Sa?lam, Bülent; Bilgili, Ertu?rul; Durmaz, Bahar Dinç; Kad?o?ullar?, Ali ?hsan; Küçük, Ömer

2008-01-01

270

Savanna fire and the origins of the `underground forests' of Olivier Maurin1  

E-print Network

Savanna fire and the origins of the `underground forests' of Africa Olivier Maurin1 *, T. Jonathan: fire adaptation, geoxylic suffrutex, phylogeny, Pliocene, savanna, trees of southern Africa) of southern Africa, one of the most distinctive growth forms characteristic of fire-prone savannas. We placed

Davies, Jonathan

271

Effects of fire severity on plant nutrient uptake reinforce alternate pathways of succession in boreal forests  

E-print Network

Effects of fire severity on plant nutrient uptake reinforce alternate pathways of succession: 27 February 2013 Ã? Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013 Abstract Fire activity in the North composition. In black spruce forests of interior Alaska, fire severity impacts residual organic layer depth

Ickert-Bond, Steffi

272

Implementing Northern Goshawk Habitat Management in Southwestern Forests: A Template for Restoring Fire-Adapted  

E-print Network

ponderosa pine landscapes. These tools incorporated fire behavior and fuel considerations, rendering them Fire-Adapted Forest Ecosystems James A. Youtz, Russell T. Graham, Richard T. Reynolds, and Jerry Simon appro- priate for developing prescriptions for other management objectives (e.g., restoration of fire-adapted

273

Managing forests with prescribed fire: Implications for a cavity-dwelling bat species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prescribed burning is used as a restoration and management technique in many deciduous forests of eastern North America. The effects of fire have been studied on habitat selection of many vertebrate species, but no studies have reported the effect of fire on bat roosting habitat. Fire initially leads to an influx of dead and dying trees, an increase of light

Justin G. Boyles; Doug P. Aubrey

2006-01-01

274

Estimating carbon emissions in Russia using the Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Russian boreal forest zone contains about 28 percent of the global terrestrial carbon. Wildfires in Russia burn an estimated 12-15 million ha annually. In a warming climate, fires in the boreal zone are expected to increase in area and severity, with the potential for increasing global fire emissions and decreasing carbon stored in soils and biomass. Current fire data

D. J. McRae; J. Jin; Y. Yang; S. G. Conard; A. Sukhinin; B. J. Stocks

2009-01-01

275

Reduction of false alarm rate in automatic forest fire infrared surveillance systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main problems related to infrared remote sensing of forest fires by automatic systems concerns the rejection of false alarms. The study of the infrared spectral radiance emitted by a biomass fire has been used to define spectral algorithms that permit to separate fires from other sources considered as false alarms. The different behaviour of the medium (3–5

S Briz; A. J. de Castro; J. M. Aranda; J. Melendez; F. Lopez

2003-01-01

276

Decline of eucalypt forests as a consequence of unnatural fire regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Fire was an integral part of the Australian environment before European settlement. The conventional view of fire as a 'disturbance', and the misconception that 'natural succession' occurs in the absence of 'disturbance' to eucalypt ecosystems, cause much confusion about eucalypt forest decline. Natural fire regimes stabilised eucalypt ecosystems so that they were self sustaining, whereas post-European interference has substantially

Vic Jurskis

2005-01-01

277

Development of Customized Fire Behavior Fuel Models for Boreal Forests of Northeastern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of forest fuels and their potential fire behavior across a landscape is essential in fire management. Four customized\\u000a fire behavior fuel models that differed significantly in fuels characteristics and environmental conditions were identified\\u000a using hierarchical cluster analysis based on fuels data collected across a boreal forest landscape in northeastern China.\\u000a Fuel model I represented the dense and heavily branched

Zhi Wei Wu; Hong Shi He; Yu Chang; Zhi Hua Liu; Hong Wei Chen

278

Assessing the Impact of Recurrent Fires on Forests in Southern Amazonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human-caused fires in Amazon forests alter forest structure, species composition, and the likelihood of future disturbance. Repeated exposure to fire may eventually convert tropical forest into fire-adapted grasslands, a process described as savannization, with dramatic consequences for carbon storage, regional climate, and biodiversity. We tested the savannization hypothesis for a study area in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso using annual satellite data to determine the frequency of fire damages and characterize vegetation recovery following repeated burning. We then incorporated results from the remote sensing analysis into the Ecosystem Demography (ED) model to quantify the long-term carbon consequences of recurrent forest fire damages in southern Amazonia. Our analysis of time series data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) revealed that burned forests are an extensive and long-term component of the frontier landscape, but recurrent fire damages did not lead to evidence of savannization in MODIS-based measures of vegetation greenness following fire. Comparable recovery of dry-season vegetation greenness in the years following first, second, and third fires suggests that tree sprouts and other woody vegetation quickly regained dominance following initial and repeated burning. ED model results demonstrated that establishment of pioneer tree species in fire-damaged forests leads to a short-term increase in the risk of future fires and a long-term decrease in aboveground biomass. Without widespread conversion of forests to grasslands, the long-term impacts from fire in southern Amazonia could still be large if frequent fires trap burned forests in early succession.

Morton, D. C.; Defries, R. S.; Hurtt, G. C.; Dubayah, R.

2008-12-01

279

Fire Impact on Phytomass and Carbon Emissions in the Forests of Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Siberian boreal forests contribute considerably to the global carbon budget, since they take up vast areas, accumulate large amount of carbon, and are sensitive to climatic changes. Fire is the main forest disturbance factor, covering up to millions of hectares of boreal forests annually, of which the majority is in Siberia. Carbon emissions released from phytomass burning influence atmospheric chemistry and global carbon cycling. Changing climate and land use influence the number and intensity of wildfires, forest state, and productivity, as well as global carbon balance. Fire effects on forest overstory, subcanopy woody layer, and ground vegetation phytomass were estimated on sites in light-conifer forests of the Central Siberia as a part of the project "The Influence of Changing Forestry Practices on the Effects of Wildfire and on Interactions Between Fire and Changing Climate in Central Siberia" supported by NASA (NEESPI). This study focuses on collecting quantitative data and modeling the influence of fires of varying intensity on fire emissions, carbon budget, and ecosystem processes in coniferous stands. Fires have a profound impact on forest-atmospheric carbon exchange and transform forests from carbon sinks to carbon sources lasting long after the time of burning. Our long-term experiments allowed us to identify vegetation succession patterns in taiga Scots pine stands after fires of known behavior. Estimating fire contributions to the carbon budget requires consideration of many factors, including vegetation type and fire type and intensity. Carbon emissions were found to depend on fire intensity and weather. In the first several years after fire, the above-ground phytomass appeared to be strongly controlled by fire intensity. However, the influence of burning intensity on organic matter accumulation was found to decrease with time.

Ivanova, Galina A.; Zhila, Sergei V.; Ivanov, Valery A.; Kovaleva, Nataly M.; Kukavskaya, Elena A.; Platonova, Irina A.; Conard, Susan G.

2014-05-01

280

Fire and Vegetation History from the Coastal Rain Forest of the Western Oregon Coast Range  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-resolution charcoal and pollen analyses were used to reconstruct a 4600-yr-long history of fire and vegetation near Taylor Lake in the wettest forests of coastal Oregon. Today, fires in these forests are rare because the season of ignition does not coincide with months of dry fuels. From ca. 4600 to 2700 cal yr B.P. fire episodes occurred at intervals of

Colin J. Long; Cathy Whitlock

2002-01-01

281

Strategies for preventing invasive plant outbreaks after prescribed fire in ponderosa pine forest  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Land managers use prescribed fire to return a vital process to fire-adapted ecosystems, restore forest structure from a state altered by long-term fire suppression, and reduce wildfire intensity. However, fire often produces favorable conditions for invasive plant species, particularly if it is intense enough to reveal bare mineral soil and open previously closed canopies. Understanding the environmental or fire characteristics that explain post-fire invasive plant abundance would aid managers in efficiently finding and quickly responding to fire-caused infestations. To that end, we used an information-theoretic model-selection approach to assess the relative importance of abiotic environmental characteristics (topoedaphic position, distance from roads), pre-and post-fire biotic environmental characteristics (forest structure, understory vegetation, fuel load), and prescribed fire severity (measured in four different ways) in explaining invasive plant cover in ponderosa pine forest in South Dakota’s Black Hills. Environmental characteristics (distance from roads and post-fire forest structure) alone provided the most explanation of variation (26%) in post-fire cover of Verbascum thapsus (common mullein), but a combination of surface fire severity and environmental characteristics (pre-fire forest structure and distance from roads) explained 36–39% of the variation in post-fire cover of Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle) and all invasives together. For four species and all invasives together, their pre-fire cover explained more variation (26–82%) in post-fire cover than environmental and fire characteristics did, suggesting one strategy for reducing post-fire invasive outbreaks may be to find and control invasives before the fire. Finding them may be difficult, however, since pre-fire environmental characteristics explained only 20% of variation in pre-fire total invasive cover, and less for individual species. Thus, moderating fire intensity or targeting areas of high severity for post-fire invasive control may be the most efficient means for reducing the chances of post-fire invasive plant outbreaks when conducting prescribed fires in this region.

Symstad, Amy J.; Newton, Wesley E.; Swanson, Daniel J.

2014-01-01

282

A soil burn severity index for understanding soil-fire relations in tropical forests  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Methods for evaluating the impact of fires within tropical forests are needed as fires become more frequent and human populations and demands on forests increase. Short- and long-term fire effects on soils are determined by the prefire, fire, and postfire environments. We placed these components within a fire-disturbance continuum to guide our literature synthesis and develop an integrated soil burn severity index. The soil burn severity index provides a set of indicators that reflect the range of conditions present after a fire. The index consists of seven levels, an unburned level and six other levels that describe a range of postfire soil conditions. We view this index as a tool for understanding the effects of fires on the forest floor, with the realization that as new information is gained, the index may be modified as warranted. ?? Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2008.

Jain, T.B.; Gould, W.A.; Graham, R.T.; Pilliod, D.S.; Lentile, L.B.; Gonzalez, G.

2008-01-01

283

Simulating the effects of fire management on gas emissions in western forests of the United States  

SciTech Connect

The exclusion of fire from terrestrial ecosystems will result in major changes in landscape structure and composition that, in turn, will result in significant changes in gaseous emissions to the atmosphere. A mechanistic forest successional model, FIRE-BGC (a FIRE BioGeoChemical succession model) is used to investigate long-term trends in gaseous emissions (CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, non-methane hydrocarbons, and NO{sub x}) under present and historical fire regimes for a complex landscape in Glacier National Park, Montana, USA. FIRE-BGC simulates long-term fire and stand dynamics on coniferous forest landscapes of the northern Rocky Mountains. FIRE-BGC is an individual tree model created by merging the gap-phase, process-based model FIRESUM with the mechanistic ecosystem biogeochemical model FOREST-BGC.

Keane, R.E.; Hardy, C.C.; Ryan, K.C. [Forest Service, Missoula, MT (United States)

1996-12-31

284

Different fire-climate relationships on forested and non-forested landscapes in the Sierra Nevada ecoregion  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the California Sierra Nevada region, increased fire activity over the last 50 years has only occurred in the higher-elevation forests on US Forest Service (USFS) lands, and is not characteristic of the lower-elevation grasslands, woodlands and shrublands on state responsibility lands (Cal Fire). Increased fire activity on USFS lands was correlated with warmer and drier springs. Although this is consistent with recent global warming, we found an equally strong relationship between fire activity and climate in the first half of the 20th century. At lower elevations, warmer and drier conditions were not strongly tied to fire activity over the last 90 years, although prior-year precipitation was significant. It is hypothesised that the fire–climate relationship in forests is determined by climatic effects on spring and summer fuel moisture, with hotter and drier springs leading to a longer fire season and more extensive burning. In contrast, future fire activity in the foothills may be more dependent on rainfall patterns and their effect on the herbaceous fuel load. We predict spring and summer warming will have a significant impact on future fire regimes, primarily in higher-elevation forests. Lower elevation ecosystems are likely to be affected as much by global changes that directly involve land-use patterns as by climate change.

Keeley, Jon E.; Syphard, Alexandra D.

2015-01-01

285

The fate of 137Cs in coniferous forests following the application of wood-ash.  

PubMed

In the future, it may become common practice in Swedish forestry to recycle wood-ash, a waste product of the combustion of bio-fuel. As a consequence of the Chernobyl radioactive fallout in 1986, large areas of central Sweden were contaminated. Application of recycled wood-ash, originating from contaminated areas, to a previously uncontaminated forest, risks an increase in the concentration of radioactive 137Cs. We measured 137Cs radioactivity in different parts of coniferous forests in seven field experiments. Measurements of radioactivity were made 5-8 years after an application of wood-ash equivalent to 3000 kg ha(-1). The sites, in a north-south transect across Sweden, have a background radioactivity ranging from 0 to 40 kBq m(-2), the higher levels are mainly a result of the Chernobyl fall-out. Depending on its origin, the radioactivity of the applied wood-ash ranged from 0.0 to 4.8 kBq kg(-1), corresponding to 0.0-1.44 kBq m(-2). In autumn 1999, samples were taken from the soil, field vegetation, needles and twigs and the levels of 137Cs determined. In addition, soil samples were analysed for extractable K. The highest 137Cs concentration was found in the soil. At six of the seven sites there were no statistically significant effects of wood-ash application on 137Cs activity. This was despite the fact that the wood-ash had, in one case, added the same amount of radioactivity as the background. However, at one site with intermediate 137Cs deposition (10-20 kBq m(-2)), there was a statistically significant decrease in 137Cs radioactivity in the soil, needles and twigs from the plots treated with wood-ash. The decrease in radioactivity was partly due to the fact that one of the main constituents of wood-ash is K, which is antagonistic to 137Cs. Based on our results, it appears that application of wood-ash containing 137Cs does not necessarily increase the 137Cs radioactivity in plants and soil. However, some of the observed effects could be a result of the low number of replicates used in this study. PMID:11763261

Högbom, L; Nohrstedt, H O

2001-12-01

286

DISPOSAL, RECYCLE, AND UTILIZATION OF MODIFIED FLY ASH FROM HYDRATED LIME INJECTION INTO COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of an assessment of the disposal, utilization, and recycle os a modified fly ash from the injection of hydrated lime into a coal-fired utility boiler. The process, developed as a low-cost alternative for achieving moderate degrees of SO2 control at coal-fi...

287

ECONOMICS OF NITROGEN OXIDES, SULFUR OXIDES, AND ASH CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR COAL-FIRED UTILITY POWER PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an EPA-sponsored economic evaluation of three processes to reduce NOx, SO2, and ash emissions from coal-fired utility power plants: one based on 3.5% sulfur eastern bituminous coal; and the other, on 0.7% sulfur western subbituminous coal. NOx control ...

288

Effect of fire residues (ash and char) on microbial activity, respiration and methanogenesis in three subtropical wetland soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prescribed fire is a common restoration and maintenance technique in the southern United States. Prescribed burns coupled with frequent natural fires in South Florida can have devastating effects on ecosystem function. To determine the effect fire residues have on carbon biogeochemical cycling litter material was obtained from two restored and one native marl wetland in Everglades National Park and manipulated in a laboratory setting to produce ash and vegetation derived char. Based on vegetation biomass removal pre and post fire (insitu) appropriate aliquots of each fire residue was added to experimental microcosms as a soil amendment. Soil enzymes (?-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, phosphatase, bis-phosphate and leucine amino peptidase), aerobic and anaerobic respiration (CO2) potentials, extractable C and methanogenesis were measured over a 25 day period. Regardless of site C enzymes responded to both amendments within 5 days of addition. Similarly amended soil contained more extractable carbon in the reference and one of the restored sites. In the restored sites ash and char inhibited methanogenesis, had no effect on anaerobic CO2 potentials, but stimulated aerobic respiration after ten days. In contrast, within the first ten days phosphatase enzyme activity was lower in the ash treatment when compared to the control treatment and stimulation of aerobic respiration was observed in both treatment soils. After ten days ash stimulated methanogenic processing while suppressing anaerobic CO2 production suggesting methanogens in this ecosystem may be dependant on usable carbon substrates derived from aerobic microbial processing. This study illustrates the variable response of C parameters to complete and incomplete combusted materials produced from both prescribed and natural fires with particular importance to fire adapted ecosystems.

Medvedeff, C.; Hogue, B.; Inglett, P.

2011-12-01

289

Effects of an Intense Prescribed Forest Fire: Is It Ecological Restoration?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relatively intense burning has been suggested as a possible alternative to the restoration of pre-European settlement forest conditions and fire regime in mixed conifer forests, in contrast to thinning of trees and light prescribed burning. In 1993 a management-ignited fire in a dense, never-harvested forest in Grand Canyon National Park escaped prescription and burned with greater intensity and severity than

Peter Z. Fule; Allison E. Cocke; Thomas A. Heinlein; W. Wallace Covington

2004-01-01

290

Wildfire and drought dynamics destabilize carbon stores of fire-suppressed forests.  

