Sample records for forest fire ash

  1. Impacts of fire on forest age and runoff in mountain ash forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, S.A.; Beringer, J.; Hutley, L.B.; McGuire, A.D.; Van Dijk, A.; Kilinc, M.

    2008-01-01

    Runoff from mountain ash (Eucalyptus regnans F.Muell.) forested catchments has been shown to decline significantly in the few decades following fire - returning to pre-fire levels in the following centuries - owing to changes in ecosystem water use with stand age in a relationship known as Kuczera's model. We examined this relationship between catchment runoff and stand age by measuring whole-ecosystem exchanges of water using an eddy covariance system measuring forest evapotranspiration (ET) combined with sap-flow measurements of tree water use, with measurements made across a chronosequence of three sites (24, 80 and 296 years since fire). At the 296-year old site eddy covariance systems were installed above the E. regnans overstorey and above the distinct rainforest understorey. Contrary to predictions from the Kuczera curve, we found that measurements of whole-forest ET decreased by far less across stand age between 24 and 296 years. Although the overstorey tree water use declined by 1.8 mm day-1 with increasing forest age (an annual decrease of 657 mm) the understorey ET contributed between 1.2 and 1.5 mm day-1, 45% of the total ET (3 mm day-1) at the old growth forest. ?? CSIRO 2008.

  2. Concordant 241Pu241Am Dating of Environmental Samples: Results from Forest Fire Ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Goldstein; W. J. Oldham; M. T. Murrell; D. Katzman

    2010-01-01

    We have measured the Pu, 237Np, 241Am, and 151Sm isotopic systematics for a set of forest fire ash samples from various locations in the western U.S. including Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, and New Mexico. The goal of this study is to develop a concordant 241Pu (t1\\/2 = 14.4 y)-241Am dating method for environmental collections. Environmental samples often contain mixtures of components

  3. Concordant plutonium-241-americium-241 dating of environmental samples: results from forest fire ash

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, Steven J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oldham, Warren J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Murrell, Michael T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Katzman, Danny [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-07

    We have measured the Pu, {sup 237}Np, {sup 241}Am, and {sup 151}Sm isotopic systematics for a set of forest fire ash samples from various locations in the western U.S. including Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, and New Mexico. The goal of this study is to develop a concordant {sup 241}Pu (t{sub 1/2} = 14.4 y)-{sup 241}Am dating method for environmental collections. Environmental samples often contain mixtures of components including global fallout. There are a number of approaches for subtracting the global fallout component for such samples. One approach is to use {sup 242}/{sup 239}Pu as a normalizing isotope ratio in a three-isotope plot, where this ratio for the nonglobal fallout component can be estimated or assumed to be small. This study investigates a new, complementary method of normalization using the long-lived fission product, {sup 151}Sm (t{sub 1/2} = 90 y). We find that forest fire ash concentrates actinides and fission products with {approx}1E10 atoms {sup 239}Pu/g and {approx}1E8 atoms {sup 151}Sm/g, allowing us to measure these nuclides by mass spectrometric (MIC-TIMS) and radiometric (liquid scintillation counting) methods. The forest fire ash samples are characterized by a western U.S. regional isotopic signature representing varying mixtures of global fallout with a local component from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Our results also show that {sup 151}Sm is well correlated with the Pu nuclides in the forest fire ash, suggesting that these nuclides have similar geochemical behavior in the environment. Results of this correlation indicate that the {sup 151}Sm/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio for global fallout is {approx}0.164, in agreement with an independent estimate of 0.165 based on {sup 137}Cs fission yields for atmospheric weapons tests at the NTS. {sup 241}Pu-{sup 241}Am dating of the non-global fallout component in the forest fire ash samples yield ages in the late 1950's-early 1960's, consistent with a peak in NTS weapons testing at that time. The age results for this component are in agreement using both {sup 242}Pu and {sup 151}Sm normalizations, although the errors for the {sup 151}Sm correction are currently larger due to the greater uncertainty of their measurements. Additional efforts to develop a concordant {sup 241}Pu-{sup 241}Am dating method for environmental collections are underway with emphasis on soil cores.

  4. Concordant 241Pu-241Am Dating of Environmental Samples: Results from Forest Fire Ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, S. J.; Oldham, W. J.; Murrell, M. T.; Katzman, D.

    2010-12-01

    We have measured the Pu, 237Np, 241Am, and 151Sm isotopic systematics for a set of forest fire ash samples from various locations in the western U.S. including Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, and New Mexico. The goal of this study is to develop a concordant 241Pu (t1/2 = 14.4 y)-241Am dating method for environmental collections. Environmental samples often contain mixtures of components including global fallout. There are a number of approaches for subtracting the global fallout component for such samples. One approach is to use 242Pu/239Pu as a normalizing isotope ratio in a three-isotope plot, where this ratio for the non-global fallout component can be estimated or assumed to be small. This study investigates a new, complementary method of normalization using the long-lived fission product, 151Sm (t1/2 = 90 y). We find that forest fire ash concentrates actinides and fission products with ~1E10 atoms 239Pu/g and ~1E8 atoms 151Sm/g, allowing us to measure these nuclides by mass spectrometric (MIC-TIMS) and radiometric (liquid scintillation counting) methods. The forest fire ash samples are characterized by a western U.S. regional isotopic signature representing varying mixtures of global fallout with a local component from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Our results also show that 151Sm is well correlated with the Pu nuclides in the forest fire ash, suggesting that these nuclides have similar geochemical behavior in the environment. Results of this correlation indicate that the 151Sm/239Pu atom ratio for global fallout is ~0.164, in agreement with an independent estimate of 0.165 based on 137Cs fission yields for atmospheric weapons tests at the NTS. 241Pu-241Am dating of the non-global fallout component in the forest fire ash samples yield ages in the late 1950’s-early 1960’s, consistent with a peak in NTS weapons testing at that time. The age results for this component are in agreement using both 242Pu and 151Sm normalizations, although the errors for the 151Sm correction are currently larger due to the greater uncertainty of their measurements. Additional efforts to develop a concordant 241Pu-241Am dating method for environmental collections are underway with emphasis on soil cores.

  5. Detection of smoke and ash from forest fires and volcanic eruptions using the GOME-2 Absorbing Aerosol Index

    E-print Network

    Tilstra, Gijsbert

    Detection of smoke and ash from forest fires and volcanic eruptions using the GOME-2 Absorbing Aerosol Index L.G. Tilstra, O.N.E. Tuinder, and P. Stammes* The Absorbing Aerosol Index (AAI) indicates in the presence of clouds. We will demonstrate the potential of the GOME-2 AAI by focusing on events like forest

  6. Forest Fires

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this lesson, students will assume the role of a Department of Forestry Ranger one of whose major concerns is forest fires. Using NASA Surface Scene Type data (biomes) and Monthly Equivalent Water Thickness Land Mass Change Data from 2006, the students will determine areas at high risk for forest fire development.

  7. Forest Fires

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Joyce Bailey

    The objectives of this lesson plan are twofold: to have students understand the benefits and problems associated with fire and to understand the role that fire plays in maintaining healthy ecosystems. Emphasis throughout the lesson plan is placed on manager-ignited prescribed burns and natural fires, and their relevance and importance to various types of fire-adapted ecosystems such as chaparral, prairie grasslands, and lodgepole pine forests. The lesson entails initiating a discussion about the positive and negative powers of fire, introducing terms such as surface fire, crown fire, and fire triangle, and having the students produce a public service announcement, brochure, or television spot on both accidental forest fires and the benefits of prescribed burns. The web site includes a list of suggested materials, procedures, adaptations, discussion questions, extension projects, an evaluation of student learning, suggested readings, relevant web links, a vocabulary list, and relevance to the academic standards set forth by Content Knowledge: A Compendium of Standards and Benchmarks for K-12 Education: Second Edition.

  8. The ash in forest fire affected soils control the soil losses. Part 2. Current and future research challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Cerdà, Artemi

    2013-04-01

    Ash distribution on soil surface and impacts on soil properties received a great attention in recently (Pereira et al., 2010; Pereira et al., 2013). Ash it is a highly mobile material that can be easily transported wind, especially in severe wildland fires, where organic matter is reduced to dust, due the high temperatures of combustion. In the immediate period after the fire, ash cover rules soil erosion as previous researchers observed (Cerdà, 1998a; 1998b) and have strong influence on soil hydrological properties, such as water retention (Stoof et al. 2011 ) and wettability (Bodi et al., 2011). Ash it is also a valuable source of nutrients important for plant recuperation (Pereira et al., 2011; Pereira et al., 2012), but can act also as a source contamination, since are also rich in heavy metals (Pereira and Ubeda, 2010). Ash has different physical and chemical properties according the temperature of combustion, burned specie and time of exposition (Pereira et al., 2010). Thus this different properties will have different implications on soil properties including erosion that can increase due soil sealing (Onda et al. 2008) or decrease as consequence of raindrop impact reduction (Cerdà and Doerr, 2008). The current knowledge shows that ash has different impacts on soil properties and this depends not only from the type of ash produced, but of the soil properties (Woods and Balfour, 2010). After fire wind and water strong redistribute ash on soil surface, increasing the vulnerability of soil erosion in some areas, and reducing in others. Understand this mobility is fundamental have a better comprehension about the spatial and temporal effects of ash in soil erosion. Have a better knowledge about this mobility is a priority to future research. Other important aspects to have to be assessed in the future are how ash particulates percolate on soil and how ash chemical composition is important to induce soil aggregation and dispersion. How soil micro topography have implications on ash spatial distribution and if soil micro topography changes with time? What the factors that controls it? What it is the impact of ash in vegetation recuperation and the implications of this recover in ash spatial distribution? We need studies with better spatial and temporal resolution, especially in the immediate period after the fire, when the major spatial and temporal changes on ash distribution and impacts occur. Based on high level research conducted by Artemi Cerdà and others, our future research will be focused in these and other aspects in order to have a better knowledge about the impacts of ash on post-fire spatio-temporal erosion. Acknowledgements, Lithuanian Research Council. Project LITFIRE, Fire effects on Lithuanian soils and ecosystems (MIP-48/2011) and the research projects GL2008-02879/BTE and LEDDRA 243857. References Bodí, M., Mataix-Solera, J., Doerr, S., and Cerdà, A. 2011b. The wettability of ash from burned vegetation and its relationship to Mediterranean plant species type, burn severity and total organic carbon content. Geoderma, 160, 599-607. Cerdà, A. 1998a. Postfire dynamics of erosional processes under mediterranean climatic conditions. Z. Geomorphol., 42 (3) 373-398. Cerdà, A. 1998b. Changes in overland flow and infiltration after a rangeland fire in a Mediterranean scrubland.Hydrological Processes, 12, 1031-1042. Cerdà, A., and Doerr, S.H. 2008. The effect of ash and needle cover on surface runoff and erosion in the immediate post-fire period. Catena, 74, 256-263. Onda, Y., Dietrich W. E., and Booker, F. 2008. Evolution of overland flow after severe forest fire, Point Reyes, California, Catena, 72, 13-20. Pereira, P. Cerdà, A., Úbeda, X., Mataix-Solera, J. Arcenegui, V., Zavala, L. 2013. Modelling the impacts of wildfire on ash thickness in a short-term period, Land Degradation and Development, (In press) Pereira, P., Bodi. M., Úbeda, X., Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Balfour, V, Woods, S. 2010. Las cenizas y el ecosistema suelo, In: Cerdà, A. Jordan, A. (eds) Actualización en métodos y técnica

  9. Chemical and physical properties of cyclone fly ash from the grate-fired boiler incinerating forest residues at a small municipal district heating plant (6MW).

    PubMed

    Pöykiö, R; Rönkkömäki, H; Nurmesniemi, H; Perämäki, P; Popov, K; Välimäki, I; Tuomi, T

    2009-03-15

    In Finland, the new limit values for maximal allowable heavy metal concentrations for materials used as an earth construction agent came into force in July 2006. These limit values are applied if ash is utilized, e.g. in roads, cycling paths, pavements, car parks, sport fields, etc. In this study we have determined the most important chemical and physical properties of the cyclone fly ash originating from the grate-fired boiler incinerating forest residues (i.e. wood chips, sawdust and bark) at a small municipal district heating plant (6 MW), Northern Finland. This study clearly shows that elements are enriched in cyclone fly ash, since the total element concentrations in the cyclone fly ash were within 0.2-10 times higher than those in the bottom ash. The total concentrations of Cd (25 mg kg(-1); d.w.), Zn (3630 mg kg(-1); d.w.), Ba (4260 mg kg(-1); d.w.) and Hg (1.7 mg kg(-1); d.w.) exceeded the limit values, and therefore the cyclone fly ash cannot be used as an earth construction agent. According to the leached amounts of Cr (38 mg kg(-1); d.w.), Zn (51 mg kg(-1); d.w.) and sulphate (50,000 mg kg(-1); d.w.), the cyclone fly ash is classified as a hazardous waste, and it has to be deposited in a hazardous waste landfill. PMID:18603362

  10. Ash in fire affected ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Jordan, Antonio; Cerda, Artemi; Martin, Deborah

    2015-04-01

    Ash in fire affected ecosystems Ash lefts an important footprint in the ecosystems and has a key role in the immediate period after the fire (Bodi et al., 2014; Pereira et al., 2015). It is an important source of nutrients for plant recover (Pereira et al., 2014a), protects soil from erosion and controls soil hydrological process as runoff, infiltration and water repellency (Cerda and Doerr, 2008; Bodi et al., 2012, Pereira et al., 2014b). Despite the recognition of ash impact and contribution to ecosystems recuperation, it is assumed that we still have little knowledge about the implications of ash in fire affected areas. Regarding this situation we wanted to improve our knowledge in this field and understand the state of the research about fire ash around world. The special issue about "The role of ash in fire affected ecosystems" currently in publication in CATENA born from the necessity of joint efforts, identify research gaps, and discuss future cooperation in this interdisciplinary field. This is the first special issue about fire ash in the international literature. In total it will be published 10 papers focused in different aspects of the impacts of ash in fire affected ecosystems from several parts of the world: • Fire reconstruction using charcoal particles (Burjachs and Espositio, in press) • Ash slurries impact on rheological properties of Runoff (Burns and Gabet, in press) • Methods to analyse ash conductivity and sorbtivity in the laboratory and in the field (Balfour et al., in press) • Termogravimetric and hydrological properties of ash (Dlapa et al. in press) • Effects of ash cover in water infiltration (Leon et al., in press) • Impact of ash in volcanic soils (Dorta Almenar et al., in press; Escuday et al., in press) • Ash PAH and Chemical extracts (Silva et al., in press) • Microbiology (Barreiro et al., in press; Lombao et al., in press) We believe that this special issue will contribute importantly to the better understanding of the role of ash in fire affected areas. Acknowledgments The 'Litfire' Project (MIP-048/2011; 181 Pereira) funded by the Lithuanian Research Council, Soil quality, erosion control and plant cover recovery under different post-firemanagement scenarios (POSTFIRE), funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (CGL2013-47862-C2-1-R), Preventing and Remediating Degradation of Soils in Europe Through Land Care (RECARE) funded by the European Commission (FP7-ENV-2013-TWO STAGE) and European Research Project LEDDRA (243857) and COST action ES1306 (Connecting European connectivity research). References Balfour, V.N., Determining wildfire ash saturated hydraulic conductivity and sorptivity with laboratory and field methods. Catena. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2014.01.009 Barreiro, A., Fontúrbel, M.T., Lombao, A., Martín, C., Vega, J.A., Fernández, C., Carballas, T., Díaz-Raviña, M., Using phospholipid fatty acid and community level physiological profiling techniques to characterize soil microbial communities following an experimental fire and different stabilization treatments. Catena. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2014.07.011 Bodi, M., Martin, D.A., Santin, C., Balfour, V., Doerr, S.H., Pereira, P., Cerda, A., Mataix-Solera, J. (2014) Wildland fire ash: production, composition and eco-hydro-geomorphic effects. Earth-Science Reviews, 130, 103-127. Bodí, M.B., Doerr, S.H., Cerdà, A. and Mataix-Solera, J. (2012) Hydrological effects of a layer of vegetation ash on underlying wettable and water repellent soils. Geoderma, 191, 14-23. Burjachs, F., Expósito, I., Charcoal and pollen analysis: examples of Holocene fire dynamics in Mediterranean Iberian Peninsula. Catena. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2014.10.006 Burns, K., Gabet, E., The effective viscosity of slurries laden with vegetative ash. Catena. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2014.06.008 Cerdà, A. Doerr, S.H. (2008). The effect of ash and needle cover on surface runoff and erosion in the immediate post-fire period. Catena, 74 , 256-263. Dlapa, P., Bodí, M.B., Mataix-Solera, J., Cerdà, A., Doerr, S.H., Organic matter

  11. Fighting Forest Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Firefly is an airborne system for imaging forest fires. It uses satellite-based navigation for greater positioning accuracy and offers timeliness in fire location data delivery with on board data processing and a direct aircraft-to-fire camp communications link. Developed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the USFS, it has an infrared line scanner to identify fire boundaries and an infrared sensor system that can penetrate smoke to image the ground. Firefly is an outgrowth of a previous collaboration that produced FLAME, an airborne fire mapping instrument. Further refinements are anticipated by NASA and the United States Forest Service (USFS).

  12. Forest Fire Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Fire Logistics Airborne Mapping Equipment (FLAME) system, mounted in a twin-engine and airplane operated by the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), is an airborne instrument for detecting and pinpointing forest fires that might escape ground detection. The FLAME equipment rack includes the operator interface, a video monitor, the system's control panel and film output. FLAME's fire detection sensor is an infrared line scanner system that identifies fire boundaries. Sensor's information is correlated with the aircraft's position and altitude at the time the infrared imagery is acquired to fix the fire's location on a map. System can be sent to a fire locale anywhere in the U.S. at the request of a regional forester. USFS felt a need for a more advanced system to deliver timely fire information to fire management personnel in the decade of the 1990s. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) conducted a study, jointly sponsored by NASA and USDA, on what advanced technologies might be employed to produce an end-to-end thermal infrared fire detection and mapping system. That led to initiation of the Firefly system, currently in development at JPL and targeted for operational service beginning in 1992. Firefly will employ satellite-reference position fixing and provide performance superior to FLAME.

  13. Effects of a low severity prescribed fire on water-soluble elements in ash from a cork oak (Quercus suber) forest located in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Paulo; Ubeda, Xavier; Martin, Deborah; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Guerrero, César

    2011-02-01

    Wildfire is the major disturbance in Mediterranean forests. Prescribed fire can be an alternative to reduce the amount of fuel and hence decrease the wildfire risk. However the effects of prescribed fire must be studied, especially on ash properties, because ash is an important nutrient source for ecosystem recovery. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of a low severity prescribed fire on water-soluble elements in ash including pH, electrical conductivity (EC), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), potassium (K), aluminum (Al), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), silica (SiO(2)) and total sulphur (TS). A prescribed fire was conducted in a cork oak (Quercus suber) (Q.S) forest located in the northeast part of the Iberian Peninsula. Samples were collected from a flat plot of 40×70m mainly composed of Q.S and Quercus robur (Q.R) trees. In order to understand the effects of the prescribed fire on the soluble elements in ash, we conducted our data analysis on three data groups: all samples, only Q.S samples and only Q.R samples. All three sample groups exhibited a significant increase in pH, EC (p<0.001), water-soluble Ca, Mg, Na, SiO(2) and TS and a decrease in water-soluble Mn, Fe and Zn. Differences were identified between oak species for water-soluble K, Al and Fe. In Q.S samples we registered a significant increase in the first two elements p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively, and a non-significant impact in the third, at p<0.05. In Q.R data we identified a non-significant impact on water-soluble K and Al and a significant decrease in water-soluble Fe (p<0.05). These differences are probably due to vegetation characteristics and burn severity. The fire induced a higher variability in the ash soluble elements, especially in Q.S samples, that at some points burned with higher severity. The increase of pH, EC, Ca, Mg, Na and K will improve soil fertility, mainly in the study area where soils are acidic. The application of this low severity prescribed fire will improve soil nutrient status without causing soil degradation and thus is considered to be a good management strategy. PMID:20869047

  14. Eruptive Behaviour of Forest Fires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. X. Viegas; A. Simeoni

    2011-01-01

    A critical review of the mechanisms that are described in the literature to explain the onset and development of eruption\\u000a or blow up in forest fires is presented, given their great relevance for fire safety, particularly in canyons. The various\\u000a processes described in the literature that are considered as potential causes of fire eruption are discussed. Some of them\\u000a seem

  15. Amazon RainForest Fires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert L. Sanford; Juan Saldarriaga; Kathleen E. Clark; Christopher Uhl; Rafael Herrera

    1985-01-01

    Charcoal is common in the soils of mature rain forests within 75 kilometers of San Carlos de Rio Negro in the north central Amazon Basin. Carbon-14 dates of soil charcoal from this region indicate that numerous fires have occurred since the mid-Holocene epoch. Charcoal is most common in tierra firme forest Oxisols and Ultisols and less common in caatinga and

  16. Forest Fire Detection Systems Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boyd M. Harnden; P. Michael Maher; Gregory A. Martin

    1973-01-01

    Empirical data would suggest that forestry managers have been hesitant in their adoption of a management sciences approach to their problems of prevention, detection and suppression of forest fires. A joint program of research has been undertaken between the Alberta Forest Service and the Faculty of Business Administration and Commerce at the University of Alberta in an attempt to develop,

  17. Forest fire monitoring with multiple small UAVs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David W. Casbeer; Randal W. Beard; T. W. McLain; Sai-Ming Li; R. K. Mehra

    2005-01-01

    Frequent updates concerning the progress of a forest fire are essential for effective and safe fire fighting. Since a forest fire is typically inaccessible by ground vehicles due to mountainous terrain, small unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) are emerging as a promising means of monitoring large forest fires. We present an effective UAV path planning algorithm utilizing infrared images that are

  18. Modeling forest fire severity in California, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Keyser; A. L. Westerling

    2009-01-01

    A long history of fire suppression in the western United States has interrupted the fire regimes of many forest types. This interruption has significantly changed forest structure and ecological function and led to increasingly uncharacteristic fires in terms of size and severity. Identifying areas at risk for fires whose severity is outside the natural fire regime will allow for targeted

  19. Get immersed and black in fire ash world. Field Wildgeographers experience.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Cerdà, Artemi; Misiune, Ieva; Jordan, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Ash is the footprint left by the fire. This residue is very important to landscape recover and is an important source of soil protection after the fire. Get immersed in fire ash world is the same thing of get dirty and do not be recognizable in a fire affected area. To measure ash in the field we have to be careful where to step, how to do the experimental design, collect samples and find with accuracy the places measured before. A good methodology is needed in design field experiments, collect ash samples and monitoring ash evolution (Cerdà and Doerr, 2008; Bodi et al., 2014; Pereira and Ubeda, 2010; Pereira et al. 2011; 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015). The objective of this work is to share with the Avatar world the methodologies used when wildgeographers get immersed in fire ash world, including: 1) Identify the best study area 2) Experimental design 3) Sample collection 4) Get dirty and have fun in the field 5) Laboratory, Statistical and spatial analysis Acknoledgements The author are thankful for the support of the projects POSTFIRE (Soil quality, erosion control and plant cover recovery under different post-fire management scenarios, CGL2013-47862-C2-1-R) funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness; GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857, RECARE (Preventing and Remediating Degradation of Soils in Europe Through Land Care, FP7-ENV-2013-TWO STAGE), funded by the European Commission; and for the COST action ES1306 (Connecteur: Connecting European Connectivity Research), FUEGORED (Spanish Network of Forest Fire Effects on Soils, http://grupo.us.es/fuegored/) and to Comissionat per a Universitats i Recerca del DIUE de la Generalitat de Catalunya. References Bodi, M., Martin, D.A., Santin, C., Balfour, V., Doerr, S.H., Pereira, P., Cerda, A., Mataix-Solera, J. (2014) Wildland fire ash: production, composition and eco-hydro-geomorphic effects. Earth-Science Reviews, 130, 103-127. Cerdà, A. y Doerr, S.H. 2008. The effect of ash and needle cover on surface runoff and erosion in the immediate post-fire period. Catena, 74 , 256- 263. doi:10.1016/S0341-8162(02)00027-9 Pereira, P., Cerdà, A., Úbeda, X., Mataix-Solera, J. Arcenegui, V., Zavala, L. 2015. Modelling the impacts of wildfire on ash thickness in a short-term period, Land Degradation and Development, (In Press), DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2195 Pereira, P., Cerdà, A., Úbeda, X., Mataix-Solera, J., Jordan, A. Burguet, M. (2013) Spatial models for monitoring the spatio-temporal evolution of ashes after fire - a case study of a burnt grassland in Lithuania, Solid Earth, 4, 153-165. Pereira, P., Úbeda, X. (2010) Spatial variation of heavy metals released from ashes after a wildfire, Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management, 18(1), 13-22. Pereira, P., Ubeda, X., Martin, D. (2012) Fire severity effects on ash chemical composition and water-extractable elements, Geoderma, 191, 105-114. Pereira, P., Úbeda, X., Martin, D., Mataix-Solera, J., Guerrero, C. (2011) Effects of a low prescribed fire in ash water soluble elements in a Cork Oak (Quercus suber) forest located in Northeast of Iberian Peninsula, Environmental Research, 111(2), 237-247. Pereira, P., Úbeda, X., Martin, D., Mataix-Solera, J., Cerdà, A., Burguet, M. (2014) Wildfire effects on extractable elements in ash from a Pinus pinaster forest in Portugal, Hydrological Processes, 28, 3681-3690

  20. Forest fires: from economic assessment

    E-print Network

    Pettenella, Davide

    research (An ACF approach to stakeholders analysis) Final remarks Background Background - 1 Forest fires, hunting, recreation Watershed management: soil conservation, floods/landslides/avalan che prevention, soil-sectoral and long-term policies many stakeholders involved, with open or latent conflicting interests, different

  1. Satellite Observations of Forest Fires

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sterner, Ray.

    1996-01-01

    The Ocean Remote Sensing Group of the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory has made available a series of maps of some of the fifteen major wildfires that were burning Wednesday across 264,794 acres in six Western states--Oregon, California, Idaho, Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado. The images are not intended as a working fire detection resource, but are offered as interesting observations. Background information is provided, and the subject matter of each image is briefly described. The files are in GIF format and range in size from 200 to 500K. The publicly available data used is from the NOAA polar orbiter AVHRR sensor, which scans the earth beneath six times per second. Links are provided to the Wildland Fire Assessment System of the USDA and Go West forest fire reports, which offers a list of links for each state with major fires.

  2. Catastrophic Fires in Russian Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhinin, A. I.; McRae, D. J.; Stocks, B. J.; Conard, S. G.; Hao, W.; Soja, A. J.; Cahoon, D.

    2010-12-01

    We evaluated the contribution of catastrophic fires to the total burned area and the amount of tree mortality in Russia since the 1970’s. Such fires occurred in the central regions of European Russia (1972, 1976, 1989, 2002, 2010), Khabarovsk krai (1976, 1988, 1998), Amur region (1997-2002), Republics of Yakutia and Tuva (2002), Magadan and Kamchatka oblast (1984, 2001, 2010), and Irkutsk, Chita, Amur regions, Buryat, Agin national districts (2003, 2007-08). We define a catastrophic fire as a single high-severity fire that covers more than 10,000 ha and results in total consumption of the litter and humus layers and in high tree mortality, or the simultaneous occurrence of several high-severity fires in a given region with a total area exceeding 10,000 km2. Fires on this scale can cause substantial economic, social and environmental effects, with regional to global impacts. We hypothesize that there is a positive feedback between anticyclone growth and energy release from wildfires burning over large areas. Usually the first blocking anticyclone appears in June in Russia, bringing with it dry weather that increases fire hazard. The anticyclonic pattern has maximum activity in the end of July and disappears around the middle of August. When high fire activity occurs, the anticyclone may strengthen and develop a blocking character that prevents cyclonic patterns from moving into anticyclone-dominated areas, where the fire danger index may be more than six times the average maximum. The likelihood of uncontrolled fire situations developing increases greatly when the fire number and burned area exceed critical values as a function of conditions that favor high intensity fires. In such situations fire suppression by regional forest protection services becomes impossible and federal resources are required. If the appearance of a blocking anticyclone is forecast, active fire prevention and suppression of small fires (most of which appear to be human caused) is critical. Based on NOAA and TOMS daily data, we estimated fire emissions (including CO2, CO, CH4 and other smoke aerosols) of over 70 Tg Carbon for Yakutian fires in 2002 and more than 120 Tg C for all Russian fires in 2010. We note the potential for increasing amounts of methane emissions when fires occur in permafrost zones and peat bogs. Post-fire changes in permafrost and vegetation cover are discussed in the connection changes in solar radiance balance. During the fire season of 2006 in the Eastern-Siberian, Transbaikal, and Far East regions we identified more than 15,000 fires with a total area of 120,000 km2. From 2002-2010 the annual number of fires in this area ranged from 10,000 to 16,500, and annual burned areas ranged from a low of 30 000 km2 in 2004 to a high of 145,000 km2 in 2003.

  3. COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS: SOLVING ASH DEPOSITION PROBLEMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Steven A. Benson; Jay R. Gunderson

    2001-01-01

    The accumulation of slagging and fouling ash deposits in utility boilers has been a source of aggravation for coal-fired boiler operators for over a century. Many new developments in analytical, modeling, and combustion testing methods in the past 20 years have made it possible to identify root causes of ash deposition. A concise and comprehensive guidelines document has been assembled

  4. Chaotic Dynamics of Forest Fires

    E-print Network

    K. Malarz; S. Kaczanowska; K. Kulakowski

    2002-04-25

    In the thermodynamic limit, a probabilistic cellular automaton can be approximated by a deterministic nonlinear map. Here we construct such a map for the forest fire problem. The construction is based on the results of the Monte Carlo simulation, performed on a square lattice of million cells. The results of the calculation are analyzed by means of the Hoshen--Kopelman algorithm (HKA). The only parameter of the map describes the probability that a tree appears at an empty cell during one time step. The obtained map seems to be non-differentiable at the percolation threshold. The Lyapunov exponent for the map is positive. Also, we found the cycle of length three by means of the method of symbolic dynamics. The results are illustrated by the experimental data on the forest fires in Canada in years 1970--2000. Although these data are fortunately far from thermodynamic limit, their qualitative character is reproduced for smaller lattices.

  5. Forest-fire model with natural fire resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoder, Mark R.; Turcotte, Donald L.; Rundle, John B.

    2011-04-01

    Observations suggest that contemporary wildfire suppression practices in the United States have contributed to conditions that facilitate large, destructive fires. We introduce a forest-fire model with natural fire resistance that supports this theory. Fire resistance is defined with respect to the size and shape of clusters; the model yields power-law frequency-size distributions of model fires that are consistent with field observations in the United States, Canada, and Australia.

  6. Fire severity effects on ash extractable Total Phosphorous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Úbeda, Xavier; Martin, Deborah

    2010-05-01

    Phosphorous (P) is a crucial element to plant nutrition and limits vegetal production. The amounts of P in soil are lower and great part of this nutrient is absorbed or precipitated. It is well known that fire has important implications on P cycle, that can be lost throughout volatilization, evacuated with the smoke, but also more available to transport after organic matter mineralization imposed by the fire. The release of P depends on ash pH and their chemical and physical characteristics. Fire temperatures impose different severities, according to the specie affected and contact time. Fire severity is often evaluated by ash colour and this is a low-cost and excellent methodology to assess the fire effects on ecosystems. The aim of this work is study the ash properties physical and chemical properties on ash extractable Total Phosphorous (TP), collected in three wildfires, occured in Portugal, (named, (1) Quinta do Conde, (2) Quinta da Areia and (3) Casal do Sapo) composed mainly by Quercus suber and Pinus pinaster trees. The ash colour was assessed using the Munsell color chart. From all three plots we analyzed a total of 102 ash samples and we identified 5 different ash colours, ordered in an increasing order of severity, Very Dark Brown, Black, Dark Grey, Very Dark Grey and Light Grey. In order to observe significant differences between extractable TP and ash colours, we applied an ANOVA One Way test, and considered the differences significant at a p<0.05. The results showed that significant differences in the extractable TP among the different ash colours. Hence, to identify specific differences between each ash colour, we applied a post-hoc Fisher LSD test, significant at a p<0.05. The results obtained showed significant differences between the extractable TP from Very dark Brown and Black ash, produced at lower severities, in relation to Dark Grey, Very Dark Grey and Light Grey ash, generated at higher severities. The means of the first group were higher than the observed in the second one. This indicates that ash produced lower temperatures release in solution higher amounts of TP. These divergences occur due temperature of combustion, affected specie, ash pH values and CaCO3 content, which affects the quantity of this element in solution. Discussions about these effects will be accurate in the communication.

  7. USDA Forest Service: Emerald Ash Borer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Emerald Ash Borer(EAB) has become a pesky problem in North America in recent years, after being introduced into the ecosystem in the early 1990s. This information site from the USDA Forest Service is dedicated to providing the northeastern part of North America (where the bug has become a big problem) with information on identifying the insect, its infestations, and quarantine information, as well as control and management resources. The "Infestations" section contains several maps outlining the infected and quarantined ares of Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Maryland, and the United States as a whole. This is a great resource for anyone interested or concerned about the current EAB problem.

  8. COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS: SOLVING ASH DEPOSITION PROBLEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Steven A. Benson; Jay R. Gunderson

    2001-04-01

    The accumulation of slagging and fouling ash deposits in utility boilers has been a source of aggravation for coal-fired boiler operators for over a century. Many new developments in analytical, modeling, and combustion testing methods in the past 20 years have made it possible to identify root causes of ash deposition. A concise and comprehensive guidelines document has been assembled for solving ash deposition as related to coal-fired utility boilers. While this report accurately captures the current state of knowledge in ash deposition, note that substantial research and development is under way to more completely understand and mitigate slagging and fouling. Thus, while comprehensive, this document carries the title ''interim,'' with the idea that future work will provide additional insight. Primary target audiences include utility operators and engineers who face plant inefficiencies and significant operational and maintenance costs that are associated with ash deposition problems. Pulverized and cyclone-fired coal boilers are addressed specifically, although many of the diagnostics and solutions apply to other boiler types. Logic diagrams, ash deposit types, and boiler symptoms of ash deposition are used to aid the user in identifying an ash deposition problem, diagnosing and verifying root causes, determining remedial measures to alleviate or eliminate the problem, and then monitoring the situation to verify that the problem has been solved. In addition to a step-by-step method for identifying and remediating ash deposition problems, this guideline document (Appendix A) provides descriptions of analytical techniques for diagnostic testing and gives extensive fundamental and practical literature references and addresses of organizations that can provide help in alleviating ash deposition problems.

