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1

Fire regimes in mountain ash forest: evidence from forest age structure, extinction models and wildlife habitat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mean interval between tree-killing fires in mountain ash (Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell.) forest was inferred from information on the age structure of unlogged forest, the prevalence of mountain ash trees in the landscape, and on the abundance of live and dead hollow-bearing trees. The analyses were based on models of the local extinction and recolonization of forest patches by

Michael A McCarthy; A Malcolm Gill; David B Lindenmayer

1999-01-01

2

Ash Leaching of Forest Species Treated with Phosphate Fire Retardants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical, mineralogical, and leaching behavior of three dominant Greek forest species ashes (Pinus halepensis, Pistacia lentiscus, and Olea europaea), before and after treating forest species with diammonium phosphate (DAP) 5% and 10% weight to weight, have been studied\\u000a using a new five-step shake leaching method at pH?=?6. For the analysis of ashes (prior and after leaching) and leachants,\\u000a the

Stylianos Liodakis; Magdalini Tsoukala

2009-01-01

3

A Complex Dielectric Mixing Law Model for Forest Fire Ash Particulates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This letter presents an empirical mixing law for forest fire ash over X-Band (8–12 GHz). Six different species of Australian flora were tested. These include eucalypt, bracken fern, she oak, wattle, cypress, and pine. The investigation highlighted the discrepancies of mixing laws based on a spherical mixing phase to those measured. By optimizing the dimensionless parameter (v) of the unified

Thomas Baum; Lachlan Thompson; Kamran Ghorbani

2012-01-01

4

Forest fire ash impact on micro- and macroalgae in the receiving waters of the east coast of South Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountain forest fire ash flushed into the eastern coastal waters of South Korea is known to contain cadmium as one of its significant constituents. To study its impact, two representatives of the micro- and macroalgal communities, Ulva pertusa and Nannochloropsis oculata, were exposed to the concentration range of Cd indicated from the forest fire localities. At low concentrations of 0.224–0.448

Hyun-Woung Shin; M Sidharthan; Kim Shin Young

2002-01-01

5

Concordant 241Pu241Am Dating of Environmental Samples: Results from Forest Fire Ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have measured the Pu, 237Np, 241Am, and 151Sm isotopic systematics for a set of forest fire ash samples from various locations in the western U.S. including Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, and New Mexico. The goal of this study is to develop a concordant 241Pu (t1\\/2 = 14.4 y)-241Am dating method for environmental collections. Environmental samples often contain mixtures of components

S. J. Goldstein; W. J. Oldham; M. T. Murrell; D. Katzman

2010-01-01

6

Concordant plutonium-241-americium-241 dating of environmental samples: results from forest fire ash  

SciTech Connect

We have measured the Pu, {sup 237}Np, {sup 241}Am, and {sup 151}Sm isotopic systematics for a set of forest fire ash samples from various locations in the western U.S. including Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, and New Mexico. The goal of this study is to develop a concordant {sup 241}Pu (t{sub 1/2} = 14.4 y)-{sup 241}Am dating method for environmental collections. Environmental samples often contain mixtures of components including global fallout. There are a number of approaches for subtracting the global fallout component for such samples. One approach is to use {sup 242}/{sup 239}Pu as a normalizing isotope ratio in a three-isotope plot, where this ratio for the nonglobal fallout component can be estimated or assumed to be small. This study investigates a new, complementary method of normalization using the long-lived fission product, {sup 151}Sm (t{sub 1/2} = 90 y). We find that forest fire ash concentrates actinides and fission products with {approx}1E10 atoms {sup 239}Pu/g and {approx}1E8 atoms {sup 151}Sm/g, allowing us to measure these nuclides by mass spectrometric (MIC-TIMS) and radiometric (liquid scintillation counting) methods. The forest fire ash samples are characterized by a western U.S. regional isotopic signature representing varying mixtures of global fallout with a local component from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Our results also show that {sup 151}Sm is well correlated with the Pu nuclides in the forest fire ash, suggesting that these nuclides have similar geochemical behavior in the environment. Results of this correlation indicate that the {sup 151}Sm/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio for global fallout is {approx}0.164, in agreement with an independent estimate of 0.165 based on {sup 137}Cs fission yields for atmospheric weapons tests at the NTS. {sup 241}Pu-{sup 241}Am dating of the non-global fallout component in the forest fire ash samples yield ages in the late 1950's-early 1960's, consistent with a peak in NTS weapons testing at that time. The age results for this component are in agreement using both {sup 242}Pu and {sup 151}Sm normalizations, although the errors for the {sup 151}Sm correction are currently larger due to the greater uncertainty of their measurements. Additional efforts to develop a concordant {sup 241}Pu-{sup 241}Am dating method for environmental collections are underway with emphasis on soil cores.

Goldstein, Steven J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oldham, Warren J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Murrell, Michael T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Katzman, Danny [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-07

7

Concordant plutonium-241americium241 dating of environmental samples: results from forest fire ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have measured the Pu, ²³⁷Np, ²⁴¹Am, and ¹⁵¹Sm isotopic systematics for a set of forest fire ash samples from various locations in the western U.S. including Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, and New Mexico. The goal of this study is to develop a concordant ²⁴¹Pu (tââ = 14.4 y)-²⁴¹Am dating method for environmental collections. Environmental samples often contain mixtures of components

Steven J Goldstein; Warren J Oldham; Michael T Murrell; Danny Katzman

2010-01-01

8

Effects of forest fire ash on germination and early growth of four pinus species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire modifies the germination of seeds of numerous species. One of the fire factors that cause these modifications is the\\u000a ash. This study analysed the germination of seeds of Pinus sylvestris L., Pinus nigra Arn. Pinus radiata D. Don and Pinus pinaster Aiton, subjected to different ash treatments, and the development of seedlings that grew in these conditions for 14

O. Reyes; M. Casal

2004-01-01

9

Modelling ash extractable Total Phosphorous and Total Sulphur distribution after a forest fire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ash distribution in the immediate period after the fire assumes an extreme importance and this depends especially of fire severity. Due the different conditions of combustion, the fire severity can be very heterogeneous, even in small scale distances. Different fire severities produced ash with different physical and chemical properties. One of the main effects of this is the complex and very heterogenic disposition of ash nutrients that will play an important role on plant recuperation. Spatial models help to have a better picture of ash properties distribution. However, it is important to find the best model that interpolate with best accuracy the studied the variable. In this work we test several interpolation methods, namely Inverse Distance to a Weight (IDW) (with the power of 1,2,3,4 and 5), Local Polynomial with the first and second polynomial order, Polynomial Regression (PR), Radial Basis Functions (RBF) as Multilog (MTG), Natural Cubic Spline (NCS), Multiquadratic (MTQ), Inverse Multiquadratic (IMTQ) and Thin plate Spline (TPS) and Ordinary Kriging, in order to identify the best spatial predictor for Total Phosphorous (TP) and Total Sulphur (TS) after a forest fire in Portugal. Inside the burned area we designed a small plot (27x9 m) and we collected a total of 40 samples of ash. Interpolation accuracy was observed with the cross-validation method that is achieved by taking each observation in turn out of the sample and estimating from the remaining ones. The errors produced in each interpolation allowed us to calculate the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). The results showed that on average ash extractable TP were 92.42 (±77.34) mg/l, with a Coefficient of variation (CV%) of 83.68. The distribution was positively skewed and non-normal distributed. This previously to modelling we transformed it with a neperian logarithm, in order to respect the normality assumptions. From all the tested methods the best predictor for TP was the IDW 1 and the less precise the NCS. This shows the heterogenic character of TP distribution, since IDW 1 is more accurate to interpolate variables with small distance variability. The distribution of TP was heterogenic and did not respond to a specific spatial pattern, with some higher values in the northwest and southwest parts of the plot. TS presented on average 1690 (±468.72), with CV% of 27.73%. In this case the variable distribution was normally distributed and no transformation was needed previous to data modelling. As TP the most precise interpolator was IDW 1 and the less accurate was also NCS. This reflects also the heterogenic distribution of TS, however small than TP, due the reduced CV%. The models presented showed important differences among interpolation tests, in both variables, and this shown that the test of interpolation methods is fundamental to have a correct evaluation of the spatial distribution of the variables. Keywords: Ash, fire severity, interpolation methods, heterogenic distribution

Pereira, P.; Ubeda, X.

2012-04-01

10

Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals in ashes released from a forest fire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires have become a permanent source of environmental and societal concerns. Whilst the impacts of wildfire on hydrological and erosion processes are well documented, the stocks and export of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals have received considerably less research attention. The ashes produced by wildfires, which include polluting substances such as PAHs and metals, are subject to transport processes by wind and especially by overland flow and water infiltrating into the soil and possibly reaching ground water bodies. In the framework of the FIRECNUTS project, we are studying the stocks of PAHs and selected metals in recently burnt forest stands in north-central Portugal, and their subsequent export by overland flow. The present work, however, will focus on the stocks in the ashes, both immediately after wildfire and three months later. These ashes were collected at two burnt slopes with contrasting forest types, i.e. a eucalypt and a maritime pine stand, the two pre-dominant forest types in the study region. The sixteen PAHs identified by US EPA as priority contaminants were analysed by gas chromatograph, after extraction and column clean up. The contents of vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were analysed by inductively coupled plasma- mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), after an acid digestion, while mercury (Hg) was analysed by pyrolysis atomic absorption spectrometry with gold amalgamation. The total concentration of PAHs immediately after the wildfire ranged from 314 ng/g dry weight in the maritime pine stand to 597 ng/g dry weight in the eucalypt stand. Three months later, the total concentration has decreased with 33% in the pine stand but only half (16%) in the eucalypt stand. The composition the PAHs by ring size was dominated by three-rings PAHs. This was true for all samples. The concentrations of various metals differed for the two sampling occasions but not in straightforward manners. Some metals (Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and Hg) revealed higher contents immediately after the fire, whereas others (V, Cr and As) did three months later. The present results underline the importance of furthering the knowledge about contamination of soil and water by ashes from wildfires and the associated risks in terms of ecotoxicological effects, both in-situ and in downstream aquatic systems. Keywords: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); heavy metals; stocks; ash; wildfires

Campos, I.; Abrantes, N.; Pereira, P.; Vale, C.; Ferreira, A.; Keizer, J. J.

2012-04-01

11

Measuring the complex dielectric properties of forest fire ash at various temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is currently known about the effects of microwave scattering on forest fires. A small number of published papers have illustrated significant return signals form large fires around the world. One of the possible sources is particulate scatter, however; little is known about their complex dielectric properties. The investigation of the complex dielectric properties from different Australian forest flora has

Thomas Baum; Lachlan Thomson; Kamran Ghorbani

2011-01-01

12

Forest Fires  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The objectives of this lesson plan are twofold: to have students understand the benefits and problems associated with fire and to understand the role that fire plays in maintaining healthy ecosystems. Emphasis throughout the lesson plan is placed on manager-ignited prescribed burns and natural fires, and their relevance and importance to various types of fire-adapted ecosystems such as chaparral, prairie grasslands, and lodgepole pine forests. The lesson entails initiating a discussion about the positive and negative powers of fire, introducing terms such as surface fire, crown fire, and fire triangle, and having the students produce a public service announcement, brochure, or television spot on both accidental forest fires and the benefits of prescribed burns. The web site includes a list of suggested materials, procedures, adaptations, discussion questions, extension projects, an evaluation of student learning, suggested readings, relevant web links, a vocabulary list, and relevance to the academic standards set forth by Content Knowledge: A Compendium of Standards and Benchmarks for K-12 Education: Second Edition.

Bailey, Joyce

13

The ash in forest fire affected soils control the soil losses. Part 2. Current and future research challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ash distribution on soil surface and impacts on soil properties received a great attention in recently (Pereira et al., 2010; Pereira et al., 2013). Ash it is a highly mobile material that can be easily transported wind, especially in severe wildland fires, where organic matter is reduced to dust, due the high temperatures of combustion. In the immediate period after the fire, ash cover rules soil erosion as previous researchers observed (Cerdà, 1998a; 1998b) and have strong influence on soil hydrological properties, such as water retention (Stoof et al. 2011 ) and wettability (Bodi et al., 2011). Ash it is also a valuable source of nutrients important for plant recuperation (Pereira et al., 2011; Pereira et al., 2012), but can act also as a source contamination, since are also rich in heavy metals (Pereira and Ubeda, 2010). Ash has different physical and chemical properties according the temperature of combustion, burned specie and time of exposition (Pereira et al., 2010). Thus this different properties will have different implications on soil properties including erosion that can increase due soil sealing (Onda et al. 2008) or decrease as consequence of raindrop impact reduction (Cerdà and Doerr, 2008). The current knowledge shows that ash has different impacts on soil properties and this depends not only from the type of ash produced, but of the soil properties (Woods and Balfour, 2010). After fire wind and water strong redistribute ash on soil surface, increasing the vulnerability of soil erosion in some areas, and reducing in others. Understand this mobility is fundamental have a better comprehension about the spatial and temporal effects of ash in soil erosion. Have a better knowledge about this mobility is a priority to future research. Other important aspects to have to be assessed in the future are how ash particulates percolate on soil and how ash chemical composition is important to induce soil aggregation and dispersion. How soil micro topography have implications on ash spatial distribution and if soil micro topography changes with time? What the factors that controls it? What it is the impact of ash in vegetation recuperation and the implications of this recover in ash spatial distribution? We need studies with better spatial and temporal resolution, especially in the immediate period after the fire, when the major spatial and temporal changes on ash distribution and impacts occur. Based on high level research conducted by Artemi Cerdà and others, our future research will be focused in these and other aspects in order to have a better knowledge about the impacts of ash on post-fire spatio-temporal erosion. Acknowledgements, Lithuanian Research Council. Project LITFIRE, Fire effects on Lithuanian soils and ecosystems (MIP-48/2011) and the research projects GL2008-02879/BTE and LEDDRA 243857. References Bodí, M., Mataix-Solera, J., Doerr, S., and Cerdà, A. 2011b. The wettability of ash from burned vegetation and its relationship to Mediterranean plant species type, burn severity and total organic carbon content. Geoderma, 160, 599-607. Cerdà, A. 1998a. Postfire dynamics of erosional processes under mediterranean climatic conditions. Z. Geomorphol., 42 (3) 373-398. Cerdà, A. 1998b. Changes in overland flow and infiltration after a rangeland fire in a Mediterranean scrubland.Hydrological Processes, 12, 1031-1042. Cerdà, A., and Doerr, S.H. 2008. The effect of ash and needle cover on surface runoff and erosion in the immediate post-fire period. Catena, 74, 256-263. Onda, Y., Dietrich W. E., and Booker, F. 2008. Evolution of overland flow after severe forest fire, Point Reyes, California, Catena, 72, 13-20. Pereira, P. Cerdà, A., Úbeda, X., Mataix-Solera, J. Arcenegui, V., Zavala, L. 2013. Modelling the impacts of wildfire on ash thickness in a short-term period, Land Degradation and Development, (In press) Pereira, P., Bodi. M., Úbeda, X., Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Balfour, V, Woods, S. 2010. Las cenizas y el ecosistema suelo, In: Cerdà, A. Jordan, A. (eds) Actualización en métodos y técnica

Pereira, Paulo; Cerdà, Artemi

2013-04-01

14

Effects of a low severity prescribed fire on water-soluble elements in ash from a cork oak ( Quercus suber) forest located in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wildfire is the major disturbance in Mediterranean forests. Prescribed fire can be an alternative to reduce the amount of fuel and hence decrease the wildfire risk. However the effects of prescribed fire must be studied, especially on ash properties, because ash is an important nutrient source for ecosystem recovery. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of

Paulo Pereira; Xavier Úbeda; Deborah Martin; Jorge Mataix-Solera; César Guerrero

2011-01-01

15

Forest Fire Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Forest fire management systems share much in common with urban fire, police and ambulance systems, but the spatial and temporal\\u000a variability of forest fire occurrence processes and the comparatively long distances over which forest fire management takes\\u000a place pose special challenges to operational researchers. This chapter describes the basic structure of a forest fire management\\u000a system and the decision-making problems

David L. Martell

16

Measurement of radar cross-section and complex dielectric properties of forest fire ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remote sensing of fires has become a major topic of discussion in Australia. The introduction of infrared (IR) and optical systems has been a key technology for this area. Although IR and optical systems provide good coverage and detection capabilities, they are still limited by signature absorption from smoke, water, terrain and solid obstacles (i.e. flora, rocks, etc). Microwave-based sensing

Thomas Baum; Lachlan Thompson; Kamran Ghorbani

2011-01-01

17

Fighting Forest Fires  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Canadian Broadcasting Company opened their vaults, with historical and current stories about wildfires and wildfire defense from both television and radio. Featured is a TV broadcast about 1958 forest closures during a dry Canadian summer, a radio piece about using wind tunnels to examine fire behavior, and a video piece about satellite uplinks that are beginning to replace old radio technology at fire lookout stations in Alberta.

Company, Canadian B.

18

Causes of Variability in the Effects of Vegetative Ash on Post-Fire Runoff and Erosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetative ash formed during forest wildfires has varying effects on post-fire runoff and erosion. In some cases the ash layer reduces runoff and erosion by storing rainfall and by protecting the soil surface from surface sealing and rainsplash detachment. In other cases, the ash layer increases runoff and erosion by forming a surface crust, clogging soil pores, and providing a

V. Balfour; S. Woods

2008-01-01

19

Anomalous earlywood vessel lumen area in black ash ( Fraxinus nigra Marsh.) tree rings as a potential indicator of forest fires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earlywood, latewood, total ring width and cross-sectional earlywood vessel lumen areas were measured in twenty-one Fraxinus nigra trees located in the southern boreal region of Quebec, Canada. Two of the trees survived a severe fire in 1923 during which year almost no latewood was produced. In 1924 both trees produced rings with a strong decrease in the size of the

Susanne Kames; Jacques C. Tardif; Yves Bergeron

2011-01-01

20

Effects of a low severity prescribed fire on water-soluble elements in ash from a cork oak (Quercus suber) forest located in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula.  

PubMed

Wildfire is the major disturbance in Mediterranean forests. Prescribed fire can be an alternative to reduce the amount of fuel and hence decrease the wildfire risk. However the effects of prescribed fire must be studied, especially on ash properties, because ash is an important nutrient source for ecosystem recovery. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of a low severity prescribed fire on water-soluble elements in ash including pH, electrical conductivity (EC), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), potassium (K), aluminum (Al), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), silica (SiO(2)) and total sulphur (TS). A prescribed fire was conducted in a cork oak (Quercus suber) (Q.S) forest located in the northeast part of the Iberian Peninsula. Samples were collected from a flat plot of 40×70m mainly composed of Q.S and Quercus robur (Q.R) trees. In order to understand the effects of the prescribed fire on the soluble elements in ash, we conducted our data analysis on three data groups: all samples, only Q.S samples and only Q.R samples. All three sample groups exhibited a significant increase in pH, EC (p<0.001), water-soluble Ca, Mg, Na, SiO(2) and TS and a decrease in water-soluble Mn, Fe and Zn. Differences were identified between oak species for water-soluble K, Al and Fe. In Q.S samples we registered a significant increase in the first two elements p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively, and a non-significant impact in the third, at p<0.05. In Q.R data we identified a non-significant impact on water-soluble K and Al and a significant decrease in water-soluble Fe (p<0.05). These differences are probably due to vegetation characteristics and burn severity. The fire induced a higher variability in the ash soluble elements, especially in Q.S samples, that at some points burned with higher severity. The increase of pH, EC, Ca, Mg, Na and K will improve soil fertility, mainly in the study area where soils are acidic. The application of this low severity prescribed fire will improve soil nutrient status without causing soil degradation and thus is considered to be a good management strategy. PMID:20869047

Pereira, Paulo; Ubeda, Xavier; Martin, Deborah; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Guerrero, César

2010-09-24

21

Wood-ash fertilization and fire treatments in a Scots pine forest stand: Effects on the organic layer, microbial biomass, and microbial activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the reactions of humus layer (F\\/H) microbial respiratory activity, microbial biomass C, and the fungal biomass, measured as the soil ergosterol content, to the application of three levels of wood ash (1000, 2500, and 5000 kg ha-1) and to fire treatment in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand. Physicochemical measurements (pH, organic matter content, extractable and total

Hannu Fritze; Aino Smolander; Teuvo Levula; V. Kitunen; E. Mälkönen

1994-01-01

22

The short-term effects of wood-ash amendment on forest soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the heavily forested regions of the northeastern U.S. the potential for producing electricity from wood-fired boilers is also creating a growing supply of wood-ash requiring disposal. Landfill space is expensive and limited, which has resulted in an interest in spreading wood-ash on forest sites. This greenhouse study was designed to provide information on soil and seedling response to wood-ash

Yvonne L. Unger; Ivan J. Fernandez

1990-01-01

23

Forest Fires and Respiratory Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Unhealthy Forest Fires and Respiratory Health Fact Sheet Wildfires are an ongoing concern, particularly in the Southwest ... where there is dry, hot weather. During a wildfire, people all over the area may be suffering ...

24

Amazon RainForest Fires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charcoal is common in the soils of mature rain forests within 75 kilometers of San Carlos de Rio Negro in the north central Amazon Basin. Carbon-14 dates of soil charcoal from this region indicate that numerous fires have occurred since the mid-Holocene epoch. Charcoal is most common in tierra firme forest Oxisols and Ultisols and less common in caatinga and

Robert L. Sanford; Juan Saldarriaga; Kathleen E. Clark; Christopher Uhl; Rafael Herrera

1985-01-01

25

Ash transformation during co-firing coal and straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Co-firing straw with coal in pulverized fuel boilers can cause problems related to fly ash utilization, deposit formation, corrosion and SCR catalyst deactivation due to the high contents of Cl and K in the ash. To investigate the interaction between coal and straw ash and the effect of coal quality on fly ash and deposit properties, straw was co-fired with

Yuanjing Zheng; Peter Arendt Jensen; Anker Degn Jensen; Bo Sander; Helle Junker

2007-01-01

26

Forest fire monitoring with multiple small UAVs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frequent updates concerning the progress of a forest fire are essential for effective and safe fire fighting. Since a forest fire is typically inaccessible by ground vehicles due to mountainous terrain, small unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) are emerging as a promising means of monitoring large forest fires. We present an effective UAV path planning algorithm utilizing infrared images that are

David W. Casbeer; Randal W. Beard; T. W. McLain; Sai-Ming Li; R. K. Mehra

2005-01-01

27

Two Keys for Appraising Forest Fire Fuels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A glossary proposes nontechnical definitions of fuel characteristics that significantly affect forest fire behavior. One dichotomous key uses the terminology to determine the relative rate of fire spread; the other key ranks probability of crown fire occu...

G. R. Fahnestock

1970-01-01

28

Seed Invasion Filters and Forest Fire Severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest seed dispersal is altered after fire. Using seed traps, we studied impacts of fire severity on timing of seed dispersal, total seed rain, and seed rain richness in patches of high and low severity fire and unburned Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests in the Fischer and Tyee fire complexes in the eastern Washington Cascades. Unburned plots had the lowest

Tom R. Cottrell; Paul F. Hessburg; Jonathan A. Betz

2008-01-01

29

Forest Harvest Can Increase Subsequent Forest Fire Severity1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The USDA Forest Service is progressing from a land management strategy oriented around timber extraction towards one oriented around maintaining healthy forested lands. The healthy Forest Initiative promotes the idea of broadscale forest thinning and fuel treatments as an effective means for mitigating hazardous fuel conditions and, by extension, fire risk. Fuels mitigation is proactive while fire suppression is reactive

Carter Stone; Andrew Hudak; Penelope Morgan

30

Cadmium contamination of wood ash and fire-treated coniferous humus: Effect on soil respiration  

SciTech Connect

Atmospheric acidic deposition is known to affect soil fertility and in many countries, liming has been used to counteract anthropogenic soil acidification in coniferous forest soils. Other measures used to improve the acid neutralization capacity of forest soils are wood ash application and prescribed burning. In both cases, ash is deposited on the forest floor, resulting in a pH increase in the humus layer. Currently, application of forests with wood ash is under discussion in Finland, since the naturally occurring cadmium of forest trees is concentrated into the wood ash which then contains between 4 and 20 {mu} g{sup {minus}1} of dry matter. Microbes are essential for maintaining soil fertility and plant growth because they play a fundamental role in nutrient availability. Soil respiration rate, which is an indicator of the microbially-mediated nutrient turnover rate, is decreased by addition of cadmium to the soil environment. In this paper we report on the effects of cadmium addition on the soil respiration rate of forest humus having received wood ash or fire treatments. The underlying objectives of this study were: (i) to determine the cadmium level which decreases the soil respiration of a Vaccinium site type forest humus to half of its original value (EC{sub 50}), (ii) to estimate how the forest treatments influence the EC{sub 50}, and (iii) to discuss the effect of Cd addition provided by wood ash on the nutrient mineralization rate. 17 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Fritze, H. [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa (Finland); Kapanen, A.; Vanhala, P. [Water and Environment Research Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

1995-05-01

31

Boreal Forest Fire Cools Climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report measurements, modeling, and analysis of carbon and energy fluxes from a boreal forest fire that occurred in interior Alaska during 1999. In the first year after the fire, ozone production, atmospheric aerosol loading, greenhouse gas emissions, soot deposition, and decreases in summer albedo contributed to a positive annual radiative forcing (RF). These effects were partly offset by an increase in fall, winter, and spring albedo from reduced canopy cover and increased exposure of snow-covered surfaces. The atmospheric lifetime of aerosols and ozone and are relatively short (days to months). The radiative effects of soot on snow are also attenuated rapidly from the deposition of fresh snow. As a result, a year after the fire, only two classes of RF mechanisms remained: greenhouse gas emissions and post-fire changes in surface albedo. Summer albedo increased rapidly in subsequent years and was substantially higher than unburned control areas (by more than 0.03) after 4 years as a result of grass and shrub establishment. Satellite measurements from MODIS of other interior Alaska burn scars provided evidence that elevated levels of spring and summer albedo (relative to unburned control areas) persisted for at least 4 decades after fire. In parallel, our chamber, eddy covariance, and biomass measurements indicated that the post-fire ecosystems switch from a source to a sink within the first decade. Taken together, the extended period of increased spring and summer albedo and carbon uptake of intermediate-aged stands appears to more than offset the initial warming pulse caused by fire emissions, when compared using the RF concept. This result suggests that management of forests in northern countries to suppress fire and preserve carbon sinks may have the opposite effect on climate as that intended.

Randerson, J. T.; Liu, H.; Flanner, M.; Chambers, S. D.; Harden, J. W.; Hess, P. G.; Jin, Y.; Mack, M. C.; Pfister, G.; Schuur, E. A.; Treseder, K. K.; Welp, L. R.; Zender, C. S.

2005-12-01

32

Catastrophic Fires in Russian Forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We evaluated the contribution of catastrophic fires to the total burned area and the amount of tree mortality in Russia since the 1970’s. Such fires occurred in the central regions of European Russia (1972, 1976, 1989, 2002, 2010), Khabarovsk krai (1976, 1988, 1998), Amur region (1997-2002), Republics of Yakutia and Tuva (2002), Magadan and Kamchatka oblast (1984, 2001, 2010), and Irkutsk, Chita, Amur regions, Buryat, Agin national districts (2003, 2007-08). We define a catastrophic fire as a single high-severity fire that covers more than 10,000 ha and results in total consumption of the litter and humus layers and in high tree mortality, or the simultaneous occurrence of several high-severity fires in a given region with a total area exceeding 10,000 km2. Fires on this scale can cause substantial economic, social and environmental effects, with regional to global impacts. We hypothesize that there is a positive feedback between anticyclone growth and energy release from wildfires burning over large areas. Usually the first blocking anticyclone appears in June in Russia, bringing with it dry weather that increases fire hazard. The anticyclonic pattern has maximum activity in the end of July and disappears around the middle of August. When high fire activity occurs, the anticyclone may strengthen and develop a blocking character that prevents cyclonic patterns from moving into anticyclone-dominated areas, where the fire danger index may be more than six times the average maximum. The likelihood of uncontrolled fire situations developing increases greatly when the fire number and burned area exceed critical values as a function of conditions that favor high intensity fires. In such situations fire suppression by regional forest protection services becomes impossible and federal resources are required. If the appearance of a blocking anticyclone is forecast, active fire prevention and suppression of small fires (most of which appear to be human caused) is critical. Based on NOAA and TOMS daily data, we estimated fire emissions (including CO2, CO, CH4 and other smoke aerosols) of over 70 Tg Carbon for Yakutian fires in 2002 and more than 120 Tg C for all Russian fires in 2010. We note the potential for increasing amounts of methane emissions when fires occur in permafrost zones and peat bogs. Post-fire changes in permafrost and vegetation cover are discussed in the connection changes in solar radiance balance. During the fire season of 2006 in the Eastern-Siberian, Transbaikal, and Far East regions we identified more than 15,000 fires with a total area of 120,000 km2. From 2002-2010 the annual number of fires in this area ranged from 10,000 to 16,500, and annual burned areas ranged from a low of 30 000 km2 in 2004 to a high of 145,000 km2 in 2003.

Sukhinin, A. I.; McRae, D. J.; Stocks, B. J.; Conard, S. G.; Hao, W.; Soja, A. J.; Cahoon, D.

2010-12-01

33

Runoff and erosion effects after prescribed fire and wildfire on volcanic ash-cap soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

AFTER PRESCRIBED BURNS AT THREE LOCATIONS AND ONE WILDFIRE, RAINFALL SIMULATIONS STUDIES WERE COMPLETED TO COMPARE POSTFIRE RUNOFF RATES AND SEDIMENT YIELDS ON ASH-CAP SOIL IN CONIFER FOREST REGIONS OF NOTHERN IDAHO AND WESTERN MONTANA. THE MEASURED FIRE EFFECTS WERE DIFFERENTIATED BY BURN SEVERITY ...

34

Low temperature magnetic characterisation of fire ash residues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire ash is ideally suited to mineral magnetic studies. Both modern (generated by controlled burning experiments) and archaeological ash deposits have been studied, with the aim of identifying and quantifying fuel types used in prehistory. Low temperature magnetic measurements were carried out on the ash samples using an MPMS2 SQUID magnetometer. The low temperature thermo-remanence cooling curves of the modern

C. Peters; R. Thompson; A. Harrison; M. J. Church

2002-01-01

35

A forest-fire model with natural fire resistance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is widely believed that contemporary wildfire suppression practices in the United States have contributed to conditions that facilitate large, destructive fires. We introduce a forest-fire model with natural fire-resistance that supports this theory. The model yields power-law frequency-size distributions of model fires with scaling exponent values 1.2 ? b ? 1.75, consistent with distributions of wildfires observed in the United States. We show a direct relationship between a fire's intensity and its burn area, and we show that aggressive suppression of small early season fires can compromise a region's natural fire-resistance, increasing the rate of large fires.

Yoder, M. R.; Turcotte, D. L.; Rundle, J. B.; Glasscoe, M. T.; Donnellan, A.

2010-12-01

36

Studies on characteristics of biomass co-firing ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cornstalk and coal were used for co-combusting experiment. The ash samples were measured by certain instruments to obtain some physical characteristics such as ash specific resistance (R), adhesive force, and chemical composition. The results showed that the R of both pure biomass ash and co-firing ash ranged from 108-1011 (?·cm). The R values changed with the temperature based on some

Lu Jian-yi; Cai Li-hong; Yuan Yong-tao

2010-01-01

37

Surface cooling due to forest fire smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

In four different cases of extensive forest fire smoke the surface temperature effects were determined under the smoke cloud. In all cases, daytime cooling and no nighttime effects were found. The locations of smoke clouds from extensive forest fires in western Canada in 1981 and 1982, in northern China and Siberia in 1987, and in Yellowstone National Park in northwestern

Alan Robock

1991-01-01

38

SEMIPARAMETRIC ANALYSIS OF EXTREME FOREST FIRES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest fires can cause extensive damage to natural resources and properties. They can also destroy wildlife habitat, affect the forest ecosystem and threaten human lives. In this paper incidences of extreme wildland fires are modelled by a point process model which incorporates time-trend. A model based on a generalised Pareto distribution is used to model data on acres of wildland

N. I. RAMESH

39

Reducing Social Losses from Forest Fires  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluate two financial incentives to encourage nonindustrial forest landowners to undertake activities that mitigate fire losses: sharing of fire suppression costs by the landowner and sharing of fuel reduction costs by the government. First and second best outcomes are identified and compared to assess the effectiveness of these incentives in reducing social losses and fire suppression costs, under various

Gregory S. Amacher; Arun S. Malik; Robert G. Haight

2006-01-01

40

High fire resistance in blocks containing coal combustion fly ashes and bottom ash.  

PubMed

Fire resistance recycled blocks, containing fly ash and bottom ash from coal combustion power plants with a high fire resistance, are studied in this paper by testing different compositions using Portland cement type II, sand, coarse aggregate and fly ash (up to 50% of total weight) and bottom ash (up to 30% of total weight). The fire resistance, physical-chemical (density, pH, humidity, and water absorption capacity), mechanical (compressive and flexural strength), and leaching properties are measured on blocks made with different proportions of fly ash and bottom ash. The standard fire resistance test is reproduced on 28cm-high, 18cm-wide and 3cm-thick units, and is measured as the time needed to reach a temperature of 180°C on the non-exposed surface of the blocks for the different compositions. The results show that the replacement of fine aggregate with fly ash and of coarse aggregate with bottom ash have a remarkable influence on fire resistance and cause no detriment to the mechanical properties of the product. Additionally, according to the leaching tests, no environmental problems have been detected in the product. These results lead to an analysis of the recycling possibilities of these by-products in useful construction applications for the passive protection against fire. PMID:21511456

García Arenas, Celia; Marrero, Madelyn; Leiva, Carlos; Solís-Guzmán, Jaime; Vilches Arenas, Luis F

2011-04-20

41

USDA Forest Service: Emerald Ash Borer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Emerald Ash Borer(EAB) has become a pesky problem in North America in recent years, after being introduced into the ecosystem in the early 1990s. This information site from the USDA Forest Service is dedicated to providing the northeastern part of North America (where the bug has become a big problem) with information on identifying the insect, its infestations, and quarantine information, as well as control and management resources. The "Infestations" section contains several maps outlining the infected and quarantined ares of Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Maryland, and the United States as a whole. This is a great resource for anyone interested or concerned about the current EAB problem.

2008-02-25

42

Wood ash fertilization alters the forest humus Archaea community  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combined and separate effects of Cd and wood ash on Archaea from coniferous forest humus were studied in a microcosm experiment. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling of the denaturing gradient gel analysis of polymerase chain reaction amplified 0.9 kb 16S ribosomal DNA fragments revealed changes in archaeal communities due to the ash treatments. Cd with or without ash did not further

Kim Yrjälä; Riikka Katainen; German Jurgens; Ulla Saarela; Aimo Saano; Martin Romantschuk; Hannu Fritze

2004-01-01

43

Fire and Carbon in Canadian Forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire is the major stand-renewing agent in Canadian forests, affecting carbon sources and sinks. On average over the past 40 years, about 27 Tg carbon have been emitted directly through combustion of Canadian forest fires annually, but in some years, this can be over 100 Tg carbon. The overall impact is much greater because fire-killed vegetation decomposes and releases carbon through heterotrophic respiration. In addition, very young successional vegetation that replaces the burned forest is usually a weaker carbon sink until the forest canopy develops. The magnitude of these post-fire effects has not been well quantified, but models suggest that it is of a similar magnitude to the direct combustion emissions. Post-fire carbon fluxes are being measured using eddy covariance as part of FLUXNET-Canada on a chronosequence of burned forests. These long-term measurements, in conjunction with short-term aircraft measurements and modelling are helping to reduce the uncertainty in our estimates of the effect of fire on the forest carbon balance. The impact of fire on forest carbon is expected to become more important in the future since global circulation models and regional climate models suggest that the area burned could double in Canada under a 3xCO2 climate. This will be caused by warmer and drier conditions throughout much of the country. Although climate is a main driver of fire, landscape and fuel changes also need to be considered. Ongoing research is aimed at evaluating the potential to mitigate fire through landscape modifications and other fire management options. However it is most likely that we will need to adapt to the economic, social and ecological impacts of fire in a changing climate.

Amiro, B. D.; Flannigan, M. D.; Stocks, B. J.

2003-12-01

44

Responses of hardwood regeneration to fire in mesic forest openings. II. Leaf gas exchange, nitrogen concentration, and water status  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physiological responses of tree regeneration to fire were studied in openings in a mesic hardwood forest. Gas exchange, nitrogen concentration, and water potential were monitored on foliage of burned and nonburned regeneration of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), white ash (Fraxinus americana L.), and sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) following spring fires in 1989 and 1990. Fire led

Eric L. Kruger; Peter B. Reich

1997-01-01

45

Ectomycorrhizal colonisation of roots and ash granules in a spruce forest treated with granulated wood ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Granulated wood ash has been proposed as a slow release fertiliser suitable for forest soils. In this study ectomycorrhizal colonisation of roots and ash granules was studied in a 40-year-old spruce forest treated with 0, 3 or 6tha?1 granulated wood ash. We used PCR-RFLP methods for ITS-typing and identification of ectomycorrhizal fungi. In total 20 different ITS-types were recognised on

Shahid Mahmood; Roger D Finlay; Håkan Wallander; Susanne Erland

2002-01-01

46

Fire effects on ecosystem nitrogen cycling in a Californian bishop pine forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire can cause severe nitrogen (N) losses from grassland, chaparral, and temperate and boreal forest ecosystems. Paradoxically,\\u000a soil ammonium levels are markedly increased by fire, resulting in high rates of primary production in re-establishing plant\\u000a communities. In a manipulative experiment, we examined the influence of wild-fire ash residues on soil, microbial and plant\\u000a N pools in a recently burned Californian

P. Grogan; T. D. Burns; F. S. Chapin III

2000-01-01

47

Thermocouple errors in forest fire research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperatures measured in forest fires are usually low because of radiant heat loss from thermocouples. The authors offer a\\u000a method, based on their recent experiments, for estimating true flame temperatures in the field.

J. D. Walker; B. J. Stocks

1968-01-01

48

Fire severity effects on ash extractable Total Phosphorous  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorous (P) is a crucial element to plant nutrition and limits vegetal production. The amounts of P in soil are lower and great part of this nutrient is absorbed or precipitated. It is well known that fire has important implications on P cycle, that can be lost throughout volatilization, evacuated with the smoke, but also more available to transport after organic matter mineralization imposed by the fire. The release of P depends on ash pH and their chemical and physical characteristics. Fire temperatures impose different severities, according to the specie affected and contact time. Fire severity is often evaluated by ash colour and this is a low-cost and excellent methodology to assess the fire effects on ecosystems. The aim of this work is study the ash properties physical and chemical properties on ash extractable Total Phosphorous (TP), collected in three wildfires, occured in Portugal, (named, (1) Quinta do Conde, (2) Quinta da Areia and (3) Casal do Sapo) composed mainly by Quercus suber and Pinus pinaster trees. The ash colour was assessed using the Munsell color chart. From all three plots we analyzed a total of 102 ash samples and we identified 5 different ash colours, ordered in an increasing order of severity, Very Dark Brown, Black, Dark Grey, Very Dark Grey and Light Grey. In order to observe significant differences between extractable TP and ash colours, we applied an ANOVA One Way test, and considered the differences significant at a p<0.05. The results showed that significant differences in the extractable TP among the different ash colours. Hence, to identify specific differences between each ash colour, we applied a post-hoc Fisher LSD test, significant at a p<0.05. The results obtained showed significant differences between the extractable TP from Very dark Brown and Black ash, produced at lower severities, in relation to Dark Grey, Very Dark Grey and Light Grey ash, generated at higher severities. The means of the first group were higher than the observed in the second one. This indicates that ash produced lower temperatures release in solution higher amounts of TP. These divergences occur due temperature of combustion, affected specie, ash pH values and CaCO3 content, which affects the quantity of this element in solution. Discussions about these effects will be accurate in the communication.

Pereira, Paulo; Úbeda, Xavier; Martin, Deborah

2010-05-01

49

The impact of bushfires on water yield from south-east Australia's ash forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Widespread disturbance within forested catchments typically increases runoff. However, following widespread fire in 1939 throughout south-east Australia, Kuczera (1987) reported persistent reductions in runoff that were attributed to increased evapotranspiration from regenerating "ash" forests. Kuczera projected ongoing reductions of water yield for ˜150 years. In 2003, widespread fire in the headwaters of the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB) again stimulated extensive regeneration of ash forests, raising the prospect of subsequent water yield reductions. To understand the potential impact of the 2003 bushfires, we re-evaluated yield reductions from three of the catchments originally studied by Kuczera using the same calibration period. We also used an expanded prefire calibration period (1908-1938) based on data not originally available to Kuczera. The trend of postfire water yield that we observed in 1939-affected catchments is qualitatively consistent with Kuczera's projections, but the quantitative details were, as expected, sensitive to the prefire calibration period used. We then used a simplified method to examine a further five ash-dominated catchments affected by the 2003 fires. We report relative reductions in mean annual stream flow in all five catchments and a statistically significant (? = 0.05) postfire reduction in one of five catchments. Postfire yield reductions during the austral summer (October to April) were greater in relative magnitude in all five catchments and were statistically significant (? = 0.05) in three of five catchments. We conclude that a postbushfire Kuczera-type response may be widespread in regenerating ash forests. On that basis, we anticipate postfire yield reductions in ash forests elsewhere and conclude that further reductions in stream flow are likely in the MDB for at least another decade.

Brookhouse, Matthew T.; Farquhar, Graham D.; Roderick, Michael L.

2013-07-01

50

Methanotrophic bacteria in boreal forest soil after fire.  

PubMed

Methane-oxidizing bacteria are the only terrestrial sink for atmospheric methane. Little is known, however, about the methane-oxidizing bacteria that are responsible for the consumption of atmospheric methane, or about the factors that influence their activity and diversity in soil. Effects of fire and its end-product, wood ash, on the activity and community of methane oxidizing bacteria were studied in boreal forest 3 months and 12 years after the treatments. Fire significantly increased the atmospheric CH(4) oxidation rate. Both fire and wood ash treatments resulted in increased soil pH, but there was no correlation with methane oxidation rates. Changes in the methane-oxidizing bacterial community due to treatments were not detected by cultivation-independent recovery and comparative sequence analysis of pmoA gene products from soil. Phylogenetic analysis showed that a majority of the pmoA sequences obtained belonged to the "upland soil cluster alpha", which has previously been detected in diverse forest environments. PMID:19712360

Jaatinen, Krista; Knief, Claudia; Dunfield, Peter F; Yrjålå, Kim; Fritze, Hannu

2004-11-01

51

Phase transitions during firing of ash-based ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phase transformations occur on firing in ceramic materials based on power-station ash, since the residual fuel is burned and the temperature rises above the oven value, while a reducing environment is set up due to the oxygen lack, which accentuates processes governing the structuring. The physicochemical studies show that the stages can be represented as a scheme for liquid-phase sintering

Saibulatov; S. Zh

1988-01-01

52

Forest fire risk zonation mapping using remote sensing technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fires cause major losses to forest cover and disturb the ecological balance in our region. Rise in temperature during summer season causing increased dryness, increased activity of human beings in the forest areas, and the type of forest cover in the Garhwal Himalayas are some of the reasons that lead to forest fires. Therefore, generation of forest fire risk maps becomes necessary so that preventive measures can be taken at appropriate time. These risk maps shall indicate the zonation of the areas which are in very high, high, medium and low risk zones with regard to forest fire in the region. In this paper, an attempt has been made to generate the forest fire risk maps based on remote sensing data and other geographical variables responsible for the occurrence of fire. These include altitude, temperature and soil variations. Key thematic data layers pertaining to these variables have been generated using various techniques. A rule-based approach has been used and implemented in GIS environment to estimate fuel load and fuel index leading to the derivation of fire risk zonation index and subsequently to fire risk zonation maps. The fire risk maps thus generated have been validated on the ground for forest types as well as for forest fire risk areas. These maps would help the state forest departments in prioritizing their strategy for combating forest fires particularly during the fire seasons.

Chandra, Sunil; Arora, M. K.