PubMed

Widespread fire suppression and thinning have altered the structure and composition of many forests in the western United States, making them more susceptible to the synergy of large-scale drought and fire events. We examine how these changes affect carbon storage and stability compared to historic fire-adapted conditions. We modeled carbon dynamics under possible drought and fire conditions over a 300-year simulation period in two mixed-conifer conditions common in the western United States: (1) pine-dominated with an active fire regime and (2) fir-dominated, fire suppressed forests. Fir-dominated stands, with higher live- and dead-wood density, had much lower carbon stability as drought and fire frequency increased compared to pine-dominated forest. Carbon instability resulted from species (i.e., fir's greater susceptibility to drought and fire) and stand (i.e., high density of smaller trees) conditions that develop in the absence of active management. Our modeling suggests restoring historic species composition and active fire regimes can significantly increase carbon stability in fire-suppressed, mixed-conifer forests. Long-term management of forest carbon should consider the relative resilience of stand structure and composition to possible increases in disturbance frequency and intensity under changing climate. PMID:24988771

Earles, J Mason; North, Malcolm P; Hurteau, Matthew D

2014-06-01

291

How well do meteorological indices explain forest fire ocurrence in Germany?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meteorological forest fire risk indices have been developed to forecast the risk of fire occurrence and aid forest managers to take suitable preventive measures. We evaluate five meteorological fire risk indices and relevant meteorological variables for their predictive capacity against monthly fire statistics for 13 German states between 1993 and 2010. Mean relative humidity stands out as the best overall predictor (for 9 out of 13 states) for the recorded number of fires with a median correlation coefficient for Germany of -0.7. The indices with best explanatory power were, in decreasing order, the German modified M-68, the Canadian Fire Weather Index and Angström. The correlations of fire data with relative humidity and fire indices were stronger for states particularly prone to fire occurrence. At the monthly scale, correlations of relative humidity and fire indices with area burnt are in average weaker than with the number of fires. For the same time period, we investigated the performance on a daily scale for the state of Brandenburg. In this case, the performance of fire indices and relative humidity were more similar than at the monthly level. In addition, the number of fires could be explained equally well as the area burnt. Climate projections under different temperature and moisture conditions consistently indicate a monthly decrease in relative humidity until 2060, particularly in the summer months. Future monthly values of M-68 also denote a considerable increase of fire risk in summer. The increase in fire risk at the beginning and end of the fire season points to a possible extension of the current fire season. Our results reveal that mean relative humidity is sufficient to describe observed fire occurrences in Germany at both monthly and daily scales. Correlation coefficients were robust in state, country, monthly and daily analysis. Due to its predictive power and simplicity of calculation, relative humidity is a valid or better alternative in Germany as a proxy for monthly forest fire risk.

Holsten, Anne; Dominic, Anto Raphael; Costa, Luis; Kropp, Jürgen P.

2013-04-01

292

A stand-replacing fire history in upper montane forests of the southern Rocky Mountains  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dendroecological techniques were applied to reconstruct stand-replacing fire history in upper montane forests in northern New Mexico and southern Colorado. Fourteen stand-replacing fires were dated to 8 unique fire years (1842-1901) using four lines of evidence at each of 12 sites within the upper Rio Grande Basin. The four lines of evidence were (i) quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) inner-ring dates, (ii) fire-killed conifer bark-ring dates, (iii) tree-ring width changes or other morphological indicators of injury, and (iv) fire scars. The annual precision of dating allowed the identification of synchronous stand-replacing fire years among the sites, and co-occurrence with regional surface fire events previously reconstructed from a network of fire scar collections in lower elevation pine forests across the southwestern United States. Nearly all of the synchronous stand-replacing and surface fire years coincided with severe droughts, because climate variability created regional conditions where stand-replacing fires and surface fires burned across ecosystems. Reconstructed stand-replacing fires that predate substantial Anglo-American settlement in this region provide direct evidence that stand-replacing fires were a feature of high-elevation forests before extensive and intensive land-use practices (e.g., logging, railroad, and mining) began in the late 19th century. ?? 2007 NRC.

Margolis, E.Q.; Swetnam, T.W.; Allen, C.D.

2007-01-01

293

Influence of Antecedent Precipitation on MODIS Active Fire and Fire Radiative Power Retrievals in the Brazilian Tropical Moist Forest Biome  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Brazilian Tropical Moist Forest Biome (BTMFB) is the world's largest contiguous area of tropical forests and is prone to frequent burning. Although fire ignitions are predominantly anthropogenic, set deliberately to clear forest land and for agricultural and pastoral maintenance, the timing and extent of fire may largely be governed by local environmental conditions and the time since previous fire occurrence. Precipitation controls the fuel flammability and also the biomass accumulation. Previous research has indicated that the number of satellite detected fires follow lagged cyclic patterns of precipitation. In this research eight years (2003-2010) of MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra and Aqua satellite active fire detections and their Fire Radiative Power (FRP) retrievals (related to the fire intensity) are considered for all the BTMBF. The antecedent precipitation derived from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) best-estimate precipitation rate product accumulated for periods from one month to six months prior to each active fire detection date and location are considered. The regional number of MODIS active fire detections and the FRP values exhibit an inverse exponential decrease with the antecedent precipitation. The strongest relationships are observed for antecedent accumulated precipitation over three months and one month for the number of active fire detections and the FRP respectively. The relationships are similar across the seven Brazilian States within the BTMFB and among the eight years. The results indicate that wetter conditions reduce fuel flammability and result in fewer fires burning with lower intensity. The quantitative relationships developed in this study are expected to be useful for fire occurrence and emissions modeling in the BTMF.

Sathyachandran, S.; Roy, D. P.

2013-12-01

294

The legacy of harvest and fire on ecosystem carbon storage in a north temperate forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest harvesting and wildfire were widespread in the upper Great Lakes region of North America during the early 20th century. We examined how long this legacy of disturbance constrains forest carbon (C) storage rates by quantifying C pools and fluxes after harvest and fire in a mixed deciduous forest chronosequence in northern lower Michigan, USA. Study plots ranged in age

KRISTEN G EORGE; P ETER S. C URTIS

2007-01-01

295

Forest Fire and the Natural Soil Erosion Regime in the Colorado Front Range  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surficial soil movement data from 80 sediment traps located within five forested catchments in the Colorado Front Range suggest that sediment flux rates after forest fires are elevated by as much as three orders of magnitude compared to rates typical of undisturbed forested areas. Sediment traps installed within a recently burned basin recorded (minimum) annual rates of surficial flux equivalent

Scott E. Morris; Todd A. Moses

1987-01-01

296

Forest change on a steep mountain gradient after extended fire exclusion: San Francisco Peaks, Arizona, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. More than a century of forest management, including fire exclusion, livestock grazing and tree harvesting, may have affected forest structure and composition in south-western USA. Dendroecological techniques were used to reconstruct an 1876 baseline against which modern conditions could be compared. We assessed the magnitude of changes on the San Francisco Peaks in five distinct forest types: ponderosa,

ALLISON E. COCKE; PETER Z. FULÉ; JOSEPH E. CROUSE

2005-01-01

297

Temporal variations and change in forest fire danger in Europe for 1960-2012  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding how fire weather danger indices changed in the past and how such changes affected forest fire activity is important in a changing climate. We used the Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI), calculated from two reanalysis data sets, ERA-40 and ERA Interim, to examine the temporal variation of forest fire danger in Europe in 1960-2012. Additionally, we used national forest fire statistics from Greece, Spain and Finland to examine the relationship between fire danger and fires. There is no obvious trend in fire danger for the time period covered by ERA-40 (1960-1999), whereas for the period 1980-2012 covered by ERA Interim, the mean FWI shows an increasing trend for southern and eastern Europe which is significant at the 99% confidence level. The cross correlations calculated at the national level in Greece, Spain and Finland between total area burned and mean FWI of the current season is of the order of 0.6, demonstrating the extent to which the current fire-season weather can explain forest fires. To summarize, fire risk is multifaceted, and while climate is a major determinant, other factors can contribute to it, either positively or negatively.

Venäläinen, A.; Korhonen, N.; Hyvärinen, O.; Koutsias, N.; Xystrakis, F.; Urbieta, I. R.; Moreno, J. M.

2014-06-01

298

Prospective impact of forest fire on Mass Movement events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mass Movement (MM) has always been one of the main natural hazards that threatened both the natural and human environments of Lebanon and their occurrence has increased by almost 60% between 1956 and 2008. On the other hand, Forest Fire (FF) has emerged to impose as another natural hazard that has destroyed more than 25 % of Lebanon's forests in less than 40 years. The increased FF occurrence is one of the potential detrimental impacts of anthropogenic climate change where high temperatures and current-year drought are strongly associated with an increase in the number of fires and area burned in a variety of forest types. A simple observation shows the coincident trends between MM and FF. This paper investigates the potential impact of FF on MM occurrence in Damour and Nahr Ibrahim watersheds in Lebanon. Preconditioning factors taken into consideration were topography, soil, geology, mean annual precipitation and land cover maps. MM and FF inventory maps were produced through Remote Sensing (RS) using aerial (1956 and 2008) and satellite images (2005 and 2011) in addition to Google Earth Timeline. Furthermore, FF was introduced as the inducing factor whose impact was assessed by the calculation of FF burn severity. This burn severity was extracted from Landsat images (1986-2011) through the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) index. A field study was carried out in order to substantiate the MM inventory. Furthermore, the burn index maps were validated through the Mini-Disk Infiltrometer (MDI), a device which supplies the soil infiltration rate usually after a fire. Following the standardization of the impact factors into layers using Geographic Information System (GIS), the relative importance of these layers for causing MM has been evaluated using modified InfoVal method and a MM Susceptibility Map (MMSM) was generated. Hence, every factor obtained a weight that shows its impact on MM occurrence. Preceded only by Land Cover change, NBR obtained the highest weight making FF burn severity the second highest impacting factor on MM occurrence in our study areas. Testing was performed by comparing a previously extracted 30% of the MM inventory to the MMSM. It has been observed that 84.79% of the existing MM falls in predicted high susceptibility zone.

Ziade, Rouba; Abdallah, Chadi; Baghdadi, Nicolas

2013-04-01

299

Fire Regimes and Forest Structure in the Mountains of Northwestern Mexico and Southern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In contrast to a few isolated forests in northern Mexico, most forests in the western Untied States have been significantly modified by fire suppression, harvesting, and livestock grazing. The culmination of these past management activities has produced over 20 million ha of US forests with high fire hazards and many of these areas are in need of restoration. Understanding reference conditions is challenging because we have few intact forests functioning under the continuing influence of climate variation, insects, diseases, and frequent fires. This presentation summarizes information from reference sites in northwestern Mexico and contrasts it to current forest structure and fire regimes in southern California forests. Heterogeneity is common in the intact forests of northwestern Mexico. Restoration targets across similar forests in the United States and elsewhere should incorporate variation and not manage for average characteristics at the stand level, replicated for all stands across very large spatial scales. Conservation of the forests in the northwester Mexico is critical because it is the last landscape-scale, old-growth mixed conifer forest in western North America with a relatively intact frequent fire regime.

Stephens, S. L.

2004-12-01

300

Fire regimes, forest change, and self-organization in an old-growth mixed-conifer forest, Yosemite National Park, USA.  

PubMed

Fire is recognized as a keystone process in dry mixed-conifer forests that have been altered by decades of fire suppression, Restoration of fire disturbance to these forests is a guiding principle of resource management in the U.S. National Park Service. Policy implementation is often hindered by a poor understanding of forest conditions before fire exclusion, the characteristics of forest changes since excluding fire, and the influence of topographic or self-organizing controls on forest structure. In this study the spatial and temporal characteristics of fire regimes and forest structure are reconstructed in a 2125-ha mixed-conifer forest. Forests were multi-aged, burned frequently at low severity and fire-return interval, and forest structure did not vary with slope aspect, elevation, or slope position. Fire exclusion has caused an increase in forest density and basal area and a compositional shift to shade-tolerant and fire-intolerant species. The median point fire-return interval and extent of a fire was 10 yr and 115 ha, respectively. The pre-Euro-American settlement fire rotation of 13 yr increased to 378 yr after 1905. The position of fire scars within tree rings indicates that 79% of fires burned in the midsummer to fall period. The spatial pattern of burns exhibited self-organizing behavior. Area burned was 10-fold greater when an area had not been burned by the previous fire. Fires were frequent and widespread, but patches of similar aged trees were < 0.2 ha, suggesting small fire-caused canopy openings. Managers need to apply multiple burns at short intervals for a sustained period to reduce surface fuels and create small canopy openings characteristic of the reference forest. By coupling explicit reference conditions with consideration of current conditions and projected climate change, management activities can balance restoration and risk management. PMID:20405793

Scholl, Andrew E; Taylor, Alan H

2010-03-01

301

Transformations and affinities for sulfur of Chinese Shenmu coal ash in a pulverized coal-fired boiler  

SciTech Connect

The self-desulfurization efficiency of Shenmu coal with a high initial Ca/S molar ratio of 2.02 was measured in a 1,025 t/h pulverized coal-fired boiler. It increases from 29% to 32% when the power capacity decreases from 100% to 70%. About 60% of the mineral matter and calcium element fed into the furnace is retained in the fly ash, while less than 10% is retained in the bottom ash. About 70% of the sulfur element fed into the furnace is emitted as SO{sub 2} in the flue gas, while less than 10% is retained in the fly ash and less than 1% is retained in the bottom ash. The mineralogical compositions of feed coal, fly ash, and bottom ash were obtained by X-ray diffraction analysis. It is found that the initial amorphous phase content is 91.17% and the initial CaCO{sub 3} phase content is 2.07% in Shenmu coal. The vitreous phase and sulfation product CaSO{sub 4} contents are, respectively, 70.47% and 3.36% in the fly ash obtained at full capacity, while the retained CaCO{sub 3} and CaO contents are, respectively, 4.73% and 2.15%. However, the vitreous phase content is only 25.68% and no CaSO{sub 4} is detected in the bottom ash obtained at full capacity. When the power capacity decreases from 100% to 70%, the vitreous phase content in fly ash decreases from 70.47% to 67.41% and that in bottom ash increases from 25.68% to 28.10%.

Cheng, J.; Zhou, J.H.; Liu, J.Z.; Cao, X.Y.; Cen, K.F. [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China)

2009-07-01

302

A Review of the Main Driving Factors of Forest Fire Ignition Over Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of the causes of forest fires, and of the main driving factors of ignition, is an indispensable step towards effective fire prevention policies. This study analyses the factors driving forest fire ignition in the Mediterranean region including the most common human and environmental factors used for modelling in the European context. Fire ignition factors are compared to spatial and temporal variations of fire occurrence in the region, then are compared to results obtained in other areas of the world, with a special focus on North America (US and Canada) where a significant number of studies has been carried out on this topic. The causes of forest fires are varied and their distribution differs among countries, but may also differ spatially and temporally within the same country. In Europe, and especially in the Mediterranean basin, fires are mostly human-caused mainly due arson. The distance to transport networks and the distance to urban or recreation areas are among the most frequently used human factors in modelling exercises and the Wildland-Urban Interface is increasingly taken into account in the modelling of fire occurrence. Depending on the socio-economic context of the region concerned, factors such as the unemployment rate or variables linked to agricultural activity can explain the ignition of intentional and unintentional fires. Regarding environmental factors, those related to weather, fuel and topography are the most significant drivers of ignition of forest fires, especially in Mediterranean-type regions. For both human and lightning-caused fires, there is a geographical gradient of fire ignition, mainly due to variations in climate and fuel composition but also to population density for instance. The timing of fires depends on their causes. In populated areas, the timing of human-caused fires is closely linked to human activities and peaks in the afternoon whereas, in remote areas, the timing of lightning-caused fires is more linked to weather conditions and the season, with most such fires occurring in summer.

Ganteaume, Anne; Camia, Andrea; Jappiot, Marielle; San-Miguel-Ayanz, Jesus; Long-Fournel, Marlène; Lampin, Corinne

2013-03-01

303

Interpretation of the charcoal record in forest soils: forest fires and their production and deposition of macroscopic charcoal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traps were used to quantify charcoal production and transport during three experimental forest fires in Boreal Scandinavia. The traps were spatially arranged to collect charcoal particles inside burn areas, and outside burn areas at different distances (0.1–100 m) from the fire edge. The number of inside and outside traps was 280 and 424, respectively. Trap area was 48 cm2. After

Mikael Ohlson; Elling Tryterud

2000-01-01

304

Fire Impact on Carbon Emissions on Logged and Unlogged Scots pine Forest Sites in Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fires cover millions ha of boreal forests of Russia annually, mostly in Siberia. Wildfire and forest harvesting are the major disturbances in Siberia's boreal zone. Logged areas appear to be highly susceptible to fire due to a combination of high fuel loads and accessibility for human-caused ignition. Fire spreading from logging sites to surrounding forest is a common situation in this region. Changing patterns of timber harvesting increase landscape complexity and can be expected to increase the emissions and ecosystem damage from wildfires, inhibit recovery of natural ecosystems, and exacerbate impacts of wildfire on changing climate and on air quality. Fire effects on pine stands and biomass of surface vegetation were estimated on logged and unlogged sites in the Central Siberia region as a part of the project "The Influence of Changing Forestry Practices on the Effects of Wildfire and on Interactions Between Fire and Changing Climate in Central Siberia" supported by NASA (NEESPI). Fires occurring on logged areas were typically of higher severity than those in unlogged forests, but the specific effects of fire and logging varied widely among forest types and as a result of weather patterns during and prior to the fire. Consumption of surface and ground fuels in spring fires was 25% to 50% of that in summer fires. Estimated carbon emissions due to fire were 2-5 times higher on logged areas compared to undisturbed sites. Post-fire soil respiration decreases found for both site types partially offset carbon losses. Carbon emissions from fire and post-fire ecosystem damage on logged sites are expected to increase under changing climate conditions in Siberia.