  9. Forest Fire Modeling and Early Detection using Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Richard "Hao"

    in designing efficient fire detection systems. The FWI System is one of the most comprehensive forest fire of their products to better fit forest fire detection systems. Then, we model the forest fire detection problem Modeling, Forest Fire Detection Systems, Wireless Sensor Networks, Coverage Protocols 1. INTRODUCTION

  10. Forest Fire Modeling and Early Detection using Wireless Sensor Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed Hefeeda; M. Bagheri

    2009-01-01

    Early detection of forest fires is the primary way of minimizing their dam- ages. We present the design of a wireless sensor network for early detection of forest fires. We first present the key aspects in modeling forest fires according to the Fire Weather Index (FWI) System which is one of the most comprehensive forest fire danger rating systems in

  11. Forest fire detection system based on wireless sensor network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junguo Zhang; Wenbin Li; Zhongxing Yin; Shengbo Liu; Xiaolin Guo

    2009-01-01

    As we all know, the forest is considered as one of the most important and indispensable resources, the prevention and detection of the forest fire, have been researched hotly in worldwide forest fire prevention departments. Based on the deficiencies of conventional forest fire detection on real time and monitoring accuracy, the wireless sensor network technique for forest fire detection was

  12. Wildfire ash: its production and hydro-eco-geomorphic effects in forested landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerr, S. H.; Bodi, M.; Santin, C.; Balfour, V.; Woods, S.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Cerda, A.; Shakesby, R.

    2012-12-01

    Fire, whether ignited naturally or by humans, is one of the most important disturbance agents in many of the world's forested ecosystems. Amongst its direct consequences is the deposition of a range of solid and largely powdery residues on the ground consisting of charred organic material including charcoal and residual mineral material. This fragile 'ash' layer can be removed in large quantities from hillslopes within days by wind or water erosion, with the latter facilitating its transfer to the hydrological system. Probably as a result of its ephemeral nature and not being soil, vegetation or litter, ash has seen limited attention in studies on hydrological impacts of wildfire. Those few studies available show that ash can substantially affect the hydrological system. When present on hillslopes as a water-absorbent layer, it can reduce surface runoff, protect soil against rainsplash erosion, and its leachates can reportedly reduce soil erodibility by promoting flocculation of dispersed clays. In contrast, however, ash can also increase surface runoff by blocking soil pores or by forming a crust. Furthermore, ash is thought capable of promoting debris flows. Its net effect probably depends on the nature of the ash and soil including their respective water repellency levels, the pore size distribution of the soil, and general terrain and rainfall characteristics. Being very mobile, ash can be the source of substantial organic and inorganic sediment inputs, and of solute influxes into the fluvial system. These can affect water quality sometimes with detrimental effects on aquatic organisms and domestic water supply. This presentation aims to provide an overview of the current knowledge base regarding the production and potential effects of wildfire ash on the hydrological system in and beyond forested landscapes..The late Scott Woods examining a thick ash layer following a severe fire in a conifer forest. Montana, USA.

  13. Phase inversions during the firing of ash-clay materials

    SciTech Connect

    De, I.M.; Kulbekov, M.K.; Saibulatov, S.Z.; Suleimanov, K.T.; Suleimov, S.T.; Vasil'chenko, N.A.

    1985-11-01

    The use of industrial waste, particularly power station ash, to obtain ceramic materials would enable the expansion of the raw material base as well as help keep the environment cleaner. The authors used petrographic, x-ray and IR-spectroscopic methods to investigate the all-around influence of the degree of densification and the duration of the isothermal soaking of the specimens on the physicochemical inversions during firing of ash-clay materials. It is established that during firing, when the density of the ash-clay specimen is increased, the process of formation of alpha-cristobalite is retarded, and the crystallization of anorthite is speeded up. With an increase in the soaking time, there is an intensification of the polymorphic conversion of Beta-quartz into alpha-cristobalite, and the formation of mullite, which provides excellent physicomechanical properties to the ash ceramics.

  14. 6, 32273264, 2006 Forest fire smoke

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Discussions Modeling of trace gases from the 1998 North Central Mexico forest fire smoke plume, as measuredACPD 6, 3227­3264, 2006 Forest fire smoke plume V. R. Kotamarthi et al. Title Page Abstract/3227/2006/ © Author(s) 2006. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics

  15. Responses of hardwood regeneration to fire in mesic forest openings. II. Leaf gas exchange, nitrogen concentration, and water status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric L. Kruger; Peter B. Reich

    1997-01-01

    The physiological responses of tree regeneration to fire were studied in openings in a mesic hardwood forest. Gas exchange, nitrogen concentration, and water potential were monitored on foliage of burned and nonburned regeneration of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), white ash (Fraxinus americana L.), and sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) following spring fires in 1989 and 1990. Fire led

  16. Fire effects on ecosystem nitrogen cycling in a Californian bishop pine forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Grogan; T. D. Burns; F. S. Chapin III

    2000-01-01

    Fire can cause severe nitrogen (N) losses from grassland, chaparral, and temperate and boreal forest ecosystems. Paradoxically,\\u000a soil ammonium levels are markedly increased by fire, resulting in high rates of primary production in re-establishing plant\\u000a communities. In a manipulative experiment, we examined the influence of wild-fire ash residues on soil, microbial and plant\\u000a N pools in a recently burned Californian

  17. The impact of bushfires on water yield from south-east Australia's ash forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brookhouse, Matthew T.; Farquhar, Graham D.; Roderick, Michael L.

    2013-07-01

    Widespread disturbance within forested catchments typically increases runoff. However, following widespread fire in 1939 throughout south-east Australia, Kuczera (1987) reported persistent reductions in runoff that were attributed to increased evapotranspiration from regenerating "ash" forests. Kuczera projected ongoing reductions of water yield for ˜150 years. In 2003, widespread fire in the headwaters of the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB) again stimulated extensive regeneration of ash forests, raising the prospect of subsequent water yield reductions. To understand the potential impact of the 2003 bushfires, we re-evaluated yield reductions from three of the catchments originally studied by Kuczera using the same calibration period. We also used an expanded prefire calibration period (1908-1938) based on data not originally available to Kuczera. The trend of postfire water yield that we observed in 1939-affected catchments is qualitatively consistent with Kuczera's projections, but the quantitative details were, as expected, sensitive to the prefire calibration period used. We then used a simplified method to examine a further five ash-dominated catchments affected by the 2003 fires. We report relative reductions in mean annual stream flow in all five catchments and a statistically significant (? = 0.05) postfire reduction in one of five catchments. Postfire yield reductions during the austral summer (October to April) were greater in relative magnitude in all five catchments and were statistically significant (? = 0.05) in three of five catchments. We conclude that a postbushfire Kuczera-type response may be widespread in regenerating ash forests. On that basis, we anticipate postfire yield reductions in ash forests elsewhere and conclude that further reductions in stream flow are likely in the MDB for at least another decade.

  18. Mapping fire effects on ash and soil properties. Current knowledge and future perspectives.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Cerda, Artemi; Strielko, Irina

    2014-05-01

    Fire has heterogeneous impacts on ash and soil properties, depending on severity, topography of the burned area, type of soil and vegetation affected, and meteorological conditions during and post-fire. The heterogeneous impacts of fire and the complex topography of wildland environments impose the challenge of understand fire effects at diverse scales in space and time. Mapping is fundamental to identify the impacts of fire on ash and soil properties because allow us to recognize the degree of the fire impact, vulnerable areas, soil protection and distribution of ash and soil nutrients, important to landscape recuperation. Several methodologies have been used to map fire impacts on ash soil properties. Burn severity maps are very useful to understand the immediate and long-term impacts of fire on the ecosystems (Wagtendonk et al., 2004; Kokaly et al., 2007). These studies normally are carried out with remote sensing techniques and study large burned areas. On a large scale it is very important to detect the most vulnerable areas (e.g. with risk of runoff increase, flooding, erosion, sedimentation and debris flow) and propose -if necessary- immediate rehabilitation measures. Post-fire rehabilitation measures can be extremely costly. Thus the identification of the most affected areas will reduce the erosion risks and soil degradation (Miller and Yool, 2002; Robichaud et al., 2007; Robichaud, 2009), as the consequent economical, social and ecological impacts. Recently, the United States Department of Agriculture created a field guide to map post-fire burn severity, based on remote sensing and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) technologies. The map produced should reflect the effects of fire on soil properties, and identify areas where fire was more severe (Parsons et al. 2010). Remote sensing studies have made attempts to estimate soil and ash properties after the fire, as hydrophobicity (Lewis et al., 2008), water infiltration (Finnley and Glenn, 2010), forest floor consumption (Lewis et al., 2011), ash cover (Robichaud et al., 2007) and other aspects related with soil as the vegetation factors that affect post-fire erosion risk (Fox et al., 2008). Field studies had also indented to estimate and map the impacts of fire in soil properties. Contrary to remote sensing studies, the mapping of fire effects on ash and soil properties in the field is specially carried out at small scale (e.g. slope or plot). The small scale resolution studies are important because identify small patterns that are normally ignored by remote sensing studies, but fundamental to understand the post-fire evolution of the burned areas. One of the important aspects of the small scale studies of fire effect on ash and soil properties is the great spatial variability, showing that the impact of fire is extremely heterogeneous in space and time (Outeiro et al., 2008; Pereira et al. in press). The small scale mapping of fire effects on soil properties normally is carried out using Geostatistical methods or using deterministic interpolation methods (Robichaud and Miller, 1999; Pereira et al., 2013). Several reports were published on the spatial distribution and mapping of ash and duff thickness (Robichaud and Miller, 1999; Pereira et al., 2013; Pereira et al. in press), fire severity (Pereira et al., 2014), ash chemical characteristics as total nitrogen (Pereira et al., 2010a), and ash extractable elements (Pereira et al., 2010b). Also, previous works mapped fire effects on soil temperature (Gimeno-Garcia et al., 2004), soil hydrophobicity (Woods et al., 2007), total nitrogen (Hirobe et al., 2003), phosphorous (Rodriguez et al., 2009) and major cations (Outeiro et al., 2008). It is important to integrate remote sensing and field based works of fire effects on ash and soil properties in order to have a better validation of the models predicted. The aim of this work is present the current knowledge about mapping fire effects in ash and soil properties at diverse scales and the future perspectives. References Finley, C.D., Glenn, N.F. (2010) Fire and vege

  19. 2010 Proceedings Symposium on Ash in North America GTR-NRS-P-72 11 EMERALD ASH BORER AFTERMATH FORESTS: THE DYNAMICS OF ASH

    E-print Network

    2010 Proceedings Symposium on Ash in North America GTR-NRS-P-72 11 EMERALD ASH BORER AFTERMATH at ksknight@fs.fed.us. The effects of emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis) on forest ecosystems FORESTS: THE DYNAMICS OF ASH MORTALITY AND THE RESPONSES OF OTHER PLANT SPECIES Kathleen S. Knight, Daniel

  20. Observe forest fires as seen from space

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    TERC. Center for Earth and Space Science Education

    2003-01-01

    This Earth science resource shows students how atmospheric scientists use infrared imaging to detect and locate forest fires. The introduction explains how visible-light images recorded by satellites are unable to distinguish smoke from clouds. In contrast, infrared imaging, which detects heat, can detect hot spots that indicate the location of forest fires. The resource provides two different sets of satellite pictures. Students are instructed to toggle between the visible-light and infrared images of each set to see how scientists use information from both types of images to identify forest fires. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  1. Stabilisation of biofuel ashes for recycling to forest soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B.-M. Steenari; O. Lindqvist

    1997-01-01

    A Swedish research program concerning the technical and ecological effects of wood fuel ash recycling to forest biotopes has been on-going for several years. Within this program, a study of the stabilisation of ash by the so-called self-hardening process was carried out. Chemical reactions occurring in the ash materials on water addition and during solidification were identified based on results

  2. Modeling forest fire severity in California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keyser, A.; Westerling, A. L.

    2009-12-01

    A long history of fire suppression in the western United States has interrupted the fire regimes of many forest types. This interruption has significantly changed forest structure and ecological function and led to increasingly uncharacteristic fires in terms of size and severity. Identifying areas at risk for fires whose severity is outside the natural fire regime will allow for targeted fuel reduction and mitigation to preserve ecosystem integrity. The probability of large fire occurrence has been successfully predicted and forecast using hydro-climate variables and statistical modeling techniques. We are employing similar statistical techniques to test the potential for predicting and forecasting forest fire severity for California, USA under current and future climate scenarios. We have a mapped fire severity dataset for forest fires spanning twenty-two years (1984-2006) for California as well as a suite of topographic and vegetation data layers from the Landfire project. Our hydro-climate dataset was developed using the VIC hydrologic model with the LDAS parameterization; we thus used the LDAS 1/8° grid to sample our fire severity, topographic and vegetation datasets. Initial exploratory analyses of the hydro-climate data show that low fractional fire severity is positively correlated to cumulative precipitation for the 12-month prior period and the 12-month period ending 6-month prior to the month of the fire, while moderate to high fractional severity is negatively correlated. Relationships opposite in sign, but comparative in magnitude, were found for cumulative adjusted moisture deficit for 12 months prior to the month of fire and the 12-month period ending 6 months prior to the fire. Additionally, fire area was positively correlated to both cumulative moisture deficit variables. Current year March and April snow water equivalent were negatively correlated to moderate and high fractional fire severity. Using only hydro-climate data predictors, we were able to predict high severity fraction (fraction of the fire in the high severity category relative to fire size) using a third order polynomial regression with the following independent variables: one year moisture deficit, average relative humidity, monthly average temperature, mean elevation, the latter three for month of fire. These relationships are expected as we know that fuel moisture is an important control on potential fire severity and all will affect fuel moisture content. We also know that vegetation, fuels, and topography affect potential fire severity. We will add these data layers to the aforementioned hydro-climate variables to improve our predictive capability. A refined prediction model will be presented with forecast of potential changes in fire severity under climate change scenarios.

  3. PCDD/F EMISSIONS FROM FOREST FIRES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) emissions from combustion of forest biomass were sampled to obtain an estimated emission factor for forest fires. An equal composition of live shoot and litter biomass from Oregon and North Carolina was bu...

  4. Study on fired bricks with replacing clay by fly ash in high volume ratio

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xu Lingling; Guo Wei; Wang Tao; Yang Nanru

    2005-01-01

    In present paper fly ash in wet state with low quality was used as raw material to replace clay to make fired bricks. The effect of fly ash with high replacing ratio of clay on firing parameters and properties of bricks were studied. The results indicate that the plasticity index of mixture of fly ash and clay decrease dramatically with

  5. Path Planning Algorithm for Extinguishing Forest Fires

    E-print Network

    Kumar, M P Sivaram

    2012-01-01

    One of the major impacts of climatic changes is due to destroying of forest. Destroying of forest takes place in many ways but the majority of the forest is destroyed due to wild forest fires. In this paper we have presented a path planning algorithm for extinguishing fires which uses Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks (WSANs) for detecting fires. Since most of the works on forest fires are based on Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and a collection of work has been done on coverage, message transmission, deployment of nodes, battery power depletion of sensor nodes in WSNs we focused our work in path planning approach of the Actor to move to the target area where the fire has occurred and extinguish it. An incremental approach is presented in order to determine the successive moves of the Actor to extinguish fire in an environment with and without obstacles. This is done by comparing the moves determined with target location readings obtained using sensors until the Actor reaches the target area to extinguish f...

  6. Self-organized criticality of forest fire in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weiguo Song; Fan Weicheng; Wang Binghong; Zhou Jianjun

    2001-01-01

    Self-organized criticality (SOC) of forest fire is studied from an analysis of a large series of forest-fire records from 1950 to 1989 in China. The time-invariant, scale-invariant characteristics of SOC of forest fire in China are analyzed in detail. The deviations between the occurrence frequency of very large fires and the power-law relation are explained by the forest-fire model with

  7. Fly ash and concrete: a study determines whether biomass, or coal co-firing fly ash, can be used in concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shuangzhen; Baxter, Larry

    2006-08-01

    Current US national standards for using fly ash in concrete (ASTM C618) state that fly ash must come from coal combustion, thus precluding biomass-coal co-firing fly ash. The co-fired ash comes from a large and increasing fraction of US power plants due to rapid increases in co-firing opportunity fuels with coal. The fly ashes include coal fly ash, wood fly ash from pure wood combustion, biomass and coal co-fired fly ash SW1 and SW2. Also wood fly ash is blended with Class C or Class F to produce Wood C and Wood E. Concrete samples were prepared with fly ash replacing cement by 25%. All fly ash mixes except wood have a lower water demand than the pure cement mix. Fly ashes, either from coal or non coal combustion, increase the required air entraining agent (AEA) to meet the design specification of the mixes. If AEA is added arbitrarily without considering the amount or existence of fly ash results could lead to air content in concrete that is either too low or too high. Biomass fly ash does not impact concrete setting behaviour disproportionately. Switch grass-coal co-fired fly ash and blended wood fly ash generally lie within the range of pure coal fly ash strength. The 56 day flexure strength of all the fly ash mixes is comparable to that of the pure cement mix. The flexure strength from the coal-biomass co-fired fly ash does not differ much from pure coal fly ash. All fly ash concrete mixes exhibit lower chloride permeability than the pure cement mixes. In conclusion biomass coal co-fired fly ash perform similarly to coal fly ash in fresh and hardened concrete. As a result, there is no reason to exclude biomass-coal co-fired fly ash in concrete.

  8. Contribution of forest fire emissions to atmospheric pollution in Greece

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Lazaridis; M. Latos; V. Aleksandropoulou; Ø. Hov; A. Papayannis; K. Tørseth

    2008-01-01

    Forest fires are a major contributor of atmospheric gaseous and particulate pollutants. With respect to forest fires, Greece\\u000a faces one of Europe’s most severe problems during summer. To create a forest fire emissions inventory, a database which holds\\u000a data for forest fires in Greece during the period 1997–2003 was established in this study and a methodology for the quantification\\u000a of

  9. Prediction of Forest Fires using Data Mining Methods

    E-print Network

    McLeod, Ian

    directly by the weather conditions. The forest Fire Weather Index(FWI) is the Canadian System for ratingPrediction of Forest Fires using Data Mining Methods By Hye Rin Kim Supervised by Dr. McLeod Master's Project July 2009 #12;Contents 1 Executive Summary 2 2 Introduction 2 2.1 Forest Fire Data

  10. Forest Fires in Russia and Northern China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Smoke plumes from forest fires scattered along the border between the Russian Far East and northern China are clearly visible in this true-color image from the Sea-viewing Wide-Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) on June 16, 2000. Fires in Siberia occur every summer, and severe outbreaks occur every ten years or so, with the most recent in 1998. The fires are ignited by lightning, and are so remote that it is impossible to fight them effectively. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  11. FOREST FIRE SEVERITY INDEX FROM REMOTE SENSED ATMOSPHERE PARAMETERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Otto Hyvärinen

    Forest fire risk indexes assess the risk of forest fire occurrences. In addition to this, if a fire does take place, it is useful to have assessment of the probability that the fire will become large and erratic. Stability of lower atmosphere plays a key role in this. Conventional sta- bility indexes that indicate the instable and moist atmospheric conditions

  12. Spatial and Temporal Variations in Forest Fire Frequency in the Boreal Forest of Northern Alberta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Poul Storm Larsen

    1994-01-01

    Forest fires occur frequently in the boreal forest of North America and greatly affect vegetation dynamics, biogeochemical cycles and resident human populations. Estimates of the frequency of boreal forest fires would be useful for understanding boreal ecosystems and managing the affects of fires on human populations. The objectives of this work were to investigate relations between fire frequency and climate

  13. THE FOREST FIRE RISK INDEX (ICRIF) OPERATIONAL PROCESSING AND VALIDATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Bugalho; L. Pessanha

    Forest fires are one of the most important natural risks affecting Portugal, especially over the summer time, with enormous direct economical impact and indirect consequences, introducing fast changes on the land cover. Just a sustainable management of forest allows continuity on the forest exploitation. The Forest Fire Risk Index, the ICRIF, produced by the Portuguese Meteorological Institute (IM), combining meteorological

  14. Emissions from Forest Fires near Mexico City

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yokelson, R.; Urbanski, S.; Atlas, E.; Toohey, D.; Alvarado, E.; Crounse, J.; Wennberg, P.; Fisher, M.; Wold, C.; Campos, T.; Adachi, K.; Buseck, P. R.; Hao, W. M.

    2007-01-01

    The emissions of NOx (defined as NO (nitric oxide) + NO2 (nitrogen dioxide)) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN), per unit amount of fuel burned, from fires in the pine forests that dominate the mountains surrounding Mexico City (MC) are about 2 times higher than normally observed for forest burning. The ammonia (NH3) emissions are about average for forest burning. The upper limit for the mass ratio of NOX to volatile organic compounds (VOC) for these MC-area mountain fires was approximately 0.38, which is similar to the NOx/VOC ratio in the MC urban area emissions inventory of 0.34, but much larger than the NOx/VOC ratio for tropical forest fires in Brazil (approximately 0.068). The nitrogen enrichment in the fire emissions may be due to deposition of nitrogen-containing pollutants in the outflow from the MC urban area. This effect may occur worldwide wherever biomass burning coexists with large urban areas (e.g. the tropics, southeastern US, Los Angeles Basin). The molar emission ratio of HCN to carbon monoxide (CO) for the mountain fires was 0.012 +/- 0.007, which is 2-9 times higher than widely used literature values for biomass burning. The ambient molar ratio HCN/CO in the MC-area outflow is about 0.003 +/- 0.0003. Thus, if only mountain fires emit significant amounts of HCN, these fires may be contributing about 25% of the CO production in the MCarea (approximately 98-100 W and 19-20 N). Comparing the PM10/CO and PM2.5/CO mass ratios in the MC Metropolitan Area emission inventory (0.01 15 and 0.0037) to the PM1/CO mass ratio for the mountain fires (0.133) then suggests that these fires could produce as much as approximately 79-92% of the primary fine particle mass generated in the MC-area. Considering both the uncertainty in the HCN/CO ratios and secondary aerosol formation in the urban and fire emissions implies that about 50 +/- 30% of the "aged" fine particle mass in the March 2006 MC-area outflow could be from these fires.

  15. Forest Fire: A Crisis Reality for Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Don; Mickelson, Rhonda

    2002-01-01

    Two camp directors were interviewed about evacuations from their camps due to forest fires. Topics covered include descriptions of the events; actions taken; aspects of advance planning that proved helpful; unexpected portions of the experience and resultant changes made in plans; relations with outside agencies, the media, and parents; working…

  16. Burning and physico-chemical characteristics of carbon in ash from a coal fired power plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Osvalda Senneca

    2008-01-01

    The paper addresses the relationship between the chemico-physical properties and the residual combustion reactivity of fly ashes from a full-scale front fired PF coal boiler. Ashes collected at different rows of electrostatic precipitators (EP) have been characterized for their particle size distribution, morphology, chemical composition and combustion reactivity. The combustion time of carbon in ash has been estimated for a

  17. Lightning in Colorado forest fire smoke plumes during summer 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, T. J.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Dolan, B.; Lindsey, D.; Rutledge, S. A.; Rison, W.

    2012-12-01

    May and June 2012 were unusually hot and dry in Colorado, which was suffering from a strong drought. A major consequence of this climatic regime was one of the most destructive forest fire seasons in state history, with hundreds of thousands of acres of forest and grassland consumed by flames, hundreds of homes burned, and several lives lost. Many of these fires occurred within range of the newly installed Colorado Lightning Mapping Array (COLMA), which provides high-resolution observations of discharges over a large portion of the state. The COLMA was installed in advance of the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) project. High-altitude lightning was observed to occur sporadically in the smoke plumes over three major fires that occurred during early summer: Hewlett Gulch, High Park, and Waldo Canyon. Additionally, the Colorado State University CHILL (CSU-CHILL) and Pawnee radars observed the Hewlett Gulch plume electrify with detailed polarimetric and dual-Doppler measurements, and also provided these same measurements for the High Park plume when it was not producing lightning. Meanwhile, local Next Generation Radars (NEXRADs) provided observations of the electrified High Park and Waldo Canyon plumes. All of these plumes also were observed by geostationary meteorological satellites. These observations provide an unprecedented dataset with which to study smoke plume and pyrocumulus electrification. The polarimetric data - low reflectivity, high differential reflectivity, low correlation coefficient, and noisy differential phase - were consistent with the smoke plumes and associated pyrocumulus being filled primarily with irregularly shaped ash particles. Lightning was not observed in the plumes until they reached over 10 km above mean sea level, which was an uncommon occurrence requiring explosive fire growth combined with increased meteorological instability and reduced wind shear. Plume updraft intensification and echo-top growth led the occurrence of lightning by 10-15 minutes. Discharges typically only occurred over the span of a few minutes thereafter, or sporadically over the course of one of more hours. Plume lightning was intra-cloud and relatively small in size, and featured extensive precursor activity. Due to the preponderance of ash in the plumes and the lack of precipitation-sized ice, electrification had to occur via some other mechanism besides standard graupel-based non-inductive mechanisms. Triboelectric charging of the ash particles, aided by reduced breakdown fields at high altitudes, is posited as the primary mechanism behind the lightning in these smoke plumes.

  18. Forest fire detection based on MODIS satellite imager y, and Comparison of NOA A satellite imagery with fire fighters' information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koji Nakau; Masami Fukuda; Keiji Kushida; Hiroshi Hayasaka; Keiji Kimura; Hiroshi Tani

    Impacts of boreal forest fires have absorbed intensive attention because of huge fires in these years in Alaska as well as Siberia. To reduce impacts of forest fire in boreal forest area, the early fire detection is one of essential components in firefighting activity because of difficulties of fire suppressing in remote area without water. Here, we developed fire detection

  19. Fire Regime and Stability of the West African Tropical Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwomoh, F. K.; Wimberly, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    Ecological discussions concerning alternative stable states theory suggest that tropical forest ecosystems could shift to qualitatively different alternative states upon catastrophic disturbances which exceed forest resilience. In this regard, it is expected that changes in the fire regime facilitated by climate and land use alterations could lead to rapid forest cover loss, creating conditions likely to push tropical forests to tipping points, beyond which forest resilience is lost. However, there is a dearth of empirical examples of fire-driven alternative stable states involving tropical forests. Key among the constraints for this scarcity are the requirements for large scale disturbances and long-term data, both of which are scarce. However, in the West African tropical forest (referred to as the Upper Guinean forest, UGF) a number of protected areas were impacted by large fire events during the 1980s El Niño-driven droughts, providing an opportunity for testing hypotheses concerning alternative stable states in tropical forest ecosystems. This paper aims to demonstrate fire-driven alternative stable states in the deciduous forest zone of the UGF by analyzing fire activity and forest recovery in fire-impacted forest reserves. We analyzed historical Landsat and MODIS imagery to map and quantify vegetation cover change, fire frequency and fire severity patterns. Our analyses suggest that the historic fires in the 1980s were catastrophic enough to remove forest canopy, thereby triggering a landscape-scale alternative stable states. Forest cover declined substantially becoming replaced by a novel ecosystem with low tree density. Our results also indicate the establishment of a positive fire-vegetation feedback effect, such that the new vegetation which displaced severely burned forests is more pyrogenic and maintained through frequent burns. This study expands our knowledge on the vulnerability of tropical forest ecosystems to state transitions in response to fire regime changes.

  20. Fire regimes and forest structure in a sky island mixed conifer forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Sakulich; Alan H. Taylor

    Abstract Fire is a key disturbance agent in the fire-prone mixed conifer and ponderosa pine forests of the southwestern United States. Human,activities (i.e., livestock grazing, logging, and fire suppression) have resulted in the exclusion of fire from these forests for the past century and fire exclusion has caused changes in forest structure and composition. This study quantifies spatial and temporal

  1. Reduction of false alarms in forest fire surveillance using water vapour concentration measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellecci, C.; De Leo, L.; Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.; Lo Feudo, T.; Martellucci, S.; Richetta, M.

    2009-06-01

    In this work a theoretical model to evaluate the capabilities of our lidar system in forest fire detection is reported. In particular, a new idea of minimization of false alarm is shown. In a forest fire, in fact, a lot of ashes and in the first stage a large amount of water vapour are emitted. Measurements of water vapour increase with respect to standard humidity in the atmosphere due to a forest fire event, by means of Raman analysis, permit to minimize the false alarm. A simulation of one case of study permits to estimate the maximum range of detection and minimum sensibility of our lidar system. In this paper the theoretical results are shown.

  2. Forest Fire Potential Index for Navarra Autonomic Community (Spain)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margarita Huesca Martínez; Alicia Palacios-Orueta; Ana Sebastián; Paula Escribano

    This study presents the development of a Forest Fire Potential Index at a regional scale for the Autonomic Community of Navarra at 500 meters spatial resolution. The index developed is based on the Fire Potential Index (FPI) applied by Sebastián (2001) at European scale and designed originally by Burgan (1998). The FPI is a dynamic Forest Fire Potential Index based

  3. FOREST ENTOMOLOGY Comparison of Male and Female Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera

    E-print Network

    FOREST ENTOMOLOGY Comparison of Male and Female Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae); DOI: 10.1603/EC10197 ABSTRACT We conducted trapping experiments for the emerald ash borer, Agrilus, green prism traps, ash canopy, monitoring The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire

  4. Time fluctuation analysis of forest fire sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega Orozco, Carmen D.; Kanevski, Mikhaïl; Tonini, Marj; Golay, Jean; Pereira, Mário J. G.

    2013-04-01

    Forest fires are complex events involving both space and time fluctuations. Understanding of their dynamics and pattern distribution is of great importance in order to improve the resource allocation and support fire management actions at local and global levels. This study aims at characterizing the temporal fluctuations of forest fire sequences observed in Portugal, which is the country that holds the largest wildfire land dataset in Europe. This research applies several exploratory data analysis measures to 302,000 forest fires occurred from 1980 to 2007. The applied clustering measures are: Morisita clustering index, fractal and multifractal dimensions (box-counting), Ripley's K-function, Allan Factor, and variography. These algorithms enable a global time structural analysis describing the degree of clustering of a point pattern and defining whether the observed events occur randomly, in clusters or in a regular pattern. The considered methods are of general importance and can be used for other spatio-temporal events (i.e. crime, epidemiology, biodiversity, geomarketing, etc.). An important contribution of this research deals with the analysis and estimation of local measures of clustering that helps understanding their temporal structure. Each measure is described and executed for the raw data (forest fires geo-database) and results are compared to reference patterns generated under the null hypothesis of randomness (Poisson processes) embedded in the same time period of the raw data. This comparison enables estimating the degree of the deviation of the real data from a Poisson process. Generalizations to functional measures of these clustering methods, taking into account the phenomena, were also applied and adapted to detect time dependences in a measured variable (i.e. burned area). The time clustering of the raw data is compared several times with the Poisson processes at different thresholds of the measured function. Then, the clustering measure value depends on the threshold which helps to understand the time pattern of the studied events. Our findings detected the presence of overdensity of events in particular time periods and showed that the forest fire sequences in Portugal can be considered as a multifractal process with a degree of time-clustering of the events. Key words: time sequences, Morisita index, fractals, multifractals, box-counting, Ripley's K-function, Allan Factor, variography, forest fires, point process. Acknowledgements This work was partly supported by the SNFS Project No. 200021-140658, "Analysis and Modelling of Space-Time Patterns in Complex Regions". References - Kanevski M. (Editor). 2008. Advanced Mapping of Environmental Data: Geostatistics, Machine Learning and Bayesian Maximum Entropy. London / Hoboken: iSTE / Wiley. - Telesca L. and Pereira M.G. 2010. Time-clustering investigation of fire temporal fluctuations in Portugal, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., vol. 10(4): 661-666. - Vega Orozco C., Tonini M., Conedera M., Kanevski M. (2012) Cluster recognition in spatial-temporal sequences: the case of forest fires, Geoinformatica, vol. 16(4): 653-673.

  5. An index for tracking sheltered forest floor moisture within the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. M. WottonA; B. J. StocksA; D. L. MartellC

    The Duff Moisture Code (DMC) component of the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) System is used by fire management agencies across Canada as an indicator of the susceptibility of the forest floor to lightning fire ignition. However, this model was developed for the moisture content of the forest floor away from the sheltering influences of overstory trees, an area

  6. An index for tracking sheltered forest floor moisture within the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. M. Wotton; B. J. Stocks; D. L. Martell

    2005-01-01

    Abstract. The Duff Moisture Code (DMC) component,of the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) System is used by fire management,agencies across Canada as an indicator of the susceptibility of the forest floor to lightning fire ignition. However, this model was developed for the moisture content of the forest floor away from the sheltering influences of overstory trees, an area where

  7. Forest Fires Produce Dense Smoke over Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    On August 14, 2005, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this stunning image of forest fires raging across the width of Alaska. Smoke from scores of fires (marked in red) filled the state's broad central valley and poured out to sea. Hemmed in by mountains to the north and the south, the smoke spreads westward and spills out over the Bering and Chukchi Seas (image left). More than a hundred fires were burning across the state as of August 14. Air quality warnings have been issued for about 90 percent of the Interior, according to the August 12 report from the Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation's Division of Air Quality. Conditions have ranged from 'very unhealthy' to 'hazardous' over the weekend in many locations, including Fairbanks. A large area of high atmospheric pressure spread over much of the state, keeping temperatures high and reducing winds that would clear the air.

  8. Gaseous emissions from Canadian boreal forest fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cofer, Wesley R., III; Levine, Joel S.; Winstead, Edward L.; Stocks, Brian J.

    1990-01-01

    CO2-normalized emission ratios for carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen (H2), methane (CH4), total nonmethane hydrocarbons (TNMHC), and nitrous oxide (N2O) were determined from smoke samples collected during low-altitude helicopter flights over two prescribed fires in northern Ontario, Canada. The emission ratios determined from these prescribed boreal forest fires are compared to emission ratios determined over two graminoid (grass) wetlands fires in central Florida and are found to be substantially higher (elevated levels of reduced gas production relative to CO2) during all stages of combustion. These results argue strongly for the need to characterize biomass burning emissions from the major global vegetation/ecosystems in order to couple combustion emissions to their vegetation/ecosystem type.