2006-12-01

53

Managing fire-prone forests in the western United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

5 The management of fire-prone forests is one of the most controversial natural resource issues in the US today, particularly in the west of the country. Although vegetation and wildlife in these forests are adapted to fire, the historical range of fire frequency and severity was huge. When fire regimes are altered by human activity, major effects on biodiversity and

Reed F. Noss; Jerry F. Franklin; William L. Baker; Tania Schoennagel; Peter B. Moyle

2006-01-01

54

Forest fire risk zone mapping from satellite imagery and GIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A forest fire can be a real ecological disaster, regardless of whether it is caused by natural forces or human activity. It is impossible to control nature, but it is possible to map forest fire risk zones and thereby minimise the frequency of fire, avert damage, etc. Forest fire risk zones are locations where a fire is likely to start, and from where it can easily spread to other areas. Anticipation of factors influencing the occurrence of fire and understanding the dynamic behaviour of fire are critical aspects of fire management. A precise evaluation of forest fire problems and decisions on solution methods can only be satisfactorily made when a fire risk zone map is available. Satellite data plays a vital role in identifying and mapping forest fires and in recording the frequency at which different vegetation types/zones are affected. A geographic information system (GIS) can be used effectively to combine different forest-fire-causing factors for demarcating the forest fire risk zone map. Gorna Subwatershed, located in Madhya Pradesh, India, was selected for this study because it continually faces a forest fire problem. A colour composite image from the Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS) 1D LISS III was used for vegetation mapping. Slope and other coverages (roads and settlements) were derived from topographic maps and field information. The thematic and topographic information was digitised and ARC/INFO GIS software was used for analysis. Forest fire risk zones were delineated by assigning subjective weights to the classes of all the layers according to their sensitivity to fire or their fire-inducing capability. Four categories of forest fire risk ranging from very high to low were derived automatically. Almost 30% of the study area was predicted to be under very high and high-risk zones. The evolved GIS-based forest fire risk model of the study area was found to be in strong agreement with actual fire-affected sites.

Jaiswal, Rajeev Kumar; Mukherjee, Saumitra; Raju, Kumaran D.; Saxena, Rajesh

2002-08-01

55

The Fire-Lantana Cycle Hypothesis in Indian Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenic fires in Indian forests probably date back to the arrival of the first hominids on the Indian subcontinent.However, with our continuing dependence on forests for a variety of resources, but with shrinking forested areas, forests are being subjected to more intensive use than before. As a result, fires are occurring more frequently today than at any time in the

Ankila J. Hiremath; Bharath Sundaram

56

Who Framed the Forest Fire? State Framing and Peasant Counter-Framing of Anthropogenic Forest Fires in Spain Since 1940  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenic fires in forested areas are a globally relevant environmental issue characterized by a high degree of uncertainty in terms of their ecological impact. States the world over have, for the most part, attempted to grapple with them by developing costly forest fire suppression policies. This study examines the implementation and impact of one such policy, anti-forest fire media campaigns

F. Seijo

2009-01-01

57

Emissions from forest fires near Mexico City  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emissions of NOx (defined as NO (nitric oxide) + NO2 (nitrogen dioxide)) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN), per unit amount of fuel burned, from fires in the pine forests that dominate the mountains surrounding Mexico City (MC) are about 2 times higher than normally observed for forest burning. The ammonia (NH3) emissions are about average for forest burning. The upper limit for the mass ratio of NOx to volatile organic compounds (VOC) for these MC-area mountain fires was ~0.38, which is similar to the NOx/VOC ratio in the MC urban area emissions inventory of 0.34, but much larger than the NOx/VOC ratio for tropical forest fires in Brazil (~0.068). The nitrogen enrichment in the fire emissions may be due to deposition of nitrogen-containing pollutants in the outflow from the MC urban area. This effect may occur worldwide wherever biomass burning coexists with large urban areas (e.g. the tropics, southeastern US, Los Angeles Basin). The molar emission ratio of HCN to carbon monoxide (CO) for the mountain fires was 0.012±0.007, which is 2-9 times higher than widely used literature values for biomass burning. The ambient molar ratio HCN/CO in the MC-area outflow is about 0.003±0.0003. Thus, if only mountain fires emit significant amounts of HCN, these fires may be contributing about 25% of the CO production in the MC-area (~98-100 W and 19-20 N). Comparing the PM10/CO and PM2.5/CO mass ratios in the MC Metropolitan Area emission inventory (0.0115 and 0.0037) to the PM1/CO mass ratio for the mountain fires (0.133) then suggests that these fires could produce as much as ~79-92% of the primary fine particle mass generated in the MC-area. Considering both the uncertainty in the HCN/CO ratios and secondary aerosol formation in the urban and fire emissions implies that about 50±30% of the "aged" fine particle mass in the March 2006 MC-area outflow could be from these fires.

Yokelson, R. J.; Urbanski, S. P.; Atlas, E. L.; Toohey, D. W.; Alvarado, E. C.; Crounse, J. D.; Wennberg, P. O.; Fisher, M. E.; Wold, C. E.; Campos, T. L.; Adachi, K.; Buseck, P. R.; Hao, W. M.

2007-11-01

58

Forest-fire model with resistant trees  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of forest heterogeneity in the long-term, large-scale dynamics of forest fires is investigated by means of a cellular automata model and mean-field approximation. Heterogeneity was conceived as trees (or acres of forest) with distinct strengths of resistance to burning. The scaling analysis of fire-size and fire-lifetime frequency distributions in the non-interacting fire steady-state limit indicates the breakdown of power-law behavior whenever the resistance strength parameter R exceeds a certain value. For higher resistance strength, exponential behavior characterizes the frequency distributions, while power-law like behavior was observed for the lower resistance case in the same manner as reported in the literature for a homogeneous counterpart model. For the intermediate resistance strength, however, it may be described either by a stretched exponential or by a power-law plot whenever the fraction of recovering empty cells by susceptible trees does not exceed or exceeds a certain threshold, respectively, also suggesting a dynamical percolation transition with respect to the stationary forest density.

Camelo-Neto, G.; Coutinho, S.

2011-06-01

59

Forest Fire: A Crisis Reality for Camp.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two camp directors were interviewed about evacuations from their camps due to forest fires. Topics covered include descriptions of the events; actions taken; aspects of advance planning that proved helpful; unexpected portions of the experience and resultant changes made in plans; relations with outside agencies, the media, and parents; working…

Brown, Don; Mickelson, Rhonda

2002-01-01

60

Firing dynamics of ash-ceramic materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mineralogical composition of the ash mainly consists of amorphized clay aggreBates (50%), glass phase (30%), feldspars (5-7%), organic substances (7-9), calcite (3-5%), hydrated garnets, mul!ite, iron oxides (2-5%), and other impurities. The highly plastic Ainabulaks clay has a polymineral composition with a predominance of montmorillonite (30%). The clay also contained quartz (20%), feldspar (10%), carbonates (5-10%), iron oxides (5%),

M. K. Kulbekov; S. Zh. Saibulatov; A. A. Suleimenov

1990-01-01

61

Fly ash and concrete: a study determines whether biomass, or coal co-firing fly ash, can be used in concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current US national standards for using fly ash in concrete (ASTM C618) state that fly ash must come from coal combustion, thus precluding biomass-coal co-firing fly ash. The co-fired ash comes from a large and increasing fraction of US power plants due to rapid increases in co-firing opportunity fuels with coal. The fly ashes include coal fly ash, wood fly

Shuangzhen Wang; Larry Baxter

2006-01-01

62

Study on fired bricks with replacing clay by fly ash in high volume ratio  

Microsoft Academic Search

In present paper fly ash in wet state with low quality was used as raw material to replace clay to make fired bricks. The effect of fly ash with high replacing ratio of clay on firing parameters and properties of bricks were studied. The results indicate that the plasticity index of mixture of fly ash and clay decrease dramatically with

Xu Lingling; Guo Wei; Wang Tao; Yang Nanru

2005-01-01

63

Characterization and growth modeling of ash deposits in coal fired boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ash deposit growing model based on surface growing theory is developed in order to represent the coal fired ash deposits. The predicted characteristics are compared to physical and chemical measurements of a typical ash deposit collected from an existing coal fired power plant located in the south of Brazil. Several structures were generated and compared to scanning electron images

Edson Bazzo

64

Monitoring Fires in Southwestern Amazonia Rain Forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From mid-July to mid-October 2005, an environmental disaster unfolded in the trinational region of Madre de Dios, Peru; Acre, Brazil; and Pando, Bolivia (the MAP region), in southwestern Amazonia. A prolonged dry season and human-initiated fires resulted in smoke pollution affecting more than 400,000 persons, fire damage to over 300,000 hectares of rain forest, and over US$50 million of direct economic losses. Indicators suggest that anomalous drought conditions could occur again this year.

Brown, I. Foster; Schroeder, Wilfrid; Setzer, Alberto; de Los Rios Maldonado, Monica; Pantoja, Nara; Duarte, Alejandro; Marengo, Jose

2006-06-01

65

Crisis management. Putting out forest fires.  

PubMed

A crisis can hit any business. It can hurt cash flow, productivity, the public's faith, and the company's image. The adverse effects come in two major areas: public image and cash flow, both of which can be devastating. Lack of planning ensures maximum pain and the greatest chance of future collapse. A proactive stance can lessen the pain and give the best chance of recovery. Like a forest fire, a crisis can be sniffed early or it can destroy thousands of 'acres.' The best manager will have plans for crisis management and will be able to smell the smoke before the blaze consumes the forest. PMID:10313369

Burton, R M

66

Cause of the Interannual Variation of Boreal-Forest Fires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The boreal-forest rainbelts are maintained by transient disturbances ahead of subarctic troughs over Central Asia, the Bering Sea, and the Labrador Sea (Yoon and Chen 2006). The interannual variation of the subarctic circulation is reflected by the filling/deepening of these troughs. The response to this subarctic circulation variation is the reduction (enhancement) of rainfall along boreal forests. Thus, the consequence of this annual variation in boreal-forest rainbelts should be reflected by the increase (decrease) of forest fires along the boreal forests over Siberia and the Alaska-Mackenzie River basin, because of the lack (oversupply) of water vapor to maintain boreal-forest rainbelts. The forest fire data issued by several sources including Russia Federal Forest Agency, U.S. Alaska Fire Service, Canadian Wildland Fire Information System, and the Worldfire data from European Space Agency Earth Resource Satellite-2 over the period of 1960-2009 were used to compile/analyze the interannual variation of forest fires along the boreal forests of two continents. The rainfall data of GPCP and GHCN, the re-analysis data of ERA-40 and GEOS-5, and the initial analysis of NCEP GFS were employed to identify/depict the interannual variation of the subarctic summer circulation and the maintenance of boreal-forest rainbelts. The consistency of interannual variations between the occurrence frequency of forest fires and the subarctic circulation/boreal-forest rainbelts confirms our argument about the cause of the interannual variation in the boreal forest fires.

Chen, Tsing-Chang(Mike); Tsay, Jenq-Dar

2010-05-01

67

Time fluctuation analysis of forest fire sequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fires are complex events involving both space and time fluctuations. Understanding of their dynamics and pattern distribution is of great importance in order to improve the resource allocation and support fire management actions at local and global levels. This study aims at characterizing the temporal fluctuations of forest fire sequences observed in Portugal, which is the country that holds the largest wildfire land dataset in Europe. This research applies several exploratory data analysis measures to 302,000 forest fires occurred from 1980 to 2007. The applied clustering measures are: Morisita clustering index, fractal and multifractal dimensions (box-counting), Ripley's K-function, Allan Factor, and variography. These algorithms enable a global time structural analysis describing the degree of clustering of a point pattern and defining whether the observed events occur randomly, in clusters or in a regular pattern. The considered methods are of general importance and can be used for other spatio-temporal events (i.e. crime, epidemiology, biodiversity, geomarketing, etc.). An important contribution of this research deals with the analysis and estimation of local measures of clustering that helps understanding their temporal structure. Each measure is described and executed for the raw data (forest fires geo-database) and results are compared to reference patterns generated under the null hypothesis of randomness (Poisson processes) embedded in the same time period of the raw data. This comparison enables estimating the degree of the deviation of the real data from a Poisson process. Generalizations to functional measures of these clustering methods, taking into account the phenomena, were also applied and adapted to detect time dependences in a measured variable (i.e. burned area). The time clustering of the raw data is compared several times with the Poisson processes at different thresholds of the measured function. Then, the clustering measure value depends on the threshold which helps to understand the time pattern of the studied events. Our findings detected the presence of overdensity of events in particular time periods and showed that the forest fire sequences in Portugal can be considered as a multifractal process with a degree of time-clustering of the events. Key words: time sequences, Morisita index, fractals, multifractals, box-counting, Ripley's K-function, Allan Factor, variography, forest fires, point process. Acknowledgements This work was partly supported by the SNFS Project No. 200021-140658, "Analysis and Modelling of Space-Time Patterns in Complex Regions". References - Kanevski M. (Editor). 2008. Advanced Mapping of Environmental Data: Geostatistics, Machine Learning and Bayesian Maximum Entropy. London / Hoboken: iSTE / Wiley. - Telesca L. and Pereira M.G. 2010. Time-clustering investigation of fire temporal fluctuations in Portugal, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., vol. 10(4): 661-666. - Vega Orozco C., Tonini M., Conedera M., Kanevski M. (2012) Cluster recognition in spatial-temporal sequences: the case of forest fires, Geoinformatica, vol. 16(4): 653-673.

Vega Orozco, Carmen D.; Kanevski, Mikhaïl; Tonini, Marj; Golay, Jean; Pereira, Mário J. G.

2013-04-01

68

Health consequences of forest fires in Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We combined data from a population-based longitudinal survey with satellite measures of aerosol levels to assess the impact\\u000a of smoke from forest fires that blanketed the Indonesian islands of Kalimantan and Sumatra in late 1997 on adult health. To\\u000a account for unobserved differences between haze and nonhaze areas, we compared changes in the health of individual respondents.\\u000a Between 1993 and

Elizabeth Frankenberg; Douglas McKee; Duncan Thomas

2005-01-01

69

Effect of Cd-containing wood ash on the microflora of coniferous forest humus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of wood ash in forestry has been questioned because the cadmium (Cd) concentration of ash, which varies between 1 and 20 mg kg?1 ash, exceeds the level allowed for fertilizers (3 mg kg?1) used in agriculture. To investigate the combined and separated effects of Cd and ash on the forest humus microflora, pumice or wood ash, spiked with

Hannu Fritze; Jonna Perkiömäki; Ulla Saarela; Riikka Katainen; Päivi Tikka; Kim Yrjälä; Matti Karp; Jari Haimi; Martin Romantschuk

2000-01-01

70

Cadmium contamination of wood ash and fire-treated coniferous humus: Effect on soil respiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric acidic deposition is known to affect soil fertility and in many countries, liming has been used to counteract anthropogenic soil acidification in coniferous forest soils. Other measures used to improve the acid neutralization capacity of forest soils are wood ash application and prescribed burning. In both cases, ash is deposited on the forest floor, resulting in a pH increase

H. Fritze; A. Kapanen; P. Vanhala

1995-01-01

71

Fly ash and concrete: a study determines whether biomass, or coal co-firing fly ash, can be used in concrete  

SciTech Connect

Current US national standards for using fly ash in concrete (ASTM C618) state that fly ash must come from coal combustion, thus precluding biomass-coal co-firing fly ash. The co-fired ash comes from a large and increasing fraction of US power plants due to rapid increases in co-firing opportunity fuels with coal. The fly ashes include coal fly ash, wood fly ash from pure wood combustion, biomass and coal co-fired fly ash SW1 and SW2. Also wood fly ash is blended with Class C or Class F to produce Wood C and Wood E. Concrete samples were prepared with fly ash replacing cement by 25%. All fly ash mixes except wood have a lower water demand than the pure cement mix. Fly ashes, either from coal or non coal combustion, increase the required air entraining agent (AEA) to meet the design specification of the mixes. If AEA is added arbitrarily without considering the amount or existence of fly ash results could lead to air content in concrete that is either too low or too high. Biomass fly ash does not impact concrete setting behaviour disproportionately. Switch grass-coal co-fired fly ash and blended wood fly ash generally lie within the range of pure coal fly ash strength. The 56 day flexure strength of all the fly ash mixes is comparable to that of the pure cement mix. The flexure strength from the coal-biomass co-fired fly ash does not differ much from pure coal fly ash. All fly ash concrete mixes exhibit lower chloride permeability than the pure cement mixes. In conclusion biomass coal co-fired fly ash perform similarly to coal fly ash in fresh and hardened concrete. As a result, there is no reason to exclude biomass-coal co-fired fly ash in concrete.

Wang, Shuangzhen; Baxter, Larry

2006-08-01

72

Satellite imagery gives clear picture of Russia's boreal forest fires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boreal forest fires in Russia in 1998 may have covered a much larger area than originally reported and may have been mostly crown fires, releasing more greenhouse gases into the atmosphere than surface fires. These conclusions are based on analysis of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data and discussions with Russian fire officials. A more complete analysis of AVHRR

Eric S. Kasischke; Kathleen Bergen; R. Fennimore; F. Sotelo; G. Stephens; Anthony Janetos; H. Hank Shugart

1999-01-01

73

Spatial patterns and controls on historical fire regimes and forest ...  

Treesearch

Pacific Southwest ... Description: Fire exclusion in mixed conifer forests has increased the risk of fire due to decades of fuel accumulation. ... Intra-annual position of fire scars in the tree rings indicates that 93% of fires occurred during the dry ...

74

How resilient are southwestern ponderosa pine forests after crown fires?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exclusion of low-severity surface fire from ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa P. & C. Lawson) forests of the Southwest has changed ecosystem structure and function such that severe crown fires are increasingly causing ex- tensive stand mortality. This altered fire regime has resulted from the intersection of natural drought cycles with human activities that have suppressed natural fires for over

Melissa Savage; Joy Nystrom Mast

2005-01-01

75

Effects of fire on properties of forest soils: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many physical, chemical, mineralogical, and biological soil properties can be affected by forest fires. The effects are chiefly a result of burn severity, which consists of peak temperatures and duration of the fire. Climate, vegetation, and topography of the burnt area control the resilience of the soil system; some fire-induced changes can even be permanent. Low to moderate severity fires,

Giacomo Certini

2005-01-01

76

Early forest fire detection using radio-acoustic sounding system.  

PubMed

Automated early fire detection systems have recently received a significant amount of attention due to their importance in protecting the global environment. Some emergent technologies such as ground-based, satellite-based remote sensing and distributed sensor networks systems have been used to detect forest fires in the early stages. In this study, a radio-acoustic sounding system with fine space and time resolution capabilities for continuous monitoring and early detection of forest fires is proposed. Simulations show that remote thermal mapping of a particular forest region by the proposed system could be a potential solution to the problem of early detection of forest fires. PMID:22573967

Sahin, Yasar Guneri; Ince, Turker

2009-03-03

77

Simulation for the expansion of the Boreal Forest Fire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1. Background Now, frequent occurrence of a forest fire serves as a situation which should be careful of in international society. In the boreal forest, the main reason of the forest reduction is considered as climate change. The NOAA satellite image could detect lots of forest fire in Siberia. The forest fire can be found by only satellite because the area is enormous. After forest fire is detected, some of them will be extinguished by fire service. The fire service must go to distinguish the important fire, but now, there is not a standard which fire should distinguish first or propose to fire control zone (trench or cutting) Our purpose is to make the forest fire spread simulation in large area (about 300km x 300km or larger). We think this is very useful to help fire fighting. 2. Forest Fire Detection and Spread Simulation NOAA satellite images were analyzed with the detection method by Kawano and Kudoh (2003). For the fire spread simulation, the natural environmental information is very important. We made the database of vegetation and topology. The metrological data is also important. Simulation of fire spread is mainly used with the cellular automata and the time shearing methods by Fire and Disaster Management Agency in Japan (1984). 3. Stop Line of the Forest Fire Spread If the forest fire simulation continue for many steps, all the forest in the simulation area is burned out because the stop lines have not been considered yet. Now we think about the stop lines with the topology and the wind direction. (Of course the rain is the best way to distinguish the forest fire. But that is neglected.) It has been proven that as a tendency in the forest fire in a past, the fire does not spread in the place like the following, and that the burn stops: (1) Windward side and down slope (2) Lee side We analyzed the coupling of them. The best parameter of the burn stop probability is the proportion of the wind speed. The proportion constant is calculated by the generic algorism. When we use these parameters, the precision between the detected fire stop and the simulated fire stop is 44.3%. 4. The Simulation Results We could get all parameter to the simulate the forest fire spread in the study area. We show the examples of the results. In the figures, the color of the cell is changed by spread time. Vivid red is the earlier burned cell. Darker red shows the later burned cell. In this method, it is possible that the simulation is expanded in whole the boreal forest where the satellite images ware obtained. 5. Conclusion With the NOAA satellite images, the forest fire spread in Siberian boreal forest. This method expands to the real-time forecast of the forest fire. In present simulation, the boreal forest was made to be an object. Using the similar method, the application to tropical forests is also sufficiently possible, if the parameter is examined and changed. As further work, with not the NOAA satellite images but the MODIS images, the higher resolution is taken. Especially in the tropical area, it will be necessary to consider the more accurate weather prediction data because it rains more in the tropical than in high latitude dry area.

Kimura, K.; Honma, T.; Nakau, K.; Kushida, K.; Fukuda, M.; Hayasaka, H.

2005-12-01

78

Solubilisation and colonisation of wood ash by ectomycorrhizal fungi isolated from a wood ash fertilised spruce forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Sweden application of granulated wood ash has been suggested as a method to supplement nutrient loss resulting from harvesting of forest residues for bioenergy production. Mycelia of two ectomycorrhizal fungi Piloderma sp. 1 and Ha-96-3, were commonly found to colonise ash granules in a wood ash fertilised spruce forest. Thirty-eight fungal isolates were selected from 10 taxa to investigate

Shahid Mahmood; Roger D Finlay; Susanne Erland; Håkan Wallander

2001-01-01

79

Production of fired construction brick from high sulfate-containing fly ash with boric acid addition.  

PubMed

The increase of power plant capacity has led to the production of an increasing amount of fly ash that causes high environmental impact in Turkey. Some of the fly ash is utilized within the fired brick industry but high sulfate-containing fly ash creates severe problems during sintering of the fired brick. This study attempted to investigate the potential for converting high sulfate-containing fly ash into useful material for the construction industry by the addition of boric acid. The chemical and mineralogical composition of fly ash and clay were investigated. Boric acid (H(3)BO(3)) was added to fly ash-clay mixtures with up to 5 wt.%. Six different series of test samples were produced by uniaxial pressing. The samples were fired at the industrial clay-brick firing temperatures of 800, 900 and 1000 degrees C. The microstructures of the fired samples were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and some physical and mechanical properties were measured. It was concluded that the firing at conventional brick firing temperature of high sulfate fly ash without any addition of boric acid resulted in very weak strength bricks. The addition of boric acid and clay simultaneously to the high sulfate- containing fly ash brick dramatically increased the compressive strength of the samples at a firing temperature of 1000 degrees C by modifying the sintering behaviour of high sulfate fly ash. PMID:19423597

Ba?pinar, M Serhat; Kahraman, Erhan; Görhan, Gökhan; Demir, Ismail

2009-05-07

80

Analysis of lightning-induced forest fires in Austria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Besides human-caused fires, lightning is the major reason for forest fire ignition in Austria. In order to analyse the causes of ignition and to characterise lightning-induced forest fires, fire records were compared with the real appearance of lightning events by using the Austrian Lightning Detection and Information System for the period from 1993 to 2010. A probability was estimated for each forest fire being caused by lightning by using a decision tree and decision matrices based on flash characteristics (e.g. amplitude, time, location). It could be shown that 15 % of documented forest fires were lightning-caused. Nearly all lightning-caused fires were found during the summer months, whereas almost 40 % of all fires occurring from June to August were naturally caused. Most lightning-caused fires took place in the south and east of Austria. Lightning fires were more frequent at higher altitudes and primarily affected conifer forests. The median burned area was lower than that for anthropogenic forest fires.

Müller, Mortimer M.; Vacik, Harald; Diendorfer, Gerhard; Arpaci, Alexander; Formayer, Herbert; Gossow, Hartmut

2013-01-01

81

Forest fire spatial pattern analysis in Galicia (NW Spain).  

PubMed

Knowledge of fire behaviour is of key importance in forest management. In the present study, we analysed the spatial structure of forest fire with spatial point pattern analysis and inference techniques recently developed in the Spatstat package of R. Wildfires have been the primary threat to Galician forests in recent years. The district of Fonsagrada-Ancares is one of the most seriously affected by fire in the region and, therefore, the central focus of the study. Our main goal was to determine the spatial distribution of ignition points to model and predict fire occurrence. These data are of great value in establishing enhanced fire prevention and fire fighting plans. We found that the spatial distribution of wildfires is not random and that fire occurrence may depend on ownership conflicts. We also found positive interaction between small and large fires and spatial independence between wildfires in consecutive years. PMID:23714585

Fuentes-Santos, I; Marey-Pérez, M F; González-Manteiga, W

2013-05-25

82

The technology of forest fire detection based on infrared image  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to infrared imaging features of forest fire, we use image processing technology which is conducive to early detection and prevention of forest fires. We use image processing technology based on infrared imaging features of forest fire which is conducive to early detection and prevention of forest fires. In order to the timeliness and accuracy of fire detection, this paper proposes a forest fire detection method based on infrared image technology. We take gray histogram analysis to collected Cruising image. The image which will be detected is segmented by the adaptive dynamic threshold. Then the suspected ignitions are extracted in the image after segmentation. The ignition of forest fire which form image in the infrared image is almost circular. We use the circular degree of suspected ignition as the decision basis of the fire in the infrared image. Through the analysis of position correlation which is the same suspected ignition between adjacent frames, we judge whether there is a fire in the image. In order to verify the effectiveness of the method, we adopt image sequences of forest fire to do experiment. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm under the conditions of different light conditions and complex backgrounds, which can effectively eliminate distractions and extract the fire target. The accuracy fire detection rate is above 95 percent. All fire can be detected. The method can quickly identify fire flame and high-risk points of early fire. The structure of method is clear and efficient which processing speed is less than 25 frames per second. So it meets the application requirement of real-time processing.

Wu, Zhi-guo; Liu, Guo-juan; Wang, Ming-jia; Wang, Suo-jian

2013-09-01

83

Fire Effects on Carbon Sequestration in Forests with Frequent Surface Fire Regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dry forests of the western U.S. are experiencing increased frequency of large, severe fires as a result of past fire suppression and on-going climate change. Management activities including mechanical thinning and prescribed fire are being implemented to reduce high-severity wildfire risk. Both fuels treatments and wildfire impact forest carbon stocks. Using a field study in a Sierran mixed-conifer forest, we

Matthew D. Hurteau; Malcolm North

84

Fire regimes and forest structure in a sky island mixed conifer forest, Guadalupe Mountains National Park, Texas, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire is a key disturbance agent in the fire-prone mixed conifer and ponderosa pine forests of the southwestern United States. Human activities (i.e., livestock grazing, logging, and fire suppression) have resulted in the exclusion of fire from these forests for the past century and fire exclusion has caused changes in forest structure and composition. This study quantifies spatial and temporal

John Sakulich; Alan H. Taylor

2007-01-01

85

Wildland Fire Management Policy and Fire Management Economic Efficiency in the USDA Forest Service1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wildfires are a significant social problem affecting millions of people worldwide and causing major economic impacts at all levels. The severe fire events of 1910 in Idaho and Montana galvanized a fire policy excluding fire from the ecosystem by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service. This policy was consolidated with the passage of the 10 a.m. fire suppression policy

Armando González Cabán

86

Understanding the effects of fire management practices on forest ...  

Treesearch

All Treesearch publications were written or produced by Forest Service personnel and are in the public domain. ... Forest health monitoring: 2009 national technical report. ... Yet some fire management (such as building fire line, spike camps, ... Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.

87

Understanding the effects of fire management practices on forest ...  

Treesearch

... were written or produced by Forest Service personnel and are in the public domain. ... Draft Forest Health Monitoring 2009 National Technical Report [ver. ... Yet some fire management (such as building fire line, spike camps, ... prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.

88

Identification method of forest fire based on color space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest fire is a kind of natural disasters with huge effect on the ecological environment of the earth. Flame color and brightness are two inherent features of the flame itself which are important static identifiable information. In order to identify the flame effectively and fight the forest fire in time the flame region may be identified based on these features

Fei Yan; Xing Xu; Ning Han

2010-01-01

89

Forest fire detection based on video multi-feature fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the light of the problem of monitoring forest fire, the design strategy and practical implementation of establishing the monitor system based on digital image information are proposed. The system is based on the CCD configuration characteristics and color information to detect and locate fire. Manned lookout posts are commonly installed in the forests all around the world. In this

Li Jie; Xiao Jiang

2009-01-01

90

FEDERAL FOREST-FIRE POLICY IN THE UNITED STATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest-fire policy of U.S. federal agencies has evolved from the use of small patrols in newly created National Parks to diverse policy initiatives and institutional ar- rangements that affect millions of hectares of forests. Even with large expenditures and substantial infrastructure dedicated to fire suppression, the annual area burned by wildfire has increased over the last decade. Given the current

Scott L. Stephens; Lawrence W. Ruth

2005-01-01

91

Release of mercury from Rocky Mountain forest fires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of mercury (Hg) in soil profiles and vegetation were examined in unburned areas and in areas recently burned by wildfires of low, medium, and high fire severities in western Wyoming. Paired unburned and burned sampling sites with similar tree species composition, forest stand age, climate, and geological substrate were studied. Results indicate that Hg release from forest fires is

Abir Biswas; Joel D. Blum; Bjoern Klaue; Gerald J. Keeler

2007-01-01

92

Element budgets of forest biomass combustion and ash fertilisation – A Danish case-study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harvest of forest biomass for energy production may lead to a significant export of nutrients from the forest. Ash spreading and recycling of nutrients from wood chip combustion to the forest has come into focus as a means for counteracting the nutrient export. This study was carried out to examine the retention of various elements in the different ash fractions

Morten Ingerslev; Simon Skov; Lisbeth Sevel; Lars Bo Pedersen

2011-01-01

93

Recent Extreme Forest Fire Activity in Western Russia: Fire Danger Conditions, Fire Behavior and Smoke Transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the summer of 2010, widespread forest and peatland fires in western Russia burned over hundreds of thousands of hectares, burning over croplands, destroying hundreds of homes, and directly causing the death of more than 50 people. Unprecedented drought conditions, combined with an extended heat wave, resulted in extreme fire danger conditions and explosive fire behavior in a region of Russia not noted for large fires. Several fires exhibited pyroconvection, injecting smoke directly into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, while deep-burning fires created major regional smoke problems. This smoke persisted in the heavily-populated areas around Moscow, exposing millions to high levels of ozone and particulate matter, and creating both immediate and longer-term health risks. This presentation will explore the drought conditions leading to the catastrophic fire behavior experienced in western Russia, and analyze fire behavior in terms of fuel consumption, smoke production, fire intensity levels, and pyroconvection. Impacts of regional and long-range smoke transport will also be discussed.

Stocks, B. J.; Fromm, M.; Goldammer, J.; Carr, R.; Sukhinin, A. I.

2010-12-01

94

Fire effects on temperate forest soil C and N storage.  

PubMed

Temperate forest soils store globally significant amounts of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). Understanding how soil pools of these two elements change in response to disturbance and management is critical to maintaining ecosystem services such as forest productivity, greenhouse gas mitigation, and water resource protection. Fire is one of the principal disturbances acting on forest soil C and N storage and is also the subject of enormous management efforts. In the present article, we use meta-analysis to quantify fire effects on temperate forest soil C and N storage. Across a combined total of 468 soil C and N response ratios from 57 publications (concentrations and pool sizes), fire had significant overall effects on soil C (-26%) and soil N (-22%). The impacts of fire on forest floors were significantly different from its effects on mineral soils. Fires reduced forest floor C and N storage (pool sizes only) by an average of 59% and 50%, respectively, but the concentrations of these two elements did not change. Prescribed fires caused smaller reductions in forest floor C and N storage (-46% and -35%) than wildfires (-67% and -69%), and the presence of hardwoods also mitigated fire impacts. Burned forest floors recovered their C and N pools in an average of 128 and 103 years, respectively. Among mineral soils, there were no significant changes in C or N storage, but C and N concentrations declined significantly (-11% and -12%, respectively). Mineral soil C and N concentrations were significantly affected by fire type, with no change following prescribed burns, but significant reductions in response to wildfires. Geographic variation in fire effects on mineral soil C and N storage underscores the need for region-specific fire management plans, and the role of fire type in mediating C and N shifts (especially in the forest floor) indicates that averting wildfires through prescribed burning is desirable from a soils perspective. PMID:21774423

Nave, Lucas E; Vance, Eric D; Swanston, Christopher W; Curtis, Peter S

2011-06-01

95

Utilization of fly ash coming from a CFBC boiler co-firing coal and petroleum coke in Portland cement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fly ash coming from a circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) boiler co-firing coal and petroleum coke (CFBC fly ash) is very different from coal ash from traditional pulverized fuel firing due to many differences in their combustion processes, and thus they have different effects on the properties of Portland cement. The influences of CFBC fly ash on the strength, setting

Guanghong Sheng; Jianping Zhai; Qin Li; Feihu Li

2007-01-01

96

Effect of Forest Fire on Regional Carbon Dioxide Exchange Over Boreal Forest in Interior Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest fire is a major disturbance in boreal forest ecosystems and significantly influences carbon exchange processes by combustion of vegetation and surface organic soils. In Interior Alaska, area of 7.6x106 ha was burned during 2000-2009 by forest fires. Fire occurrence frequency in the next decade may increase with current warming trend. Hence, it is important to include carbon dioxide (CO2)

H. Iwata; M. Otsuki; Y. Harazono; M. Ueyama; T. Iwata

2010-01-01

97

Landscape development, forest fires, and wilderness management.  

PubMed

Both the landforms and the vegetation of the earth develop to states that are maintained in dynamic equilibrium. Short-term equilibrium of a hillslope or river valley results from intersection between erosional and depositional tendencies, controlled by gravitational force and the efficiency of the transporting medium. Long-term equilibrium of major landforms depends on crustal uplift and the resistance of the rock to weathering. In most parts of the world landscape evolves toward a peneplain, but the reduction rate approaches zero as the cycle progresses, and the counteracting force of crustal uplift intercedes before the end form is reached. Davis described this theoretical model in elegant terms. Leopold and Hack have provided a new and quantitative understanding of short-range geomorphic interactions that tend to discredit the Davisian model in the eyes of many. However, the substitute models of quasi-equilibrium or dynamic equilibrium merely describe short-range situations in which this or that Davisian stage is maintained despite uplift or downwasting. Given crustal stability and an unchanging climate, landforms would presumably still evolve through Davisian stages. However, the Davis model cannot be tested, for despite tremendous inventions in geochronology and impressive advances in stratigraphic knowledge, we cannot yet establish the rates or even the fact of crustal uplift in most areas. We are left with an unresolvable problem, for the sedimentary records of erosional history are largely inaccessible, undatable, and indecipherable, at least in the detail necessary to describe long-term evolution of the landscape. We know more about the evolution and maintenance of vegetation assemblages than about landform evolution, for even long-term vegetation sequences are within the scope of radiocarbon dating, and the biostratigraphic record is detailed. Even here, however, distinctions between short-term and long-term situations must be made, so that Clements' grand scheme of vegetational climax-created soon after Davis's model of landform development-can be evaluated in terms of modern knowledge. Disillusion with the climax model paralleled disillusion with Davis's model in the 1950's, but the climax model can be tested, because the record of vegetational history is accessible, datable, and decipherable. In the short term of a few decades, successional vegetation stages occur in variety of situations, as confirmed by observation or by techniques such as tree-ring analysis. The successional vegetation stages are reactions to nutrients, weather, competition, and consumption. Such succession implies long-term disequilibrium, or at least unidirectional development. The long-term controlling factor in Clements' model of vegetation development is climate. With climatic stability the succession will proceed to a climax. In the Appalachian Mountains, geomorphic, microclimatic, and edaphic conditions limit climax development, producing a polyclimax, which is generally sustained by the dominance of these factors. Death and regeneration of single forest trees is controlled mostly by windstorms. The distributional pattern may be locally transected by lightning fires, major windstorms, or washouts. However, the long-term stability of Appalachian forests is demonstrated by pollen stratigraphy. Although we can infer the long-term stability of Appalachian forests, the trends and mechanics of short-term vegetational succession are not fully understood, because lack of sizable areas of virgin forest limits investigations of natural conditions. In this respect, the eastern United States is already much like western Europe, where climatic and disturbance factors in vegetational history cannot be disentangled. In the Great Lakes region, a large area of virgin forest exists in the BWCA of northeastern Minnesota. Here short- and long-term studies show that for at least 9000 years the principal stabilizing factor has been the frequent occurrence of fire. Major fires occur so often that the vegetation pattern is a record of fire history. All e

Wright, H E

1974-11-01

98

Interpreting and using outputs from the Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System in research applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding and being able to predict forest fire occurrence, fire growth and fire intensity are important aspects of forest\\u000a fire management. In Canada fire management agencies use the Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System (CFFDRS) to help predict\\u000a these elements of forest fire activity. In this paper a review of the CFFDRS is presented with the main focus on understanding

B. Mike Wotton

2009-01-01

99

Characteristics and composition of fly ash from Canadian coal-fired power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fly ashes were collected from the electrostatic precipitator (ESPs) and\\/or the baghouse of seven coal-fired power plants. The fly ashes were sampled from power plants that use pulverized subbituminous and bituminous feed coals. Fly ash from bituminous coals and limestone feed coals from fluidized-bed power plant were also sampled. The fly ashes were examined for their mineralogies and elemental compositions.

Fariborz Goodarzi

2006-01-01

100

Sustainable use of biofuel by recycling ash to forests: treatment of biofuel ash.  

PubMed

The influence of treatment techniques on leaching properties of alkaline species from biofuel ash is investigated in this paper. Ash samples from combustion of biofuels in a circulating fluidized bed and grate-firing combustion plants are studied. The samples are treated using three different treatment techniques; self-hardening, thermal treatment, and hardening bythe addition of binding materials. Nontreated and treated samples are evaluated for the leaching properties of the alkaline compounds and, furthermore, are characterized with respect to both physical and chemical characteristics. The results show the influence of treatment techniques on the physical structure and leaching characteristics of alkaline species. Results also indicate that ash samples show different behavior when treated with different methods, i.e., the influence of treatment technique on controlling the leaching properties is highly dependent on the initial chemical composition of ash. It was also found that there is an interaction between leaching of limited and easily soluble species, e.g., calcium and potassium leaching. Therefore, to control the leaching rate of alkaline species from ash, the characteristics that correlate the leaching properties of both easily and limited soluble species need to be adjusted. PMID:17612199

Mahmoudkhani, Maryam; Richards, Tobias; Theliander, Hans

2007-06-01

101

Fire regime in a Mexican forest under indigenous resource management.  

PubMed

The Rarámuri (Tarahumara) people live in the mountains and canyons of the Sierra Madre Occidental of Chihuahua, Mexico. They base their subsistence on multiple-use strategies of their natural resources, including agriculture, pastoralism, and harvesting of native plants and wildlife. Pino Gordo is a Rarámuri settlement in a remote location where the forest has not been commercially logged. We reconstructed the forest fire regime from fire-scarred trees, measured the structure of the never-logged forest, and interviewed community members about fire use. Fire occurrence was consistent throughout the 19th and 20th centuries up to our fire scar collection in 2004. This is the least interrupted surface-fire regime reported to date in North America. Studies from other relict sites such as nature reserves in Mexico or the USA have all shown some recent alterations associated with industrialized society. At Pino Gordo, fires recurred frequently at the three study sites, with a composite mean fire interval of 1.9 years (all fires) to 7.6 years (fires scarring 25% or more of samples). Per-sample fire intervals averaged 10-14 years at the three sites. Approximately two-thirds of fires burned in the season of cambial dormancy, probably during the pre-monsoonal drought. Forests were dominated by pines and contained many large living trees and snags, in contrast to two nearby similar forests that have been logged. Community residents reported using fire for many purposes, consistent with previous literature on fire use by indigenous people. Pino Gordo is a valuable example of a continuing frequent-fire regime in a never-harvested forest. The Rarámuri people have actively conserved this forest through their traditional livelihood and management techniques, as opposed to logging the forest, and have also facilitated the fire regime by burning. The data contribute to a better understanding of the interactions of humans who live in pine forests and the fire regimes of these ecosystems, a topic that has been controversial and difficult to assess from historical or paleoecological evidence. PMID:21639043

Fulé, Peter Z; Ramos-Gómez, Mauro; Cortés-Montaño, Citlali; Miller, Andrew M

2011-04-01

102

Fire history and fire-climate relationships in upper elevation forests of the southwestern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire history and fire-climate relationships of upper elevation forests of the southwestern United States are imperative for informing management decisions in the face of increased crown fire occurrence and climate change. I used dendroecological techniques to reconstruct fires and stand-replacing fire patch size in the Madrean Sky Islands and Mogollon Plateau. Reconstructed patch size (1685-1904) was compared with contemporary patch

Ellis Quinn Margolis

2007-01-01

103

Reducing Crown Fire Hazard in Fire-Adapted Forests of New Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of FIA data for New Mexico shows that 2.4 million acres of pon- derosa pine and dry mixed conifer forests rate high for fire hazard. A restoration treatment designed to address altered ecological conditions in these forests increased average crowning index (i.e., the wind speed necessary to maintain a crown fire) by 50 mph, compared to only 23 mph

Carl E. Fiedler; Charles E. Keegan

2003-01-01

104

Early detection of small forest fire by dial technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fires can be the cause of serious environmental and economic damages. For this reason considerable effort has been directed toward forest protection and fire fighting. The means traditionally used for early fire detection mainly consist in human observers dispersed over forest regions. A significant improvement in early warning capabilities could be obtained by using automatic detection apparatus. In order to early detect small forest fires, the use of a dial system will be considered. A first evaluation of the lowest detectable concentration will be estimated by a numerical simulation. The theoretical model will be used also to get the capacities of a dial system in fire surveillance of wooded areas. Fixing the burning rate for several fuels, the maximum range of detection will be evaluated. The results of these simulations will be reported in the paper.

Bellecci, C.; Francucci, M.; Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.; Martellucci, S.; Richetta, M.

2005-10-01

105

FIRE HISTORY OF A SEQUOIA-MIXED CONIFER FOREST1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on the years in which fires burned, on fire frequency, and on intensity and areal extent of fires were gathered from 935 scars on 220 stumps of mixed conifer forest species in an 1800ha-study area in the Sierra Nevada, California, USA. Before 1875, fires scarred clusters of living trees every 9 yr on west-facing slopes at Redwood Mountain and

BRUCE M. KILGORE; DAN TAYLOR

1979-01-01

106

Analysis of forest potential fire environment based on GIS and RS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest fires cause a significant damage for public property by destroying a large tract of forest. Forest fire risk assessment, which based on an integrated index, becomes an important tool for forest fires management. The integrated index includes the information about fuel, topography and weather condition which constitute potential fire environment together. The fuel and weather condition are essential for

Wenliang Liu; Shixin Wang; Yi Zhou; Litao Wang; Shujie Zhang

2010-01-01

107

Characterization of forest fires in the Mediterranean area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fires cause important economic losses and deaths every year, as well as deteriorating natural resources and increasing pollution. In order to reduce their effects we need rigorous analysis of the factors that cause them, and to develop tools that minimize their effects. In this paper, a land zoning of a Mediterranean area (Autonomous Region of Valencia) was carried out. We selected the main variables for the classification from the human and socioeconomic factors and the characteristics of the forest fires, and we classified the municipalities with homogeneous characteristics of incidence and causes of forest fires using multivariate techniques and Geographical Information Systems (GIS).

Marí-Benlloch, M.; Martínez-Gómez, M.; Maroto, C.; Suárez, J.; Crespo, F.