Ivanova, G.; Kukavskaya, E.; Buryak, L.; Kalenskaya, O.; Bogorodskaya, A.; Conard, S. G.

2012-12-01

305

Leaching of wood ash products aimed for spreading in forest floors – Influence of method and L\\/S ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of biofuels in the form of logging residues is increasing in the European countries. This intensive forestry, where entire trees are removed from the felling sites, may contribute to a negative nutrient balance in the forest soil. Recycling of ash from the combustion of clean wood fuel, sometimes in combination with limestone or additives\\/binders, back into the forest soil

Peter Mellbo; Sirkku Sarenbo; Olof Stålnacke; Tommy Claesson

2008-01-01

306

Rocket-triggered lightning strikes and forest fire ignition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Background information on the rocket-triggered lightning project at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), a summary of the forecasting problem there, the facilities and equipment available for undertaking field experiments at KSC, previous research activity performed, a description of the atmospheric science field laboratory near Mosquito Lagoon on the KSC complex, methods of data acquisition, and present results are discussed. New sources of data for the 1989 field experiment include measuring the electric field in the lower few thousand feet of the atmosphere by suspending field measuring devices below a tethered balloon. Problems encountered during the 1989 field experiment are discussed. Future prospects for both triggered lightning and lightning-kindled forest fire research at KSC are listed.

Fenner, James H.

1989-01-01

307

Rocket-triggered lightning strikes and forest fire ignition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following are presented: (1) background information on the rocket-triggered lightning project an Kennedy Space Center (KSC); (2) a summary of the forecasting problem; (3) the facilities and equipment available for undertaking field experiments at KSC; (4) previous research activity performed; (5) a description of the atmospheric science field laboratory near Mosquito Lagoon on the KSC complex; (6) methods of data acquisition; and (7) present results. New sources of data for the 1990 field experiment include measuring the electric field in the lower few thousand feet of the atmosphere by suspending field measuring devices below a tethered balloon, and measuring the electric field intensity in clouds and in the atmosphere with aircraft. The latter program began in July of 1990. Also, future prospects for both triggered lightning and forest fire research at KSC are listed.

Fenner, James

1990-01-01

308

Fire induced carbon emissions and regrowth uptake in western United States forests: Documenting variation across forest types, fire severity, and climate regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The area of forest in the western United States that burns each year is increasing with warmer temperatures, more frequent droughts and higher fuel densities. As such, fire is becoming an increasingly important term in regional carbon budgets, not to mention its growing influence on forest resources. Studies that examine fire effects for regional carbon balances have tended to either focus on individual fires as examples, or adopt generalizations without considering how forest type, fire severity, and regional climate influence carbon legacies. Most studies have emphasized combustion emissions, possibly also fire-killed biomass, but rarely considered regrowth uptake. In this study we provide a more detailed characterization of fire effects, and quantify the full carbon impacts considering direct emissions, slow release of fire-killed biomass, and net carbon uptake from forest regrowth. We find important variation in fire-induced mortality and combustion across carbon pools (leaf, live wood, dead wood, litter, and duff) and across low to high severity classes. This corresponds to fire induced direct emissions from 1984 to 2008 averaging 4 TgC yr-1 and biomass killed (i.e., non-consumptive carbon transfers) averaging 10.5 TgC yr-1. Burned area and severity, as estimated from satellite data, averaged 2723 km2 yr-1 across the western US. These direct emission and biomass mortality rates were 1.4 and 3.7 times higher, respectively, for high compared to low severity fires. We also document how forest regrowth varies greatly by forest type and with severity, and imposes a sustained carbon uptake legacy. We find that western US fires between 1984 and 2008 imposed a net source of 12.3 TgC yr-1 in 2008, accounting for direct fire emissions (9.5 TgC yr-1) and indirect emissions from fire killed biomass (6.1 TgC yr-1) as well as contemporary regrowth sinks (3.3 TgC yr-1). We also identify a sizeable trend toward increasing emissions as a larger area burns annually, and severity increases

Williams, C. A.; Ghimire, B.; Collatz, G. J.; Masek, J. G.

2012-12-01

309

Fire-derived Char-Black Carbon in Siberian Scots Pine Forests - Stocks and Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Siberian Scots pine forests comprise the largest part (37 %) of West Siberian forests. Natural fires occur frequently, producing thermally-altered organic matter (char-black carbon, CBC). CBC is considered to resist degradation and accumulate in soils, due to its molecular structure. Thus, CBC may be an important long-term sink for photosynthetically fixed atmospheric carbon dioxide, and play an important role in carbon sequestration of boreal soils. Presently, there are, however, only few studies on CBC stability in soils and none on boreal ecosystems. To assess the role of CBC in carbon sequestration of boreal forests, we addressed the following questions: How much soil organic carbon (SOC) do natural fires convert to CBC? How do fires (both stand replacing and surface fires) affect SOC and CBC stocks and soil development for 0 to 200 years? We investigated sandy podzolic soils (Dystrustepts) under monotypic pristine Siberian Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forests in Western Siberia near river Yenesei (60 o43'N, 89 o08'E). To measure CBC conversion we sampled five replicates of (un-)burnt forest floor immediately after fire. To assess carbon stocks and soil development, we sampled a chronosequence (0-400 years after stand replacing fire), also including different fire regimes (surface fires every 25-40 years). SOC was quantified with elemental analyzer, CBC via gas-chromatography / atomic emission detector using benzenepolycarboxylic acids as molecular markers, and parameters of soil development via ion coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Fire converted 0.7 % of the SOC in the forest floor to CBC. CBC accounted for 1.5 to 3.4 % of SOC stocks (forest floor and 1 m mineral soil), and is mainly located in the forest floor. In the forest floor, SOC stocks increased with time since stand replacing fire, except when surface fires reduced stocks. For CBC, however, no such trend could be observed. Mineral SOC stocks were smaller than those in the forest floor, and followed a typical podzolic pattern 6 and 160 years after fire, but were larger 33 to 96 years after fire. TOC stocks below 0.8 m were always similar, contributing small amounts. As a result, CBC does so not seem to accumulate in soils under boreal forests to a larger extent. The fate of CBC (e.g. chemical degradation, particular or colloidal transport) remains an open question.

Czimczik, C. I.; Schmidt, M. W.; Schulze, E.

2001-12-01

310

Fire effects on infiltration rates after prescribed fire in Northern Rocky Mountain forests, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infiltration rates in undisturbed forest environments are generally high. These high infiltration rates may be reduced when forest management activities such as timber harvesting and/or prescribed fires are used. Post-harvest residue burning is a common site preparation treatment used in the Northern Rocky Mountains, USA, to reduce forest fuels and to prepare sites for natural and artificial tree regeneration. Prescribed burn operations attempt to leave sites with the surface condition of a low-severity burn. However, some of the areas often experience surface conditions associated with a high-severity burn which may result in hydrophobic or water repellent conditions. In this study, infiltration rates were measured after logging slash was broadcast burned from two prescribed burns. The two sites were in Northern Rocky coniferous forests of Douglas-fir/lodgepole pine and ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir. Simulated rainfall was applied to one-square meter plots in three, 30-min applications at 94 mm h -1 within the three surface conditions found after the burn: unburned-undisturbed areas, low-severity burn areas and high-severity burn areas. Runoff hydrographs from the rainfall simulations were relatively constant from the plots that were in unburned-undisturbed areas and in areas subjected to a low-severity burn. These constant runoff rates indicate constant hydraulic conductivity values for these surface conditions even though there was variation between plots. Hydrographs from the rainfall simulation plots located within areas of high-severity burn indicate greater runoff rates than the plots in low-severity burn areas especially during the initial stages of the first rainfall event. These runoff rates decreased to a constant rate for the last 10 min of the event. These results indicate hydrophobic or water repellent soil conditions, which temporarily cause a 10-40% reduction in hydraulic conductivity values when compared to a normal infiltrating soil condition. Since variability was high for these forest conditions, cumulative distribution algorithms of hydraulic conductivity provide a means to account for the inherent variability associated with these hillslopes and different surface conditions cause by fire.

Robichaud, P. R.

2000-05-01

311

The contribution of agrotechnical works following a fire to the protection of forest soils and the regeneration of natural forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 1997 a fire destroyed about 62% of the urban forest in the city of Thessaloniki, northern Greece. Between 50 and 80%\\u000a of the forest vegetation was burned within the watersheds of the six torrents that flowed across the destroyed area. In this\\u000a area the forest service constructed agrotechnical, and flood-protection works in the streams and the basins of the

M. A. Sapountzis; G. S. Efthimiou; P. S. Stefanidis

312

Structure changes and succession dynamic of the natural secondary forest after severe fire interference  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure and dynamic succession law of natural secondary forest after severe fire interference in recent 20 years were\\u000a studied by adopting the method of deducing time series from the spatial sequence of vegetation in Heihe region, Heilongjiang,\\u000a China. Two typical and widely distributed forest types in the study area, namely forest type A and forest type B, were selected

Bin-fan Liu; Guang-ju Liu; Zhi-cheng Wang

2009-01-01

313

Dendrochronological reconstruction of fire at the Boise Wildland-Urban Interface, Boise National Forest, Idaho  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changing climate conditions (warmer temperatures, changes in modes and timing of precipitation) are thought to be driving factors in increasing burned acreage and fire intensity in both forested and non-forested lands in Idaho and elsewhere in the interior western US. Cities in the west may be vulnerable to fire impacts to urban development , watersheds, and recreation. The wildland-urban interface (WUI) between the Boise, Idaho and the range front to its north is an example of this vulnerability. Because of long-standing practices and policies of wildfire suppression, the natural fire frequency (i.e., pre-suppression) of the forested component of the WUI is not well known or understood. In this study, we sampled fire-scarred ponderosa pine at two dry sites in separate drainages above Boise to identify both the timing and synchroneity of fire events. Partial cross-sections were collected from standing live trees using a chainsaw, and then cross-dated with an established local tree-ring chronology. The two sites have ten fire events, ranging from 1709 to 1889, with shared events only in 1771 and 1829. The fire events at the two sites all are consistent with regional fire-years in a published fire history for Idaho and Montana (Heyerdahl, et al., 2008), with one exception in 1883. This suggests that the local forest is largely responding to broader regional climate drivers. During the period of fire-scar record, fire frequency at these two sites near the Boise WUI ranged from 15-50 years; this is a much higher fire frequency than that observed since fire suppression policies were enacted, with no fire scar recorded events since 1889.

Cutter, A.; Kinkead, K.; Wilkins, D. E.

2013-12-01

314

COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT ASH UTILIZATION IN THE TVA REGION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study: (1) to summarize (a) production of coal ash nationally and by TVA's 12 major ash-producing steam/electric power plants, and (b) the physical/chemical characteristics of coal ash that affect ash disposal and/or use; (2) to review reported metho...

315

Small mammals and forest fuel reduction: national-scale responses to fire and fire surrogates.  

PubMed

Forest fuel reduction treatments are increasingly used by managers to reduce the risk of high-severity wildfire and to manage changes in the ecological function of forests. However, comparative ecological effects of the various types of treatments are poorly understood. We examined short-term patterns in small-mammal responses to mechanical thinning, prescribed-fire, and mechanical thinning/prescribed-fire combination treatments at eight different study areas across the United States as a part of the National Fire and Fire Surrogate (FFS) Project. Research questions included: (1) do treatments differ in their effect on small mammal densities and biomass? and (2) are effects of treatments consistent across study areas? We modeled taxa-specific densities and total small-mammal biomass as functions of treatment types and study area effects and ranked models based on an information-theoretic model selection criterion. Small-mammal taxa examined, including deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), yellow-pine chipmunks (Tamias amoenus), and golden-mantled ground squirrels (Spermophilus lateralis), as well as all Peromyscus and Tamias species, had top-ranked models with responses varying both by treatment type and study area. In each of these cases, the top-ranked model carried between 69% and 99% of the total weight in the model set, indicating strong support for the top-ranked models. However, the top-ranked model of total small-mammal biomass was a model with biomass varying only with treatment (i.e., treated vs. untreated), not by treatment type or study area; again, this model had strong support, with 75% of the total model weight. Individual species and taxa appear to have variable responses to fuel reduction treatment types in different areas; however, total small-mammal biomass appears generally to increase after any type of fuel reduction. These results suggest that there is substantial variability in taxa-specific responses to treatments and indicate that adaptive management policies may be necessary when applying fuel reduction treatments in areas where management of small-mammal populations is of interest. Adaptive management can be used by managers who are conducting fuel reduction treatments to reduce uncertainty as to which treatments are locally optimal for meeting objectives for the management of small-mammal populations. PMID:17069366

Converse, Sarah J; White, Gary C; Farris, Kerry L; Zack, Steve

2006-10-01

316

Emissions Of Forest Fires In The Amazon: Impact On The Tropical Mountain Forest In Ecuador  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomass burning is a source of carbon, sulphur, and nitrogen compounds which, along with their photochemically generated reaction products, can be transported over very large distances, even traversing oceans. Four years of regular rain and fog-water measurements in the tropical mountain forest at the eastern slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes, along an altitude profile between 1800 m and 3185 m, have been carried out. The ion composition of rain and fog-water samples shows frequent episodes of significantly enhanced nitrogen and sulphur, resulting in annual deposition rates of about 5 kg N/ha and 10 kg S/ha into this ecosystem, which are comparable to those of polluted central Europe. By relating back trajectories calculated by means of the FLEXTRA model to the distributions of satellite derived forest fire pixels, it can be shown that most episodes of enhanced ion concentration, with pH values as low as 4.0, can be attributed to biomass burning in the Amazon. First analyses of oxygen isotopes 16O, 17O, and 18O of nitrate in fogwater samples show mass independent fractionation values ranging between 15 and 20 per mille, clearly indicating that nitrate in the samples is a product of atmospheric conversion of precursors, while the isotope data of river samples taken downstream of the research area are grouped in the region of microbial nitrate. This strongly supports the aforementioned trajectory results and shows that the tropical mountain forest in Ecuador, with local pollution sources missing,is "fertilized" by long-range transport of substances originating from forest fires in Colombia, Venezuela, Brazil, and Peru, far upwind of the research site.

Fabian, P.; Rollenbeck, R.; Thiemens, M. H.; Brothers, L.

2006-12-01

317

Montana Fires  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

article title:  Montana Forest Fires and Hurricane Hector     View Larger Image These images show forest fires raging in Montana and Hurricane Hector swirling in the Pacific. ... available at JPL August 14, 2000 - Montana forest fires and Hurricane Hector. project:  MISR ...

2014-05-15

318

Implications of the spatial dynamics of fire spread for the bistability of savanna and forest.  

PubMed

The role of fire in expanding the global distribution of savanna is well recognized. Empirical observations and modeling suggest that fire spread has a threshold response to fuel-layer continuity, which sets up a positive feedback that maintains savanna-forest bistability. However, modeling has so far failed to examine fire spread as a spatial process that interacts with vegetation. Here, we use simple, well-supported assumptions about fire spread as an infection process and its effects on trees to ask whether spatial dynamics qualitatively change the potential for savanna-forest bistability. We show that the spatial effects of fire spread are the fundamental reason that bistability is possible: because fire spread is an infection process, it exhibits a threshold response to fuel continuity followed by a rapid increase in fire size. Other ecological processes affecting fire spread may also contribute including temporal variability in demography or fire spread. Finally, including the potential for spatial aggregation increases the potential both for savanna-forest bistability and for savanna and forest to coexist in a landscape mosaic. PMID:24570348

Schertzer, E; Staver, A C; Levin, S A

2015-01-01

319

Forest fire management in Portugal : developing system insights through models of social and physical dynamics  

E-print Network

Managing forest fires is a serious national problem in Portugal. Burned area has increased steadily over the past several decades, with particularly devastating years in 2003 and 2005. Ignitions also spike dramatically in ...

Collins, Ross D. (Ross Daniel)

2012-01-01

320

Evaluating Potential Fire Behavior in Lodgepole Pine-Dominated Forests after a Mountain Pine  

E-print Network

ponderosae, fire types, species composition, Pinus contorta M ountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) has infested more than 2 million ac of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) forest

321

Fire Regimes and Successional Dynamics of Pine and Oak Forests in the Central Appalachian Mountains  

E-print Network

of eastern North America, but the processes acting here are less clear, particularly in xerophytic forests dominated by yellow pine (Pinus, subgenus Diploxylon Koehne) and oak (Quercus L.). In this study, I use dendroecological techniques to investigate fire...

Aldrich, Serena Rose

2012-07-16

322

Characteristics of PAHs, PCDD/Fs and PCBs in sediment following forest fires in northern Alberta.  