  9. Trace Metal Inventories and Lead Isotopic Composition Chronicle a Forest Fire’s Remobilization of Industrial Contaminants Deposited in the Angeles National Forest

    PubMed Central

    Odigie, Kingsley O.; Flegal, A. Russell

    2014-01-01

    The amounts of labile trace metals: [Co] (3 to 11 µg g?1), [Cu] (15 to 69 µg g?1), [Ni] (6 to 15 µg g?1), [Pb] (7 to 42 µg g?1), and [Zn] (65 to 500 µg g?1) in ash collected from the 2012 Williams Fire in Los Angeles, California attest to the role of fires in remobilizing industrial metals deposited in forests. These remobilized trace metals may be dispersed by winds, increasing human exposures, and they may be deposited in water bodies, increasing exposures in aquatic ecosystems. Correlations between the concentrations of these trace metals, normalized to Fe, in ash from the fire suggest that Co, Cu, and Ni in most of those samples were predominantly from natural sources, whereas Pb and Zn were enriched in some ash samples. The predominantly anthropogenic source of excess Pb in the ash was further demonstrated by its isotopic ratios (208Pb/207Pb: 206Pb/207Pb) that fell between those of natural Pb and leaded gasoline sold in California during the previous century. These analyses substantiate current human and environmental health concerns with the pyrogenic remobilization of toxic metals, which are compounded by projections of increases in the intensity and frequency of wildfires associated with climate change. PMID:25259524

  10. Satellite imagery gives clear picture of Russia's boreal forest fires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric S. Kasischke; Kathleen Bergen; R. Fennimore; F. Sotelo; G. Stephens; Anthony Janetos; H. Hank Shugart

    1999-01-01

    Boreal forest fires in Russia in 1998 may have covered a much larger area than originally reported and may have been mostly crown fires, releasing more greenhouse gases into the atmosphere than surface fires. These conclusions are based on analysis of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data and discussions with Russian fire officials. A more complete analysis of AVHRR

  11. Effects of fire on properties of forest soils: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giacomo Certini

    2005-01-01

    Many physical, chemical, mineralogical, and biological soil properties can be affected by forest fires. The effects are chiefly a result of burn severity, which consists of peak temperatures and duration of the fire. Climate, vegetation, and topography of the burnt area control the resilience of the soil system; some fire-induced changes can even be permanent. Low to moderate severity fires,

  12. Fire, global warming, and the carbon balance of boreal forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. S. Kasischke; N. L. Jr. Christensen; B. J. Stocks

    1995-01-01

    Fire strongly influences carbon cycling and storage in boreal forests. In the near-term, if global warming occurs, the frequency and intensity of fires in boreal forests are likely to increase significantly. A sensitivity analysis on the relationship between fire and carbon storage in the living-biomass and ground-layer compartments of boreal forests was performed to determine how the carbon stocks would

  13. Modeling Forest Understory Fires in an Eastern Amazonian Landscape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alencar, A. A. C.; Solorzano, L. A.; Nepstad, D. C.

    2004-01-01

    Forest understory fires are an increasingly important cause of forest impoverishment in Ammonia, but little is known of the landscape characteristics and climatic phenomena that determine their occurrence. We developed empirical functions relating the occurrence of understory fires to landscape features near Paragominas, a 35- yr-old ranching and logging center in eastern Ammonia. An historical sequence of maps of forest understory fire was created based on field interviews With local farmers and Landsat TM images. Several landscape features that might explain spatial variations in the occurrence of understory fires were also mapped and co-registered for each of the sample dates, including: forest fragment size and shape, forest impoverishment through logging and understory fires, source of ignition (settlements and charcoal pits), roads, forest edges, and others. The spatial relationship between forest understory fire and each landscape characteristic was tested by regression analyses. Fire probability models were then developed for various combinations of landscape characteristics. The analyses were conducted separately for years of the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which are associated with severe drought in eastern Amazonia, and non-ENS0 years. Most (91 %) of the forest area that burned during the 10-yr sequence caught fire during ENSO years, when severe drought may have increased both forest flammability and the escape of agricultural management fires. Forest understory fires were associated with forest edges, as reported in previous studies from Ammonia. But the strongest predictor of forest fire was the percentage of the forest fragment that had been previously logged or burned. Forest fragment size, distance to charcoal pits, distance to agricultural settlement, proximity to forest edge, and distance to roads were also correlated with forest understory fire. Logistic regression models using information on fragment degradation and distance to ignition sources accurately predicted the location of lss than 80% of the forest fires observed during the ENSO event of 1997- 1998. In this Amazon landscape, forest understory fire is a complex function of several variables that influence both the flammability and ignition exposure of the forest.

  14. Early Forest Fire Detection Using Radio-Acoustic Sounding System

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Yasar Guneri; Ince, Turker

    2009-01-01

    Automated early fire detection systems have recently received a significant amount of attention due to their importance in protecting the global environment. Some emergent technologies such as ground-based, satellite-based remote sensing and distributed sensor networks systems have been used to detect forest fires in the early stages. In this study, a radio-acoustic sounding system with fine space and time resolution capabilities for continuous monitoring and early detection of forest fires is proposed. Simulations show that remote thermal mapping of a particular forest region by the proposed system could be a potential solution to the problem of early detection of forest fires. PMID:22573967

  15. Early forest fire detection using radio-acoustic sounding system.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Yasar Guneri; Ince, Turker

    2009-01-01

    Automated early fire detection systems have recently received a significant amount of attention due to their importance in protecting the global environment. Some emergent technologies such as ground-based, satellite-based remote sensing and distributed sensor networks systems have been used to detect forest fires in the early stages. In this study, a radio-acoustic sounding system with fine space and time resolution capabilities for continuous monitoring and early detection of forest fires is proposed. Simulations show that remote thermal mapping of a particular forest region by the proposed system could be a potential solution to the problem of early detection of forest fires. PMID:22573967

  16. 75 FR 52713 - Nationwide Aerial Application of Fire Retardant on National Forest System Lands

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ...Service Nationwide Aerial Application of Fire Retardant on National Forest System Lands...continued nationwide aerial application of fire retardant on National Forest System lands...The Forest Service is working to restore fire-adapted ecosystems through...

  17. Using Remote Sensing to Assess Russian Forest Fire Carbon Emissions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Isaev; G. N. Korovin; S. A. Bartalev; D. V. Ershov; A. Janetos; E. S. Kasischke; H. H. Shugart; N. H. F. French; B. E. Orlick; T. L. Murphy

    2002-01-01

    Russian boreal forests are subject to frequent wildfires. The resulting combustion of large amounts of biomass not only transforms forest vegetation, but it also creates significant carbon emissions that total, according to some authors, from 35–94 Mt C per year. These carbon emissions from forest fires should be considered an important part of the forest ecosystem carbon balance and a

  18. Fire Effects on Carbon and Nitrogen Budgets in Forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. Johnson; R. B. Susfalk; T. G. Caldwell; J. D. Murphy; W. W. Miller; R. F. Walker

    2004-01-01

    Estimates of C and N loss by gasification during a wildfire in a Jeffrey pine (Pinus Jeffreyii [Grev. and Balf.]) forest in Little Valley, Nevada are compared to potential losses in more mesic forests in the Integrated Forest Study (IFS). In Little Valley, the fire consumed the forest floor, foliage, and an unknown amount of soil organic matter, but little

  19. Forest Fires Prevention in Portugal - Using GIS to Help Improving Early Fire Detection Effectiveness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Filipe X. Catry; Francisco C. Rego; Teresa Santos; Joel Almeida; Paulo Relvas

    Forest fires and burnt area in Portugal have been increasing in the last decades, contrarily to other southern European countries, although more resources are being allocated to prevention, detection and fire fighting. To minimize the probability of wildfires occurrence, it is crucial to assure the effectiveness of the prevention, vigilance and first attack operations. When fire prevention fails, fire fighting

  20. Factors influencing plant succession following fire in Ashe juniper woodland types in Real County, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Huss, Donald Lee

    1954-01-01

    FACTORS INFLUENCING PLANT SUCCESSION FOLLOWING FIRE IN ASHE JUHIPER WOODLAND TYPES IN REAL COUNTY& TEXAS By DONAID L. RUSS Approved as to style end content by: ~c-". '~ Z). 4:-. = Chairman of Committee Bead of Depantme Nay l954. LIBgARV A... A M GOLLEGL OF TEXAS FACTORS INFLUENCING PLANT SUCCESSION FOLLOWING FIRE IN ASHE JUNIPER WO(NILAND TIPES IN REAL COUNTI, TEUIS Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment oi...

  1. EFFECT OF ASH DISPOSAL PONDS ON GROUNDWATER QUALITY AT A COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impact of fly and bottom ash disposal ponds on groundwater quality was investigated at the coal-fired Columbia Power Plant at Portage, WI. Groundwater sampling was conducted utilizing a network of piezometers and multilevel wells located at various cross-sections of the ash d...

  2. Ash deposition at coal-fired gas turbine conditions; Surface and combustion temperature effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. Richards; R. G. Logan; C. T. Meyer; R. J. Anderson

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a study of ash deposition from a cleaned bituminous and conventional bituminous coal is presented. An electrically heated drop tube furnace is used to burn the coal and provide deposition conditions representative of proposed coal-fired gas turbines. Variations in the combustion temperature and deposit surface temperature demonstrate that surface cooling may significantly reduce ash deposition, or may

  3. PATHOLOGIC CHANGES INDUCED BY COAL-FIRED FLY ASH IN HAMSTER TRACHEAL GRAFTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicity of fly ash from a coal-fired power plant for respiratory tract epithelium was studied in heterotropic tracheal grafts. Hamster tracheal grafts were continuously exposed to beeswax-cholesterol pellets containing 100, 1000 and 5000 micrograms fly ash and evaluated at 1...

  4. The safety and economics of high ash anthracite fired mixing with petroleum-coke in pulverized coal-fired furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.; Sun, X.; Li, F. [HuaZhong Univ. of Science and Technology, WuHan HuBei (China)

    1996-12-31

    Petroleum-coke was fired only in CFB because of its content of high S and low volatile matter. It will bring environmental and flame stability problems if petroleum-coke is fired in a pulverized coal-fired furnace. Low rank anthracite is fired in many pulverized coal-fired furnaces without flame stability problems. Here the authors blend high ash anthracite with petroleum-coke as the fuel for a pulverized coal-fired furnace to decrease the ash content in the fuel. Experimental results had shown that in mixing with petroleum-coke, the combustion behavior of the blended fuel was improved and ash deposition characteristic would not change compared with high ash anthracite. Using coal/petroleum-coke as the fuel for furnace can bring great benefits for the environment and furnace. But S content in blended fuel must be controlled under the regulation of S content in coal and the volatile content should not decrease too low for the coal-fired furnace design to avoid the environmental and flame stability problems.

  5. Fire regimes and forest structure in a sky island mixed conifer forest, Guadalupe Mountains National Park, Texas, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Sakulich; Alan H. Taylor

    2007-01-01

    Fire is a key disturbance agent in the fire-prone mixed conifer and ponderosa pine forests of the southwestern United States. Human activities (i.e., livestock grazing, logging, and fire suppression) have resulted in the exclusion of fire from these forests for the past century and fire exclusion has caused changes in forest structure and composition. This study quantifies spatial and temporal

  6. Levels and Sources of Forest Fire Prevention Knowledge

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    Levels and Sources of Forest Fire Prevention Knowledge of California Hunters William S. Folkman U-managerial occupations. Their level of knowl- edge about forest fire prevention is generally high, but their knowledge prevention is generally high, but their knowledge is weak in some pertinent areas. Most frequently reported

  7. Wildfire-ash: Relationships between colour, water repellency and organic carbon content

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. B. Bodí; J. Mataix-Solera; S. H. Doerr; A. Cerdà

    2009-01-01

    During a forest fire, a layer of vegetative ash is often deposited over soil surface. The amount of ash deposited as well as its physical and chemical properties are highly variable. These parameters are influenced particularly by vegetation type and fire severity, resulting in a differing ash colour. This ash remains over the soil until it is redistributed by water

  8. Optimisation of forest fire sensor network using GIS technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nenad Mladineo; S. Knezic

    2000-01-01

    In Dalmatia (Croatia) during the summer, forest fires occur very frequently causing catastrophic damage to the environment, affecting tourism and other activities. Therefore a MIS (management information system) for fire protection was conceptualised. The MIS is based on the integration of a fire protection system and a GIS of the Split-Dalmatia County with management models that evaluate ambient characteristics. GIS

  9. Forest Floor Carbon and Nitrogen Losses Due to Prescription Fire

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. G. Caldwell; D. W. Johnson; W. W. Miller; R. G. Qualls

    2002-01-01

    to 18 yr, respectively (Dieterich, 1980). Postsettle- ment fire suppression began in the early 1900s. The Fire is the dominant factor affecting C and N losses from the buildup of fuel in understory and litter layers, and the semiarid forests of the eastern Sierra Nevada. As prescription fire becomes a best management practice, it is critical to develop an esti-

  10. Forest fires and the snowshoe hare-Canada lynx cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John F. Fox

    1978-01-01

    This paper shows that there is a reasonable coincidence between the Canada lynx cycle and the occurrence of forest and brush fires. Fires set in motion plant succession, potentially leading to an increase in snowshoe hares (Grange, 1965). Snowfall is also correlated with the lynx cycle and tends to account for the variation not accounted for by fires. I conclude

  11. The Development and Implementation of Forest Fire Management Decision Support

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    . The Aviation Flood and Fire Management Branch (AFFMB) of the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR) is responsible for forest fire management on publicly owned crown land in the Province of Ontario, Canada. Since, other stakeholders, and the public are identified through fire management strategies that specify land

  12. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in riverine waters after Mediterranean forest fires.

    PubMed

    Olivella, M A; Ribalta, T G; de Febrer, A R; Mollet, J M; de Las Heras, F X C

    2006-02-15

    Extensive forest fires occurred in Catalonia, northern Spain, in 1994. In our study, concentrations and profiles of 12 parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in riverine waters, ash and sediment samples at nine sampling sites (W1-W9) and at three sampling dates from Llobregat hydrographic basin: in August, 1994, one month after the extensive forest fires; in September, 1994, after the first heavy autumn rainfalls and in January, 1995, six months after forest fires. In August 1994, the total concentrations of 12 PAHs measured in riverine waters varied from 2 ng/l to 336 ng/l. In September 1994, the total PAH concentrations decreased to 0.2-31 ng/l and in January 1995, from 9 ng/l to 73 ng/l. In August, the composition pattern of PAHs showed a distribution dominated by 4-ring PAHs (pyrene, chrysene+triphenylene, benzo(a)anthracene) at W3-W6, W8 and W9 and 3-ring PAHs (phenanthrene) at W1, W2 and W7. In September, a preference by 3-ring PAHs (phenanthrene) at all sampling sites except W5 was shown and in January was clearly dominated by 4-ring PAHs (chrysene+triphenylene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene) at all sampling sites. In ash and sediment samples, the total concentrations of 12 PAHs ranged from 1.3 ng/g to 19 ng/g. The dominant compound was phenanthrene. PMID:15885751

  13. Chemical and engineering properties of fired bricks containing 50 weight percent of class F fly ash

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chou, I.-Ming; Patel, V.; Laird, C.J.; Ho, K.K.

    2001-01-01

    The generation of fly ash during coal combustion represents a considerable solid waste disposal problem in the state of Illinois and nationwide. In fact, the majority of the three million tons of fly ash produced from burning Illinois bituminous coals is disposed of in landfills. The purpose of this study was to obtain a preliminary assessment of the technical feasibility of mitigating this solid waste problem by making fired bricks with the large volume of fly ash generated from burning Illinois coals. Test bricks were produced by the extrusion method with increasing amounts (20-50% by weight) of fly ash as a replacement for conventional raw materials. The chemical characteristics and engineering properties of the test bricks produced with and without 50 wt% of fly ash substitutions were analyzed and compared. The properties of the test bricks containing fly ash were at least comparable to, if not better than, those of standard test bricks made without fly ash and met the commercial specifications for fired bricks. The positive results of this study suggest that further study on test bricks with fly ash substitutions of greater than 50wt% is warranted. Successful results could have an important impact in reducing the waste disposal problem related to class F fly ash while providing the brick industry with a new low cost raw material. Copyright ?? 2001 Taylor & Francis.

  14. Fire resistance of biomass ash panels used for internal partitions in buildings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos Leiva; Luis F. Vilches; José Vale; Constantino Fernández-Pereira

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study has been to develop fire-resistant panels with a high biomass ash ratio (from the combustion of olive pomace) at an industrial scale to be used in different fire-resistant internal partitions in buildings and industrial constructions. To this end, fire resistance, thermal and mechanical parameters were measured. The panels (100×60cm by 4cm thick) were prepared

  15. An Action Activated and Self Powered Wireless Forest Fire Detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johan Sidén; Andrey Koptyug; Mikael Gulliksson; Hans-Erik Nilsson

    Placing fire detectors in a forest is usually associated with powering problems since the sensors do not have access to external\\u000a power supply and a periodical change of internal batteries is an undesired option. This paper presents an approach where the\\u000a fire sensor itself, when heated by nearby fire, generates electrical energy to power a radio transmitter. Presented energizing\\u000a fire

  16. Explaining Indonesian Forest Fires: Both Ends of the Firestick

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew P. Vayda

    \\u000a My object in this article is to discuss some things that have been wrong with causal explanations of Indonesian forest fires\\u000a in the past and some ways in which they might be made better as explanations and, concomitantly, more useful for fire management.\\u000a I will give examples not only of problematic explanations but also of fire-research and fire-management recommendations and

  17. Aerosol index variations caused by severe forest fires in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomshin, Oleg A.; Solovyev, Vladimir S.

    2014-11-01

    Aerosol index variations, caused by large-scale forest fires in Siberia, Russia in 2012, 2013 were studied on remote sensing data (EOS Terra, Aqua and Aura). Analysis of the forest fire activity, variations of aerosol index distribution, pressure fields and winds shows that large-scale forest fires are the main factor determining the spatial and temporal distribution of the aerosol index from April to October as in the Siberia and the Far East. Formation of large-scale inhomogeneities in AI distribution is possible under appropriate meteorological conditions (low pressure, slow wind speed, etc.) which lead to formation of stagnation regions where aerosol particles are accumulated. Aerosol pollution from severe forest fires can be transported over a high distances from the fire location.

  18. WebGIS Platform Adressed to Forest Fire Management Methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André Ramos-Simões, Nuno; Neto Paixão, Helena Maria; Granja Martins, Fernando Miguel; Pedras, Celestina; Lança, Rui; Silva, Elisa; Jordán, António; Zavala, Lorena; Soares, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    Forest fires are one of the natural disasters that causes more damages in nature, as well as high material costs, and sometimes, a significant losses in human lives. In summer season, when high temperatures are attained, fire may rapidly progress and destroy vast areas of forest and also rural and urban areas. The forest fires have effect on forest species, forest composition and structure, soil properties and soil capacity for nutrient retention. In order to minimize the negative impact of the forest fires in the environment, many studies have been developed, e.g. Jordán et al (2009), Cerdà & Jordán (2010), and Gonçalves & Vieira (2013). Nowadays, Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) technologies are used as support tools in fire management decisions, namely during the fire, but also before and after. This study presents the development of a user-friendly WebGIS dedicated to share data, maps and provide updated information on forest fire management for stakeholders in Iberia Peninsula. The WebGIS platform was developed with ArcGIS Online, ArcGIS for Desktop; HyperText Markup Language (HTML) and Javascript. This platform has a database that includes spatial and alphanumeric information, such as: origin, burned areas, vegetation change over time, terrain natural slope, land use, soil erosion and fire related hazards. The same database contains also the following relevant information: water sources, forest tracks and traffic ways, lookout posts and urban areas. The aim of this study is to provide the authorities with a tool to assess risk areas and manage more efficiently forest fire hazards, giving more support to their decisions and helping the populations when facing this kind of phenomena.

  19. A framework for use of wireless sensor networks in forest fire detection and monitoring

    E-print Network

    Ulusoy, Özgür

    , the smallest fire size that can be detected by such a system is around 0.1 hectare, which also prevents fireA framework for use of wireless sensor networks in forest fire detection and monitoring Yunus Emre sensor networks Forest fire detection Environmental monitoring a b s t r a c t Forest fires are one

  20. Post-fire runoff and erosion from rainfall simulation: contrasting forests with shrublands and grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansen, Mathew P.; Hakonson, Thomas E.; Breshears, David D.

    2001-10-01

    Rainfall simulations allow for controlled comparisons of runoff and erosion among ecosystems and land cover conditions. Runoff and erosion can increase greatly following fire, yet there are few rainfall simulation studies for post-fire plots, particularly after severe fire in semiarid forest. We conducted rainfall simulations shortly after a severe fire (Cerro Grande) in ponderosa pine forest near Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA, which completely burned organic ground cover and exposed unprotected soil. Measurements on burned plots showed 74% of mineral soil was exposed compared with an estimated 3% exposed prior to the fire. Most of the remaining 26% surface area was covered by easily moveable ash. Rainfall was applied at 60 mm h-1 in three repeated tests over 2 days. Runoff from burned plots was about 45% of the total 120 mm of applied precipitation, but only 23% on the unburned plots. The most striking difference between the response of burned and unburned plots was the amount of sediment production; burned plots generated 25 times more sediment than unburned plots (76 kg ha-1 and 3 kg ha-1 respectively per millimetre of rain). Sediment yields were well correlated with percentage bare soil (r = 0·84). These sediment yields were more than an order of magnitude greater than nearly all comparable rainfall simulation studies conducted on burned plots in the USA, most of which have been in grasslands or shrublands. A synthesis of comparable studies suggests that an erosion threshold is reached as the amount of soil exposed by fire increases to 60-70%. Our results provide sediment yield and runoff data from severely burned surfaces, a condition for which little rainfall simulation data exist. Further, our results contrast post-fire hydrologic responses in forests with those in grasslands and shrublands. These results can be applied to problems concerning post-fire erosion, flooding, contaminant transport, and development of associated remediation strategies.

  1. Forest construction infrastructures for the prevision, suppression, and protection before and after forest fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drosos, Vasileios C.; Giannoulas, Vasileios J.; Daoutis, Christodoulos

    2014-08-01

    Climatic changes cause temperature rise and thus increase the risk of forest fires. In Greece the forests with the greatest risk to fire are usually those located near residential and tourist areas where there are major pressures on land use changes, while there are no currently guaranteed cadastral maps and defined title deeds because of the lack of National and Forest Cadastre. In these areas the deliberate causes of forest fires are at a percentage more than 50%. This study focuses on the forest opening up model concerning both the prevention and suppression of forest fires. The most urgent interventions that can be done after the fire destructions is also studied in relation to soil protection constructions, in order to minimize the erosion and the torrential conditions. Digital orthophotos were used in order to produce and analyze spatial data using Geographical Information Systems (GIS). Initially, Digital Elevation Models were generated, based on photogrammetry and forest areas as well as the forest road network were mapped. Road density, road distance, skidding distance and the opening up percentage were accurately measured for a forest complex. Finally, conclusions and suggestions have been drawn about the environmental compatibility of forest protection and wood harvesting works. In particular the contribution of modern technologies such as digital photogrammetry, remote sensing and Geographical Information Systems is very important, allowing reliable, effective and fast process of spatial analysis contributing to a successful planning of opening up works and fire protection.

  2. Post-fire reconstructions of fire intensity from fire severity data: quantifying the role of spatial variability of fire intensity on forest dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Patrick; Oborne, Lisa

    2015-04-01

    Large, high-intensity fires have direct and long-lasting effects on forest ecosystems and present a serious threat to human life and property. However, even within the most catastrophic fires there is important variability in local-scale intensity that has important ramifications for forest mortality and regeneration. Quantifying this variability is difficult due to the rarity of catastrophic fire events, the extreme conditions at the time of the fires, and their large spatial extent. Instead fire severity is typically measured or estimated from observed patterns of vegetation mortality; however, differences in species- and size-specific responses to fires often makes fire severity a poor proxy for fire intensity. We developed a statistical method using simple, plot-based measurements of individual tree mortality to simultaneously estimate plot-level fire intensity and species-specific mortality patterns as a function of tree size. We applied our approach to an area of forest burned in the catastrophic Black Saturday fires that occurred near Melbourne, Australia, in February 2009. Despite being the most devastating fire in the past 70 years and our plots being located in the area that experienced some of the most intense fires in the 350,000 ha fire complex, we found that the estimated fire intensity was highly variable at multiple spatial scales. All eight tree species in our study differed in their susceptibility to fire-induced mortality, particularly among the largest size classes. We also found that seedling height and species richness of the post-fire seedling communities were both positively correlated with fire intensity. Spatial variability in disturbance intensity has important, but poorly understood, consequences for the short- and long-term dynamics of forests in the wake of catastrophic wildfires. Our study provides a tool to estimate fire intensity after a fire has passed, allowing new opportunities for linking spatial variability in fire intensity to forest ecosystem dynamics.

  3. Deriving forest fire ignition risk with biogeochemical process modelling?

    PubMed Central

    Eastaugh, C.S.; Hasenauer, H.

    2014-01-01

    Climate impacts the growth of trees and also affects disturbance regimes such as wildfire frequency. The European Alps have warmed considerably over the past half-century, but incomplete records make it difficult to definitively link alpine wildfire to climate change. Complicating this is the influence of forest composition and fuel loading on fire ignition risk, which is not considered by purely meteorological risk indices. Biogeochemical forest growth models track several variables that may be used as proxies for fire ignition risk. This study assesses the usefulness of the ecophysiological model BIOME-BGC's ‘soil water’ and ‘labile litter carbon’ variables in predicting fire ignition. A brief application case examines historic fire occurrence trends over pre-defined regions of Austria from 1960 to 2008. Results show that summer fire ignition risk is largely a function of low soil moisture, while winter fire ignitions are linked to the mass of volatile litter and atmospheric dryness. PMID:26109905

  4. Characterization of biomass burning aerosols from forest fire in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Y.; Iriana, W.; Okumura, M.; Lestari, P.; Tohno, S.; Akira, M.; Okuda, T.

    2012-12-01

    Biomass burning (forest fire, wild fire) is a major source of pollutants, generating an estimate of 104 Tg per year of aerosol particles worldwide. These particles have adverse human health effects and can affect the radiation budget and climate directly and indirectly. Eighty percent of biomass burning aerosols are generated in the tropics and about thirty percent of them originate in the tropical regions of Asia (Andreae, 1991). Several recent studies have reported on the organic compositions of biomass burning aerosols in the tropical regions of South America and Africa, however, there is little data about forest fire aerosols in the tropical regions of Asia. It is important to characterize biomass burning aerosols in the tropical regions of Asia because the aerosol properties vary between fires depending on type and moisture of wood, combustion phase, wind conditions, and several other variables (Reid et al., 2005). We have characterized PM2.5 fractions of biomass burning aerosols emitted from forest fire in Indonesia. During the dry season in 2012, PM2.5 aerosols from several forest fires occurring in Riau, Sumatra, Indonesia were collected on quartz and teflon filters with two mini-volume samplers. Background aerosols in forest were sampled during transition period of rainy season to dry season (baseline period). Samples were analyzed with several analytical instruments. The carbonaceous content (organic and elemental carbon, OC and EC) of the aerosols was analyzed by a thermal optical reflectance technique using IMPROVE protocol. The metal, inorganic ion and organic components of the aerosols were analyzed by X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), ion chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively. There was a great difference of chemical composition between forest fire and non-forest fire samples. Smoke aerosols for forest fires events were composed of ~ 45 % OC and ~ 2.5 % EC. On the other hand, background aerosols for baseline periods were composed of ~ 18 % OC and ~ 10 % EC. OC/EC ratio was consistently lower (~ 2) for baseline periods than that for forest fire events (~ 20). OC and EC concentrations for forest fire events were more than 150 times and 10 times higher than those for baseline periods.

  5. Targeting Audiences and Content for Forest Fire Information Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Edwin H.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Discusses opinion survey results for the purpose of improving the capabilities of forest managers to effectively communicate new fire management objectives and plans. Includes recommendations based on the analysis concerning the appropriate audiences and content to target in the design of fire information programs. (ML)

  6. Preliminary report on 2005 and 2004 Alaska forest fires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi HAYASAKA

    In 2004 and 2005, many large-scale forest fires had occurred in Alaska. The burnt area in 2004 was 26,142 km2 and it was 18,816 km2 in 2005. They were respectively the first and the third historical record since 1956. The cause of these fires is now under investigating. This is a preliminary report on these fires. In 2004, severe lightning

  7. Climate change impacts on forest fires: the stakeholders' perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannakopoulos, C.; Roussos, A.; Karali, A.; Hatzaki, M.; Xanthopoulos, G.; Chatzinikos, E.; Fyllas, N.; Georgiades, N.; Karetsos, G.; Maheras, G.; Nikolaou, I.; Proutsos, N.; Sbarounis, T.; Tsaggari, K.; Tzamtzis, I.; Goodess, C.

    2012-04-01

    In this work, we present a synthesis of the presentations and discussions which arose during a workshop on 'Impacts of climate change on forest fires' held in September 2011 at the National Observatory of Athens, Greece in the framework of EU project CLIMRUN. At first, a general presentation about climate change and extremes in the Greek territory provided the necessary background to the audience and highlighted the need for data and information exchange between scientists and stakeholders through climate services within CLIMRUN. Discussions and presentations that followed linked climate with forest science through the use of a meteorological index for fire risk and future projections of fire danger using regional climate models. The current situation on Greek forests was also presented, as well as future steps that should be taken to ameliorate the situation under a climate change world. A time series analysis of changes in forest fires using available historical data on forest ecosystems in Greece was given in this session. This led to the topic of forest fire risk assessment and fire prevention, stating all actions towards sustainable management of forests and effective mechanisms to control fires under climate change. Options for a smooth adaptation of forests to climate change were discussed together with the lessons learned on practical level on prevention, repression and rehabilitation of forest fires. In between there were useful interventions on sustainable hunting and biodiversity protection and on climate change impacts on forest ecosystems dynamics. The importance of developing an educational program for primary/secondary school students on forest fire management was also highlighted. The perspective of forest stakeholders on climate change and how this change can affect their current or future activities was addressed through a questionnaire they were asked to complete. Results showed that the majority of the participants consider climate variability to be important or very important and to influence their activities. Extreme climate events, desertification and drought were regarded as the most important environmental problems along with loss of biodiversity. Most of the participants answered that they use historical data for research, and would welcome climate data and services targeted to their sector if offered. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the EU project CLIMRUN under contract FP7-ENV-2010- 265192.

  8. Prescription Fire and Anion Retention in Tahoe Forest Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prescribed burning is a possible option to reduce fire potential in the Lake Tahoe Basin (California and Nevada). However, subsequent nutrient loading to the lake is a major concern. The effect of residual ash on anion leaching, primarily O-PO4 and SO42-, was studied in both the field and laboratory...

  9. Predicting Fire Susceptibility in the Forests of Amazonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nepstad, Daniel C.; Brown, I. Foster; Setzer, Alberto

    2000-01-01

    Although fire is the single greatest threat to the ecological integrity of Amazon forests, our ability to predict the occurrence of Amazon forest fires is rudimentary. Part of the difficulty encountered in making such predictions is the remarkable capacity of Amazon forests to tolerate drought by tapping moisture stored in deep soil. These forests can avoid drought-induced leaf shedding by withdrawing moisture to depths of 8 meters and more. Hence, the absorption of deep soil moisture allows these forests to maintain their leaf canopies following droughts of several months duration, thereby maintaining the deep shade and high relative humidity of the forest interior that prevents these ecosystems from burning. But the drought- and fire-avoidance that is conferred by this deep-rooting phenomenon is not unlimited. During successive years of drought, such as those provoked by El Nino episodes, deep soil moisture can be depleted, and drought-induced leaf shedding begins. The goal of this project was to incorporate this knowledge of Amazon forest fire ecology into a predictive model of forest flammability.

  10. PCDD/F EMISSIONS FROM FOREST FIRE SIMULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) emissions from combustion of forest biomass were sampled to obtain an estimated emission factor for forest fires. An equal composition of live shoot and litter biomass from Oregon and North Carolina was b...

  11. Satellite analysis of the severe 1987 forest fires in northern China and southeastern Siberia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald R. Cahoon Jr; Brian J. Stocks; Joel S. Levine; Wesley R. Cofer III; Joseph M. Pierson

    1994-01-01

    Abstract. Meteorological conditions, extremely conducive to fire development and spread in the spring of 1987, resulted in forest fires burning over extremely large areas in the boreal forest zone in northeastern China and the southeastern region of Siberia. The great China fire, one of the largest and most destructive forest fires in recent history, occurred during this period in the

  12. Spatial and temporal variations in fire frequency in the boreal forest of northern Alberta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Poul Storm Larsen

    1995-01-01

    Forest fires occur frequently in the boreal forest of North America and greatly affect vegetation dynamics, biogeochemical cycles and resident human populations. Estimates of the frequency of boreal forest fires would be useful for understanding boreal ecosystems and managing that affects of fires on human populations. The objectives of this work were to investigate relations between fire frequency and climate

  13. Increasing the performance of forest fire detection systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. A. Levko

    2009-01-01

    Relations between the accuracy of hotspot determination and the monitoring area of remote forest fire detection systems are\\u000a considered. The indicated characteristics have a significant effect on the efficiency of the systems considered. The efficiency\\u000a can be increased by simultaneously using visual monitoring means and automated mapping of forest compartments in the monitored\\u000a area. Procedures for searching the forest compartment

  14. Pulsed redistribution of a contaminant following forest fire: cesium-137 in runoff.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Mathew P; Hakonson, Thomas E; Whicker, F Ward; Breshears, David D

    2003-01-01

    Of the natural processes that concentrate dispersed environmental contaminants, landscape fire stands out as having potential to rapidly concentrate contaminants and accelerate their redistribution. This study used rainfall simulation methods to quantify changes in concentration of a widely dispersed environmental contaminant (global fallout 137Cs) in soils and surface water runoff following a major forest fire at Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA. The 137Cs concentrations at the ground surface increased up to 40 times higher in ash deposits and three times higher for the topmost 50 mm of soil compared with pre-fire soils. Average redistribution rates were about one order of magnitude greater for burned plots, 5.96 KBq ha(-1) mm(-1) rainfall, compared with unburned plots, 0.55 KBq ha(-1) mm(-1) rainfall. The greatest surface water transport of 137Cs, 11.6 KBq ha(-1) mm(-1), occurred at the plot with the greatest amount of ground cover removal (80% bare soil) following fire. Concentration increases of 137Cs occurred during surface water erosion, resulting in enrichment of 137Cs levels in sediments by factors of 1.4 to 2.9 compared with parent soils. The elevated concentrations in runoff declined rapidly with time and cumulative precipitation occurrence and approached pre-fire levels after approximately 240 mm of rainfall. Our results provide evidence of order-of-magnitude concentration increases of a fallout radionuclide as a result of forest fire and rapid transport of radionuclides following fire that may have important implications for a wide range of geophysical, ecosystem, fire management, and risk-based issues. PMID:14674537

  15. Fire Characterization and Fire-Related Land Cover Classification Using Hyperion Data over Selected Alaskan Boreal Forest Fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waigl, C. F.; Prakash, A.; Stuefer, M.; Dennison, P. E.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, NIR and SWIR EO-1 Hyperion data acquired over two large Alaskan forest fires are used to detect active fires, map their immediate vicinity, and retrieve fire temperatures. The study sites are located in black spruce stands within the 2004 Boundary fire (215,000 ha total affected area) and the 2009 Wood River 1 fire (50,000 ha). Even though fires in the North American boreal forest ecosystem contribute greatly to global carbon cycling and large-scale air pollution, they have been less studied so far using satellite-borne imaging spectroscopy. We adapted the Hyperspectral Fire Detection Index (HFDI) so that it worked well for the high-latitude Hyperion data. This involved selecting suitable bands which best separated fire from non-fire pixels and averaging them to further improve the detection signal. Resulting fire detection maps compare favorably to uniform radiance thresholding of the Hyperion data and are consistent with fires detected on near-simultaneous Landsat 7 ETM+ data. Unsupervised classification of the vicinity of the active fire zones served to delineate 5 to 6 well separated classes: high- and low-intensity fire, various unburnt vegetation classes, recent fire scar, and a transitional zone ahead of the active fire front that shows evidence of fire impact but no emitted radiance component. Furthermore, MODTRAN5 was used for atmospheric correction to retrieve fire temperatures by modeling a mixture of emitted and reflected radiance signatures of the fire and background areas, respectively. As most of the carbon consumption and subsequent emissions in boreal forest fires stem from the combustion of dead plant material on the forest floor, estimates on fire intensities and high/low intensity burn areas provide valuable insight into the amount of carbon cycling in the system. Imaging spectroscopy can therefore contribute an important step forward in quantitative studies of boreal fires and their impacts. These techniques are set to advance further as future hyperspectral satellite missions start delivering a time series of Hyperion-like data at higher signal-to-noise levels.