2012-12-01

108

Verification & validation of an agent-based forest fire simulation model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present the verification and validation of an agent-based model of forest fires. We use a combination of a Virtual Overlay Multi-Agent System (VOMAS) validation scheme with Fire Weather Index (FWI) to validate the forest fire Simulation. FWI is based on decades of real forest fire data and is now regarded as a standard index for fire

Muaz A. Niazi; Qasim Siddique; Amir Hussain; Mario Kolberg

2010-01-01

109

The tropical forest and fire emissions experiment: laboratory fire measurements and synthesis of campaign data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the Tropical Forest and Fire Emissions Experiment (TROFFEE), tropical forest fuels were burned in a large, biomass-fire simulation facility and the smoke was characterized with open-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), gas chromatography (GC), GC/PTR-MS, and filter sampling of the particles. In most cases, about one-third of the fuel chlorine ended up in the particles and about one-half remained in the ash. About 50% of the mass of non-methane organic compounds (NMOC) emitted by these fires could be identified with the available instrumentation. The lab fire emission factors (EF, g compound emitted per kg dry fuel burned) were coupled with EF obtained during the TROFFEE airborne and ground-based field campaigns. This revealed several types of EF dependence on parameters such as the ratio of flaming to smoldering combustion and fuel characteristics. The synthesis of data from the different TROFFEE platforms was also used to derive EF for all the measured species for both primary deforestation fires and pasture maintenance fires the two main types of biomass burning in the Amazon. Many of the EF are larger than those in widely-used earlier work. This is mostly due to the inclusion of newly-available, large EF for the initially-unlofted smoldering emissions from residual logs in pastures and the assumption that these emissions make a significant contribution (~40%) to the total emissions from pasture fires. The TROFFEE EF for particles with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 microns (EFPM2.5) is 14.8 g/kg for primary deforestation fires and 18.7 g/kg for pasture maintenance fires. These EFPM2.5 are significantly larger than a previous recommendation (9.1 g/kg) and lead to an estimated pyrogenic primary PM2.5 source for the Amazon that is 84% larger. New regional budgets for biogenic and pyrogenic emissions were roughly estimated. Coupled with an estimate of secondary aerosol formation in the Amazon and source apportionment studies, the regional budgets suggest that ~5% of the total mass of the regionally generated NMOC end up as secondary organic aerosol within the Amazonian boundary layer within 1 3 days. New global budgets confirm that biogenic emissions and biomass burning are the two largest global sources of NMOC with an estimated production of approximately 1000 (770 1400) and 500 (250 630) Tg/yr, respectively. It follows that plants and fires may also be the two main global sources of secondary organic aerosol. A limited set of emission ratios (ER) is given for sugar cane burning, which may help estimate the air quality impacts of burning this major crop, which is often grown in densely populated areas.

Yokelson, R. J.; Christian, T. J.; Karl, T. G.; Guenther, A.

2008-07-01

110

The tropical forest and fire emissions experiment: laboratory fire measurements and synthesis of campaign data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the Tropical Forest and Fire Emissions Experiment (TROFFEE), tropical forest fuels were burned in a large, biomass-fire simulation facility and the smoke was characterized with open-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), gas chromatography (GC), GC/PTR-MS, and filter sampling of the particles. In most cases, about one-third of the fuel chlorine ended up in the particles and about one-half remained in the ash. About 50% of the mass of non-methane organic compounds (NMOC) emitted by these fires could be identified with the available instrumentation. The lab fire emission factors (EF, g compound emitted per kg fuel burned) were coupled with EF obtained during the TROFFEE airborne and ground-based field campaigns. This revealed several types of EF dependence on parameters such as the ratio of flaming to smoldering combustion and fuel characteristics. The synthesis of data from the different TROFFEE platforms was also used to derive EF for all the measured species for both primary deforestation fires and pasture maintenance fires - the two main types of biomass burning in the Amazon. Many of the EF are larger than those in widely-used earlier work. This is mostly due to the inclusion of newly-available, large EF for the initially-unlofted smoldering emissions and the assumption that these emissions make a significant contribution (~40%) to the total emissions from pasture fires. The TROFFEE EF for particles with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 microns (EFPM2.5) is 14.8 g/kg for primary deforestation fires and 18.7 g/kg for pasture maintenance fires. These EFPM2.5 are significantly larger than a previous recommendation (9.1 g/kg) and lead to an estimated pyrogenic primary PM2.5 source for the Amazon that is 84% larger. Regional through global budgets for biogenic and pyrogenic emissions were roughly estimated. Coupled with previous measurements of secondary aerosol growth in the Amazon and source apportionment studies, the regional budgets suggest that ~5% of the total mass of the regionally generated NMOC end up as secondary organic aerosol within the Amazonian boundary layer within 1-3 days. The global budgets confirm that biogenic emissions and biomass burning are the two largest global sources of NMOC with an estimated production of approximately 1000 and 500 Tg/yr, respectively. It follows that plants and fires may also be the two main global sources of secondary organic aerosol. A limited set of emission ratios (ER) is given for sugar cane burning, which may help estimate the air quality impacts of burning this major crop, which is often grown in densely populated areas.

Yokelson, R. J.; Christian, T. J.; Karl, T. G.; Guenther, A.

2008-03-01

111

Simulating Fire Disturbance in the Canadian Boreal Forest Using TRIPLEX Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest fire is a natural part of forest ecosystems and plays an important role in fuel load reduction, tree growth and mortality, and carbon\\/nitrogen cycling. Over the past century, the changes in land use and land management activities have changed the regime of forest fires. To better understand the effects of forest fires on forests as well as the interactions

D. Hua; C. Peng; X. Zhou; J. Cui; Q. Dang

2004-01-01

112

Effect of Forest Fires on Hydrology and Biogeochemistry of Watersheds  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Forest fire generally includes both natural wildfire and human-induced fire (e.g., slash-and-burn agriculture and accidental\\u000a fire). Areas burned by forest fire are relatively widespread across the world (Table 30.1), but vary substantially across\\u000a continents. For example, burned areas account for about two thirds of the total area in Africa, yet only approximately 1%\\u000a in North America (Roy et al. 2008). Wildfire

Shin-ichi Onodera; John T. Van Stan

113

Using synthetic polymers to reduce soil erosion after forest fires in Mediterranean soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fires are a major environmental problem in the Mediterranean region because they result in a loss of vegetation cover, changes in biodiversity, increases in greenhouse gasses emission and a potential increase of runoff and soil erosion. The large increases in runoff and sediment yields after high severity fires have been attributed to several factors, among them: increase in soil water repellency; soil sealing by detached particles and by ash particles, and the loss of a surface cover. The presence of a surface cover increases infiltration, and decreases runoff and erosion by several mechanisms which include: rainfall interception, plant evapotranspiration, preservation of soil structure by increasing soil organic matter, and increasing surface roughness. The loss of vegetation cover as a result of fire leaves the surface of the soil exposed to the direct impact of the raindrops, and therefore the sensitivity of the soil to runoff generation and soil loss increases. In this work, we propose a new method to protect soils against post-fire erosion based on the application of synthetic polymers to the soil. Laboratory rainfall simulations and field runoff plots were used to analyze the suitability of the application of synthetic polymers to reduce soil erosion and stabilize soil structure in Mediterranean soils. The combination of these two processes will potentially favor a faster recovery of the vegetation structure. This method has been successfully applied in arable land, however it has not been tested in burnt forests. The outcome of this study may provide important managerial tools for forest management following fires.

Lado, Marcos; Ben-Hur, Meni; Inbar, Assaf

2010-05-01

114

Transport of boreal forest fire emissions from Canada to Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In August 1998, severe forest fires occurred in many parts of Canada, especially in the Northwest Territories. In the week from August 5 to 11, more than 1000 different fires burned >1 × 106 ha of boreal forest, the highest 1-week sum ever reported throughout the 1990s. In this study we can unambigously show for the first time that these fires caused pronounced large-scale haze layers above Europe and that they influenced concentrations of carbon monoxide and other trace gases at the surface station Mace Head in Ireland over a period of weeks. Transport took place across several thousands of kilometers. An example of such an event, in which a pronounced aerosol layer was observed at an altitude of 3-6 km over Germany during August 1998, is investigated in detail. Backward trajectories ending at the measured aerosol layer are calculated and shown to have their origin in the forest fire region. Simulations with a particle dispersion model reveal how a substantial amount of forest fire emissions was transported across the Atlantic. The resulting aerosol lamina over Europe is captured well by the model. In addition, the model demonstrates that the forest fire emissions polluted large regions over Europe during the second half of August 1998. Surface measurements at Mace Head are compared to the model results for an anthropogenic and a forest fire carbon monoxide tracer, respectively. While wet deposition removed considerable amounts of aerosol during its transport, forest fire carbon monoxide reached Europe in copious amounts. It is estimated that during August 1998, 32%, 10%, and 58% of the carbon monoxide enhancement over the background level at Mace Head were caused by European and North American anthropogenic emissions and forest fire emissions, respectively.

Forster, Caroline; Wandinger, Ulla; Wotawa, Gerhard; James, Paul; Mattis, Ina; Althausen, Dietrich; Simmonds, Peter; O'Doherty, S.; Jennings, S. Gerard; Kleefeld, Christoph; Schneider, Johannes; Trickl, Thomas; Kreipl, Stephan; JäGer, Horst; Stohl, Andreas

2001-10-01

115

Slash fire hazard analysis on the Siskiyou National Forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Potential increase in fire hazard as a result of timber harvesting is a concern of forest managers throughout the United States. Treating fuels can help reduce unacceptable fire hazards. To evaluate alternative fuel treatments, managers need to know their effects on fire hazard. A decision analysis approach to estimating fire hazard in terms of expected burned area was applied to a watershed in the Siskiyou National Forest (Oregon). Three treatment alternatives (do nothing and two levels of yarding unmerchantable material) were evaluated, and the effects of the treatments were projected over a 90-yr period. Initially, the effects of applying a treatment are small. After 50 years of treatment, the most intense alternative can be expected to show almost a 50% reduction in burned area compared to no treatment. The procedure also estimates burned are by fire size and fire intensity classes. Managers may find this useful for estimating expected fire effects associated with a particular fuel treatment regime.

Radloff, David L.; Schopfer, Walter C.; Yancik, Richard F.

1982-11-01

116

[Measurement model of carbon emission from forest fire: a review].  

PubMed

Forest fire is the main disturbance factor for forest ecosystem, and an important pathway of the decrease of vegetation- and soil carbon storage. Large amount of carbonaceous gases in forest fire can release into atmosphere, giving remarkable impacts on the atmospheric carbon balance and global climate change. To scientifically and effectively measure the carbonaceous gases emission from forest fire is of importance in understanding the significance of forest fire in the carbon balance and climate change. This paper reviewed the research progress in the measurement model of carbon emission from forest fire, which covered three critical issues, i. e., measurement methods of forest fire-induced total carbon emission and carbonaceous gases emission, affecting factors and measurement parameters of measurement model, and cause analysis of the uncertainty in the measurement of the carbon emissions. Three path selections to improve the quantitative measurement of the carbon emissions were proposed, i. e., using high resolution remote sensing data and improving algorithm and estimation accuracy of burned area in combining with effective fuel measurement model to improve the accuracy of the estimated fuel load, using high resolution remote sensing images combined with indoor controlled environment experiments, field measurements, and field ground surveys to determine the combustion efficiency, and combining indoor controlled environment experiments with field air sampling to determine the emission factors and emission ratio. PMID:22919858

Hu, Hai-Qing; Wei, Shu-Jing; Jin, Sen; Sun, Long

2012-05-01

117

Forest Fire Effects on Mercury and Other Trace Metal Concentrations in a Rocky Mountain Forest Ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impacts of forest fires on pools of major elements including carbon, calcium, and sulfur, have been extensively studied while their effects on potentially toxic trace metals are not as well understood. We examined the effect of the summer 2001, 4470 acre Green Knoll Fire (GKF) in northeastern Wyoming on mercury (Hg) and other trace metal concentrations in forest ecosystem

A. Biswas; J. D. Blum; G. J. Keeler

2003-01-01

118

Study of the pseudo-color processing for infrared forest-fire image  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest-fire hazard is very serious, so at home and abroad they pay great attention to the study of forest-fire, such as the prevention of forest-fire. Processing the forest-fire image of detected by using the technology of pseudo-color to improve the amount of useful information is one of the most important of forest-fire detection. By a full studying of pseudo-color coded

Tingting Wang; Jianmin Su; Yinglai Huang; Yingshen Zhu

2010-01-01

119

Impact of Prescribed Fire on Understory and Forest Floor Nutrients.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The impact of low-intensity prescribed fires on slash pine/saw-palmetto/gallberry understory and forest floor nutrients was estimated from measurements before and after burning. Highly significant correlations existed between weight loss of these fuel com...

W. A. Hough

1981-01-01

120

Mathematical modeling of forest fire initiation in three dimensional ...  

Treesearch

... analysis of experimental data and using concept and methods from reactive media mechanics. In the context of the general mathematical model of forest fires, this study gives a new mathematical setting and method of numerical solution of a ...

121

Cloud Condensation Nuclei from a Simulated Forest Fire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements made downwind of a simulated forest fire showed that the concentration of cloud condensation nuclei active at a supersaturation of 1 percent was increased by a factor of about 2.5. Smaller increases were observed at lower supersaturations.

Peter V. Hobbs; L. F. Radke

1969-01-01

122

Phase transitions in a forest-fire model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate a forest-fire model with the density of empty sites as a control parameter. The model exhibits three phases, separated by one first-order phase transition and one ``mixed'' phase transition which shows critical behavior on only one side and hysteresis. The critical behavior is found to be that of the self-organized critical forest-fire model [B. Drossel and F. Schwabl,

Siegfried Clar; Klaus Schenk; Franz Schwabl

1997-01-01

123

Does wood ash application increase heavy metal accumulation in forest berries and mushrooms?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of experiments have been established at the Finnish Forest Research Institute during the last few decades to study the effect of wood ash application on soil substrate, ground vegetation and stand growth on drained mires and mineral soil forests. In this study, the plots of 23 experiments were sampled to determine whether ash application significantly increases heavy metal

Mikko Moilanen; Hannu Fritze; Mika Nieminen; Sirpa Piirainen; Jorma Issakainen; Juha Piispanen

2006-01-01

124

Application of lime and wood ash to decrease acidification of forest soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liming and wood ash application are measures to decrease acidification of forests soils. The assessment of lime requirement can be based on that base saturation, which indicates a low risk of acid toxicity. Because of a wide spread Mg deficiency in Central European forests, Mg containing lime is normally applied. Ash from untreated wood is applied to decrease soil acidity

K. J. Meiwes

1995-01-01

125

Wood and combination wood-fired boiler ash characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ashes resulting from the combustion of wood residues in industrial boilers are characterized relative to (i) macroelement compositions, (ii) trace and heavy metal microelement compositions, (iii) organics, and (iv) polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and -furans (PCDD\\/Fs). Ash compositions, both macro- and microelements, are compared with coal ash and limestone. Microelements in wood ashes are also compared with other potential soil amendments such

Arun V. Someshwar

1996-01-01

126

Fire behavior and fire effects across the forest landscape of continental Southeast Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The massive ENSO-induced fires of 1982–1983 and 1997–1998 that burned across much of Borneo forced a critical re-evaluation\\u000a of the role of fire in tropical forests. In Southeast Asia the occurrence of fires is generally associated with increasing\\u000a rainfall seasonality. In aseasonal lowland rainforests fire is rare, but potentially devastating when it occurs. In the strongly\\u000a seasonal regions of continental

Patrick J. Baker; Sarayudh Bunyavejchewin

127

Seasonal Variations in Ash Content of Some Michigan Forest Floor Fuels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Samples from the forest floor litter layer were collected seasonally from under medium to fully stocked large sapling to sawtimber stands in Lower Michigan to study seasonal ash content changes. The total ash and silica-free ash content of tree foliage in...

R. E. Loomis

1982-01-01

128

Batch?Determined Elements Release from Wood Ash Mixed with an Acidic Forest Soil Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

A serial batch leaching experiment was carried out to evaluate the release of elements from wood ash mixed with a strongly acidic forest soil sample. Wood ash application resulted in increased leachate pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and electrical conductivity (EC). Increasing application of wood ash increased cumulative release of inorganic carbon (IC), chloride (Cl), nitrate (NO3), sulfate (SO4), potassium

J. C. Voundi Nkana; G. W. Brümmer

2006-01-01

129

Carbonation of Wood Ash Recycled to a Forest Soil as Measured by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

leaching process, it is desirable to control the dissolution rate of wood ash. This can be achieved by controlling In Sweden, large-scale recycling of wood ash to forests is considered the chemical composition of the wood ash as well as a means of replenishing base cations, particularly Ca, taken up by through modification of physical characteristics, such as the trees

K. E. Anders Ohlsson

2000-01-01

130

Historical Fire Regimes and Their Application to Forest Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module is the second in the Fire Ecology and Management Series. The module is designed for courses that support natural resource disciplines such as Forestry, Wildlife and Environmental Science. Although the module can be taught independently, faculty should consider teaching it as part of the series. Specifically, the module The Ecological Role of Fire is designed to prepare students for this module. This lecture-based module introduces the concept of historical fire regimes and describes how they are applied to modern forest management. A PowerPoint presentation describes how fire histories are determined and provides maps of fire regimes across the United States. The causes of altered fire regimes including climate change are discussed as well as the risk they pose to humans and ecosystems. Examples of how disturbance regimes are used in forest management are also provided.

2010-08-26

131

Forest Fire Occurrence in the South, 1956-1965.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Public reaction to local programs for preventing man-caused forest fires cannot readily be evaluated without statistics on fire occurrence in individual protection districts. This note provides such information for State-protected land in the southern U.S...

M. L. Doolittle

1969-01-01

132

Integrating Fire Management Into Land Management Planning for Westside Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire management's integration into land management planning is critical to the successful management of nearly all wildland ecosystems, including westside forests, which lie west of the Cascade crest in Oregon and the northern coastal ranges in California. Restoration and maintenance of fire as an ecosystem process is critical to retention of biological diversity and ecosystem sustainability. Knowl- edge of the

Peter D. Teensma

133

Short and long-term effects of wood ash on the boreal forest humus microbial community  

Microsoft Academic Search

The short-term effects of loose and hardened wood ash on the coniferous forest humus layer microbes were studied 1–3 years after fertilization. The experiment was performed using two fertilization levels (3 and 9t ash ha?1) and repeated in two coniferous forest stands of different site fertility. It was hypothesized that the effects of hardened wood ash on soil microbes are

Jonna Perkiömäki; Hannu Fritze

2002-01-01

134

A study of the extraction of vanadium and nickel in oil-fired fly ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Annual production of oil-fired fly ash in Taiwan is approximately 43?000 tons, of this approximately 13?000 tons is electrostatically precipitated, the rest is cyclonically collected. Structurewise, both consist of porous unburned carbon, vanadium and nickel oxide, and water-soluble sulfate. Electrostatically precipitated fly ash contains large amounts of ammonium sulfate. If these ashes are not properly disposed of, they become environmental

Shang-Lin Tsai; Min-Shing Tsai

1998-01-01

135

A study of techniques for reducing ash deposition in coal-fired gas turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corrosion and deposition on engine components are potential barriers to the utilization of coal and coal-derived fuels in heat engines. The US Department of Energy has established a program to study mechanisms of ash deposition, with the goal of developing methods to alleviate deposition problems in coal-fired gas turbines. Ash deposits are formed in the turbines by the adherence of

R. G. Logan; G. A. Richards; C. T. Meyer; R. J. Anderson

1989-01-01

136

PATHOLOGIC CHANGES INDUCED BY COAL-FIRED FLY ASH IN HAMSTER TRACHEAL GRAFTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The toxicity of fly ash from a coal-fired power plant for respiratory tract epithelium was studied in heterotropic tracheal grafts. Hamster tracheal grafts were continuously exposed to beeswax-cholesterol pellets containing 100, 1000 and 5000 micrograms fly ash and evaluated at 1...

137

Strontium isotopes as tracers of airborne fly ash from coal-fired power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fly ash generated by coal-fired power plants is in part collected by filters in the emission stacks while a small portion is vented into the atmosphere. Since many of the coalfired power plants in the western United States are located in the desnrt, the ability to monitor fly ash emissions requires a chemical tracer that utilizes desert soil and plant

R. W. Hurst; T. E. Davis

1981-01-01

138

Impact of high-volume wood-fired boiler ash amendment on soil properties and nutrients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest application of boiler ash is fast becoming a popular alternative to landfilling. Boiler ash is a good source of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), phosphorus (P), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn), but it may potentially increase soil pH and electrical conductivity. A monitoring study was conducted to determine the changes in soil properties and the availability and leachability

Tait Chirenje; Lena Q. Ma

2002-01-01

139

Satellite analysis of the severe 1987 forest fires in northern China and southeastern Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Meteorological conditions, extremely conducive to fire development and spread in the spring of 1987, resulted in forest fires burning over extremely large areas in the boreal forest zone in northeastern China and the southeastern region of Siberia. The great China fire, one of the largest and most destructive forest fires in recent history, occurred during this period in the

Donald R. Cahoon Jr; Brian J. Stocks; Joel S. Levine; Wesley R. Cofer III; Joseph M. Pierson

1994-01-01

140

Forest fire occurrence increases the distribution of a scarce forest type in the Mediterranean Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we report how fire recurrence increases the distribution of a scarce forest type in NE Spain that is dominated by the resprouter tree species Arbutus unedo. We used a combination of GIS and field surveys to determine the effect of fire and pre-fire vegetation on the appearance of A. unedo forests. In the field, we also analyzed the factors that promote fire and lead to the appearance of A. unedo forests. Our results reveal an increased occurrence of A. unedo forests in NE Spain in recent years; this phenomenon was strongly related to fire recurrence and the vegetation type present prior to fire. Most Pinus halepensis forests that burned more than once gave rise to A. unedo forests. Our results indicate that these conversions were related to a reduction in pine density coupled with increases in the density and size of A. unedo trees due to recurrent fires. Given that fires are increasing in number and magnitude in the Mediterranean, we predict a major change in landscape structure and composition at the regional scale.

Arnan, Xavier; Quevedo, Lídia; Rodrigo, Anselm

2013-01-01

141

Some environmental effects of forest fires in interior Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high variability of burning conditions and fuels, found in Alaskan forest fires, produces an associated complex emission of particulate matter. Histological evidence of some large particles has been found in the forest fire plumes as well as aerosols resulting apparently from gas-to-particle conversion. Particles analyzed with a scanning electron microscope and X-ray energy dispersive techniques show large variability in both physical and chemical characteristics. Optical measurements show forest fire smoke affects atmospheric turbidity regionally. Turbidity values presented which were measured in the plume from a forest fire 400 km from Fairbanks show values in excess of those found for heavily polluted urban regions. The particulate matter analysis showing irregular shapes and highly varied chemical composition displays the difficulty in radiative transfer calculations due to the assumptions of Mie theory. The nature of the aerosol size concentrations (non-Junge power law distributions) found in forest fire plumes also violates the assumption necessary for application of Angstrom's classic method of defining the turbidity coefficient and wavelength exponent. Consequences of such particulate matter may affect the temperature structure of the atmosphere, radiation balance as well as visibility. In addition, the burnt over forest regions display a reduction of surface albedo and roughness parameter which will have prolonged influence on the heat exchange at the earth's surface.

Eaton, Frank; Wendler, Gerd

142

Wildfire-ash: Relationships between colour, water repellency and organic carbon content  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a forest fire, a layer of vegetative ash is often deposited over soil surface. The amount of ash deposited as well as its physical and chemical properties are highly variable. These parameters are influenced particularly by vegetation type and fire severity, resulting in a differing ash colour. This ash remains over the soil until it is redistributed by water

M. B. Bodí; J. Mataix-Solera; S. H. Doerr; A. Cerdà

2009-01-01

143

Geostatistical Analysis of Spatio-Temporal Forest Fire Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fire is one of the major phenomena causing degradation of environment, landscape, natural ecosystems, human health and economy. One of the main topic in forest fire data studies deals with the detection, analysis and modelling of spatio-temporal patterns of clustering. Spatial patterns of forest fire locations, their sizes and their sequence in time are of great interest for fire prediction and for forest fire management planning and distribution in optimal way necessary resources. Currently, fires can be analyzed and monitored by using different statistical tools, for example, Ripley's k-function, fractals, Allan factor, scan statistics, etc. Some of them are adapted to temporal or spatial data and are either local or global. In the present study the main attention is paid to the application of geostatistical tools - variography and methods for the analysis of monitoring networks (MN) clustering techniques (topological, statistical and fractal measures), in order to detect and to characterize spatio-temporal forest fire patterns. The main studies performed include: a) analysis of forest fires temporal sequences; b) spatial clustering of forest fires; c) geostatistical spatial analysis of burnt areas. Variography was carried out both for temporal and spatial data. Real case study is based on the forest-fire event data from Canton of Ticino (Switzerland) for a period of 1969 to 2008. The results from temporal analysis show the presence of clustering and seasonal periodicities. Comprehensive analysis of the variograms shows an anisotropy in the direction 30° East-North where smooth changes are detected, while on the direction 30° North-West a greater variability was identified. The research was completed with an application of different MN analysis techniques including, analysis of distributions of distances between events, Morisita Index (MI), fractal dimensions (sandbox counting and box counting methods) and functional fractal dimensions, adapted and applied to characterize spatio-temporal events. The results are compared with the reference patterns (no spatial clustering) simulated within the natural validity domains (forests). The research was partly supported by SNSF projects IZAIZO-12777 and 200020-121835.

Vega Orozco, Carmen D.; Kanevski, Mikhail; Tonini, Marj; Conedera, Marc

2010-05-01

144

Watershed Response to Boreal Forest Fires in Interior Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, summers in Alaska were characterized by enormous and devastating boreal forest fires. For instance, more than 2 million hectares were affected by fires in the summer of 2004, and 1.55 million hectares during the summer of 2005. Fire effects on suspended load in streams, and channel development in zones affected by fires or fire suppression activities are not well understood or quantified in areas underlain by discontinuous permafrost (i.e., perennially frozen soils). Small streams draining water from areas affected by fires in different proportions (i.e., unburned, partially and severally burned) were systematically sampled during the last two summers. All the streams were located in watersheds underlain by discontinuous permafrost in Interior Alaska. Autosamplers were deployed in the streams after spring breakup to collect daily water samples. Pressure transducers and dataloggers in conjunction with velocity measurements were used to estimate water discharge in the streams. Human influence is negligible in the study areas, with the exception of modifications caused by fire suppression activities. Thus, collected data from these areas can be considered as a natural system response to forest fires. Preliminary results from water samples indicate a consistent trend of higher sediment concentration in the stream located in a partially burned area compared to the stream located in a pristine, fire-free basin. Soil erosion, in terms of channel formation, was detected in areas affected by fire suppression activities.

Duvoy, P. X.; Toniolo, H. A.

2006-12-01

145

Acoustic and thermal characterization of a forest fire event  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a methodology to perform thermal and acoustic characterization of a forest fire event is reported. The analysis of fire emission properties has been carried out through laboratory and field testing, consisted in the burning of different fuels placed on tables or on field plots. The objectives of the trials have been the evaluation of fire radiated heat to fiber optic sensors with cables in open air, buried or inside the flames, and the evaluation of fire acoustic spectra, with respect to the different fuel types and fire conditions. Post processing algorithms on acquired acoustic signals have been developed to evaluate the fire frequency content, which defines the signature of the fire noise; the results obtained have confirmed the main spectrum features reported in literature. The measurement of temperature variations by fiber optic sensors has been useful to characterize sensors behavior with respect to fire, wind and smoke. The results of the tests have been used in the design phase of a new fire monitoring system made up of acoustic sensors, able to detect and track fires from the beginning, and fiber optic sensors, for a capillary monitoring of temperature in forest areas.

Viegas, D. X.; Pita, L. P.; Nielsen, F.; Haddad, K.; Calisti Tassini, C.; D'Altrui, G.; Quaranta, V.; Dimino, I.

2008-08-01

146

SMALL MAMMALS AND FOREST FUEL REDUCTION: NATIONAL-SCALE RESPONSES TO FIRE AND FIRE SURROGATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest fuel reduction treatments are increasingly used by managers to reduce the risk of high-severity wildfire and to manage changes in the ecological function of forests. However, comparative ecological effects of the various types of treatments are poorly understood. We examined short-term patterns in small-mammal responses to mechanical thinning, prescribed-fire, and mechanical thinning\\/prescribed-fire combination treatments at eight different study areas

Sarah J. Converse; Gary C. White; Kerry L. Farris; Steve Zack

2006-01-01

147

Estimating emissions from forest fires in Thailand using MODIS active fire product and country specific data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies on air pollution and climate change have shown that forest fires constitute one of the major sources of atmospheric trace gases and particulate matter, especially during the dry season. However, these emissions remain difficult to quantify due to uncertainty on the extent of burned areas and deficient knowledge on the forest fire behaviours in each country. This study aims to estimate emissions from forest fires in Thailand by using the combination of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for active fire products and country-specific data based on prescribed burning experiments. The results indicate that 27817 fire hotspots (FHS) associated with forest fires were detected by the MODIS during 2005-2009. These FHS mainly occurred in the northern, western, and upper north-eastern parts of Thailand. Each year, the most significant fires were observed during January-May, with a peak in March. The majority of forest FHS were detected in the afternoon. According to the prescribed burning experiments, the average area of forest burned per fire event was found to fall within the range 1.09 to 12.47 ha, depending upon the terrain slope and weather conditions. The total burned area was computed at 159309 ha corresponding to the surface biomass fuel of 541515 tons dry matter. The forest fire emissions were computed at 855593 tons of CO2, 56318 tons of CO, 3682 tons of CH4, 108 tons of N2O, 4928 tons of PM2.5, 4603 tons of PM10, 357 tons of BC and 2816 tons of OC.

Junpen, Agapol; Garivait, Savitri; Bonnet, Sebastien

2013-05-01

148

Forest Fire-Conducive Drought Variability in the Southern Canadian Boreal Forest and Associated Climatology Inferred from Tree Rings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest fires in Canada are directly influenced by the state of the climate system. The strong connection between climate and fire, along with the dynamic nature of the climate system, causes the extent, severity and frequency of fires to change over time. For instance, many reconstructions of the history of forest fires across boreal Canada report a general decrease in

Martin P. Girardin; Jacques C. Tardif; Mike D. Flannigan; Yves Bergeron

2006-01-01

149

Prescription Fire and Anion Retention in Tahoe Forest Soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Prescribed burning is a possible option to reduce fire potential in the Lake Tahoe Basin (California and Nevada). However, subsequent nutrient loading to the lake is a major concern. The effect of residual ash on anion leaching, primarily O-PO4 and SO42-, was studied in both the field and laboratory...

150

Forest fires in the insular Caribbean  

Treesearch

A vast difference between the amount of fires reported by land managers ... Fire Information for Resource Management System data can be observed. ... The strategy for the Caribbean identifies a number of research, training, and management ...

151

Reintroducing Fire in Regenerated Dry Forests Following Stand-Replacing Wildfire1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prescribed fire use may be effective for increasing fire resilience in young coniferous forests by reducing surface fuels, modifying overstory stand structure, and promoting development of large trees of fire resistant species. Questions remain, however, about when and how to reintroduce fire in regenerated forests, and to what end. We studied the effects of spring prescribed fires on stand structure

David W. Peterson; Paul F. Hessburg; Brion Salter; Kevin M. James; Matthew C. Dahlgreen; John A. Barnes

152

Wildland fire effects on forest structure over an altitudinal gradient, Grand Canyon National Park, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Restoration of wildland fire to forests is a challenge when historical fire regimes have been altered. We studied four fires that burned over approximately 7865 ha on an altitudinal gradient in Grand Canyon National Park, USA, in 2003. The fires met criteria for the current USA policy allowing the restoration of fire's ecological role in forest landscapes: Wildland

PETER Z. FULÉ; DANIEL C. LAUGHLIN

153

Forest fire analysis for several years in Russia by using NOAA satellite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of this work was to construct an efficient algorithm for forest fire detection method using NOAA satellite images. The forest fire analysis using this NOAA satellite has been done by various researchers. However, most of the method can detect the fire but a lot of false fire also appeared in the results and missing of actual fire

Jun-ichi KUDOH

154

Simulation research on control system and ballistic of a remote forest fire fighting cannon  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fire fighting cannon is fire-fighting equipment developed for fighting against forest fires; it is considered the tree crown fire and the inaccessible areas which are dangerous for man to get close as extinguishing object. The forest fire fighting cannon is launched by pneumatic method; the timing device within the extinguishing shell will be triggered after launching. After the free-flying

Yonggang Pang; Shaogang Liu

2010-01-01

155

Leaching of PCDD\\/F from fly ash and soil with fire-extinguishing water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaching experiments from fly ash and soil with fire-extinguishing water result in significant amounts of PCDD\\/F in the related leachates. In contrast to the water solubilities the higher chlorinated congeners are leached more easily than the low chlorinated tetra- and penta-congeners. Obviously, the cosolvents present in the fire-extinguishing water enhances PCDD\\/F solubilities.

K.-W. Schramm; M. Merk; B. Henkelmann; A. Kettrup

1995-01-01

156

Distribution of forest fire prevention resources based on GIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viewshed analysis is a method and technology, which manages geometry principles and computer graphic technology to resolve the problem of geographic aggregation of monitoring points. This paper analyses the forest resources and its main fire prevention factors, such as forest types, forest ages and forest shade density etc., within the scope of the visible monitoring points, and discusses how to maximize the area under forest fire monitoring without increasing the number of monitoring points and changing equipments performance. With the target of maximuming monitoring area, the paper studies on the best monitoring position within certain area, and to convert it into how to optimize the visible area so as to make locating monitoring points much more scientific, reasonable and efficient.

Xu, Aijun; Tang, Lihua; Chen, Zhengchao; Zhang, Xia

2008-11-01

157

Spatio-temporal vulnerability of forest fire to climate change in Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate is known as crucial factor on forest fire occurrence. Although most of forest fires occurred by human activities, climate factor is the most important cause for forest fire due to moisture containment of fuel. The objective of this study is to estimate forest fire occurrence according to the past forest fire and to assess the vulnerability with forest cover map. Spatial data of forest fire was prepared from forest fire record of Korea Forest Service (KFS). The forest fire record consists of date, time and XY coordination of the forest fires between 1991 and 2006. Past climate data obtained at 75 weather stations was rearranged with Inverse Distance Weighted Interpolation. The climate data included temperature, relative humidity, cloudness and precipitation. We considered the laps rate temperature depending on elevation. The 10 days accumulation of rainfall data was used to the precipitation data. Forest fire point data and climate data were matched according to time and location. Prepared data was analyzed in statistical method, Poisson regression. And also, we estimated the probability of forest fire occurrence with future climate data which was simulated by A1B scenario of IPCC. This future climate data was prepared with ECHO-G model by Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA). Finally, the forest fire risk map was overwrapped on forest cover map. Because fire occurrence depends on the species of forest, the fire occurrence probability was weighted according to the forest cover information. In this way, the vulnerability was assessed. Our results showed that relative humidity has a significant effect on forest fire. Using these results, forest fire danger map of the future was derived.

Kwak, H.; Lee, W.; Lee, S.; Lee, M.; Koo, K.; Won, M.

2009-12-01

158

Fire Effects in Northeastern Forests: Aspen.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fire has been a natural component of the aspen ecosystem. Any fire in an established aspen stand will cause injury. Aspen is easily top-killed but the roots remain viable. A fire's heat can stimulate sprout growth from these roots, aiding natural regenera...

C. Rouse

1986-01-01

159

The impact of boreal forest fire on climate warming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We report measurements and analysis of a boreal forest fire, integrating the effects of greenhouse gases, aerosols, black carbon deposition on snow and sea ice, and postfire changes in surface albedo. The net effect of all agents was to increase radiative forcing during the first year (34 ?? 31 Watts per square meter of burned area), but to decrease radiative forcing when averaged over an 80-year fire cycle (-2.3 ?? 2.2 Watts per square meter) because multidecadal increases in surface albedo had a larger impact than fire-emitted greenhouse gases. This result implies that future increases in boreal fire may not accelerate climate warming.

Randerson, J. T.; Liu, H.; Flanner, M. G.; Chambers, S. D.; Jin, Y.; Hess, P. G.; Pfister, G.; Mack, M. C.; Treseder, K. K.; Welp, L. R.; Chapin, F. S.; Harden, J. W.; Goulden, M. L.; Lyons, E.; Neff, J. C.; Schuur, E. A. G.; Zender, C. S.

2006-01-01

160

The impact of boreal forest fire on climate warming.  

PubMed

We report measurements and analysis of a boreal forest fire, integrating the effects of greenhouse gases, aerosols, black carbon deposition on snow and sea ice, and postfire changes in surface albedo. The net effect of all agents was to increase radiative forcing during the first year (34 +/- 31 Watts per square meter of burned area), but to decrease radiative forcing when averaged over an 80-year fire cycle (-2.3 +/- 2.2 Watts per square meter) because multidecadal increases in surface albedo had a larger impact than fire-emitted greenhouse gases. This result implies that future increases in boreal fire may not accelerate climate warming. PMID:17110574

Randerson, J T; Liu, H; Flanner, M G; Chambers, S D; Jin, Y; Hess, P G; Pfister, G; Mack, M C; Treseder, K K; Welp, L R; Chapin, F S; Harden, J W; Goulden, M L; Lyons, E; Neff, J C; Schuur, E A G; Zender, C S

2006-11-17

161

Historical fires in Douglas-fir dominated riparian forests of the southern Cascades, Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the ecological importance of fire in Pa cific Northwest forests, its role in riparian forests is just beginning to be documented. This study reconstructed the historical occurrence of fire within riparian forests along different stream sizes in coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirbel) Franco) dominated forests within the drier western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) forest series of

Diana L. Olson; James K. Agee

2005-01-01

162

Effects of forest fires and post-fire rehabilitation: a Colorado, USA ...  

Treesearch

Source: Cerdá, Artemi and Peter R. Robichaud (editors), Fire effects on soils and ... high-burn severity wildfires in the lower and mid-elevation coniferous forests in ... of vegetative regrowth and therefore did not reduce post-fire sediment yields.

163

An intelligent system for forest fire risk prediction and fire fighting management in Galicia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last two decades in southern Europe, more than 10 million hectares of forest have been damaged by fire. Due to the costs and complications of fire-fighting a number of technical developments in the field have been appeared in recent years. This paper describes a system developed for the region of Galicia in NW Spain, one of the regions

Amparo Alonso-betanzos; Oscar Fontenla-romero; Bertha Guijarro-berdiñas; Elena Hernández-pereira; Mar??a Inmaculada Paz Andrade; Eulogio Jimenez; Jose Luis Legido; Tarsy Carballas

2003-01-01

164

A decision support system for managing forest fire casualties.  

PubMed

Southern Europe is exposed to anthropogenic and natural forest fires. These result in loss of lives, goods and infrastructure, but also deteriorate the natural environment and degrade ecosystems. The early detection and combating of such catastrophes requires the use of a decision support system (DSS) for emergency management. The current literature reports on a series of efforts aimed to deliver DSSs for the management of the forest fires by utilising technologies like remote sensing and geographical information systems (GIS), yet no integrated system exists. This manuscript presents the results of scientific research aiming to the development of a DSS for managing forest fires. The system provides a series of software tools for the assessment of the propagation and combating of forest fires based on Arc/Info, ArcView, Arc Spatial Analyst, Arc Avenue, and Visual C++ technologies. The system integrates GIS technologies under the same data environment and utilises a common user interface to produce an integrated computer system based on semi-automatic satellite image processing (fuel maps), socio-economic risk modelling and probabilistic models that would serve as a useful tool for forest fire prevention, planning and management. Its performance has been demonstrated via real time up-to-date accurate information on the position and evolution of the fire. The system can assist emergency assessment, management and combating of the incident. A site demonstration and validation has been accomplished for the island of Evoia, Greece, an area particularly vulnerable to forest fires due to its ecological characteristics and prevailing wind patterns. PMID:16928418

Bonazountas, Marc; Kallidromitou, Despina; Kassomenos, Pavlos; Passas, Nikos

2006-08-22

165

Climate effect on forest fire static risk assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The availability of a long data series of fire perimeters combined with a detailed knowledge of topography and land cover allow to understand which are the main features involved in forest fire occurrences and their behaviour. In addition, climate indexes obtained from the analysis of time series with more than 20 years of complete records allow to understand the role of climate on fire regime, both in terms of direct effects on fire behaviour and the effect on vegetation cover. In particular, indices of extreme events have been considered like CDD (maximum number of consecutive dry days) and HWDI (heat wave duration index: maximum period > 5 consecutive days with Tmax >5°C above the 1961-1990 daily Tmax normal), together with the usual indices describing rainfall and temperature regimes. As a matter of fact, based on this information it is possible to develop statistical methods for the objective classification of forest fire static risk at regional scale. Two different case studies are presented in this work: Regione Liguria and Regione Sardegna (Italy). Both regions are in the center of the Mediterranean and are characterized by a high number of fires and burned area. However, the two regions have very different fire regimes. Sardinia is affected by the fire phenomenon only in summer whilst Liguria is affected by fires also in winter, with higher number of fires and larger burned area. In addition, the two region are very different in vegetation cover. The presence of Mediterranean conifers, (Pinus Pinaster, Pinus Nigra, Pinus halepensis) is quite spread in Liguria and is almost absent in Sardinia. What is common in the two regions is the widespread presence of shrub species frequently spread by fire. The analysis in the two regions thus allows in a rather limited area to consider almost all the species and the climate conditions that characterize the Mediterranean region. More than 10000 fire perimeters that burnt about 800 km2 were considered in the analysis. The analysis has been carried out at 20 m spatial resolution. Some important considerations relating to climate and the territorial features that characterize the fire regime in the considered regions contribute to better understand the forest fire phenomena. These results allow to define new strategies for forest fire prevention and management extendable to other geographical areas. This research is part of the project PROTERINA C, funded by the EU under the Italy-France Maritime Programme, aiming at investigating the effects that climate change could have on the environment (fuels).

Bodini, Antonella; Cossu, Antonello; Entrade, Erika; Fiorucci, Paolo; Gaetani, Francesco; Parodi, Ulderica

2010-05-01

166

Wood and combination wood-fired boiler ash characterization  

SciTech Connect

Ashes resulting from the combustion of wood residues in industrial boilers are characterized relative to (i) macroelement compositions, (ii) trace and heavy metal microelement compositions, (iii) organics, and (iv) polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs). Ash compositions, both macro- and microelements, are compared with coal ash and limestone. Microelements in wood ashes are also compared with other potential soil amendments such as pulp mill sludges. The impact of burning sludge and combinations of coal and wood residue on ash metal concentrations is presented. Levels of PCDD/Fs in ash resulting from combustion of 100% inland wood residue are reviewed, as are the levels of PCDD/Fs in ashes and soot resulting from residential wood combustion. The concentrations of metals in wood ash are comparable to other potential soil amendments. The concentration in wood ash of common organics of environmental concern appears to be negligible. The levels of PCDD/Fs in the ash appear to have a direct correlation with extraneous sources of chloride in the wood fuel. 48 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

Someshwar, A.V. [National Council of the Paper Industry for Air and Stream Improvement, Gainesville, FL (United States)

1996-09-01

167

New technologies for effective forest fire fighting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient fire extinction with water could be greatly improved by using superabsorbent polymers, added to the water used for fire fighting, or sprayed over surfaces of combustible materials in order to protect them from fire. Specially developed superabsorbent polymers such as acrylamide\\/2?acrylamide?2?methyl?propane?sulphonate (AA\\/AMPS) seem to be particularly efficient for this purpose. In terms of water absorption, the experimental tests performed,

João C. M. Bordado; João F. P. Gomes

2007-01-01

168

Effects of Boreal Forest Fires in Interior Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The summer of 2004 in Interior Alaska was characterized by enormous and devastating boreal forest fires. In addition, the effects of fires on suspended load in streams, and channel development in zones affected by fires or fire suppression activities are not well understood or quantified in areas underlain by discontinuous permafrost (i.e., perennially frozen soils). To improve our knowledge in these areas, small streams draining water from areas affected by fires in different proportions (i.e.: unburned, partially, and severally burned) were systematically sampled during the summers of 2005, 2006, and 2007. All the streams were located in watersheds underlain by discontinuous permafrost in Interior Alaska. Autosamplers were deployed in the streams after spring breakup to collect daily water samples. Pressure transducers and dataloggers in conjunction with velocity measurements were used to estimate water discharge in the streams. Human influence is negligible in the study areas, with the exception of modifications caused by fire suppression activities. Thus, data collected from these areas can be considered as a natural system response to forest fires. Field observations in areas affected by fire suppression activities indicate active processes of erosion and sedimentation, in terms of a) channel formation, b) channel widening, and c) alluvial fan formation and evolution. However, vegetation is recovering in other areas. A comparison between suspended sediment concentrations collected in 2005, 2006, and 2007 will be presented at the meeting.