PubMed

Extensive forest fires occurred in northern Alberta, Canada, in 1998. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were studied following these forest fires in order to explore natural and anthropogenic influences on the affected forest fire area. Specifically, concentrations and profiles of these compounds were determined in sediment samples. A predominance of alkylated PAH derivatives over parent PAHs were observed at the burned and reference sites. Naturally dervied PAHs were abundant at all sites. A high proportion and concentration of retene was observed at the totally burned site and indicates some inputs from forest fires. Very low concentrations of PCDD/Fs and PCBs were observed at all sites, and the profiles were very similar. This likely reflects common atmospheric contributing sources to the study area. PMID:11372856

Gabos, S; Ikonomou, M G; Schopflocher, D; Fowler, B R; White, J; Prepas, E; Prince, D; Chen, W

2001-01-01

323

Numerical Investigation of the Formation of a Convective Column and a Fire Tornado by Forest Fires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computational modeling of the formation of a convective column by forest fires has been carried out. It has been established that in the case of an unstable atmosphere stratification the basic factor influencing the thermal column formation is the intensification of the processes of turbulent mixing and that at a stable atmosphere stratification a more significant factor determining the convective column formation is the action of the buoyancy force. It has been shown that a swirling flow in the convective column is formed due to the appearance of a tangential velocity component as a consequence of the local circulation arising against the background of large-scale motion owing to the thermal and orographic inhomogeneities of the underlying surface.

Grishin, A. M.; Matvienko, O. V.

2014-09-01

324

Investigation on Temporal Changes of Relative Variables to Forest Fire using Spatial Statistical Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to analyze spatial and temporal changes of forest fire. The most important characteristic of forest fire occurrence in South Korea is that all fires are human-caused. It is very difficult to estimating the relationship between human and a fire occurrence using general method, such as GIS, statistics and process modeling, since forest fire is related to spatial condition as well as temporal variety of climate factors. And the situation related to fire occurrence is being changed through time passes. Thus, integration of analysis on space and time can be a key in terms of a method. However, before this integration, to examine which factors have more relation to forest fire is very important to estimate the occurrence. And spatial autocorrelation is also important to estimate the occurrence of forest fire in South Korea because the forest fires have strong spatial dependency according to previous studies. In this study, we tried to examine the varieties on coefficients of independent variables of statistical model consider spatial autocorrelation. We used generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) which can consider spatial autocorrelation as the series of temporal variation changes. The variables which are used in this statistical model can be classified four categories, human accessibility, topography, forest cover and meteorological factors. The meteorological factors are used to know changes of fire occurrence pattern from the temporal variations. Time scale is set up by 10-days data. In the result, it showed that the range of spatial autocorrelation was changed by the temporal variance. The more fire occurs the more spatial autocorrelation showed. The estimated coefficients of fixed factors are also changed by the temporal series. In April, the significances of factors of human accessibility were increased. These result is attributed to the fact that national and traditional holidays in April made people visit mountain. However, the relationship between forest fire occurrence and weather showed low significance from end of February to mid of March. It seems that mean value of ten-days of meteorological data couldn't have relationship to forest fire occurrence because the variance of weather in that season is higher than any other period.

Kwak, H.; Kim, M.; Lee, W.; Won, M.; Koo, K.

2011-12-01

325

Evaluating forest fire prevention programs: an analysis of three case studies  

E-print Network

EVALUATING FOREST FIRE PREVENTION PROGRAMS; AN ANALYSIS OF THREE CASE STUDIES A Thesi. s by Shelley Renee Rigsby Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1980 jor Subject: Sociology EVALUATING FOREST FIRE PREVENTION PROGRAMS: AN ANALYSIS OF THREE CASE STUDIES A Thesis by S. Ranee Rigsby Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) p~ (Memb r) (Head f partment...

Rigsby, Shelley Renee

2012-06-07

326

A forest fire spread fast model based on cellular automaton in spatially heterogeneous area of China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A modified fire spread fast model combining CA framework with WangZhengfei's model is proposed for Emergency Rescue system.This model combines weather condition, terrain slope and vegetation type. It is suit to intricate topography and environmental southwestern fire-prone areas in China. A grid and vector polygon including the outermost fire fronts is obtained for GIS spatial inquiring, providing support for Aid in Decision Making. Simulation and experiments prove cellular automata feasible and effective for fast fire spread model, special in multi-factors restrained forest fire simulation.

Sun, Tao; Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Linghan; Qin, Qianqing; Dong, Wentong; Zhou, Liqun

2009-10-01

327

Ant community responses to experimental fire and logging in a eucalypt forest of south-eastern Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable forest management requires a sound understanding of the impacts of forestry management practices, especially prescribed fire and timber harvesting, on biodiversity. Many studies have examined the impacts of fire and logging separately, but few have considered them together. Here we describe the combined effects of selective logging and repeated prescribed fire on ants in eucalypt forest near Eden in

Alan N. Andersen; Trent D. Penman; Natacha Debas; Mickal Houadria

2009-01-01

328

USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 6. 2008 1 Fire and Nonnative Invasive  

E-print Network

USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 6. 2008 1 Chapter 1: Fire and Nonnative and wildland ecosystems. Wildland managers must decide when, where, and for what specific reasons they should on autecological rela- tionships between plants and fire, past fire regimes, and successional patterns for forest

329

Fire history of pinyon-juniper woodlands at upper ecotones with ponderosa pine forests in Arizona and New Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used maps of fire evidence, fire scar dendrochronology, forest age-structure analysis, and landscape analysis to investigate fire history at pinyon pine (Pinus edulis Engelm.) - juniper (Juniperus osteosperma (Torr.) Little, Juniperus scopulorum Sarg.) woodland - ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa P. & C. Lawson) forest ecotones in Arizona (Tusayan) and in New Mexico (Canjilon). Results showed that charred trees were

David W. Huffman; Peter Z. Fulé; Kristen M. Pearson; Joseph E. Crouse

2008-01-01

330

Forest fires impact in semi arid lands in Algeria, analysis and followed of desertification by using remote sensing and GIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Forest in steppe present ecological diversity, and seen climatic unfavourable conditions in zone and impact of forest fires; we notes deterioration of physical environment particularly, deterioration of natural forest. This deterioration of forests provokes an unbalance of environment witch provokes a process of deterioration advanced in the ultimate stadium is desertification. By elsewhere, where climatic conditions are favourable, the fire is an ecological and acted agent like integral part of evolution of the ecosystems, the specific regeneration of plants are influenced greatly by the regime of fire (season of fire, intensity, interval), who leads to the recuperation of the vegetation of meadow- fire. In this survey we used the pictures ALSAT-1 for detection of zones with risk of forest fire and their impact on the naturals forests in region of Tlemcen. A thematic detailed analysis of forests well attended ecosystems some processing on the picture ALSAT-1, we allowed to identify and classifying the forests in there opinion components flowers. we identified ampleness of fire on this zone also. Some parameters as the slope, the proximity to the road and the forests formations were studied in the goal of determining the zones to risk of forest fire. A crossing of diaper of information in a SIG according to a very determined logic allowed to classify the zones in degree of risk of fire in a middle arid in a forest zone not encouraging the regeneration on the other hand permitting the installation of cash of steppe which encourages the desertification.

Zegrar, Ahmed

331

A stochastic Forest Fire Model for future land cover scenarios assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land cover change and forest fire interaction under climate and socio-economics changes, is one of the main issues of the 21th century. The capability of defining future scenarios of land cover and fire regime allow forest managers to better understand the best actions to be carried out and their long term effects. In this paper a new methodology for land cover change simulations under climate change and fire disturbance is presented and discussed. The methodology is based on the assumption that forest fires exhibits power law frequency-area distribution. The well known Forest Fire Model (FFM), which is an example of self organized criticality, is able to reproduce this behavior. Starting from this observation, a modified version of the FFM has been developed. The new model, called Modified Forest Fire Model (MFFM) introduces several new features. A stochastic model for vegetation growth and regrowth after fire occurrence has been implemented for different kind of vegetations. In addition, a stochastic fire propagation model taking into account topography and vegetation cover has been introduced. The MFFM has been developed with the purpose of estimating vegetation cover changes and fire regimes over a time windows of many years for a given spatial region. Two different case studies have been carried out. The first case study is related with Liguria (Italy), a region of 5400 km2 lying between the Cote d'Azur, France, and Tuscany, Italy, on the northwest coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea. This region is characterized by Mediterranean fire regime. The second case study has been carried out in California (Florida) on a region having similar area and characterized by similar climate conditions. In both cases the model well represents the actual fire regime in terms of power law parameters proving interesting results about future land cover scenarios under climate, land use and socio-economics change.

Fiorucci, P.; Holmes, T.; Gaetani, F.; D'Andrea, M.

2009-04-01

332

Process model of fire ecology and succession in a mixed-conifer forest  

SciTech Connect

A forest succession simulator, SILVA, has been developed for the mixed-conifer forest (seven major species) of the Sierra Nevada, California, to simulate the effects of fire on forest dynamics. SILVA is an extensive modification of a simulator for forests of the northeastern United States. The simulation includes the time development of the growth in tree diameter, tree height, and leaf-area index. Recruitment and mortality are modeled stochastically. Modifications include fire ecology, temporal seed-crop patterns, and seedling-survival factors unique to Sierra Nevada forests. The probability of mortality from fire is determined by the height of crown scorch (a function of fire intensity, diameter at breast height, and bark thickness). The model simulates the dynamic and structural responses of communities to many factors. For 500-yr simulations from an initial clear-cut condition, the time-averaged basal-area ratios of Pinus ponderosa to Abies concolor were 5.2:1 and 1:16 for elevations of 1524 m and 1829 m, respectively. At 1524 m, the ratio of P. ponderosa to A. concolor decreased 59% when fire suppression was introduced. Fire provides P. ponderosa with a strong competitive advantage. Its growth form and growth rate are significant factors in its ability to evade fire. Rank correlations of species were compared with data for stands of ponderosa pine and white fir. Correlations were significant at 1% and 10% levels, respectively.

Kercher, J.R.; Axelrod, M.C.

1984-01-01

333

Enhancement of greenhouse gases associated with Canadian forest fire using multi sensor data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fire is a common natural hazard that takes lives of people and billion dollar loss of properties almost every year. In the recent past frequency of forest fires have increased in Canada and throughout the world that is associated with the changes in land use and land cover practice. Multi sensor satellites are now capable in providing information about the land cover, atmosphere and meteorological parameters. The present paper deals with the multi sensor data (AIRS, MODIS, OMI AURA, TOMS) to study the changes in greenhouse and other gases (NOx, O3, CO, water vapor) and aerosol parameters. The detailed analysis of multi sensor data have shown elevated amount of greenhouse gases, total ozone column and aerosol optical depth during summer of 2004 at the time of Canadian forest fire compared to other years. The spatial distribution of greenhouse gas, aerosol optical depth and meteorological conditions are found to change after the onset of forest fire that shows the dynamic nature of the greenhouse gas and associated releases with the dispersion of the plume and smoke from the forest fire. The maximum changes are found from the surface up to a pressure level height 500 hPa, the change occur is found to be very much dependent on the distance from the source (forest fire location) and also on the meteorological conditions.

Singh, Rachita; Singh, Rachita; Chaturvedi, Ritu

334

Linkages between turbidity levels in Lake Mead associated forest fire events in the lower Virgin watershed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake Mead provides the source of drinking water for over 25 million people in the western United States. Different forest fire events at the northern part of the lake may intensify the concentration of total suspended sediments (TSSs) in water bodies due to the abrupt changes of land covers with accelerated soil erosion. Therefore, it is important to assess the linkage between forest fire events and TSS concentration within the lake. For this purpose, the integrated data fusion and mining (IDFM) techniques were applied in this study to generate TSS concentration maps on a daily basis with the aid of remote sensing imageries. The results of this study confirm the reliability of the IDFM method for nowcasting of TSS concentrations within the lake based on these daily TSS concentration maps. It leads to the investigation of the probable impact of forest fire events on increasing TSS concentrations. Comparing these maps with time of forest fire occurrence showed the potential linkage between increasing TSS concentrations and forest fire events. However, the negative impacts of forest fire events on soil erosion may have lag time to show up.

Chang, N. B.; Imen, S.; Yang, J.

2014-10-01

335

Fire detection system using random forest classification for image sequences of complex background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a fire alarm system based on image processing that detects fire accidents in various environments. To reduce false alarms that frequently appeared in earlier systems, we combined image features including color, motion, and blinking information. We specifically define the color conditions of fires in hue, saturation and value, and RGB color space. Fire features are represented as intensity variation, color mean and variance, motion, and image differences. Moreover, blinking fire features are modeled by using crossing patches. We propose an algorithm that classifies patches into fire or nonfire areas by using random forest supervised learning. We design an embedded surveillance device made with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene housing for stable fire detection in outdoor environments. The experimental results show that our algorithm works robustly in complex environments and is able to detect fires in real time.

Kim, Onecue; Kang, Dong-Joong

2013-06-01

336

Forest dynamics modelling under natural fire cycles: A tool to define natural mosaic diversity for forest management.  

PubMed

In natural boreal forests, disturbances such as fire and variation in surficial deposits create a mosaic of forest stands with different species composition and age. At the landscape level, this variety of stands can be considered as the natural mosaic diversity. In this paper, we describe a model that can be used to estimate the natural diversity level of landscapes. We sampled 624 stands for tree species composition and surficial deposits in eight stand-age classes corresponding to eight fire episodes in the region of Lake Duparquet, Abitibi, Québec at the southern fringe of the Boreal Forest. For six surficial deposit types, stand composition data were used to define equations for vegetation changes with time for a chronosequence of 230 years for four forest types. Using Van Wagner's (1978) model of age class distribution of stands, the proportion of each forest type for several lengths of fire cycle were defined. Finally, for real landscapes (ecological districts) of the ecological region of the "Basses-Terres d'Amos", the proportion of forest types were weighted by the proportion of each surficial deposit type using ecological map information. Examples of the possible uses of the model for management purposes, such as biodiversity conservation and comparisons of different landscapes in terms of diversity and sensitivity to fire regime changes, are discussed. PMID:24198020

Gauthier, S; Leduc, A; Bergeron, Y

1996-01-01

337

Recent burning of boreal forests exceeds fire regime limits of the past 10,000 years  

PubMed Central

Wildfire activity in boreal forests is anticipated to increase dramatically, with far-reaching ecological and socioeconomic consequences. Paleorecords are indispensible for elucidating boreal fire regime dynamics under changing climate, because fire return intervals and successional cycles in these ecosystems occur over decadal to centennial timescales. We present charcoal records from 14 lakes in the Yukon Flats of interior Alaska, one of the most flammable ecoregions of the boreal forest biome, to infer causes and consequences of fire regime change over the past 10,000 y. Strong correspondence between charcoal-inferred and observational fire records shows the fidelity of sedimentary charcoal records as archives of past fire regimes. Fire frequency and area burned increased ?6,000–3,000 y ago, probably as a result of elevated landscape flammability associated with increased Picea mariana in the regional vegetation. During the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA; ?1,000–500 cal B.P.), the period most similar to recent decades, warm and dry climatic conditions resulted in peak biomass burning, but severe fires favored less-flammable deciduous vegetation, such that fire frequency remained relatively stationary. These results suggest that boreal forests can sustain high-severity fire regimes for centuries under warm and dry conditions, with vegetation feedbacks modulating climate–fire linkages. The apparent limit to MCA burning has been surpassed by the regional fire regime of recent decades, which is characterized by exceptionally high fire frequency and biomass burning. This extreme combination suggests a transition to a unique regime of unprecedented fire activity. However, vegetation dynamics similar to feedbacks that occurred during the MCA may stabilize the fire regime, despite additional warming. PMID:23878258

Kelly, Ryan; Chipman, Melissa L.; Higuera, Philip E.; Stefanova, Ivanka; Brubaker, Linda B.; Hu, Feng Sheng

2013-01-01

338

USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-181. 2002. 823 Effects of Prescribed Fire in Ponderosa  

E-print Network

) in northern Arizona ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests. Old-growth ponderosa pine trees are used by 80USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-181. 2002. 823 Effects of Prescribed Fire in Ponderosa-Parker2 and Richard Miller3 Abstract We monitored the effects of prescribed fire in ponderosa pine forest

Standiford, Richard B.