  16. Characterization of Fly Ash from Coal-Fired Power Plant and Their Properties of Mercury Retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ping; Jiang, Xiumin; Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo; Ren, Jianxing

    2015-12-01

    Recent research has shown that fly ash may catalyze the oxidation of elemental mercury and facilitate its removal. However, the nature of mercury-fly ash interaction is still unknown, and the mechanism of mercury retention in fly ash needs to be investigated more thoroughly. In this work, a fly ash from a coal-fired power plant is used to characterize the inorganic and organic constituents and then evaluate its mercury retention capacities. The as-received fly ash sample is mechanically sieved to obtain five size fractions. Their characteristics are examined by loss on ignition (LOI), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman spectra. The results show that the unburned carbon (UBC) content and UBC structural ordering decrease with a decreasing particle size for the five ashes. The morphologies of different size fractions of as-received fly ash change from the glass microspheres to irregular shapes as the particle size increases, but there is no correlation between particle size and mineralogical compositions in each size fraction. The adsorption experimental studies show that the mercury-retention capacity of fly ash depends on the particle size, UBC, and the type of inorganic constituents. Mercury retention of the types of sp2 carbon is similar to that of sp3 carbon.

  17. SMALL MAMMALS AND FOREST FUEL REDUCTION: NATIONAL-SCALE RESPONSES TO FIRE AND FIRE SURROGATES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah J. Converse; Gary C. White; Kerry L. Farris; Steve Zack

    2006-01-01

    Forest fuel reduction treatments are increasingly used by managers to reduce the risk of high-severity wildfire and to manage changes in the ecological function of forests. However, comparative ecological effects of the various types of treatments are poorly understood. We examined short-term patterns in small-mammal responses to mechanical thinning, prescribed-fire, and mechanical thinning\\/prescribed-fire combination treatments at eight different study areas

  18. Simulation research on control system and ballistic of a remote forest fire fighting cannon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yonggang Pang; Shaogang Liu

    2010-01-01

    A fire fighting cannon is fire-fighting equipment developed for fighting against forest fires; it is considered the tree crown fire and the inaccessible areas which are dangerous for man to get close as extinguishing object. The forest fire fighting cannon is launched by pneumatic method; the timing device within the extinguishing shell will be triggered after launching. After the free-flying

  19. Fire risk and adaptation strategies in Northern Eurasian forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvidenko, Anatoly; Schepaschenko, Dmitry

    2013-04-01

    On-going climatic changes substantially accelerate current fire regimes in Northern Eurasian ecosystems, particularly in forests. During 1998-2012, wildfires enveloped on average ~10.5 M ha year-1 in Russia with a large annual variation (between 3 and 30 M ha) and average direct carbon emissions at ~150 Tg C year-1. Catastrophic fires, which envelope large areas, spread in usually incombustible wetlands, escape from control and provide extraordinary negative impacts on ecosystems, biodiversity, economics, infrastructure, environment, and health of population, become a typical feature of the current fire regimes. There are new evidences of correlation between catastrophic fires and large-scale climatic anomalies at a continental scale. While current climatic predictions suggest the dramatic warming (at the average at 6-7 °C for the country and up to 10-12°C in some northern continental regions), any substantial increase of summer precipitation does not expected. Increase of dryness and instability of climate will impact fire risk and severity of consequences. Current models suggest a 2-3 fold increase of the number of fires by the end of this century in the boreal zone. They predict increases of the number of catastrophic fires; a significant increase in the intensity of fire and amount of consumed fuel; synergies between different types of disturbances (outbreaks of insects, unregulated anthropogenic impacts); acceleration of composition of the gas emissions due to enhanced soil burning. If boreal forests would become a typing element, the mass mortality of trees would increase fire risk and severity. Permafrost melting and subsequent change of hydrological regimes very likely will lead to the degradation and destruction of boreal forests, as well as to the widespread irreversible replacement of forests by other underproductive vegetation types. A significant feedback between warming and escalating fire regimes is very probable in Russia and particularly in the permafrost areas. Overall, Russia should expect a disproportionate escalation of fire regimes compared to increasing climatic fire danger. Thus, development and implementation of an efficient adaptation strategy is a pressing problem of current forest management of the country. An appropriate system of forest fire protection which would be able to meet challenges of future climates is a corner stone of such a strategy. We consider possible systems solutions of this complex problem including (1) integrated ecological and socio-economic analysis of current and future fire regimes; (2) regional requirements to and specific features of a new paradigm of forest fire protection in the boreal zone of Northern Eurasia; (3) anticipatory strategy of the prevention of large-scale disturbances in forests, including adaptation of forest landscapes to the future climates (regulation of tree composition; setup of relevant spatial structure of forest landscapes; etc.); (4) implementation of an effective system of forest monitoring as part of integrated observing systems; (5) transition to ecologically-friendly systems of industrial development of northern territories; (6) development of new/ improvement of existing legislation and institutional frameworks of forest management which would be satisfactory to react on challenges of climate change; and (6) international cooperation.

  20. Ash behaviour in a pulverized wood fired boiler—a case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bengt-Johan Skrifvars; Tor Laurén; Mikko Hupa; Rob Korbee; Per Ljung

    2004-01-01

    The behaviour of the mineral matter in a fuel may crucially affect the availability of a boiler when the fuel is fired. The ash may cause severe problems in the flue gas channel in forms of fireside deposits on heat exchangers. These deposits lower the efficiency of the boiler and cause in the most severe cases an unscheduled shutdown.In this

  1. COMPOSITION AND MICROSTRUCTURE OF ASH DEPOSITS FROM CO-FIRING BIOMASS AND COAL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. M. Jenkins; P. Thy; S. Q. Turn; L. G. Blevins; L. L. Baxter; L. A. Jakeway; R. B. Williams; S. L. Blunk; M. W. Yore; B. C. Wu; C. E. Lesher

    Fireside fouling constitutes a key issue in the adoption of new biomass boiler fuels, especially herbaceous species containing high levels of ash and potassium. Biomass from high-fiber cane is currently being considered as a closed- loop fuel for boilers operated by the Hawaiian Commercial and Sugar Co. Fouling resulting from co-firing fiber cane with coal and sugar cane bagasse was

  2. Mercury capture by native fly ash carbons in coal-fired power plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James C. Hower; Constance L. Senior; Eric M. Suuberg; Robert H. Hurt; Jennifer L. Wilcox; Edwin S. Olson

    2010-01-01

    The control of mercury in the air emissions from coal-fired power plants is an ongoing challenge. The native unburned carbons in fly ash can capture varying amounts of Hg depending upon the temperature and composition of the flue gas at the air pollution control device, with Hg capture increasing with a decrease in temperature; the amount of carbon in the

  3. Sulfur-bearing coatings on fly ash from a coal-fired power plant: Composition, origin, and influence on ash alteration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fishman, N.S.; Rice, C.A.; Breit, G.N.; Johnson, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    Fly ash samples collected from two locations in the exhaust stream of a coal-fired power plant differ markedly with respect to the abundance of thin (???0.1 ??m) sulfur-rich surface coatings that are observable by scanning electron microscopy. The coatings, tentatively identified as an aluminum-potassium-sulfate phase, probably form upon reaction between condensed sulfuric acid aerosols and glass surfaces, and are preferentially concentrated on ash exposed to exhaust stream gases for longer. The coatings are highly soluble and if sufficiently abundant, can impart an acidic pH to solutions initially in contact with ash. These observations suggest that proposals for ash use and predictions of ash behavior during disposal should consider the transient, acid-generating potential of some ash fractions and the possible effects on initial ash leachability and alteration. ?? 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  4. The Zoning of Forest Fire Potential of Gulestan Province Forests Using Granular Computing and MODIS Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalilzadeh Shadlouei, A.; Delavar, M. R.

    2013-09-01

    There are many vegetation in Iran. This is because of extent of Iran and its width. One of these vegetation is forest vegetation most prevalent in Northern provinces named Guilan, Mazandaran, Gulestan, Ardebil as well as East Azerbaijan. These forests are always threatened by natural forest fires so much so that there have been reports of tens of fires in recent years. Forest fires are one of the major environmental as well as economic, social and security concerns in the world causing much damages. According to climatology, forest fires are one of the important factors in the formation and dispersion of vegetation. Also, regarding the environment, forest fires cause the emission of considerable amounts of greenhouse gases, smoke and dust into the atmosphere which in turn causes the earth temperature to rise up and are unhealthy to humans, animals and vegetation. In agriculture droughts are the usual side effects of these fires. The causes of forest fires could be categorized as either Human or Natural Causes. Naturally, it is impossible to completely contain forest fires; however, areas with high potentials of fire could be designated and analysed to decrease the risk of fires. The zoning of forest fire potential is a multi-criteria problem always accompanied by inherent uncertainty like other multi-criteria problems. So far, various methods and algorithm for zoning hazardous areas via Remote Sensing (RS) and Geospatial Information System (GIS) have been offered. This paper aims at zoning forest fire potential of Gulestan Province of Iran forests utilizing Remote Sensing, Geospatial Information System, meteorological data, MODIS images and granular computing method. Granular computing is part of granular mathematical and one way of solving multi-criteria problems such forest fire potential zoning supervised by one expert or some experts , and it offers rules for classification with the least inconsistencies. On the basis of the experts' opinion, 6 determinative criterias contributing to forest fires have been designated as follows: vegetation (NDVI), slope, aspect, temperature, humidity and proximity to roadways. By applying these variables on several tentatively selected areas and formation information tables and producing granular decision tree and extraction of rules, the zoning rules (for the areas in question) were extracted. According to them the zoning of the entire area has been conducted. The zoned areas have been classified into 5 categories: high hazard, medium hazard (high), medium hazard (low), low hazard (high), low hazard (low). According to the map, the zoning of most of the areas fall into the low hazard (high) class while the least number of areas have been classified as low hazard (low). Comparing the forest fires in these regions in 2010 with the MODIS data base for forest fires, it is concluded that areas with high hazards of forest fire have been classified with a 64 percent precision. In other word 64 percent of pixels that are in high hazard classification are classified according to MODIS data base. Using this method we obtain a good range of Perception. Manager will reduce forest fire concern using precautionary proceeding on hazardous area.

  5. 2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 97 EMERALD ASH BORER AFTERMATH FORESTS

    E-print Network

    2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 97 EMERALD ASH BORER AFTERMATH FORESTS, Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, Athens, GA 30602 ABSTRACT The effects of emerald ash

  6. Vapor pressure deficit controls on fire ignition and fire spread in boreal forest ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedano, F.; Randerson, J. T.

    2014-01-01

    Climate-driven changes in the fire regime within boreal forest ecosystems are likely to have important effects on carbon cycling and species composition. In the context of improving fire management options and developing more realistic scenarios of future change, it is important to understand how meteorology regulates different fire processes, including ignition, daily fire spread rates, and cumulative annual burned area. Here we combined MODIS active fires (MCD14ML), MODIS imagery (MOD13A1) and ancillary historic fire perimeter information to produce a dataset of daily fire spread maps of Alaska for the period 2002-2011. This approach provided a spatial and temporally continuous representation of fire progression and a precise identification of ignition and extinction locations and dates for each wildfire. The fire-spread maps were analyzed together with daily vapor pressure deficit (VPD) observations from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) and lightning strikes from the Alaska Lightning Detection Network (ALDN). We found a significant relationship between daily VPD and probability that a lightning strike would develop into a fire ignition. In the first 5 days after ignition, above average VPD increased the probability that fires would grow to large or very large sizes. Strong relationships also were identified between VPD and burned area at several levels of temporal and spatial aggregation. As a consequence of regional coherence in meteorology, ignition, daily fire spread rates, and fire extinction events were often synchronized across different fires in interior Alaska. At a regional scale, the sum of positive VPD anomalies during the fire season was positively correlated with annual burned area during the NARR era (1979-2011; R2 = 0.45). Some of the largest fires we mapped had slow initial growth, indicating opportunities may exist for suppression efforts to adaptively manage these forests for climate change. The results of our spatiotemporal analysis provide new information about temporal and spatial dynamics of wildfires and have implications for modeling the terrestrial carbon cycle.

  7. Mapping forest fire impact from Landsat-TM imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo, Agustin; Pineda, Nicolau; Navarro-Cedillo, Rafael; Fernandez-Rebollo, Pilar; Salas, Francisco J.; Fernandez-Turiel, Jose-Luis; Fernandez-Palacios, Arturo

    1998-12-01

    We address the problem of estimating fire impact in Mediterranean forests based on Landsat-TM imagery, for which we have used a forest fire in Andalucia (S. Spain) as a case of study. We processed two LANDSAT-TM scenes, acquired before and after the date of the fire. The post-fire scene was segmented and a table of segment statistics was submitted to a hierarchical model-based agglomerative clustering. The boundary defined by the classification closely matches the boundary defined by helicopter. We also produced an image classification of the pre-fire image based on image segmentation and canonical analysis and studied the trajectories of burnt and not-burnt centroids in the Kauth- Thomas plane. The trajectories indicated the existence of a differential response to fire and to phenologic change. We modeled the post-fire conditions as if the region had not been burnt and defined as Index of Fire Impact as the difference between the actual and the modeled second Kauth-Thomas component. The Index of Fire Impact is significantly related to field estimates, but with a scatter that introduces uncertainty in the inversion.

  8. A decision support system for managing forest fire casualties.

    PubMed

    Bonazountas, Marc; Kallidromitou, Despina; Kassomenos, Pavlos; Passas, Nikos

    2007-09-01

    Southern Europe is exposed to anthropogenic and natural forest fires. These result in loss of lives, goods and infrastructure, but also deteriorate the natural environment and degrade ecosystems. The early detection and combating of such catastrophes requires the use of a decision support system (DSS) for emergency management. The current literature reports on a series of efforts aimed to deliver DSSs for the management of the forest fires by utilising technologies like remote sensing and geographical information systems (GIS), yet no integrated system exists. This manuscript presents the results of scientific research aiming to the development of a DSS for managing forest fires. The system provides a series of software tools for the assessment of the propagation and combating of forest fires based on Arc/Info, ArcView, Arc Spatial Analyst, Arc Avenue, and Visual C++ technologies. The system integrates GIS technologies under the same data environment and utilises a common user interface to produce an integrated computer system based on semi-automatic satellite image processing (fuel maps), socio-economic risk modelling and probabilistic models that would serve as a useful tool for forest fire prevention, planning and management. Its performance has been demonstrated via real time up-to-date accurate information on the position and evolution of the fire. The system can assist emergency assessment, management and combating of the incident. A site demonstration and validation has been accomplished for the island of Evoia, Greece, an area particularly vulnerable to forest fires due to its ecological characteristics and prevailing wind patterns. PMID:16928418

  9. Fire induced changes in aggregate stability: the interacting effects of soil heating and ash leachate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balfour, V.; Hatley, D.; Woods, S.

    2011-12-01

    Increases in runoff and erosion after wildfires are typically attributed to the combined effects of the loss of ground cover, water repellency and surface sealing. Surface sealing in burned areas is caused by raindrop compaction of mineral soils (structural seal formation), the clogging of soil pores by fine soil and ash, or the formation of low conductivity ash crusts (depositional seal formation). Structural sealing is more likely to occur if the fire reduces the aggregate stability of the mineral soil. Soil heating tends to reduce aggregate stability by combusting soil organic matter. Effects due to soil heating may be amplified or reduced by interactions between soil clays and ash leachate, but these effects are poorly understood. We are investigating the interacting effects of soil heating and exposure to ash leachate on the stability of soil aggregates in burned areas. During the 2011 fire season in the Rocky Mountains we collected soil samples (~1000g) from unburned areas adjacent to three recent wildfires. Soils were obtained from areas with sharply contrasting parent materials, leading to differences in the soil mineralogy. High severity ash was collected from within the burned areas. Each soil sample was divided into 6 subsamples with the first subsample acting as a control. The remaining five subsamples were heated to 100, 200, 300, 500, and 700C respectively. After heating, each subsample was split in two. Ash leachate was added to one half and DI water was added to the other half. The ash leachate was prepared by mixing 10 g of ash with 1000 mL of water in accordance with previous studies. All samples were then air dried and analyzed for porosity, bulk density, aggregate size distribution, aggregate stability and water repellency. Initial results suggest that there is an interacting effect of soil heating and exposure to ash leachate on the stability of soil aggregates, but the effect varies depending on the mineralogy of soil clays and the type of cations in the leachate. Thus, in order to predict effects of fire on soil aggregate stability it is necessary to determine not only the intensity of soil heating but also the soil clay mineralogy and the ash cation chemistry.

  10. Fuel loads, fire regimes, and post-fire fuel dynamics in Florida Keys pine forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sah, J.P.; Ross, M.S.; Snyder, J.R.; Koptur, S.; Cooley, H.C.

    2006-01-01

    In forests, the effects of different life forms on fire behavior may vary depending on their contributions to total fuel loads. We examined the distribution of fuel components before fire, their effects on fire behavior, and the effects of fire on subsequent fuel recovery in pine forests within the National Key Deer Refuge in the Florida Keys. We conducted a burning experiment in six blocks, within each of which we assigned 1-ha plots to three treatments: control, summer, and winter burn. Owing to logistical constraints, we burned only 11 plots, three in winter and eight in summer, over a 4-year period from 1998 to 2001. We used path analysis to model the effects of fuel type and char height, an indicator of fire intensity, on fuel consumption. Fire intensity increased with surface fuel loads, but was negatively related to the quantity of hardwood shrub fuels, probably because these fuels are associated with a moist microenvironment within hardwood patches, and therefore tend to resist fire. Winter fires were milder than summer fires, and were less effective at inhibiting shrub encroachment. A mixed seasonal approach is suggested for fire management, with burns applied opportunistically under a range of winter and summer conditions, but more frequently than that prevalent in the recent past. ?? IAWF 2006.

  11. Fire and fire surrogate treatment effects on leaf litter arthropods in a western Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyle O. Apigian; Donald L. Dahlsten; Scott L. Stephens

    2006-01-01

    Frequent, low-intensity fires were a common feature of Sierran forest ecosystems, but suppression policies over the past century have leftmanyforestsatriskforcatastrophicwildfires.Recentpolicieshighlighttheuseofprescribedburningorharvestingasfireriskreductiontools, but few studies have investigated the impacts of these management practices on the leaf litter fauna of Sierran forests. This study examines how three fire and ''fire surrogate'' treatments, prescribed burning, overstory thinning with understory mastication, and combined thinning and

  12. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy application for ash characterisation for a coal fired power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ctvrtnickova, T.; Mateo, M. P.; Yañez, A.; Nicolas, G.

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this work was to apply the LIBS technique for the analysis of fly ash and bottom ash resulting from the coal combustion in a coal fired power plant. The steps of presented LIBS analysis were pelletizing of powdered samples, firing with laser and spectroscopic detection. The analysis "on tape" was presented as an alternative fast sampling approach. This procedure was compared with the usual steps of normalized chemical analysis methods for coal which are coal calcination, fluxing in high temperature plasma, dilution in strong acids and analyzing by means of ICP-OES and/or AAS. First, the single pulse LIBS approach was used for determination and quantification of elemental content in fly ash and bottom ash on the exit of the boiler. For pellet preparation, ash has to be mixed with proper binder to assure the sample resistance. Preparation of the samples (binder selection and pressing/pelletizing conditions) was determined and LIBS experimental conditions optimized. No preparation is necessary in "on tape" sampling. Moreover, double-pulse approach in orthogonal reheating configuration was applied to enhance the repeatability and precision of the LIBS results and to surpass the matrix effect influencing the calibration curves in case of some elements. Obtained results showed that LIBS responses are comparable to the normalized analytical methods. Once optimized the experimental conditions and features, application of LIBS may be a promising technique for combustion process control even in on-line mode.

  13. Aerosol spectral optical depths - Jet fuel and forest fire smokes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pueschel, R. F.; Livingston, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    The Ames autotracking airborne sun photometer was used to investigate the spectral depth between 380 and 1020 nm of smokes from a jet fuel pool fire and a forest fire in May and August 1988, respectively. Results show that the forest fire smoke exhibited a stronger wavelength dependence of optical depths than did the jet fuel fire smoke at optical depths less than unity. At optical depths greater than or equal to 1, both smokes showed neutral wavelength dependence, similar to that of an optically thin stratus deck. These results verify findings of earlier investigations and have implications both on the climatic impact of large-scale smokes and on the wavelength-dependent transmission of electromagnetic signals.

  14. Solar activity as a possible cause of large forest fires--a case study: analysis of the Portuguese forest fires.

    PubMed

    Gomes, J F P; Radovanovic, M

    2008-05-01

    Fires of large dimension destroy forests, harvests and housing objects. Apart from that combustion products and burned surfaces become large ecological problems. Very often fires emerge simultaneously on different locations of a region so a question could be asked if they always have been a consequence of negligence, pyromania, high temperatures or maybe there has been some other cause. This paper is an attempt of establishing the possible connection between forest fires that numerous satellites registered and activities happening on the Sun immediately before fires ignite. Fires emerged on relatively large areas from Portugal and Spain on August 2005, as well as on other regions of Europe. The cases that have been analyzed show that, in every concrete situation, an emission of strong electromagnetic and thermal corpuscular energy from highly energetic regions that were in geo-effective position had preceded the fires. Such emissions have, usually, very high energy and high speeds of particles and come from coronary holes that also have been either in the very structure or in the immediate closeness of the geo-effective position. It should also be noted that the solar wind directed towards the Earth becomes weaker with deeper penetration towards the topographic surface. However, the results presented in this paper suggest that, there is a strong causality relationship between solar activity and the ignition of these forest fires taking place in South-western Europe. PMID:18291443

  15. Climate change and forest fires in a Mediterranean environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turco, Marco; Llasat, Maria-Carmen; von Hardenberg, Jost; Provenzale, Antonello

    2014-05-01

    The Mediterranean region is a "hot-spot" of climate change and wildfires, where about 50000 fires burn 500000 hectares every year. However, in spite of the growing concerns of the climate change impacts on Mediterranean wildfires, there are aspects of this topic that remain largely to be investigated. The main scientific objective of this study is to investigate the climate-driven changes on fires in a typical Mediterranean environment (Catalonia, NE of Spain). To achieve this goal, the following specific aims have been identified: (1) Analysis of the recent evolution of fires; (2) Evaluation of the climate-fire relationship; (3) Estimation of the impacts of observed and future climate change. First, we examine a homogeneous series of forest fires in the period 1970-2010. Our analysis shows that both the burned area and number of fire series display a decreasing trend. After the large fires of 1986 and 1994, the increased effort in fire prevention and suppression could explain part of this decreasing trend. Although it is often stated that fires have increased in Mediterranean regions, the higher efficiency in fire detection could have led to spurious trends and misleading conclusions [1]. Secondly, we show that the interannual variability of summer fires is significantly related to antecedent and concurrent climate conditions, highlighting the importance of climate not only in regulating fuel flammability, but also fuel load. On the basis of these results, we develop a simple regression model that produces reliable out-of-sample predictions of the impact of climate variability on summer forest fires [2]. Finally we apply this model to estimate the impacts of observed climate trends on summer fires and the possible fire response to different regional climate change scenarios. We show that a transition toward warmer conditions has already started to occur and it is possible that they continue by mid-century (under the A1B scenario), and that these changes promote more fires, with similar or lower extension [3]. *References [1] M. Turco, M. C. Llasat, A. Tudela, X. Castro, and A. Provenzale. Brief communication Decreasing fires in a Mediterranean region (1970-2010, NE Spain). Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, 13(3):649-652, 2013. [2] M. Turco, M. C. Llasat, J. von Hardenberg, and A. Provenzale. Impact of climate variability on summer fires in a mediterranean environment (northeastern iberian peninsula). Climatic Change, 116:665-678, 2013. [3] M. Turco, M. C. Llasat, J. von Hardenberg, and A. Provenzale. Climate change impacts on wildfires in a Mediterranean environment. In preparation.

  16. Forest fire causes and extent on United States Forest Service lands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott L. Stephens

    2005-01-01

    Nationally, the causes and extent of fire on lands administrated by the United States Forest Service varied significantly from 1940 to 2000, with California experiencing the largest relative annual burned areas. The south-east and California experienced the largest relative area burned by fires from human ignitions. No significant differences were detected in the relative area burned by lightning in California,

  17. Self-organized critical forest-fire model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Drossel; F. Schwabl

    1992-01-01

    A forest-fire model is introduced which contains a lightning probability f. This leads to a self-organized critical state in the limit f-->0 provided that the time scales of tree growth and burning down of forest clusters are separated. We derive scaling laws and calculate all critical exponents. The values of the critical exponents are confirmed by computer simulations. For a

  18. Self-organized criticality in a forest-fire model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Drossel; F. Schwabl

    1992-01-01

    A forest-fire model is introduced which contains a lightning probability f. This leads to a self-organized critical state in the limit f-->0 provided that the time scales of free growth and burning down of forest clusters are separated. We derive scaling laws and calculate all critical exponents. The values of the critical exponents are confirmed by computer simulations. For a

  19. Proceedings of the 4th Fire in Eastern Oak Forests Conference GTR-NRS-P-102 FIRE HISTORY IN A SOUTHERN APPALACHIAN DECIDUOUS FOREST

    E-print Network

    IN A SOUTHERN APPALACHIAN DECIDUOUS FOREST Norman L. Christensen, Jr. and Kurt Fesenmeyer Research Professor an important part of eastern deciduous forest ecosystems through much of the Holocene. Nevertheless, fire deciduous forests. Nowhere is fire mentioned in E. Lucy Braun's monographic treatment of this biome (Braun

  20. Forest Fire Advanced System Technology (FFAST): A Conceptual Design for Detection and Mapping

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    Forest Fire Advanced System Technology (FFAST): A Conceptual Design for Detection and Mapping 1 J will be the baseline for the next generation of forest fire detection and mapping systems after the year 2000. David Nichols and John R. Warren2 Abstract: The Forest Fire Advanced System Technology (FFAST) project

  1. LOCATION DETERMINATION OF AUTOMATIC FOREST FIRE MONITORING STATIONS BASED ON AHP AND GIS DATA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darko Stipanicev; Ljiljana Bodrozic; Tomislav Vuko

    Forest fires represent a constant threat to ecological systems, infrastructure and human lives. Great affords are therefore made to achieve early forest fire detection, which is traditionally based on human surveillance. A rather more advanced approach to human forest fire surveillance is installation of remotely controlled video cameras on monitoring spots. The next, even more advanced step is automatic surveillance

  2. Future fire in Canada's boreal forest: paleoecology results and general circulation model - regional climate model simulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mike Flannigan; Ian Campbell; Mike Wotton; Christopher Carcaillet; Pierre Richard; Yves Bergeron

    2001-01-01

    General circulation model simulations suggest the Earth's climate will be 1-3.5°C warmer by AD 2100. This will influence disturbances such as forest fires, which are important to circumpolar boreal forest dynamics and, hence, the global carbon cycle. Many suggest climate warming will cause increased fire activity and area burned. Here, we use the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index to simulate

  3. Combining CBR and Constraint Reasoning in Planning Forest Fire Fighting 1

    E-print Network

    Ricci, Francesco

    of the phases of forest fire management: prevention, suppression, control. A part from many systems based at supporting the user in the whole process of forest fires management. The novelty of the proposed system­time adaptive planner that manages forest fires in a simulated environment, and the system developed by P

  4. Combining CBR and Constraint Reasoning in Planning Forest Fire Fighting1

    E-print Network

    Ricci, Francesco

    of the phases of forest fire management: prevention, suppression, control. A part from many systems based at supporting the user in the whole process of forest fires management. The novelty of the proposed system-time adaptive planner that manages forest fires in a simulated environment, and the system developed by P

  5. Intelligent GIS system of forest fire alarm and it's controlling strategy design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. X. Duan; J. Z. Cao; Z. L. Luo

    2011-01-01

    GIS system of forest fire alarm” whose basic units are the fire detectors dispersedly installed in the forest communicates wirelessly, and sends the forest fire alarm to command center through the Internet, and the core of the command center is the electronic map and its controlling strategy design. Combining with system functions, this paper introduced detector encoding, information format and

  6. Quince (Cydonia oblonga) emerges from the ashes of fire blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The two-decade history of fire blight in Bulgaria revealed quince as one of the most frequently attacked hosts and its production on a large scale has almost been entirely eliminated. Nevertheless, this species will play an important epidemiological role as a permanent source of inoculum for other p...

  7. THE ECONOMICAL MICROBOLOMETER-BASED ENVIRONMENTAL RADIOMETER SATELLITE (EMBERSAT) DESIGNED FOR FOREST FIRE DETECTION AND MONITORING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Redgie S. Lancaster; David R. Skillman; Wayne C. Welch; James D. Spinhirne; Katherine F. Manizade; Brian P. Beecken

    Thermal infrared imagery from several satellite instruments, such as the NOAA AVHRR and the NASA MODIS, is presently used to detect and map forest fires. But while these radiometers can identify fires they are designed and optimized for cloud detection, providing relatively low spatial resolution and quickly saturating even for small fires. Efforts to de tect and monitor forest fires

  8. VIIRS active fire detection in Siberian boreal forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvetsov, Eugene; Ponomarev, Evgenii

    2015-04-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite provides 12h global coverage at spatial resolutions of 375 m and 750 m. Current operational VIIRS Active Fire Product builds on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Collection 4 fire algorithm applying the similar combination of tests to the corresponding VIIRS 750 m data. This study investigates the application of VIIRS fire detection approaches based on 750m and 375m data in boreal forests of Siberia. VIIRS active fire detection product is compared to current Terra/ Aqua MODIS 1 km active fire product (MOD14/ MYD14) and Landsat-8 images are used for visual interpretation of areas containing active biomass burning. We utilize two VIIRS active fire products: based on MODIS Collection 6 algorithm for 750m data, and based on fire algorithm for 375 m data proposed by Schroeder et al. (2014). Both day and night fire detections are used for the analysis. In the present study we consider large fires complexes in the Eastern Siberia which burned for several weeks in July and August of 2014. We perform the comparison using 0.25 x 0.25 degree grid on a daily basis. Another objective of this study is to investigate the consistency of fire radiative power (FRP) retrievals between MODIS active fire product and VIIRS active fire product and to include VIIRS data into fire radiative energy (FRE) calculation which is related linearly to the total biomass consumption and pyrogenic emissions.

  9. Tree diversity, composition, forest structure and aboveground biomass dynamics after single and repeated fire in a Bornean rain forest.

    PubMed

    Slik, J W Ferry; Bernard, Caroline S; Van Beek, Marloes; Breman, Floris C; Eichhorn, Karl A O

    2008-12-01

    Forest fires remain a devastating phenomenon in the tropics that not only affect forest structure and biodiversity, but also contribute significantly to atmospheric CO2. Fire used to be extremely rare in tropical forests, leaving ample time for forests to regenerate to pre-fire conditions. In recent decades, however, tropical forest fires occur more frequently and at larger spatial scales than they used to. We studied forest structure, tree species diversity, tree species composition, and aboveground biomass during the first 7 years since fire in unburned, once burned and twice burned forest of eastern Borneo to determine the rate of recovery of these forests. We paid special attention to changes in the tree species composition during burned forest regeneration because we expect the long-term recovery of aboveground biomass and ecosystem functions in burned forests to largely depend on the successful regeneration of the pre-fire, heavy-wood, species composition. We found that forest structure (canopy openness, leaf area index, herb cover, and stem density) is strongly affected by fire but shows quick recovery. However, species composition shows no or limited recovery and aboveground biomass, which is greatly reduced by fire, continues to be low or decline up to 7 years after fire. Consequently, large amounts of the C released to the atmosphere by fire will not be recaptured by the burned forest ecosystem in the near future. We also observed that repeated fire, with an inter-fire interval of 15 years, does not necessarily lead to a huge deterioration in the regeneration potential of tropical forest. We conclude that burned forests are valuable and should be conserved and that long-term monitoring programs in secondary forests are necessary to determine their recovery rates, especially in relation to aboveground biomass accumulation. PMID:18839212

  10. Fire history of a prairie/forest boundary: more than 250 years of frequent fire in a North American tallgrass

    E-print Network

    Palmer, Michael W.

    history; Fire suppression; Osage Nation; Quercus stellata; Tallgrass prairie; Tree ring. Abbreviations EAS. Dendrochronological methods were used to identify years of formation for tree rings and fire scars. Superposed epochFire history of a prairie/forest boundary: more than 250 years of frequent fire in a North American

  11. Application of Infrared Scanners to Forest Fire Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, S. N.

    1971-01-01

    The potential of using infrared scanners for the detection of forest fires is discussed. An experiment is described in which infrared and visual detection systems were used jointly to study timber fire detection. Many fires were detected visually but missed by the airborne IR system, and many fires were detected by the IR system but missed visually. Until more is learned about the relationship between heat output and smoke output from latent fires, the relative effectiveness of visual and IR systems cannot be determined. The 1970 tests indicated that IR used in combination with visual detection will result in a more efficient system than visual alone. Even with limited knowledge of the relative effectiveness of the two systems, operational use of a combined system can be used to substantially reduce total firefighting costs.

  12. Multifractal analysis of forest fires in complex regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega Orozco, C. D.; Kanevski, M.; Golay, J.; Tonini, M.; Conedera, M.