Hutchinson, J. J.; Toniolo, H. A.

2007-12-01

169

Spatiotemporal dynamics of forest degradation by selective logging and forest fire in the Brazilian Amazon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Selective logging and forest fires have increased at a rapid pace in tropical regions in recent decades. Forest disturbances caused by selective logging and forest fires may vary in scale, ranging from local damage to forest canopy, habitats, soils, and biodiversity, to global changes caused by logging-related release of carbon into the atmosphere. This study provides a regional assessment of forest impacts by selective logging and forest fires for 1992, 1996, and 1999. Multivariate statistical models, remote sensing approaches, Geographic Information System (GIS), and remotely sensed imagery combined with field data were applied to verify the scale of environmental changes associated with these processes of forest disturbance. In this regard, the study widens the current knowledge on land use and land cover classifications to include selectively logged and burned forests as additional thematic classes. These classes have not yet been properly accounted for by conventional remote sensing approaches of deforestation assessment, despite their relevance for the understanding of the changes affecting tropical forests. This study is the first multi-temporal and spatial assessment of the selective logging and forest fire impacts in the Brazilian Amazon. The resulting estimates show that at least 11800 km 2, 16500 km2, and 35600 km2 of natural forests were selectively logged and/or burned by 1992, 1996, and 1999, respectively. More than 60% of these forest disturbances observed in the Brazilian Amazon during those years were due to selective logging activities. However, forest fires were responsible for the greatest impacts on natural forests, causing an estimated loss of 18.8% of forest canopy in the study region. I also estimated that approximately 5467 km2, 7618 km2, and 17437 km2 were active areas of selective logging and/or forest fires in 1992, 1996, and 1999, respectively. In addition, approximately 4% of total forest disturbed by selective logging and forest fires was geographically located within protected areas. Areas affected by selective logging and forest fire corresponded to 2.7%, 3.2%, and 6.3% of total deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon by 1992, 1996, and 1999, respectively. Altogether, the present study demonstrated not only the importance of the selective logging and forest fires as important drivers of forest change in the tropics, but improved the existing knowledge of their combined impacts in forested lands in the Brazilian Amazon. Furthermore, the results of this research are expected to support and enhance the scope of global climate change studies associated with environmental changes caused by economic activities based on the exploitation of natural resources available in tropical forests. In terms of its applications to normative efforts, this study could be used to enlighten authorities and staff of environmental agencies working to develop sustainable management programs and environmental policies in Brazil and other tropical countries.

Matricardi, Eraldo A. T.

170

Model gives a 3-month warning of Amazonian forest fires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The widespread drought suffered by the Amazon rain forest in the summer of 2005 was heralded at the time as the drought of the century. Because of the dehydrated conditions, supplemented by slash and burn agricultural practices, the drought led to widespread forest fires throughout the western Amazon, a portion of the rain forest usually too lush to support spreading wildfires. Only 5 years later, the 2005 season was outdone by even more widespread drought, with fires decimating more than 3000 square kilometers of western Amazonian rain forest. Blame for the wildfires has been consistently laid on deforestation and agricultural practices, but a convincing climatological explanation exists as well. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2011GL047392, 2011)

Schultz, Colin

2011-08-01

171

Increased heat resistance in mycelia from wood fungi prevalent in forests characterized by fire: a possible adaptation to forest fire.  

PubMed

Forest fires have been the major stand-replacing/modifying disturbance in boreal forests. To adapt to fire disturbance, different strategies have evolved. This study focuses on wood fungi, and a specific adaptation to forest fire: increased heat resistance in their mycelia. Fifteen species of wood fungi were selected and a priori sorted in two groups according to their prevalence in fire-affected environments. The fungi were cultivated on fresh wood and exposed to 100, 140, 180, 220 °C for 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 min. under laboratory conditions. A clear difference was found among the two groups. Species prevalent in fire-affected habitats had a much higher survival rate over all combinations of time and temperature compared to species associated with other environments. Thus, the results indicate that fire adaptation in terms of increased heat resistance in mycelia occurs in some species of wood fungi. Such adaptation will influence the ecology and population dynamics of wood fungi, as well as having implications for best practices during restoration fires. PMID:23063181

Carlsson, Fredrik; Edman, Mattias; Holm, Svante; Eriksson, Anna-Maria; Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar

2012-08-15

172

Weather Observation Systems and Efficiency of Fighting Forest Fires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weather observation is an essential component of modern forest fire management systems. Satellite and in-situ based weather observation systems might help to reduce forest loss, human casualties and destruction of economic capital. In this paper, we develop and apply a methodology to assess the benefits of various weather observation systems on reductions of burned area due to early fire detection. In particular, we consider a model where the air patrolling schedule is determined by a fire hazard index. The index is computed from gridded daily weather data for the area covering parts Spain and Portugal. We conduct a number of simulation experiments. First, the resolution of the original data set is artificially reduced. The reduction of the total forest burned area associated with air patrolling based on a finer weather grid indicates the benefit of using higher spatially resolved weather observations. Second, we consider a stochastic model to simulate forest fires and explore the sensitivity of the model with respect to the quality of input data. The analysis of combination of satellite and ground monitoring reveals potential cost saving due to a "system of systems effect" and substantial reduction in burned area. Finally, we estimate the marginal improvement schedule for loss of life and economic capital as a function of the improved fire observing system.

Khabarov, N.; Moltchanova, E.; Obersteiner, M.

2007-12-01

173

A Neural Network Approach for Forestal Fire Risk Estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. This paper describes an intelligent system for the pre- diction of forest fire risk in Galicia, a region in north-west Spain. The system has been designed to calculate a risk fire index for each of the 360 squares of 10x10 kms,into which the area map,has been divided digitally. In our research, the problem was approached us- ing a feedforward,neural

Amparo Alonso-betanzos; Oscar Fontenla-romero; Bertha Guijarro-berdiñas; Elena Hernández-pereira; Juan Canda; Eulogio Jimenez; Jose Luis Legido; Susana Muñiz; Cristina Paz-andrade; Maria Inmaculada Paz-andrade

2002-01-01

174

Interactive Urban and Forest Fire Simulation with Extinguishment Support  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Fires and other related disasters provoke great destruction of high valuable environments and economical losses, especially\\u000a when they are located in urban areas. In this work, we present a combined urban and forest fire spreading algorithm to be\\u000a used in real time and interactive virtual simulations. The algorithm is pedagogical oriented and its purpose is not focused\\u000a in achieving precise

Aitor Moreno; Álvaro Segura; Anis Korchi; Jorge Posada; Oihana Otaegui

175

Nitrogen deposition in tropical forests from deforestation and savanna fires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tropical forests account for nearly half of global net primary production (NPP) and may contribute substantially to contemporary and future land carbon (C) sinks. We used satellite-derived estimates of global fire emissions and a chemical transport model to estimate atmospheric nitrogen (N) fluxes from deforestation and savanna fires in tropical ecosystems. N emissions and deposition led to a substantial net transport of N equatorward, from savannas and areas undergoing deforestation to tropical forests. On average, N emissions from fires were equivalent to approximately 28% of biological N fixation (BNF) in savannas (4.8 kg N ha-1 yr-1) and 38% of BNF from ecosystems at the deforestation frontier (9.1 kg N ha-1 yr-1). N deposition occurred in interior tropical forests at a rate equivalent to 4% of their BNF (1.1 kg N ha-1 yr-1). This percentage was highest for African tropical forests in the Congo Basin (16%; 3.7 kg N ha-1 yr-1) owing to equatorward transport from northern and southern savannas. These results suggest that land use change, including deforestation fires, may be enhancing nutrient availability and carbon sequestration in nearby tropical forest ecosystems.

Chen, Y.; Randerson, J. T.; van der Werf, G.; Morton, D. C.; Kasibhatla, P. S.

2009-12-01

176

Simulating Fire Disturbance in the Canadian Boreal Forest Using TRIPLEX Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fire is a natural part of forest ecosystems and plays an important role in fuel load reduction, tree growth and mortality, and carbon/nitrogen cycling. Over the past century, the changes in land use and land management activities have changed the regime of forest fires. To better understand the effects of forest fires on forests as well as the interactions between human activities and forest fire regime, a fire module has been developed and incorporated into the TRIPLEX forest ecosystem model (TRIPLEX-Fire). TRIPLEX-Fire can be divided into three parts: fire ignition, fire intensity, and fire effects. Fire ignition is simulated as a spatially stochastic process under specific conditions of climate, fuel loadings and fuel moisture. Combustible areas, fireline intensity, and scorch height are major variables for simulating fire intensity. Fire-induced tree mortality, fuel load reduction, carbon emissions to the atmosphere, and soil carbon/nitrogen transformation are simulated and incorporated with post-fire regeneration as a part of fire effects. Observations from two sites in BOREAS study areas were used to calibrate and verify the TRIPLEX-Fire model. Simulations were performed under different scenarios of land use and management to investigate the possible impacts of fire disturbances on the Canadian boreal forest.

Hua, D.; Peng, C.; Zhou, X.; Cui, J.; Dang, Q.

2004-05-01

177

Smoke-Column Observations from Two Forest Fires Using Doppler Lidar and Doppler Radar.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To demonstrate the usefulness of active remote-sensing systems in observing forest fire plume behavior, we studied two fires, one using a 3.2-cm-wavelength Doppler radar, and one more extensively, using Doppler lidar. Both instruments observed the kinematics of the convection column, including the presence of two different types of rotation in the columns, and monitored the behavior of the smoke plume.The first fire, a forest fire that burned out of control, was observed by the Doppler radar during late-morning and afternoon hours. Strong horizontal ambient winds produced a bent-over convection column, which the radar observed to have strong horizontal flow at its edges and weaker flow along the centerline of the plume. This velocity pattern implies that the column consisted of a pair of counterrotating horizontal vortices (rolls), with rising motion along the centerline and sinking along the edges. The radar tracked the smoke plume for over 30 km. It also provided circular depolarization ratio measurements, which gave information that the scattering particles were mostly flat or needle shaped as viewed by the radar, perhaps pine needles or possibly flat ash platelets being viewed edge on.The second fire, observed over a 5-h period by Doppler lidar, was a prescribed forest fire ignited in the afternoon. During the first hour of the fire the lidar observed many kinematic quantities of the convection column, including flow convergence and anticyclonic whole-column, rotation of the nearly vertical column, with a vorticity of approximately 102 s1 and an estimated peak vertical velocity w of 1 5 m s1. After the first hour ambient meteorological conditions changed, the whole-column rotation ceased, and the convection column and smoke plume bent over toward the lidar in stronger horizontal flow. At two times during this later stage, w was estimated to be 24 and 10 m s1. Lidar observations show that the smoke plume of this second fire initially went straight up in the convection column to heights of over 2 km, so most of the smoke was injected into the atmosphere above the unstable, afternoon, convective boundary layer, or mixed layer. Later, as the horizontal winds increased, a larger friction of the smoke remained in the mixed layer. Finally, very late in the afternoon, after ignitions had ceased and the fire was smoldering, almost all of the smoke remained within the mixed layer.These analyses show that lidar and radar can provide valuable three-dimensional datasets on kinematic quantities and smoke distribution in the vicinity of fires. This kind of information should be of great value in understanding and modeling convection-column dynamics and smoke-plume behavior.

Banta, R. M.; Olivier, L. D.; Holloway, E. T.; Kropfli, R. A.; Bartram, B. W.; Cupp, R. E.; Post, M. J.

1992-11-01

178

Correlations between forest fires in British Columbia, Canada, and sea surface temperature of the Pacific Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Correlations and cross-correlations between forest fires in the province of British Columbia, Canada, and sea surface temperatures in the Pacific Ocean were evaluated. British Columbia has a long Pacific Ocean coastline; given that there may be teleconnections between the province's forest fires and climate variability over the ocean, significant correlations may exist between forest fires and the sea surface temperature

Yonghe Wang; Mike Flannigan; Kerry Anderson

2010-01-01

179

Dendrochronology-based fire history of mixed-conifer forests in the San Jacinto Mountains, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing public awareness of the increasing number of large wildfires across forested landscapes, coupled with needs of resource base management has accelerated research into forest reference conditions and the historical role of fire in coniferous ecosystems. This work investigates historical fire regimes of mixed-conifer forests in the San Jacinto Mountains of southern California using fire-scar dendrochronology. As such this

Richard G. Everett

2008-01-01

180

Integrating Fire Risk Considerations in Forest Management Planning in Spain – A Landscape Level Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is reasonable to assume that there is a relationship between the spatial distribution of forest fuels and fire hazards. Therefore, if fire risk is to be included into numerical forest planning, the spatial distribution of risky and non-risky forest stands should be taken into account. The present study combines a stand-level fire risk model and landscape level optimization to

José Ramón González; Marc Palahí; Timo Pukkala

2005-01-01

181

EFFECTS OF FIRES ON PEAT SWAMP AND LOWLAND DIPTEROCARP FORESTS IN KALIMANTAN, INDONESIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the fires that burned over 4.7 million ha of Indonesia's tropical forests during 1997 and 1998 are largely unknown. We assess the immediate impacts of these fires on five forest areas representing several different habitats in Kalimantan 1-2 months after the fires went out. Comparisons of transects in burned and unburned forest areas were conducted at three

Carey P. Yeager; Andrew J. Marshall; Claudia M. Stickler; Colin A. Chapman

2003-01-01

182

An intelligent system for false alarm reduction in infrared forest-fire detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest fires cause many environmental disasters, creating economical and ecological damage as well as endangering people's lives. Heightened interest in automatic surveillance and early forest-fire detection has taken precedence over traditional human surveillance because the latter's subjectivity affects detection reliability, which is the main issue for forest-fire detection systems. In current systems, the process is tedious, and human operators must

Begoña C. Arrue; Aníbal Ollero; J. R. Matinez de Dios

2000-01-01

183

Spatial Distribution of Forest Fires and Controlling Factors in Andhra Pradesh, India Using Spot Satellite Datasets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fires are one of the major causes of forest disturbance and destruction in several dry deciduous forests of southern India. In this study, we use remote sensing data sets in conjunction with topographic, vegetation, climate and socioeconomic factors for determining the potential causes of forest fires in Andhra Pradesh, India. Spatial patterns in fire characteristics were analyzed using SPOT satellite

KRISHNA P. VADREVU; Anuradha Eaturu; K. V. S. Badarinath

2006-01-01

184

Assessing the Impact of Recurrent Fires on Forests in Southern Amazonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human-caused fires in Amazon forests alter forest structure, species composition, and the likelihood of future disturbance. Repeated exposure to fire may eventually convert tropical forest into fire-adapted grasslands, a process described as savannization, with dramatic consequences for carbon storage, regional climate, and biodiversity. We tested the savannization hypothesis for a study area in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso using

D. C. Morton; R. S. Defries; G. C. Hurtt; R. Dubayah

2008-01-01

185

An Experimental Study of the Effects of Litter and Duff Consumption and Ash Formation on Post-Fire Runoff.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Consumption of the litter and duff layers in forest wildfires can lead to substantial increases in the frequency and magnitude of overland flow. These increases result from the loss of storage in the organic surface layer, reduced surface roughness, and from sealing of the exposed mineral soil surface. The presence of an ash layer may accentuate surface sealing by providing an additional source of fine material, or it may reduce runoff by storing rainfall and by protecting the soil surface from raindrop impacts. We used simulated rainfall experiments to assess the effects of litter and duff consumption and the presence of ash layers of varying thickness on post fire runoff at two forested sites in western Montana, one with sandy loam soils formed out of granodiorite and the other with gravelly silt loam soils formed out of argillite. At each site we measured the runoff from simulated rainfall in replicated 0.5 m2 plots before and after application of the following treatments: 1) burning with a fuel load of 90 Mg ha-1, 2) manual removal of the litter and duff layers, 3) addition of 0.5, 2.5 and 5 cm of ash to plots from which the litter and duff had previously been removed, and 4) addition of the same depths of ash to burned plots at the sandy loam site. In the burned plots the surface litter and duff layers were completely consumed and a <1cm layer of black and gray ash and char was formed, indicating a moderate severity burn. The mean soil temperature in the upper 1 cm of the mineral soil was 70° C, and there was no detectable increase in water repellency. The mean final infiltration capacity of the burned sandy loam plots was 35 mm hr-1 compared to a pre-fire mean of 87 mm hr-1, while in the gravelly silt loam plots the pre- and post burn infiltration capacities (27 and 31 mm hr- 1) were not significantly different. Manual removal of the litter and duff layers reduced the mean final infiltration capacity in the sandy loam plots from 64 mm hr-1 to 40 mm hr-1 and in the gravelly silt loam plots from 23 mm hr-1 to 16 mm hr-1. We attribute decreases in infiltration due to the burning and duff removal treatments primarily to surface sealing. In the sandy loam plots, burning may have had a greater effect on infiltration than duff removal because the thin ash layer in the burned plots provided an additional source of fine material. In the gravelly silt loam plots, macropores located around rock fragments helped to minimize sealing effects. The addition of 0.5 cm of ash to the burned granitic plots resulted in a 20 mm hr-1 decrease in the final infiltration rate, and this was also probably due to surface sealing. However, the overall effect of ash addition was to increase the cumulative infiltration in proportion to the ash thickness and to maintain a higher average infiltration rate, indicating that while thin (<1 cm) ash layers may promote sealing, thicker ash layers help to reduce the runoff rate by providing additional storage for rainfall and by protecting the soil surface from raindrop impacts.

Woods, S. W.; Balfour, V.

2007-12-01

186

An evaluation of land suitability for forest fertilization with biofuel ash on organic soils in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nutrients removed from the forest when branches and tree tops are harvested for fuel can be returned to the site by bringing back the wood-ash from the burning. In Sweden, this compensation measure is not carried out to any appreciable extent, mostly because there is no economic incentive to the landowner. The ash contains all the elements required for

Björn Hånell; Tord Magnusson

2005-01-01

187

Study on Forest Fire Danger over Northern China during Recent 50 Years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Daily meteorological data at 263 stations in northern China from 1956 to 2005 were used to calculate various forest fire danger weather (FFDW) indices at different time scales, such as Nesterov Index (NI), Modified Nesterov Index (MNI), Keetch-Byram Drought Index (KBDI), and Forest Fire Danger Index (FFDI). The relationship of each index with forest fire was analyzed. The results show that high value periods of NI, MNI and FFDI well match the fire seasons in various forest regions in northern China. However, the high value periods of KBDI substantially lag behind the fire seasons in the four forest regions in northern China, as a result it is not directly applicable in northern China. Therefore, MNI and FFDI were then selected to study the influence on forest fire because of climatic change in northern China during the recent 50 years. Under the global warming background in the past 50 years, the changes of forest fire danger in various forest regions in northern China displayed different features. The forest fire danger in Northeast China where forest resources are currently the richest in China has shown a statistically significantly increase trend, and the number of days with high forest fire danger has also increased, especially in summer and spring. This result indicates that the possibilities of severe and exceptional severe forest fires and the frequencies of easy-occurring forest fire days are increasing in Northeast China. The forest fire danger has also increased in North China, but not as strong as that in Northeast China. In eastern Northwest China, the trend of forest fire danger is not obvious. In northern Xinjiang, the forest fire danger and the number of days of easy-occurring forest fires have significantly decreased. The increasing trend of forest fire danger in Northeast China results from the increase in the maximum temperature, the decrease in precipitation and humidity. In North China and eastern Northwest China, the trends of the four climatic factors are similar with those in Northeast China, but changes in temperature, precipitation, and humidity are not as large as in Northeast China. The rates of the forest fire danger increase in these two regions are also not as significant as that in Northeast China. In eastern Northwest China, the forest fire danger trend is not obvious. In northern Xinjiang, a significant reduction of the forest fire danger is resulted from humidity increase, precipitation increase, and wind speed reduction. The surface relative humidity change seems to be a dominating factor for the changes of forest fire danger in various regions in northern China.

Ruoyun, N.; Panmao, Z.

2010-12-01

188

Fly ash-derived Strontium as an index to monitor deposition from coal-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect

The combustion of western US coals releases significant amounts of strontium, which is relatively enriched in the fine particles of fly ash. Fly ash-derived strontium is readily absorbed by agronomic and native plant species when incorporated in soil. The strontium-87 to strontium-86 ratios of fly ash and soils were significantly different, but similar ratios were found in fly ash and plants treated with fly ash. A technique for measuring and monitoring deposition from coal-fired power plants is inferred from the enhanced plant uptake of fly ash strontium and the similarity in the isotopic ratios of fly ash and treated plants.

Straughan, I.R. (California Edison Co., Rosemead); Elseewi, A.A.; Page, A.L.; Kaplan, I.R.; Hurst, R.W.; Davis, T.E.

1981-06-12

189

Fire regimes and forest changes in mid and upper montane forests of the southern Cascades, Lassen Volcanic National Park, California, U.S.A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim Spatial and temporal variation in fire regime parameters and forest structure were assessed. Location A 2630-ha area of mid- and upper montane forest in Lassen Volcanic National Park (LVNP). Methods Two hypotheses were tested concerned with fire-vegetation relationships in southern Cascades forests: (1) fire regime parameters (return interval, season of burn, fire size, rotation period) vary by forest dominant,

A. H. Taylor

2000-01-01

190

Soil, fire, water, and wind: how the elements conspire in the forest ...  

Treesearch

Fire in eastern oak forests: delivering science to land managers, ... Most oak ecosystem fires are dormant-season fires whose intensity falls at the low end of the range ... Microbial activity and microarthropod populations recover quickly except ...

191

A multidisciplinary decision support system for forest fire crisis management.  

PubMed

A wildland fire is a serious threat for forest ecosystems in Southern Europe affecting severely and irreversibly regions of significant ecological value as well as human communities. To support decision makers during large-scale forest fire incidents, a multidisciplinary system has been developed that provides rational and quantitative information based on the site-specific circumstances and the possible consequences. The system's architecture consists of several distinct supplementary modules of near real-time satellite monitoring and fire forecast using an integrated framework of satellite Remote Sensing, GIS, and RDBMS technologies equipped with interactive communication capabilities. The system may handle multiple fire ignitions and support decisions regarding dispatching of utilities, equipment, and personnel that would appropriately attack the fire front. The operational system was developed for the region of Penteli Mountain in Attika, Greece, one of the mountain areas in the country most hit by fires. Starting from a real fire incident in August 2000, a scenario is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. PMID:15285399

Keramitsoglou, Iphigenia; Kiranoudis, Chris T; Sarimveis, Haralambos; Sifakis, Nicolaos

2004-02-01

192

Post-fire runoff and erosion from rainfall simulation: contrasting forests with shrublands and grasslands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rainfall simulations allow for controlled comparisons of runoff and erosion among ecosystems and land cover conditions. Runoff and erosion can increase greatly following fire, yet there are few rainfall simulation studies for post-fire plots, particularly after severe fire in semiarid forest. We conducted rainfall simulations shortly after a severe fire (Cerro Grande) in ponderosa pine forest near Los Alamos, New

Mathew P. Johansen; Thomas E. Hakonson; David D. Breshears

2001-01-01

193

Increased damage from fires in logged forests during droughts caused by El Niño  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1997-98, fires associated with an exceptional drought caused by the El Niño\\/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) devastated large areas of tropical rain forests worldwide. Evidence suggests that in tropical rainforest environments selective logging may lead to an increased susceptibility of forests to fire. We investigated whether this was true in the Indonesian fires, the largest fire disaster ever observed. We performed

F. Siegert; G. Ruecker; A. A. Hoffmann

2001-01-01

194

Remote sensing of forest fires in boreal ecosystem from space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a comprehensive investigation of Canadian boreal forest fires using satellite measurements. Algorithms were developed for detecting active fires (hotspots), burned areas, and smoke plumes using single-day NOAA-AVHRR images and 10-day AVHRR NDVI composites. The algorithms were rigorously validated using conventional fire survey data. The hotspot algorithm identified almost all fire events, but cumulative hotspot area was significantly smaller (approximately 30%) than burned area reported by fire agencies. The hybrid, burn mapping technique provided estimates of Canada-wide burned area that were within 5 percent of official statistics. A neural-network classifier was also developed that allows smoke plumes to be effectively separated from cloud cover at a regional scale.

Li, Zhanqing; Fraser, R.; Khananian, A.

1999-12-01

195

Pathologic changes induced by coal-fired fly ash in hamster tracheal grafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxicity of fly ash from a coal-fired power plant for respiratory tract epithelium was studied in heterotropic tracheal grafts. Hamster tracheal grafts were continuously exposed to beeswax-cholesterol pellets containing 100, 1000 and 5000 micrograms fly ash and evaluated at 1, 2, 4, and 14-15 months of exposure. Histopathologic effects and the autoradiographic pattern of (³H)thymidine incorporation were determined. In

L. J. Schiff; J. A. Graham

1984-01-01

196

Copper and cadmium adsorption on pellets made from fired coal fly ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on the utilization of low cost adsorbents for removal of heavy metals from wastewaters are gaining attention. Fired coal fly ash, a solid by-product that is produced in power plants worldwide in million of tonnes, has attracted researchers’ interest. In this work, fly ash was shaped into pellets that have diameter in-between 3–8mm, high relative porosity and very good

A. Papandreou; C. J. Stournaras; D. Panias

2007-01-01

197

Cytotoxic effect of vanadium and oil-fired fly ash on hamster tracheal epithelium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hamster tracheal organ cultures were used to study the in vitro effects of vanadium and oil-fired fly ash on mucociliary respiratory epithelium. Two vanadium compounds, VOSOâ and VâOâ, and fly ash from an oil-fueled power plant were dissolved or suspended in culture medium over a range of concentrations and epithelia were exposed for 1 hr\\/day, for 9 consecutive days. At

L. J. Schiff; J. A. Graham

1984-01-01

198

Strontium isotopes as tracers of airborne fly ash from coal-fired power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fly ash generated by coal-fired power plants is in part collected by filters in the emission stacks while a small portion\\u000a is vented into the atmosphere. Since many of the coalfired power plants in the western United States are located in the desnrt,\\u000a the ability to monitor fly ash emissions requires a chemical tracer that utilizes desert soil and plant

R. W. Hurst; T. EL DAVIS

1981-01-01

199

Multifractal analysis of forest fires in complex regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fires can be studied as point processes where the ignition points represent the set of locations of the observed events in a defined study region. Their spatial and temporal patterns can be characterized by their fractal properties; which quantify the global aspect of the geometry of the support data. However, a monofractal dimension can not completely describe the pattern structure and related scaling properties. Enhancements in fractal theory had developed the multifractal concept which describes the measures from which interlinked fractal sets can be retrieved and characterized by their fractal dimension and singularity strength [1, 2]. The spatial variability of forest fires is conditioned by an intermixture of human, topographic, meteorological and vegetation factors. This heterogeneity makes fire patterns complex scale-invariant processes difficult to be depicted by a single scale. Therefore, this study proposes an exploratory data analysis through a multifractal formalism to characterize and quantify the multiscaling behaviour of the spatial distribution pattern of this phenomenon in a complex region like the Swiss Alps. The studied dataset is represented by 2,401 georeferenced forest fire ignition points in canton Ticino, Switzerland, in a 40-years period from 1969 to 2008. Three multifractal analyses are performed: one assesses the multiscaling behaviour of fire occurrence probability of the support data (raw data) and four random patterns simulated within three different support domains; second analysis studies the multifractal behavior of patterns from anthropogenic and natural ignited fires (arson-, accident- and lightning-caused fires); and third analysis aims at detecting scale-dependency of the size of burned area. To calculate the generalized dimensions, Dq, a generalization of the box counting methods is carried out based on the generalization of Rényi information of the qth order moment of the probability distribution. For q > 0, Dq indicates the scaling of overdense regions and strong singularities, and for q < 0, Dq exhibits the behaviour of small fluctuations (underdense regions) [2]. Multifractal analysis for forest fires in canton Ticino are performed using raw data, the anthropogenic- and natural-caused patterns and the random patterns simulated within the three different support domains. Results of these different patterns are compared. These analyses revealed non-linear behaviour of the generalized dimensions Dq, depicting inhomogeneous nature of the physical fire-ignition conditions as well as the presence of nonlinear interactions between scales. Keywords: forest fires, point process, box counting, fractal dimension, multifractal. [1] Mandelbrot, B. (1982). The Fractal Geometry of Nature. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman. [2] Seuront, L. (2009). Fractals and Multifractals in Ecology and Aquatic Science. Boca Raton (USA): CRC Press.

Vega Orozco, C. D.; Kanevski, M.; Golay, J.; Tonini, M.; Conedera, M.

2012-04-01

200

Forest fires, woodland caribou and land use policies in northwestern Ontario (Rangifer tarandus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) are a threatened species in Ontario's boreal forest. Caribou require habitat that supports appropriate forage, including large areas of lichen rich forests. This research examines two dynamics that influence woodland caribou habitat in northwestern Ontario. These dynamics are forest fires and land use policies. The effects of forest fires are assessed quantitatively at both the

Brian Frederick Kutas

2004-01-01

201

Methanotrophic bacteria in boreal forest soil after fire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methane-oxidizing bacteria are the only terrestrial sink for atmospheric methane. Little is known, however, about the methane-oxidizing bacteria that are responsible for the consumption of atmospheric methane, or about the factors that influence their activity and diversity in soil. Effects of fire and its end-product, wood ash, on the activity and community of methane oxidizing bacteria were studied in boreal

Krista Jaatinen; Claudia Knief; Peter F. Dunfield; Kim Yrjälä; Hannu Fritze

2004-01-01

202

The Impact of Boreal Forest Fire on Climate Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report measurements and analysis of a boreal forest fire, integrating the effects of greenhouse gases, aerosols, black carbon deposition on snow and sea ice, and postfire changes in surface albedo. The net effect of all agents was to increase radiative forcing during the first year (34 ± 31 Watts per square meter of burned area), but to decrease radiative

Randerson J. T; Liu H; Flanner M. G; Chambers S. D; Jin Y; Hess P. G; Pfister G; Mack M. C; Treseder K. K; Welp L. R; Chapin F. S; Harden J. W; Goulden M. L; Lyons E; J. C. Neff; Schuur E. A. G; C. S. Zender

2006-01-01

203

Animals as Mobile Biological Sensors for Forest Fire Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a mobile biological sensor syst em that can assist in early detection of forest fires one of the most dreaded n atural disasters on the earth. The main idea presented in this paper is to utilize animals with sensors as Mobile Biological Sensors (MBS). The devices used in this system are animals which are native animals living

Yasar Guneri Sahin

2007-01-01

204

Empirical models of forest fire initial attack success probabilities: the effects of fuels, anthropogenic linear features, fire weather, and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canadian fire managers seek to contain fires below some target size (here 3 ha) by initial attack (IA). Sup- pression failures occur when fire size at IA exceeds this target (a response failure) or if an initially small fire cannot be contained below it (a containment failure). We examined the effects of cause, season, forest fuels, anthropogenic lin- ear features,

M. Cecilia Arienti; Steven G. Cumming; Stan Boutin

2006-01-01

205

Weather and human impacts on forest fires: 100 years of fire history in two climatic regions of Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the factors driving past fire regimes is crucial in the context of global change as a basis for predicting future changes. In this study, we aimed to identify the impact of climate and human activities on fire occurrence in the most fire-prone regions of Switzerland. We considered forest fires, land use and meteorological data over the period 1904–2008 in

Thomas Zumbrunnen; Gianni B. Pezzatti; Patricia Menéndez; Harald Bugmann; Matthias Bürgi; Marco Conedera

2011-01-01

206

Integrating remote sensing and terrain data in forest fire modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fire policies are changing. Managers now face conflicting imperatives to re-establish pre-suppression fire regimes, while simultaneously preventing resource destruction. They must, therefore, understand the spatial patterns of fires. Geographers can facilitate this understanding by developing new techniques for mapping fire behavior. This dissertation develops such techniques for mapping recent fires and using these maps to calibrate models of potential fire hazards. In so doing, it features techniques that strive to address the inherent complexity of modeling the combinations of variables found in most ecological systems. Image processing techniques were used to stratify the elements of terrain, slope, elevation, and aspect. These stratification images were used to assure sample placement considered the role of terrain in fire behavior. Examination of multiple stratification images indicated samples were placed representatively across a controlled range of scales. The incorporation of terrain data also improved preliminary fire hazard classification accuracy by 40%, compared with remotely sensed data alone. A Kauth-Thomas transformation (KT) of pre-fire and post-fire Thematic Mapper (TM) remotely sensed data produced brightness, greenness, and wetness images. Image subtraction indicated fire induced change in brightness, greenness, and wetness. Field data guided a fuzzy classification of these change images. Because fuzzy classification can characterize a continuum of a phenomena where discrete classification may produce artificial borders, fuzzy classification was found to offer a range of fire severity information unavailable with discrete classification. These mapped fire patterns were used to calibrate a model of fire hazards for the entire mountain range. Pre-fire TM, and a digital elevation model produced a set of co-registered images. Training statistics were developed from 30 polygons associated with the previously mapped fire severity. Fuzzy classifications of potential burn patterns were produced from these images. Observed field data values were displayed over the hazard imagery to indicate the effectiveness of the model. Areas that burned without suppression during maximum fire severity are predicted best. Areas with widely spaced trees and grassy understory appear to be misrepresented, perhaps as a consequence of inaccuracies in the initial fire mapping.

Medler, Michael Johns

207

Western forests, fire risk, and climate change. - USDA Forest Service  

Treesearch

Advanced computer models are producing the first national-scale ... Research results were produced by scientists from the USDA Forest Service Pacific Northwest ... working with others from Oregon State University and from around the world.

208

Fire history and fire-climate relationships in upper elevation forests of the southwestern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire history and fire-climate relationships of upper elevation forests of the southwestern United States are imperative for informing management decisions in the face of increased crown fire occurrence and climate change. I used dendroecological techniques to reconstruct fires and stand-replacing fire patch size in the Madrean Sky Islands and Mogollon Plateau. Reconstructed patch size (1685-1904) was compared with contemporary patch size (1996-2004). Reconstructed fires at three sites had stand-replacing patches totaling > 500 ha. No historical stand-replacing fire patches were evident in the mixed conifer/aspen forests of the Sky Islands. Maximum stand-replacing fire patch size of modern fires (1129 ha) was greater than that reconstructed from aspen (286 ha) and spruce-fir (521 ha). Undated spruce-fir patches may be evidence of larger (>2000ha) stand-replacing fire patches. To provide climatological context for fire history I used correlation and regionalization analyses to document spatial and temporal variability in climate regions, and El-Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO) teleconnections using 273 tree-ring chronologies (1732-1979). Four regions were determined by common variability in annual ring width. The component score time series replicate spatial variability in 20th century droughts (e.g., 1950's) and pluvials (e.g., 1910's). Two regions were significantly correlated with instrumental SOI and AMO, and three with PDO. Sub-regions within the southwestern U.S. varied geographically between the instrumental (1900-1979) and the pre-instrumental periods (1732-1899). Mapped correlations between ENSO, PDO and AMO, and tree-ring indices illustrate detailed sub-regional variability in the teleconnections. I analyzed climate teleconnections, and fire-climate relationships of historical upper elevation fires from 16 sites in 8 mountain ranges. I tested for links between Palmer Drought Severity Index and tree-ring reconstructed ENSO, PDO and AMO phases (1905-1978 and 1700-1904). Upper elevation fires (115 fires, 84 fire years, 1623-1904) were compared with climate indices. ENSO, PDO, and AMO affected regional PDSI, but AMO and PDO teleconnections changed between periods. Fire occurrence was significantly related to inter-annual variability in PDSI, precipitation, ENSO, and phase combinations of ENSO and PDO, but not AMO (1700-1904). Reduced upper elevation fire (1785-1840) was coincident with a cool AMO phase.

Margolis, Ellis Quinn

209

Spatial patterns of lightning-caused forest fires in Ontario, 1976–1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial pattern of forest fire locations is of interest for fire occurrence prediction and for understanding the role of fire in landscape processes. A spatial statistical analysis of lightning-caused fires in the province of Ontario, between 1976 and 1998, was carried out to investigate the spatial pattern of fires, the way they depart from randomness, and the scales at

Justin Podur; David L. Martell; Ferenc Csillag

2003-01-01

210

Assessing skill of operational forest fire emissions model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Across the continental United States, the BlueSky Smoke Modeling Framework provides hourly forest fire emissions forecasts and calculates the concentrations of hazardous compounds 72 hours in advance. Though a traditional computational model itself, the BlueSky Framework pulls together the results from a number of different independent models for fire and fuel information, combustion of fuel, and speciated emissions calculations to produce its operational forecasts of fire-related emissions and smoke dispersals. One aspect of forest fire emissions that is of particular concern is small particulate matter, particularly microscopic particles with diameters less than 2.5 micrometers. These particles, known as PM2.5, are small enough to penetrate lung tissue and cause serious health problems in high concentrations. To assess the skill of the BlueSky Gateway, a system that uses the BlueSky Framework and the Community MultiScale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to forecast PM2.5 surface concentrations, Strand et al. compared the modeled estimates for two Californian forest wildfire events against observations.

Schultz, Colin

2012-10-01

211

Physical and chemical analyses of unburned carbon from oil-fired fly ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the hydrometallurgy process of extracting vanadium and nickel products from oil-fired fly ash, a large amount of unburned carbon remains as a by-product. Because of insufficient knowledge of the physical and chemical properties and related applications of the unburned carbon, the residue has been disposed to landfill or incinerated. In order to explore the utilization of unburned carbon, this

Ya-Min Hsieh; Min-Shing Tsai

2003-01-01

212

Changes in Coal Fired Power Station Fly Ash: Recent Experiences and Use in Concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

concrete Abstract The coal fired power generation industry has changed significantly over a relatively short time. Many of the changes that have taken place relate to protection of the environment, e.g. increasing EU regulation with corresponding UK implementation on reduced NOx and SOx emissions, co-combustion, dangerous substances, waste, IPPC, etc. In turn, these have affected fly ash characteristics and, at

M Roderick Jones; Lindon K A Sear; Michael J McCarthy; Ravindra K Dhir

213

Effects of post-fire conditions on soil respiration in boreal forests with special reference to Northeast China forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest fires frequently occur in boreal forests, and their effects on forest ecosystems are often significant in terms of\\u000a carbon flux related to climate changes. Soil respiration is the second largest carbon flux in boreal forests and the change\\u000a in soil respiration is not negligible. Environmental factors controlling the soil respiration, for example, soil temperature,\\u000a are altered by such fires.

Laiye Qu; Keming Ma; Xiaoniu Xu; Lihua Wang; Kaichiro Sasa

2009-01-01

214

The improved Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED) version 3: contribution of savanna, forest, deforestation, and peat fires to the global fire emissions budget  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global fire activity is an important contributor to the atmospheric trace gas and aerosol burdens. New burned area datasets and top-down constraints from atmospheric concentration measurements of pyrogenic gases have decreased the large uncertainty in fire emissions estimates, but little is known about the contribution of deforestation, agricultural waste, peat, forest, and savanna fires to total global fire emissions. Here

Guido van der Werf; Jim Randerson; Louis Giglio; Jim Collatz; Prasad Kasibhatla; Doug Morton; Ruth Defries

2010-01-01

215

REGENERATION CAPABILITY AND ECONOMIC LOSSES AFTER FIRE IN MEDITERRANEAN FORESTS - LEBANON  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of forest fire on three Mediterranean forest types: Pinus pinea, Pinus halepensis\\/brutia and broadleaved was assessed through three indicators: regeneration capability, wood and Non Wood Forest Product (NWFP) losses. In every forest type, five plots of burnt forest through a sequence of 5 years interval, from 1 to 20 years repeated 4 times, were investigated to follow the

Talih Masri; Carla Khater; Nabil Masri; Charbel Zeidan

2006-01-01

216

HOLOCENE FIRE HISTORY OF A COASTAL TEMPERATE RAIN FOREST BASED ON SOIL CHARCOAL RADIOCARBON DATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-term role of fire in coastal temperate rain forest is poorly under- stood. To determine the historical role of fire on western Vancouver Island (British Co- lumbia, Canada), we constructed a long-term spatially explicit fire history and examined the spatial and temporal distribution of fire during the Holocene. Two fire-history parameters (time-since-fire (TSF) and fire extent) were related to

Daniel G. Gavin; Linda B. Brubaker; Kenneth P. Lertzman

2003-01-01

217

MULTI-SEASON CLIMATE SYNCHRONIZED FOREST FIRES THROUGHOUT THE 20TH CENTURY, NORTHERN ROCKIES, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We inferred climate drivers of 20th-century years with regionally synchronous forest fires in the U.S. northern Rockies. We derived annual fire extent from an existing fire atlas that includes 5038 fire polygons recorded from 12 070 086 ha, or 71% of the forested land in Idaho and Montana west of the Continental Divide. The 11 regional-fire years, those exceeding the

Penelope Morgan; Emily K. Heyerdahl; Carly E. Gibson

2008-01-01

218

Fire and fire surrogate treatment effects on leaf litter arthropods in a western Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frequent, low-intensity fires were a common feature of Sierran forest ecosystems, but suppression policies over the past century have left many forests at risk for catastrophic wildfires. Recent policies highlight the use of prescribed burning or harvesting as fire risk reduction tools, but few studies have investigated the impacts of these management practices on the leaf litter fauna of Sierran

Kyle O. Apigian; Donald L. Dahlsten; Scott L. Stephens

2006-01-01

219

Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils of a mangrove forest affected by forest fire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface soils affected by forest fires from Igbanko mangrove forest in Nigeria were analyzed for 16 EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The total PAHs concentrations in the soils ranged from 63 to 188?µg?kg dry weight (average: 108?µg?kg). The three predominant PAHs in the soils were naphthalene (Na), fluoranthene (Flu), and benzo(b)fluoranthene (BbF). Compared to

Olatunbosun S. Sojinu; Oluwadayo O. Sonibare; Eddy Y. Zeng

2011-01-01

220

Evaluation of the effects of silvicultural and fuels treatments on potential fire behaviour in Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire suppression has increased fuel loads and fuel continuity in mixed-conifer ecosystems, resulting in forest structures that are vulnerable to catastrophic fire. This paper models fire behaviour in a mixed-conifer forest and investigates how silvicultural and fuels treatments affect potential fire behaviour. The computer program FARSITE was used to spatially and temporally model fire growth and behaviour. Fire modelling was

Scott Lewis Stephens

1998-01-01

221

Salvage logging in the montane ash eucalypt forests of the Central Highlands of Victoria and its potential impacts on biodiversity.  