339

Fire mapping in a northern boreal forest: assessing AVHRR\\/NDVI methods of change detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding natural fire regimes is crucial to developing harvesting scenarios and conducting sustainable resource management in the boreal forest. To gain this understanding, resource professionals need efficient and cost-effective data collection methods that can operate over vast and isolated landscapes. We compared three Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)\\/Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) methods of fire detection and mapping for

Tarmo K Remmel; Ajith H Perera

2001-01-01

340

Estimating fire-related parameters in boreal forest using SPOT VEGETATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of burning in the boreal forest zone consists of stand replacement fires larger than 10 km2 occurring in remote, sparsely populated regions. Satellite remote sensing using coarse resolution (?1 km) sensors is thus well suited in documenting the spatial and temporal distribution of fires in this zone. The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of

R. H. Fraser; Z. Lib

2002-01-01

341

ENVISAT ASAR WIDE SWATH BACKSCATTER DYNAMICS OF THE SIBERIAL BOREAL FOREST FIRE SCAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wildfires significantly affect the boreal ecosystem of Siberia. However, records on burnt areas and fire impact are still not satisfactory in Russia. The dense smoke from active burning and the persistent cloud covers impeded the application of optical sensors to the detection of burnt area in Siberia forest during the summer fire season. The high resolution SAR data are of

Shengli Huang; Florian Siegert

2005-01-01

342

Satellite-based mapping of Canadian boreal forest fires: evaluation and comparison of algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates annual fire maps that were produced from NOAA-14\\/AVHRR imagery using an algorithm described in a companion paper (Li et al., International Journal of Remote Sensing, 21, 3057-3069, 2000 (this issue)). Burned area masks covering the Canadian boreal forest were created by compositing the daily maps of fire hot spots over the summer and by examining Normalized Difference

Z. Li; S. Nadon; J. Cihlar; B. Stocks

2000-01-01

343

Synergistic Interactions between Habitat Fragmentation and Fire in Evergreen Tropical Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing prevalence of fragmentation and fire in tropical forests makes it imperative to quan- tify changes in these disturbances and to understand the ways in which they interact across the landscape. I used a multitemporal series of Landsat images to study the incidence and coincidence of fire and fragmenta- tion in two areas of Pará state in the eastern

Mark A. Cochrane

2001-01-01

344

Fire frequency for the transitional mixedwood forest of Timiskaming, Quebec, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire history was reconstructed for a 2500-km2 area at the interface between the boreal coniferous and north- ern hardwood forests of southwestern Quebec. The fire cycle, the time required for an area equal to the study site to burn once over, was described using a random sampling strategy that included dendrochronological techniques in con- junction with provincial and national government

Daniel J. Grenier; Yves Bergeron; Daniel Kneeshaw; Sylvie Gauthier

2005-01-01

345

Factors Related to Communication of Forest Fire Prevention Messages, a Study of Selected Rural Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two rural Louisiana communities were selected to evaluate the effectiveness of certain types of communication in preventing man-caused forest fires. The communities were selected on the basis of differences in fire occurrence rates and other factors related to conservation. Questionnaires and personal interviews were utilized to determine views of…

Griessman, B. Eugene; Bertrand, Alvin L.

346

On the estimation of the forest fire front position by radiative flux measurement.  

E-print Network

of the radiative flux obtained by sensors to estimate the fire front position. The inverse method developed the study. Some models of forest fire propagation at large scale are reaction diffusion systems, see [1 from flames, evT T! = is the characteristic function of the zone of evaporation. This model supposes

Bergmann, Michel

347

Scaling Rules and Probability Models for Surface Fire Regimes in Ponderosa Pine Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistical descriptors of the fire regime in ponderosa pine forests of the Jemez Mountains, New Mexico, are spatially scale-dependent. Thus, quantification of fire regimes must be undertaken in a spatially explicit framework. We apply a variety of analytical tests adapted from species-area relationships to demonstrate an analytical framework for understanding scaling of disturbance regimes. A new spatio- temporal scaling index,

Donald A. Falk; Thomas W. Swetnam

2003-01-01

348

Post-fire geomorphic response in steep, forested landscapes: Oregon Coast Range, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of fire in shaping steep, forested landscapes depends on a suite of hydrologic, biologic, and geological characteristics, including the propensity for hydrophobic soil layers to promote runoff erosion during subsequent rainfall events. In the Oregon Coast Range, several studies postulate that fire primarily modulates sediment production via root reinforcement and shallow landslide susceptibility, although few studies have documented

Molly Jackson; Joshua J. Roering

2009-01-01

349

Ground layer carbon and nitrogen cycling and legume nitrogen inputs following fire in mixed pine forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many mixed pine forests in the southeastern United States undergo prescribed burning to promote open pine savannas. In these systems, soil texture can influence fire's effect on vegetation and nutrient cycling. Our objectives were to examine fire and soil texture effects on carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) pools in ground layer vegetation. We measured biomass and tissue nutrient concentrations and

SARA D. LAJEUNESSE; JOHN J. DILUSTRO; REBECCA R. SHARITZ; BEVERLY S. COLLINS

2006-01-01

350

Early post-fire regeneration in Pinus hrutia forest ecosystems of Samos island ( Greece)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recovery of the burnt pine (Pinus brutia) forests of Samos island was followed during the first three post-fire years. Samos is characterised by a Mediterranean-type climate with a mild, subhumid winter and a long xerothermic period. The natural regeneration of P. brutia is realised exclusively by seeds and is enhanced by a number of adaptations to fire: (i) the

A. Thanos; S. Marcou; D. Christodoulakis; A. Yannitsaros

351

A ground system for early forest fire detection based on infrared signal processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a ground remote automatic system for forest surveillance based on infrared signal processing applied to early fire detection. Advanced techniques, which are based on infrared signal processing, are used in order to process the captured images. With the aim of determining the presence or absence of fire, the system performs the fusion of different detectors that exploit

I. Bosch; S. Gómez; L. Vergara

2011-01-01

352

TESTING FOR DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF FOREST FIRES ON HIKING AND MOUNTAIN BIKING DEMAND AND BENEFITS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveys of visitors to National Forests in Colorado were conducted to determine whether different fire ages and presence of crown fires have different effects on hiking and mountain biking recreation visits and benefits. Actual and intended behavior data were combined using a count-data travel cost model. The intended behavior trip questions asked about changes in number of trips due to

John B. Loomis; Armando Gonzalez-Caban; Jeffrey E. Englin

2001-01-01

353

Smoke From Schultz Pass Forest Fire, Flagstaff, Arizona, June 20, 2010  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Panorama (180 degree field of view) photograph of smoke rising from the Schultz Pass fire near Flagstaff, Arizona, at 1:34 p.m. on its day of ignition, June 20, 2010.  Over the following 10 days, the fire burned an estimated 15,075 acres, or more than 23 square miles of northern Arizona forest, and ...

354

Long-term effects of prescribed fire on mixed conifer forest structure in the Sierra Nevada, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The capacity of prescribed fire to restore forest conditions is often judged by changes in forest structure within a few years following burning. However, prescribed fire might have longer-term effects on forest structure, potentially changing treatment assessments. We examined annual changes in forest structure in five 1 ha old-growth plots immediately before prescribed fire and up to eight years after fire at Sequoia National Park, California. Fire-induced declines in stem density (67% average decrease at eight years post-fire) were nonlinear, taking up to eight years to reach a presumed asymptote. Declines in live stem biomass were also nonlinear, but smaller in magnitude (32% average decrease at eight years post-fire) as most large trees survived the fires. The preferential survival of large trees following fire resulted in significant shifts in stem diameter distributions. Mortality rates remained significantly above background rates up to six years after the fires. Prescribed fire did not have a large influence on the representation of dominant species. Fire-caused mortality appeared to be spatially random, and therefore did not generally alter heterogeneous tree spatial patterns. Our results suggest that prescribed fire can bring about substantial changes to forest structure in old-growth mixed conifer forests in the Sierra Nevada, but that long-term observations are needed to fully describe some measures of fire effects.

van Mantgem, Phillip J.; Stephenson, Nathan L.; Knapp, Eric; Keeley, Jon E.

2011-01-01

355

Forest health conditions in North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the greatest forest health impacts in North America are caused by invasive forest insects and pathogens (e.g., emerald ash borer and sudden oak death in the US), by severe outbreaks of native pests (e.g., mountain pine beetle in Canada), and fires exacerbated by changing climate. Ozone and N and S pollutants continue to impact the health of forests

Borys Tkacz; Ben Moody; Jaime Villa Castillo; Mark E. Fenn

2008-01-01

356

Effects of fire and post-fire salvage logging on avian communities in conifer-dominated forests of the western United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Historically, fire was one of the most widespread natural disturbances in the western United States. More recently, however, significant anthropogenic activities, especially fire suppression and silvicultural practices, have altered fire regimes; as a result, landscapes and associated communities have changed as well. Herein, we review current knowledge of how fire and post-fire salvaging practices affect avian communities in conifer-dominated forests of the western United States. Specifically, we contrast avian communities in (1) burned vs. unburned forest, and (2) unsalvaged vs. salvage-logged burns. We also examine how variation in burn characteristics (e.g., severity, age, size) and salvage logging can alter avian communities in burns. Of the 41 avian species observed in three or more studies comparing early post-fire and adjacent unburned forests, 22% are consistently more abundant in burned forests, 34% are usually more abundant in unburned forests, and 44% are equally abundant in burned and unburned forests or have varied responses. In general, woodpeckers and aerial foragers are more abundant in burned forest, whereas most foliage-gleaning species are more abundant in unburned forests. Bird species that are frequently observed in stand-replacement burns are less common in understory burns; similarly, species commonly observed in unburned forests often decrease in abundance with increasing burn severity. Granivores and species common in open-canopy forests exhibit less consistency among studies. For all species, responses to fire may be influenced by a number of factors including burn severity, fire size and shape, proximity to unburned forests, pre- and post-fire cover types, and time since fire. In addition, post-fire management can alter species' responses to burns. Most cavity-nesting species do not use severely salvaged burns, whereas some cavity-nesters persist in partially salvaged burns. Early post-fire specialists, in particular, appear to prefer unsalvaged burns. We discuss several alternatives to severe salvage-logging that will help provide habitat for cavity nesters. We provide an overview of critical research questions and design considerations crucial for evaluating the effects of prescribed fire and other anthropogenic disturbances, such as forest fragmentation. Management of native avifaunas may be most successful if natural disturbance regimes, including fire, are permitted to occur when possible. Natural fires could be augmented with practices, such as prescribed fire (including high-severity fire), that mimic inherent disturbance regimes.

Kotliar, N.B.; Hejl, S.J.; Hutto, R.L.; Saab, V.A.; Melcher, C.P.; McFadzen, M.E.

2002-01-01

357

Direct and indirect effects of fires on the carbon balance of tropical forest ecosystems (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fires influence the carbon budget of tropical forests directly because they account for a significant component of net emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. They also have indirect effects on nearby intact forests by modifying regional climate, atmospheric composition, and patterns of nutrient deposition. These latter pathways are not well understood and are often ignored in climate mitigation efforts such as the United Nations Program on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+). Here we used the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) and the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED3) to quantify the impacts of fire-emitted aerosols on the productivity of tropical forests. Across the tropical forest biome, fire-emitted aerosols reduced surface temperatures and increased the diffuse solar insolation fraction. These changes in surface meteorology increased gross primary production (GPP) in the Community Land Model. However, these drivers were more than offset in many regions by reductions in soil moisture and total solar radiation. The net effect of fire aerosols caused GPP to decrease by approximately 8% in equatorial Asia and 6% in the central Africa. In the Amazon, decreases in photosynthesis in the western part of the basin were nearly balanced by increases in the south and east. Using additional CAM5 and GEOS-Chem model simulations, we estimated fire contributions to surface concentrations of ozone. Using empirical relationships between ozone exposure and GPP from field studies and models, we estimated how tropical forest GPP was further modified by fire-induced ozone. Our results suggest that efforts to reduce the fire component of tropical land use fluxes may have sustainability benefits that extend beyond the balance sheet for greenhouse gases.

Randerson, J. T.; Tosca, M. G.; Ward, D. S.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; Mahowald, N. M.; Hess, P. G.

2013-12-01

358

The Impact of Precipitation Regimes on Forest Fires in Yunnan Province, Southwest China  

PubMed Central

The amount, frequency, and duration of precipitation have important impact on the occurrence and severity of forest fires. To fully understand the effects of precipitation regimes on forest fires, a drought index was developed with number of consecutive dry days (daily precipitation less than 2?mm) and total precipitation, and the relationships of drought and precipitation with fire activities were investigated over two periods (i.e., 1982–1988 and 1989–2008) in five ecoregions of Yunnan Province. The results showed that precipitation regime had a significant relationship with fire activities during the two periods. However, the influence of the drought on fire activities varied by ecoregions, with more impacts in drier ecoregions IV-V and less impacts in the more humid ecoregions I–III. The drought was more closely related to fire activities than precipitation during the two study periods, especially in the drier ecoregions, indicating that the frequency and the duration of precipitation had significant influences on forest fires in the drier areas. Drought appears to offer a better explanation than total precipitation on temporal changes in fire regimes across the five ecoregions in Yunnan. Our findings have significant implications for forecasting the local fire dangers under the future climate change. PMID:25243208

Chen, Feng; Niu, Shukui; Tong, Xiaojuan; Zhao, Jinlong; Sun, Yu; He, Tengfei

2014-01-01

359

Holocene fire and vegetation dynamics in a montane forest, North Cascade Range, Washington, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We reconstructed a 10,500-yr fire and vegetation history of a montane site in the North Cascade Range, Washington State based on lake sediment charcoal, macrofossil and pollen records. High-resolution sampling and abundant macrofossils made it possible to analyze relationships between fire and vegetation. During the early Holocene (> 10,500 to ca. 8000 cal yr BP) forests were subalpine woodlands dominated by Pinus contorta. Around 8000 cal yr BP, P. contorta sharply declined in the macrofossil record. Shade tolerant, mesic species first appeared ca. 4500 cal yr BP. Cupressus nootkatensis appeared most recently at 2000 cal yr BP. Fire frequency varies throughout the record, with significantly shorter mean fire return intervals in the early Holocene than the mid and late Holocene. Charcoal peaks are significantly correlated with an initial increase in macrofossil accumulation rates followed by a decrease, likely corresponding to tree mortality following fire. Climate appears to be a key driver in vegetation and fire regimes over millennial time scales. Fire and other disturbances altered forest vegetation at shorter time scales, and vegetation may have mediated local fire regimes. For example, dominance of P. contorta in the early Holocene forests may have been reinforced by its susceptibility to frequent, stand-replacing fire events.

Prichard, Susan J.; Gedalof, Ze'ev; Oswald, W. Wyatt; Peterson, David L.

2009-07-01

360

Development of Customized Fire Behavior Fuel Models for Boreal Forests of Northeastern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of forest fuels and their potential fire behavior across a landscape is essential in fire management. Four customized fire behavior fuel models that differed significantly in fuels characteristics and environmental conditions were identified using hierarchical cluster analysis based on fuels data collected across a boreal forest landscape in northeastern China. Fuel model I represented the dense and heavily branched Pinus pumila shrubland which has significant fine live woody fuels. These forests occur mainly at higher mountain elevations. Fuel model II is applicable to forests dominated by Betula platyphylla and Populus davidiana occurring in native forests on hill slopes or at low mountain elevations. This fuel model was differentiated from other fuel models by higher herbaceous cover and lower fine live woody loading. The primary coniferous forests dominated by Larix gmelini and Pinus sylvestris L. var. mongolica were classified as fuel model III and fuel model IV. Those fuel models differed from one another in average cover and height of understory shrub and herbaceous layers as well as in aspect. The potential fire behavior for each fuel model was simulated with the BehavePlus5.0 fire behavior prediction system. The simulation results indicated that the Pinus pumila shrubland fuels had the most severe fire behavior for the 97th percentile weather condition, and had the least severe fire behavior under 90th percentile weather condition. Fuel model II presented the least severe fire potential across weather conditions. Fuel model IV resulted in greater fire severity than Fuel model III across the two weather scenarios that were examined.

Wu, Zhi Wei; He, Hong Shi; Chang, Yu; Liu, Zhi Hua; Chen, Hong Wei

2011-12-01

361

Development of customized fire behavior fuel models for boreal forests of northeastern China.  

PubMed

Knowledge of forest fuels and their potential fire behavior across a landscape is essential in fire management. Four customized fire behavior fuel models that differed significantly in fuels characteristics and environmental conditions were identified using hierarchical cluster analysis based on fuels data collected across a boreal forest landscape in northeastern China. Fuel model I represented the dense and heavily branched Pinus pumila shrubland which has significant fine live woody fuels. These forests occur mainly at higher mountain elevations. Fuel model II is applicable to forests dominated by Betula platyphylla and Populus davidiana occurring in native forests on hill slopes or at low mountain elevations. This fuel model was differentiated from other fuel models by higher herbaceous cover and lower fine live woody loading. The primary coniferous forests dominated by Larix gmelini and Pinus sylvestris L. var. mongolica were classified as fuel model III and fuel model IV. Those fuel models differed from one another in average cover and height of understory shrub and herbaceous layers as well as in aspect. The potential fire behavior for each fuel model was simulated with the BehavePlus5.0 fire behavior prediction system. The simulation results indicated that the Pinus pumila shrubland fuels had the most severe fire behavior for the 97th percentile weather condition, and had the least severe fire behavior under 90th percentile weather condition. Fuel model II presented the least severe fire potential across weather conditions. Fuel model IV resulted in greater fire severity than Fuel model III across the two weather scenarios that were examined. PMID:21691875

Wu, Zhi Wei; He, Hong Shi; Chang, Yu; Liu, Zhi Hua; Chen, Hong Wei

2011-12-01

362

Climate effects on fire regimes and tree recruitment in Black Hills ponderosa pine forests.  