    2012-04-01

    Forest fires can be studied as point processes where the ignition points represent the set of locations of the observed events in a defined study region. Their spatial and temporal patterns can be characterized by their fractal properties; which quantify the global aspect of the geometry of the support data. However, a monofractal dimension can not completely describe the pattern structure and related scaling properties. Enhancements in fractal theory had developed the multifractal concept which describes the measures from which interlinked fractal sets can be retrieved and characterized by their fractal dimension and singularity strength [1, 2]. The spatial variability of forest fires is conditioned by an intermixture of human, topographic, meteorological and vegetation factors. This heterogeneity makes fire patterns complex scale-invariant processes difficult to be depicted by a single scale. Therefore, this study proposes an exploratory data analysis through a multifractal formalism to characterize and quantify the multiscaling behaviour of the spatial distribution pattern of this phenomenon in a complex region like the Swiss Alps. The studied dataset is represented by 2,401 georeferenced forest fire ignition points in canton Ticino, Switzerland, in a 40-years period from 1969 to 2008. Three multifractal analyses are performed: one assesses the multiscaling behaviour of fire occurrence probability of the support data (raw data) and four random patterns simulated within three different support domains; second analysis studies the multifractal behavior of patterns from anthropogenic and natural ignited fires (arson-, accident- and lightning-caused fires); and third analysis aims at detecting scale-dependency of the size of burned area. To calculate the generalized dimensions, Dq, a generalization of the box counting methods is carried out based on the generalization of Rényi information of the qth order moment of the probability distribution. For q > 0, Dq indicates the scaling of overdense regions and strong singularities, and for q < 0, Dq exhibits the behaviour of small fluctuations (underdense regions) [2]. Multifractal analysis for forest fires in canton Ticino are performed using raw data, the anthropogenic- and natural-caused patterns and the random patterns simulated within the three different support domains. Results of these different patterns are compared. These analyses revealed non-linear behaviour of the generalized dimensions Dq, depicting inhomogeneous nature of the physical fire-ignition conditions as well as the presence of nonlinear interactions between scales. Keywords: forest fires, point process, box counting, fractal dimension, multifractal. [1] Mandelbrot, B. (1982). The Fractal Geometry of Nature. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman. [2] Seuront, L. (2009). Fractals and Multifractals in Ecology and Aquatic Science. Boca Raton (USA): CRC Press.

  13. PCDD/F and aromatic emissions from simulated forest and grassland fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gullett, B.; Touati, A.; Oudejans, L.

    Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzodioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) from simulated grassland and forest fires were quantitatively sampled to derive emission factors in support of PCDD/F inventory development. Grasses from Kentucky and Minnesota; forest shrubs from California and Florida; and pine forest biomass from the Piedmont region of North Carolina, western North Carolina, and coastal Oregon were collected and tested in a burn facility that mimicked a prescribed fire in the natural environment scenario. Ambient sampling methods for PCDD/F were variously accompanied by real-time measurements of major aromatic species, including benzene, toluene, naphthalene, and styrene. Emission factors in mass of toxic equivalent (TEQ) of PCDD/F per kg of carbon burned (kg Cb) for the two grasses averaged 0.32 ng TEQ/kg Cb. Burn tests ( n = 27) on forest biomass from the five sources show PCDD/F emission factors ranging from 0.3 to 26.3 ng TEQ/kg Cb, with a mean and median of 5.8 and 3.3 ng TEQ/kg Cb, respectively. Variation of the forest green/brown needle content, sample size, burn scenario, and facility ventilation rate showed no consistent effects on PCDD/F emissions. For forest burns, 30-35% of the PCDD and 50-55% of the PCDF emissions occurred during the flaming period from 0 to 5 min, while the highest emission factors (per mass of carbon burned) were recorded during the smoldering period from 5 to 60 min. Emissions of PCDD/F exceeded those present in the raw biomass by a factor of four, confirming PCDD/F formation from combustion rather than from simple surface volatilization. The majority of the PCDD/F partitions to the emissions rather than the ash.

  14. Evaluation of low ash impact sorbent injection technologies for mercury control at a Texas lignite\\/PRB fired power plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine Dombrowski; Carl Richardson; Jackie Padilla; Kevin Fisher; Tom Campbell; Ramsay Chang; Craig Eckberg; John Hudspeth; Andrew O'Palko; Sara Pletcher

    2009-01-01

    A sorbent injection test program was carried out at NRG Texas Power LLC's (NRG) Limestone Electric Generating Station (LMS). LMS fires a 30\\/70 blend of Powder River Basin (PRB) and Texas Lignite, and is equipped with a cold-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet scrubber. The plant markets its fly ash for beneficial use, so development of a low ash impact

  15. Assessment of a Forest-fire Danger Index for Russia Using Remote Sensing Information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anatoly Sukhinin; Douglas McRae; Jin Ji-Zhong; Olga Dubrovskaya; Eugene Ponomarev

    2010-01-01

    Intensive exploitation of Siberian forest resources requires to increase the level of their protection. In Russia, forests annually disturbed by fire make up about 6% of the total forest area, whereas they account for hundredth or even thousandth of percent in the West European countries and Canada. Devastating forest fires associated with long draughts have become very common over recent

  16. Assessment of tropical forest degradation by selective logging and fire using Landsat imagery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eraldo A. T. Matricardi; David L. Skole; Marcos A. Pedlowski; Walter Chomentowski; Luis Claudio Fernandes

    2010-01-01

    Many studies have assessed the process of forest degradation in the Brazilian Amazon using remote sensing approaches to estimate the extent and impact by selective logging and forest fires on tropical rain forest. However, only a few have estimated the combined impacts of those anthropogenic activities. We conducted a detailed analysis of selective logging and forest fire impacts on natural

  17. Forest fires, woodland caribou and land use policies in northwestern Ontario (Rangifer tarandus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian Frederick Kutas

    2004-01-01

    Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) are a threatened species in Ontario's boreal forest. Caribou require habitat that supports appropriate forage, including large areas of lichen rich forests. This research examines two dynamics that influence woodland caribou habitat in northwestern Ontario. These dynamics are forest fires and land use policies. The effects of forest fires are assessed quantitatively at both the

  18. Telemetry Speeds Forest-Fire Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvesen, J. C.; Cherbonneaux, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    Airborne system rapidly delivers hard copy to firefighters. Sensors in airplane send data to ground station for image processing. Imagery immediately transferred to U.S. Geologic Survey (USGS) maps by photo interpreter. Maps transmitted by telecopies directly to fire-control camps. Receipt by fire camp less than 10 minutes. Information aids in decisions involving deployment of firefighters and equipment, flood control, monitoring oilspills, observing thermal currents, and pollutions monitoring.

  19. LBTO Forest Fire Contingency Plan 5 Doc_info_start

    E-print Network

    Ziurys, Lucy M.

    of bottled water and food. Also, a medical oxygen cylinder and first aid kit. In the control room, adjacent Document Type: Documentation Source: Steward Observatory Issued by: John Waack Date_of_Issue: 8 July 2003: Date_of_Release: File Type: MS Word Local Name: LBTO Forest Fire Contingency Plan Category: Overview

  20. Dynamic analysis and pattern visualization of forest fires.

    PubMed

    Lopes, António M; Tenreiro Machado, J A

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses forest fires in the perspective of dynamical systems. Forest fires exhibit complex correlations in size, space and time, revealing features often present in complex systems, such as the absence of a characteristic length-scale, or the emergence of long range correlations and persistent memory. This study addresses a public domain forest fires catalogue, containing information of events for Portugal, during the period from 1980 up to 2012. The data is analysed in an annual basis, modelling the occurrences as sequences of Dirac impulses with amplitude proportional to the burnt area. First, we consider mutual information to correlate annual patterns. We use visualization trees, generated by hierarchical clustering algorithms, in order to compare and to extract relationships among the data. Second, we adopt the Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) visualization tool. MDS generates maps where each object corresponds to a point. Objects that are perceived to be similar to each other are placed on the map forming clusters. The results are analysed in order to extract relationships among the data and to identify forest fire patterns. PMID:25137393

  1. Dynamic Analysis and Pattern Visualization of Forest Fires

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, António M.; Tenreiro Machado, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses forest fires in the perspective of dynamical systems. Forest fires exhibit complex correlations in size, space and time, revealing features often present in complex systems, such as the absence of a characteristic length-scale, or the emergence of long range correlations and persistent memory. This study addresses a public domain forest fires catalogue, containing information of events for Portugal, during the period from 1980 up to 2012. The data is analysed in an annual basis, modelling the occurrences as sequences of Dirac impulses with amplitude proportional to the burnt area. First, we consider mutual information to correlate annual patterns. We use visualization trees, generated by hierarchical clustering algorithms, in order to compare and to extract relationships among the data. Second, we adopt the Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) visualization tool. MDS generates maps where each object corresponds to a point. Objects that are perceived to be similar to each other are placed on the map forming clusters. The results are analysed in order to extract relationships among the data and to identify forest fire patterns. PMID:25137393

  2. Forest Fire Spread and Suppression in DEVS Lewis Ntaimo1

    E-print Network

    -fast-as-can tactical decision making to aid in forest fire control and suppression. Toward that objective, the research conditions. Our model represents an advance toward developing a real-time decision support simulation system assist at the "tactical" level to effectively bring it under control. Furthermore, such a system would

  3. Erosion-corrosion of coatings by biomass-fired boiler fly ash

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bu-Qian Wang

    1995-01-01

    The erosion-corrosion (E-C) behavior of two steels (AISI 1018 low carbon steel, Type 304 stainless steel) and several thermal spray coatings by fly ash from a biomass-fired boiler was determined in laboratory tests using a nozzle type elevated temperature erosion tester. The coatings included Hypersonic Velocity Oxygen Fuel (HVOF) thermal sprayed coatings on the mild steel (Cr3Cr2?NiCr, Cr3C2, NiCrSi, NiCrMo,

  4. Forest Fire Hazard Model Using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems: Toward understanding of Land and Forest Degradation in Lowland areas of East Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mulyanto Darmawan; Masamu Aniya

    A heavy scale of forest fire occurred during the year of 1997\\/1998 in Indonesia, which burnt millions hectares of the tropical rain forest. The Indonesian East Kalimantan province was the most severely affected by this forest fire, which have destructed a natural forest and induced accelerated soil erosion. A repetitive forest fires in this province lead to bring a land

  5. Factors determining relations between stand age and catchment water balance in mountain ash forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A. Vertessy; Fred G. R. Watson

    2001-01-01

    There is a well-documented empirical relationship between stand age and water yield for mountain ash (Eucalyptus regnans) forested catchments in the Central Highlands of Victoria, Australia. Catchments covered with old-growth stands of mountain ash yield almost twice the amount of water annually as those covered with re-growth stands aged 25 years. In this paper, we provide a mechanistic hydro-ecologic explanation

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF A WEB-BASED TOOL FOR PROJECTING COSTS OF MANAGING EMERALD ASH BORER IN MUNICIPAL FORESTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clifford S. Sadof

    2009-01-01

    City managers faced with the invasion of emerald ash borer into their urban forests need to plan for the invasion in order to obtain the resources they need to protect the public from harm caused by dying ash trees. Currently, city foresters can avoid harm from falling trees by removing, replacing, or treating them with insecticides. Costs for these activities

  7. Production and Transport of Ozone From Boreal Forest Fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasick, David; Liu, Jane; Osman, Mohammed; Sioris, Christopher; Liu, Xiong; Najafabadi, Omid; Parrington, Mark; Palmer, Paul; Strawbridge, Kevin; Duck, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    In the summer of 2010, the BORTAS (Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites) mission was planned by several universities and government agencies in the United Kingdom, Canada, and USA. Nearly 100 ozone soundings were made at 13 stations through the BORTAS Intensive Sounding Network, although aircraft measurements were unfortunately cancelled due to the volcanic eruption in Iceland. 2010 was actually an exceptional year for Canadian boreal fires. MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) fire count data shows large fire events in Saskatchewan on several days in July. High amounts of NO2 close to the large fires are observed from OMI satellite data, indicating that not all NO2 is converted to PAN. Also associated with the fires, large amounts of CO, another precursor of ozone, are observed in MOPITT (Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere), AIRS and TES (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer) satellite data in the middle to upper troposphere. These chemical conditions combined with sunny weather all favour ozone production. Following days with large fire activity, layers of elevated ozone mixing ratio (over 100 ppbv) are observed downwind at several sites. Back-trajectories suggest the elevated ozone in the profile is traceable to the fires in Saskatchewan. Lidar profiles also detect layers of aerosol at the same heights. However, the layers of high ozone are also associated with low humidity, which is not expected from a combustion source, and suggests the possibility of entrainment of stratospheric air.

  8. Simulation of a fire-sensitive ecological threshold: a case study of Ashe juniper on the Edwards Plateau of Texas, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel D. Fuhlendorf; Fred E. Smeins; William E. Grant

    1996-01-01

    A model was developed to represent the establishment of a fire-sensitive woody species from seeds and subsequent survival and growth through five size classes. Simulations accurately represent structural changes associated with increased density and cover of the fire-sensitive Ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei, Buckholz) and provide substantial evidence for multiple steady states and ecological thresholds. Without fire, Ashe juniper increases and

  9. Changing Boreal Fire Regimes: Impacts on Permafrost Soils and Forest Succession in Siberian Larch Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, H. D.; Mack, M. C.; Natali, S.; Loranty, M. M.; Davydov, S. P.; Zimov, N.

    2014-12-01

    Fire activity has increased across the boreal forest biome in conjuction with climate warming and drying. Because these forests contain a large proportion of global terrestrial carbon (C) stocks, there has been great interest in understanding feedbacks between a changing fire regime and climate warming. An important mechanism by which increased fire activity may alter boreal C balance is by consuming the soil organic layer (SOL). Fire removal of the SOL may alter germination microsites and tree recruitment, thereby altering forest successional trajectories and C accumulation and storage. In permafrost soils, loss of the insulating SOL can increase soil temperature and active layer depth, impacting growth and survival conditions for both soil microbes and vegetation. To assess fire severity effects on permafrost soils and tree recruitment, we conducted plot-level experimental burns in July 2012 in a larch forest near Cherskii, Siberia. We achieved four burn severity treatments based on residual SOL depths: control, low (> 8 cm), moderate (5-8 cm), and high severity (2-5 cm). For two growing seasons post-fire, we measured thaw depth, soil moisture, and soil temperature. We sowed larch seeds in fall 2012 and 2013 and quantified seedling establishment and vegetation re-growth for two growing seasons. Immediately post-fire, thaw depth increased rapidly with increasing fire severity, and this trend has persisted for two years. In 2013 and 2014, thaw depth was ~ 40 cm deeper in high severity plots compared to controls, likely due to lower summer soil insulation, higher black char cover, and higher surface soil temperatures. We observed little to no larch recruitment in unburned and low severity plots, but new seedling density was ~5 seedlings m-2 in moderate and high severity plots, which had low cover of other vegetation types and high soil moisture. Findings suggest that increased fire severity may increase larch recruitment and provide favorable soil conditions for tree growth. As a consequence, forest density and potential to accumulate and store C in tree biomass will likely increase. The balance between C lost via fire and microbial respiration and C gained due to changes in forest stand structure will determine whether boreal forests represent a C pool or sink under changing fire regimes.

  10. Climatic stress increases forest fire severity across the western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Mantgem, Philip J.; Nesmith, Jonathan C.B.; Keifer, MaryBeth; Knapp, Eric E.; Flint, Alan; Flint, Lorriane

    2013-01-01

    Pervasive warming can lead to chronic stress on forest trees, which may contribute to mortality resulting from fire-caused injuries. Longitudinal analyses of forest plots from across the western US show that high pre-fire climatic water deficit was related to increased post-fire tree mortality probabilities. This relationship between climate and fire was present after accounting for fire defences and injuries, and appeared to influence the effects of crown and stem injuries. Climate and fire interactions did not vary substantially across geographical regions, major genera and tree sizes. Our findings support recent physiological evidence showing that both drought and heating from fire can impair xylem conductivity. Warming trends have been linked to increasing probabilities of severe fire weather and fire spread; our results suggest that warming may also increase forest fire severity (the number of trees killed) independent of fire intensity (the amount of heat released during a fire).

  11. Analysis of the seasonal characteristics of forest fires in South Korea using the multivariate analysis approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ara Seol; Byungdoo Lee; Joosang Chung

    For efficient forest fire management, special precautions are required in dry and strong-wind seasons vulnerable to severe\\u000a forest fires. To extract the seasonal characteristics of forest fires in South Korea, the statistics over the past 16 years,\\u000a 1991 through 2005, were investigated. The daily records of the number of fire occurrences, the total area burned and the average\\u000a burned area per

  12. Droughts and forest fires in Mediterranean Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turco, Marco; Llasat, Maria-Carmen; von Hardenberg, Jost; Provenzale, Antonello

    2015-04-01

    Most of the total burned area in Europe occurs in Mediterranean regions, with severe economic and environmental damage, life loss and an average of about 4500 km2 burned every year. A better understanding of the impacts on wildfires of environmental and socioeconomic changes is crucial to develop adequate measures of prevention, adaptation and mitigation in this area. Here we focus on the impact of droughts on fires in European Mediterranean regions (Portugal, Spain, the south of France, Italy, Greece). This goal will be achieved through three specific supporting objectives: (1) Understanding past changes in fires in this region (extending the study of [1]); (2) Comparing and analyzing different drought indices (e.g. SPI, SPEI and SSI; see [2, 3] for more details on those indices); (3) Modeling the interaction between drought and fires (following and extending the study of [4]). We develop relatively simple regression models that link the fire activity to the key climate drivers. These models could be used to estimate fire responses to different climate change projections and environmental and socioeconomic scenarios ([5]). *References [1] Turco M., Llasat M. C., Tudela A., Castro X., and Provenzale A. Brief communication Decreasing fires in a Mediterranean region (1970-2010, NE Spain). Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, 13(3):649-652, 2013. [2] Zengchao H., AghaKouchak A., Nakhjiri N., and Farahmand A. Global Integrated Drought Monitoring and Prediction System. Scientific Data, 1:1-10, 2014. [3] Vicente-Serrano, S. M., Beguería, S. and López-Moreno, J. I. A multiscalar drought index sensitive to global warming: The standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index. Journal of Climate, 23:1696-1718, 2010. [4] Turco M., Llasat M. C., von Hardenberg J., and Provenzale A. Impact of climate variability on summer fires in a Mediterranean environment (northeastern Iberian Peninsula). Climatic Change, 116:665-678, 2013. [5] Turco M., Llasat M. C., von Hardenberg J., and Provenzale A. Climate change impacts on wildfires in a Mediterranean environment. Climatic Change, 125:369-380, 2014.

  13. Calibration of FARSITE fire area simulator in Iranian northern forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahdi, R.; Salis, M.; Darvishsefat, A. A.; Alcasena Urdiroz, F. J.; Etemad, V.; Mostafavi, M. A.; Lozano, O. M.; Spano, D.

    2014-09-01

    Wildfire simulators based on empirical or physical models need to be locally calibrated and validated when used under conditions that differ from those where the simulators were originally developed. This study aims to calibrate FARSITE fire spread model considering a set of recent wildfires occurred in Northern Iran forests. Site specific fuel models in the study areas were selected by sampling the main natural vegetation type complexes and assigning standard fuel models. Overall, simulated fires presented reliable outputs that accurately replicated the observed fire perimeters and behavior. Standard fuel models of Scott and Burgan (2005) afforded better accuracy in the simulated fire perimeters than the standard fuel models of Anderson (1982). The best match between observed and modeled burned areas was observed on herbaceous type fuel models. Fire modeling showed a high potential for estimating spatial variability in fire spread and behavior in the study areas. This work represents a first step in the application of fire spread modeling on Northern Iran for wildfire risk monitoring and management.

  14. Modeling of multi-strata forest fire severity using Landsat TM Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qingmin; Meentemeyer, Ross K.

    2011-02-01

    Most of fire severity studies use field measures of composite burn index (CBI) to represent forest fire severity and fit the relationships between CBI and Landsat imagery derived differenced normalized burn ratio (dNBR) to predict and map fire severity at unsampled locations. However, less attention has been paid on the multi-strata forest fire severity, which represents fire activities and ecological responses at different forest layers. In this study, using field measured fire severity across five forest strata of dominant tree, intermediate-sized tree, shrub, herb, substrate layers, and the aggregated measure of CBI as response variables, we fit statistical models with predictors of Landsat TM bands, Landsat derived NBR or dNBR, image differencing, and image ratioing data. We model multi-strata forest fire in the historical recorded largest wildfire in California, the Big Sur Basin Complex fire. We explore the potential contributions of the post-fire Landsat bands, image differencing, image ratioing to fire severity modeling and compare with the widely used NBR and dNBR. Models using combinations of post-fire Landsat bands perform much better than NBR, dNBR, image differencing, and image ratioing. We predict and map multi-strata forest fire severity across the whole Big Sur fire areas, and find that the overall measure CBI is not optimal to represent multi-strata forest fire severity.

  15. Understorey fire frequency and the fate of burned forests in southern Amazonia

    PubMed Central

    Morton, D. C.; Le Page, Y.; DeFries, R.; Collatz, G. J.; Hurtt, G. C.

    2013-01-01

    Recent drought events underscore the vulnerability of Amazon forests to understorey fires. The long-term impact of fires on biodiversity and forest carbon stocks depends on the frequency of fire damages and deforestation rates of burned forests. Here, we characterized the spatial and temporal dynamics of understorey fires (1999–2010) and deforestation (2001–2010) in southern Amazonia using new satellite-based estimates of annual fire activity (greater than 50 ha) and deforestation (greater than 10 ha). Understorey forest fires burned more than 85 500 km2 between 1999 and 2010 (2.8% of all forests). Forests that burned more than once accounted for 16 per cent of all understorey fires. Repeated fire activity was concentrated in Mato Grosso and eastern Pará, whereas single fires were widespread across the arc of deforestation. Routine fire activity in Mato Grosso coincided with annual periods of low night-time relative humidity, suggesting a strong climate control on both single and repeated fires. Understorey fires occurred in regions with active deforestation, yet the interannual variability of fire and deforestation were uncorrelated, and only 2.6 per cent of forests that burned between 1999 and 2008 were deforested for agricultural use by 2010. Evidence from the past decade suggests that future projections of frontier landscapes in Amazonia should separately consider economic drivers to project future deforestation and climate to project fire risk. PMID:23610169

  16. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-203. 2007. 305 Soil Responses to the Fire and Fire

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    Surrogate Study in the Sierra Nevada1 Emily E.Y. Moghaddas2 and Scott L. Stephens3 Abstract The Fire and Fire Surrogate Study utilizes forest thinning and prescribed burning in attempt to create forest stand harvest (commercial harvest plus mastication of sub- merchantable material), mechanical harvest followed

  17. Post-fire water quality in forest catchments: a review with implications for potable water supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Hugh; Sheridan, Gary; Lane, Patrick; Nyman, Petter; Haydon, Shane

    2010-05-01

    In many locations fire-prone forest catchments are utilised for the supply of potable water to small communities up to large cities. For example, in south-eastern Australia, wildfires have burned part or all of forest catchments supplying drinking water to Sydney (2001 wildfire), Canberra (2003), Adelaide (2007), Melbourne (2009), as well as various regional towns. Generally, undisturbed forest catchments are a source of high quality water. However, increases in erosion and sediment flux, runoff generation, and changes to the supply of key constituents after wildfire may result in contamination of water supplies. In this review, we present key physical and chemical constituents from a drinking water perspective that may be generated in burned forest catchments and examine post-fire changes to concentrations of these constituents in streams and reservoirs. The World Health Organisation (WHO) drinking water guideline values were used to assess reported post-fire constituent concentrations. Constituents examined include suspended sediment, ash, nutrients, trace metals, anions (Cl-, SO42-), cyanides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Constituent concentrations in streams and reservoirs vary substantially following wildfire. In streams, maximum reported total suspended solid concentrations (SSC) in the first year after fire ranged from 11 to 143,000 mg L-1. SSC is often measured in studies of post-fire stream water quality, whereas turbidity is used in drinking water guidelines and more commonly monitored in water supply reservoirs. For burned catchment reservoirs in south-eastern Australia, peak turbidities increased over pre-fire conditions, as did the frequency of exceedance of the turbidity guideline. NO3-, NO2-, and NH4+ may increase after wildfire but maximum recorded concentrations have not exceeded WHO guideline values. Large post-fire increases in total N and total P concentrations in streams and reservoirs have been observed, although there are no guideline values for total N or P. Studies of post-fire concentrations of dissolved organic carbon are mostly from North America and report generally minor increases after fire, with elevated concentrations reflecting background conditions. The few observations of trace metal concentrations in streams after wildfire found high concentrations that exceeded guideline values for Fe, Mn, As, Cr, Al, Ba, and Pb, which were associated with highly elevated sediment concentrations. In contrast, Cu, Zn, and Hg were below or only slightly above (?1.2 times) guideline values. Reports of Cl- and SO42- concentrations after wildfire are mostly confined to coniferous forest areas, where maximum sampled values were well below WHO guidelines. Total cyanide concentrations have been observed to exceed guidelines values, although increases are likely to be short-lived. Post-fire stream concentrations of PAHs have been found to increase but were below levels of concern. In assessing the risk to water supply from wildfires, constituents of concern may be identified according to both the reason for concern (health or aesthetic) and treatability. Determining the risk to human health from short duration exposure to elevated concentrations of many contaminants (such as toxic metals, PAHs) is problematic, given that the guideline values are based on a life-time of exposure. Other constituents may have more rapid health effects from consumption of contaminated water (e.g. cyanides, Cu, NO2-) or aesthetic concerns (e.g. Fe, Mn, SO42-, Zn). The increased flux of suspended sediment and sediment-associated constituents (particularly metals, nutrients and organic carbon) that can occur after wildfire may necessitate water treatment by coagulation and filtration. At very high sediment concentrations treatment problems may be encountered that reduce or delay the rate of water processing, potentially causing disruptions in supply. For other constituents, such as NO3-, NO2-, Cl-, SO42-, amenable cyanides, and PAHs, it appears the likelihood that concentrations of concern will occur in water suppl

  18. Slow recolonization of burned oak–juniper woodlands by Ashe juniper ( Juniperus ashei): Ten years of succession after crown fire

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charlotte M. Reemts; Laura L. Hansen

    2008-01-01

    Fire is an important control on the distribution of plant communities on the Edwards Plateau in central Texas. Although the effects of fire in grasslands have been well studied, little is known about the recovery of mature oak–Ashe juniper (Quercus spp.–Juniperus ashei) woodlands after crown fire. These woodlands are the only nesting habitat of the endangered golden-cheeked warbler (Dendroica chrysoparia).

  19. [Estimation of carbon emission from forest fires in Zhejiang Province of China in 1991-2006].

    PubMed

    Yang, Guo-Fu; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Shu-Quan; Zhou, Guo-Mo; Jia, Wei-Jiang

    2009-05-01

    Forest fire is an important disturbance factor of natural ecosystem, which can release great amount of greenhouse gases. With the persistent global warming, forest fire tends to happen more frequently. Based on the statistical data of forest fires and the biomass data of dominant forest types in Zhejiang Province in 1991-2006, the annual greenhouse gases emission from forest fires in the Province was estimated by using emission factors and emission ratio. The results showed that the annual emissions of CO2, CO, CH4, and non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) from forest fires were 127930, 7672.8, 3098.7, and 1475.5 t, and the amounts of annually consumed biomass and carbon were 86148.1 and 38776.7 t, respectively, suggesting that forest fire had definite effects on the regional carbon budget. PMID:19803157

  20. What Was the Role of Fire in Coast Redwood Forests?1

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    What Was the Role of Fire in Coast Redwood Forests?1 Peter M. Brown2 Fire has long been recognized as an important disturbance in coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) forests (Fritz 1931), but the exact nature of historical fire regimes in many areas is uncertain. Coast redwood grows in relatively mesic, often fog

  1. GENERAL TECHNICAL REPORT PSW-GTR-245 Villaflores: Municipal Forest Fire

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    municipal departments; e) Detection and Suppression: fire discovery and notification of staff responsible Forest Fire Information System; and 8) 74% contribution in days/man participation in preventionGENERAL TECHNICAL REPORT PSW-GTR-245 370 Villaflores: Municipal Forest Fire Management Model1 Pedro

  2. Mega fire emissions in Siberia: potential supply of soluble iron from forests to the ocean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ito

    2011-01-01

    Significant amounts of carbon and nutrients are released to the atmosphere due to large fires in forests. Characterization of the spatial distribution and temporal variation of the intense fire emissions is crucial for assessing the atmospheric loadings of aerosols and trace gases. This paper discusses issues of the representation of forest fires in the estimation of emissions and the application

  3. Mega fire emissions in Siberia: potential supply of bioavailable iron from forests to the ocean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ito

    2011-01-01

    Significant amounts of carbon and nutrients are released to the atmosphere due to large fires in forests. Characterization of the spatial distribution and temporal variation of the intense fire emissions is crucial for assessing the atmospheric loadings of trace gases and aerosols. This paper discusses issues of the representation of forest fires in the estimation of emissions and the application

  4. Adaptive Weighted Fusion Algorithm for Monitoring System of Forest Fire Based on Wireless Sensor Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guang Lu; Wei Xue

    2010-01-01

    Forest fires have drawn increasing attention in recent years due to their tremendous effects on environment, humans and wild life, ecosystem function, weather, and climate. Accurate monitoring of forest fires field is important since it contributes in fire effects assessing and controlling. This study attempts to apply adaptive weighted fusion algorithm in a wireless sensor networks (WSNs) system for the

  5. Assessment of a Forest Fire Danger Index for Russia Using NOAA Information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. I. Sukhinin; D. J. McRae; E. I. Ponomarev

    2002-01-01

    To be efficient, modern forest fire managers require a reliable method for estimating fire danger. For large remote forested areas, such as found in Russia where a local weather station network does not exist, this can be a major problem. However, remote sensing can provide reasonable estimates of fire danger across Russia to allow for an understanding of the present

  6. Modelling light penetration edge effects for stream buffer design in mountain ash forest in southeastern Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Dignan; Leon Bren

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we develop models to describe light environment edge effects in retained mountain ash\\/riparian forest in southeastern Australia following edge creation by clearfell logging. The models are then used in the design of functional buffers whose objective is light environment protection.The study uses hemispherical photographs taken before and after logging at distances from the cut edge ranging from

  7. Mercury capture by native fly ash carbons in coal-fired power plants.

    PubMed

    Hower, James C; Senior, Constance L; Suuberg, Eric M; Hurt, Robert H; Wilcox, Jennifer L; Olson, Edwin S

    2010-08-01

    The control of mercury in the air emissions from coal-fired power plants is an on-going challenge. The native unburned carbons in fly ash can capture varying amounts of Hg depending upon the temperature and composition of the flue gas at the air pollution control device, with Hg capture increasing with a decrease in temperature; the amount of carbon in the fly ash, with Hg capture increasing with an increase in carbon; and the form of the carbon and the consequent surface area of the carbon, with Hg capture increasing with an increase in surface area. The latter is influenced by the rank of the feed coal, with carbons derived from the combustion of low-rank coals having a greater surface area than carbons from bituminous- and anthracite-rank coals. The chemistry of the feed coal and the resulting composition of the flue gas enhances Hg capture by fly ash carbons. This is particularly evident in the correlation of feed coal Cl content to Hg oxidation to HgCl2, enhancing Hg capture. Acid gases, including HCl and H2SO4 and the combination of HCl and NO2, in the flue gas can enhance the oxidation of Hg. In this presentation, we discuss the transport of Hg through the boiler and pollution control systems, the mechanisms of Hg oxidation, and the parameters controlling Hg capture by coal-derived fly ash carbons. PMID:24223466

  8. Cytotoxic effect of vanadium and oil-fired fly ash on hamster tracheal epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Schiff, L.J.; Graham, J.A.

    1984-08-01

    Hamster tracheal organ cultures were used to study the in vitro effects of vanadium and oil-fired fly ash on mucociliary respiratory epithelium. Two vanadium compounds, VOSO/sub 4/ and V/sub 2/O/sub 5/, and fly ash from an oil-fueled power plant were dissolved or suspended in culture medium over a range of concentrations and epithelia were exposed for 1 hr/day, for 9 consecutive days. At intervals during this period, alterations in cilia-beating frequency, cytology, and histology were documented by light microscopy. Explants treated with VOSO/sub 4/ either decreased ciliary activity or produced ciliostasis depending upon the concentration and length of exposure. Early morphological alterations consisted of vacuolization of both nuclei and cytoplasm. After multiple exposures, cytology of VOSO/sub 4/-treated respiratory mucosa was markedly affected. Similar changes were observed in cultures exposed to V/sub 2/O/sub 5/; however, the cytotoxicity appeared earlier and was more pronounced. Fly ash-treated explants produced similar biological effects when compared to both vanadium compounds. Thus, the data indicate that the extent of vanadium toxicity depends, at least in part, on the vanadium content of the compound tested, and that exposure to this metal and vanadium-rich fly ash can inhibit normal mucociliary function, a vital clearance mechanism in the respiratory tract.

  9. Parameterizing fire effects on the carbon balance of western United States (U.S.) forests: Accounting for variation across forest types, fire severity, and carbon pools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghimire, B.; Williams, C. A.; Collatz, G. J.

    2010-12-01

    Fires are known to alter the carbon balance of forests by direct/consumptive or indirect/non-consumptive effects, but detailed representation of fire-induced combustion and mortality is generally lacking in carbon cycle models. Existing approaches fail to incorporate details on the direct and indirect consumption of carbon in individual pools (e.g. foliage, stem, and roots), and ignore severity-dependence of these effects. The few studies that do incorporate detailed parameterization have focused only on localized areas or single fires. Still other studies lack representation of fire associated inter-pool carbon transfer processes needed to characterize post-fire carbon dynamics through time. This study reviews the existing literature (e.g. restoration ecology and post-fire mortality studies) on fires across the whole of western U.S. forests to derive a comprehensive and detailed parameterization of fire effects suitable for incorporation in the Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach (CASA) carbon cycle model. This study relies on a comprehensive integration of remote sensing, field observations and biogeochemical modeling based analysis. Post-fire carbon fluxes are derived as a function of forest type, productivity and fire severity using a technique based on merging Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data, CASA carbon cycle modeling, 30 m spatial resolution Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) fire severity observations, and additional remotely sensed observations (e.g. temperature, precipitation and Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR)). As such, we obtain characteristic carbon trajectories and regional carbon flux estimates specific to forest types and fire severity levels in the western U.S. forests. This research elucidates new insights on carbon fluxes by performing an intensive and detailed literature survey of post-fire vegetation mortality studies in order to parameterize forest type and fire severity associated effects and processes in the CASA carbon cycle model at a regional landscape level scale.

  10. Birth-jump processes and application to forest fire spotting.

    PubMed

    Hillen, T; Greese, B; Martin, J; de Vries, G

    2015-07-01

    Birth-jump models are designed to describe population models for which growth and spatial spread cannot be decoupled. A birth-jump model is a nonlinear integro-differential equation. We present two different derivations of this equation, one based on a random walk approach and the other based on a two-compartmental reaction-diffusion model. In the case that the redistribution kernels are highly concentrated, we show that the integro-differential equation can be approximated by a reaction-diffusion equation, in which the proliferation rate contributes to both the diffusion term and the reaction term. We completely solve the corresponding critical domain size problem and the minimal wave speed problem. Birth-jump models can be applied in many areas in mathematical biology. We highlight an application of our results in the context of forest fire spread through spotting. We show that spotting increases the invasion speed of a forest fire front. PMID:25186246

  11. Conceptual design study: Forest Fire Advanced System Technology (FFAST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, J. D.; Warren, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    An integrated forest fire detection and mapping system that will be based upon technology available in the 1990s was defined. Uncertainties in emerging and advanced technologies related to the conceptual design were identified and recommended for inclusion as preferred system components. System component technologies identified for an end-to-end system include thermal infrared, linear array detectors, automatic georeferencing and signal processing, geosynchronous satellite communication links, and advanced data integration and display. Potential system configuration options were developed and examined for possible inclusion in the preferred system configuration. The preferred system configuration will provide increased performance and be cost effective over the system currently in use. Forest fire management user requirements and the system component emerging technologies were the basis for the system configuration design. A preferred system configuration was defined that warrants continued refinement and development, examined economic aspects of the current and preferred system, and provided preliminary cost estimates for follow-on system prototype development.