PubMed

The two major forms of disturbance in the montane ash eucalypt forests of the Central Highlands of Victoria (southeastern Australia) are clearfell logging and unplanned wildfires. Since the 1930s wildfire has been followed by intensive and extensive salvage-logging operations, which may proceed for many years after a wildfire has occurred. Although applied widely, the potential effects of salvage logging on native flora and fauna have been poorly studied. Our data indicate that the abundance of large trees with hollows is significantly reduced in forests subject to salvage harvesting. This has implications for thepersistence of an array of such cavity-using vertebrates as the endangered arboreal marsupial, Leadbeater's possum (Gymnobelidues leadbeateri). Salvage logging also reduces the prevalence of multiaged montane ash forests--places that typically support the highest diversity of arboreal marsupials and forest birds. Limited research has been conducted on the effects of salvage logging on plants; thus, we constructed hypotheses about potential impacts for further testing based on known responses to clearfell logging and key life history attributes. We predict many species, such as vegetatively resprouting tree ferns, will decline, as they do after clearfelling. We also suggest that seed regenerators, which typically regenerate well after fire or conventional clearfelling, will decline after salvage logging because the stimulation for germination (fire) takes place prior to mechanical disturbance (logging). Understoryplant communities in salvage-logged areas will be dominated by a smaller suite of species, and those that are wind dispersed, have viable soil-stored seed remaining after salvage logging, or have deep rhizomes are likely to be advantaged. We recommend the following improvements to salvage-logging policies that may better incorporate conservation needs in Victorian montane ash forests: (1) exemption of salvage logging from some areas (e.g., old-growth stands and places subject to only partial stand damage); (2) increased retention of biological legacies on burned areas through variations in the intensity of salvage logging; and (3) reduction in the levels of physical disturbance on salvage-logged areas, especially through limited seedbed preparation and mechanical disturbance. PMID:16922217

Lindenmayer, D B; Ought, K

2006-08-01

222

Seed colour and post-fire bird predation in a Mediterranean pine forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a Pinus halepensis Mill. forest, a field experiment was designed to evaluate post-fire seed predation as affected by combinations of seed colour and soil substrates: light grey and black seeds combined with light grey ash, dark grey ash and pale brown sand. A survey of bird species inhabiting the area was also carried out and polyphenolic content of seed coat was assessed in seed lots of different colour. Light grey seeds were observed to be less predated on light grey ash, suggesting eucrypsis as a protective strategy against bird predation. On the contrary, no clear pattern was observed for the predation of black seeds on different substrates. In the study area both bird species breaking the seed coat and eating the endosperm and bird species swallowing the whole seed were monitored. We have estimated that more seeds were swallowed than broken, in all colour categories. Light grey seeds, which were found to have a higher content of polyphenols, were predated more than black seeds when exposed on the same substrate. Thus, no evidence was produced that the amount of polyphenols in seed coat could protect seeds from predation.

Saracino, Antonio; D'Alessandro, Carmela Miriam; Borghetti, Marco

2004-12-01

223

A Physical-Based Cellular Automaton Model for Forest-Fire Propagation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many previous works have been dedicated to the modeling of forest fires (or bush fires) using cellular automata (CA). Usually the transition rules used by the CA are either set or obtained by identification from experimental results. The main drawback of CA model for forest fires is the lack of sound knowledge on these transition rules. This work presents a

A. Collin; D. Bernardin; O. Séro-Guillaume

2011-01-01

224

Boreal forest fires burn less intensely in Russia than in North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Around 5-20 million hectares of boreal forest burns annually, mainly in Russia and North America. However, there are reports of significant differences in predominant fire type between these regions, which may have major implications for overall emissions of carbon, gases and aerosols. We examine boreal forest fire intensities via MODIS observations of fire radiative energy release rate. Results support the

M. J. Wooster; Y. H. Zhang

2004-01-01

225

Effectiveness of prescribed fire as a fuel treatment in Californian coniferous forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective fire suppression and land use practices over the last century have altered forest structure and increased fuel loads in many forests in the United States, increasing the occurrence of catastrophic wildland fires. The most effective methods to change potential fire behavior are to reduce surface fuels, increase the canopy base height and reduce canopy bulk density. This multi-tiered approach

Nicole M. VaillantA; Jo Ann Fites-KaufmanB; Scott L. StephensA

226

Assessment of a Forest Fire Danger Index for Russia Using NOAA Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

To be efficient, modern forest fire managers require a reliable method for estimating fire danger. For large remote forested areas, such as found in Russia where a local weather station network does not exist, this can be a major problem. However, remote sensing can provide reasonable estimates of fire danger across Russia to allow for an understanding of the present

A. I. Sukhinin; D. J. McRae; E. I. Ponomarev

2002-01-01

227

Forest Type and Wildfire in the Alberta Boreal Mixedwood: What Do Fires Burn?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two determinants of fire behavior are fire weather and spatial variation in fuels. Their relative importance in boreal forests has been unclear. I evaluated the effect of fuels on a ;74 000-km2 landscape in the boreal mixedwood region of western Canada. My data were the compositions, or the proportional areas of different forest types, of 48 mapped lightning fires and

S. G. Cumming

2001-01-01

228

Fire Effects on Plant-Soil System in Taiga Forests in Interior Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient availability is assumed to increase and stimulate ecosystem productivity by global warming in many terrestrial ecosystems. Northern forests contain significant global carbon pools, and fire is a common component in these forests. Thus, concerns have recently been directed to fire effects on carbon and nitrogen cycles in plant-soil system. Our objective of this study is to clarify fire effects

Lina KOYAMA; Muneto HIROBE; Satoru HOBARA; Naoko TOKUCHI

229

Estimating Fire-Caused Boreal Forest Disturbances Using Remote Sensing Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Russia accounts for about half of the world's forests, most of which are in Siberia. Numerous forest fires, mostly human-caused, and extensive forest harvesting, including illegal logging, have resulted in considerable ecological damage and economic loss. At present, forest inventory agencies assess the effects of fire based on the known forest area burned. Due to potential cost and difficulty of access types and severity of fire effects are normally not assessed. The lack of reliable estimates of ecological and economic impacts of forest fires prevents development of effective approaches for forest management and forest fire protection. Remote sensing and GIS-based technologies provide for the development of fundamental new methods to assess and monitor forest condition and wildfire behavior and effects. Wildfire and insect and disease outbreaks are the main natural factors responsible for partial or complete mortality of forest stands in Siberia. Negative human influences include forest harvesting, mining, industrial pollution, and human-caused fires. Estimating the scale, rate, and severity of disturbance is of key importance for appraising the resulting ecological and economical damage. In this study, we developed a GIS- and satellite-based methodology to appraise forest damage by taking advantage of unique spectral signature of the underlying forest types. Our focus was on an area of intensive forest harvest in the Angara river basin, which includes the southern and central taiga zones. We have assessed the type, extent, and severity of disturbances in vegetation cover and mapped the current condition of disturbed forest sites.

Sukhinin, A. I.; Slinkina, O. A.; Soja, A. J.; Buryak, L. V.; Conard, S. G.; McRae, D.; Yurikova, E. Y.; Cahoon, D. R.

2008-12-01

230

Characterizing forest fire activity in Turkey by compound Poisson and time series models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large forest fires are major disturbances that strongly influence the carbon cycling and vegetation dynamics of Turkish ecosystems. We suggest that compound Poisson model could provide suitable description for the total annual area burned by forest fires and for fire size distribution in Turkey. This paper also provides a time series model that reveals trends in annual number of fires and area burned in Turkey. We support this argument using forest fires occurred in Turkey between 1937 and 2009. We also find that the Poisson model simulates large fire occurrences well and the total burned area is modeled by a compound Poisson process.

Çekim, Hatice Ö.; Kad?lar, Cem; Özel, Gamze

2013-10-01

231

Monthly burned area and forest fire carbon emission estimates for the Russian Federation from SPOT VGT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Russian boreal forests contain around 25% of all global terrestrial carbon, some of which is released to the atmosphere when the forests burn. Whilst it is well known that fire is widespread in the boreal environment, there is a lack of good quality quantitative data on the extent of fire activity in Russian forests and on its interannual variation. This

Y.-H. Zhang; M. J. Wooster; O. Tutubalina; G. L. W. Perry

232

Fire as the dominant driver of central Canadian boreal forest carbon balance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in climate, atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration and fire regimes have been occurring for decades in the global boreal forest, with future climate change likely to increase fire frequency-the primary disturbance agent in most boreal forests. Previous attempts to assess quantitatively the effect of changing environmental conditions on the net boreal forest carbon balance have not taken into account the

Ben Bond-Lamberty; Scott D. Peckham; Douglas E. Ahl; Stith T. Gower

2007-01-01

233

Simulation of Interactions among Fire, Mountain Pine Beetle and Lodgepole Pine Forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a modelling research approach for the proposed new study of the interaction of fire and mountain pine beetle via forest age structure. This approach is theoretical and provides an analysis of how the stability of forest age-distributions is related to fire regimes. Starting with the derivation of the theoretical negative exponential forest age-distribution, we have used three

C. Li; H. Barclay

234

Performance assessment of a Robust Satellite Techniques (RST-FIRES) for forest fire detection and monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, an advanced satellite technique for forest fire detection and monitoring named RST-FIRES, based on the well known Robust Satellite Techniques (RST) approach, is presented. Performances of this technique, both in terms of reliability and sensitivity, have been analyzed in different (winter/summer) fire regimes, after 3 years of pre-operational sperimentation in 3 Italian Regions (Lombardy, Sicily and Basilicata). Results achieved by using Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) have been compared with the ones obtained by using traditional multichannels and contextuals algorithms. The potential of RST-FIRES in promptly detecting the beginning of fire events by means of sensors like Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) flying aboard Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) geostationary satellites is also analyzed and discussed here. The achieved results demonstrates the high capabilities of RST-FIRES in indentifying even small fires with a very low (<10%) false positive rate under different observational conditions (day/night; winter/summer). In addition, they confirm the RST-FIRES potential to be used in operational contexts requiring to join reliable early warning and efficient support to decisions systems.

Mazzeo, G.; Filizzola, C.; Coviello, I.; Marchese, F.; Corrado, R.; Lacava, T.; Paciello, R.; Pergola, N.; Tramutoli, V.

2012-04-01

235

Post-fire water quality in forest catchments: a review with implications for potable water supply  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many locations fire-prone forest catchments are utilised for the supply of potable water to small communities up to large cities. For example, in south-eastern Australia, wildfires have burned part or all of forest catchments supplying drinking water to Sydney (2001 wildfire), Canberra (2003), Adelaide (2007), Melbourne (2009), as well as various regional towns. Generally, undisturbed forest catchments are a source of high quality water. However, increases in erosion and sediment flux, runoff generation, and changes to the supply of key constituents after wildfire may result in contamination of water supplies. In this review, we present key physical and chemical constituents from a drinking water perspective that may be generated in burned forest catchments and examine post-fire changes to concentrations of these constituents in streams and reservoirs. The World Health Organisation (WHO) drinking water guideline values were used to assess reported post-fire constituent concentrations. Constituents examined include suspended sediment, ash, nutrients, trace metals, anions (Cl-, SO42-), cyanides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Constituent concentrations in streams and reservoirs vary substantially following wildfire. In streams, maximum reported total suspended solid concentrations (SSC) in the first year after fire ranged from 11 to 143,000 mg L-1. SSC is often measured in studies of post-fire stream water quality, whereas turbidity is used in drinking water guidelines and more commonly monitored in water supply reservoirs. For burned catchment reservoirs in south-eastern Australia, peak turbidities increased over pre-fire conditions, as did the frequency of exceedance of the turbidity guideline. NO3-, NO2-, and NH4+ may increase after wildfire but maximum recorded concentrations have not exceeded WHO guideline values. Large post-fire increases in total N and total P concentrations in streams and reservoirs have been observed, although there are no guideline values for total N or P. Studies of post-fire concentrations of dissolved organic carbon are mostly from North America and report generally minor increases after fire, with elevated concentrations reflecting background conditions. The few observations of trace metal concentrations in streams after wildfire found high concentrations that exceeded guideline values for Fe, Mn, As, Cr, Al, Ba, and Pb, which were associated with highly elevated sediment concentrations. In contrast, Cu, Zn, and Hg were below or only slightly above (?1.2 times) guideline values. Reports of Cl- and SO42- concentrations after wildfire are mostly confined to coniferous forest areas, where maximum sampled values were well below WHO guidelines. Total cyanide concentrations have been observed to exceed guidelines values, although increases are likely to be short-lived. Post-fire stream concentrations of PAHs have been found to increase but were below levels of concern. In assessing the risk to water supply from wildfires, constituents of concern may be identified according to both the reason for concern (health or aesthetic) and treatability. Determining the risk to human health from short duration exposure to elevated concentrations of many contaminants (such as toxic metals, PAHs) is problematic, given that the guideline values are based on a life-time of exposure. Other constituents may have more rapid health effects from consumption of contaminated water (e.g. cyanides, Cu, NO2-) or aesthetic concerns (e.g. Fe, Mn, SO42-, Zn). The increased flux of suspended sediment and sediment-associated constituents (particularly metals, nutrients and organic carbon) that can occur after wildfire may necessitate water treatment by coagulation and filtration. At very high sediment concentrations treatment problems may be encountered that reduce or delay the rate of water processing, potentially causing disruptions in supply. For other constituents, such as NO3-, NO2-, Cl-, SO42-, amenable cyanides, and PAHs, it appears the likelihood that concentrations of concern will occur in water suppl

Smith, Hugh; Sheridan, Gary; Lane, Patrick; Nyman, Petter; Haydon, Shane

2010-05-01

236

Phase inversions during the firing of ash-clay materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of industrial waste, particularly power station ash, to obtain ceramic materials would enable the expansion of the raw material base as well as help keep the environment cleaner. The authors used petrographic, x-ray and IR-spectroscopic methods to investigate the all-around influence of the degree of densification and the duration of the isothermal soaking of the specimens on the

I. M. De; S. T. Suleimenov; S. Zh. Saibulatov; Kh. T. Suleimanov; N. A. Vasil'chenko; M. K. Kulbekov

1985-01-01

237

Effect of forest fire on number, viability and post-fire re-establishment of arbuscular mycorrhizae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest fire can affect arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi by changing the soil conditions and by directly altering AM proliferation.\\u000a We studied the effects of a severe forest fire at Margalla Hills near Islamabad on the number and viability of AM fungal propagules\\u000a in the burnt soil and their role in the re-establishment of post-fire infection in colonized plants. Compared with

A. Rashid; T. Ahmed; N. Ayub; A. G. Khan

1997-01-01

238

Fire treatment effects on vegetation structure, fuels, and potential fire severity in western U.S. forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest structure and species composition in many western U.S. coniferous forests have been altered through fire exclusion, past and ongoing harvesting practices, and livestock grazing over the 20th century. The effects of these activities have been most pronounced in seasonally dry, low and mid-elevation coniferous forests that once experienced frequent, low to moderate intensity, fire regimes. In this paper, we

Scott L. Stephens; Jason J. Moghaddas; Carl Edminster; Carl E. Fiedler; Sally Haase; Michael Harrington; Jon E. Keeley; Eric E. Knapp; James D. McIver; Kerry Metlen; Carl N. Skinner; Andrew Youngblood

2009-01-01

239

Initial watershed response to boreal forest fires in Interior Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The summer of 2004 in Alaska was characterized by enormous and devastating boreal forest fires. Small streams draining water from areas affected by fires in different proportions (i.e.: unburned, partially and severally burned) were systematically sampled during the summer of 2005. All the streams were located in watersheds underlain by discontinuous permafrost, perennially frozen soils, in Interior Alaska. In order to collect daily water samples, autosamplers were deployed in the streams after spring breakup. Pressure transducers and dataloggers in conjunction with velocity measurements were used to estimate water discharge in the streams. Human influence is negligible in the study areas, with the exception of modifications caused by the firefighters. Thus, collected data from these areas can be considered as a natural system response to forest fires. Preliminary results from samples collected from two watersheds with similar percentage of underlain permafrost (around 18 % of the total area) indicate a consistent trend of higher suspended loads in the stream located in a partially burned area compared to the stream located in a pristine, fire-free basin.

Toniolo, H. A.; Kodial, P.

2005-12-01

240

Lessons from the Ashes: Advice after a Campus Fire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The fire that struck in the Eastern Illinois University's Blair Hall on April 28, 2004, disrupted a number of professional lives, though no one was killed or injured due to a good emergency plan dutifully executed. Several tips on disaster preparedness and recovery that could benefit institutions caught in a similar situation are presented.

Foster, Gary S.; Hendrickson, Darren; Freeland, Lisa New

2006-01-01

241

Fire severity effects on ash extractable Total Phosphorous  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorous (P) is a crucial element to plant nutrition and limits vegetal production. The amounts of P in soil are lower and great part of this nutrient is absorbed or precipitated. It is well known that fire has important implications on P cycle, that can be lost throughout volatilization, evacuated with the smoke, but also more available to transport after

Paulo Pereira; Xavier Úbeda; Deborah Martin

2010-01-01

242

Quince (Cydonia oblonga) emerges from the ashes of fire blight  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The two-decade history of fire blight in Bulgaria revealed quince as one of the most frequently attacked hosts and its production on a large scale has almost been entirely eliminated. Nevertheless, this species will play an important epidemiological role as a permanent source of inoculum for other p...

243

DEVELOPMENT OF A WEB-BASED TOOL FOR PROJECTING COSTS OF MANAGING EMERALD ASH BORER IN MUNICIPAL FORESTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

City managers faced with the invasion of emerald ash borer into their urban forests need to plan for the invasion in order to obtain the resources they need to protect the public from harm caused by dying ash trees. Currently, city foresters can avoid harm from falling trees by removing, replacing, or treating them with insecticides. Costs for these activities

Clifford S. Sadof

2009-01-01

244

Spatial models for monitoring the spatio-temporal evolution of ashes after fire - a case study of a burnt grassland in Lithuania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ash thickness is a key variable in the protection of soil against erosion agents after planned and unplanned fires. Ash thickness measurements were conducted along two transects (flat and sloping areas) following a grided experimental design. In order to interpolate data with accuracy and identify the techniques with the least bias, several interpolation methods were tested in the grided plot. Overall, the fire had a low severity. However, the fire significantly reduced the ground cover, especially on sloping areas, owing to the higher fire severity and/or less biomass previous to the fire. Ash thickness depended on fire severity and was thin where fire severity was higher and thicker in lower fire severity sites. The ash thickness decreased with time after the fire. Between 4 and 16 days after the fire, ash was transported by wind. The greatest reduction took place between 16 and 34 days after the fire as a result of rainfall, and was more efficient where fire severity was higher. Between 34 and 45 days after the fire, no significant differences in ash thickness were identified among ash colours and only traces of the ash layer remained. The omni-directional experimental variograms showed that variable structure did not change significantly with time. The ash spatial variability increased with time, particularly on the slope, as a result of water erosion.

Pereira, P.; Cerdà, A.; Úbeda, X.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Martin, D.; Jordán, A.; Burguet, M.

2013-05-01

245

Extreme Forest Fire Behaviour and its Potential Damage to the Environment and to Society  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fires are one of the major natural disasters in several regions of the World given their frequency, extension and damaging effects. In present conditions of climate change due to global warming many countries are facing larger and more intense fires, more extended fire seasons and a greater inter-annual variability of fire occurrence conditions. Many societies are prepared to face forest fires in low to medium meteorological risk conditions but when these become extreme it is very difficult to control the fires. Fire behaviour in extreme conditions is still poorly studied in spite of its great importance for the entire problem of fire management due to its high potential to damage the environment, to disrupt socio economic activities and to affect human health and life. Typical extreme fire behaviour conditions like (i) eruptive fires, (ii) crown fires and (iii) spot fires shall be described and analysed. Some case studies will be presented to illustrate the concepts presented.

Viegas, D. X.

2009-04-01

246

Effects of wildfires on ash Carbon, Nitrogen and C/N ratio in Mediterranean forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon (C) and Nitrogen(N) are key nutrients in ecosystems health and the more affected by fire temperatures, because of their low temperatures of volatilization. After a wildfire, due higher temperatures reached, a great amount of C and N can be evacuated from the ecosystems and the percentage of C and N not vaporized is concentrated in ashes. Hence, the study of ash C and N is of major importance because will be linked with the capacity of ecosystem recuperation. The aim of this work is study the C, and C/N of three wildfires occurred in Mediterranean forests dominated by Quercus suber and Pinus pinea in Portugal. In the first wildfire, named "Quinta do Conde", we collected 30 samples, in the second, "Quinta da Areia", 32 samples and the third, "Casal do Sapo" 40 samples To estimate the consequences of wildfires in the parameters in study, we collected several samples of unburned litter near burned areas, composed by the same vegetation. The results showed that wildfires induced in % of Total Carbon (%TC) ashes content a non significantly reduction in Quinta do Conde plot (at a p<0,05) and significantly in Quinta da Areia plot (p<0.001) and Casal do Sapo plot (p<0.001). In % of Total Nitrogen (%TN) ashes content we observed in Quinta do Conde plot a significant increase (p<0.001), a non significant decrease in Quinta da Areia plot (at a p<0,05) and a significant reduce in Casal do Sapo plot (p<0.01). The The C/N ratio suffer a significant (p<0.001) reduction in Quinta do Conde and Quinta da Areia plots and at a p<0.01 in Casal do Sapo plot. In all parameters in study, wilfires induced a greater spatial variability, by the analysis of the Coefficient of Variation. Our tests effectuated in laboratory with samples collected near wildfires occurrence and exposed to the temperature gradient (150°, 200°, 250°, 300°, 350°, 400°, 450°, 500°, 550°C) fit with the results obtained. With temperature gradient, we identified a decrease of %TC ash content of Quercus suber samples and a rise until the 300°C in Pinus pinaster samples decreasing thereafter especially after the 400°C. In %TN we identified a rise in both species reducing abruptly at 450°C. C/N ratio decrease importantly after the 150°C. Theses results showed us that wildfires can have different effects C and N litter resources, depending on the severity and temperature reached. Crossing the results obtained in laboratory simulations with the samples collected in wildfires we will have an idea about the severity and temperature occurred in each wildfire. Overall, the lower severity were observed in Quinta do Conde plot and the higher in Casal do Sapo plot, being Quinta da Areia in a middle position. The C and N levels after a wildfire will determine the capacity of landscape recuperation and according the data obtained this will be higher in Quinta do Conde plot and lesser in Casal do Sapo plot. These hypothesis will be confirmed by field observation. Keywords: Carbon, Nitrogen, C/N ratio, wildfires, ashes, Quinta do Conde, Quinta da Areia, Casal do Sapo, Quercus suber, Pinus pinaster, Laboratory simulations, Severity, Landscape recuperation.

Pereira, P.; Ubeda, X.; Martin, D. A.

2009-04-01

247

Continuous monitoring of forest fires in the Mediterranean area using MSG  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest fires represent one of the main factors of degradation and destruction of the Italian forest heritage. The phenomenon occurrence has increased in the last years from the average of 6426 fires per year in the period 1970-1980, corresponding to a forested area of about 503,000 ha, to 11164 fires in the period 1990-2000, involving 553,000 ha. Presently, timely and

G. Laneve; M. M. Castronuovo; E. Cadau

2005-01-01

248

Snag abundance 20, 30, and 40 years following fire and harvesting in boreal forests1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The retention of standing dead trees (snags) has become an important conservation concern, especially when forest management efforts attempt to emulate natural disturbance. We investigate the abundance of snags within Ontario's boreal forest following 10-20, 21-30, and 31-40 years of both fire and forest harvest disturbance over a 24 000-km2 area. Fire frequency varied considerably, with 90% of the fires

Steven H. Ferguson; Philip C. Elkie

249

Public perspectives of fire, fuels, and the Forest Service in the Great ...  

Treesearch

Science.gov - We Participate ... Keywords: citizen-agency interactions, fire risk, fuels reduction, public ... Public perspectives of fire, fuels, and the Forest Service in the Great Lakes Region: a survey of citizen-agency communication and trust.

250

Los Alamos Forest Fire Impact Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A controlled burn at Bandelier National Monument got out of control and burned about 43,000 acres (17,400 hectares) near Los Alamos, New Mexico, in May 2000. The wildfire caused dramatic changes in infiltration capacity and wettability of soils in many of the watersheds above Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and destroyed the "duff" layer, dramatically reducing the interception and infiltration capacity of the formerly forested watersheds. These sudden changes in basin hydrology necessitated a rapid assessment of hydrology and hydraulics for the canyons running through LANL property to evaluate flood risk, plan emergency flood protection measures, and assess potential sediment and actinide transport. This paper presents the results of hydrologic and hydraulic modeling of Los Alamos Canyon following the wildfire. The large scale modeling effort, with over 13,000 cross sections for the hydraulic model (5,000 for Los Alamos Canyon, 8,000 for Guaje Canyon), relied heavily on a geographic information system (GIS) for model input and floodplain delineation. The HEC-geoRAS model provided good integration between the hydraulic model (HEC-RAS, Version 3.0.1) and the GIS (ArcView, v. 3.3). These modeling results are being used in drainage master planning efforts at LANL and in the development of sediment transport models using HEC-6T. Sediment transport modeling results will be used to develop actinide transport models for the canyons at LANL.

Earles, T. Andrew; Wright, Kenneth R.; Brown, Christopher; Langan, Thomas E.

2004-04-01

251

Proteccion de los Bosques Contra el Fuego (Protecting the Forest from Fires).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The pamphlet of techniques for prevention and control of forest fires chronicles the damage caused by them, and their causes. Various prevention techniques are covered, particularly patrols of forest areas and public information campaigns. Although no two...

1967-01-01

252

PCDD/F and Aromatic Emissions from Simulated Forest and Grassland Fires  

EPA Science Inventory

Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzodioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) from simulated grassland and forest fires were quantitatively sampled to derive emission factors in support of PCDD/F inventory development. Grasses from Kentucky and Minnesota; forest shrubs fro...

253

Fire and Forest Structure Across Vegetation Gradients in San Juan National Forest, Colorado: A Multi-scaled Historical Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem Baseline multi-scale temporal and spatial data about climate, fire and resulting forest structure, species composition, and stand density on the San Juan National Forest was lacking. Long term historical and regional data was needed to tease out the differences between local fire-caused effects and landscape climate-caused effects to forest stands. It was necessary to develop a picture of how

Peter M. Brown

254

Modelling ash thickness spatial distribution after a grassland fire. The effect of sampling distance.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After fire ash is distributed heterogeneously in the soil surface, providing different levels of soil protection and nutrient inputs. In the immediate period post-fire ash is the most valuable soil protection against erosion and understand ash distribution patterns is of major importance, because, because allow us to identify the most vulnerable areas to soil erosion. Modelling accuracy depends on the data density and the best method for data interpolation. In this communication we aim to study the effects of ash thickness samples, separated by 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 cm on the modelling performance in a west faced slope with 15 % of inclination in an area of 80 m2. We tested the experimental variogram for each data density and some well known interpolation methods as Inverse Distance to a Weight (IDW) (with the power of 1,2,3,4 and 5), Local Polynomial with the first and second polynomial order, Polynomial Regression (PR), Radial Basis Functions (RBF) as Multilog (MTG), Natural Cubic Spline (NCS), Multiquadratic (MTQ), Inverse Multiquadratic (IMTQ) and Thin plate Spline (TPS) and Ordinary Kriging. Overall we tested 16 methods of interpolation. Interpolation accuracy was observed with the cross-validation method that is achieved by taking each observation in turn out of the sample and estimating from the remaining ones. The errors produced in each interpolation allowed us to calculate the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). The method with smaller RMSE is the most accurate to interpolation of ash thickness in each considered distance. The results showed that ash sampling distance has important implications on variogram properties. Spherical model fits better with the sampling distance of 20 cm, Gaussian model with the distance of 40 and 100 cm, Linear model with the distance of 60 cm and Wave Hole Effect model with the distance of 80 cm. This means that sample designing had implications on the spatial structure and evolution of ash thickness properties across the studied area. From all the interpolation methods the most accurate for 20 cm, 40 cm and 60 cm of distance was IDW 1, for 80 cm and 100 cm IMTQ. This reveals that the small scale variability of ash distribution is detected until 60 cm of distance and data heterogeneity is very high. At the sampling distances of 80 cm and 100 cm IMPQ identified some patterns of ash thickness distribution. Among all sampling distances, on average, 60 cm presented less error and 20 the high error in sample prediction. Keywords: Ash thickness, modelling, sampling distance, interpolation methods

Pereira, P.; Cepanko, V.; Vaitkute, D.; Pundyte, N.; Pranskevicius, M.; Ubeda, X.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Cerda, A.

2012-04-01

255

Climatic and Human Influences on Fire Regimes in Ponderosa Pine Forests in the Colorado Front Range  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the northern Colorado Front Range, fire suppression during the 20th cen- tury is believed to have created a high hazard of catastrophic fire in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests. Since the early 1990s, resource managers have increased the use of prescribed fires to re-create fire regimes and forest structures similar to those of the pre- Euro-American settlement period in

Thomas T. Veblen; Thomas Kitzberger; Joseph Donnegan

2000-01-01

256

Wood ash applications to temperate forest ecosystems—potential benefits and drawbacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of the present work were (a) to quantify the effects of wood ash on forest ecosystems through a meta-analysis\\u000a approach associated with a detailed review of the literature (mainly composed of work carried out in Nordic countries) and\\u000a (b) to extrapolate the effects on forest growth to other contexts (i.e. warm temperate countries) by identifying the cases\\u000a for

L. Augusto; M. R. Bakker; C. Meredieu

2008-01-01

257

Meta-analysis of avian and small-mammal response to fire severity and fire surrogate treatments in U.S. fire-prone forests.  

PubMed

Management in fire-prone ecosystems relies widely upon application of prescribed fire and/or fire surrogate (e.g., forest thinning) treatments to maintain biodiversity and ecosystem function. Recently, published literature examining wildlife response to fire and fire management has increased rapidly. However, none of this literature has been synthesized quantitatively, precluding assessment of consistent patterns of wildlife response among treatment types. Using meta-analysis, we examined the scientific literature on vertebrate demographic responses to burn severity (low/moderate, high), fire surrogates (forest thinning), and fire and fire surrogate combined treatments in the most extensively studied fire-prone, forested biome (forests of the United States). Effect sizes (magnitude of response) and their 95% confidence limits (response consistency) were estimated for each species-by-treatment combination with two or more observations. We found 41 studies of 119 bird and 17 small-mammal species that examined short-term responses (< or =4 years) to thinning, low/moderate- and high-severity fire, and thinning plus prescribed fire; data on other taxa and at longer time scales were too sparse to permit quantitative assessment. At the stand scale (<50 ha), thinning and low/moderate-severity fire demonstrated similar response patterns in these forests. Combined thinning plus prescribed fire produced a higher percentage of positive responses. High-severity fire provoked stronger responses, with a majority of species possessing higher or lower effect sizes relative to fires of lower severity. In the short term and at fine spatial scales, fire surrogate forest-thinning treatments appear to effectively mimic low/moderate-severity fire, whereas low/moderate-severity fire is not a substitute for high-severity fire. The varied response of taxa to each of the four conditions considered makes it clear that the full range of fire-based disturbances (or their surrogates) is necessary to maintain a full complement of vertebrate species, including fire-sensitive taxa. This is especially true for high-severity fire, where positive responses from many avian taxa suggest that this disturbance (either as wildfire or prescribed fire) should be included in management plans where it is consistent with historic fire regimes and where maintenance of regional vertebrate biodiversity is a goal. PMID:22908713

Fontaine, Joseph B; Kennedy, Patricia L

2012-07-01

258

A model of surface fire, climate and forest pattern in the Sierra Nevada, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spatially explicit forest gap model was developed for the Sierra Nevada, California, and is the first of its kind because it integrates climate, fire and forest pattern. The model simulates a forest stand as a grid of 15×15 m forest plots and simulates the growth of individual trees within each plot. Fuel inputs are generated from each individual tree

Carol Miller; Dean L Urban

1999-01-01

259

Fire history differences in adjacent Jeffrey pine and upper montane forests in the eastern Sierra Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire history and forest structural characteristics of adjacent Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi) and upper montane forests was investigated in the eastern Sierra Nevada at the University of California Valentine Natural Reserve. Jeffrey pine forests had lower canopy cover, higher amounts of fine fuels, and higher shrub cover when compared to upper montane forest that were dominated by red fir (Abies

Scott L. Stephens

2001-01-01

260

Litterfall dynamics and forest floor litter as influenced by fire in a secondary lowland rain forest in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Litter fall, litter standing crop and changes in litter fall were studied in a secondary lowland rainforest at Ile-Ife (7o 29' N, 4o 34' E), Nigeria 14 years after a ground fire ravaged the forest. Two sample areas, one in the burnt part of the forest (burnt area) and the other in the part of the forest not affected by

A. I. ODIWE; J. I. MUOGHALU

261

Adapting fire management to future fire regimes: impacts on boreal forest composition and carbon balance in Canadian National Parks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of future fire regimes altered by climate change, and fire management in adaptation to climate change were studied in the boreal forest region of western Canada. Present (1975-90) and future (2080-2100) fire regimes were simulated for several National Parks using data from the Canadian (CGCM1) and Hadley (HadCM3) Global Climate Models (GCM) in separate simulation scenarios. The long-term effects of the different fire regimes on forests were simulated using a stand-level, boreal fire effects model (BORFIRE). Changes in forest composition and biomass storage due to future altered fire regimes were determined by comparing current and future simulation results. This was used to assess the ecological impact of altered fire regimes on boreal forests, and the future role of these forests as carbon sinks or sources. Additional future simulations were run using adapted fire management strategies, including increased fire suppression and the use of prescribed fire to meet fire cycle objectives. Future forest composition, carbon storage and emissions under current and adapted fire management strategies were also compared to determine the impact of various future fire management options. Both of the GCM's showed more severe burning conditions under future fire regimes. This includes fires with higher intensity, greater depth of burn, greater total fuel consumption and shorter fire cycles (or higher rates of annual area burned). The Canadian GCM indicated burning conditions more severe than the Hadley GCM. Shorter fire cycles of future fire regimes generally favoured aspen, birch, and jack pine because it provided more frequent regeneration opportunity for these pioneer species. Black spruce was only minimally influenced by future fire regimes, although white spruce declined sharply. Maintaining representation of pure and mixed white spruce ecosystems in natural areas will be a concern under future fire regimes. Active fire suppression is required in these areas. In other areas where recent fire suppression history has been very successful, prescribed fire will be an important fire management activity to maintain current forest, shrubland, and grassland ecosystems. The model simulations showed that total fire exclusion would effectively lead to the loss of jack pine, and cause a sharp decline in aspen and birch stands. Increased future fire activity caused a general decrease in total carbon storage, but this impact was moderated by two other related impacts. Shorter fire cycles created a younger age-class distribution, which was represented by more fast-growing, high density stands with high detrital output. The second factor was a general forest composition shift towards faster growing species. Increased fire suppression caused an increase in long-term total biomass storage, but prescribed burning could also have a similar impact if controlled fires were used to replace wildfires and conducted during periods of reduced fire behaviour.

de Groot, W. J.; Flannigan, M. D.; Cantin, A.

2009-04-01

262

Dendrochronology-based fire history of Jeffrey pine - mixed conifer forests in the Sierra San Pedro Martir, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conifer forests in northwestern Mexico have not experienced systematic fire suppression or logging, making them unique in western North America. Fire regimes of Pinus jeffreyi Grev. & Balf. mixed conifer forests in the Sierra San Pedro Martir, Baja California, Mexico, were determined by identifying 105 fire dates from 1034 fire scars in 105 specimens. Fires were recorded between 1521 and

Scott L. Stephens; Carl N. Skinner; Samantha J. Gill

2003-01-01

263

Effect of Ash in Coal on the Performance of Coal Fired Thermal Power Plants. Part I: Primary Energy Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports the effect of ash content in raw coal on the energy performance of coal fired thermal power plants of capacity range 30–500 MW. The focus is on primary energy effects—combustion, heat transfer, and flow hydrodynamics. The effects of variation of ash in coal from 6% (taken as standard) up to 75% on component performance are studied and

M. Siddhartha Bhatt

2006-01-01

264

Hazard rating of ash and slag dumps of thermal power plants firing Kuznetskii coal  

SciTech Connect

Results of a study of the degree of toxicity and of the hazard rating of ash and slag waste due to firing Kuznetskii coals at thermal power plants are presented. Computation shows and biological tests prove that the waste belongs to the fifth hazard class, i.e., is virtually safe. Comparison of the results obtained with foreign data shows that the waste in question belongs to the safe category in accordance with foreign standards as well.

E.P. Dik; A.N. Soboleva [All-Russia Thermal Engineering Institute (VTI), Moscow (Russian Federation)

2006-03-15

265

Erosion-corrosion of coatings by biomass-fired boiler fly ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

The erosion-corrosion (E-C) behavior of two steels (AISI 1018 low carbon steel, Type 304 stainless steel) and several thermal spray coatings by fly ash from a biomass-fired boiler was determined in laboratory tests using a nozzle type elevated temperature erosion tester. The coatings included Hypersonic Velocity Oxygen Fuel (HVOF) thermal sprayed coatings on the mild steel (Cr3Cr2?NiCr, Cr3C2, NiCrSi, NiCrMo,

Bu-Qian Wang

1995-01-01

266

Research on non-steam-cured and non-fired fly-ash thermal insulating materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermal insulating material is synthesized via a non-steam-cured and non-fired route by using fly-ash, sorel cement and hydrogen peroxide solution as raw material. Properties such as apparent density, compressive strength, bending strength, thermal conductivity, water resistance, and thermal tolerance of this matrial are studied, some influencing factors on its performance discussed. This material has an apparent density of 360

Yu-ping LUO; Li-jiu WANG

2008-01-01

267

Flue gas treatment by activated carbon obtained from oil-fired fly ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of the solid particulates derived from the combustion of heavy oils (that is, oil-fired fly ash) with acidic solutions (HCl and HF) followed by activation at 900°C with CO2 and then with O2 (1%) in N2 at 800°C, produces activated carbon having high surface area values (measured both by N2 adsorption at 77 K and by CO2 adsorption

Paolo Davini

2002-01-01

268

Fire effects on stable isotopes in a Sierran forested watershed.  

PubMed

This study tested the hypothesis that stable C and N isotope values in surface soil and litter would be increased by fire due to volatilization of lighter isotopes. The hypothesis was tested by: (1) performing experimental laboratory burns of organic and mineral soil materials from a watershed at combinations of temperature ranging 100 to 600 degrees C and duration ranging from 1 to 60 min; (2) testing field samples of upland soils before, shortly after, and 1 yr following a wildfire in the same watershed; and (3) testing field soil samples from a down-gradient ash/sediment depositional area in a riparian zone following a runoff event after the wildfire. Muffle furnace results indicated the most effective temperature range for using stable isotopes for tracing fire impacts is 200 to 400 degrees C because lower burn temperatures may not produce strong isotopic shifts, and at temperatures>or=600 degrees C, N and C content of residual material is too low. Analyses of field soil samples were inconclusive: there was a slightly significant effect of the wildfire on delta15N values in upland watershed analyses 1 yr postburn, while riparian zone analyses results indicated that delta13C values significantly decreased approximately 0.71 per thousand over a 9 mo post-fire period (p=0.015), and ash/sediment layer delta13C values were approximately 0.65 per thousand higher than those in the A horizon. The lack of field confirmation may have been due to overall wildfire burn temperatures being <200 degrees C and/or microbial recovery and vegetative growth in the field. Thus, the muffle furnace experiment supported the hypothesis, but it is as yet unconfirmed by actual wildfire field data. PMID:17215216

Saito, Laurel; Miller, Wally W; Johnson, Dale W; Qualls, Robert G; Provencher, Louis; Carroll, Erin; Szameitat, Peter

2007-01-09

269

Ash deposition in the Coal Fired Flow Facility while burning Illinois [number sign]6 coal  

SciTech Connect

Deposition of coal fly ash and potassium sulfate on tubes representative of superheaters and intermediate temperature air heaters at the DOE Coal Fired Flow Facility during a 2000 hour POC test period is herein described. The deposition is unique to this test facility because of the high combustion temperatures and the use of potassium carbonate as the conducting seed.'' This seed material is required for coal fired MHD applications as a means to control sulfur dioxide emissions as it combines with the sulfur in coal to form potassium sulfate. Most of the potassium sulfate solids removed are in the form of a fine ash from which potassium can be recovered and recycled. Testing clearly indicated that the majority of ash/seed deposits can be removed by conventional sootblowing. A significant difference in ash removal is the increased volume of deposits, as potassium compounds make up 75% of the total deposits which must be removed for efficient heat transfer. Tube deposits on the heat exchange surfaces in the area of highest gas temperature have been difficult to remove due to the presence of molten potassium sulfate.

Dace, J.F.; Shaver, T.C.

1993-01-01

270

The Tropical Forest and fire emissions experiment: overview and airborne fire emission factor measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tropical Forest and Fire Emissions Experiment (TROFFEE) used laboratory measurements followed by airborne and ground based field campaigns during the 2004 Amazon dry season to quantify the emissions from pristine tropical forest and several plantations as well as the emissions, fuel consumption, and fire ecology of tropical deforestation fires. The airborne campaign used an Embraer 110B aircraft outfitted with whole air sampling in canisters, mass-calibrated nephelometry, ozone by uv absorbance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and proton-transfer mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) to measure PM10, O3, CO2, CO, NO, NO2, HONO, HCN, NH3, OCS, DMS, CH4, and up to 48 non-methane organic compounds (NMOC). The Brazilian smoke/haze layers extended to 2-3 km altitude, which is much lower than the 5-6 km observed at the same latitude, time of year, and local time in Africa in 2000. Emission factors (EF) were computed for the 19 tropical deforestation fires sampled and they largely compare well to previous work. However, the TROFFEE EF are mostly based on a much larger number of samples than previously available and they also include results for significant emissions not previously reported such as: nitrous acid, acrylonitrile, pyrrole, methylvinylketone, methacrolein, crotonaldehyde, methylethylketone, methylpropanal, "acetol plus methylacetate," furaldehydes, dimethylsulfide, and C1-C4 alkyl nitrates. Thus, we recommend these EF for all tropical deforestation fires. The NMOC emissions were ~80% reactive, oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOC). Our EF for PM10 (17.8±4 g/kg) is ~25% higher than previously reported for tropical forest fires and may reflect a trend towards, and sampling of, larger fires than in earlier studies. A large fraction of the total burning for 2004 likely occurred during a two-week period of very low humidity. The combined output of these fires created a massive "mega-plume" >500 km across that we sampled on September 8. The mega-plume contained high PM10 and 10-50 ppbv of many reactive species such as O3, NH3, NO2, CH3OH, and organic acids. This is an intense and globally important chemical processing environment that is still poorly understood. The mega-plume or "white ocean" of smoke covered a large area in Brazil, Bolivia, and Paraguay for about one month. The smoke was transported >2000 km to the southeast while remaining concentrated enough to cause a 3-4-fold increase in aerosol loading in the São Paulo area for several days.

Yokelson, R. J.; Karl, T.; Artaxo, P.; Blake, D. R.; Christian, T. J.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Guenther, A.; Hao, W. M.

2007-05-01

271

The Tropical Forest and Fire Emissions Experiment: overview and airborne fire emission factor measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tropical Forest and Fire Emissions Experiment (TROFFEE) used laboratory measurements followed by airborne and ground based field campaigns during the 2004 Amazon dry season to quantify the emissions from pristine tropical forest and several plantations as well as the emissions, fuel consumption, and fire ecology of tropical deforestation fires. The airborne campaign used an Embraer 110B aircraft outfitted with whole air sampling in canisters, mass-calibrated nephelometry, ozone by UV absorbance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and proton-transfer mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) to measure PM10, O3, CO2, CO, NO, NO2, HONO, HCN, NH3, OCS, DMS, CH4, and up to 48 non-methane organic compounds (NMOC). The Brazilian smoke/haze layers extended to 2-3 km altitude, which is much lower than the 5-6 km observed at the same latitude, time of year, and local time in Africa in 2000. Emission factors (EF) were computed for the 19 tropical deforestation fires sampled and they largely compare well to previous work. However, the TROFFEE EF are mostly based on a much larger number of samples than previously available and they also include results for significant emissions not previously reported such as: nitrous acid, acrylonitrile, pyrrole, methylvinylketone, methacrolein, crotonaldehyde, methylethylketone, methylpropanal, "acetol plus methylacetate," furaldehydes, dimethylsulfide, and C1-C4 alkyl nitrates. Thus, we recommend these EF for all tropical deforestation fires. The NMOC emissions were ~80% reactive, oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOC). Our EF for PM10 (17.8±4 g/kg) is ~25% higher than previously reported for tropical forest fires and may reflect a trend towards, and sampling of, larger fires than in earlier studies. A large fraction of the total burning for 2004 likely occurred during a two-week period of very low humidity. The combined output of these fires created a massive "mega-plume" >500 km across that we sampled on 8 September. The mega-plume contained high PM10 and 10-50 ppbv of many reactive species such as O3, NH3, NO2, CH3OH, and organic acids. This is an intense and globally important chemical processing environment that is still poorly understood. The mega-plume or "white ocean" of smoke covered a large area in Brazil, Bolivia, and Paraguay for about one month. The smoke was transported >2000 km to the southeast while remaining concentrated enough to cause a 3-4-fold increase in aerosol loading in the São Paulo area for several days.