PubMed

Climate influences forest structure through effects on both species demography (recruitment and mortality) and disturbance regimes. Here, I compare multi-century chronologies of regional fire years and tree recruitment from ponderosa pine forests in the Black Hills of southwestern South Dakota and northeastern Wyoming to reconstructions of precipitation and global circulation indices. Regional fire years were affected by droughts and variations in both Pacific and Atlantic sea surface temperatures. Fires were synchronous with La Niñas, cool phases of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and warm phases of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). These quasi-periodic circulation features are associated with drought conditions over much of the western United States. The opposite pattern (El Niño, warm PDO, cool AMO) was associated with fewer fires than expected. Regional tree recruitment largely occurred during wet periods in precipitation reconstructions, with the most abundant recruitment coeval with an extended pluvial from the late 1700s to early 1800s. Widespread even-aged cohorts likely were not the result of large crown fires causing overstory mortality, but rather were caused by optimal climate conditions that contributed to synchronous regional recruitment and longer intervals between surface fires. Synchronous recruitment driven by climate is an example of the Moran effect. The presence of abundant fire-scarred trees in multi-aged stands supports a prevailing historical model for ponderosa pine forests in which recurrent surface fires affected heterogenous forest structure, although the Black Hills apparently had a greater range of fire behavior and resulting forest structure over multi-decadal time scales than ponderosa pine forests of the Southwest that burned more often. PMID:17089659

Brown, Peter M

2006-10-01

363

Moving beyond the cambium necrosis hypothesis of post-fire tree mortality: cavitation and deformation of xylem in forest fires  

E-print Network

) doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2011.04021.x Key words: cavitation, embolism, forest fires, heat, hydraulic: air seed cavitation and con- duit wall deformation. Heat effects on air seed cavitation were to cavitation because sap surface tension varies inversely with temperature. Heating did not affect cavitation

Johnson, Edward A.

364

INTERACTIONS BETWEEN FIRE AND SPRUCE BEETLES IN A SUBALPINE ROCKY MOUNTAIN FOREST LANDSCAPE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interactions between natural disturbances are widely recognized as important determinants of vegetation patterns in forested landscapes but have only rarely been in- vestigated quantitatively. In a subalpine forest landscape in northwestern Colorado, we quantified spatial associations of fire and spruce beetle ( Dendroctonus rufipennis ) outbreaks over more than a century and developed a multivariate logistic model of probability of

Peter Bebi; Dominik Kulakowski; Thomas T. Veblen

2003-01-01

365

Effects of a stand-replacing fire on small-mammal communities in montane forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wildfire, ubiquitous and recurring over thousands of years, is the most important natural disturbance in northern coniferous forest. Accordingly, forest fires may exert a strong influence on the structure and functioning of small-mammal communities. We compared the composition of rodent and shrew communities in burned and unburned patches of a Doug- las-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco) - western larch (Larix

Rafa? Zwolak; Kerry R. Foresman

2007-01-01

366

MAPPING VEGETATION AND FUELS FOR FIRE MANAGEMENT ON THE GILA NATIONAL FOREST  

E-print Network

, satellite imagery classification, vegetation mapping, biophysical classification The use of trade or firm National Forest, and the Fire Management and Engineering staffs of Region 3. We thank all who helped Authors Robert E. Keane is a research ecologist with the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Re- search

Stephens, Scott L.

367

Bark Beetles and Fire: Two Forces of Nature Transforming Western Forests  

E-print Network

. Additional JFSP-supported research is looking into the effects of salvage logging, prescribed burning, and other management strategies on regeneration, nitrogen cycling, soil and water quality, forest dynamicsBark Beetles and Fire: Two Forces of Nature Transforming Western Forests ISSUE 12 FEBRUARY 2012

Turner, Monica G.

368

Spatial and temporal patterns of carbon emissions from forest fires in China from 1950 to 2000  

E-print Network

.1029/2005JD006198. 1. Introduction [2] Forest ecosystems play an important role in the global carbon cycle on the carbon cycle include both the direct release of carbon-containing trace gases into atmosphere throughSpatial and temporal patterns of carbon emissions from forest fires in China from 1950 to 2000

369

Post-fire vegetative dynamics as drivers of microbial community structure and function in forest soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil microorganisms have numerous functional roles in forest ecosystems, including: serving as sources and sinks of key nutrients and catalysts of nutrient transformations; acting as engineers and maintainers of soil structure; and forming mutualistic relationships with roots that improve plant fitness. Although both prescribed and wildland fires are common in temperate forests of North America, few studies have addressed the

Stephen C. Hart; Thomas H. DeLuca; Gregory S. Newman; M. Derek MacKenzie; Sarah I. Boyle

2005-01-01

370

Dynamics of ground vegetation after surface fires in hemiboreal Pinus sylvestris forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to investigate the changes of ground vegetation (field layer: mosses, lichens; ground layer: herbs, shrubs, tree seedlings and saplings) and regeneration of tree species in pine forests after surface fires. The study area was located in Southern part of Lithuania in hemiboreal zone of Europe. The field and ground vegetation was recorded in forest

Vitas Marozas; Jonas Racinskas; Edmundas Bartkevicius

2007-01-01

371

Techniques for reducing false alarms in infrared forest-fire automatic detection systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents techniques to reduce false alarms in forest-fire detection systems based on infrared cameras. Several software components to implement these techniques are discussed. The components are based on thresholds, oscillation detection, matching of visual and infrared images, memory, meteorological information, motion, size, shape, solar conditions and location. The paper includes a description of experiments in two forest environments,

A. Ollero; B. C. Arrue; J. R. Martinez; J. J. Murillo

1999-01-01

372

Effects of fire on spotted owl site occupancy in a late-successional forest  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The spotted owl (Strix occidentalis) is a late-successional forest dependent species that is sensitive to forest management practices throughout its range. An increase in the frequency and spatial extent of standreplacing fires in western North America has prompted concern for the persistence of spotted owls and other sensitive late-successional forest associated species. However, there is sparse information on the effects of fire on spotted owls to guide conservation policies. In 2004-2005, we surveyed for California spotted owls during the breeding season at 32 random sites (16 burned, 16 unburned) throughout late-successional montane forest in Yosemite National Park, California. Our burned areas burned at all severities, but predominately involved low to moderate fire severity. Based on an information theoretic approach, spotted owl detection and occupancy rates were similar between burned and unburned sites. Nest and roost site occupancy was best explained by a model that combined total tree basal area (positive effect) with cover by coarse woody debris (negative effect). The density estimates of California spotted owl pairs were similar in burned and unburned forests, and the overall mean density estimate for Yosemite was higher than previously reported for montane forests. Our results indicate that low to moderate severity fires, historically common within montane forests of the Sierra Nevada, California, maintain habitat characteristics essential for spotted owl site occupancy. These results suggest that managed fires that emulate the historic fire regime of these forests may maintain spotted owl habitat and protect this species from the effects of future catastrophic fires.

Roberts, Susan L.; van Wagtendonk, Jan W.; Miles, A. Keith; Kelt, Douglas A.

2011-01-01

373

LIDAR detection of forest fire smoke above Sofia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution of aerosol load in the atmosphere due to two forest fires near Sofia (the capital city of Bulgaria) was studied using two aerosol lidars which operated at 510.6 nm and 1064 nm. Experimental data is presented as 2D-heatmaps of the evolution of attenuated backscatter coefficient profiles and mean profile of the aerosol backscatter coefficient, calculated for each lidar observation. Backscatter related Angstrom exponent was used as a criterion in particle size estimation of detected smoke layers. Calculated minimal values at altitudes where the aerosol layer was observed corresponded to predominant fraction of coarse aerosol. Dust-transport forecast maps and calculations of backward trajectories were employed to make conclusions about aerosol's origin. They confirmed the local transport of smoke aerosol over the city and lidar station. DREAM forecast maps predicted neither cloud cover, nor Saharan load in the air above Sofia on the days of measurements. The results of lidar observations are discussed in conjunction with meteorological situation, aiming to better explain the reason for the observed aerosol stratification. The data of regular radio sounding of the atmosphere showed a characteristic behavior with small differences of the values between the air temperature and dew-point temperature profiles at aerosol smoke layer altitude. So the resulting stratification revealed the existence of atmospheric layers with aerosol trapping properties.

Grigorov, Ivan; Deleva, Atanaska; Stoyanov, Dimitar; Kolev, Nikolay; Kolarov, Georgi

2015-01-01

374

Fire Return Interval Within the Northern Boundary of the Larch Forest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Larch (Larix spp.) dominant forests compose a large proportion of the forests of Russia (i.e., about 40% of forested areas). These forests range from the Yenisei ridge on the west to the Pacific Ocean on the east, and from Lake Baikal on the south to the 73rd parallel in the north. Larch stands comprise the world s northern most forest at Ary-Mas (72 deg 28' N, 102 deg 15' E). Larch dominated forests occupy about 70% of the permafrost areas in Siberia. Larch forms high closure stands as well as open forests, and is found mainly over permafrost, where other tree species barely survive. Wildfires are typical for this territory with the majority occurring as ground fires due to low crown closure. Due to the thin active layer in permafrost soils and a dense lichen-moss cover, ground fires may cause stand mortality. The vast areas of larch-dominant forests is generally considered as a "carbon sink"; however, positive long-term temperature trends at higher latitudes are expected to result in an increase of fire frequency, and thus may convert this area to a source for greenhouse gases. There are recent observations regarding the increase of fire frequency within non-protected territories. Surprisingly, there are few publications on fire chronoseqences for the huge forested territory between the Ural Mountains and the Pacific Ocean. Also there is a general understanding that bimodal (late spring -- early summer and late summer-beginning of fall) fire seasonal distribution in the south becomes uni-modal (late spring -- early summer) in the north. The purpose of this study is to investigate the wildfire history at the northern edge of the zone of larch dominance.

Kharuk, V. I.; Dvinskaya, M. L.; Ranson, K. J.

2011-01-01

375

Comparing modern and presettlement forest dynamics of a subboreal wilderness: Does spruce budworm enhance fire risk?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Insect disturbance is often thought to increase fire risk through enhanced fuel loadings, particularly in coniferous forest ecosystems. Yet insect disturbances also affect successional pathways and landscape structure that interact with fire disturbances (and vice-versa) over longer time scales. We applied a landscape succession and disturbance model (LANDIS-II) to evaluate the relative strength of interactions between spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) outbreaks and fire disturbances in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area (BWCA) in northern Minnesota (USA). Disturbance interactions were evaluated for two different scenarios: presettlement forests and fire regimes vs. contemporary forests and fire regimes. Forest composition under the contemporary scenario trended toward mixtures of deciduous species (primarily Betula papyrifera and Populus spp.) and shade-tolerant conifers (Picea mariana, Abies balsamea, Thuja occidentalis), with disturbances dominated by a combination of budworm defoliation and high-severity fires. The presettlement scenario retained comparatively more “big pines” (i.e., Pinus strobus, P. resinosa) and tamarack (L. laricina), and experienced less budworm disturbance and a comparatively less-severe fire regime. Spruce budworm disturbance decreased area burned and fire severity under both scenarios when averaged across the entire 300-year simulations. Contrary to past research, area burned and fire severity during outbreak decades were each similar to that observed in non-outbreak decades. Our analyses suggest budworm disturbances within forests of the BWCA have a comparatively weak effect on long-term forest composition due to a combination of characteristics. These include strict host specificity, fine-scaled patchiness created by defoliation damage, and advance regeneration of its primary host, balsam fir (A. balsamea) that allows its host to persist despite repeated disturbances. Understanding the nature of the three-way interaction between budworm, fire, and composition has important ramifications for both fire mitigation strategies and ecosystem restoration initiatives. We conclude that budworm disturbance can partially mitigate long-term future fire risk by periodically reducing live ladder fuel within the mixed forest types of the BWCA but will do little to reverse the compositional trends caused in part by reduced fire rotations.

Sturtevant, Brian R.; Miranda, Brian R.; Shinneman, Douglas J.; Gustafson, Eric J.; Wolter, Peter T.

2012-01-01

376

Thick suspension technology for fly ash transportation and disposal at a coal fired power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modified technology for fly ash transportation and disposal was tested on a pilot plant at the “Šoštanj” Power Plant. The main advantage of this technology is in reduced water requirements for ash transportation and consequent smaller load on the environment with polluted water. The environmental impact of ash sludge deposited in this way was investigated and is described here.

B. Stropnik; K. Južni?

1989-01-01

377

Autoignition and thermogravimetric analysis of forest species treated with fire retardants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spontaneous ignition tests of various forest species were performed with a specifically designed apparatus. The forest species selected: Arbutus andrachne, Cistus incanus, Pinus brutia, Pinus halepensis, Cupressus sempervirens, Pistacia lentiscus, Abies cephalonica are very common in the Mediterranean region which is frequently devastated by forest fires. The same tests were performed in the presence of 20% (w\\/w) (NH4)2HPO4 (DAP) and

S. Liodakis; D. Bakirtzis; A. P. Dimitrakopoulos

2003-01-01

378

Computational investigation of carbon-in-ash levels for a wall-fired boiler after low-NOx combustion modifications  

SciTech Connect

Many coal-fired boilers retrofitted with low NOX firing systems are experiencing significant operational difficulties due primarily to (1) increased carbon in the fly ash or (2) increased water wall wastage. This paper presents the results of a computational investigation of a wall-fired boiler that has recently been retrofitted with low NOx burners and overfire air. The focus of this paper is the effect of the retrofit on unburned carbon/NOx and the potential for applying operational and design modifications to minimize unburned carbon without adversely impacting NOx emissions. Although the magnitude of an increase in unburned carbon after a low NOx retrofit is system and coal dependent, it is often the case that reduction in emissions of nitrogen oxides is accompanied by a corresponding increase in the amount of unburned carbon in fly ash. Since low NOX firing systems increase the residence time of coal/char particles in a fuel rich environment, it might be expected that there is insufficient time under high temperature, oxidizing conditions to ensure complete carbon oxidation in a low NOx firing system. A relatively straight forward consideration of the effect of temperature and oxygen concentration on coal particle pyrolysis/oxidation can be used to provide a qualitative understanding of this effect. However, the complex flow patterns and highly nonlinear physical and chemical phenomena in a boiler make it difficult to predict carbon-in-ash (c-i-a) levels without the use of advanced computational tools. The sensitivity of c-i-a to burnout is pointed out in a figure for a coal with 10% ash. Although c-i-a changes slowly for low burnout, it changes very rapidly at the extent of burnout typical of a boiler. When the extent of burnout drops only slightly, from 99.5 to 99 percent for example, the c-i-a doubles, from 4 to 8%, which in many situations would be unacceptable. The importance of fuel efficiency and ash disposal/recycle emphasizes the need for understanding and addressing this issue. The computational tools used by Reaction Engineering International (REI) have been developed to address the operational and design considerations of a wide range of combustion systems including utility boilers, pyrolysis furnaces, rotary kilns, waste incinerators, flash smelters, and smelting cyclones. The current models simulate reacting flows and particles, including gaseous diffusion flames, pulverized-coal flames, liquid sprays, coal slurries, injected sorbents, and other oxidation/reduction systems. In particular, emphasis has been placed on simulating coal combustion and pollutant formation.

Davis, K.A.; Eddings, E.G.; Heap, M.P. [Reaction Engineering International, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Facchiano, A. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Hardman, R.R. [Mississippi Power Co. Fuel Services, Gulfport, MS (United States)

1998-12-31

379

Chemical and Microphysical Properties of Particles in Aged Plumes From Forest Fire in Alaska and Western Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the summer of 2004 extensive forest fires burned in Alaska and western Canada. In-situ measurements of the aged forest fire plumes were made on board the NOAA WP-3D research aircraft over the northeastern U.S. and southeastern Canada during the International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation (ICARTT) field campaign in July and August 2004. The forest fire

A. G. Wollny; C. A. Brock; O. R. Cooper; F. C. Fehsenfeld; J. A. de Gouw; P. K. Hudson; A. M. Middlebrook; D. M. Murphy; R. Peltier; A. Stohl; C. Warneke; R. Weber

2005-01-01

380

Using Landsat data to assess fire and burn severity in the North American boreal forest region: an overview and summary of results  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been considerable interest in the recent literature regarding the assessment of post-fire effects on forested areas within the North American boreal forest. Assessing the physical and ecological effects of fire in boreal forests has far-reaching implications for a variety of ecosystem processes - such as post-fire forest succession - and land management decisions. The present paper reviews past

Nancy H. F. FrenchA; Eric S. KasischkeB; Ronald J. HallC; Karen A. MurphyD; David L. VerbylaE; Jennifer L. AllenF

381

Direct identification of hazardous elements in ultra-fine and nanominerals from coal fly ash produced during diesel co-firing.  