  12. Distinct roles of savanna and forest tree species in regeneration under fire suppression in a

    E-print Network

    Fine, Paul V.A.

    Distinct roles of savanna and forest tree species in regeneration under fire suppression in a Brazilian savanna Erika L. Geiger, Sybil G. Gotsch, Gabriel Damasco, M. Haridasan, Augusto C. Franco & William A. Hoffmann Keywords Cerrado; fire; forest expansion; forest­savanna boundary; tropical savanna

  13. A Novel Accurate Forest Fire Detection System Using Wireless Sensor Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yongsheng Liu; Yu Gu; Guolong Chen; Yusheng Ji; Jie Li

    2011-01-01

    A forest fire has long been a severe threat to the forest resources and human life. The threat could effectively be mitigated by timely and accurate detection. In this paper, we propose a novel accurate forest fire detection system using Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). In the proposed system, the detection accuracy is increased by applying the multi-criteria detection that an

  14. Monthly burned area and forest fire carbon emission estimates for the Russian Federation from SPOT VGT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y.-H. Zhang; M. J. Wooster; O. Tutubalina; G. L. W. Perry

    2003-01-01

    Russian boreal forests contain around 25% of all global terrestrial carbon, some of which is released to the atmosphere when the forests burn. Whilst it is well known that fire is widespread in the boreal environment, there is a lack of good quality quantitative data on the extent of fire activity in Russian forests and on its interannual variation. This

  15. Mixed Conifer Forest Duff Consumption during Prescribed Fires: Tree Crown Impacts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco G. Hille; Scott L. Stephens

    2005-01-01

    Fire suppression has produced large forest floor fuel loads in many coniferous forests in western North America. This study describes spatial patterns of duff consumption in a mixed-conifer forest in the north-central Sierra Nevada, California. Overstory crown coverage was correlated to spatial patterns of duff depth after prescribed fire. On one site that was burned under dry conditions, almost all

  16. Measuring moisture dynamics to predict fire severity in longleaf pine forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sue A. FergusonA; Julia E. RuthfordA; Steven J. McKayA; David WrightA; Clint Wright; Roger Ottmar

    2002-01-01

    To understand the combustion limit of biomass fuels in a longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) forest, an experiment was conducted to monitor the moisture content of potentially flammable forest floor materials (litter and duff) at Eglin Air Force Base in the Florida Panhandle. While longleaf pine forests are fire dependent ecosystems, a long history of fire exclusion has allowed large amounts

  17. Fire Regimes and Successional Dynamics of Pine and Oak Forests in the Central Appalachian Mountains 

    E-print Network

    Aldrich, Serena Rose

    2012-07-16

    The role of fire in determining the structure and composition of many forested ecosystems is well documented (e.g. North American boreal forests; piñon-juniper woodlands of the western US). Fire is also believed to be important in temperate forests...

  18. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Compact directed percolation with modified boundary rules: a forest fire model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearney, Michael J.

    2002-07-01

    A modified version of compact directed percolation on a square lattice is examined in the context of a model problem for the spread of forest fires. The modification relates to conditioning the extent of the fire spread along the forest boundaries. Exact expressions are given for the mean perimeter length and the mean size of the damaged forest under such conditioning.

  19. Fire dynamics and implications for nitrogen cycling in boreal forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, J.W.; Mack, M.; Veldhuis, H.; Gower, S.T.

    2003-01-01

    We used a dynamic, long-term mass balance approach to track cumulative carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) losses to fire in boreal Manitoba over the 6500 years since deglaciation. Estimated C losses to decomposition and fire, combined with measurements of N pools in mature and burned forest floors, suggest that loss of N by combustion has likely resulted in a long-term loss that exceeds the amount of N stored in soil today by 2 to 3 times. These estimates imply that biological N fixation rates could be as high as 5 to 10 times atmospheric deposition rates in boreal regions. At the site scale, the amount of N lost is due to N content of fuels, which varies by stand type and fire severity, which in turn vary with climate and fire dynamics. The interplay of fire frequency, fire severity, and N partitioning during regrowth are important for understanding rates and sustainability of nutrient and carbon cycling over millenia and over broad regions.

  20. Targeting Forest Management through Fire and Erosion Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliot, William J.; Miller, Mary Ellen; MacDonald, Lee H.

    2013-04-01

    Forests deliver a number of ecosystem services, including clean water. When forests are disturbed by wildfire, the timing and quantity of runoff can be altered, and the quality can be severely degraded. A modeling study for about 1500 km2 in the Upper Mokelumne River Watershed in California was conducted to determine the risk of wildfire and the associated potential sediment delivery should a wildfire occur, and to calculate the potential reduction in sediment delivery that might result from fuel reduction treatments. The first step was to predict wildfire severity and probability of occurrence under current vegetation conditions with FlamMap fire prediction tool. FlamMap uses current vegetation, topography, and wind characteristics to predict the speed, flame length, and direction of a simulated flame front for each 30-m pixel. As the first step in the erosion modeling, a geospatial interface for the WEPP model (GeoWEPP) was used to delineate approximately 6-ha hillslope polygons for the study area. The flame length values from FlamMap were then aggregated for each hillslope polygon to yield a predicted fire intensity. Fire intensity and pre-fire vegetation conditions were used to estimate fire severity (either unburned, low, moderate or high). The fire severity was combined with soil properties from the STATSGO database to build the vegetation and soil files needed to run WEPP for each polygon. Eight different stochastic climates were generated to account for the weather variability within the basin. A modified batching version of GeoWEPP was used to predict the first-year post-fire sediment yield from each hillslope and subwatershed. Estimated sediment yields ranged from 0 to more than 100 Mg/ha, and were typical of observed values. The polygons that generated the greatest amount of sediment or that were critical for reducing fire spread were identified, and these were "treated" by reducing the amount of fuel available for a wildfire. The erosion associated with these fuel treatments was estimated using WEPP. FlamMap and WEPP were run a second time to determine the extent to which the imposed treatments reduced fire intensity, fire severity, and the predicted sediment yields. The results allowed managers to quantify the net reduction in sediment delivery due to the prescribed treatments. The modeling also identified those polygons with the greatest net decline in sediment delivery, with the expectation that these polygons would have the highest priority for fuel reduction treatments. An economic value can be assigned to the predicted net change in sediment delivered to a reservoir or a specified decline in water quality. The estimated avoided costs due to the reduction in sediment delivery can help justify the optimized fuel treatments.

  1. Proceedings of the 4th Fire in Eastern Oak Forests Conference34 GTR-NRS-P-102 HISTORY OF FIRE IN EASTERN OAK FORESTS

    E-print Network

    Hart, Justin

    Proceedings of the 4th Fire in Eastern Oak Forests Conference34 GTR-NRS-P-102 HISTORY OF FIRE Student (MLB). JLH is corresponding author: to contact, call 205-348-4190 or email hart013@bama.ua.edu. Abstract.--Our understanding of long-term fire history in the eastern United States is derived from

  2. Satellite analysis of the severe 1987 forest fires in northern China and southeastern Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahoon, Donald R, Jr.; Stocks, Brian J.; Levine, Joel S.; Cofer, Wesley R., III; Pierson, Joseph M.

    1994-01-01

    Meteorological conditions, extremely conducive to fire development and spread in the spring of 1987, resulted in forest fires burning over extremely large areas in the boreal forest zone in northeastern China and the southeastern region of Siberia. The great China fire, one of the largest and most destructive forest fires in recent history, occurred during this period in the Heilongjiang Province of China. Satellite imagery is used to examine the development and areal distribution of 1987 forest fires in this region. Overall trace gas emissions to the atmosphere from these fires are determined using a satellite-derived estimate of area burned in combination with fuel consumption figures and carbon emission ratios for boreal forest fires.

  3. An Intelligent System For Effective Forest Fire Detection Using Spatial Data

    E-print Network

    Angayarkkani, K

    2010-01-01

    The explosive growth of spatial data and extensive utilization of spatial databases emphasize the necessity for the automated discovery of spatial knowledge. In modern times, spatial data mining has emerged as an area of voluminous research. Forest fires are a chief environmental concern, causing economical and ecological damage while endangering human lives across the world. The fast or early detection of forest fires is a vital element for controlling such phenomenon. The application of remote sensing is at present a significant method for forest fires monitoring, particularly in vast and remote areas. Different methods have been presented by researchers for forest fire detection. The motivation behind this research is to obtain beneficial information from images in the forest spatial data and use the same in the determination of regions at the risk of fires by utilizing Image Processing and Artificial Intelligence techniques. This paper presents an intelligent system to detect the presence of forest fires ...

  4. 1-4244-1455-5/07/$25.00 c 2007 IEEE Wireless Sensor Networks for Early Detection of Forest Fires

    E-print Network

    Hefeeda, Mohammed

    detection systems. The FWI System is one of the most comprehensive forest fire danger rating systems fit forest fire detection systems. Then, we model the forest fire detection problem as a k and large-scale fire surveil- lance systems do not accomplish timely detection due to low resolution

  5. Forest fire in the context of territorial rights in northern Thailand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atchara Rakyutidharm

    Territorial rights are important for establishing the roles of those who should protect natural resources. Different property rights regimes may affect the characteristi cs of fires. This paper compares fires on land managed under a common property regime with fires on land owned and managed by the state. According to the definition of the Royal Forest Department (RFD), fire that

  6. Forest fire detection system based on a ZigBee wireless sensor network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junguo Zhang; Wenbin Li; Ning Han; Jiangming Kan

    2008-01-01

    Compared with the traditional techniques of forest fire detection, a wireless sensor network paradigm based on a ZigBee technique\\u000a was proposed. The proposed technique is in real time, given the exigencies of forest fires. The architecture of a wireless\\u000a sensor network for forest fire detection is described. The hardware circuitry of the network node is designed based on a CC2430

  7. Landslides, forest fires, and earthquakes: examples of self-organized critical behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald L Turcotte; Bruce D Malamud

    2004-01-01

    Per Bak conceived self-organized criticality as an explanation for the behavior of the sandpile model. Subsequently, many cellular automata models were found to exhibit similar behavior. Two examples are the forest-fire and slider-block models. Each of these models can be associated with a serious natural hazard: the sandpile model with landslides, the forest-fire model with actual forest fires, and the

  8. Satellite monitoring of forest fires and associated smoke plumes occurring in Korea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. S. Chung; H. S. Kim

    2008-01-01

    Operational research was carried out on satellite detection of forest fires and associated smoke plumes occurring in the Korean\\u000a Peninsula. Forest fire data and satellite images obtained from 2004 to 2007 were examined. It was observed that at least three\\u000a forest-fire episodes were caused by atmospheric lightning, while all other cases were recorded as anthropogenic causes, according\\u000a to data gathered

  9. The effect of fly ash on fluid dynamics of CO 2 scrubber in coal-fired power plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhisheng Chen; Derek Yates; James K. Neathery; Kunlei Liu

    Uncaptured fly ash and\\/or suspended solids from wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) scrubbing solutions are one of several factors that will influence the performance and robustness of carbon dioxide capture systems in coal-fired power plants which will be installed prior to the exhaust stack. In this study, a 100mm ID packed column scrubber was tested with different concentrations of ash

  10. Climatic and Human Influences on Fire Regimes in Ponderosa Pine Forests in the Colorado Front Range

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas T. Veblen; Thomas Kitzberger; Joseph Donnegan

    2000-01-01

    In the northern Colorado Front Range, fire suppression during the 20th cen- tury is believed to have created a high hazard of catastrophic fire in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests. Since the early 1990s, resource managers have increased the use of prescribed fires to re-create fire regimes and forest structures similar to those of the pre- Euro-American settlement period in

  11. Fire, climate change, carbon and fuel management in the Canadian boreal forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. D. AmiroAC; B. J. StocksB; M. E. AlexanderA; B. M. WottonB

    Fire is the dominant stand-renewing disturbance through much of the Canadian boreal forest, with large high-intensity crown fires being common. From 1 to 3 million ha have burned on average during the past 80 years, with 6 years in the past two decades experiencing more than 4 million ha burned. A large-fire database that maps forest fires greater than 200

  12. Spatiotemporal Variations in the Fire Regimes of Whitebark Pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) Forests, Western Montana, USA,

    E-print Network

    Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

    Spatiotemporal Variations in the Fire Regimes of Whitebark Pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) Forests Change Research Group at the University of Tennessee. #12;v Abstract Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis

  13. PCDD/F and Aromatic Emissions from Simulated Forest and Grassland Fires

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzodioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) from simulated grassland and forest fires were quantitatively sampled to derive emission factors in support of PCDD/F inventory development. Grasses from Kentucky and Minnesota; forest shrubs fro...

  14. Large-Scale Forest Fires and Resulting Alterations to the Hydrologic Cycle in the Western U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, J.; White, A. B.; Thomson, B.

    2012-12-01

    Recent changes in climate have resulted in a decrease in precipitation and snowpack amounts and increased temperatures in the western United States. Drier and warmer conditions coupled with forest management issues have led to an increase in the frequency and size of forest fires. The 2000 Cerro Grande fire in Los Alamos, New Mexico burned over 43,000 acres and 200 structures. Eleven years later, the Las Conchas fire burned over 156,000 acres and 100 structures, including areas previously burned in 2000, and was considered the largest fire in New Mexico's history. Both fires burned ponderosa, juniper, piñon and mixed conifer forests, resulting in dramatic decreases in vegetation, changes to surface soils, and alterations to the hydrologic cycle (decreased evapotranspiration, decreased infiltration, increased runoff volume and peak discharge, and decreased time to peak discharge) in surrounding watersheds. Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams need to determine the flash-flood danger quickly in order to protect residents, fire-fighters, BAER-team field personnel, and property at risk. The USGS developed an analytical method for predicting post-fire peak discharges using data collected from eight different fires throughout the western United States. We use this method to predict peak discharge in Los Alamos watersheds post-Cerro Grande and post-Las Conchas, then compare predicted to measured peak discharge. We will evaluate the effectiveness of the three methodology levels presented by the USGS, which include varying levels of data input and processing. We expect the peak discharges to be similar in magnitude; however, we will also investigate different influential factors such as burn severity, soil type, vegetation type and density, ecological connectivity, topography, pre- and post-fire weather conditions, etc., as they relate to the fires and the results seen from the measured versus the analytical method. Determining the relative influence of these factors may be important in establishing the comprehensive nature of the methodology. The frequency of large, intense "mega-fires" are predicted to increase, thus there is a potential for more post-fire flood damage and more surface water resources to be altered due to water quality issues. For example, the Whitewater-Baldy Complex fire became the largest fire in New Mexico's history one year after the Las Conchas fire by burning almost 300,000 acres in the Gila National Forest in southern New Mexico, the Little Bear fire in 2012 forced the closure of Alto Reservoir for the foreseeable future due to ash and debris, and the Las Conchas fire forced several surface water treatment facilities serving Santa Fe and Albuquerque to shut down. As these fires become more frequent, there is a potential that less surface water will be available and more groundwater will be pumped for human and agricultural use in the western U.S., where water scarcity is already a pressing problem. Understanding how these fires alter the hydrologic cycle is critical to water policy and planning and this research will help advance that understanding.

  15. Radioactivity of coals and ash and slag wastes at coal-fired thermal power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krylov, D. A.; Sidorova, G. P.

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents an analysis of published data on the content of radioactive nuclides in coals originating from various coal deposits, and in ash and slag wastes produced at coal-fired thermal power plants, as well as in fly ash emitted from thermal power plants into the atmosphere. Problems related to the use of coals with an elevated content of natural radionuclides (NRNs) and methods of their solution implemented at the Urtuyskoe coalfield are dealt with. Data on the analysis of Transbaikal coals for the NRN content, as well as weighted mean content of uranium and thorium in coals from the Siberian Region, are given. In order to reduce irradiation of plant personnel and the population of the areas where coal producers and coal-fired thermal power plants are located, it is necessary to organize very careful control of the NRN content in both coals and products of their combustion that are released into the environment. To solve the problem related to the control of radioactivity, the centralized approach and creation of a proper normative base are needed. Experience gained in developing the Urtuyskoe coalfield shows that it is possible to create an efficient system of coal quality control with respect to the radiation hygiene factor and provide protection of the environment and health of the population.

  16. Fire history differences in adjacent Jeffrey pine and upper montane forests in the eastern Sierra Nevada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott L. Stephens

    2001-01-01

    Fire history and forest structural characteristics of adjacent Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi) and upper montane forests was investigated in the eastern Sierra Nevada at the University of California Valentine Natural Reserve. Jeffrey pine forests had lower canopy cover, higher amounts of fine fuels, and higher shrub cover when compared to upper montane forest that were dominated by red fir (Abies

  17. Degradation of forests through logging and fire in the eastern Brazilian Amazon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey J. Gerwinga

    The status of tropical forests in the Amazon basin is often expressed in terms of deforestation extent. However, in the eastern Brazilian Amazon logging and ground fires degrade forest structure and create land cover types that are intermediate between intact and cleared forest. The objective of this study was to provide a basis for understanding the implications of forest degradation

  18. Long-term forest floor carbon dynamics after fire in upland boreal forests of western Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nalder, Ian A.; Wein, Ross W.

    1999-12-01

    We examined the long-term dynamics of upland boreal forest floors after disturbance by fire. We selected two important and contrasting upland tree species, Pinus banksiana (jack pine) and Populus tremuloides (trembling aspen), in three distinct climatic zones across the boreal forest of western Canada, and sampled 80 fire-originated stands divided into six chronosequences with ages ranging from 14 to 149 years. The forest floor was a large component of carbon storage. Averaged across ages and zones, it was 1.31 and 2.78 kg C m-2 for P. banksiana and P. tremuloides, respectively, compared with 4.03 and 5.56 kg C m-2 in aboveground trees. These data exclude decomposing coarse woody debris, which was a significant component of the forest floor (0.18/0.13 kg C m-2 ) and requires further study. The contributions from shrubs (0.035/0.151 kg C m-2), ground vegetation (0.019/0.026 kg C m-2), and moss-plus-lichen (0.179/0.004 kg C m-2) were relatively small. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) model showed that forest floor carbon was positively related to stand age, as well as being affected by species and climatic zone. Much of the variability was explained by species, and species-specific regression models showed that for P. tremuloides forest floor carbon was strongly related to stand age, mean annual temperature, and mean annual precipitation, and for P. banksiana, forest floor carbon was strongly related to an index of moss dominance. The regression models suggest that the forest floor carbon pool in upland forests of the western Canadian boreal will be sensitive to climate change, but this sensitivity would need to be tested with process-based models.

  19. Forest fire advanced system technology (FFAST) conceptual design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, J. David; Warren, John R.

    1987-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service completed a conceptual design study that defined an integrated forest fire detection and mapping system that will be based upon technology available in the 1990s. Potential system configuration options in emerging and advanced technologies related to the conceptual design were identified and recommended for inclusion as preferred system components. System component technologies identified for an end-to-end system include airborne mounted, thermal infrared (IR) linear array detectors, automatic onboard georeferencing and signal processing, geosynchronous satellite communications links, and advanced data integration and display. Potential system configuration options were developed and examined for possible inclusion in the preferred system configuration. The preferred system configuration will provide increased performance and be cost effective over the system currently in use. Forest fire management user requirements and the system component emerging technologies were the basis for the system configuration design. The conceptual design study defined the preferred system configuration that warrants continued refinement and development, examined economic aspects of the current and preferred system, and provided preliminary cost estimates for follow-on system prototype development.

  20. COAL BLENDING, ASH SEPARATION, ASH RE INJECTION, ASH CONDITIONING, AND OTHER NOVEL APPROACHES TO ENHANCE HG UPTAKE BY ASH IN COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC POWER STATIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas K. Gale; Randy L. Merritt

    Differences in coal type and pollution control devices make it necessary to develop customized solutions for each utility, which will be most effective and economical for each configuration. In addition, the complicated chemistry and multiple mechanisms governing mercury speciation in coal-fired boilers makes it necessary to investigate Hg emission control technologies at conditions relevant to full-scale units. Experiments were performed

  1. The effects of fire severity on black carbon additions to forest soils - 10 years post fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poore, R.; Wessman, C. A.; Buma, B.

    2013-12-01

    Wildfires play an active role in the global carbon cycle. While large amounts of carbon dioxide are released, a small fraction of the biomass consumed by the fire is only partially combusted, yielding soot and charcoal. These products, also called black carbon (BC) make up only 1-5% of the biomass burnt, yet they can have a disproportionate effect on both the atmosphere and fluxes in long-term carbon pools. This project specifically considers the fraction that is sequestered in forest soils. Black carbon is not a specific compound, and exists along a continuum ranging from partially burned biomass to pure carbon or graphite. Increasing aromaticity as the result of partial combustion means charcoal is highly resistant to oxidation. Although debated, most studies indicate a turnover time on the order of 500-1,000 years in warm, wet, aerobic soils. Charcoal may function as a long-term carbon sink, however its overall significance depends on its rate of formation and loss. At the landscape level, fire characteristics are one of the major factors controlling charcoal production. A few studies suggest that charcoal production increases with cooler, less-severe fires. However, there are many factors to tease apart, partly because of a lack of specificity in how fire severity is defined. Within this greater context, our lab has been working on a landscape-level study within Routt National Forest, north of Steamboat Springs, Colorado. In 2002, a large fire swept through a subalpine spruce, fir and lodgepole pine forest. In 2011-2013 we sampled BC pools in 44 plots across a range of fire severities from unburned to severe crown We hypothesized that charcoal stocks will be higher in areas of low severity fire as compared to high severity because of decreased re-combustion of charcoal in the organic soil and increased overall charcoal production due to lower temperatures. In each of our plots we measured charcoal on snags and coarse woody debris, sampled the entire organic horizon and the top 10cm mineral horizon. The soils were sieved to 2mm and their BC content measured using the Kurth-MacKenzie-DeLuca method of digesting labile carbon using nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide at 95C for 20hrs. We integrated both remotely sensed data and field observations. We used the Relative Difference Normalized Burn Ratio (RdNBR) calculated by Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS). This index used Landsat images from July in the years before and after the fire and is based on differences in bands 4 and 7, with the aim of assessing coarse scale changes in soil and vegetation post fire. For each plot we also collected data on tree mortality and organic soil depth. These metrics were chosen from the Composite Burn Index as those that were most reliable even 10 years after the fire. We observed no significant differences in BC totals between high severity fire and unburned plots, although BC increased slightly on burned plots. Early results for low severity sites (analysis still in progress) suggest that BC increased in plots experiencing lower severity fires compared to unburned and high severity plots. Comparing carbon and BC totals on unburned and severely burned plots, and assuming no loss of BC from mineral soil during the fire, we observed a 1.2% conversion of burned biomass to BC, which corresponds with literature estimates of 1-4%.

  2. Monitoring the species of arsenic, chromium and nickel in milled coal, bottom ash and fly ash from a pulverized coal-fired power plant in western Canada.

    PubMed

    Goodarzi, F; Huggins, F E

    2001-02-01

    The concentration of As, Cr and Ni and their speciation (As3+;5+, Cr3+;6+ and Ni0;2+) in milled coal, bottom ash and ash collected by electrostatic precipitator (ESP) from a coal fired-power plant in western Canada were determined using HGAAS, ICP-AES and XANES. The chemical fractionation of these elements was also determined by a sequential leaching procedure, using deionized water, NH4OAC and HCI as extracting agents. The leachate was analyzed by ICP-AES. Arsenic in the milled coal is mostly associated with organic matter, and 67% of this arsenic is removed by ammonium acetate. This element is totally removed from milled coal after extraction with HCI. Arsenic occurs in both the As3+ and the As5+ oxidation states in the milled coal, while virtually all (>90%) of the arsenic in bottom ash and fly ash appears to be in the less toxic arsenate (As5+) form. Both Ni and Cr in the milled coal are extracted by HCI, indicating that water can mobilize Ni and Cr in an acidic environment. The chromium is leached by water from fly ash as a result of the high pH of the water, which is induced during the leaching. Ammonium acetate removes Ni from bottom ash through an ion exchange process. Chromium in milled coal is present entirely as Cr3+, which is an essential human trace nutrient. The Cr speciation in bottom ash is a more accentuated version of the milled coal and consists mostly of the Cr3+ species. Chromium in fly ash is mostly Cr3+, with significant contamination by stainless-steel from the installation itself. PMID:11253001

  3. Controls on variations in MODIS fire radiative power in Alaskan boreal forests: implications for fire severity conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barrett, Kirsten; Kasischke, Eric S.

    2013-01-01

    Fire activity in the Alaskan boreal forest, though episodic at annual and intra-annual time scales, has experienced an increase over the last several decades. Increases in burned area and fire severity are not only releasing more carbon to the atmosphere, but likely shifting vegetation composition in the region towards greater deciduous dominance and a reduction in coniferous stands. While some recent studies have addressed qualitative differences between large and small fire years in the Alaskan boreal forest, the ecological effects of a greater proportion of burning occurring during large fire years and during late season fires have not yet been examined. Some characteristics of wildfires that can be detected remotely are related to fire severity and can provide new information on spatial and temporal patterns of burning. This analysis focused on boreal wildfire intensity (fire radiative power, or FRP) contained in the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) daily active fire product from 2003 to 2010. We found that differences in FRP resulted from seasonality and intra-annual variability in fire activity levels, vegetation composition, latitudinal variation, and fire spread behavior. Our studies determined two general categories of active fire detections: new detections associated with the spread of the fire front and residual pixels in areas that had already experienced front burning. Residual pixels had a lower average FRP than front pixels, but represented a high percentage of all pixels during periods of high fire activity (large fire years, late season burning, and seasonal periods of high fire activity). As a result, the FRP from periods of high fire activity was less intense than those from periods of low fire activity. Differences related to latitude were greater than expected, with higher latitudes burning later in the season and at a higher intensity than lower latitudes. Differences in vegetation type indicate that coniferous vegetation is the most fire prone, but deciduous vegetation is not particularly fire resistant, as the proportion of active fire detections in deciduous stands is roughly the same as the fraction of deciduous vegetation in the region. Qualitative differences between periods of high and low fire activity are likely to reflect important differences in fire severity. Large fire years are likely to be more severe, characterized by more late season fires and a greater proportion of residual burning. Given the potential for severe fires to effect changes in vegetation cover, the shift toward a greater proportion of area burning during large fire years may influence vegetation patterns in the region over the medium to long term.

  4. Factors Affecting Collective Action for Forest Fire Management: A Comparative Study of Community Forest User Groups in Central Siwalik, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapkota, Lok Mani; Shrestha, Rajendra Prasad; Jourdain, Damien; Shivakoti, Ganesh P.

    2015-01-01

    The attributes of social ecological systems affect the management of commons. Strengthening and enhancing social capital and the enforcement of rules and sanctions aid in the collective action of communities in forest fire management. Using a set of variables drawn from previous studies on the management of commons, we conducted a study across 20 community forest user groups in Central Siwalik, Nepal, by dividing the groups into two categories based on the type and level of their forest fire management response. Our study shows that the collective action in forest fire management is consistent with the collective actions in other community development activities. However, the effectiveness of collective action is primarily dependent on the complex interaction of various variables. We found that strong social capital, strong enforcement of rules and sanctions, and users' participation in crafting the rules were the major variables that strengthen collective action in forest fire management. Conversely, users' dependency on a daily wage and a lack of transparency were the variables that weaken collective action. In fire-prone forests such as the Siwalik, our results indicate that strengthening social capital and forming and enforcing forest fire management rules are important variables that encourage people to engage in collective action in fire management.

  5. The fate of 137Cs in coniferous forests following the application of wood-ash.

    PubMed

    Högbom, L; Nohrstedt, H O

    2001-12-01

    In the future, it may become common practice in Swedish forestry to recycle wood-ash, a waste product of the combustion of bio-fuel. As a consequence of the Chernobyl radioactive fallout in 1986, large areas of central Sweden were contaminated. Application of recycled wood-ash, originating from contaminated areas, to a previously uncontaminated forest, risks an increase in the concentration of radioactive 137Cs. We measured 137Cs radioactivity in different parts of coniferous forests in seven field experiments. Measurements of radioactivity were made 5-8 years after an application of wood-ash equivalent to 3000 kg ha(-1). The sites, in a north-south transect across Sweden, have a background radioactivity ranging from 0 to 40 kBq m(-2), the higher levels are mainly a result of the Chernobyl fall-out. Depending on its origin, the radioactivity of the applied wood-ash ranged from 0.0 to 4.8 kBq kg(-1), corresponding to 0.0-1.44 kBq m(-2). In autumn 1999, samples were taken from the soil, field vegetation, needles and twigs and the levels of 137Cs determined. In addition, soil samples were analysed for extractable K. The highest 137Cs concentration was found in the soil. At six of the seven sites there were no statistically significant effects of wood-ash application on 137Cs activity. This was despite the fact that the wood-ash had, in one case, added the same amount of radioactivity as the background. However, at one site with intermediate 137Cs deposition (10-20 kBq m(-2)), there was a statistically significant decrease in 137Cs radioactivity in the soil, needles and twigs from the plots treated with wood-ash. The decrease in radioactivity was partly due to the fact that one of the main constituents of wood-ash is K, which is antagonistic to 137Cs. Based on our results, it appears that application of wood-ash containing 137Cs does not necessarily increase the 137Cs radioactivity in plants and soil. However, some of the observed effects could be a result of the low number of replicates used in this study. PMID:11763261

  6. Utilization of geoinformation tools for the development of forest fire hazard mapping system: example of Pekan fire, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmud, Ahmad; Setiawan, Iwan; Mansor, Shattri; Shariff, Abdul; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Nuruddin, Ahmed

    2009-12-01

    A study in modeling fire hazard assessment will be essential in establishing an effective forest fire management system especially in controlling and preventing peat fire. In this paper, we have used geographic information system (GIS), in combination with other geoinformation technologies such as remote sensing and computer modeling, for all aspects of wild land fire management. Identifying areas that have a high probability of burning is an important component of fire management planning. The development of spatially explicit GIS models has greatly facilitated this process by allowing managers to map and analyze variables contributing to fire occurrence across large, unique geographic units. Using the model and its associated software engine, the fire hazard map was produced. Extensive avenue programming scripts were written to provide additional capabilities in the development of these interfaces to meet the full complement of operational software considering various users requirements. The system developed not only possesses user friendly step by step operations to deliver the fire vulnerability mapping but also allows authorized users to edit, add or modify parameters whenever necessary. Results from the model can support fire hazard mapping in the forest and enhance alert system function by simulating and visualizing forest fire and helps for contingency planning.

  7. Fire-induced Carbon Emissions and Regrowth Uptake in Western U.S. Forests: Documenting Variation Across Forest Types, Fire Severity, and Climate Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghimire, Bardan; Williams, Christopher A.; Collatz, George James; Vanderhoof, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    The forest area in the western United States that burns annually is increasing with warmer temperatures, more frequent droughts, and higher fuel densities. Studies that examine fire effects for regional carbon balances have tended to either focus on individual fires as examples or adopt generalizations without considering how forest type, fire severity, and regional climate influence carbon legacies. This study provides a more detailed characterization of fire effects and quantifies the full carbon impacts in relation to direct emissions, slow release of fire-killed biomass, and net carbon uptake from forest regrowth. We find important variations in fire-induced mortality and combustion across carbon pools (leaf, live wood, dead wood, litter, and duff) and across low- to high-severity classes. This corresponds to fire-induced direct emissions from 1984 to 2008 averaging 4 TgC/yr and biomass killed averaging 10.5 TgC/yr, with average burn area of 2723 sq km/yr across the western United States. These direct emission and biomass killed rates were 1.4 and 3.7 times higher, respectively, for high-severity fires than those for low-severity fires. The results show that forest regrowth varies greatly by forest type and with severity and that these factors impose a sustained carbon uptake legacy. The western U.S. fires between 1984 and 2008 imposed a net source of 12.3 TgC/yr in 2008, accounting for both direct fire emissions (9.5 TgC/yr) and heterotrophic decomposition of fire-killed biomass (6.1 TgC yr1) as well as contemporary regrowth sinks (3.3 TgC/yr). A sizeable trend exists toward increasing emissions as a larger area burns annually.

  8. Short- and long-term effects of fire on carbon in US dry temperate forest systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hurteau, Matthew D.; Brooks, Matthew L.

    2011-01-01

    Forests sequester carbon from the atmosphere, and in so doing can mitigate the effects of climate change. Fire is a natural disturbance process in many forest systems that releases carbon back to the atmosphere. In dry temperate forests, fires historically burned with greater frequency and lower severity than they do today. Frequent fires consumed fuels on the forest floor and maintained open stand structures. Fire suppression has resulted in increased understory fuel loads and tree density; a change in structure that has caused a shift from low- to high-severity fires. More severe fires, resulting in greater tree mortality, have caused a decrease in forest carbon stability. Fire management actions can mitigate the risk of high-severity fires, but these actions often require a trade-off between maximizing carbon stocks and carbon stability. We discuss the effects of fire on forest carbon stocks and recommend that managing forests on the basis of their specific ecologies should be the foremost goal, with carbon sequestration being an ancillary benefit. ?? 2011 by American Institute of Biological Sciences. All rights reserved.

  9. Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Downwind of the 2002 Hayman Forest Fire in Colorado

    E-print Network

    Rutledge, Steven

    Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Downwind of the 2002 Hayman Forest Fire in Colorado Timothy J. Lang@atmos.colostate.edu 1 #12;Abstract The Hayman forest fire occurred near Denver, burning ~138,000 acres during 8 June-2 July 2002. It produced aerosol that filled the troposphere over Colorado, allowing an investigation

  10. The effect of post-fire stand age on the boreal forest energy balance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. D. Amiro; A. L. Orchansky; A. G. Barr; T. A. Black; S. D. Chambers; F. S. Chapin III; M. L. Goulden; M. Litvak; H. P. Liu; J. H. McCaughey; A. McMillan; J. T. Randerson

    2006-01-01

    Fire in the boreal forest renews forest stands and changes the ecosystem properties. The successional stage of the vegetation determines the radiative budget, energy balance partitioning, evapotranspiration and carbon dioxide flux. Here, we synthesize energy balance measurements from across the western boreal zone of North America as a function of stand age following fire. The data are from 22 sites

  11. Efficient Forest Fire Detection System: A Spatial Data Mining and Image Processing Based Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Angayarkkani; N. Radhakrishnan

    2009-01-01

    Summary The drastic ascent in the volume of spatial data owes its growth to the technical advancements in technologies that aid in spatial data acquisition, mass storage and network interconnection. Thus the necessity for automated detection of spatial knowledge from voluminous spatial data arises. Fire plays a vital role in a majority of the forest ecosystems. Forest fires are serious

  12. A New Supersensitive Flame Detector and its Use for Early Forest Fire Detection

    E-print Network

    Peskov, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    A new flame detector, three orders of magnitude more powerful than the existing ones, is presented. This detector needs to be mass-produced for its use in order to be incorporated in an early forest fire detection system. A project able to implement its use to overcome the forest fire emergency is described.