Yokelson, R. J.; Karl, T.; Artaxo, P.; Blake, D. R.; Christian, T. J.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Guenther, A.; Hao, W. M.

2007-10-01

272

Simulation of a fire-sensitive ecological threshold: a case study of Ashe juniper on the Edwards Plateau of Texas, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model was developed to represent the establishment of a fire-sensitive woody species from seeds and subsequent survival and growth through five size classes. Simulations accurately represent structural changes associated with increased density and cover of the fire-sensitive Ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei, Buckholz) and provide substantial evidence for multiple steady states and ecological thresholds. Without fire, Ashe juniper increases and

Samuel D. Fuhlendorf; Fred E. Smeins; William E. Grant

1996-01-01

273

Boreal forest fires burn less intensely in Russia than in North America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Around 5-20 million hectares of boreal forest burns annually, mainly in Russia and North America. However, there are reports of significant differences in predominant fire type between these regions, which may have major implications for overall emissions of carbon, gases and aerosols. We examine boreal forest fire intensities via MODIS observations of fire radiative energy release rate. Results support the contention of a consistent difference in fire intensity and mean fuel consumption in Russia and North America, due to differences in dominant fire type. North American fires have higher mean intensities, increasing in proportion to percentage tree cover, characteristics indicating likely crown fire dominance. Russian fires have lower mean intensities, independent of percentage tree cover, characteristics more indicative of surface fire activity. Per unit area burnt, the results suggest Russian fires may burn less fuel and emit fewer products to the atmosphere than do those in North America.

Wooster, M. J.; Zhang, Y. H.

2004-10-01

274

The impact of forest residue removal and wood ash amendment on the growth of the ectomycorrhizal external mycelium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intensive harvesting of forest residues for energy production may lead to the depletion of organic matter and mineral nutrients in the forest floor. In order to restore nutrient content wood ash has been suggested as a fertiliser. Ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi are involved in the nutrient uptake of forest trees and this study investigates the influence of intensive harvesting and wood

David Hagerberg; Håkan Wallander

2002-01-01

275

Assessment of the radiation field from radioactive elements in a wood-ash-treated coniferous forest in Southwest Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of natural and antrophogenic radioactive elements in soil and wood was investigated in a 30-year-old forest stand of Norway spruce. Forest plots treated with a single dose of granulated wood ash in 1989 were compared with untreated control plots. It was observed that the retention of radiocesium and radiostrontium by the forest soil is rather strong in spite

Aaro Ravila; Elis Holm

1996-01-01

276

Responses in plant, soil inorganic and microbial nutrient pools to experimental fire, ash and biomass addition in a woodland savanna  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the effects of savanna fires on nutrient cycling a field experiment was carried out in an open woodland savanna of southwest Ethiopia. This involved manipulations of fire, fuel load and ash fertilisation in a fully factorial design, and recording of responses in plants, soil inorganic and microbial nutrient pools up to 1 year after the disturbances.

Michael Jensen; Anders Michelsen; Menassie Gashaw

2001-01-01

277

EVALUATION OF EFFECTS OF FOREST-FIRE SMOKE/HAZE ON BASIN-WIDE STREAM TEMPERATURES  

EPA Science Inventory

The effects of forest fires on ecological resources in the area experiencing the burn are well documented in the literature. What is not well known is the effect of smoke and haze generated from forest fires on ecological resources adjacent to or at great distances from the burn ...

278

A Multi-temporal Robust Satellite Technique (RST) for Forest Fire Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, an innovative approach, based on a multi-temporal satellite data analysis, named RST (Robust Satellite Technique), which has already been successfully applied for the monitoring of major natural and environmental risks, has been proposed for the detection of forest fires in near real time. RST is applied in the case of some important forest fires occurred in Northern

Giuseppe Mazzeo; Francesco Marchese; Carolina Filizzola; Nicola Pergola; Valerio Tramutoli

2007-01-01

279

ARTICLE Influences of climate on fire regimes in montane forests of north-western Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim To identify the influence of interannual and interdecadal climate variation on the occurrence and extent of fires in montane conifer forests of north-western Mexico. Location This study was conducted in Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi Grev. & Balf.)- dominated mixed-conifer forests in the central and northern plateau of the Sierra San Pedro Martir, Baja California, Mexico. Methods Fire occurrence was

Carl N. Skinner; Jack H. Burk; Michael G. Barbour; Ernesto Franco-Vizcaino; Scott L. Stephens

280

The relationship between forest fire occurrence and 500 mb longwave ridging  

Microsoft Academic Search

In general terms the probability of forest fires is increased by weather conditions that: a. maximize the drying of forest fuels,b. give a minimum of rain and yet still allow enough convective activity to produce lightning and spread going fires.The hot sunshine and dry weather of summer high pressure systems fulfill these conditions. At the earth's surface however high pressure

M. J. Newark

1975-01-01

281

Efficient Forest Fire Detection System: A Spatial Data Mining and Image Processing Based Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The drastic ascent in the volume of spatial data owes its growth to the technical advancements in technologies that aid in spatial data acquisition, mass storage and network interconnection. Thus the necessity for automated detection of spatial knowledge from voluminous spatial data arises. Fire plays a vital role in a majority of the forest ecosystems. Forest fires are serious

K. Angayarkkani; N. Radhakrishnan

2009-01-01

282

Development of ecological restoration experiments in fire adapted forests at Grand Canyon National Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

The management of national park and wilderness areas dominated by forest ecosystems adapted to frequent, low-intensity fires, continues to be a tremendous challenge. Throughout the inland West and particularly in the Southwest, ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and mixed conifer forests have become dense and structurally homogeneous after periods of intense livestock grazing, followed by more than 100 years of fire

Thomas A. Heinlein; W. Wallace Covington; P. Z. Flue; Margaret M. Moore; Hiram B. Smith; D. N. Cole; S. F. McCool; W. T. Borrie; J. Loughlin

2000-01-01

283

Effect of thinning and prescribed burning on crown fire severity in ponderosa pine forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire exclusion policies have affected stand structure and wildfire hazard in north American ponderosa pine forests. Wildfires are becoming more severe in stands where trees are densely stocked with shade-tolerant understory trees. Although forest managers have been employing fuel treatment techniques to reduce wildfire hazard for decades, little scientific evidence documents the success of treatments in reducing fire severity. Our

Jolie PolletA; Philip N. OmiB

2002-01-01

284

Dead Wood and Fire Relationships in Southwestern Oregon Western Hemlock Forests1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The densities of large snags and down wood in western hemlock forests of southwestern Oregon are highly variable. Fire is a major disturbance process that contributes to the composition and structure of these complex forests. This study examines levels of dead wood by plant association, and relationships of dead wood with fire. Data were collected from 169 plots on the

Diane E. White; Thomas Atzet; Patricia A. Martinez

2002-01-01

285

Design of automatic forest fire positioning system based on video monitoring system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest fire prevention is always the focus of attention worldwide, and an important aspect on which governments invest heavily in ecological protection. All of the geographic information (such as latitude and longitude, elevation) has become the public data at the areas deployed forest fire prevention system based on the video monitoring system. It is more expediently to set up the

Han Ning; Yang Guang-qun; Wang Yuan-yuan

2010-01-01

286

Fire-return intervals in mixed-conifer forests of the Kings River ...  

Treesearch

Pacific Northwest ... Stumps in mixed-conifer forest were examined for fire scars created from 1771 to 1994, with 1873 ... period because the rate of fire events decreased on most plots after about that year. ... Proceedings of a Symposium on the Kings River Sustainable Forest Ecosystem Project: Progress and Current Status.

287

Microbial community structure in forest soils treated with a fire retardant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of a fire retardant (Firesorb, an acrylic–acrylamide copolymer) on the microbial community structure determined by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis was examined under laboratory conditions using two different textured soils under pine forest. Firesorb was added to unheated and heated soil samples (350°C for 10 min followed by reinoculation, to mimic a forest fire) at three levels of application

M. Díaz-Raviña; E. Bååth; A. Martín; T. Carballas

2006-01-01

288

Impact of the Arctic Oscillation pattern on interannual forest fire variability in Central Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Russia's forests play an important role in the global carbon cycle. Because of their scale and interannual variability, forest fires can change the direction of the net carbon flux over Eurasia. 2002 and 2003 were the first two consecutive years in the atmospheric record in which the carbon content rose by more than 2 ppm per year. Northern Hemisphere fires

Heiko Balzter; France F. Gerard; Charles T. George; Clare S. Rowland; Tim E. Jupp; Ian McCallum; Anatoly Shvidenko; Sten Nilsson; Anatoly Sukhinin; Alexander Onuchin; Christiane Schmullius

2005-01-01

289

Increased damage from fires in logged forests during droughts caused by El Niño  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1997-98, fires associated with an exceptional drought caused by the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) devastated large areas of tropical rain forests worldwide. Evidence suggests that in tropical rainforest environments selective logging may lead to an increased susceptibility of forests to fire. We investigated whether this was true in the Indonesian fires, the largest fire disaster ever observed. We performed a multiscale analysis using coarse- and high-resolution optical and radar satellite imagery assisted by ground and aerial surveys to assess the extent of the fire-damaged area and the effect on vegetation in East Kalimantan on the island of Borneo. A total of 5.2 +/- 0.3 million hectares including 2.6 million hectares of forest was burned with varying degrees of damage. Forest fires primarily affected recently logged forests; primary forests or those logged long ago were less affected. These results support the hypothesis of positive feedback between logging and fire occurrence. The fires severely damaged the remaining forests and significantly increased the risk of recurrent fire disasters by leaving huge amounts of dead flammable wood.

Siegert, F.; Ruecker, G.; Hinrichs, A.; Hoffmann, A. A.

2001-11-01

290

Research about the location technologies of forest fire detecting based on GIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fire caused damages of property and loss of human life. Detecting a forest fire and get the location is very significant in the fire early warning. More early and more prompt detecting fire and determining fire position as far as possible could avoid and reduce loss of the disaster. At present there are three ways regarding the forest fire early warning and location determining which included: monitoring form Remote Sense Satellite image, manual observation and patrols, and automatic monitoring through CCD camera long-distance video. Overall evaluation regarding the three location technologies in forest fire early warning, the CCD camera detecting method is suitable in the fire rapid Response. An automatic forest fire surveillance system was running to detect the fire by using visible light images from the remote cameras. If a forest fire was detected, an alarm will be activated. The observation point elevation values, vertical offsets, horizontal and vertical scanning angles, and scanning distances will be also be sent to the central control room. The spatial orientation will be computed and showed on the electronic map. Key location technologies based on CCD camera included the image processing technique for automatically detecting forest fire and the visibility analyzes technique for the digital elevation model. Jing gang Mountain which locates in Jiangxi province of China is taken as an example. With the help of this automatic monitoring through CCD camera long-distance video and visibility analyzes, scientists and government administrators can make decision-supporting easily when they know exactly where a forest fire is. At last the shortage of CCD camera detecting method was discussed. We cannot depend on CCD camera detecting equipment and technologies only. With foundation of the automatic video frequency supervisory system, we should also strengthen manual observation and satellite remote sensing monitor.

Zhang, An; Qi, Qingwen; Jiang, Lili; Guo, Chaohui

2007-08-01

291

Simulating the Effects of Fire on Forests in the Russian Far East: Integrating a Fire Danger Model and the FAREAST Forest Growth Model Across a Complex Landscape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The remaining natural habitat of the critically endangered Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) and Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) is a vast, biologically and topographically diverse area in the Russian Far East (RFE). Although wildland fire is a natural component of ecosystem functioning in the RFE, severe or repeated fires frequently re-set the process of forest succession, which may take centuries to return the affected forests to the pre-fire state and thus significantly alters habitat quality and long-term availability. The frequency of severe fire events has increased over the last 25 years, leading to irreversible modifications of some parts of the species' habitats. Moreover, fire regimes are expected to continue to change toward more frequent and severe events under the influence of climate change. Here we present an approach to developing capabilities for a comprehensive assessment of potential Amur tiger and leopard habitat availability throughout the 21st century by integrating regionally parameterized fire danger and forest growth models. The FAREAST model is an individual, gap-based model that simulates forest growth in a single location and demonstrates temporally explicit forest succession leading to mature forests. Including spatially explicit information on probabilities of fire occurrence at 1 km resolution developed from the regionally specific remotely -sensed data-driven fire danger model improves our ability to provide realistic long-term projections of potential forest composition in the RFE. This work presents the first attempt to merge the FAREAST model with a fire disturbance model, to validate its outputs across a large region, and to compare it to remotely-sensed data products as well as in situ assessments of forest structure. We ran the FAREAST model at 1,000 randomly selected points within forested areas in the RFE. At each point, the model was calibrated for temperature, precipitation, slope, elevation, and fire probability. The output of the model includes biomass estimates for 44 tree species that occur in the RFE, grouped by genus. We compared the model outputs with land cover classifications derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data and LIDAR-based estimates of biomass across the entire region, and Russian forest inventory records at selected sites. Overall, we find that the FAREAST estimates of forest biomass and general composition are consistent with the observed distribution of forest types.

Sherman, N. J.; Loboda, T.; Sun, G.; Shugart, H. H.; Csiszar, I.

2008-12-01

292

Respiratory tract deposition efficiencies: evaluation of effects from smoke released in the Cerro Grande forest fire.  

PubMed

Forest-fire smoke inhaled by humans can cause various health effects. This smoke contains toxic chemicals and naturally occurring radionuclides. In northern New Mexico, a large wildfire occurred in May 2000. Known as the Cerro Grande Fire, it devastated the town of Los Alamos and damaged Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Residents were concerned about the possible dissemination of radionuclides from LANL via smoke from the fire. To evaluate potential health effects of inhaling radionuclides contained in the smoke from the Cerro Grande Fire, it was first necessary to evaluate how much smoke would deposit in the human respiratory tract. The purpose of this study was to evaluate respiratory-tract deposition efficiencies of airborne forest-fire smoke for persons of different ages exposed while inside their homes. Potential non-radiological health effects of a forest fire are reviewed. The deposition efficiencies presented can be used to evaluate in-home smoke deposition in the respiratory tract and expected radionuclide intake related to forest fires. The impact of smoke exposure on firemen fighting a forest fire is quantitatively discussed and compared. They primarily inhaled forest-fire smoke while outdoors where the smoke concentration was much higher than inside. Radionuclides released at the LANL site via the Cerro Grande Fire were restricted to naturally occurring radionuclides from burning trees and vegetation. Radiation doses from inhaled airborne radionuclides to individuals inside and outside the Los Alamos area were likely very small. PMID:12581505

Schöllnberger, H; Aden, J; Scott, B R

2002-01-01

293

Long-term effects of prescribed fire on mixed conifer forest structure in the Sierra Nevada, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capacity of prescribed fire to restore forest conditions is often judged by changes in forest structure within a few years following burning. However, prescribed fire might have longer-term effects on forest structure, potentially changing treatment assessments. We examined annual changes in forest structure in five 1ha old-growth plots immediately before prescribed fire and up to eight years after fire

Phillip J. van Mantgem; Nathan L. Stephenson; Eric Knapp; John Battles; Jon E. Keeley

2011-01-01

294

Slow recolonization of burned oak–juniper woodlands by Ashe juniper ( Juniperus ashei): Ten years of succession after crown fire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire is an important control on the distribution of plant communities on the Edwards Plateau in central Texas. Although the effects of fire in grasslands have been well studied, little is known about the recovery of mature oak–Ashe juniper (Quercus spp.–Juniperus ashei) woodlands after crown fire. These woodlands are the only nesting habitat of the endangered golden-cheeked warbler (Dendroica chrysoparia).

Charlotte M. Reemts; Laura L. Hansen

2008-01-01

295

A NATIONAL STUDY ON THE CONSEQUENCES OF FIRE AND FIRE SURROGATE TREATMENTS FOR FUEL REDUCTION IN DRY FORESTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared to pre-settlement times, many dry forests of the U.S. are now more dense and have greater quantities of fuels. Widespread treatments are needed in these for- ests to restore ecological integrity and to reduce the risk of uncharacteristically severe fires. Among possible treat- ments, however, the appropriate balance among cuttings, mechanical fuel treatments, and prescribed fire is often unclear.

James McIver; Peter Matzka

296

Latent resilience in ponderosa pine forest: effects of resumed frequent fire.  

PubMed

Ecological systems often exhibit resilient states that are maintained through negative feedbacks. In ponderosa pine forests, fire historically represented the negative feedback mechanism that maintained ecosystem resilience; fire exclusion reduced that resilience, predisposing the transition to an alternative ecosystem state upon reintroduction of fire. We evaluated the effects of reintroduced frequent wildfire in unlogged, fire-excluded, ponderosa pine forest in the Bob Marshall Wilderness, Montana, USA. Initial reintroduction of fire in 2003 reduced tree density and consumed surface fuels, but also stimulated establishment of a dense cohort of lodgepole pine, maintaining a trajectory toward an alternative state. Resumption of a frequent fire regime by a second fire in 2011 restored a low-density forest dominated by large-diameter ponderosa pine by eliminating many regenerating lodgepole pines and by continuing to remove surface fuels and small-diameter lodgepole pine and Douglas-fir that established during the fire suppression era. Our data demonstrate that some unlogged, fire-excluded, ponderosa pine forests possess latent resilience to reintroduced fire. A passive model of simply allowing lightning-ignited fires to burn appears to be a viable approach to restoration of such forests. PMID:24147398

Larson, Andrew J; Belote, R Travis; Cansler, C Alina; Parks, Sean A; Dietz, Matthew S

2013-09-01

297

Effect of fire on solute release from organic horizons under larch forest in Central Siberian permafrost terrain  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the effects of forest fire and post-fire stand recovery on the organic layer chemistry and solute release within mound and trough microrelief elements (termed earth hummock microtopography) that mainly distribute permafrost affected area, we chose five fire plots (larch forests burned in 1951, 1981, 1990, 1994 and 2005) paired with adjacent control plots in mature larch forests in

Masayuki Kawahigashi; Anatoly Prokushkin; Hiroaki Sumida

2011-01-01

298

Assessment of a Forest-fire Danger Index for Russia Using Remote Sensing Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intensive exploitation of Siberian forest resources requires to increase the level of their protection. In Russia, forests annually disturbed by fire make up about 6% of the total forest area, whereas they account for hundredth or even thousandth of percent in the West European countries and Canada. Devastating forest fires associated with long draughts have become very common over recent decades in some parts of Siberia and the Russian Far East. Fires burning under these conditions disturb hundreds of thousands hectares of forest lands. Forest fires impact essentially on different biogeocenosis and on ecological situation in region as well. Thus their detrimental effects, including economic damage, are hard to overestimate. Remote sensing data using is more perspective method for forests monitoring in Russia. Moreover satellite data is only available information for non-protected Russian boreal forests and tundra also. To be efficient, modern forest fire managers require a reliable method for estimating fire danger. For large remote forested areas, such as found in Russia where a dense network of local weather station needed to calculate fire danger does not exist, this can be a major problem. However, remote sensing using satellite data can provide reasonable estimates of fire danger across Russia to allow for an understanding of the current fire situation. An algorithm has been developed that can assess current fire danger by inputting ambient weather conditions derived from remote sensing data obtained from NOAA, TERRA-series satellites. Necessary inputs for calculating fire danger, such as surface temperature, dew-point temperature, and precipitation, are obtained from AVHRR, MODIS and ATOVS satellite data. By generating the final products as maps a concise picture can be presented of fire danger across Russia. In order to understand future fire suppression needs, fire danger predictions for an advanced 7-day period can be made using meteorological forecasts of near surface pressure and air temperatures. The only problem with this type of forecasting is the absence of knowing exactly what precipitation will occur during the forecasted period. This is resolved using an interactive method that continually updates the forecasted fire danger map using current precipitation. One important application of this product for remote sensing will be the ability to classify fire severity on burn scar areas for predicting carbon release better over the vast areas of Russia. This will require the development of fire behavior models that use components of the fire danger systems as key independent variables. Modern wildfire prevention programs cannot be successful unless they are fully supported by fire-danger analysis acquired from detailed daily fire-danger mapping. This enables better coordination and potential success of limited suppression forces. Currently the existing network of weather stations in Russia, especially in remote areas, does not allow for the estimation of fire danger over the entire country. Thus, northern forests are deprived of badly needed fire protection information because of the lack of weather stations. Remote sensing analysis and diagnosis of forest fire danger conditions is an emerging field both in Russia and abroad. V.N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, located in Krasnoyarsk, is supporting research this field and is proposing the development of methodology for generating daily fire weather danger maps based on the digital multispectral images obtained from satellites. This will allow the computation of fire danger for remote areas without the need for supplementary on-ground weather stations. KEYWORDS: Fire weather danger system, meteorological data, remote sensing data, wildfires, Siberian boreal forests.

Sukhinin, Anatoly; McRae, Douglas; Ji-Zhong, Jin; Dubrovskaya, Olga; Ponomarev, Eugene

2010-05-01

299

Fires in tropical forests – what is really the problem? lessons from Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fires have attracted interest and generated alarm since the early 1980s. This concern has been particularly evident in tropical\\u000a forests of Southeast Asia and the Amazon, but disastrous fires in recent summers in Australia, Europe, and the United States\\u000a have drawn worldwide attention.\\u000a \\u000a Concern about forest fires, and related air pollution and biodiversity impacts, led international organisations and northern\\u000a countries

L. Tacconi; P. F. Moore; D. Kaimowitz

2007-01-01

300

Development of Customized Fire Behavior Fuel Models for Boreal Forests of Northeastern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of forest fuels and their potential fire behavior across a landscape is essential in fire management. Four customized\\u000a fire behavior fuel models that differed significantly in fuels characteristics and environmental conditions were identified\\u000a using hierarchical cluster analysis based on fuels data collected across a boreal forest landscape in northeastern China.\\u000a Fuel model I represented the dense and heavily branched

Zhi Wei Wu; Hong Shi He; Yu Chang; Zhi Hua Liu; Hong Wei Chen

301

Assessing the Impact of Recurrent Fires on Forests in Southern Amazonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human-caused fires in Amazon forests alter forest structure, species composition, and the likelihood of future disturbance. Repeated exposure to fire may eventually convert tropical forest into fire-adapted grasslands, a process described as savannization, with dramatic consequences for carbon storage, regional climate, and biodiversity. We tested the savannization hypothesis for a study area in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso using annual satellite data to determine the frequency of fire damages and characterize vegetation recovery following repeated burning. We then incorporated results from the remote sensing analysis into the Ecosystem Demography (ED) model to quantify the long-term carbon consequences of recurrent forest fire damages in southern Amazonia. Our analysis of time series data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) revealed that burned forests are an extensive and long-term component of the frontier landscape, but recurrent fire damages did not lead to evidence of savannization in MODIS-based measures of vegetation greenness following fire. Comparable recovery of dry-season vegetation greenness in the years following first, second, and third fires suggests that tree sprouts and other woody vegetation quickly regained dominance following initial and repeated burning. ED model results demonstrated that establishment of pioneer tree species in fire-damaged forests leads to a short-term increase in the risk of future fires and a long-term decrease in aboveground biomass. Without widespread conversion of forests to grasslands, the long-term impacts from fire in southern Amazonia could still be large if frequent fires trap burned forests in early succession.

Morton, D. C.; Defries, R. S.; Hurtt, G. C.; Dubayah, R.

2008-12-01

302

A 1000-yr record of forest fire activity from Eclipse Icefield, Yukon, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 1000-yr record of forest fire activity has been developed using three annually dated ice cores from Eclipse Icefield, Yukon, Canada. Forest fire signals were identified as NH4plus residuals above a robust spline and corroborated by an empirical orthhogonal function (EOF) analysis that identified a chemical association in the NH4plus, C2042macr and Kplus records similar to that observed in forest

Kaplan Yalcin; Cameron P. Wake; Karl J. Kreutz; Sallie I. Whitlow

2006-01-01

303

Effects of an Intense Prescribed Forest Fire: Is It Ecological Restoration?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relatively intense burning has been suggested as a possible alternative to the restoration of pre-European settlement forest conditions and fire regime in mixed conifer forests, in contrast to thinning of trees and light prescribed burning. In 1993 a management-ignited fire in a dense, never-harvested forest in Grand Canyon National Park escaped prescription and burned with greater intensity and severity than

Peter Z. Fule; Allison E. Cocke; Thomas A. Heinlein; W. Wallace Covington

2004-01-01

304

Fire impact on carbon storage in light conifer forests of the Lower Angara region, Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focused on structural analysis of ground carbon storage following fires in light conifer stands of the Lower Angara region (Siberia, Russia). Experimental fires of varying frontal intensity were conducted at Scots pine and mixed larch forests of southern taiga. Considerable amounts of surface and ground forest fuels (21-38 tC ha - 1) enhanced low- to high-intensity fires. Post-fire carbon storage decreased by 16-49% depending on fire intensity and rate of spread, with depth of burn being 0.9-6.6 cm. Carbon emissions varied from 4.48 to 15.89 t ha - 1 depending on fire intensity and forest type. Depth of burn and carbon emissions for four major site types were correlated with a weather-based fire hazard index.

Ivanova, G. A.; Conard, S. G.; Kukavskaya, E. A.; McRae, D. J.

2011-10-01

305

A soil burn severity index for understanding soil-fire relations in tropical forests.  

PubMed

Methods for evaluating the impact of fires within tropical forests are needed as fires become more frequent and human populations and demands on forests increase. Short- and long-term fire effects on soils are determined by the prefire, fire, and postfire environments. We placed these components within a fire-disturbance continuum to guide our literature synthesis and develop an integrated soil burn severity index. The soil burn severity index provides a set of indicators that reflect the range of conditions present after a fire. The index consists of seven levels, an unburned level and six other levels that describe a range of postfire soil conditions. We view this index as a tool for understanding the effects of fires on the forest floor, with the realization that as new information is gained, the index may be modified as warranted. PMID:19205179

Jain, Theresa B; Gould, William A; Graham, Russell T; Pilliod, David S; Lentile, Leigh B; González, Grizelle

2008-12-01

306

Interactions between fire and bark beetles in an old growth pine forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management strategies for old growth pine forests have recently begun to include prescribed burns. Fire could influence interactions between bark beetles and mature pine trees, but we cannot predict the effects because we know too little about the numeric and functional responses of bark beetle populations to fire, and because we do not know how fire affects the oleoresin defense

Alyson E. Santoro; Maria J. Lombardero; Matthew P. Ayres; Jonathan J. Ruel

307

Forest fire effects on transpiration: process modeling of sapwood area reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transpiration is a hydrological process that is strongly affected by forest fires. In crown fires, canopy fine fuels (foliage, buds, and small branches) combust, which kills individual trees and stops transpiration of the entire stand. In surface fires (intensities <= 2500 kW m-1), however, effects on transpiration are less predictable becuase heat transfer from the passing fireline can injure or

Sean Michaletz; Edward Johnson

2010-01-01

308

Potential fire behavior in pine flatwood forests following three different fuel reduction techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer modeling study to determine the potential fire behavior in pine flatwood forests following three fuel hazard reduction treatments: herbicide, prescribed fire and thinning was conducted in Florida following the 1998 wildfire season. Prescribed fire provided immediate protection but this protection quickly disappeared as the rough recovered. Thinning had a similar effect on fireline intensity. Herbicides produced a dramatic

Patrick Brose; Dale Wade

2002-01-01

309

Estimating the direct radiative forcing due to haze from the 1997 forest fires in Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The El Niño event of 1997-1998 caused a severe reduction of rainfall in Indonesia that promoted the spread of forest fires, leading to a pervasive haze in the region. Here we use fire coverage data from the 1997 World Fire Atlas with a review of other available data and literature to estimate the distribution of particulate emissions from August to

P. S. Davison; D. L. Roberts; R. T. Arnold; R. N. Colvile

2004-01-01

310

Estimating the direct radiative forcing due to haze from the 1997 forest fires in Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The El Niño event of 1997–1998 caused a severe reduction of rainfall in Indonesia that promoted the spread of forest fires, leading to a pervasive haze in the region. Here we use fire coverage data from the 1997 World Fire Atlas with a review of other available data and literature to estimate the distribution of particulate emissions from August to

P. S. Davison; D. L. Roberts; R. T. Arnold; R. N. Colvile

2004-01-01

311

Managing forests with prescribed fire: Implications for a cavity-dwelling bat species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prescribed burning is used as a restoration and management technique in many deciduous forests of eastern North America. The effects of fire have been studied on habitat selection of many vertebrate species, but no studies have reported the effect of fire on bat roosting habitat. Fire initially leads to an influx of dead and dying trees, an increase of light

Justin G. Boyles; Doug P. Aubrey

2006-01-01

312

Effects of wood ash fertilization on forest floor greenhouse gas emissions and tree growth in nutrient poor drained peatland forests.  

PubMed

Wood ash (3.1, 3.3 or 6.6 tonnes dry weight ha(-1)) was used to fertilize two drained and forested peatland sites in southern Sweden. The sites were chosen to represent the Swedish peatlands that are most suitable for ash fertilization, with respect to stand growth response. The fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO(2)), methane (CH(4)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) from the forest floor, measured using opaque static chambers, were monitored at both sites during 2004 and 2005 and at one of the sites during the period 1 October 2007-1 October 2008. No significant (p>0.05) changes in forest floor greenhouse gas exchange were detected. The annual emissions of CO(2) from the sites varied between 6.4 and 15.4 tonnes ha(-1), while the CH(4) fluxes varied between 1.9 and 12.5 kg ha(-1). The emissions of N(2)O were negligible. Ash fertilization increased soil pH at a depth of 0-0.05 m by up to 0.9 units (p<0.01) at one site, 5 years after application, and by 0.4 units (p<0.05) at the other site, 4 years after application. Over the first 5 years after fertilization, the mean annual tree stand basal area increment was significantly larger (p<0.05) at the highest ash dose plots compared with control plots (0.64 m(2) ha(-1) year(-1) and 0.52 m(2) ha(-1) year(-1), respectively). The stand biomass, which was calculated using tree biomass functions, was not significantly affected by the ash treatment. The groundwater levels during the 2008 growing season were lower in the high ash dose plots than in the corresponding control plots (p<0.05), indicating increased evapotranspiration as a result of increased tree growth. The larger basal area increment and the lowered groundwater levels in the high ash dose plots suggest that fertilization promoted tree growth, while not affecting greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:20667583

Ernfors, M; Sikström, U; Nilsson, M; Klemedtsson, L

2010-07-29

313

Radioactivity of coals and ashes from Catala?zi coal-fired power plant in Turkey.  

PubMed

The Çatala?z? coal-fired power plant (CFPP) is the Turkish CFPP that uses the hard coals produced in Zonguldak, located in the West Black Sea region of the country. Gamma-ray spectrometry was used to determine (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K contents in pulverised coal, bottom ash and fly ash samples. The natural radionuclide concentrations in pulverised coal ranged from 29 to 61 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, from 32 to 55 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th and from 229 to 414 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K. The fly ash fraction gave concentrations ranging from 80 to 98 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, from 64 to 85 Bq kg(-1) for Th and from 754 to 992 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K, respectively. The enrichment factors from coal to fly ashes are 1.7, 2.24 and 2.6 for (232)Th, (226)Ra and (40)K, respectively. Therefore, it is advisable to monitor the environmental impact of the power plant. PMID:21632583

Aytekin, Hüseyin; Baldik, Ridvan

2011-05-31

314

Cytotoxic effect of vanadium and oil-fired fly ash on hamster tracheal epithelium  

SciTech Connect

Hamster tracheal organ cultures were used to study the in vitro effects of vanadium and oil-fired fly ash on mucociliary respiratory epithelium. Two vanadium compounds, VOSO/sub 4/ and V/sub 2/O/sub 5/, and fly ash from an oil-fueled power plant were dissolved or suspended in culture medium over a range of concentrations and epithelia were exposed for 1 hr/day, for 9 consecutive days. At intervals during this period, alterations in cilia-beating frequency, cytology, and histology were documented by light microscopy. Explants treated with VOSO/sub 4/ either decreased ciliary activity or produced ciliostasis depending upon the concentration and length of exposure. Early morphological alterations consisted of vacuolization of both nuclei and cytoplasm. After multiple exposures, cytology of VOSO/sub 4/-treated respiratory mucosa was markedly affected. Similar changes were observed in cultures exposed to V/sub 2/O/sub 5/; however, the cytotoxicity appeared earlier and was more pronounced. Fly ash-treated explants produced similar biological effects when compared to both vanadium compounds. Thus, the data indicate that the extent of vanadium toxicity depends, at least in part, on the vanadium content of the compound tested, and that exposure to this metal and vanadium-rich fly ash can inhibit normal mucociliary function, a vital clearance mechanism in the respiratory tract.

Schiff, L.J.; Graham, J.A.

1984-08-01

315

Fire in boreal ecosystems of Eurasia: First results of the Bor Forest island fire experiment, Fire Research Campaign Asia-North (FIRESCAN)  

SciTech Connect

Fire is an important natural and anthropogenic factor in the dynamics of the boreal forest system. The ecological and environmental impacts of boreal fires depend on fire weather, fuel availability, fire behavior and history of sand development (frequency and size of fires and other biotic and abiotic disturbances, influence of surrounding landscape on successional developments). About 70% of the global boreal forest is in Eurasia, almost all of it in the Russian Federation. It is estimated that in years with high fire danger up to ca. 10 million ha of forest and other land in the Russian Federation are affected by fire. The demand for reliable information on the role of natural and anthropogenic fire and the necessity to develop adequate fire management systems is basically due to globally increasing concerns about (1) impacts of boreal wildfires on atmosphere and climate, (2) changing utilization and ecologically destructive practices in boreal forestry, and (3) possible consequences of global climate change on the boreal forest system.

Angelstam, P. (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Riddarhyttan (Sweden)); Bufetov, N.S. (Novosibirsk Inst. of Chemical Kinetics and combustion (Russian Federation)); Clark, J. (Duke Univ., Durham, SC (United States). Botany Dept.) (and others)

1994-12-01

316

The legacy of harvest and fire on ecosystem carbon storage in a north temperate forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest harvesting and wildfire were widespread in the upper Great Lakes region of North America during the early 20th century. We examined how long this legacy of disturbance constrains forest carbon (C) storage rates by quantifying C pools and fluxes after harvest and fire in a mixed deciduous forest chronosequence in northern lower Michigan, USA. Study plots ranged in age

KRISTEN G EORGE; P ETER S. C URTIS

2007-01-01

317

Forest change on a steep mountain gradient after extended fire exclusion: San Francisco Peaks, Arizona, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. More than a century of forest management, including fire exclusion, livestock grazing and tree harvesting, may have affected forest structure and composition in south-western USA. Dendroecological techniques were used to reconstruct an 1876 baseline against which modern conditions could be compared. We assessed the magnitude of changes on the San Francisco Peaks in five distinct forest types: ponderosa,

ALLISON E. COCKE; PETER Z. FULÉ; JOSEPH E. CROUSE

2005-01-01

318

Silvicultural use of wood ashes — Effects on the nutrient and heavy metal balance in a pine (Pinus sylvestris, L) forest soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a sustainable forestry recirculation of nutrients through the application of ashes from forest residues can be an essential way to guarantee healthy and vital forests. Wood ashes can also be regarded as a measure against soil acidification. Wood ashes were applied at various rates to the soil in a 35 years old pine (Pinus sylvestris, L) stand at Ringamåla

Torleif Bramryd; Bo Fransman

1995-01-01

319

Long-term, landscape patterns of past fire events in a montane ponderosa pine forest of central Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parameters of fire regimes, including fire frequency, spatial extent of burned areas, fire severity, and season of fire occurrence, influence vegetation patterns over multiple scales. In this study, centuries-long patterns of fire events in a montane ponderosa pine - Douglas-fir forest landscape surrounding Cheesman Lake in central Colorado were reconstructed from fire-scarred trees and inferences from forest stand ages. We

Peter M. Brown; Merrill R. Kaufmann; Wayne D. Shepperd

1999-01-01

320

Interpretation of the charcoal record in forest soils: forest fires and their production and deposition of macroscopic charcoal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traps were used to quantify charcoal production and transport during three experimental forest fires in Boreal Scandinavia. The traps were spatially arranged to collect charcoal particles inside burn areas, and outside burn areas at different distances (0.1–100 m) from the fire edge. The number of inside and outside traps was 280 and 424, respectively. Trap area was 48 cm2. After

Mikael Ohlson; Elling Tryterud

2000-01-01

321

Effectiveness of wood ash containing charcoal as a fertilizer for a forest plantation in a temperate region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amendment of forest soils with mixed wood ash (MWA) generated in biomass power plants can prevent the depletion of soil nutrients\\u000a that results from the intensive harvesting of forest plantations. Unlike fly wood ash, MWA contains charcoal and is characterized\\u000a by a lower release of nutrients, so that it might be useful as a long term source of nutrients and

Martín Santalla; Beatriz Omil; Roque Rodríguez-Soalleiro; Agustín Merino

322

Experimental study of acoustic agglomeration of coal-fired fly ash particles at low frequencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an experimental study of acoustic agglomeration of coal-fired fly ash particles in travelling sound waves. The ranges of variation of the main physical parameters are as follows: acoustic frequency, f=700–3000 Hz; sound pressure level (SPL), SPL=130–147 dB; residence time, t=3–7 s; aerosol number concentration, N0=1.0×105–3.7×105 \\/cm3. A 68.4% decrease in total number concentration is gained under an SPL of 147 dB and

Jianzhong Liu; Guangxue Zhang; Junhu Zhou; Jie Wang; Weidong Zhao; Kefa Cen

2009-01-01

323

Assessing risks to spotted owls from forest thinning in fire-adapted forests of the western United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concern for viable spotted owl (Strix occidentalis) populations has played prominently in the management of western forests in the United States. Historically, much of the debate has focused on the impacts of commercial timber harvest. Increasingly, the conflict is shifting to the habitat needs of owls versus the need for active management of fire-adapted forest ecosystems to reduce the occurrence

Danny C. Lee; Larry L. Irwin

2005-01-01

324

Fire-Return Intervals in Mixed-Conifer Forests of the Kings River Sustainable Forest Ecosystems Project Area1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire-return intervals were studied on six 1.4-ha plots in a 2,070-ha study area in the Dinkey Creek watershed. Stumps in mixed-conifer forest were examined for fire scars created from 1771 to 1994, with 1873 chosen as the end of the pre-Euro-American settlement period because the rate of fire events decreased on most plots after about that year. Mean intervals from

Catherine Phillips

2002-01-01

325

Fire performance testing of WPCs at the Forest Products Laboratory  

Treesearch

For some applications in these industries, the fire performance of the ... and cone calorimetry are typically used during fire performance evaluations of WPCs. ... fire risk assessment, calorimetry, fire prevention, combustion, heat transmission, ...

326

Ectomycorrhiza succession patterns in Pinus sylvestris forests after stand-replacing fire in the Central Alps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fires shape fundamental properties of many forest ecosystems and climate change will increase their relevance in regions where\\u000a fires occur infrequently today. In ecosystems that are not adapted to fire, post-fire tree recruitment is often sparse, a\\u000a fact that might be attributed to a transient lack of mycorrhizae. Ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi play an important role for recruitment\\u000a by enhancing nutrient

Tabea Kipfer; Barbara Moser; Simon Egli; Thomas Wohlgemuth; Jaboury Ghazoul

327

Continuous Monitoring of Forest Fires in the Mediterranean Area Using MSG  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fires represent one of the main factors of degradation and destruction of the Mediterranean forest heritage. According to fire-fighting agencies, a satellite-based fire-detection system can be considered operationally useful for Mediterranean countries when fires with a minimum extent of 1500 m2 can be detected with a temporal resolution of 30 min. In fact, such a system should be able to

Giovanni Laneve; Marco M. Castronuovo; Enrico G. Cadau

2006-01-01

328

A Review of the Main Driving Factors of Forest Fire Ignition Over Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of the causes of forest fires, and of the main driving factors of ignition, is an indispensable step towards effective fire prevention policies. This study analyses the factors driving forest fire ignition in the Mediterranean region including the most common human and environmental factors used for modelling in the European context. Fire ignition factors are compared to spatial and temporal variations of fire occurrence in the region, then are compared to results obtained in other areas of the world, with a special focus on North America (US and Canada) where a significant number of studies has been carried out on this topic. The causes of forest fires are varied and their distribution differs among countries, but may also differ spatially and temporally within the same country. In Europe, and especially in the Mediterranean basin, fires are mostly human-caused mainly due arson. The distance to transport networks and the distance to urban or recreation areas are among the most frequently used human factors in modelling exercises and the Wildland-Urban Interface is increasingly taken into account in the modelling of fire occurrence. Depending on the socio-economic context of the region concerned, factors such as the unemployment rate or variables linked to agricultural activity can explain the ignition of intentional and unintentional fires. Regarding environmental factors, those related to weather, fuel and topography are the most significant drivers of ignition of forest fires, especially in Mediterranean-type regions. For both human and lightning-caused fires, there is a geographical gradient of fire ignition, mainly due to variations in climate and fuel composition but also to population density for instance. The timing of fires depends on their causes. In populated areas, the timing of human-caused fires is closely linked to human activities and peaks in the afternoon whereas, in remote areas, the timing of lightning-caused fires is more linked to weather conditions and the season, with most such fires occurring in summer.

Ganteaume, Anne; Camia, Andrea; Jappiot, Marielle; San-Miguel-Ayanz, Jesus; Long-Fournel, Marlène; Lampin, Corinne

2013-03-01

329

Changes in Fire Regime Catalyze Ecological Responses to Climate Change in Boreal Forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The boreal forests of western North America are experiencing rapid directional changes in climate that are predicted to continue into the next century. The responses of boreal forest plant communities to climate change may be constrained over the short term by factors that create resistance to change, such as slow population turnover rates and strong plant-environment interactions. In this situation, disturbance may act as a key catalyst for ecosystem change. However, important disturbance agents such as fire are also sensitive to climate, and climate-induced changes in disturbance regime are likely to have direct effects on ecological communities. Our research focuses on how changes in different components of the fire disturbance regime, such as fire frequency and severity, may drive forest ecosystem responses to climate change. This research focuses on spruce-dominated boreal forests of Alaska and Yukon, and their potential to shift to deciduous-dominated forests. A combination of experimental, observational, and modeling approaches provide information on how interactions between reproductive traits and disturbance characteristics influence the long-term resilience of boreal systems. Recent research in the widespread 2004 burns in Alaska aims to understand the combinations of abiotic conditions and fire effects that shape forest resilience across heterogeneous landscapes. Our data suggest that shifts to increasing severity or frequency of fire in northern boreal forests will stimulate an increase in deciduous landscape cover, and that these changes in forest cover may feedback to mediate climate effects on fire regime.

Johnstone, J. F.; Chapin, F.; Hollingsworth, T.; Rupp, S.

2009-05-01

330

Soil respiration and microbial properties in an acid forest soil: effects of wood ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effect of wood ash (WA) fertilization on microbial processes in the mineral top soil (0–5cm) of an acidic Norway spruce forest. Plots treated with a single application of WA (8tha?1) were compared with untreated control plots. At five sampling times (1, 4, 15, 62 and 460d) after the addition of WA, various soil microbiological variables such as

S Zimmermann; B Frey

2002-01-01

331

Microfungi in coniferous forest soils treated with lime or wood ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microfungal species composition was studied in coniferous forest soils which had been treated with lime or wood ash. The pH increased by about 2.5 units at the highest rate of application. Fungi were isolated 4–5 years after the treatments using a soil washing technique. At one site, Öringe, clear differences in species composition due to liming were found. Penicillium spinulosum,

E. Bååth; K. Arnebrant

1993-01-01

332

The effect of fly ash on fluid dynamics of CO 2 scrubber in coal-fired power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uncaptured fly ash and\\/or suspended solids from wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) scrubbing solutions are one of several factors that will influence the performance and robustness of carbon dioxide capture systems in coal-fired power plants which will be installed prior to the exhaust stack. In this study, a 100mm ID packed column scrubber was tested with different concentrations of ash

Zhisheng Chen; Derek Yates; James K. Neathery; Kunlei Liu

333

Emissions Of Forest Fires In The Amazon: Impact On The Tropical Mountain Forest In Ecuador  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomass burning is a source of carbon, sulphur, and nitrogen compounds which, along with their photochemically generated reaction products, can be transported over very large distances, even traversing oceans. Four years of regular rain and fog-water measurements in the tropical mountain forest at the eastern slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes, along an altitude profile between 1800 m and 3185 m, have been carried out. The ion composition of rain and fog-water samples shows frequent episodes of significantly enhanced nitrogen and sulphur, resulting in annual deposition rates of about 5 kg N/ha and 10 kg S/ha into this ecosystem, which are comparable to those of polluted central Europe. By relating back trajectories calculated by means of the FLEXTRA model to the distributions of satellite derived forest fire pixels, it can be shown that most episodes of enhanced ion concentration, with pH values as low as 4.0, can be attributed to biomass burning in the Amazon. First analyses of oxygen isotopes 16O, 17O, and 18O of nitrate in fogwater samples show mass independent fractionation values ranging between 15 and 20 per mille, clearly indicating that nitrate in the samples is a product of atmospheric conversion of precursors, while the isotope data of river samples taken downstream of the research area are grouped in the region of microbial nitrate. This strongly supports the aforementioned trajectory results and shows that the tropical mountain forest in Ecuador, with local pollution sources missing,is "fertilized" by long-range transport of substances originating from forest fires in Colombia, Venezuela, Brazil, and Peru, far upwind of the research site.