PubMed

This study has provided an initial assessment of the environmental impacts and potential health effects associated with coal fly ash produced during diesel co-firing. Many hazardous elements that are typically detected by multifaceted chemical characterization by XRD, petrology, FE-SEM/EDS, and HR-TEM/SEAD/FFT/EDS in ultra-fine compounds and nanominerals from the co-fired coal fly ashes (CFAs). It provided an in-depth understanding of coal ash produced during diesel co-firing. Several of the neoformed ultra-fine compounds and nano-minerals found in the coal ashes are the same as those commonly associated with oxidation/transformation of aluminosilicates, carbonates, sulphides and phosphates. PMID:24157478

Martinello, Kátia; Oliveira, Marcos L S; Molossi, Fernando A; Ramos, Claudete G; Teixeira, Elba C; Kautzmann, Rubens M; Silva, Luis F O

2014-02-01

382

Surface Fire Influence on Carbon Balance Components in Scots Pine Forest of Siberia, Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfire is one of the most important disturbances in boreal forests, and it can have a profound effect on forest-atmosphere carbon exchange. Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine) stands of Siberia are strongly impacted by fires of low to high severity. Biomass distribution in mature lichen/feathermoss Scots pine stands indicates that they are carbon sinks before fire. Fires contribute significantly to the carbon budget resulting in a considerable carbon efflux, initially through direct consumption of forest fuels and later as a result of tree mortality and decomposition of dead material accumulated on the forest floor. In initial postfire years these processes dominate over photosynthetic carbon assimilation, and the ecosystems become a carbon source. Over several postfire years, above-ground carbon in dead biomass tends to increase, with the increase depending significantly on fire severity. High-severity fire enhances dead biomass carbon, while moderate- and low-severity fires have minimal effect on above-ground carbon distribution in Scots pine ecosystems. Dead stand biomass carbon increases, primarily during the first two years following fires, due to tree mortality. This increase can account for up to 12.4% of the total stand biomass after low- and moderate- intensity fires. We found tree dieback following a high-intensity fire is an order of magnitude higher, and thus the dead biomass increases up to 88.1% of total above-ground biomass. Photosynthetic CO2 uptake decreases with increasing tree mortality, and needle foliage and bark are incorporated into the upper layer of the forest floor in the course of years. Ground vegetation and duff carbon were >90, 71-83, and 82% of prefire levels after fires of low, moderate, and high severity, respectively for the first 4 to 5 years after fire. Fires of low and moderate severity caused down woody fuel carbon to increase by 2.1 and 3.6 t ha-1 respectively by four years after burning as compared to the pre-fire values. Climate change and increasing drought length observed in recent decades have increased the probability of high-intensity fire occurrence. Areas burned have increased in extent and severity across Siberia, resulting in increased carbon emissions to the atmosphere from fuel combustion and post fire decomposition.

Kukavskaya, E.; Ivanova, G. A.; Conard, S. G.; Soja, A. J.

2008-12-01

383

[Forest fire division by using MODIS data based on the temporal-spatial variation law].  

PubMed

Forest fires are harmful to the ecological environment, which have induced global attention. In the present paper fire activities extracted from MODIS and burned areas were compared, and it was found that the wave band of 8-9 extracted from MOD14A1 was useful for fire monitoring, and the data accorded with field investigation with goodness of fit reaching up to 0. 83. Through combining this wave band and the relative data to make the time and space analysis of the forest fires for 11 years, from 2000 to 2010, the study showed that the fire occurred most frequently in the spring, the autumn took the second place, and in the summer there was almost no fire occurrence unless drought. Through the analysis of the research area, the burned areas of the coniferous forest and temperate mixed forest were 53.68% and 44%, respectively, while the grassland was only 2.32%. Da Hinggan Ling region was the main combustion area, the burned areas were 64.7% and that for Xiao Hinggan Ling was about 23.49%, while those for other areas were less than 5%. The majority of forest land of burned areas has a gentle slope (< or =5 percent), and is in the middle altitude between 200 and 500 m. So, using satellite remote sensing to analyze the time series of burned areas in forests would make the relationship between the fire activities, climate change, topography and vegetation type clear and it is also helpful to predicting the risk level of the fire areas. PMID:24369655

He, Cheng; He, Cheng; Gong, Yin-xi; Zhang, Si-yu; He, Teng-fei; Chen, Feng; Sun, Yu; Feng, Zhong-ke

2013-09-01

384

Mapping and Analysis of Forest and Land Fire Potential Using Geospatial Technology and Mathematical Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest and land fire can cause negative implications for forest ecosystems, biodiversity, air quality and soil structure. However, the implications involved can be minimized through effective disaster management system. Effective disaster management mechanisms can be developed through appropriate early warning system as well as an efficient delivery system. This study tried to focus on two aspects, namely by mapping the potential of forest fire and land as well as the delivery of information to users through WebGIS application. Geospatial technology and mathematical modeling used in this study for identifying, classifying and mapping the potential area for burning. Mathematical models used is the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), while Geospatial technologies involved include remote sensing, Geographic Information System (GIS) and digital field data collection. The entire Selangor state was chosen as our study area based on a number of cases have been reported over the last two decades. AHP modeling to assess the comparison between the three main criteria of fuel, topography and human factors design. Contributions of experts directly involved in forest fire fighting operations and land comprising officials from the Fire and Rescue Department Malaysia also evaluated in this model. The study found that about 32.83 square kilometers of the total area of Selangor state are the extreme potential for fire. Extreme potential areas identified are in Bestari Jaya and Kuala Langat High Ulu. Continuity of information and terrestrial forest fire potential was displayed in WebGIS applications on the internet. Display information through WebGIS applications is a better approach to help the decision-making process at a high level of confidence and approximate real conditions. Agencies involved in disaster management such as Jawatankuasa Pengurusan Dan Bantuan Bencana (JPBB) of District, State and the National under the National Security Division and the Fire and Rescue Department Malaysia can use the end result of this study in preparation for the land and forest fires in the future.

Suliman, M. D. H.; Mahmud, M.; Reba, M. N. M.; S, L. W.

2014-02-01

385

The Impact of Boreal Forest Fire on Climate Warming  

E-print Network

fire, integrating the effects of greenhouse gases, aerosols,and the effects from the remaining greenhouse gases in thegreenhouse gases emitted by fire contribute to climate warming, understanding the net effect

2006-01-01

386

Web-site Summary: Skinner, Stephens andWilbanks. 2005. Jeffery Pine Mixed Conifer Fire History and Forest Structure With and Without Fire  

E-print Network

Web-site Summary: Skinner, Stephens andWilbanks. 2005. Jeffery Pine Mixed Conifer Fire History and Forest Structure With and Without Fire Suppression and Harvesting. JFSP Final Report Project 01-3-3-27. SUMMARY OF PROJECT OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this project were to compare climate, fire history

Stephens, Scott L.

387

Web service tools in the era of forest fire management and elimination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires in forests and forested areas in South Europe, North America, Central Asia and Australia are a diachronic threat with crucial ecological, economic and social impacts. Last decade the frequency, the magnitude and the intensity of fires have increased even more because of the climate change. An efficient response to such disasters requires an effective planning, with an early detection system of the ignition area and an accurate prediction of fire propagation to support the rapid response mechanisms. For this reason, information systems able to predict and visualize the behavior of fires, are valuable tools for fire fighting. Such systems, able also to perform simulations that evaluate the fire development scenarios, based on weather conditions, become valuable Decision Support Tools for fire mitigation planning. A Web-based Information System (WIS) developed in the framework of the FLIRE (Floods and fire risk assessment and management) project, a LIFE+ co-funded by the European Commission research, is presented in this study. The FLIRE WIS use forest fuel maps which have been developed by using generalized fuel maps, satellite data and in-situ observations. Furthermore, it leverages data from meteorological stations and weather forecast from numerical models to feed the fire propagation model with the necessary for the simulations inputs and to visualize the model's results for user defined time periods and steps. The user has real-time access to FLIRE WIS via any web browser from any platform (PC, Laptop, Tablet, Smartphone).

Poursanidis, Dimitris; Kochilakis, Giorgos; Chrysoulakis, Nektarios; Varella, Vasiliki; Kotroni, Vassiliki; Eftychidis, Giorgos; Lagouvardos, Kostas

2014-10-01

388

Interactive effects of historical logging and fire exclusion on ponderosa pine forest structure in the northern Rockies.  

PubMed

Increased forest density resulting from decades of fire exclusion is often perceived as the leading cause of historically aberrant, severe, contemporary wildfires and insect outbreaks documented in some fire-prone forests of the western United States. Based on this notion, current U.S. forest policy directs managers to reduce stand density and restore historical conditions in fire-excluded forests to help minimize high-severity disturbances. Historical logging, however, has also caused widespread change in forest vegetation conditions, but its long-term effects on vegetation structure and composition have never been adequately quantified. We document that fire-excluded ponderosa pine forests of the northern Rocky Mountains logged prior to 1960 have much higher average stand density, greater homogeneity of stand structure, more standing dead trees and increased abundance of fire-intolerant trees than paired fire-excluded, unlogged counterparts. Notably, the magnitude of the interactive effect of fire exclusion and historical logging substantially exceeds the effects of fire exclusion alone. These differences suggest that historically logged sites are more prone to severe wildfires and insect outbreaks than unlogged, fire-excluded forests and should be considered a high priority for fuels reduction treatments. Furthermore, we propose that ponderosa pine forests with these distinct management histories likely require distinct restoration approaches. We also highlight potential long-term risks of mechanical stand manipulation in unlogged forests and emphasize the need for a long-term view of fuels management. PMID:21049874

Naficy, Cameron; Sala, Anna; Keeling, Eric G; Graham, Jon; DeLuca, Thomas H

2010-10-01

389

Leaching of wood ash products aimed for spreading in forest floors--influence of method and L/S ratio.  

PubMed

Use of biofuels in the form of logging residues is increasing in the European countries. This intensive forestry, where entire trees are removed from the felling sites, may contribute to a negative nutrient balance in the forest soil. Recycling of ash from the combustion of clean wood fuel, sometimes in combination with limestone or additives/binders, back into the forest soil could maintain the soil nutrient reservoir intact. Before spreading ash, it is important to determine its contents and, particularly, its decomposition pattern using reliable laboratory leaching tests. In this study, mineralogy and the leaching of Na, Ca, K, Mg, Mn, Al, Cu, Fe, P, and Zn from wood ash pellets and granules, produced both from green liquor sludge and fly ash, are examined by XRD and by subjecting these substances to three different laboratory leaching tests: upflow percolation (CEN/TS 14405), batch leaching (SS-EN12457), and a new Swedish leaching test using a magnetic stirrer. Mineral phases such as quartz, ettringite, calcite, gehlenite, and aphtitalite were identified in the ash granules and in the ash/green liquor sludge granules, by means of XRD. Six additional minerals were detected in the granules of ash only, and another six in the ash/green liquor sludge granules. At L/S 2, the batch leaching test resulted in the highest amounts of elements leached and the upflow percolation test the lowest. At L/S 10, both the batch leaching test and the upflow percolation test resulted in high amounts of elements leached. The batch leaching test at L/S 10 complies quite well with the percolation test and could be suitable for ash/green liquor sludge granule evaluation in daily practice. The magnetic stirrer test seems to underestimate the release potential of elements from granules. The batch test is simple to perform, and has the ability to dissolve 70-80% of the elements with the highest mobility from the materials under study. PMID:18083021

Mellbo, Peter; Sarenbo, Sirkku; Stålnacke, Olof; Claesson, Tommy

2008-11-01

390

Impacts of Boreal Forest Fires and Post-Fire Succession on Energy Budgets and Climate in the Community Earth System Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetation compositions of boreal forests are determined largely by recovery patterns after large-scale disturbances, the most notable of which is wildfire. Forest compositions exert large controls on regional energy and greenhouse gas budgets by affecting surface albedo, net radiation, turbulent energy fluxes, and carbon stocks. Impacts of boreal forest fires on climate are therefore products of direct fire effects, including charred surfaces and emitted aerosols and greenhouse gasses, and post-fire vegetation succession, which affects carbon and energy exchange for many decades after the initial disturbance. Climate changes are expected to be greatest at high latitudes, leading many to project increases in boreal forest fires. While numerous studies have documented the effects of post-fire landscape on energy and gas budgets in boreal forests, to date no continental analysis using a coupled model has been performed. In this study we quantified the effects of boreal forest fires and post-fire succession on regional and global climate using model experiments in the Community Earth System Model. We used 20th century climate data and MODIS vegetation continuous fields and land cover classes to identify boreal forests across North America and Eurasia. Historical fire return intervals were derived from a regression approach utilizing the Canadian and Alaskan Large Fire Databases, the Global Fire Emissions Database v3, and land cover and climate data. Succession trajectories were derived from the literature and MODIS land cover over known fire scars. Major improvements in model-data comparisons of long-term energy budgets were observed by prescribing post-fire vegetation succession. Global simulations using historical and future burn area scenarios highlight the potential impacts on climate from changing fire regimes and provide motivation for including vegetation succession in coupled simulations.

Rogers, B. M.; Randerson, J. T.; Bonan, G. B.

2011-12-01

391

The Demise of Fire and "Mesophication" of Forests in the Eastern United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A diverse array of fire-adapted plant communities once covered the eastern United States. European settlement greatly altered fire regimes, often increasing fire occurrence (e.g., in northern hardwoods) or substantially decreasing it (e.g., in tallgrass prairies). Notwithstanding these changes, fire suppression policies, beginning around the 1920s, greatly reduced fire throughout the East, with profound ecological consequences. Fire-maintained open lands converted to closed-canopy forests. As a result of shading, shade-tolerant, fire-sensitive plants began to replace heliophytic (sun-loving), fire-tolerant plants. A positive feedback cycle-which we term "mesophication" -ensued, whereby microenvironmental conditions (cool, damp, and shaded conditions; less flammable fuel beds) continually improve for shade-tolerant mesophytic species and deteriorate for shade-intolerant, fire-adapted species. Plant communities are undergoing rapid compositional and structural changes, some with no ecological antecedent. Stand-level species richness is declining, and will decline further, as numerous fire-adapted plants are replaced by a limited set of shade-tolerant, fire-sensitive species. As this process continues, the effort and cost required to restore fire-adapted ecosystems escalate rapidly.

Gregory J. Nowacki (US Department of Agriculture; )

2008-02-01

392

Forest Fire Monitoring with an Adaptive In-Network Aggregation Scheduling in Wireless Sensor Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a novel in-network aggregation scheduling scheme for forest fire monitoring in a wireless sensor network. This adaptively configures both the timeout and the collecting period according to the potential level of a fire occurrence. At normal times, the proposed scheme decreases a timeout that is a wait time for packets sent from child nodes and makes the collecting period longer. That reduces the dissipated energy of the sensor node. Conversely, the proposed scheme increases the timeout and makes the collecting period shorter during fire occurrences in order to achieve more accurate data aggregation and early fire detection.

Baek, Jang Woon; Nam, Young Jin; Seo, Dae-Wha

393

Automatic forest-fire measuring using ground stations and Unmanned Aerial Systems.  

PubMed

This paper presents a novel system for automatic forest-fire measurement using cameras distributed at ground stations and mounted on Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). It can obtain geometrical measurements of forest fires in real-time such as the location and shape of the fire front, flame height and rate of spread, among others. Measurement of forest fires is a challenging problem that is affected by numerous potential sources of error. The proposed system addresses them by exploiting the complementarities between infrared and visual cameras located at different ground locations together with others onboard Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). The system applies image processing and geo-location techniques to obtain forest-fire measurements individually from each camera and then integrates the results from all the cameras using statistical data fusion techniques. The proposed system has been extensively tested and validated in close-to-operational conditions in field fire experiments with controlled safety conditions carried out in Portugal and Spain from 2001 to 2006. PMID:22163958

Martínez-de Dios, José Ramiro; Merino, Luis; Caballero, Fernando; Ollero, Anibal

2011-01-01

394

Automatic Forest-Fire Measuring Using Ground Stations and Unmanned Aerial Systems  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a novel system for automatic forest-fire measurement using cameras distributed at ground stations and mounted on Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). It can obtain geometrical measurements of forest fires in real-time such as the location and shape of the fire front, flame height and rate of spread, among others. Measurement of forest fires is a challenging problem that is affected by numerous potential sources of error. The proposed system addresses them by exploiting the complementarities between infrared and visual cameras located at different ground locations together with others onboard Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). The system applies image processing and geo-location techniques to obtain forest-fire measurements individually from each camera and then integrates the results from all the cameras using statistical data fusion techniques. The proposed system has been extensively tested and validated in close-to-operational conditions in field fire experiments with controlled safety conditions carried out in Portugal and Spain from 2001 to 2006. PMID:22163958

Martínez-de Dios, José Ramiro; Merino, Luis; Caballero, Fernando; Ollero, Anibal

2011-01-01

395

Negligible influence of spatial autocorrelation in the assessment of fire effects in a mixed conifer forest  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fire is an important feature of many forest ecosystems, although the quantification of its effects is compromised by the large scale at which fire occurs and its inherent unpredictability. A recurring problem is the use of subsamples collected within individual burns, potentially resulting in spatially autocorrelated data. Using subsamples from six different fires (and three unburned control areas) we show little evidence for strong spatial autocorrelation either before or after burning for eight measures of forest conditions (both fuels and vegetation). Additionally, including a term for spatially autocorrelated errors provided little improvement for simple linear models contrasting the effects of early versus late season burning. While the effects of spatial autocorrelation should always be examined, it may not always greatly influence assessments of fire effects. If high patch scale variability is common in Sierra Nevada mixed conifer forests, even following more than a century of fire exclusion, treatments designed to encourage further heterogeneity in forest conditions prior to the reintroduction of fire will likely be unnecessary.

van Mantgem, P.J.; Schwilk, D.W.