  13. Civic Ecology Education and Resilient Societies: A Survey of Forest Fires in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papaspiliou, Konstantina; Skanavis, Constantina; Giannoulis, Christos

    2014-01-01

    Forest fires, as all natural disasters, have the potential to seriously affect both the environment and the social structure of a local community. Unlike some of the natural disasters, such as hurricanes, tornados and tsunamis which are unpredictable, the phenomenon of forest fires could be easily predicted and controlled, since the causes are…

  14. Examining injection properties of boreal forest fires using surface and satellite measurements of CO transport

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward J. Hyer; Dale J. Allen; Eric S. Kasischke

    2007-01-01

    Boreal forest fires are highly variable in space and time and also have variable vertical injection properties. We compared a University of Maryland Chemistry and Transport Model (UMD-CTM) simulation of boreal forest fire CO in the summer of 2000 to surface observations from the NOAA Cooperative Air Sampling Network and satellite observations of CO from the Measurement of Pollutants in

  15. Comment on "Fire-Derived Charcoal Causes Loss of Forest Humus"

    E-print Network

    Lehmann, Johannes

    Comment on "Fire-Derived Charcoal Causes Loss of Forest Humus" Johannes Lehmann1 * and Saran Sohi2 Wardle et al. (Brevia, 2 May 2008, p. 629) reported that fire-derived charcoal can promote loss of forest humus and belowground carbon (C). However, C loss from charcoal-humus mixtures can be explained not only

  16. ECONOMICS OF NITROGEN OXIDES, SULFUR OXIDES, AND ASH CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR COAL-FIRED UTILITY POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an EPA-sponsored economic evaluation of three processes to reduce NOx, SO2, and ash emissions from coal-fired utility power plants: one based on 3.5% sulfur eastern bituminous coal; and the other, on 0.7% sulfur western subbituminous coal. NOx control ...

  17. DISPOSAL, RECYCLE, AND UTILIZATION OF MODIFIED FLY ASH FROM HYDRATED LIME INJECTION INTO COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an assessment of the disposal, utilization, and recycle os a modified fly ash from the injection of hydrated lime into a coal-fired utility boiler. The process, developed as a low-cost alternative for achieving moderate degrees of SO2 control at coal-fi...

  18. Modeling the Effects of Fire Frequency and Severity on Forests in the Northwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Busing, Richard T.; Solomon, Allen M.

    2006-01-01

    This study used a model of forest dynamics (FORCLIM) and actual forest survey data to demonstrate the effects of various fire regimes on different forest types in the Pacific Northwest. We examined forests in eight ecoregions ranging from wet coastal forests dominated by Pseudotsuga menziesii and other tall conifers to dry interior forests dominated by Pinus ponderosa. Fire effects simulated as elevated mortality of trees based on their species and size did alter forest structure and species composition. Low frequency fires characteristic of wetter forests (return interval >200 yr) had minor effects on composition. When fires were severe, they tended to reduce total basal area with little regard to species differences. High frequency fires characteristic of drier forests (return interval <30 yr) had major effects on species composition and on total basal area. Typically, they caused substantial reductions in total basal area and shifts in dominance toward highly fire tolerant species. With the addition of fire, simulated basal areas averaged across ecoregions were reduced to levels approximating observed basal areas.

  19. Simulating the Effects of Fire on Forests in the Russian Far East: Integrating a Fire Danger Model and the FAREAST Forest Growth Model Across a Complex Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, N. J.; Loboda, T.; Sun, G.; Shugart, H. H.; Csiszar, I.

    2008-12-01

    The remaining natural habitat of the critically endangered Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) and Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) is a vast, biologically and topographically diverse area in the Russian Far East (RFE). Although wildland fire is a natural component of ecosystem functioning in the RFE, severe or repeated fires frequently re-set the process of forest succession, which may take centuries to return the affected forests to the pre-fire state and thus significantly alters habitat quality and long-term availability. The frequency of severe fire events has increased over the last 25 years, leading to irreversible modifications of some parts of the species' habitats. Moreover, fire regimes are expected to continue to change toward more frequent and severe events under the influence of climate change. Here we present an approach to developing capabilities for a comprehensive assessment of potential Amur tiger and leopard habitat availability throughout the 21st century by integrating regionally parameterized fire danger and forest growth models. The FAREAST model is an individual, gap-based model that simulates forest growth in a single location and demonstrates temporally explicit forest succession leading to mature forests. Including spatially explicit information on probabilities of fire occurrence at 1 km resolution developed from the regionally specific remotely -sensed data-driven fire danger model improves our ability to provide realistic long-term projections of potential forest composition in the RFE. This work presents the first attempt to merge the FAREAST model with a fire disturbance model, to validate its outputs across a large region, and to compare it to remotely-sensed data products as well as in situ assessments of forest structure. We ran the FAREAST model at 1,000 randomly selected points within forested areas in the RFE. At each point, the model was calibrated for temperature, precipitation, slope, elevation, and fire probability. The output of the model includes biomass estimates for 44 tree species that occur in the RFE, grouped by genus. We compared the model outputs with land cover classifications derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data and LIDAR-based estimates of biomass across the entire region, and Russian forest inventory records at selected sites. Overall, we find that the FAREAST estimates of forest biomass and general composition are consistent with the observed distribution of forest types.

  20. Self-Organized Forest-Fires Near the Critical Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Berg, J.; Brouwer, R.

    2006-10-01

    We consider a forest-fire model which, somewhat informally, is described as follows: Each site (vertex) of the square lattice is either vacant or occupied by a tree. Vacant sites become occupied at rate 1. Further, each site is hit by lightning at rate ?. This lightning instantaneously destroys (makes vacant) the occupied cluster of the site. This model is closely related to the Drossel-Schwabl forest-fire model, which has received much attention in the physics literature. The most interesting behaviour seems to occur when the lightning rate goes to zero. In the physics literature it is believed that then the system has so-called self-organized critical behaviour. We let the system start with all sites vacant and study, for positive but small ?, the behaviour near the ‘critical time’ t c , defined by the relation 1 - exp(- t c ) = p c , the critical probability for site percolation. Intuitively one might expect that if, for fixed t > t c , we let simultaneously ? tend to 0 and m to ?, the probability that some tree at distance smaller than m from O is burnt before time t goes to 1. However, we show that under a percolation-like assumption (which we can not prove but believe to be true) this intuition is false. We compare with the case where the square lattice is replaced by the directed binary tree, and pose some natural open problems.

  1. Contrasting Spatial Patterns in Active-Fire and Fire-Suppressed Mediterranean Climate Old-Growth Mixed Conifer Forests

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Danny L.; Stephens, Scott L.; Collins, Brandon M.; North, Malcolm P.; Franco-Vizcaíno, Ernesto; Gill, Samantha J.

    2014-01-01

    In Mediterranean environments in western North America, historic fire regimes in frequent-fire conifer forests are highly variable both temporally and spatially. This complexity influenced forest structure and spatial patterns, but some of this diversity has been lost due to anthropogenic disruption of ecosystem processes, including fire. Information from reference forest sites can help management efforts to restore forests conditions that may be more resilient to future changes in disturbance regimes and climate. In this study, we characterize tree spatial patterns using four-ha stem maps from four old-growth, Jeffrey pine-mixed conifer forests, two with active-fire regimes in northwestern Mexico and two that experienced fire exclusion in the southern Sierra Nevada. Most of the trees were in patches, averaging six to 11 trees per patch at 0.007 to 0.014 ha?1, and occupied 27–46% of the study areas. Average canopy gap sizes (0.04 ha) covering 11–20% of the area were not significantly different among sites. The putative main effects of fire exclusion were higher densities of single trees in smaller size classes, larger proportion of trees (?56%) in large patches (?10 trees), and decreases in spatial complexity. While a homogenization of forest structure has been a typical result from fire exclusion, some similarities in patch, single tree, and gap attributes were maintained at these sites. These within-stand descriptions provide spatially relevant benchmarks from which to manage for structural heterogeneity in frequent-fire forest types. PMID:24586472

  2. Transport of forest fire emissions from Alaska and the Yukon Territory to Nova Scotia during summer 2004

    E-print Network

    Silver, Whendee

    Transport of forest fire emissions from Alaska and the Yukon Territory to Nova Scotia during summer. Citation: Duck, T. J., et al. (2007), Transport of forest fire emissions from Alaska and the Yukon; published 19 May 2007. [1] Emissions from forest fires in Alaska and the Yukon Territory were observed

  3. Fire in boreal ecosystems of Eurasia: First results of the Bor Forest island fire experiment, Fire Research Campaign Asia-North (FIRESCAN)

    SciTech Connect

    Angelstam, P. (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Riddarhyttan (Sweden)); Bufetov, N.S. (Novosibirsk Inst. of Chemical Kinetics and combustion (Russian Federation)); Clark, J. (Duke Univ., Durham, SC (United States). Botany Dept.) (and others)

    1994-12-01

    Fire is an important natural and anthropogenic factor in the dynamics of the boreal forest system. The ecological and environmental impacts of boreal fires depend on fire weather, fuel availability, fire behavior and history of sand development (frequency and size of fires and other biotic and abiotic disturbances, influence of surrounding landscape on successional developments). About 70% of the global boreal forest is in Eurasia, almost all of it in the Russian Federation. It is estimated that in years with high fire danger up to ca. 10 million ha of forest and other land in the Russian Federation are affected by fire. The demand for reliable information on the role of natural and anthropogenic fire and the necessity to develop adequate fire management systems is basically due to globally increasing concerns about (1) impacts of boreal wildfires on atmosphere and climate, (2) changing utilization and ecologically destructive practices in boreal forestry, and (3) possible consequences of global climate change on the boreal forest system.

  4. Effects of ground fires on understorey bird assemblages in Amazonian forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jos Barlow; Tor Haugaasen; Carlos A. Peres

    2002-01-01

    Avifaunal responses to understorey fire disturbance and subsequent changes in habitat structure were examined within 20 burnt and unburnt forest plots of 0.25 ha (10×250 m), 10–15 months after an unprecedented understorey fire swept through the Tapajós-Arapiuns Extractive Reserve of central Brazilian Amazonia following the severe 1997–1998 El-Niño dry season. Although these surface fires in the previously undisturbed primary forest

  5. Fire and Vegetation History from the Coastal Rain Forest of the Western Oregon Coast Range

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin J. Long; Cathy Whitlock

    2002-01-01

    High-resolution charcoal and pollen analyses were used to reconstruct a 4600-yr-long history of fire and vegetation near Taylor Lake in the wettest forests of coastal Oregon. Today, fires in these forests are rare because the season of ignition does not coincide with months of dry fuels. From ca. 4600 to 2700 cal yr B.P. fire episodes occurred at intervals of

  6. Simulating the Effects of Fire on Forests in the Russian Far East: Integrating a Fire Danger Model and the FAREAST Forest Growth Model Across a Complex Landscape

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. J. Sherman; T. Loboda; G. Sun; H. H. Shugart; I. Csiszar

    2008-01-01

    The remaining natural habitat of the critically endangered Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) and Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) is a vast, biologically and topographically diverse area in the Russian Far East (RFE). Although wildland fire is a natural component of ecosystem functioning in the RFE, severe or repeated fires frequently re-set the process of forest succession, which may take

  7. Savanna fire and the origins of the `underground forests' of Olivier Maurin1

    E-print Network

    Davies, Jonathan

    Savanna fire and the origins of the `underground forests' of Africa Olivier Maurin1 *, T. Jonathan: fire adaptation, geoxylic suffrutex, phylogeny, Pliocene, savanna, trees of southern Africa) of southern Africa, one of the most distinctive growth forms characteristic of fire-prone savannas. We placed

  8. A stand-replacing fire history in upper montane forests of the southern Rocky Mountains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellis Q. Margolis; Thomas W. Swetnam; Craig D. Allen

    2007-01-01

    Dendroecological techniques were applied to reconstruct stand-replacing fire history in upper montane forests in northern New Mexico and southern Colorado. Fourteen stand-replacing fires were dated to 8 unique fire years (1842- 1901) using four lines of evidence at each of 12 sites within the upper Rio Grande Basin. The four lines of evidence were (i) quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.)

  9. Shifts in microbial communities and soil nutrients along a fire chronosequence in Alaskan boreal forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. K. Treseder; M. C. Mack; A. Cross

    2002-01-01

    Fires are important pathways of carbon loss from boreal forests, while microbial communities form equally important mechanisms for carbon accumulation between fires. We used a chronosequence in Alaska to examine shifts in microbial abundance and community composition in the several decades following severe fire, and then related these responses to soil characteristics in the same sites. The sites are located

  10. Satellite-based detection of Canadian boreal forest fires: development and application of the algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Li; S. Nadon; J. Cihlar

    2000-01-01

    This study presents a comprehensive investigation of fires across the Canadian boreal forest zone by means of satellite-based remote sensing. A firedetection algorithm was designed to monitor fires using daily Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) images. It exploits information from multichannel AVHRR measurements to determine the locations of fires on satellite pixels of about 1 km2 under clear sky

  11. Multivariate cluster analysis of forest fire events in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonini, Marj; Pereira, Mario; Vega Orozco, Carmen; Parente, Joana

    2015-04-01

    Portugal is one of the major fire-prone European countries, mainly due to its favourable climatic, topographic and vegetation conditions. Compared to the other Mediterranean countries, the number of events registered here from 1980 up to nowadays is the highest one; likewise, with respect to the burnt area, Portugal is the third most affected country. Portuguese mapped burnt areas are available from the website of the Institute for the Conservation of Nature and Forests (ICNF). This official geodatabase is the result of satellite measurements starting from the year 1990. The spatial information, delivered in shapefile format, provides a detailed description of the shape and the size of area burnt by each fire, while the date/time information relate to the ignition fire is restricted to the year of occurrence. In terms of a statistical formalism wildfires can be associated to a stochastic point process, where events are analysed as a set of geographical coordinates corresponding, for example, to the centroid of each burnt area. The spatio/temporal pattern of stochastic point processes, including the cluster analysis, is a basic procedure to discover predisposing factorsas well as for prevention and forecasting purposes. These kinds of studies are primarily focused on investigating the spatial cluster behaviour of environmental data sequences and/or mapping their distribution at different times. To include both the two dimensions (space and time) a comprehensive spatio-temporal analysis is needful. In the present study authors attempt to verify if, in the case of wildfires in Portugal, space and time act independently or if, conversely, neighbouring events are also closer in time. We present an application of the spatio-temporal K-function to a long dataset (1990-2012) of mapped burnt areas. Moreover, the multivariate K-function allowed checking for an eventual different distribution between small and large fires. The final objective is to elaborate a 3D-Kernel density map to visualise and highlight spatio-temporal local aggregations performed by the investigated events. References - Bivand R., Rowlingson B., and Diggle P. 2012: splancs package in R project - Diggle P., Chetwynd A., Haggkvist R. and Morris S. 1995: Second-order analysis of space-time clustering. Statistical Methods in Medical Research, vol. 4(2): 124-136. - Tonini M., Pedrazzini A., Penna I., Jaboyedoff M., 07-2014. Spatial pattern of landslides in Swiss Rhone valley. Natural Hazards - Vega Orozco C., Tonini M., Conedera M., Kanveski M. 2012: Cluster recognition in spatial-temporal sequences: the case of forest fires, GeoInformatica, vol. 16(4): 653-673.

  12. Effects of an Intense Prescribed Forest Fire: Is It Ecological Restoration?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Z. Fule; Allison E. Cocke; Thomas A. Heinlein; W. Wallace Covington

    2004-01-01

    Relatively intense burning has been suggested as a possible alternative to the restoration of pre-European settlement forest conditions and fire regime in mixed conifer forests, in contrast to thinning of trees and light prescribed burning. In 1993 a management-ignited fire in a dense, never-harvested forest in Grand Canyon National Park escaped prescription and burned with greater intensity and severity than

  13. A 1000-yr record of forest fire activity from Eclipse Icefield, Yukon, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaplan Yalcin; Cameron P. Wake; Karl J. Kreutz; Sallie I. Whitlow

    2006-01-01

    A 1000-yr record of forest fire activity has been developed using three annually dated ice cores from Eclipse Icefield, Yukon, Canada. Forest fire signals were identified as NH4plus residuals above a robust spline and corroborated by an empirical orthhogonal function (EOF) analysis that identified a chemical association in the NH4plus, C2042macr and Kplus records similar to that observed in forest

  14. Long-term, landscape patterns of past fire events in a montane ponderosa pine forest of central Colorado

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter M. Brown; Merrill R. Kaufmann; Wayne D. Shepperd

    1999-01-01

    Parameters of fire regimes, including fire frequency, spatial extent of burned areas, fire severity, and season of fire occurrence, influence vegetation patterns over multiple scales. In this study, centuries-long patterns of fire events in a montane ponderosa pine – Douglas-fir forest landscape surrounding Cheesman Lake in central Colorado were reconstructed from fire-scarred trees and inferences from forest stand ages. We

  15. Long-term, landscape patterns of past fire events in a montane ponderosa pine forest of central Colorado

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter M. Brown; Merrill R. Kaufmann; Wayne D. Shepperd

    1999-01-01

    Parameters of fire regimes, including fire frequency, spatial extent of burned areas, fire severity, and season of fire occurrence, influence vegetation patterns over multiple scales. In this study, centuries-long patterns of fire events in a montane ponderosa pine - Douglas-fir forest landscape surrounding Cheesman Lake in central Colorado were reconstructed from fire-scarred trees and inferences from forest stand ages. We

  16. The legacy of harvest and fire on ecosystem carbon storage in a north temperate forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KRISTEN G EORGE; P ETER S. C URTIS

    2007-01-01

    Forest harvesting and wildfire were widespread in the upper Great Lakes region of North America during the early 20th century. We examined how long this legacy of disturbance constrains forest carbon (C) storage rates by quantifying C pools and fluxes after harvest and fire in a mixed deciduous forest chronosequence in northern lower Michigan, USA. Study plots ranged in age

  17. Historical Fire Regimes in Ponderosa Pine Forests of the Colorado Front Range, and

    E-print Network

    Historical Fire Regimes in Ponderosa Pine Forests of the Colorado Front Range, and Recommendations and the Colorado-Wyoming border. This article focuses on forests in which ponderosa pine is a dominant or co-dominant species. A subsequent article will deal with forests of lodgepole pine, spruce, and fir. M. Kaufmann and T

  18. Forest change on a steep mountain gradient after extended fire exclusion: San Francisco Peaks, Arizona, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALLISON E. COCKE; PETER Z. FULÉ; JOSEPH E. CROUSE

    2005-01-01

    Summary 1. More than a century of forest management, including fire exclusion, livestock grazing and tree harvesting, may have affected forest structure and composition in south-western USA. Dendroecological techniques were used to reconstruct an 1876 baseline against which modern conditions could be compared. We assessed the magnitude of changes on the San Francisco Peaks in five distinct forest types: ponderosa,

  19. Effects of Water Bag of Forest Fire Suppression Hand Pump on Body Balance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinglian Chen; Wenbin Li; Lifang Ma

    2009-01-01

    Body balance function is an important ability for forest firefighters in firefighting tasks using forest fire suppression hand pumps. In order to study the influence of style and weight of water bag on body balance in forest firefighting, this paper assesses the physiological and perceptual responses of three types of water bags, by tests of balance function and perception assessment.

  20. Effects of Repeated Fires in the Forest Ecosystems of the Zabaikalye Region, Southern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukavskaya, E.; Buryak, L. V.; Conard, S. G.; Petkov, A.; Barrett, K.; Kalenskaya, O. P.; Ivanova, G.

    2014-12-01

    Fire is the main ecological disturbance controlling forest development in the boreal forests of Siberia and contributing substantially to the global carbon cycle. The warmer and dryer climate observed recently in the boreal forests is considered to be responsible for extreme fire weather, resulting in higher fire frequency, larger areas burned, and an increase of fire severity. Because of the increase of fire activity, boreal forests in some regions may not be able to reach maturity before they re-burn, which means less carbon will be stored in the ecosystem and more will remain in the atmosphere. Moreover, if one fire occurs within a few years of another, some stands will not re-grow at all, and even more carbon will accumulate in the atmosphere. Zabaikalye region located in the south of Siberia is characterized by the highest fire activity in Russia. With a use of the satellite-based fire product we found that there are about 7.0 million hectares in the region burned repeatedly during the last decade. We have investigated a number of sites in-situ in light-coniferous (Scots pine and larch) forests and evaluated the impacts of repeated fires on fuel loads, carbon emissions, and tree regeneration. Substantial decrease of carbon stocks, change of the vegetation structure and composition, and soil erosion were observed in many areas disturbed by repeated fires. At drier sites located in the southern regions repeated fires prohibited successful regeneration and resulted in forest conversion to grassland. Detection and monitoring of changes in the areas of Siberia where repeated fires have caused a major shift in ecosystem structure and function is required for the development of sustainable forest management strategies to mitigate climate change. The research was supported by NASA LCLUC Program.

  1. Interpretation of the charcoal record in forest soils: forest fires and their production and deposition of macroscopic charcoal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mikael Ohlson; Elling Tryterud

    2000-01-01

    Traps were used to quantify charcoal production and transport during three experimental forest fires in Boreal Scandinavia. The traps were spatially arranged to collect charcoal particles inside burn areas, and outside burn areas at different distances (0.1–100 m) from the fire edge. The number of inside and outside traps was 280 and 424, respectively. Trap area was 48 cm2. After

  2. A review of the main driving factors of forest fire ignition over Europe.

    PubMed

    Ganteaume, Anne; Camia, Andrea; Jappiot, Marielle; San-Miguel-Ayanz, Jesus; Long-Fournel, Marlène; Lampin, Corinne

    2013-03-01

    Knowledge of the causes of forest fires, and of the main driving factors of ignition, is an indispensable step towards effective fire prevention policies. This study analyses the factors driving forest fire ignition in the Mediterranean region including the most common human and environmental factors used for modelling in the European context. Fire ignition factors are compared to spatial and temporal variations of fire occurrence in the region, then are compared to results obtained in other areas of the world, with a special focus on North America (US and Canada) where a significant number of studies has been carried out on this topic. The causes of forest fires are varied and their distribution differs among countries, but may also differ spatially and temporally within the same country. In Europe, and especially in the Mediterranean basin, fires are mostly human-caused mainly due arson. The distance to transport networks and the distance to urban or recreation areas are among the most frequently used human factors in modelling exercises and the Wildland-Urban Interface is increasingly taken into account in the modelling of fire occurrence. Depending on the socio-economic context of the region concerned, factors such as the unemployment rate or variables linked to agricultural activity can explain the ignition of intentional and unintentional fires. Regarding environmental factors, those related to weather, fuel and topography are the most significant drivers of ignition of forest fires, especially in Mediterranean-type regions. For both human and lightning-caused fires, there is a geographical gradient of fire ignition, mainly due to variations in climate and fuel composition but also to population density for instance. The timing of fires depends on their causes. In populated areas, the timing of human-caused fires is closely linked to human activities and peaks in the afternoon whereas, in remote areas, the timing of lightning-caused fires is more linked to weather conditions and the season, with most such fires occurring in summer. PMID:23086400

  3. A Review of the Main Driving Factors of Forest Fire Ignition Over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganteaume, Anne; Camia, Andrea; Jappiot, Marielle; San-Miguel-Ayanz, Jesus; Long-Fournel, Marlène; Lampin, Corinne

    2013-03-01

    Knowledge of the causes of forest fires, and of the main driving factors of ignition, is an indispensable step towards effective fire prevention policies. This study analyses the factors driving forest fire ignition in the Mediterranean region including the most common human and environmental factors used for modelling in the European context. Fire ignition factors are compared to spatial and temporal variations of fire occurrence in the region, then are compared to results obtained in other areas of the world, with a special focus on North America (US and Canada) where a significant number of studies has been carried out on this topic. The causes of forest fires are varied and their distribution differs among countries, but may also differ spatially and temporally within the same country. In Europe, and especially in the Mediterranean basin, fires are mostly human-caused mainly due arson. The distance to transport networks and the distance to urban or recreation areas are among the most frequently used human factors in modelling exercises and the Wildland-Urban Interface is increasingly taken into account in the modelling of fire occurrence. Depending on the socio-economic context of the region concerned, factors such as the unemployment rate or variables linked to agricultural activity can explain the ignition of intentional and unintentional fires. Regarding environmental factors, those related to weather, fuel and topography are the most significant drivers of ignition of forest fires, especially in Mediterranean-type regions. For both human and lightning-caused fires, there is a geographical gradient of fire ignition, mainly due to variations in climate and fuel composition but also to population density for instance. The timing of fires depends on their causes. In populated areas, the timing of human-caused fires is closely linked to human activities and peaks in the afternoon whereas, in remote areas, the timing of lightning-caused fires is more linked to weather conditions and the season, with most such fires occurring in summer.

  4. Glomalin content of forest soils in relation to fire frequency and landscape position

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melissa A. Knorr; R. E. J. Boerner; Matthias C. Rillig

    2003-01-01

    Low-intensity, dormant season fires were frequent and widespread in oak-hickory ( Quercus-Carya) forests of eastern North America until widespread fire suppression began in the mid-1900s. To assess how reintroduction of fire into such ecosystems might affect the activity of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and, thereby, predict the long-term responses of plants and soils to fire, we analyzed the content of

  5. The recurrence interval of forest fires in Cabeço da Vaca (Cabreira Mountain--northwest of Portugal).

    PubMed

    Ferreira Leite, Flora; Bento Gonçalves, António; Vieira, António

    2011-02-01

    The recurrence of forest fires is degrading an important part of the Portuguese natural heritage namely its forest and soils. In this paper we present the case study of Cabeço da Vaca (Cabreira Mountain-northwest Portugal), where in recent decades, particularly in the 70s, there was a significant increase in the number of forest fires and in the areas scorched annually. There is thus a turning point between a period when fire was an integral part of the ecosystems and when fire has become a serious threat to woodland management and development (Bento Gonçalves, 2006). Starting with a thorough characterization of forest fires and based on the mapping of scorched areas between 1990 and 2006, we have proceeded to identify the annual pattern of maximum recurrence and the definition of the return interval in Cabeço da Vaca, producing thus a valuable document to support management and forestry development in general. PMID:20576260

  6. COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT ASH UTILIZATION IN THE TVA REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study: (1) to summarize (a) production of coal ash nationally and by TVA's 12 major ash-producing steam/electric power plants, and (b) the physical/chemical characteristics of coal ash that affect ash disposal and/or use; (2) to review reported metho...

  7. Forest dynamics modelling under natural fire cycles: A tool to define natural mosaic diversity for forest management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvie Gauthier; Alain Leduc; Yves Bergeron

    1996-01-01

    In natural boreal forests, disturbances such as fire and variation in surficial deposits create a mosaic of forest stands with different species composition and age. At the landscape level, this variety of stands can be considered as the natural mosaic diversity. In this paper, we describe a model that can be used to estimate the natural diversity level of landscapes.

  8. Assessing risks to spotted owls from forest thinning in fire-adapted forests of the western United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danny C. Lee; Larry L. Irwin

    2005-01-01

    Concern for viable spotted owl (Strix occidentalis) populations has played prominently in the management of western forests in the United States. Historically, much of the debate has focused on the impacts of commercial timber harvest. Increasingly, the conflict is shifting to the habitat needs of owls versus the need for active management of fire-adapted forest ecosystems to reduce the occurrence

  9. Late-Holocene response of limber pine (Pinus flexilis) forests to fire disturbance in the Pine Forest Range, Nevada, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shriver, Robert K.; Minckley, Thomas A.

    2012-11-01

    Despite growing concerns that ecological stressors (fire, insect and pathogen outbreaks) may force vegetation change, few studies have attempted to use paleoecological data to understand small-scale interactions between disturbance and vegetation. Using charcoal and pollen data, we infer past fire episodes and subsequent vegetation responses for a limber pine (Pinus flexilis) forest in northwestern Nevada, USA, to determine local vegetation recovery from disturbance. Using superimposed epoch analysis we examined average-vegetation and individual-taxon responses to eight randomly selected fire events over the past 4.0 ka. Pollen evidence shows that on average fires produce a weak response of declining Pinus while other taxa including Artemisia and Poaceae increase directly after fire episodes. Within 30 yr of a disturbance, pollen data indicate ecosystem recovery to pre-fire composition, consistent with modern studies of fire recovery of limber pine forests. Similar to short-term changes of pollen abundance, long-term vegetation responses indicate Pinus abundance weakly declining and Artemisia increasing when fire episodes are frequent. However, despite fire-episode frequencies varying between 75 and 250 yr, the overall vegetation structure has remained relatively stable over the past 4.0 ka. Our study contributes to the limited information on the disturbance ecology of isolated, subalpine forests in the intermountain West.

  10. Rocket-triggered lightning strikes and forest fire ignition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenner, James

    1990-01-01

    The following are presented: (1) background information on the rocket-triggered lightning project an Kennedy Space Center (KSC); (2) a summary of the forecasting problem; (3) the facilities and equipment available for undertaking field experiments at KSC; (4) previous research activity performed; (5) a description of the atmospheric science field laboratory near Mosquito Lagoon on the KSC complex; (6) methods of data acquisition; and (7) present results. New sources of data for the 1990 field experiment include measuring the electric field in the lower few thousand feet of the atmosphere by suspending field measuring devices below a tethered balloon, and measuring the electric field intensity in clouds and in the atmosphere with aircraft. The latter program began in July of 1990. Also, future prospects for both triggered lightning and forest fire research at KSC are listed.

  11. Rocket-triggered lightning strikes and forest fire ignition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenner, James H.

    1989-01-01

    Background information on the rocket-triggered lightning project at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), a summary of the forecasting problem there, the facilities and equipment available for undertaking field experiments at KSC, previous research activity performed, a description of the atmospheric science field laboratory near Mosquito Lagoon on the KSC complex, methods of data acquisition, and present results are discussed. New sources of data for the 1989 field experiment include measuring the electric field in the lower few thousand feet of the atmosphere by suspending field measuring devices below a tethered balloon. Problems encountered during the 1989 field experiment are discussed. Future prospects for both triggered lightning and lightning-kindled forest fire research at KSC are listed.

  12. Forest fire autonomous decision system based on fuzzy logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Z.; Lu, Jianhua

    2009-09-01

    The proposed system integrates GPS / pseudolite / IMU and thermal camera in order to autonomously process the graphs by identification, extraction, tracking of forest fire or hot spots. The airborne detection platform, the graph-based algorithms and the signal processing frame are analyzed detailed; especially the rules of the decision function are expressed in terms of fuzzy logic, which is an appropriate method to express imprecise knowledge. The membership function and weights of the rules are fixed through a supervised learning process. The perception system in this paper is based on a network of sensorial stations and central stations. The sensorial stations collect data including infrared and visual images and meteorological information. The central stations exchange data to perform distributed analysis. The experiment results show that working procedure of detection system is reasonable and can accurately output the detection alarm and the computation of infrared oscillations.

  13. Forest fire autonomous decision system based on fuzzy logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Z.; Lu, Jianhua

    2010-11-01

    The proposed system integrates GPS / pseudolite / IMU and thermal camera in order to autonomously process the graphs by identification, extraction, tracking of forest fire or hot spots. The airborne detection platform, the graph-based algorithms and the signal processing frame are analyzed detailed; especially the rules of the decision function are expressed in terms of fuzzy logic, which is an appropriate method to express imprecise knowledge. The membership function and weights of the rules are fixed through a supervised learning process. The perception system in this paper is based on a network of sensorial stations and central stations. The sensorial stations collect data including infrared and visual images and meteorological information. The central stations exchange data to perform distributed analysis. The experiment results show that working procedure of detection system is reasonable and can accurately output the detection alarm and the computation of infrared oscillations.

  14. Roost tree selection by northern myotis ( Myotis septentrionalis) maternity colonies following prescribed fire in a Central Appalachian Mountains hardwood forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joshua B. Johnson; John W. Edwards; W. Mark Ford; J. Edward Gates

    2009-01-01

    Following decades of fire suppression in eastern forests, prescribed fire as a tool to restore or enhance oak (Quercus spp.)-dominated communities is gaining widespread acceptance in the Appalachian Mountains and elsewhere. However, the interactions of fire with biotic components such as wildlife that might be impacted by prescribed fire are poorly documented. For tree-roosting bats, fire can enhance roosting habitat

  15. Simulating the effect of ignition source type on forest fire statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krenn, Roland; Hergarten, Stefan

    2010-05-01

    Forest fires belong to the most frightening natural hazards, and have long-term ecological and economic effects on the regions involved. It was found that their frequency-area distributions show power-law behaviour under a wide variety of conditions, interpreting them as a self-organised critical phenomenon. Using computer simulations, self-organised critical behaviour manifests in simple cellular automaton models. With respect to ignition source, forest fires can be categorised as lightning-induced or as a result of human activity. Lightning fires are considered to be natural, whereas ``man made'' fires are frequently caused by some sort of technological disaster, such as sparks from wheels of trains, the rupture of overhead electrical lines, the misuse of electrical or mechanical devices and so on. Taking into account that such events rarely occur deep in the woods, man made fires should start preferably on the edge of a forest or where the forest is not very dense. We present a modification in the self-organised critical Drossel-Schwabl forest fire model that takes these two different triggering mechanisms into account and increases the scaling exponent of the frequency-area distribution by ca. 1/3. Combined simulations further predict a dependence of the overall event-size distribution on the ratio of lightning-induced and man made fires as well as a splitting of their partial distributions. Lightning is identified as the dominant mechanism in the regime of the largest fires. The results are confirmed by the analysis of the Canadian Large Fire Database and suggest that lightning-induced and man made forest fires cannot be treated separately in wildfire modelling, hazard assessment and forest management.

  16. Dendrochronological reconstruction of fire at the Boise Wildland-Urban Interface, Boise National Forest, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutter, A.; Kinkead, K.; Wilkins, D. E.

    2013-12-01

    Changing climate conditions (warmer temperatures, changes in modes and timing of precipitation) are thought to be driving factors in increasing burned acreage and fire intensity in both forested and non-forested lands in Idaho and elsewhere in the interior western US. Cities in the west may be vulnerable to fire impacts to urban development , watersheds, and recreation. The wildland-urban interface (WUI) between the Boise, Idaho and the range front to its north is an example of this vulnerability. Because of long-standing practices and policies of wildfire suppression, the natural fire frequency (i.e., pre-suppression) of the forested component of the WUI is not well known or understood. In this study, we sampled fire-scarred ponderosa pine at two dry sites in separate drainages above Boise to identify both the timing and synchroneity of fire events. Partial cross-sections were collected from standing live trees using a chainsaw, and then cross-dated with an established local tree-ring chronology. The two sites have ten fire events, ranging from 1709 to 1889, with shared events only in 1771 and 1829. The fire events at the two sites all are consistent with regional fire-years in a published fire history for Idaho and Montana (Heyerdahl, et al., 2008), with one exception in 1883. This suggests that the local forest is largely responding to broader regional climate drivers. During the period of fire-scar record, fire frequency at these two sites near the Boise WUI ranged from 15-50 years; this is a much higher fire frequency than that observed since fire suppression policies were enacted, with no fire scar recorded events since 1889.