Fabian, P.; Rollenbeck, R.; Thiemens, M. H.; Brothers, L.

2006-12-01

334

Post-fire succession of ground vegetation of central Siberia in Scots pine forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extensive wildfires have affected the Russian region in the last decade. Scots pine forests (Pinus sylvestris L.) are widespread in central Siberia and fire occurrence is high in these forests, whose dominant fire regime is one of frequent surface fires. We studied post- fire succession of ground vegetation has been studied on nine experimental fires of varying severity (from 620 to 5220 kW/m) in middle taiga Scots pine forests of central Siberia (Russia). It proved from our study that all species of the succession process are present from initial stages. We did not find any trend of ground vegetation diversity with the time during 8 years after the fire. Our investigation showed that post- fire recovery of the ground vegetation is determined by initial forest type, fire severity and litter burning depth. Fire severity had a clear effect in initial succession in study area and it clearly had an impact on percentage cover, biomass and structure of ground vegetation. In a lesser degree the small shrubs are damaged during ground fires. The dominating species (Vaccinium vitis-idaea and V. myrtillus) regained the cover values above or close to 6—8 years. The post- fire biomass of ground vegetation 93—100% consists of species (Vaccinium vitis-idaea and V. myrtillus) that survived after the fire and increased in the cover with the time. In pine forests mosses and lichens suffer to a greater degree after ground fires. Lichen layer was completely lost after the fires of any severity. Decrease of mosses species diversity takes place after ground fires. The post- fire cover and species diversity of the green mosses were progressively lower with increasing the fire severity during the observation period. Maximum changes are discovered in the post- fire structure of plant microgroups after the high- severity fire which resulted in intensive invasion by the post- fire mosses (Polytrichum strictum and P. commune). There is a positive trend of green moss microgroups recovery after fires of moderate- and low- severity.

Kovaleva, N.; Ivanova, G. A.; Conard, S. G.

2012-04-01

335

Roost tree selection by northern myotis ( Myotis septentrionalis) maternity colonies following prescribed fire in a Central Appalachian Mountains hardwood forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following decades of fire suppression in eastern forests, prescribed fire as a tool to restore or enhance oak (Quercus spp.)-dominated communities is gaining widespread acceptance in the Appalachian Mountains and elsewhere. However, the interactions of fire with biotic components such as wildlife that might be impacted by prescribed fire are poorly documented. For tree-roosting bats, fire can enhance roosting habitat

Joshua B. Johnson; John W. Edwards; W. Mark Ford; J. Edward Gates

2009-01-01

336

Effects of Acidification and its Mitigation with Lime and Wood Ash on Forest Soil Processes: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenic acid deposition causes forest soil acidification and perturbation of the soil forming processes. The impact of soil acidification on tree growth is discussed in view of the role of mycorrhizal fungi in weathering and nutrient uptake. A review has been carried out of experiments involving treatments of forest soil by lime and wood ash, where soil properties and soil

D. C. Bain; A. F. S. Taylor; P. A. W. van Hees

2003-01-01

337

Boreal forest fires in 1997 and 1998: satellite detection and transport modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fires have strong impact on the composition of trace gases and aerosols both in the troposphere and in the stratosphere. To quantify the influence of boreal forest fires, the fire seasons of 1997 and 1998 are compared. In contrast to 1997, fire activity in 1998 was very strong especially over Canada and Eastern Siberia. Our analysis was done in 3 steps: First, Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) aerosol index (AI), Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) tropospheric NO2 columns, Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGEII) and Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement III (POAMIII) aerosol data were inspected to determine biomass burning effects during the seasons 1997 and 1998. Second, transport of forest fire emissions was simulated with the tracer transport model FLEXPART over the whole burning season 1998. Aerosols, CO and NOx tracers were emitted in these simulations from Siberian and Canadian forest fires accord ing to the fire information from ATSR (Along Track Scanning Radiometer) to investigate transport patterns of forest fire emissions. Third, to combine FLEXPART simulation results and satellite data directly, case studies of strong burning events were analysed. These case studies show good agreement of satellite data and the transport model. Data from all platforms display enhanced signals during 1998's burning season.

Spichtinger, N.; Stohl, A.; Damoah, R.; Beirle, S.

2003-04-01

338

A study on the algorithm for fire recognition for automatic forest fire detection: The International Conference on Control, Automation and Systems 2010 (ICCAS 2010)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest fire, if not detected early enough, can cause great damage. In order to reduce it, it is important to detect fire as soon as possible and take actions to it. In this paper we propose a new image detection method for identifying fire in videos. The method analyzes the frame-to-frame change in given features of potential fire regions. These

Ho-Woong Choi; In-Kyu Min; Eui-Seok Oh; Dong-Ho Park

2010-01-01

339

Impacts of fire and fire surrogate treatments on ecosystem nitrogen storage patterns: similarities and differences between forests of eastern and western North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Fire and Fire Surrogates (FFS) network is composed of 12 forest sites that span the continental United States, all of which historically had frequent low-severity fire. The goal of the FFS study was to assess the efficacy of three management treatments (prescribed fire, mechanical thinning, and their combination) in reducing wildfire hazard and increasing ecosystem sustainability. This paper describes

R. E. J. Boerner; Jianjun Huang; Stephen C. Hart

2008-01-01

340

Assessment of a Forest Fire Danger Index for Russia Using NOAA Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To be efficient, modern forest fire managers require a reliable method for estimating fire danger. For large remote forested areas, such as found in Russia where a local weather station network does not exist, this can be a major problem. However, remote sensing can provide reasonable estimates of fire danger across Russia to allow for an understanding of the present fire situation. An algorithm has been developed that can assess current fire danger by inputting ambient weather conditions derived from remote sensing data obtained from NOAA series satellites. Necessary inputs for calculating fire danger, such as surface temperature, dew-point temperature, and precipitation, are obtained from AVHRR and TOVS satellites. By generating maps a concise picture can be presented of fire danger across Russia. Fire danger estimates made during the 1996-2000 fire season reveals close correlation between the Russian Nesterov Index (r ¯ 0.9) and the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index System (r ¯ 0.8). In order to understand future fire-fighting resourcing needs, fire danger predictions for an advanced 7-day period can be made using meteorological forecasts of near surface pressure and air temperatures. The only problem with this type of forecasting is the absence of knowing exactly what precipitation will fall during the period. This is resolved using an interactive method that updates the forecasted fire danger map using current precipitation. One important application of this product for remote sensing will be the ability on burn scar areas to classify fire severity for predicting better carbon release over vast areas. This will require the development of fire behavior models that use components of the fire danger systems as a key independent variable.

Sukhinin, A. I.; McRae, D. J.; Ponomarev, E. I.

2002-05-01

341

Effect of Ash in Coal on the Performance of Coal Fired Thermal Power Plants. Part II: Capacity and Secondary Energy Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports the secondary energy effects (wear\\/erosion\\/abrasion, slagging, and fouling) of ash in coal on the energy performance of coal fired thermal power plants of capacity range 30–500 MW. It also gives the extent of capacity reduction in equipment due to firing of coals with higher ash contents.At an ash content of 75% in coal, the effects on the

M. Siddhartha Bhatt

2006-01-01

342

Initial tree regeneration responses to fire and thinning treatments in a Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer forest, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire is a driver of ecosystem patterns and processes in forests globally, but natural fire regimes have often been altered by decades of active fire management. Following almost a century of fire suppression, many western U.S. forests have greater fuel levels, higher tree densities, and are now dominated by fire-sensitive, shade-tolerant species. These fuel-loaded conditions can often result in high-intensity

Harold S. J. Zald; Andrew N. Gray; Malcolm North; Ruth A. Kern

2008-01-01

343

History of fire in eastern oak forests and implications for restoration  

Treesearch

... to providing a basis for the development and refinement of ecological theory, ... to reconstruct historical fire regimes in the Central Hardwood Forest Region, ... on ecological restoration are best advised to construct a place-based history ...

344

Human Health Impacts of Forest Fires in the Southern United States ...  

Treesearch

Fire-a major forest management issue in the United States-complicates these goals. ... usefil for Land managers, researchers, policy makers, health care workers, and the general public in decision-making aboutforest managementpractices.

345

Modeling interactions betweenspotted owl and barred owl populations in fire-prone forests  

EPA Science Inventory

Background / Question / Methods Efforts to conserve northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) in the eastern Cascades of Washington must merge the challenges of providing sufficient structurally complex forest habitat in a fire-prone landscape with the limitations impos...

346

Distribution of dicarboxylic acids and carbon isotopic compositions in aerosols from 1997 Indonesian forest fires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fine aerosol particles collected in Southeast Asia during 1997 Indonesian forest fires were studied for the concentrations of total carbon (TC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and low molecular weight dicarboxylic acids (C2-C12) as well as carbon isotopic ratios of TC (?13CTC). TC and WSOC showed a large increase during the heavy forest fire event. At the same period, dicarboxylic acids, dominated by oxalic (C2) followed by succinic (C4) and malonic (C3) acids, also showed a concentration increase. Furthermore, the ?13CTC showed a decrease from ca. -25.5 to -27.5‰ during an intensified forest fire event, suggesting an addition of organic aerosols derived from C3 plants whose ?13C are lighter. These results indicate that the aerosol particles in Southeast Asia were significantly affected by the combustion processes of vegetations during the 1997 Indonesian forest fires that were extensively induced by El Ninõ event.

Narukawa, M.; Kawamura, K.; Takeuchi, N.; Nakajima, T.

347

Cultural Resources Inventory of the Dry Goat Fire Salvage Sale, Mariposa County, Stanislaus National Forest.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In March 1988, Archaeological/Historical Consultants conducted an intensive archaeological reconnaissance of 38 cut units within the Dry Goat Fire Salvage Sale of Stanislaus National Forest. Acreage surveyed comprised approximately 1050 acres. The project...

S. Baker L. H. Shoup

1988-01-01

348

Fire Effects on Rare Flora and Fauna in Southern California National Forests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

While historic range of variability concepts and some notable research studies suggest that frequent low-intensity surface fires should increase native understory plant abundance and richness in ponderosa pine forests, synergistic effects between frequent...

B. K. Kerns W. G. Thies

2009-01-01

349

Small mammals and forest fuel reduction: national-scale responses to fire and fire surrogates.  

PubMed

Forest fuel reduction treatments are increasingly used by managers to reduce the risk of high-severity wildfire and to manage changes in the ecological function of forests. However, comparative ecological effects of the various types of treatments are poorly understood. We examined short-term patterns in small-mammal responses to mechanical thinning, prescribed-fire, and mechanical thinning/prescribed-fire combination treatments at eight different study areas across the United States as a part of the National Fire and Fire Surrogate (FFS) Project. Research questions included: (1) do treatments differ in their effect on small mammal densities and biomass? and (2) are effects of treatments consistent across study areas? We modeled taxa-specific densities and total small-mammal biomass as functions of treatment types and study area effects and ranked models based on an information-theoretic model selection criterion. Small-mammal taxa examined, including deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), yellow-pine chipmunks (Tamias amoenus), and golden-mantled ground squirrels (Spermophilus lateralis), as well as all Peromyscus and Tamias species, had top-ranked models with responses varying both by treatment type and study area. In each of these cases, the top-ranked model carried between 69% and 99% of the total weight in the model set, indicating strong support for the top-ranked models. However, the top-ranked model of total small-mammal biomass was a model with biomass varying only with treatment (i.e., treated vs. untreated), not by treatment type or study area; again, this model had strong support, with 75% of the total model weight. Individual species and taxa appear to have variable responses to fuel reduction treatment types in different areas; however, total small-mammal biomass appears generally to increase after any type of fuel reduction. These results suggest that there is substantial variability in taxa-specific responses to treatments and indicate that adaptive management policies may be necessary when applying fuel reduction treatments in areas where management of small-mammal populations is of interest. Adaptive management can be used by managers who are conducting fuel reduction treatments to reduce uncertainty as to which treatments are locally optimal for meeting objectives for the management of small-mammal populations. PMID:17069366

Converse, Sarah J; White, Gary C; Farris, Kerry L; Zack, Steve

2006-10-01

350

Radiological characteristics and investigation of the radioactive equilibrium in the ashes produced in lignite-fired power plants.  

PubMed

Coal- and lignite-fired power plants produce significant amounts of ashes, which are quite often being used as additives in cement and other building materials. In many cases, coal and lignite present high concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides, such as 238U, 226Ra, 210Pb, 232Th and 40K. During the combustion process, the produced ashes are enriched in the above radionuclides. The different enrichment of the various radionuclides within a radioactive series, such as that of 238U, results in the disturbance of radioactive secular equilibrium. An extensive research project for the determination of the natural radioactivity of lignite and ashes from Greek lignite-fired power plants is in progress in the Nuclear Engineering Department of the National Technical University of Athens (NED-NTUA) since 1983. This paper presents detailed results for the natural radioactivity, the secular radioactive equilibrium disturbance and the radon exhalation rate of the fly-ash collected at the different stages along the emission control system of a lignite-fired power plant as well as of the bottom-ash. From the results obtained so far, it may be concluded that 226Ra radioactivity of fly-ash in some cases exceeds 1 kBq kg(-1), which is much higher than the mean 226Ra radioactivity of surface soils in Greece (25 Bq kg(-1)). Furthermore, the radioactivity of 210Pb in fly-ash may reach 4 kBq kg(-1). These results are interpreted in relation to the physical properties of the investigated nuclides, the temperature in the flue-gas pathway, as well as the fly-ash grain size distribution. It is concluded that towards the coldest parts of the emission control system of the power plant, the radioactivity of some natural nuclides is gradually enhanced, secular radioactive equilibrium is significantly disturbed and the radon exhalation rate tends to increase. PMID:15381319

Karangelos, D J; Petropoulos, N P; Anagnostakis, M J; Hinis, E P; Simopoulos, S E

2004-01-01

351

The Influence of Proximity to a National Forest on Emotions and Fire-Management Decisions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because American national forests are managed for all citizens, it is important that researchers explore the differences and similarities between citizens living both near and far from publicly managed land. We surveyed residents living at various distances from nationally managed land to collect resident perceptions of different forest fire-management techniques, to determine public preferences for these techniques, and to examine the motivations behind these preferences. Participants both close to and far away from national forests tended to favor a multipronged approach to fire management by preferring the use of a combination of two or more fire-management techniques. There were no significant differences by proximity in participants’ self-rated emotions, types of fire-management techniques preferred, or the reasons and rationales for their preferred fire-management technique(s), indicating that the proximity variable may not be as significant as previously thought.

Vining, Joanne; Merrick, Melinda S.

2008-02-01

352

The improved Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED) version 3: contribution of savanna, forest, deforestation, and peat fires to the global fire emissions budget  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global fire activity is an important contributor to the atmospheric trace gas and aerosol burdens. New burned area datasets and top-down constraints from atmospheric concentration measurements of pyrogenic gases have decreased the large uncertainty in fire emissions estimates, but little is known about the contribution of deforestation, agricultural waste, peat, forest, and savanna fires to total global fire emissions. Here we used a revised version of the CASA biogeochemical model and improved satellite-derived estimates of area burned, fire activity, and plant productivity to calculate fire emissions for the 1997-2008 period on a 0.5°×0.5° spatial resolution with a monthly time step. For November 2000 onwards, estimates were based on burned area, active fire detections, and plant productivity from the MODIS sensor. For this time period we also calculated the breakdown of emissions into different sources. We used TRMM-VIRS and ATSR data to extend our fire time series back in time, combined with AVHRR-derived plant productivity in the pre-MODIS era. Average global fire carbon emissions were 1.9 Pg C / year with significant interannual variability over 1997-2001 (2.6 Pg C / year in 1998 and 1.5 Pg C / year in 2001) while emissions over 2002-2007 were relatively constant (varying between 1.9 and 2.0 Pg C / year), before declining in 2008 (1.6 Pg C / year). Over 2002-2007, interannual variability was still large on regional scales but on a global scale high fire years in some regions were balanced by low fire years in other regions. In the MODIS era (2001 onwards), most carbon losses were the result of fires in (wooded) savannas (68%) with lower contributions from deforestation (13%), forest (12%), agricultural waste (4%), and tropical peat fires (3%). On regional scales, these contributions vary to a large degree, and the contribution of peat fires would increase when including the 1997/1998 El Niño period with record-high fire emissions in Equatorial Asia. For reduced trace gases such as CO and CH4, deforestation and peat fires were the largest contributors due to higher emissions of reduced trace gases per unit carbon combusted compared to savanna fires. Net fire carbon losses (tropical deforestation and peat fires) were on average 0.3 Pg C / year, which is likely a conservative estimate because our deforestation rates were lower than reported. Our results provide the first global assessment of the contribution of different sources to total global fire emissions for the past 13 years, and provide the community with more reliable fire emissions estimates that will be updated frequently.

van der Werf, Guido; Randerson, Jim; Giglio, Louis; Collatz, Jim; Kasibhatla, Prasad; Morton, Doug; Defries, Ruth

2010-05-01

353

Forest fires: proactive and reactive surveillance employing in-situ, aerial, and space technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Employing technological advances in communications along with the available aerial and space platforms can enable us, to setup a safety monitoring and management system for delivering proactive and reactive surveillance of our forests. This work stresses the importance of protecting our forests considering the socioeconomic impact they have on our world. It also outlines the available platform technologies and proposes a tool for setting up a monitoring system that employs current technologies. This tool simulates forest fires and uses wireless sensors to monitor the fire. Results show that the number and the location of the sensors in a forest are critical in increasing the chances of sensing the fire on time. Since positioning sensors in an organized manner within a forest is tedious if not impossible to implement, it is recommended that areas with higher flammability are equipped with greater number of sensors.

Katzis, Konstantinos; Grondoudis, Andreas; Boustras, George; Papazoglou, Pierantonios

2013-08-01

354

Drought, fire and tree survival in a Borneo rain forest, East Kalimantan, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1 Droughts and fires are increasingly recognized as a significant component of tropical rain forest dynamics but detailed large-scale assessments of such events are scarce. Here we examine tree mortality in a lowland rainforest in East Kalimantan after an extreme drought (the most severe ever reported in a tropical forest study), and a subsequent fire. Eighteen 1.8-ha paired permanent

MARK G. L. VAN NIEUWSTADT; DOUGLAS SHEIL

2005-01-01

355

Studying the change in fAPAR after forest fires in Siberia using MODIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disturbance events such as fire have major effects on forest dynamics, succession and the carbon cycle in the boreal biome. This paper focuses on establishing whether characteristic spatio-temporal patterns of the fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (fAPAR) occur in the initial two years after a fire event in Siberian boreal forests. Time-series of MODIS fAPAR were used to study

M. Cuevas-Gonzalez; F. Gerard; H. Balzter; D. Riano

2008-01-01

356

Raman water vapour concentration measurements for reduction of false alarms in forest fire detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fires can be the cause of environmental catastrophe, with the natural outcomes of serious ecological and economic damages, together with the possibility to endanger human safety. At the aim to reduce this catastrophe several author have been shown that the Laser light scattering can be uses to reveals the particulate emitted in the smoke. Infact experimental and theoretical investigations have shown that lidar is a powerful tool to detect the tenuous smoke plumes produced by forest fires at an early stage. In early 90's Arbolino and Andreucci have shown the theoretical possibility to detect the particulate emitted in atmosphere from smoke forest fire. Vilar at all have shown experimentally the possibility to measure the density variation in atmosphere due to plume emitted in forest fire event. Gaudio at all. have already shown that it is possible to evaluate water vapor emitted in smoke of vegetable fuel using a CO2 dial system. In this paper a theoretical model to evaluate the capabilities of a lidar system in fire surveillance of wooded areas will be presented. In particular we intend propose a technique to minimizing the false alarm in the detection of forest fire by lidar based on a measurement of second components emitted in a combustion process. Usually to detect a fire alarm a rapid increase of aerosol amount is measured. If the backscattering signal report a peak, the presences of a forest fire will be probable. Our idea to confirm this hypothesis is measure the second components emitted in a forest fire at the aim to minimize the false alarm. The simulated measurements of the humidity amount within the smoke plume will be carried out by means of Raman analysis. Fixing the burning rate of the vegetable-fuels, the maximum range of detection will be evaluated.

Bellecci, C.; Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.; Lo Feudo, T.; Malizia, A.; Richetta, M.; Ventura, P.

2009-09-01

357

Multi-source land cover classification for forest fire management based on imaging spectrometry and LiDAR data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest fire management practices are highly dependent on the proper monitoring of the spatial distribution of the natural and man-made fuel complexes at landscape level. Spatial patterns of fuel types as well as the three-dimensional structure and state of the vegetation are essential for the assessment and prediction of forest fire risk and fire behaviour. A combination of the two

B. Koetz; F. Morsdorf; S. van der Linden; T. Curt; B. Allgöwer

2008-01-01

358

SOIL CHEMICAL CHANGES.DUE TO FIRE WHEN PRESCRIBED BURNS ARE APPLIED JN A TEMPERATE FOREST OF MEXICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Mexico the use of fire as a silvicultural tool and its effects on the ecosystem are seldom published. This can be explained because, among other things, liíile it is known on the effects of fire on the particular Mexican forest ecosystems. Therefore, this project was carried out with the purposes of evaluating the effects of fire on a forest

José Germán FLORES-GARNICA; Nacional de Investigaciones

359

Fire history of pinyon-juniper woodlands at upper ecotones with ponderosa pine forests in Arizona and New Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used maps of fire evidence, fire scar dendrochronology, forest age-structure analysis, and landscape analysis to investigate fire history at pinyon pine (Pinus edulis Engelm.) - juniper (Juniperus osteosperma (Torr.) Little, Juniperus scopulorum Sarg.) woodland - ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa P. & C. Lawson) forest ecotones in Arizona (Tusayan) and in New Mexico (Canjilon). Results showed that charred trees were

David W. Huffman; Peter Z. Fulé; Kristen M. Pearson; Joseph E. Crouse

2008-01-01

360

Changes in escape fire occurrence rate in Canada's boreal forest under climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies have shown that fire occurrence (from both human and lightning causes) is expected to increase across the boreal forest in Canada (and in many other regions of the world) with the fire weather expected to accompany climatic change in the 21st Century. Knowing total number of fires on the landscape is important for fire managers as part of their determination of load on the suppression organization's resources; however in terms of impact on the landscape (e.g., area burned or loss of values) it is that very small number of fires that escape initial attack that have the greatest impact. In this study, which covers the forest area of Canada, models of the probability of a fire escaping initial attack are developed based on the outputs of the Canadian FWI System, general fire cause and fire load. Using these models with outputs from recent General Circulation Model scenarios from the Hadley and Canadian Climate Centre were used and indicated an overall increase in expected fire escapes across the forested region of Canada. These increases are spatially quite variable however, due to the interaction between increased temperature and increased precipitation. Results between these two GCM scenarios do show some variation in parts of the country however, leading to some uncertainty in the absolute level of predicted change. The basic assumption of this analysis is that Canadian fire management agency efforts, in terms of response time and suppression resource levels, remain constant over time.

Wotton, Mike

2010-05-01

361

Fire-induced erosion and millennial-scale climate change in northern ponderosa pine forests.  

PubMed

Western US ponderosa pine forests have recently suffered extensive stand-replacing fires followed by hillslope erosion and sedimentation. These fires are usually attributed to increased stand density as a result of fire suppression, grazing and other land use, and are often considered uncharacteristic or unprecedented. Tree-ring records from the past 500 years indicate that before Euro-American settlement, frequent, low-severity fires maintained open stands. However, the pre-settlement period between about ad 1500 and ad 1900 was also generally colder than present, raising the possibility that rapid twentieth-century warming promoted recent catastrophic fires. Here we date fire-related sediment deposits in alluvial fans in central Idaho to reconstruct Holocene fire history in xeric ponderosa pine forests and examine links to climate. We find that colder periods experienced frequent low-severity fires, probably fuelled by increased understory growth. Warmer periods experienced severe droughts, stand-replacing fires and large debris-flow events that comprise a large component of long-term erosion and coincide with similar events in sub-alpine forests of Yellowstone National Park. Our results suggest that given the powerful influence of climate, restoration of processes typical of pre-settlement times may be difficult in a warmer future that promotes severe fires. PMID:15525985

Pierce, Jennifer L; Meyer, Grant A; Jull, A J Timothy

2004-11-01

362

Consumption of surface organic layer carbon during fires in Alaskan black spruce forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deep surface organic layer (SOL) on top of mineral soil found in peatlands and forests underlain by permafrost represents the primary reservoir for terrestrial carbon in North America's boreal forest zone. The SOLs in both forests and peatlands can and do burn during periodic fires that are common in this region, especially during droughts. However, (1) the amounts of carbon consumed during these fires and (2) the factors that control surface fuel consumption (SFC) are not well understood. The focus of our NASA-sponsored NACP project is increase to our understanding in these two critical areas. Over the past two years, we have carried out measurement of SFC in black spruce forests in interior Alaska. These black spruce forests comprise greater than 50 percent of the NA boreal forest, and their SOLs contain nearly half of the 35 Gt of carbon that is present in vegetation and dead organic matter. During our recent studies, we collected data from 126 stands that burned during the 2003-2005 Alaskan fires. Combined with data from other research, our database contains information from some 200 sites in 25 different Alaskan fire events. The initial results from our study show that fires consume between 50 and 60 percent of the SOL carbon present in black spruce forests (the average pre-fire SOL contains 64 t C per ha). The primary factors found to control SFC in black spruce forests is soil drainage, which in turn, is controlled by interactions between topography and seasonal thawing of soils with permafrost. Because of the control of soil thawing on site drainage, sites that burn later in the growing season experience SFC levels that are 40 percent higher than sites that burn early in the growing season. We are currently examining the relationship between black spruce forest SFC and the recent increases in burned area in the Alaskan boreal forest as well as warming of permafrost.

Kasischke, E. S.; Turetsky, M. R.; McGuire, A. D.; Hoy, E.; Kane, E. S.; French, N. H.

2006-12-01

363

Effects of fire on major forest ecosystem processes: an overview.  

PubMed

Fire and fire ecology are among the best-studied topics in contemporary ecosystem ecology. The large body of existing literature on fire and fire ecology indicates an urgent need to synthesize the information on the pattern of fire effects on ecosystem composition, structure, and functions for application in fire and ecosystem management. Understanding fire effects and underlying principles are critical to reduce the risk of uncharacteristic wildfires and for proper use of fire as an effective management tool toward management goals. This overview is a synthesis of current knowledge on major effects of fire on fire-prone ecosystems, particularly those in the boreal and temperate regions of the North America. Four closely related ecosystem processes in vegetation dynamics, nutrient cycling, soil and belowground process and water relations were discussed with emphases on fire as the driving force. Clearly, fire can shape ecosystem composition, structure and functions by selecting fire adapted species and removing other susceptible species, releasing nutrients from the biomass and improving nutrient cycling, affecting soil properties through changing soil microbial activities and water relations, and creating heterogeneous mosaics, which in turn, can further influence fire behavior and ecological processes. Fire as a destructive force can rapidly consume large amount of biomass and cause negative impacts such as post-fire soil erosion and water runoff, and air pollution; however, as a constructive force fire is also responsible for maintaining the health and perpetuity of certain fire-dependent ecosystems. Considering the unique ecological roles of fire in mediating and regulating ecosystems, fire should be incorporated as an integral component of ecosystems and management. However, the effects of fire on an ecosystem depend on the fire regime, vegetation type, climate, physical environments, and the scale of time and space of assessment. More ecosystem-specific studies are needed in future, especially those focusing on temporal and spatial variations of fire effects through long-term experimental monitoring and modeling. PMID:17147189

Chen, Zhong

2006-09-01

364

Enhancement of greenhouse gases associated with Canadian forest fire using multi sensor data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest fire is a common natural hazard that takes lives of people and billion dollar loss of properties almost every year. In the recent past frequency of forest fires have increased in Canada and throughout the world that is associated with the changes in land use and land cover practice. Multi sensor satellites are now capable in providing information about the land cover, atmosphere and meteorological parameters. The present paper deals with the multi sensor data (AIRS, MODIS, OMI AURA, TOMS) to study the changes in greenhouse and other gases (NOx, O3, CO, water vapor) and aerosol parameters. The detailed analysis of multi sensor data have shown elevated amount of greenhouse gases, total ozone column and aerosol optical depth during summer of 2004 at the time of Canadian forest fire compared to other years. The spatial distribution of greenhouse gas, aerosol optical depth and meteorological conditions are found to change after the onset of forest fire that shows the dynamic nature of the greenhouse gas and associated releases with the dispersion of the plume and smoke from the forest fire. The maximum changes are found from the surface up to a pressure level height 500 hPa, the change occur is found to be very much dependent on the distance from the source (forest fire location) and also on the meteorological conditions.

Singh, Rachita; Singh, Rachita; Chaturvedi, Ritu

365

Happy 50th Birthday Smokey Bear! A Learning Kit about Forests and Fire Safety for Grades K-3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For over 50 years, the primary goal of Smokey Bear has been to introduce the forest fire prevention message to young children. This learning kit provides the K-3 teacher with activities and resources to help students learn about Smokey Bear and fire safety, about forests as habitats, and about what they can do to protect forests. Students are…

Hall, Meryl

366

Sulfur-bearing coatings on fly ash from a coal-fired power plant: composition, origin, and influence on ash alteration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fly ash samples collected from two locations in the exhaust stream of a coal-fired power plant differ markedly with respect to the abundance of thin (?0.1?m) sulfur-rich surface coatings that are observable by scanning electron microscopy. The coatings, tentatively identified as an aluminum-potassium-sulfate phase, probably form upon reaction between condensed sulfuric acid aerosols and glass surfaces, and are preferentially concentrated

Neil S Fishman; Cyndi A Rice; George N Breit; Richard D Johnson

1999-01-01

367

Fire risk due to convective drying at forest edges in Rondonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire in tropical forests is a severe and growing problem that is exacerbated by forest fragmentation and selective logging. Despite the importance of uncontrolled forest fires in the tropics, there is currently little understanding of the processes by which disturbances alter the moisture dynamics of these normally near-fire-immune ecosystems. In this project we show that horizontal temperature gradients due to forest fragmentation generate organized mesoscale convective circulations. These circulations are anchored within the gaps and pump moisture away from the forest edges, effectively acting in opposition to the moisture-trapping evapotranspiration process. We conducted a set of 12-hour simulations and a 2-month-long simulation with the RAMS model to study the impact of these convective cells on the temperature and humidity of canopy air. These simulations show that during the 2004 dry season (June-July) the convective cells lead to a rapid drying of the forest edges to the point of fire susceptibility. This difference between intact and disturbed forests must be accounted for while predicting fire susceptibility in the tropics.

Baidya Roy, S.; Rastogi, D.

2010-12-01

368

A stochastic Forest Fire Model for future land cover scenarios assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land cover change and forest fire interaction under climate and socio-economics changes, is one of the main issues of the 21th century. The capability of defining future scenarios of land cover and fire regime allow forest managers to better understand the best actions to be carried out and their long term effects. In this paper a new methodology for land cover change simulations under climate change and fire disturbance is presented and discussed. The methodology is based on the assumption that forest fires exhibits power law frequency-area distribution. The well known Forest Fire Model (FFM), which is an example of self organized criticality, is able to reproduce this behavior. Starting from this observation, a modified version of the FFM has been developed. The new model, called Modified Forest Fire Model (MFFM) introduces several new features. A stochastic model for vegetation growth and regrowth after fire occurrence has been implemented for different kind of vegetations. In addition, a stochastic fire propagation model taking into account topography and vegetation cover has been introduced. The MFFM has been developed with the purpose of estimating vegetation cover changes and fire regimes over a time windows of many years for a given spatial region. Two different case studies have been carried out. The first case study is related with Liguria (Italy), a region of 5400 km2 lying between the Cote d'Azur, France, and Tuscany, Italy, on the northwest coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea. This region is characterized by Mediterranean fire regime. The second case study has been carried out in California (Florida) on a region having similar area and characterized by similar climate conditions. In both cases the model well represents the actual fire regime in terms of power law parameters proving interesting results about future land cover scenarios under climate, land use and socio-economics change.

Fiorucci, P.; Holmes, T.; Gaetani, F.; D'Andrea, M.

2009-04-01

369

Effect of fire residues (ash and char) on microbial activity, respiration and methanogenesis in three subtropical wetland soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prescribed fire is a common restoration and maintenance technique in the southern United States. Prescribed burns coupled with frequent natural fires in South Florida can have devastating effects on ecosystem function. To determine the effect fire residues have on carbon biogeochemical cycling litter material was obtained from two restored and one native marl wetland in Everglades National Park and manipulated in a laboratory setting to produce ash and vegetation derived char. Based on vegetation biomass removal pre and post fire (insitu) appropriate aliquots of each fire residue was added to experimental microcosms as a soil amendment. Soil enzymes (?-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, phosphatase, bis-phosphate and leucine amino peptidase), aerobic and anaerobic respiration (CO2) potentials, extractable C and methanogenesis were measured over a 25 day period. Regardless of site C enzymes responded to both amendments within 5 days of addition. Similarly amended soil contained more extractable carbon in the reference and one of the restored sites. In the restored sites ash and char inhibited methanogenesis, had no effect on anaerobic CO2 potentials, but stimulated aerobic respiration after ten days. In contrast, within the first ten days phosphatase enzyme activity was lower in the ash treatment when compared to the control treatment and stimulation of aerobic respiration was observed in both treatment soils. After ten days ash stimulated methanogenic processing while suppressing anaerobic CO2 production suggesting methanogens in this ecosystem may be dependant on usable carbon substrates derived from aerobic microbial processing. This study illustrates the variable response of C parameters to complete and incomplete combusted materials produced from both prescribed and natural fires with particular importance to fire adapted ecosystems.

Medvedeff, C.; Hogue, B.; Inglett, P.

2011-12-01

370

Modeling of thermal characteristics for a furnace of a 500 MW boiler fired with high-ash coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

An advanced zonal computational method has been used to determine the temperature and heat flux profiles and other thermal characteristics for a furnace of the 500 MW boiler fired with high-ash, medium-volatile Ekibastuz coal. The predicted temperature profiles for a 100% boiler load and different methods of fuel distribution through the burner tiers were compared with respective data obtained in

V. I Kouprianov

2001-01-01

371

Investigation of the use of coal-fired power plant ash ponds for treatment of boiler acid cleaning waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the proper conditions, boiler acid cleaning wastes can be effectively treated in the ash ponds at coal-fired generating plants, producing iron and copper concentrations which are below the regulatory requirements for effluent discharge. This investigation provides the basis for this conclusion and consists of four major parts. First, an introduction which provides a review of existing regulatory requirements and

1988-01-01

372

DISPOSAL, RECYCLE, AND UTILIZATION OF MODIFIED FLY ASH FROM HYDRATED LIME INJECTION INTO COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives results of an assessment of the disposal, utilization, and recycle os a modified fly ash from the injection of hydrated lime into a coal-fired utility boiler. The process, developed as a low-cost alternative for achieving moderate degrees of SO2 control at coal-fi...

373

Analysis of vegetation types affected by the 1997 forest fires in Sumatra  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is important to know the types and the extent of land cover affected by the 1997 Indonesian fires in order to have a better understanding of the causes of fires and the damage to the forest ecology. The authors have produced burn scar maps of Sumatra island using intermediate resolution (100 m pixel separation) quicklook images from the SPOT

Geraldine LEE; Soo Chin Liew; Oo Kaw Lim; H. Lim

1999-01-01

374

Mapping and measuring the troposphere pollutants originated from the 1997 forest fire in south east asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The massive forest fire in Indonesia in 1997 affected the whole Asian region by transporting large quantity of smoke plume with Malaysia bearing the brunt due to being nearer, wind direction and weather conditions. In this study, AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) satellite data were used to detect and subsequently map the five primary sources of fire pollutants namely

Mazlan Hashim; Kasturi Devi Kanniah; Abdul Wahid Rasib; Lim Chee Ming

2000-01-01

375

Effect of Forest Fire on Some Physical, Chemical and Biological Properties of Soil in Çanakkale, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted in burned and un-burned forest area in around Lapseki town in Canakkale Province, Turkey in 2002. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the forset fire on physical, chemical and biological soil properties two weeks after the fire. According to the results, the mean soil organic carbon value was 7.14% for burned

HUSEYIN EKINCI

376

A fuel treatment reduces fire severity and increases suppression efficiency in a mixed conifer forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuel treatments are being implemented on public and private lands across the western United States. Although scientists and managers have an understanding of how fuel treatments can modify potential fire behaviour under modelled conditions, there is limited information on how treatments perform under real wildfire conditions in Sierran mixed conifer forests. The Bell Fire started on 22 September 2005 on

Jason J. MoghaddasA; Larry CraggsA

377

A New Color-Based Segmentation Method for Forest Fire from Video Image  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new color-based method for forest fire segmentation from video image. Two kinds of color features including intensity value and color distribution are used. In segmentation based on V value of HSV color model, the lower threshold is defined from experience, and the higher threshold value is computed automatically, thus the possible fire regions can be divided

Dengyi Zhang; Jinming Zhao; Jianhui Zhao; Shizhong Han; Zhong Zhang; Chengzhang Qu; Youwang Ke

2008-01-01

378

Indonesia Forest Fires Exacerbate Carbon Monoxide Pollution over Peninsular Malaysia during July to September 2005  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind carried the smoke further afield from forest fires in Sumatra caused worse air pollution in Malaysia reached extremely hazardous levels and forced schools and an airport to close. There were 3,258 'hot spots' recorded by NOAA satellites in the province of Riau only in August, each one representing a fire. USM Pulau Pinang station results and data from the

Jasim M. Rajab; Mohd Zubir Matjafri; Hwee San Lim; Khiruddin Abdullah

2009-01-01

379

Fire and canopy species composition in the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence forest of Témiscamingue, Québec  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large severe fires are typically rare in the northern hardwood forests of eastern North America, with estimated return intervals as high as 1400–4500 years. We investigated the history of large severe fires in western Québec, Canada, where sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britt.), and eastern hemlock ((Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.) dominate a landscape at northern limit

C. Ronnie Drever; Christian Messier; Yves Bergeron; Frédérik Doyon

2006-01-01

380

Early post-fire regeneration in Pinus hrutia forest ecosystems of Samos island ( Greece)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recovery of the burnt pine (Pinus brutia) forests of Samos island was followed during the first three post-fire years. Samos is characterised by a Mediterranean-type climate with a mild, subhumid winter and a long xerothermic period. The natural regeneration of P. brutia is realised exclusively by seeds and is enhanced by a number of adaptations to fire: (i) the

A. Thanos; S. Marcou; D. Christodoulakis; A. Yannitsaros

381

Estimating Cost of Large-Fire Suppression for Three Forest Service Regions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The annual costs attributable to large fire suppression in three Forest Service Regions (1970-1981) were estimated as a function of fire perimeters using linear regression. Costs calculated on a per chain of perimeter basis were highest for the Pacific No...

E. L. Smith A. Gonzalez-Caban

1987-01-01

382

Impact of multiple fires on stand structure and tree regeneration in central Appalachian oak forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Guard Training Center at Fort Indiantown Gap (NGTC-FIG) near Harrisburg, PA, has experienced frequent fires since the 1950s on the ridges and 1980s in the valleys as a result of military training exercises. This represented a unique opportunity to investigate the role of recent and repeated fire in oak (Quercus) forests in the eastern USA. We investigated four

Stephen A. Signell; Marc D. Abrams; Joseph C. Hovis; Shannon W. Henry

2005-01-01

383

Effects of soil type, plant composition and leaching on soil nutrients following a simulated forest fire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kutiel, P. and Shaviv, A., 1992. Effects of soil type, plant composition and leaching on soil nutrients following a simulated forest fire. For. Ecol. Manage., 53: 329-343. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a simulated light fire (250°C) on the availability of N and P, and on concentrations of ions in solutions of two typical

P. KutieP; A. Shaviv

1992-01-01

384

TESTING FOR DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF FOREST FIRES ON HIKING AND MOUNTAIN BIKING DEMAND AND BENEFITS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveys of visitors to National Forests in Colorado were conducted to determine whether different fire ages and presence of crown fires have different effects on hiking and mountain biking recreation visits and benefits. Actual and intended behavior data were combined using a count-data travel cost model. The intended behavior trip questions asked about changes in number of trips due to

John B. Loomis; Armando Gonzalez-Caban; Jeffrey E. Englin

2001-01-01

385

Ground layer carbon and nitrogen cycling and legume nitrogen inputs following fire in mixed pine forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many mixed pine forests in the southeastern United States undergo prescribed burning to promote open pine savannas. In these systems, soil texture can influence fire's effect on vegetation and nutrient cycling. Our objectives were to examine fire and soil texture effects on carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) pools in ground layer vegetation. We measured biomass and tissue nutrient concentrations and

SARA D. LAJEUNESSE; JOHN J. DILUSTRO; REBECCA R. SHARITZ; BEVERLY S. COLLINS

2006-01-01

386

Human Health Impacts of Forest Fires in the Southern United States ...  

Treesearch

Source: Journal of Ecological Antropology Vol. 7, p. ... This artirle synthesizes 30 years of research on the human health impacts off tforest fires. ... the following: biopbysical efects of environmental contamination resulting from forest fires; ... managers, researchers, policy makers, health care workers, and the general public in ...

387

The impact of forest residue removal and wood ash amendment on the growth of the ectomycorrhizal external mycelium.  

PubMed

Intensive harvesting of forest residues for energy production may lead to the depletion of organic matter and mineral nutrients in the forest floor. In order to restore nutrient content wood ash has been suggested as a fertiliser. Ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi are involved in the nutrient uptake of forest trees and this study investigates the influence of intensive harvesting and wood ash fertilisation on the external EM mycelium in forest soil. Nylon mesh bags filled with sand were buried in September 1997 in field plots which had or had not been intensively harvested. The effect of wood ash on the production of external EM mycelium was studied in mesh bags amended with wood ash. Mesh bags were retrieved in May and October 1998. The relative amount of fungal mycelia in the mesh bags was estimated with phospholipid fatty acid analysis. The fungi colonising the mesh bags were mainly (>90%) ectomycorrhizal. Fungal biomass in the mesh bags was low in the spring but high in the autumn. No significant effect on EM fungal biomass was observed in the mesh bags collected from intensively harvested plots compared with those from control plots, but wood ash amendment resulted in 2.4 times more EM fungal biomass (P<0.05). The effect of external EM mycelium on the dissolution of wood ash was studied in mesh bags filled with wood ash, using mesh bags buried in soil isolated from roots as EM-free controls. The external EM mycelium had no effect on the dissolution rate of the wood ash. 80% of the potassium was lost from the wood ash within a month, whereas no phosphorus was lost during the experimental period (up to 13 months). PMID:19709193

Hagerberg, David; Wallander, Håkan

2002-02-01

388

Long-term effects of prescribed fire on mixed conifer forest structure in the Sierra Nevada, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The capacity of prescribed fire to restore forest conditions is often judged by changes in forest structure within a few years following burning. However, prescribed fire might have longer-term effects on forest structure, potentially changing treatment assessments. We examined annual changes in forest structure in five 1 ha old-growth plots immediately before prescribed fire and up to eight years after fire at Sequoia National Park, California. Fire-induced declines in stem density (67% average decrease at eight years post-fire) were nonlinear, taking up to eight years to reach a presumed asymptote. Declines in live stem biomass were also nonlinear, but smaller in magnitude (32% average decrease at eight years post-fire) as most large trees survived the fires. The preferential survival of large trees following fire resulted in significant shifts in stem diameter distributions. Mortality rates remained significantly above background rates up to six years after the fires. Prescribed fire did not have a large influence on the representation of dominant species. Fire-caused mortality appeared to be spatially random, and therefore did not generally alter heterogeneous tree spatial patterns. Our results suggest that prescribed fire can bring about substantial changes to forest structure in old-growth mixed conifer forests in the Sierra Nevada, but that long-term observations are needed to fully describe some measures of fire effects.

van Mantgem, Phillip J.; Stephenson, Nathan L.; Knapp, Eric; Keeley, Jon E.