2009-01-01

396

Forest Fires in Southwestern Amazonia During 2005: Extent and Distribution in Eastern Acre State, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extended drought in western Amazonia during 2005 provided the conditions for wild fires that spread in old- growth rain forests and cleared areas of the contiguous areas of Madre de Dios, Peru, Acre, Brazil, and Pando, Bolivia, collectively known as the MAP Region. The greatest extent of the wild fires occurred in eastern Acre State with 60,000 km2 of diverse land uses that range from intensely occupied colonization areas, large cattle ranches, extractive and biological reserves and indigenous areas. At the request of the Public Ministry of Acre and other government agencies we analyzed Landsat 5 and CBERS 2 imagery for forests with canopies affected by fires, using visual interpretation and manual digitalization of polygons. Accuracy assessment was done with 180 aerial photos. The total area of forest with canopies affected by fires was 267,000 ha, roughly five times recent annual deforestation rates for Acre State. Omission and commission errors were 28% and 2%, respectively. Burn scars in non-forest areas were determined using ASTER and CBERS 2 imagery via supervised classification. Total open area with burn scars was 203,000 ha. The total of open area and forests affected by fires exceeded 470,000 ha due to three factors: (1) some images used did not include the last weeks of burning; (2) ground fires in forests that did not affect the canopy and therefore were not detected; and (3) concern of the interpreters to avoid commission errors. Of the twelve municipalities of eastern Acre, most affected were Acrelandia, Placido de Castro, Epitaciolandia with >31%, >19% and >17% of the municipality affected, respectively). The largest impact, >114,000 ha, occurred in the Rio Branco Municipality. Similar patterns of burning occurred in Pando and in Madre de Dios. The environmental, social and economic disaster that these fires produced may be a harbinger of future impacts in southwestern Amazonia if current climate predictions prove to be correct.

Brown, I.; Moulard, E. M.; Nakamura, J.; Schroeder, W.; Maldonado, M.; Vasconcelos, S. S.; Selhorst, D.

2007-05-01

397

Estimating carbon emissions in Russia using the Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Russian boreal forest zone contains about 28 percent of the global terrestrial carbon. Wildfires in Russia burn an estimated 12-15 million ha annually. In a warming climate, fires in the boreal zone are expected to increase in area and severity, with the potential for increasing global fire emissions and decreasing carbon stored in soils and biomass. Current fire data for these forests generally do not account for the large spatial and temporal variations in fuel loads and consumption for differing forest types and weather patterns. As a result, it has been difficult to obtain good estimates of annual carbon emissions. While methods are being developed to estimate carbon emission remotely, there is an immediate need for more accurate estimates. Our previous work has indicated that the Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System (CFFDRS) is suitable for use in Russia. CFFDRS fuel consumption models can be used to estimate carbon emissions. The Canadian Forest Fire Weather Indexes (FWI) System, part of the CFFDRS, estimates the moisture content of various fuel classes and uses these estimates to generate a set of relative fire behavior indicators. As part of the Russian FIRE BEAR (Fire Effects in the Boreal Eurasia Region) Project, we conducted 14 experimental surface fires on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forest sites in Siberia under a range of weather and fuel conditions. Detailed measurements of fuel consumption on each fire provided a basis for modeling carbon emissions using the FWI System. Carbon released by these experimental surface fires ranged from 4.8 to 15.4 t C ha-1 depending on burning conditions and fuel conditions. Provided burn areas and burn dates are known, and forest type and antecedent weather data are available, these models can be used to estimate the total annual carbon emissions for forest fires in Russia. Weather data was obtained for all Russian weather stations over a 55-year period (1953-2008) from the National Climate Data Center (NCDC). After correcting for missing data, we calculated FWI System values based on a fire season running from March 15 to October 31. Since the number of stations is small relative to the area of interest, we also used station data for neighboring countries (Mongolia, northern China) to assist interpolation. Seven spatial data layers created using GIS software included daily fuel moisture code and fire behavior indices of the FWI System along with Daily Severity Index across Russia and the adjacent boundary areas (1617 maps/yr). When we compared distribution of FWI values across Russia to daily fire scar data from AVHRR imagery for selected years, distribution of fire activity appeared to be well related to the FWI values. Our goal is to develop a reasonable estimate of seasonal and interannual carbon emissions for fires burning in Siberia based on daily values of the FWI System. In a related project, we are creating a post-1979 fire burn area database for Russia using AVHRR images. Our goal is to combine historical and current burned area and weather data to develop improved estimates of annual carbon emissions for the boreal zone in Russia.

McRae, D. J.; Jin, J.; Yang, Y.; Conard, S. G.; Sukhinin, A.; Stocks, B. J.

2009-12-01

398

Interactions among forest composition, structure, fuel loadings and fire history: A case study of red pine-dominated forests of Seney National Wildlife Refuge, Upper Michigan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) has been a historically important species in the eastern United States and Canada. Prior to European settlement, fire played a major role in determining the composition and structure of red pine-dominated forests. However, fire suppression efforts have prevented natural regeneration of red pine and the development of structurally diverse red pine-dominated forests across its natural

Igor Drobyshev; P. Charles Goebel; David M. Hix; R. Gregory Corace; Marie E. Semko-Duncan

2008-01-01

399

Testing Remote Sensing Data and GIS Applications for Forest Fire Risk Modelling in the Canary Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite remote sensing data provide a really important tool to analyze all the topics related to forest fires in its different stages. The synergy of Geographical Information Systems and satellite images have greatly improved the development of forest fire risk maps, early alert systems and mapping of burnt area and forest regeneration. During the last decades, different strategies have been considered for fire risk modelling, and as it is well known these indexes have been completed using many different representative variables, like vegetation cover, fire statistics, high voltage network, maps of main roads that account for the anthropogenic causes, etc. In this paper a complete analysis of different methodologies for fire risk mapping is made, and some improvement to them are applied to the Canary Islands region in Spain, a specially damaged area during 2007 fire season. The analysis of different fire risk indexes is made using MODIS and AVHRR data and the effect of spatial resolution in these indexes trends is also analyzed over different test areas.

Hernandez-Leal, Pedro A.; González-Calvo, Alejandro; Alonso, Alfonso; Arbelo, Manuel; Barreto, Africa

400

Labile C constrains soil respiration in ponderosa pine forests during short-term precipitation manipulation and long-term crown fire recovery.  

E-print Network

??Ponderosa pine forests in the Southwest United States historically experienced frequent, low intensity surface fires, which maintained relatively open forests by removing dead woody material… (more)

Ross, Christopher

2008-01-01

401

Quantifying post-fire recovery of forest canopy structure and its environmental drivers using satellite image time-series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire is a recurring disturbance in most of Australia's forests. Depending on fire severity, impacts on forest canopies vary from light scorching to complete defoliation, with related variation in the magnitude and duration of post-fire gas exchange by that canopy. Estimates of fire impacts on forest canopy structure and carbon uptake for south-eastern Australia's forests do not exist. Here, we use 8-day composite measurements of the fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active radiation (FPAR) as recorded by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to characterise forest canopies before and after fire and to compare burnt and unburnt sites. FPAR is a key biophysical canopy variable and primary input for estimating Gross Primary Productivity (GPP). Post-fire FPAR loss was quantified for all forest areas burnt between 2001 and 2010, showing good agreement with independent assessments of fire severity patterns of 2009 Black Saturday fires. A new method was developed to determine the duration of post-fire recovery from MODIS-FPAR time-series. The method involves a spatial-mode principal component analysis on full FPAR time series followed by a K-means clustering to group pixels based on similarity in temporal patterns. Using fire history data, time series of FPAR for burnt and unburnt pixels in each cluster were then compared to quantify the duration of the post-fire recovery period, which ranged from less than 1 to 8 years. The results show that time series of MODIS FPAR are well suited to detect and quantify disturbances of forest canopy structure and function in large areas of highly variable climate and phenology. Finally, the role of post-fire climate conditions and previous fire history on the duration of the post-fire recovery of the forest canopy was examined using generalized additive models.

Khanal, Shiva; Duursma, Remko; Boer, Matthias

2014-05-01

402

Holocene vegetation and fire regimes in subalpine and mixed conifer forests, southern Rocky Mountains, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Our understanding of the present forest structure of western North America hinges on our ability to determine antecedent forest conditions. Sedimentary records from lakes and bogs in the southern Rocky Mountains of Colorado and New Mexico provide information on the relationships between climate and vegetation change, and fire history since deglaciation. We present a new pollen record from Hunters Lake (Colorado) as an example of a high-elevation vegetation history from the southern Rockies. We then present a series of six sedimentary records from ???2600 to 3500-m elevation, including sites presently at the alpine?subalpine boundary, within the Picea engelmannii?Abies lasiocarpa forest and within the mixed conifer forest, to determine the history of fire in high-elevation forests there. High Artemisia and low but increasing percentages of Picea and Pinus suggest vegetation prior to 13 500 calendar years before present (cal yr BP) was tundra or steppe, with open spruce woodland to ???11 900 cal yr BP. Subalpine forest (Picea engelmannii, Abies lasiocarpa) existed around the lake for the remainder of the Holocene. At lower elevations, Pinus ponderosa and/or contorta expanded 11 900 to 10 200 cal yr BP; mixed conifer forest expanded ???8600 to 4700 cal yr BP; and Pinus edulis expanded after ???4700 cal yr BP. Sediments from lake sites near the alpine?subalpine transition contained five times less charcoal than those entirely within subalpine forests, and 40 times less than bog sites within mixed conifer forest. Higher fire episode frequencies occurred between ???12 000 and 9000 cal yr BP (associated with the initiation or expansion of south-west monsoon and abundant lightning, and significant biomass during vegetation turnover) and at ???2000?1000 cal yr BP (related to periodic droughts during the long-term trend towards wetter conditions and greater biomass). Fire episode frequencies for subalpine?alpine transition and subalpine sites were on average 5 to 10 fire events/1000 years over the Holocene, corresponding to one fire event every ???100 to 200 years. (5) Our Holocene-length sedimentary charcoal records provide additional evidence for the anomalous nature of the 20th-century fire regime, where fires were largely suppressed as a national policy. ?? IAWF 2008.

Anderson, R. Scott; Allen, C.D.; Toney, J.L.; Jass, R.B.; Bair, A.N.

2008-01-01

403

Biodiversity and resilience of arthropod communities after fire disturbance in temperate forests.  

PubMed

Changes in ecosystem functions following disturbances are of central concern in ecology and a challenge for ecologists is to understand the factors that affect the resilience of community structures and ecosystem functions. In many forest ecosystems, one such important natural disturbance is fire. The aim of this study was to understand the variation of resilience in six functional groups of invertebrates in response to different fire frequencies in southern Switzerland. We measured resilience by analysing arthropod species composition, abundance and diversity in plots where the elapsed time after single or repeated fires, as determined by dendrochronology, varied. We compared data from these plots with data from plots that had not burned recently and defined high resilience as the rapid recovery of the species composition to that prior to fire. Pooling all functional groups showed that they were more resilient to single fires than to repeated events, recovering 6-14 years after a single fire, but only 17-24 years after the last of several fires. Flying zoophagous and phytophagous arthropods were the most resilient groups. Pollinophagous and epigaeic zoophagous species showed intermediate resilience, while ground-litter saprophagous and saproxylophagous arthropods clearly displayed the lowest resilience to fire. Their species composition 17-24 years post-burn still differed markedly from that of the unburned control plots. Depending on the fire history of a forest plot, we found significant differences in the dominance hierarchy among invertebrate species. Any attempt to imitate natural disturbances, such as fire, through forest management must take into account the recovery times of biodiversity, including functional group composition, to ensure the conservation of multiple taxa and ecosystem functions in a sustainable manner. PMID:16804704

Moretti, Marco; Duelli, Peter; Obrist, Martin K

2006-08-01

404

How surface fire in Siberian Scots pine forests affects soil organic carbon in the forest floor: Stocks, molecular structure, and conversion to black carbon (charcoal)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In boreal forests, fire is a frequent disturbance and converts soil organic carbon (OC) to more degradation-resistant aromatic carbon, i.e., black carbon (BC) which might act as a long-term atmospheric-carbon sink. Little is known on the effects of fires on boreal soil OC stocks and molecular composition. We studied how a surface fire affected the composition of the forest floor

Claudia I. Czimczik; Caroline M. Preston; Michael W. I. Schmidt; Ernst-Detlef Schulze

2003-01-01

405

Using Unplanned Fires to Help Suppressing Future Large Fires in Mediterranean Forests  

PubMed Central

Despite the huge resources invested in fire suppression, the impact of wildfires has considerably increased across the Mediterranean region since the second half of the 20th century. Modulating fire suppression efforts in mild weather conditions is an appealing but hotly-debated strategy to use unplanned fires and associated fuel reduction to create opportunities for suppression of large fires in future adverse weather conditions. Using a spatially-explicit fire–succession model developed for Catalonia (Spain), we assessed this opportunistic policy by using two fire suppression strategies that reproduce how firefighters in extreme weather conditions exploit previous fire scars as firefighting opportunities. We designed scenarios by combining different levels of fire suppression efficiency and climatic severity for a 50-year period (2000–2050). An opportunistic fire suppression policy induced large-scale changes in fire regimes and decreased the area burnt under extreme climate conditions, but only accounted for up to 18–22% of the area to be burnt in reference scenarios. The area suppressed in adverse years tended to increase in scenarios with increasing amounts of area burnt during years dominated by mild weather. Climate change had counterintuitive effects on opportunistic fire suppression strategies. Climate warming increased the incidence of large fires under uncontrolled conditions but also indirectly increased opportunities for enhanced fire suppression. Therefore, to shift fire suppression opportunities from adverse to mild years, we would require a disproportionately large amount of area burnt in mild years. We conclude that the strategic planning of fire suppression resources has the potential to become an important cost-effective fuel-reduction strategy at large spatial scale. We do however suggest that this strategy should probably be accompanied by other fuel-reduction treatments applied at broad scales if large-scale changes in fire regimes are to be achieved, especially in the wider context of climate change. PMID:24727853

Regos, Adrián; Aquilué, Núria; Retana, Javier; De Cáceres, Miquel; Brotons, Lluís

2014-01-01

406

Leaching characteristics of bottom ash from coal fired electric generating plants, and waste tire; individually and mixtures when used as construction site fill materials.  

PubMed

Column leaching tests were conducted on bottom ash from coal fired electric generating plants, waste tires (WT), and bottom ash mixtures (ash-WT) to evaluate the environmental feasibility of using these materials as fill materials to raise the ground level at construction sites. The initial concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, F(-), NO(2)(-), NO(3)(-), and PO(4)(2-) from ash, WT, and ash-WT samples were lower than the drinking water standards (DWSs). The initial concentrations of Pb and Zn were slightly above the standards but within the DWS approximately one pore volume of effluent (PVE). However, the initial concentrations of SO(4)(2-) from ash and ash-WT were 8-10 times greater than the standards and a maximum 8.21 PVE was required to meet the DWS. In general, the ash-WT combinations resulted in lower initial concentrations but greater partition coefficients for Pb and Zn than those for ash alone. These results suggest precautions are needed before using bottom ash as a fill material at construction sites because of the high SO(4)(2-) levels. PMID:21074984

Lee, Taeyoon

2011-02-01

407

Relative effects of climatic and local factors on fire occurrence in boreal forest landscapes of northeastern China.  

PubMed

Fire significantly affects species composition, structure, and ecosystem processes in boreal forests. Our study objective was to identify the relative effects of climate, vegetation, topography, and human activity on fire occurrence in Chinese boreal forest landscapes. We used historical fire ignition for 1966-2005 and the statistical method of Kernel Density Estimation to derive fire-occurrence density (number of fires/km(2)). The Random Forest models were used to quantify the relative effects of climate, vegetation, topography, and human activity on fire-occurrence density. Our results showed that fire-occurrence density tended to be spatially clustered. Human-caused fire occurrence was highly clustered at the southern part of the region, where human population density is high (comprising about 75% of the area's population). In the north-central areas where elevations are the highest in the region and less densely populated, lightning-caused fires were clustered. Climate factors (e.g., fine fuel and duff moisture content) were important at both regional and landscape scales. Human activity factors (e.g., distance to nearest settlement and road) were secondary to climate as the primary fire occurrence factors. Predictions of fire regimes often assume a strong linkage between climate and fire but usually with less emphasis placed on the effects of local factors such as human activity. We therefore suggest that accurate forecasting of fire regime should include human influences such as those measured by forest proximity to roads and human settlements. PMID:24960228

Wu, Zhiwei; He, Hong S; Yang, Jian; Liu, Zhihua; Liang, Yu

2014-09-15

408

Land application of wood-fired and combination boiler ashes: An overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ashes from the burning of wood and other plant-derived materials have been used a soil amendments for centuries. Although historical interest in land application of ashes declined following the advent of commercial fertilizers and alternative liming materials, additional incentives for this beneficial use have arisen in recent years. The first is from rapidly rising landfill costs for disposal of by-product

Eric D. Vance

1996-01-01

409

GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 27, NO. 9, PAGES 1407-1410, MAY 1, 2000 Observations of boreal forest fire smokein the stratosphere by  

E-print Network

betweenstratosphericaerosolandforestfire smoke. Our analysisstronglysuggeststhat smokefrom boreal forest fires was lofted acrossthe to episodicinjectionsof smokefromborealforestfiresacrossthe tropopauseby intenseconvection. Boreal forest firesGEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 27, NO. 9, PAGES 1407-1410, MAY 1, 2000 Observations of boreal

Li, Zhanqing

410

[Forest lighting fire forecasting for Daxing'anling Mountains based on MAXENT model].  

PubMed

Daxing'anling Mountains is one of the areas with the highest occurrence of forest lighting fire in Heilongjiang Province, and developing a lightning fire forecast model to accurately predict the forest fires in this area i