2011-01-01

389

The Research on Forest Fire Prevention Information System Based on GIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an important and essential natural resource to human development, forest has an extremely important significance for the sustainable socio-economic development. This paper primarily carries out the overall design of forest fire prevention information system based on GIS. Posterior, C# and C++ language are used on .NET platform, based on ArcEngine Geography Information Component Library, Janus UI Controls interface component

Liu Xiaosheng; Meng Yao

2010-01-01

390

Using satellite time-series data sets to analyze fire disturbance and forest recovery across Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The boreal forest biome is one of the largest on Earth, covering more than 14% of the total land surface. Fire disturbance plays a dominant role in boreal ecosystems, altering forest succession, biogeochemical cycling, and carbon sequestration. We used two time-series data sets of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Normalized Differenced Vegetation Index (NDVI) imagery for North America to

Scott J. Goetz; Gregory J. Fiske; Andrew G. Bunn

2006-01-01

391

Recent burning of boreal forests exceeds fire regime limits of the past 10,000 years.  

PubMed

Wildfire activity in boreal forests is anticipated to increase dramatically, with far-reaching ecological and socioeconomic consequences. Paleorecords are indispensible for elucidating boreal fire regime dynamics under changing climate, because fire return intervals and successional cycles in these ecosystems occur over decadal to centennial timescales. We present charcoal records from 14 lakes in the Yukon Flats of interior Alaska, one of the most flammable ecoregions of the boreal forest biome, to infer causes and consequences of fire regime change over the past 10,000 y. Strong correspondence between charcoal-inferred and observational fire records shows the fidelity of sedimentary charcoal records as archives of past fire regimes. Fire frequency and area burned increased ?6,000-3,000 y ago, probably as a result of elevated landscape flammability associated with increased Picea mariana in the regional vegetation. During the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA; ?1,000-500 cal B.P.), the period most similar to recent decades, warm and dry climatic conditions resulted in peak biomass burning, but severe fires favored less-flammable deciduous vegetation, such that fire frequency remained relatively stationary. These results suggest that boreal forests can sustain high-severity fire regimes for centuries under warm and dry conditions, with vegetation feedbacks modulating climate-fire linkages. The apparent limit to MCA burning has been surpassed by the regional fire regime of recent decades, which is characterized by exceptionally high fire frequency and biomass burning. This extreme combination suggests a transition to a unique regime of unprecedented fire activity. However, vegetation dynamics similar to feedbacks that occurred during the MCA may stabilize the fire regime, despite additional warming. PMID:23878258

Kelly, Ryan; Chipman, Melissa L; Higuera, Philip E; Stefanova, Ivanka; Brubaker, Linda B; Hu, Feng Sheng

2013-07-22

392

Decision support system for forest fire protection in the Euro-Mediterranean region  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of a decision support system (DSS) for prevention planning and emergency management of\\u000a forest fire events that incorporates weather data management, a geographical data viewer, a priori danger forecasting and\\u000a fire propagation modeling, automatic fire detection, and optimal resource dispatching. Collection, input, storage, management,\\u000a and analysis of the information rely on advanced and automated methodologies

Kostas Kalabokidis; Gavriil Xanthopoulos; Peter Moore; David Caballero; George Kallos; Juan Llorens; Olga Roussou; Christos Vasilakos

393

MULTI-SEASON CLIMATE SYNCHRONIZED HISTORICAL FIRES IN DRY FORESTS (1650–1900), NORTHERN ROCKIES, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objective was to infer the climate drivers of regionally synchronous fire years in dry forests of the U.S. northern Rockies in Idaho and western Montana. During our analysis period (1650-1900), we reconstructed fires from 9245 fire scars on 576 trees (mostly ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa P. & C. Lawson) at 21 sites and compared them to existing tree-ring reconstructions

Emily K. Heyerdahl; Penelope Morgan; JAMES P. RISER II

2008-01-01

394

Phase diagram and critical behavior of a forest-fire model in a gradient of immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The forest-fire model with immune trees (FFMIT) is a cellular automaton early proposed by Drossel and Schwabl [Physica APHYADX0378-437110.1016\\/0378-4371(93)90001-K 199, 183 (1993)], in which each site of a lattice can be in three possible states: occupied by a tree, empty, or occupied by a burning tree (fire). The trees grow at empty sites with probability p, healthy trees catch fire

Nara Guisoni; Ernesto S. Loscar; Ezequiel V. Albano

2011-01-01

395

Influence of forest management alternatives and land type on susceptibility to fire in northern Wisconsin, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used the LANDIS disturbance and succession model to study the effects of six alternative vegetation management scenarios on forest succession and the subsequent risk of canopy fire on a 2791 km2 landscape in northern Wisconsin, USA. The study area is a mix of fire-prone and fire-resistant land types. The alternatives vary the spatial distribution of vegetation management activities to

Eric J. Gustafson; Patrick A. Zollner; Brian R. Sturtevant; Hong S. He; David J. Mladenoff

2004-01-01

396

Effects of fire on spotted owl site occupancy in a late-successional forest  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The spotted owl (Strix occidentalis) is a late-successional forest dependent species that is sensitive to forest management practices throughout its range. An increase in the frequency and spatial extent of standreplacing fires in western North America has prompted concern for the persistence of spotted owls and other sensitive late-successional forest associated species. However, there is sparse information on the effects of fire on spotted owls to guide conservation policies. In 2004-2005, we surveyed for California spotted owls during the breeding season at 32 random sites (16 burned, 16 unburned) throughout late-successional montane forest in Yosemite National Park, California. Our burned areas burned at all severities, but predominately involved low to moderate fire severity. Based on an information theoretic approach, spotted owl detection and occupancy rates were similar between burned and unburned sites. Nest and roost site occupancy was best explained by a model that combined total tree basal area (positive effect) with cover by coarse woody debris (negative effect). The density estimates of California spotted owl pairs were similar in burned and unburned forests, and the overall mean density estimate for Yosemite was higher than previously reported for montane forests. Our results indicate that low to moderate severity fires, historically common within montane forests of the Sierra Nevada, California, maintain habitat characteristics essential for spotted owl site occupancy. These results suggest that managed fires that emulate the historic fire regime of these forests may maintain spotted owl habitat and protect this species from the effects of future catastrophic fires.

Roberts, Susan L.; van Wagtendonk, Jan W.; Miles, A. Keith; Kelt, Douglas A.

2011-01-01

397

Development of Customized Fire Behavior Fuel Models for Boreal Forests of Northeastern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of forest fuels and their potential fire behavior across a landscape is essential in fire management. Four customized fire behavior fuel models that differed significantly in fuels characteristics and environmental conditions were identified using hierarchical cluster analysis based on fuels data collected across a boreal forest landscape in northeastern China. Fuel model I represented the dense and heavily branched Pinus pumila shrubland which has significant fine live woody fuels. These forests occur mainly at higher mountain elevations. Fuel model II is applicable to forests dominated by Betula platyphylla and Populus davidiana occurring in native forests on hill slopes or at low mountain elevations. This fuel model was differentiated from other fuel models by higher herbaceous cover and lower fine live woody loading. The primary coniferous forests dominated by Larix gmelini and Pinus sylvestris L. var. mongolica were classified as fuel model III and fuel model IV. Those fuel models differed from one another in average cover and height of understory shrub and herbaceous layers as well as in aspect. The potential fire behavior for each fuel model was simulated with the BehavePlus5.0 fire behavior prediction system. The simulation results indicated that the Pinus pumila shrubland fuels had the most severe fire behavior for the 97th percentile weather condition, and had the least severe fire behavior under 90th percentile weather condition. Fuel model II presented the least severe fire potential across weather conditions. Fuel model IV resulted in greater fire severity than Fuel model III across the two weather scenarios that were examined.

Wu, Zhi Wei; He, Hong Shi; Chang, Yu; Liu, Zhi Hua; Chen, Hong Wei

2011-12-01

398

Development of customized fire behavior fuel models for boreal forests of northeastern China.  

PubMed

Knowledge of forest fuels and their potential fire behavior across a landscape is essential in fire management. Four customized fire behavior fuel models that differed significantly in fuels characteristics and environmental conditions were identified using hierarchical cluster analysis based on fuels data collected across a boreal forest landscape in northeastern China. Fuel model I represented the dense and heavily branched Pinus pumila shrubland which has significant fine live woody fuels. These forests occur mainly at higher mountain elevations. Fuel model II is applicable to forests dominated by Betula platyphylla and Populus davidiana occurring in native forests on hill slopes or at low mountain elevations. This fuel model was differentiated from other fuel models by higher herbaceous cover and lower fine live woody loading. The primary coniferous forests dominated by Larix gmelini and Pinus sylvestris L. var. mongolica were classified as fuel model III and fuel model IV. Those fuel models differed from one another in average cover and height of understory shrub and herbaceous layers as well as in aspect. The potential fire behavior for each fuel model was simulated with the BehavePlus5.0 fire behavior prediction system. The simulation results indicated that the Pinus pumila shrubland fuels had the most severe fire behavior for the 97th percentile weather condition, and had the least severe fire behavior under 90th percentile weather condition. Fuel model II presented the least severe fire potential across weather conditions. Fuel model IV resulted in greater fire severity than Fuel model III across the two weather scenarios that were examined. PMID:21691875

Wu, Zhi Wei; He, Hong Shi; Chang, Yu; Liu, Zhi Hua; Chen, Hong Wei

2011-06-21

399

Characterization of forest fires in Catalonia (north-east Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study analyses the temporal variation in the distribution of the number of fires, area burned and fire sizes in\\u000a Catalonia using fire data from 1942 to 2002. The study shows variations in the distribution of fire size over recent decades,\\u000a with a significant increase in the number of very large fires. The study also analyses relationships between characteristics

José Ramón González; Timo Pukkala

2007-01-01

400

Effects of fire and post-fire salvage logging on avian communities in conifer-dominated forests of the western United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Historically, fire was one of the most widespread natural disturbances in the western United States. More recently, however, significant anthropogenic activities, especially fire suppression and silvicultural practices, have altered fire regimes; as a result, landscapes and associated communities have changed as well. Herein, we review current knowledge of how fire and post-fire salvaging practices affect avian communities in conifer-dominated forests of the western United States. Specifically, we contrast avian communities in (1) burned vs. unburned forest, and (2) unsalvaged vs. salvage-logged burns. We also examine how variation in burn characteristics (e.g., severity, age, size) and salvage logging can alter avian communities in burns. Of the 41 avian species observed in three or more studies comparing early post-fire and adjacent unburned forests, 22% are consistently more abundant in burned forests, 34% are usually more abundant in unburned forests, and 44% are equally abundant in burned and unburned forests or have varied responses. In general, woodpeckers and aerial foragers are more abundant in burned forest, whereas most foliage-gleaning species are more abundant in unburned forests. Bird species that are frequently observed in stand-replacement burns are less common in understory burns; similarly, species commonly observed in unburned forests often decrease in abundance with increasing burn severity. Granivores and species common in open-canopy forests exhibit less consistency among studies. For all species, responses to fire may be influenced by a number of factors including burn severity, fire size and shape, proximity to unburned forests, pre- and post-fire cover types, and time since fire. In addition, post-fire management can alter species' responses to burns. Most cavity-nesting species do not use severely salvaged burns, whereas some cavity-nesters persist in partially salvaged burns. Early post-fire specialists, in particular, appear to prefer unsalvaged burns. We discuss several alternatives to severe salvage-logging that will help provide habitat for cavity nesters. We provide an overview of critical research questions and design considerations crucial for evaluating the effects of prescribed fire and other anthropogenic disturbances, such as forest fragmentation. Management of native avifaunas may be most successful if natural disturbance regimes, including fire, are permitted to occur when possible. Natural fires could be augmented with practices, such as prescribed fire (including high-severity fire), that mimic inherent disturbance regimes.

Kotliar, N. B.; Hejl, S. J.; Hutto, R. L.; Saab, V. A.; Melcher, C. P.; McFadzen, M. E.

2002-01-01

401

Combining forest structure data and fuel modelling to classify fire hazard in Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

– \\u000a \\u000a • Fire management activities can greatly benefit from the description of wildland fuel to assess fire hazard.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a • A forest typology developed from the Portuguese National Forest Inventory that combines cover type (the dominant overstorey\\u000a species) and forest structure defined as a combination of generic stand density (closed or open) and height (low or tall)\\u000a is translated into

Paulo M. Fernandes

2009-01-01

402

Global fire emissions and the contribution of deforestation, savanna, forest, agricultural, and peat fires (1997-2009)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New burned area datasets and top-down constraints from atmospheric concentration measurements of pyrogenic gases have decreased the large uncertainty in fire emissions estimates. However, significant gaps remain in our understanding of the contribution of deforestation, savanna, forest, agricultural waste, and peat fires to total global fire emissions. Here we used a revised version of the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford-Approach (CASA) biogeochemical model and improved satellite-derived estimates of area burned, fire activity, and plant productivity to calculate fire emissions for the 1997-2009 period on a 0.5° spatial resolution with a monthly time step. For November 2000 onwards, estimates were based on burned area, active fire detections, and plant productivity from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. For the partitioning we focused on the MODIS era. We used burned area estimates based on Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) and Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) active fire data prior to MODIS (1997-2000) and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) derived estimates of plant productivity during the same period. Average global fire carbon emissions were 2.0 Pg yr-1 with significant interannual variability during 1997-2001 (2.8 Pg/yr in 1998 and 1.6 Pg/yr in 2001). Emissions during 2002-2007 were relatively constant (around 2.1 Pg/yr) before declining in 2008 (1.7 Pg/yr) and 2009 (1.5 Pg/yr) partly due to lower deforestation fire emissions in South America and tropical Asia. During 2002-2007, emissions were highly variable from year-to-year in many regions, including in boreal Asia, South America, and Indonesia, but these regional differences cancelled out at a global level. During the MODIS era (2001-2009), most fire carbon emissions were from fires in grasslands and savannas (44%) with smaller contributions from tropical deforestation and degradation fires (20%), woodland fires (mostly confined to the tropics, 16%), forest fires (mostly in the extratropics, 15%), agricultural waste burning (3%), and tropical peat fires (3%). The contribution from agricultural waste fires was likely a lower bound because our approach for measuring burned area could not detect all of these relatively small fires. For reduced trace gases such as CO and CH4, deforestation, degradation, and peat fires were more important contributors because of higher emissions of reduced trace gases per unit carbon combusted compared to savanna fires. Carbon emissions from tropical deforestation, degradation, and peatland fires were on average 0.5 Pg C/yr. The carbon emissions from these fires may not be balanced by regrowth following fire. Our results provide the first global assessment of the contribution of different sources to total global fire emissions for the past decade, and supply the community with an improved 13-year fire emissions time series.

van der Werf, G.; Randerson, J. T.; Giglio, L.; Collatz, G. J.; Mu, M.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; Morton, D. C.; Defries, R. S.; Jin, Y.; van Leeuwen, T. T.

2010-12-01

403

Global fire emissions and the contribution of deforestation, savanna, forest, agricultural, and peat fires (1997-2009)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New burned area datasets and top-down constraints from atmospheric concentration measurements of pyrogenic gases have decreased the large uncertainty in fire emissions estimates. However, significant gaps remain in our understanding of the contribution of deforestation, savanna, forest, agricultural waste, and peat fires to total global fire emissions. Here we used a revised version of the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford-Approach (CASA) biogeochemical model and improved satellite-derived estimates of area burned, fire activity, and plant productivity to calculate fire emissions for the 1997-2009 period on a 0.5° spatial resolution with a monthly time step. For November 2000 onwards, estimates were based on burned area, active fire detections, and plant productivity from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. For the partitioning we focused on the MODIS era. We used burned area estimates based on Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) and Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) active fire data prior to MODIS (1997-2000) and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) derived estimates of plant productivity during the same period. Average global fire carbon emissions were 2.0 Pg yr-1 with significant interannual variability during 1997-2001 (2.8 Pg yr-1 in 1998 and 1.6 Pg yr-1 in 2001). Emissions during 2002-2007 were relatively constant (around 2.1 Pg yr-1) before declining in 2008 (1.7 Pg yr-1) and 2009 (1.5 Pg yr-1) partly due to lower deforestation fire emissions in South America and tropical Asia. During 2002-2007, emissions were highly variable from year-to-year in many regions, including in boreal Asia, South America, and Indonesia, but these regional differences cancelled out at a global level. During the MODIS era (2001-2009), most fire carbon emissions were from fires in grasslands and savannas (44%) with smaller contributions from tropical deforestation and degradation fires (20%), woodland fires (mostly confined to the tropics, 16%), forest fires (mostly in the extratropics, 15%), agricultural waste burning (3%), and tropical peat fires (3%). The contribution from agricultural waste fires was likely a lower bound because our approach for measuring burned area could not detect all of these relatively small fires. For reduced trace gases such as CO and CH4, deforestation, degradation, and peat fires were more important contributors because of higher emissions of reduced trace gases per unit carbon combusted compared to savanna fires. Carbon emissions from tropical deforestation, degradation, and peatland fires were on average 0.5 Pg C yr-1. The carbon emissions from these fires may not be balanced by regrowth following fire. Our results provide the first global assessment of the contribution of different sources to total global fire emissions for the past decade, and supply the community with an improved 13-year fire emissions time series.

van der Werf, G. R.; Randerson, J. T.; Giglio, L.; Collatz, G. J.; Mu, M.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; Morton, D. C.; Defries, R. S.; Jin, Y.; van Leeuwen, T. T.

2010-06-01

404

Global fire emissions and the contribution of deforestation, savanna, forest, agricultural, and peat fires (1997-2009)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New burned area datasets and top-down constraints from atmospheric concentration measurements of pyrogenic gases have decreased the large uncertainty in fire emissions estimates. However, significant gaps remain in our understanding of the contribution of deforestation, savanna, forest, agricultural waste, and peat fires to total global fire emissions. Here we used a revised version of the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford-Approach (CASA) biogeochemical model and improved satellite-derived estimates of area burned, fire activity, and plant productivity to calculate fire emissions for the 1997-2009 period on a 0.5° spatial resolution with a monthly time step. For November 2000 onwards, estimates were based on burned area, active fire detections, and plant productivity from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. For the partitioning we focused on the MODIS era. We used maps of burned area derived from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) and Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) active fire data prior to MODIS (1997-2000) and estimates of plant productivity derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) observations during the same period. Average global fire carbon emissions according to this version 3 of the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED3) were 2.0 Pg C year-1 with significant interannual variability during 1997-2001 (2.8 Pg C year-1 in 1998 and 1.6 Pg C year-1 in 2001). Globally, emissions during 2002-2007 were relatively constant (around 2.1 Pg C year-1) before declining in 2008 (1.7 Pg C year-1) and 2009 (1.5 Pg C year-1) partly due to lower deforestation fire emissions in South America and tropical Asia. On a regional basis, emissions were highly variable during 2002-2007 (e.g., boreal Asia, South America, and Indonesia), but these regional differences canceled out at a global level. During the MODIS era (2001-2009), most carbon emissions were from fires in grasslands and savannas (44%) with smaller contributions from tropical deforestation and degradation fires (20%), woodland fires (mostly confined to the tropics, 16%), forest fires (mostly in the extratropics, 15%), agricultural waste burning (3%), and tropical peat fires (3%). The contribution from agricultural waste fires was likely a lower bound because our approach for measuring burned area could not detect all of these relatively small fires. Total carbon emissions were on average 13% lower than in our previous (GFED2) work. For reduced trace gases such as CO and CH4, deforestation, degradation, and peat fires were more important contributors because of higher emissions of reduced trace gases per unit carbon combusted compared to savanna fires. Carbon emissions from tropical deforestation, degradation, and peatland fires were on average 0.5 Pg C year-1. The carbon emissions from these fires may not be balanced by regrowth following fire. Our results provide the first global assessment of the contribution of different sources to total global fire emissions for the past decade, and supply the community with an improved 13-year fire emissions time series.

van der Werf, G. R.; Randerson, J. T.; Giglio, L.; Collatz, G. J.; Mu, M.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; Morton, D. C.; Defries, R. S.; Jin, Y.; van Leeuwen, T. T.

2010-12-01

405

Transformations and affinities for sulfur of Chinese Shenmu coal ash in a pulverized coal-fired boiler  

SciTech Connect

The self-desulfurization efficiency of Shenmu coal with a high initial Ca/S molar ratio of 2.02 was measured in a 1,025 t/h pulverized coal-fired boiler. It increases from 29% to 32% when the power capacity decreases from 100% to 70%. About 60% of the mineral matter and calcium element fed into the furnace is retained in the fly ash, while less than 10% is retained in the bottom ash. About 70% of the sulfur element fed into the furnace is emitted as SO{sub 2} in the flue gas, while less than 10% is retained in the fly ash and less than 1% is retained in the bottom ash. The mineralogical compositions of feed coal, fly ash, and bottom ash were obtained by X-ray diffraction analysis. It is found that the initial amorphous phase content is 91.17% and the initial CaCO{sub 3} phase content is 2.07% in Shenmu coal. The vitreous phase and sulfation product CaSO{sub 4} contents are, respectively, 70.47% and 3.36% in the fly ash obtained at full capacity, while the retained CaCO{sub 3} and CaO contents are, respectively, 4.73% and 2.15%. However, the vitreous phase content is only 25.68% and no CaSO{sub 4} is detected in the bottom ash obtained at full capacity. When the power capacity decreases from 100% to 70%, the vitreous phase content in fly ash decreases from 70.47% to 67.41% and that in bottom ash increases from 25.68% to 28.10%.

Cheng, J.; Zhou, J.H.; Liu, J.Z.; Cao, X.Y.; Cen, K.F. [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China)

2009-07-01

406

Characterizing Fire Frequency and Fire-Climate Links in a Central Idaho Ponderosa Pine Forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dendroecological methods were used to select and analyze fire scarred trees in central Idaho. Twenty four trees and stumps with multiple fire scars were cross-dated to identify the year and season of fire occurrence, referenced to a master chronology developed from increment cores from live trees in the area. Fires were frequent in the area, with Weibull mean fire return

Peter M. Brown; Penelope Morgan; Elaine K. Sutherland; Jennifer Pierce; David Wright; Eric Ziegler; Zack Holden; Jennifer Hoss; Janneke Lade; Mathew Burbank; Carissa Aoki

407

Stand structure, fuel loads, and fire behavior in riparian and upland forests, Sierra Nevada Mountains, USA; a comparison of current and reconstructed conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire plays an important role in shaping many Sierran coniferous forests, but longer fire return intervals and reductions in area burned have altered forest conditions. Productive, mesic riparian forests can accumulate high stem densities and fuel loads, making them susceptible to high-severity fire. Fuels treatments applied to upland forests, however, are often excluded from riparian areas due to concerns about

Kip Van de Water; Malcolm North

2011-01-01

408

Mega fire emissions in Siberia: potential supply of soluble iron from forests to the ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant amounts of carbon and nutrients are released to the atmosphere due to large fires in forests. Characterization of the spatial distribution and temporal variation of the intense fire emissions is crucial for assessing the atmospheric loadings of aerosols and trace gases. This paper discusses issues of the representation of forest fires in the estimation of emissions and the application to an atmospheric chemistry transport model (CTM). The potential contribution of forest fires to the deposition of soluble iron (Fe) into the ocean is highlighted, with a focus on mega fires in eastern Siberia. Satellite products of burned area, active fire, and land cover are used to estimate biomass burning emissions in conjunction with a biogeochemical model. Satellite-derived plume height from MISR is used for the injection height of boreal forest fire emissions. This methodology is applied to quantify fire emission rates in each three-dimensional grid location in the high latitude Northern Hemisphere (> 30° N latitude) over a 5-year period from 2001 to 2005. There is large interannual variation in forest burned area during 2001-2005 (13-51 × 103 km2 yr-1) which results in a corresponding variation in the annual emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) (12-78 Tg CO yr-1). Satellite observations of CO from MOPITT are used to evaluate the model performance in simulating the spatial distribution and temporal variation of the fire emissions. During the major Siberian fire seasons in the summer of 2002 and in the spring of 2003, the model results for CO enhancements due to intense fires are in good agreement with MOPITT observations. These fire emission rates are applied to the aerosol chemistry transport model to examine the relative importance of biomass burning sources of soluble iron compared to those from dust sources. Compared to the dust sources without the atmospheric processing by acidic species, extreme fire events contribute to a significant deposition of soluble iron (10-60%) to downwind regions over the western North Pacific Ocean. It may imply that the supply of nutrients from large forest fires plays a role as a negative biosphere-climate feedback with regards to the ocean fertilization.

Ito, A.

2011-02-01

409

Impact of the 1988 forest fires on the chemistry of ground water in Yellowstone National Park  

SciTech Connect

Statistical tests (two-way ANOVA at 95 percent confidence interval) show that for most wells, there is no significant difference between pre-fire and post-fire chemistry of the shallow ground waters. Despite the lack of significance changes in water chemistry, there do appear to be differences in the interactions between chemical and physical parameters, as measured under pre-fire and post-fire conditions. For post-fire data from the most severely burned site, the concentrations of ground-water solutes appear to be inversely related to the depth of the water table, whereas this inverse relationship is not seen clearly for the pre-fire and control data. The apparent change in solute behavior seen in the post-fire ground water from the severely burned site may be due to the complete, although temporary, removal of the biotic component from the system, thereby altering the cycling of nutrients in this highly oligotrophic ecosystem. Although concentrations of nitrate in the ground water have not increased appreciably over the pre-fire values, samples of the soil solution from the severely burned site contained high concentrations of nitrate-N (as much as 67 mg/L). An increase in the activity of nitrifying bacteria, due to post-fire conditions, is thought to be responsible for the high concentrations of nitrate in the post-fire soil solution. Geochemical computer modeling indicates that mineral weathering by water of snowmelt composition can describe the transition in solute content from that of snowmelt to that of the ground water. In contrast, just the mixing of different solutions (i.e., a percentage of pure snowmelt plus a percentage of ash leachate) cannot create a solution approximating the chemical composition measured in samples of post-fire ground water. The modeling, however, does not rule out a combination of weathering and mixing (snow + ash) to produce the chemistry observed for the post-fire ground waters.

Siders, M.A.

1992-01-01

410

Comparing post forest fire erosion to erosion in vineyards in a Mediterranean environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Mediterranean France, severe soil erosion can occur in two environmental contexts: on forested slopes shortly after a forest fire and in vineyards. Soils are particularly vulnerable to erosion during the first year after a fire. Vineyards tend to occupy gentler slopes in alluvial plains and the first foothills of steeper landscapes. They can be exposed to erosion throughout the year depending on storm characteristics and inter row grass cover which is variable both spatially and temporally. The objective of this case study was to compare estimated rates of erosion and potential inputs of sediments into stream channels from post forest fire and agricultural contexts. The studied catchment has a surface area of about 234 km2, where about 199 km2 are forested, 18 km2 are vineyards, and the remaining 17 km2 are mainly grassed or urban. Forest fire records are too recent to calculate return periods for large fires but it is estimated at about 25-35 years in the study catchment. In 2003, a 2,000 ha fire burned through the catchment, and sediment traps on a N facing slope were used to estimate erosion rates during a period of about 2.5 years after the fire. Total event erosion for the burned area was estimated using non-linear curves where erosion decreased exponentially with time according to slope orientation: vegetation on N facing slopes recovers more quickly than on S facing slopes so erosion rates tend to remain greater for a longer period on the latter. Soil erosion in vineyards was estimated by adapting the Revised USLE. Conservation practises (P) were modified to account for terracing and vine row orientation with regards to slope orientation. Vegetation cover (C) was modified to account for seasonal variations in inter row grass cover. The other factors in the equation were not altered. In this case study, post forest fire erosion rates were particularly low due to an absence of significant storms during the first post fire winter. Mean soil erosion rate for the first year was about 2.7 T ha-1, and total event erosion was estimated at 5.4 T for the first year and 8.4 T over a 6 year period. Assuming a return period of 25 years for a fire of similar magnitude, this would represent the 25 year sediment input value. Mean annual vineyard erosion rate was 5.5 T ha-1. This corresponds roughly to about 9,900 T during any typical year and to about 247,500 T over a 25 year period. Several factors affect post fire erosion estimation, including return period, burned surface area, and rainfall intensities during the first year after a fire. The 2,000 ha fire used in the case study is considered a large fire in a region where fires rarely surpass 6,000 ha due to agricultural and urban densities. Post fire erosion is particularly sensitive to rainfall characteristics and the unusually low rainfall during the year of study underestimates long term post fire erosion rates. Actual long term rates may be 5 to 10 times greater for a normal rainfall year. Reasonable increases in surface area and rainfall would provide a very rough long term average estimate of about 100 T ha-1 for the first post fire year and about 150 T ha-1 for the entire forest fire event. Hence, typical sediment input from the burn scar may be as much as 10 times greater than input from vineyards the first year after a fire, but long term vineyard erosion rates may be as great as 1,000-2,000 times greater than from forest fires.

Fox, Dennis; Mir, Julien; Carrega, Pierre

2010-05-01

411

Implications of fires on carbon budgets in Andean cloud montane forest: The importance of peat soils and tree resprouting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire in tropical montane cloud forests (TMCFs) is not as rare as once believed. Andean TMCFs sit immediately below highly flammable, high-altitude grasslands (Puna\\/Páramo) that suffer from recurrent anthropogenic fire. This treeline is a zone of climatic tension where substantial future warming is likely to force upward tree migrations, while increased fire presence and fire impacts are likely to force

R. M. Román-Cuesta; N. Salinas; H. Asbjornsen; I. Oliveras; V. Huaman; Y. Gutiérrez; L. Puelles; J. Kala; D. Yabar; M. Rojas; R. Astete; D. Y. Jordán; M. Silman; R. Mosandl; M. Weber; B. Stimm; S. Günter; T. Knoke; Y. Malhi

2011-01-01

412

Wildfire in Russian Boreal Forests—Potential Impacts of Fire Regime Characteristics on Emissions and Global Carbon Balance Estimates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the research about the effects of the release of carbon and other chemicals to the atmosphere during forest fires focuses on emissions from crown fires or slash fires in which a high percentage of the fine fuels are burned. However, in many temperate and boreal conifer ecosystems, surface fires of varying intensities and severities are an important part

Susan G Conard; Galina A. Ivanova

1997-01-01

413

Optimizing Landscape Treatments for Reducing Wildfire Risk and Improving Ecological Sustainability of Ponderosa pine Forests with Mixed Severity Fire Regimes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A mixed severity fire regime historically created complex landscape structures in ponderosa pine forests of the Colorado Front Range. Mitigating present wildfire risks and restoring these forests to ecologically sustainable conditions requires new guideli...

J. Chew J. G. Jones M. R. Kaufmann P. N. Omi

2009-01-01

414

Stabilization of lead and copper contaminated firing range soil using calcined oyster shells and fly ash.  

PubMed

A stabilization/solidification treatment scheme was devised to stabilize Pb and Cu contaminated soil from a firing range using renewable waste resources as additives, namely waste oyster shells (WOS) and fly ash (FA). The WOS, serving as the primary stabilizing agent, was pre-treated at a high temperature to activate quicklime from calcite. Class C FA was used as a secondary additive along with the calcined oyster shells (COS). The effectiveness of the treatment was evaluated by means of the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and the 0.1 M HCl extraction tests following a curing period of 28 days. The combined treatment with 10 wt% COS and 5 wt% FA cause a significant reduction in Pb (>98 %) and Cu (>96 %) leachability which was indicated by the results from both extraction tests (TCLP and 0.1 M HCl). Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) analyses are used to investigate the mechanism responsible for Pb and Cu stabilization. SEM-EDX results indicate that effective Pb and Cu immobilization using the combined COS-FA treatment is most probably associated with ettringite and pozzolanic reaction products. The treatment results suggest that the combined COS-FA treatment is a cost effective method for the stabilization of firing range soil. PMID:23709229

Moon, Deok Hyun; Park, Jae-Woo; Cheong, Kyung Hoon; Hyun, Seunghun; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon; Park, Jeong-Hun; Ok, Yong Sik

2013-05-26

415

Late-Holocene relationships among fire, climate and vegetation in a forest-sagebrush ecotone of southwestern Idaho, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The forest-sagebrush ecotone is characterized by a more arid climate than forested regions; therefore, establishing fire histories using traditional methods (e.g. fire-scars from trees, charcoal in lake sediments) is problematic. This study uses radiocarbon dating of charcoal preserved in alluvial deposits to reconstruct a record of fire and geomorphic response in southwestern Idaho. Samples indicate three primary periods of fire-related

Nathan A. Nelson; Jennifer Pierce

2010-01-01

416

Surface Fire Influence on Carbon Balance Components in Scots Pine Forest of Siberia, Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfire is one of the most important disturbances in boreal forests, and it can have a profound effect on forest-atmosphere carbon exchange. Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine) stands of Siberia are strongly impacted by fires of low to high severity. Biomass distribution in mature lichen/feathermoss Scots pine stands indicates that they are carbon sinks before fire. Fires contribute significantly to the carbon budget resulting in a considerable carbon efflux, initially through direct consumption of forest fuels and later as a result of tree mortality and decomposition of dead material accumulated on the forest floor. In initial postfire years these processes dominate over photosynthetic carbon assimilation, and the ecosystems become a carbon source. Over several postfire years, above-ground carbon in dead biomass tends to increase, with the increase depending significantly on fire severity. High-severity fire enhances dead biomass carbon, while moderate- and low-severity fires have minimal effect on above-ground carbon distribution in Scots pine ecosystems. Dead stand biomass carbon increases, primarily during the first two years following fires, due to tree mortality. This increase can account for up to 12.4% of the total stand biomass after low- and moderate- intensity fires. We found tree dieback following a high-intensity fire is an order of magnitude higher, and thus the dead biomass increases up to 88.1% of total above-ground biomass. Photosynthetic CO2 uptake decreases with increasing tree mortality, and needle foliage and bark are incorporated into the upper layer of the forest floor in the course of years. Ground vegetation and duff carbon were >90, 71-83, and 82% of prefire levels after fires of low, moderate, and high severity, respectively for the first 4 to 5 years after fire. Fires of low and moderate severity caused down woody fuel carbon to increase by 2.1 and 3.6 t ha-1 respectively by four years after burning as compared to the pre-fire values. Climate change and increasing drought length observed in recent decades have increased the probability of high-intensity fire occurrence. Areas burned have increased in extent and severity across Siberia, resulting in increased carbon emissions to the atmosphere from fuel combustion and post fire decomposition.

Kukavskaya, E.; Ivanova, G. A.; Conard, S. G.; Soja, A. J.

2008-12-01

417

Ectomycorrhiza succession patterns in Pinus sylvestris forests after stand-replacing fire in the Central Alps.  

PubMed

Fires shape fundamental properties of many forest ecosystems and climate change will increase their relevance in regions where fires occur infrequently today. In ecosystems that are not adapted to fire, post-fire tree recruitment is often sparse, a fact that might be attributed to a transient lack of mycorrhizae. Ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi play an important role for recruitment by enhancing nutrient and water uptake of their hosts. The questions arise whether and for how long the EcM community is transformed by fire. We investigated the resistance and resilience of EcM fungal communities on a chronosequence of 12 Pinus sylvestris stands in Valais (Switzerland) and Val d'Aosta (Italy) affected by fire between 1990 and 2006. Soil samples from burnt and non-burnt forests were analyzed with respect to EcM fungi by means of a bioassay. The number of EcM species was significantly lower in samples from recently (2-5 years) burnt sites than non-burnt forest, and increased with time since fire reaching levels of adjacent forests after 15-18 years. Community composition changed after fire but did not converge to that of non-burnt sites over the 18 year period. Only Rhizopogon roseolus and Cenococcum geophilum were abundant in both burnt sites and adjacent forest. Our data indicate fire resistance of some EcM fungal species as well as rapid resilience in terms of species number, but not in species composition. As long as the function of different EcM species for seedling establishment is unknown, the consequences of long-term shifts in EcM community composition for tree recruitment remain unclear. PMID:21468664

Kipfer, Tabea; Moser, Barbara; Egli, Simon; Wohlgemuth, Thomas; Ghazoul, Jaboury

2011-04-06

418

Development at the wildland-urban interface and the mitigation of forest-fire risk.  

PubMed

This work addresses the impacts of development at the wildland-urban interface on forest fires that spread to human habitats. Catastrophic fires in the western United States and elsewhere make these impacts a matter of urgency for decision makers, scientists, and the general public. Using a simple fire-spread model, along with housing and vegetation data, we show that fire size probability distributions can be strongly modified by the density and flammability of houses. We highlight a sharp transition zone in the parameter space of vegetation flammability and house density. Many actual fire landscapes in the United States appear to have spreading properties close to this transition. Thus, the density and flammability of buildings should be taken into account when assessing fire risk at the wildland-urban interface. Moreover, our results highlight ways for regulation at this interface to help mitigate fire risk. PMID:17717082

Spyratos, Vassilis; Bourgeron, Patrick S; Ghil, Michael

2007-08-23

419

Uptake of ¹³?Cs by berries, mushrooms and needles of Scots pine in peatland forests after wood ash application.  

PubMed

Increasing use of wood fuels for energy production in Finland since the 1990s implies that large quantities of the generated ashes will be available for forest fertilization. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of wood ash application on ¹³?Cs activity concentrations in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles and certain berries and mushrooms on drained peatlands. The study was based on field experiments carried out on two mires in Finland in 1997-1998. Two different types of wood ash were applied at dosages of 3500, 3700, 10 500 and 11 100 kg ha?¹. Wood ash did not increase ¹³?Cs activity concentration in plants in the second growing season following application. On the contrary, a decrease in ¹³?Cs activity concentration was seen in the plants of the ecosystem on drained peatlands. This result is of importance, for instance, when recycling of ash is being planned. PMID:20864229

Vetikko, Virve; Rantavaara, Aino; Moilanen, Mikko

2010-09-22

420

Impacts of Boreal Forest Fires and Post-Fire Succession on Energy Budgets and Climate in the Community Earth System Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetation compositions of boreal forests are determined largely by recovery patterns after large-scale disturbances, the most notable of which is wildfire. Forest compositions exert large controls on regional energy and greenhouse gas budgets by affecting surface albedo, net radiation, turbulent energy fluxes, and carbon stocks. Impacts of boreal forest fires on climate are therefore products of direct fire effects, including charred surfaces and emitted aerosols and greenhouse gasses, and post-fire vegetation succession, which affects carbon and energy exchange for many decades after the initial disturbance. Climate changes are expected to be greatest at high latitudes, leading many to project increases in boreal forest fires. While numerous studies have documented the effects of post-fire landscape on energy and gas budgets in boreal forests, to date no continental analysis using a coupled model has been performed. In this study we quantified the effects of boreal forest fires and post-fire succession on regional and global climate using model experiments in the Community Earth System Model. We used 20th century climate data and MODIS vegetation continuous fields and land cover classes to identify boreal forests across North America and Eurasia. Historical fire return intervals were derived from a regression approach utilizing the Canadian and Alaskan Large Fire Databases, the Global Fire Emissions Database v3, and land cover and climate data. Succession trajectories were derived from the literature and MODIS land cover over known fire scars. Major improvements in model-data comparisons of long-term energy budgets were observed by prescribing post-fire vegetation succession. Global simulations using historical and future burn area scenarios highlight the potential impacts on climate from changing fire regimes and provide motivation for including vegetation succession in coupled simulations.

Rogers, B. M.; Randerson, J. T.; Bonan, G. B.

2011-12-01

421

Fuel models to predict fire behavior in untreated conifer slash. Forest Service research note (final)  

SciTech Connect

Fire behavior in untreated slash of nine conifer species was simulated for 10 successive years after logging. Two aging factors that affect fire behavior--fuel bed compaction and foliage retention--were modeled by least squares regression techniques. On the basis of spread rate and flame length for a set of weather observations, standard Northern Forest Fire Laboratory fuel models were chosen to predict fire behavior for aging slash of each species at three initial fuel loadings. Differences in the standard fuel model sequences best representing aging process among species were most influenced by foliage surface-area-to-volume ratio, and such differences increased as initial fuel load increased.

Salazar, L.A.; Bevins, C.D.

1984-11-01

422

Forest Fire Monitoring with an Adaptive In-Network Aggregation Scheduling in Wireless Sensor Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a novel in-network aggregation scheduling scheme for forest fire monitoring in a wireless sensor network. This adaptively configures both the timeout and the collecting period according to the potential level of a fire occurrence. At normal times, the proposed scheme decreases a timeout that is a wait time for packets sent from child nodes and makes the collecting period longer. That reduces the dissipated energy of the sensor node. Conversely, the proposed scheme increases the timeout and makes the collecting period shorter during fire occurrences in order to achieve more accurate data aggregation and early fire detection.

Baek, Jang Woon; Nam, Young Jin; Seo, Dae-Wha

423

Testing Transferability of Forest Recreation Demand in the Three Intermountain States with an Application to Forest Fire Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acknowledgments: , thank Eric Biltonen of Colorado State University for contacting visitors and handing out surveys at sites in Colorado. We would like to thank Eric Huszar at University of Nevada-Reno for distributing surveys in Idaho and Wyoming. Valuable assistance was provided by numerous,fire staff in USDA Forest Service's Rocky Mountain and Intermountain Regions. This research was supported by a

John Loomis; Jeffrey Englin; Jared McDonald; James Hilger

424

Interactions among forest composition, structure, fuel loadings and fire history: A case study of red pine-dominated forests of Seney National Wildlife Refuge, Upper Michigan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) has been a historically important species in the eastern United States and Canada. Prior to European settlement, fire played a major role in determining the composition and structure of red pine-dominated forests. However, fire suppression efforts have prevented natural regeneration of red pine and the development of structurally diverse red pine-dominated forests across its natural

Igor Drobyshev; P. Charles Goebel; David M. Hix; R. Gregory Corace; Marie E. Semko-Duncan

2008-01-01

425

Relationships between stem diameter, sapwood area, leaf area and transpiration in a young mountain ash forest.  

PubMed

We examined relationships between stem diameter, sapwood area, leaf area and transpiration in a 15-year-old mountain ash (Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell.) forest containing silver wattle (Acacia dealbata Link.) as a suppressed overstory species and mountain hickory (Acacia frigescens J.H. Willis) as an understory species. Stem diameter explained 93% of the variation in leaf area, 96% of the variation in sapwood area and 88% of the variation in mean daily spring transpiration in 19 mountain ash trees. In seven silver wattle trees, stem diameter explained 87% of the variation in sapwood area but was a poor predictor of the other variables. When transpiration measurements from individual trees were scaled up to a plot basis, using stem diameter values for 164 mountain ash trees and 124 silver wattle trees, mean daily spring transpiration rates of the two species were 2.3 and 0.6 mm day(-1), respectively. The leaf area index of the plot was estimated directly by destructive sampling, and indirectly with an LAI-2000 plant canopy analyzer and by hemispherical canopy photography. All three methods gave similar results. PMID:14965913

Vertessy, R A; Benyon, R G; O'Sullivan, S K; Gribben, P R

1995-09-01

426

Assessing Spatial Uncertainty Associated with Forest Fire Boundary Delineation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uncertainty in managing forested landscapes arises from many sources, including complexities inherent in forest ecosystems and their disturbance processes. However, gaining knowledge about forested ecosystems at the landscape level is often impeded by limitations in collecting comprehensive, representative, as well as accurate data sets. Historical reference data sets about past disturbances are also mostly lacking. In the case of ground