  17. Emissions Of Forest Fires In The Amazon: Impact On The Tropical Mountain Forest In Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabian, P.; Rollenbeck, R.; Thiemens, M. H.; Brothers, L.

    2006-12-01

    Biomass burning is a source of carbon, sulphur, and nitrogen compounds which, along with their photochemically generated reaction products, can be transported over very large distances, even traversing oceans. Four years of regular rain and fog-water measurements in the tropical mountain forest at the eastern slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes, along an altitude profile between 1800 m and 3185 m, have been carried out. The ion composition of rain and fog-water samples shows frequent episodes of significantly enhanced nitrogen and sulphur, resulting in annual deposition rates of about 5 kg N/ha and 10 kg S/ha into this ecosystem, which are comparable to those of polluted central Europe. By relating back trajectories calculated by means of the FLEXTRA model to the distributions of satellite derived forest fire pixels, it can be shown that most episodes of enhanced ion concentration, with pH values as low as 4.0, can be attributed to biomass burning in the Amazon. First analyses of oxygen isotopes 16O, 17O, and 18O of nitrate in fogwater samples show mass independent fractionation values ranging between 15 and 20 per mille, clearly indicating that nitrate in the samples is a product of atmospheric conversion of precursors, while the isotope data of river samples taken downstream of the research area are grouped in the region of microbial nitrate. This strongly supports the aforementioned trajectory results and shows that the tropical mountain forest in Ecuador, with local pollution sources missing,is "fertilized" by long-range transport of substances originating from forest fires in Colombia, Venezuela, Brazil, and Peru, far upwind of the research site.

  18. Graphitization of unburned carbon from oil-fired fly ash applied for anode materials of high power lithium ion batteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tzoo-Shing Yeh; Yu-Shiang Wu; Yuan-Haun Lee

    2011-01-01

    Unburned carbon is an industrial waste product of oil-fired fly ash. From the viewpoint of waste recycling, using ground unburned carbon with an average size of 6?m heat treatment at 2700°C, and both charge and discharge at 0.1C, yields the first columbic efficiency of about 93.6%. Moreover, after 50 cycles, the discharge capacity is 325.5mAhg?1, and the capacity retention is

  19. Small mammals and forest fuel reduction: national-scale responses to fire and fire surrogates.

    PubMed

    Converse, Sarah J; White, Gary C; Farris, Kerry L; Zack, Steve

    2006-10-01

    Forest fuel reduction treatments are increasingly used by managers to reduce the risk of high-severity wildfire and to manage changes in the ecological function of forests. However, comparative ecological effects of the various types of treatments are poorly understood. We examined short-term patterns in small-mammal responses to mechanical thinning, prescribed-fire, and mechanical thinning/prescribed-fire combination treatments at eight different study areas across the United States as a part of the National Fire and Fire Surrogate (FFS) Project. Research questions included: (1) do treatments differ in their effect on small mammal densities and biomass? and (2) are effects of treatments consistent across study areas? We modeled taxa-specific densities and total small-mammal biomass as functions of treatment types and study area effects and ranked models based on an information-theoretic model selection criterion. Small-mammal taxa examined, including deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), yellow-pine chipmunks (Tamias amoenus), and golden-mantled ground squirrels (Spermophilus lateralis), as well as all Peromyscus and Tamias species, had top-ranked models with responses varying both by treatment type and study area. In each of these cases, the top-ranked model carried between 69% and 99% of the total weight in the model set, indicating strong support for the top-ranked models. However, the top-ranked model of total small-mammal biomass was a model with biomass varying only with treatment (i.e., treated vs. untreated), not by treatment type or study area; again, this model had strong support, with 75% of the total model weight. Individual species and taxa appear to have variable responses to fuel reduction treatment types in different areas; however, total small-mammal biomass appears generally to increase after any type of fuel reduction. These results suggest that there is substantial variability in taxa-specific responses to treatments and indicate that adaptive management policies may be necessary when applying fuel reduction treatments in areas where management of small-mammal populations is of interest. Adaptive management can be used by managers who are conducting fuel reduction treatments to reduce uncertainty as to which treatments are locally optimal for meeting objectives for the management of small-mammal populations. PMID:17069366

  20. Modeling interactions betweenspotted owl and barred owl populations in fire-prone forests

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background / Question / Methods Efforts to conserve northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) in the eastern Cascades of Washington must merge the challenges of providing sufficient structurally complex forest habitat in a fire-prone landscape with the limitations impos...

  1. Forest fire management in Portugal : developing system insights through models of social and physical dynamics

    E-print Network

    Collins, Ross D. (Ross Daniel)

    2012-01-01

    Managing forest fires is a serious national problem in Portugal. Burned area has increased steadily over the past several decades, with particularly devastating years in 2003 and 2005. Ignitions also spike dramatically in ...

  2. Fire-induced erosion and millennial-scale climate change in northern ponderosa pine forests.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Jennifer L; Meyer, Grant A; Jull, A J Timothy

    2004-11-01

    Western US ponderosa pine forests have recently suffered extensive stand-replacing fires followed by hillslope erosion and sedimentation. These fires are usually attributed to increased stand density as a result of fire suppression, grazing and other land use, and are often considered uncharacteristic or unprecedented. Tree-ring records from the past 500 years indicate that before Euro-American settlement, frequent, low-severity fires maintained open stands. However, the pre-settlement period between about ad 1500 and ad 1900 was also generally colder than present, raising the possibility that rapid twentieth-century warming promoted recent catastrophic fires. Here we date fire-related sediment deposits in alluvial fans in central Idaho to reconstruct Holocene fire history in xeric ponderosa pine forests and examine links to climate. We find that colder periods experienced frequent low-severity fires, probably fuelled by increased understory growth. Warmer periods experienced severe droughts, stand-replacing fires and large debris-flow events that comprise a large component of long-term erosion and coincide with similar events in sub-alpine forests of Yellowstone National Park. Our results suggest that given the powerful influence of climate, restoration of processes typical of pre-settlement times may be difficult in a warmer future that promotes severe fires. PMID:15525985

  3. Raman water vapour concentration measurements for reduction of false alarms in forest fire detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellecci, C.; Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.; Lo Feudo, T.; Malizia, A.; Richetta, M.; Ventura, P.

    2009-09-01

    Forest fires can be the cause of environmental catastrophe, with the natural outcomes of serious ecological and economic damages, together with the possibility to endanger human safety. At the aim to reduce this catastrophe several author have been shown that the Laser light scattering can be uses to reveals the particulate emitted in the smoke. Infact experimental and theoretical investigations have shown that lidar is a powerful tool to detect the tenuous smoke plumes produced by forest fires at an early stage. In early 90's Arbolino and Andreucci have shown the theoretical possibility to detect the particulate emitted in atmosphere from smoke forest fire. Vilar at all have shown experimentally the possibility to measure the density variation in atmosphere due to plume emitted in forest fire event. Gaudio at all. have already shown that it is possible to evaluate water vapor emitted in smoke of vegetable fuel using a CO2 dial system. In this paper a theoretical model to evaluate the capabilities of a lidar system in fire surveillance of wooded areas will be presented. In particular we intend propose a technique to minimizing the false alarm in the detection of forest fire by lidar based on a measurement of second components emitted in a combustion process. Usually to detect a fire alarm a rapid increase of aerosol amount is measured. If the backscattering signal report a peak, the presences of a forest fire will be probable. Our idea to confirm this hypothesis is measure the second components emitted in a forest fire at the aim to minimize the false alarm. The simulated measurements of the humidity amount within the smoke plume will be carried out by means of Raman analysis. Fixing the burning rate of the vegetable-fuels, the maximum range of detection will be evaluated.

  4. Numerical Investigation of the Formation of a Convective Column and a Fire Tornado by Forest Fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grishin, A. M.; Matvienko, O. V.

    2014-09-01

    Computational modeling of the formation of a convective column by forest fires has been carried out. It has been established that in the case of an unstable atmosphere stratification the basic factor influencing the thermal column formation is the intensification of the processes of turbulent mixing and that at a stable atmosphere stratification a more significant factor determining the convective column formation is the action of the buoyancy force. It has been shown that a swirling flow in the convective column is formed due to the appearance of a tangential velocity component as a consequence of the local circulation arising against the background of large-scale motion owing to the thermal and orographic inhomogeneities of the underlying surface.

  5. FIRE AFFECTS ECOPHYSIOLOGY AND COMMUNITY DYNAMICS OF CENTRAL WISCONSIN OAK FOREST REGENERATION1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PETER B. REICH; MARC D. ABRAMS; DAVID S. ELLSWORTH; ERIC L. KRUGER; TOM J. TABoNE

    1990-01-01

    In order to understand better the ecophysiological differences among com- peting species that might influence competitive interactions after, or in the absence of, fire, we examined the response to fire of four sympatric woody species found in intermediate- sized gaps in a 30-yr-old mixed-oak forest in central Wisconsin. Selected blocks in the forest were burned in April 1987 by a

  6. Computational Science Technical Note CSTN-163 Transients in a Forest-Fire Simulation Model with Varying Combustion

    E-print Network

    Hawick, Ken

    0 Computational Science Technical Note CSTN-163 Transients in a Forest-Fire Simulation Model-Schwabl Forest-fire model is investigated with various localised combustion neighbourhoods. The transient-break is shown to significantly reduce initial transients and lowers the overall fire damage to the model system

  7. Project 01B-3-3-18 Fire Regimes of Forests in the Transverse and Peninsular Ranges of Southern

    E-print Network

    Stephens, Scott L.

    .8 years. · Intra-ring locations of fire scars in mixed conifer forests in the Transverse and Peninsular to have been spring fires. · Early-wood and mid-season intra-ring locations of scars increase fromProject 01B-3-3-18 Fire Regimes of Forests in the Transverse and Peninsular Ranges of Southern

  8. Progress in the Development of a S-RETGEM-Based Detector for an Early Forest Fire Warning System

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    for an early forest fire detection system. Tests show that it is one hundred times more sensitive than the best and smoke sensors will exceptionally increase the sensitivity of forest fire detection systems. Our future are currently implemented for early fire detection; these can be roughly divided into two main categories

  9. Fire history of pinyon-juniper woodlands at upper ecotones with ponderosa pine forests in Arizona and New Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David W. Huffman; Peter Z. Fulé; Kristen M. Pearson; Joseph E. Crouse

    2008-01-01

    We used maps of fire evidence, fire scar dendrochronology, forest age-structure analysis, and landscape analysis to investigate fire history at pinyon pine (Pinus edulis Engelm.) - juniper (Juniperus osteosperma (Torr.) Little, Juniperus scopulorum Sarg.) woodland - ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa P. & C. Lawson) forest ecotones in Arizona (Tusayan) and in New Mexico (Canjilon). Results showed that charred trees were

  10. The effects of intensive forest fire on revegetation in interior Alaska (mid-term report, February 2006)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TSUYUZAKI Shiro; NARITA Kenji

    To detect the effects of large-scaled fire on the revegetation of Picea mariana forest, we set up 16 10 m × 10 m plots at Poker Flat near Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, in the spring of 2005. Forest fire occurred in this region in the summer of 2004. Owing to the fire, stem density declined 9%-100% and canopy openness increased in

  11. Fire impact and assessment of post-fire actions of a typical Mediterranean forest from SW Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-González, Marco A.; María De la Rosa, José; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; Zavala, Lorena M.; Knicker, Heike

    2015-04-01

    Wildfires may cause significant changes in soil physical and chemical properties. In addition, soil organic matter (SOM) content and chemical properties are usually affected by fire. Fire impacts may negatively affect soil health and quality, and induce or enhance runoff generation and, thereby, soil erosion risk and cause damages to the habitat of species. This fact is especially dramatic in Mediterranean ecosystems, where forest fires are a frequent phenomenon and restoration strategies are a key issue. The goals of this study are to determine: i) the immediate effects of fire on soil properties, including changes occurred in the quantity and quality of SOM and ii) the effect of post-fire actions on soil properties. In August 2012, a wildfire affected a forest area of approx. 90 ha in Montellano (Seville, SW Spain; longitude 37.00 °, latitude -5.56 °). This area is dominated by pines (Pinus pinaster and Pinus halepensis), and eucalypts (Eucaliptus globulus) with a Mediterranean climate. Dominant soil types are Rendzic Leptosols and Calcaric Haplic Regosols. It is a poorly limestone-developed soil (usually swallower than 25 cm). Four soil subsamples were collected 1 month and 25 months after fire within an area of approximately 200 m2. Subsamples were mixed together, homogenized, air-dried, crushed and sieved (2 mm). One control sample was collected in an adjacent area. The litter layer was removed by hand and studied separately. Branches, stems, bushes and plant residues on the fire-affected area were removed 16 months after the fire using heavy machinery as part of the post-fire management. The present research focuses on the study of the elemental composition (C, H and N) and physical properties (pH, water holding capacity, electrical conductivity) of bulk soil samples, and on the spectroscopic analysis (FT-IR, 13C NMR) and analytical pyrolysis data obtained from bulk the oils and from the humic acid fraction. immediate effects of fire, including the charring of vegetation and litter, as the input of charred residues may contribute to increase the total amount of soil organic matter. The post-fire removal of vegetation probably contributed to an additional loss of soil material due to an increase of the erosion risk. In addition, preliminary results point out that the burnt soil is not being recovered to the pre-fire conditions at a molecular level neither in the elemental composition. Results of this study will constitute a valuable tool for stake holders and decision makers to avoid additional alterations caused by post fire management of fire affected forests.

  12. Forest fires: proactive and reactive surveillance employing in-situ, aerial, and space technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzis, Konstantinos; Grondoudis, Andreas; Boustras, George; Papazoglou, Pierantonios

    2013-08-01

    Employing technological advances in communications along with the available aerial and space platforms can enable us, to setup a safety monitoring and management system for delivering proactive and reactive surveillance of our forests. This work stresses the importance of protecting our forests considering the socioeconomic impact they have on our world. It also outlines the available platform technologies and proposes a tool for setting up a monitoring system that employs current technologies. This tool simulates forest fires and uses wireless sensors to monitor the fire. Results show that the number and the location of the sensors in a forest are critical in increasing the chances of sensing the fire on time. Since positioning sensors in an organized manner within a forest is tedious if not impossible to implement, it is recommended that areas with higher flammability are equipped with greater number of sensors.

  13. Parameterizing fire effects on the carbon balance of western United States (U.S.) forests: Accounting for variation across forest types, fire severity, and carbon pools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Ghimire; C. A. Williams; G. J. Collatz

    2010-01-01

    Fires are known to alter the carbon balance of forests by direct\\/consumptive or indirect\\/non-consumptive effects, but detailed representation of fire-induced combustion and mortality is generally lacking in carbon cycle models. Existing approaches fail to incorporate details on the direct and indirect consumption of carbon in individual pools (e.g. foliage, stem, and roots), and ignore severity-dependence of these effects. The few

  14. Fire and restoration of the largest urban forest of the world in Rio de Janeiro City, Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Silva Matos; C. Junius F. Santos; D. de R. Chevalier

    2002-01-01

    National Park of Tijuca in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) is about 3,300 ha and considered the largest urban forest in the world. Its floristic composition is typical of Atlantic Rain Forest. The reserve is being altered because of fire occurrences and urban expansion. This study identified locations and causes of forest fires, and makes management recommendations to restore damaged areas.

  15. Fire and restoration of the largest urban forest of the world in Rio de Janeiro City, Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. SILVA MATOS; Depto de Ci

    2003-01-01

    National Park of Tijuca in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) is about 3,300 ha and considered the largest urban forest in the world. Its floristic composition is typical of Atlantic Rain Forest. The reserve is being altered because of fire occurrences and urban expansion. This study identified locations and causes of forest fires, and makes management recommendations to restore damaged areas.

  16. Effects of Using Visualization and Animation in Presentations to Communities About Forest Succession and Fire Behavior Potential

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane Kapler Smith; Donald E. Zimmerman; Carol Akerelrea; Garrett O'Keefe

    2 Abstract—Natural resource managers use a variety of computer-mediated presentation methods to communicate management practices to the public. We explored the effects of using the Stand Visualization System to visualize and animate predictions from the Forest Vegetation Simulator- Fire and Fuels Extension in presentations explaining forest succession (forest growth and change over time), fire behavior, and management options. We used

  17. Geochemistry of coals, coal ashes and combustion wastes from coal-fired power stations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stanislav V Vassilev; Christina G Vassileva

    1997-01-01

    Contents, concentration trends, and modes of occurrence of 67 elements in coals, coal ashes, and combustion wastes at eleven Bulgarian thermoelectric power stations (TPS) were studied. A number of trace elements in coal and coal ash have concentrations greater than their respective worldwide average contents (Clarke values). The highest values in coal ash are displayed by elements such as Rb,

  18. Fire detection system using random forest classification for image sequences of complex background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Onecue; Kang, Dong-Joong

    2013-06-01

    We present a fire alarm system based on image processing that detects fire accidents in various environments. To reduce false alarms that frequently appeared in earlier systems, we combined image features including color, motion, and blinking information. We specifically define the color conditions of fires in hue, saturation and value, and RGB color space. Fire features are represented as intensity variation, color mean and variance, motion, and image differences. Moreover, blinking fire features are modeled by using crossing patches. We propose an algorithm that classifies patches into fire or nonfire areas by using random forest supervised learning. We design an embedded surveillance device made with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene housing for stable fire detection in outdoor environments. The experimental results show that our algorithm works robustly in complex environments and is able to detect fires in real time.

  19. Computational investigation of carbon-in-ash levels for a wall-fired boiler after low-NOx combustion modifications

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, K.A.; Eddings, E.G.; Heap, M.P. [Reaction Engineering International, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Facchiano, A. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Hardman, R.R. [Mississippi Power Co. Fuel Services, Gulfport, MS (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Many coal-fired boilers retrofitted with low NOX firing systems are experiencing significant operational difficulties due primarily to (1) increased carbon in the fly ash or (2) increased water wall wastage. This paper presents the results of a computational investigation of a wall-fired boiler that has recently been retrofitted with low NOx burners and overfire air. The focus of this paper is the effect of the retrofit on unburned carbon/NOx and the potential for applying operational and design modifications to minimize unburned carbon without adversely impacting NOx emissions. Although the magnitude of an increase in unburned carbon after a low NOx retrofit is system and coal dependent, it is often the case that reduction in emissions of nitrogen oxides is accompanied by a corresponding increase in the amount of unburned carbon in fly ash. Since low NOX firing systems increase the residence time of coal/char particles in a fuel rich environment, it might be expected that there is insufficient time under high temperature, oxidizing conditions to ensure complete carbon oxidation in a low NOx firing system. A relatively straight forward consideration of the effect of temperature and oxygen concentration on coal particle pyrolysis/oxidation can be used to provide a qualitative understanding of this effect. However, the complex flow patterns and highly nonlinear physical and chemical phenomena in a boiler make it difficult to predict carbon-in-ash (c-i-a) levels without the use of advanced computational tools. The sensitivity of c-i-a to burnout is pointed out in a figure for a coal with 10% ash. Although c-i-a changes slowly for low burnout, it changes very rapidly at the extent of burnout typical of a boiler. When the extent of burnout drops only slightly, from 99.5 to 99 percent for example, the c-i-a doubles, from 4 to 8%, which in many situations would be unacceptable. The importance of fuel efficiency and ash disposal/recycle emphasizes the need for understanding and addressing this issue. The computational tools used by Reaction Engineering International (REI) have been developed to address the operational and design considerations of a wide range of combustion systems including utility boilers, pyrolysis furnaces, rotary kilns, waste incinerators, flash smelters, and smelting cyclones. The current models simulate reacting flows and particles, including gaseous diffusion flames, pulverized-coal flames, liquid sprays, coal slurries, injected sorbents, and other oxidation/reduction systems. In particular, emphasis has been placed on simulating coal combustion and pollutant formation.

  20. Planned burning vs. wildfire impact on soil methane flux - implications for forest fire management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fest, Benedikt; Wardlaw, Tim; Livesley, Stephen; Arndt, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Soils in forests ecosystem represent the largest land based methane sink and therefore provide an important ecosystem service. Fire can alter soil properties linked to soil methane uptake potential but this has rarely been studied to date. We measured soil methane flux in a dry-sclerophyll eucalypt forest (Victoria, Australia) that had different planned burning frequency treatments applied (every 3 and 10 years) in the last 27 years. We also studied soil methane flux along a wildfire chronosequence spanning over 200 years (Tasmania, Australia). Our data show that planned fires and wildfires had contrasting effects on methane uptake of the forest soils. The repeated planned burning treatments did not alter methane flux patterns of forest soil. In the wildfire chronosequence the methane uptake capacity of the forest soil was closely related to structural changes during stand development likely linked to stand water use, with drier forest stands having greater methane uptake. Our data demonstrate that unmanaged wildfire can have substantial impact on the methane sink capacity of forest ecosystems in Australia while the less intense planned fires have little effect. The effects of fire were more related to changes in stand structure rather than impacts of fire on soils per se.

  1. Smoke From Schultz Pass Forest Fire, Flagstaff, Arizona, June 20, 2010

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Panorama (180 degree field of view) photograph of smoke rising from the Schultz Pass fire near Flagstaff, Arizona, at 1:34 p.m. on its day of ignition, June 20, 2010.  Over the following 10 days, the fire burned an estimated 15,075 acres, or more than 23 square miles of northern Arizona forest, and ...

  2. Early post-fire regeneration in Pinus hrutia forest ecosystems of Samos island ( Greece)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Thanos; S. Marcou; D. Christodoulakis; A. Yannitsaros

    The recovery of the burnt pine (Pinus brutia) forests of Samos island was followed during the first three post-fire years. Samos is characterised by a Mediterranean-type climate with a mild, subhumid winter and a long xerothermic period. The natural regeneration of P. brutia is realised exclusively by seeds and is enhanced by a number of adaptations to fire: (i) the

  3. Estimating fire-related parameters in boreal forest using SPOT VEGETATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. Fraser; Z. Lib

    2002-01-01

    The majority of burning in the boreal forest zone consists of stand replacement fires larger than 10 km2 occurring in remote, sparsely populated regions. Satellite remote sensing using coarse resolution (?1 km) sensors is thus well suited in documenting the spatial and temporal distribution of fires in this zone. The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of

  4. Soil and sedimentary charcoal evidence for Holocene forest fires in an inland

    E-print Network

    Sanborn, Paul

    Soil and sedimentary charcoal evidence for Holocene forest fires in an inland temperate rainforest of 147 charcoal samples recovered from colluvial and alluvial fan deposits at 29 sites was used of charcoal in buried soils and slope deposits. Median time since fire was 467 cal. yr based on ages

  5. Forest fires in cork oak (Quercus suber L.) stands in Portugal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Silva; F. Catry

    2006-01-01

    Fire and cork can be considered both the most serious problem and the most valuable resource of Portuguese forests. The existence of important areas of burned cork oak stands resulting from severe fire seasons in recent years is an environmental problem which deserves special attention. This paper makes a multidisciplinary survey of the problem of burned cork oak stands focusing

  6. Decision support system for forest fire protection in the Euro-Mediterranean region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kostas Kalabokidis; Gavriil Xanthopoulos; Peter Moore; David Caballero; George Kallos; Juan Llorens; Olga Roussou; Christos Vasilakos

    This paper describes the development of a decision support system (DSS) for prevention planning and emergency management of\\u000a forest fire events that incorporates weather data management, a geographical data viewer, a priori danger forecasting and\\u000a fire propagation modeling, automatic fire detection, and optimal resource dispatching. Collection, input, storage, management,\\u000a and analysis of the information rely on advanced and automated methodologies

  7. Influence of forest management alternatives and land type on susceptibility to fire in northern Wisconsin, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric J. Gustafson; Patrick A. Zollner; Brian R. Sturtevant; Hong S. He; David J. Mladenoff

    2004-01-01

    We used the LANDIS disturbance and succession model to study the effects of six alternative vegetation management scenarios on forest succession and the subsequent risk of canopy fire on a 2791 km2 landscape in northern Wisconsin, USA. The study area is a mix of fire-prone and fire-resistant land types. The alternatives vary the spatial distribution of vegetation management activities to

  8. Direct identification of hazardous elements in ultra-fine and nanominerals from coal fly ash produced during diesel co-firing.

    PubMed

    Martinello, Kátia; Oliveira, Marcos L S; Molossi, Fernando A; Ramos, Claudete G; Teixeira, Elba C; Kautzmann, Rubens M; Silva, Luis F O

    2014-02-01

    This study has provided an initial assessment of the environmental impacts and potential health effects associated with coal fly ash produced during diesel co-firing. Many hazardous elements that are typically detected by multifaceted chemical characterization by XRD, petrology, FE-SEM/EDS, and HR-TEM/SEAD/FFT/EDS in ultra-fine compounds and nanominerals from the co-fired coal fly ashes (CFAs). It provided an in-depth understanding of coal ash produced during diesel co-firing. Several of the neoformed ultra-fine compounds and nano-minerals found in the coal ashes are the same as those commonly associated with oxidation/transformation of aluminosilicates, carbonates, sulphides and phosphates. PMID:24157478

  9. Spatial models to predict ash pH and Electrical Conductivity distribution after a grassland fire in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Cerda, Artemi; Misi?n?, Ieva

    2015-04-01

    Fire mineralizes the organic matter, increasing the pH level and the amount of dissolved ions (Pereira et al., 2014). The degree of mineralization depends among other factors on fire temperature, burned specie, moisture content, and contact time. The impact of wildland fires it is assessed using the fire severity, an index used in the absence of direct measures (e.g temperature), important to estimate the fire effects in the ecosystems. This impact is observed through the loss of soil organic matter, crown volume, twig diameter, ash colour, among others (Keeley et al., 2009). The effects of fire are highly variable, especially at short spatial scales (Pereira et al., in press), due the different fuel conditions (e.g. moisture, specie distribution, flammability, connectivity, arrangement, etc). This variability poses important challenges to identify the best spatial predictor and have the most accurate spatial visualization of the data. Considering this, the test of several interpolation methods it is assumed to be relevant to have the most reliable map. The aims of this work are I) study the ash pH and Electrical Conductivity (EC) after a grassland fire according to ash colour and II) test several interpolation methods in order to identify the best spatial predictor of pH and EC distribution. The study area is located near Vilnius at 54.42° N and 25.26°E and 154 ma.s.l. After the fire it was designed a plot with a 27 x 9 m space grid. Samples were taken every 3 meters for a total of 40 (Pereira et al., 2013). Ash color was classified according to Úbeda et al. (2009). Ash pH and EC laboratory analysis were carried out according to Pereira et al. (2014). Previous to data comparison and modelling, normality and homogeneity were assessed with the Shapiro-wilk and Levene test. pH data respected the normality and homogeneity, while EC only followed the Gaussian distribution and the homogeneity criteria after a logarithmic transformation. Data spatial correlation was calculated with the Global Moran's I Index. In order to identify the best interpolator, we tested several well known techniques as inverse distance to a power (IDP), with the power of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, local polynomial (LP) with the power of 1 (LP1), 2 (LP2) and 3 (LP3), spline with tension (SPT), completely regularized spline (CRS), multiquadratic (MTQ), inverse multiquadratic (IMTQ) thin plate spline (TPS) and ordinary kriging. The best interpolator was the one with the lowest Root mean square error (RMSE). The results shown that on average ash pH was 8.01 (±0.20) and EC (1408± 513.51µm cm3). The coefficient of correlation between both variables was 0.34, p<0.05. Black ash had a significantly higher pH (F=6.29, p<0.05) and EC (F=5.25, p<0.05) than dark grey ash. According to Moran's I index, pH data was significantly (p<0.05) dispersed, while EC had a random pattern. The best spatial predictor for pH was IDW1 (RMSE=0.210), and for EC IMTQ (RMSE=0.141). In both cases the least accurate technique was TPS. pH data did not showed a specific spatial pattern and some high values are very close to high values which shows a great local spatial variability, mainly observed in the northern part of the plot. In relation to EC, the high values were identified in the central part of the plot. In conclusion it was observed that ash pH and EC were different according to fire severity (ash color) and data distribution has a different spatial pattern, despite the significant correlation. pH and EC had different spatial impacts on soil properties in the immediate period after the fire. Acknowledgments POSTFIRE (Soil quality, erosion control and plant cover recovery under different post-fire management scenarios, CGL2013-47862-C2-1-R), funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness; Fuegored; RECARE (Preventing and Remediating Degradation of Soils in Europe Through Land Care, FP7-ENV-2013-TWO STAGE), funded by the European Commission; and for the COST action ES1306 (Connecting European connectivity research). References Keeley, J.E. (2009) Fire

  10. Dynamics of ground vegetation after surface fires in hemiboreal Pinus sylvestris forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vitas Marozas; Jonas Racinskas; Edmundas Bartkevicius

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the changes of ground vegetation (field layer: mosses, lichens; ground layer: herbs, shrubs, tree seedlings and saplings) and regeneration of tree species in pine forests after surface fires. The study area was located in Southern part of Lithuania in hemiboreal zone of Europe. The field and ground vegetation was recorded in forest

  11. Post-fire soil water repellency in highly repellent forest soils in Victoria, Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane Cawson; Petter Nyman; Gary Sheridan; Hugh Smith

    2010-01-01

    In this study soil water repellency was monitored seasonally following prescribed burns to better understand the effects of fire severity on soil hydrological properties. The study sites consisted of dry eucalypt forest with clay loam soil. This forest type is common in south-eastern Australia and is frequently burnt by both wildfires and prescribed burns. A feature of the soil at

  12. Holocene fire and vegetation dynamics in a montane forest, North Cascade Range, Washington, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prichard, Susan J.; Gedalof, Ze'ev; Oswald, W. Wyatt; Peterson, David L.

    2009-07-01

    We reconstructed a 10,500-yr fire and vegetation history of a montane site in the North Cascade Range, Washington State based on lake sediment charcoal, macrofossil and pollen records. High-resolution sampling and abundant macrofossils made it possible to analyze relationships between fire and vegetation. During the early Holocene (> 10,500 to ca. 8000 cal yr BP) forests were subalpine woodlands dominated by Pinus contorta. Around 8000 cal yr BP, P. contorta sharply declined in the macrofossil record. Shade tolerant, mesic species first appeared ca. 4500 cal yr BP. Cupressus nootkatensis appeared most recently at 2000 cal yr BP. Fire frequency varies throughout the record, with significantly shorter mean fire return intervals in the early Holocene than the mid and late Holocene. Charcoal peaks are significantly correlated with an initial increase in macrofossil accumulation rates followed by a decrease, likely corresponding to tree mortality following fire. Climate appears to be a key driver in vegetation and fire regimes over millennial time scales. Fire and other disturbances altered forest vegetation at shorter time scales, and vegetation may have mediated local fire regimes. For example, dominance of P. contorta in the early Holocene forests may have been reinforced by its susceptibility to frequent, stand-replacing fire events.

  13. Fire Return Interval Within the Northern Boundary of the Larch Forest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kharuk, V. I.; Dvinskaya, M. L.; Ranson, K. J.

    2011-01-01

    Larch (Larix spp.) dominant forests compose a large proportion of the forests of Russia (i.e., about 40% of forested areas). These forests range from the Yenisei ridge on the west to the Pacific Ocean on the east, and from Lake Baikal on the south to the 73rd parallel in the north. Larch stands comprise the world s northern most forest at Ary-Mas (72 deg 28' N, 102 deg 15' E). Larch dominated forests occupy about 70% of the permafrost areas in Siberia. Larch forms high closure stands as well as open forests, and is found mainly over permafrost, where other tree species barely survive. Wildfires are typical for this territory with the majority occurring as ground fires due to low crown closure. Due to the thin active layer in permafrost soils and a dense lichen-moss cover, ground fires may cause stand mortality. The vast areas of larch-dominant forests is generally considered as a "carbon sink"; however, positive long-term temperature trends at higher latitudes are expected to result in an increase of fire frequency, and thus may convert this area to a source for greenhouse gases. There are recent observations regarding the increase of fire frequency within non-protected territories. Surprisingly, there are few publications on fire chronoseqences for the huge forested territory between the Ural Mountains and the Pacific Ocean. Also there is a general understanding that bimodal (late spring -- early summer and late summer-beginning of fall) fire seasonal distribution in the south becomes uni-modal (late spring -- early summer) in the north. The purpose of this study is to investigate the wildfire history at the northern edge of the zone of larch dominance.

  14. Development and analysis of a 12-year daily 1-km forest fire dataset across North America from NOAA\\/AVHRR data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruiliang Pu; Zhanqing Li; Peng Gong; Ivan Csiszar; Robert Fraser; Wei-Min Hao; Shobha Kondragunta; Fuzhong Weng

    2007-01-01

    Fires in boreal and temperate forests play a significant role in the global carbon cycle. While forest fires in North America (NA) have been surveyed extensively by U.S. and Canadian forest services, most fire records are limited to seasonal statistics without information on temporal evolution and spatial expansion. Such dynamic information is crucial for modeling fire emissions. Using the daily

  15. Configuration dynamics of boreal forest landscapes under recent fire and harvesting regimes in western Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xianli WangSteve; Steve G. Cumming

    2010-01-01

    Harvesting and forest fire change the spatial configurations of forest habitat. We used multivariate statistical models to\\u000a evaluate the individual and cumulative effects of these two disturbances on habitat configuration in managed boreal forest\\u000a landscapes in western Canada. We evaluated three aspects of configuration (core area, inter-patch distance and shape) using\\u000a indices normalized for total habitat abundance. The two disturbances

  16. Comparing modern and presettlement forest dynamics of a subboreal wilderness: does spruce budworm enhance fire risk?

    PubMed

    Sturtevant, Brian R; Miranda, Brian R; Shinneman, Douglas J; Gustafson, Eric J; Wolter, Peter T

    2012-06-01

    Insect disturbance is often thought to increase fire risk through enhanced fuel loadings, particularly in coniferous forest ecosystems. Yet insect disturbances also affect successional pathways and landscape structure that interact with fire disturbances (and vice-versa) over longer time scales. We applied a landscape succession and disturbance model (LANDIS-II) to evaluate the relative strength of interactions between spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) outbreaks and fire disturbances in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area (BWCA) in northern Minnesota (USA). Disturbance interactions were evaluated for two different scenarios: presettlement forests and fire regimes vs. contemporary forests and fire regimes. Forest composition under the contemporary scenario trended toward mixtures of deciduous species (primarily Betula papyrifera and Populus spp.) and shade-tolerant conifers (Picea mariana, Abies balsamea, Thuja occidentalis), with disturbances dominated by a combination of budworm defoliation and high-severity fires. The presettlement scenario retained comparatively more "big pines" (i.e., Pinus strobus, P. resinosa) and tamarack (L. laricina), and experienced less budworm disturbance and a comparatively less-severe fire regime. Spruce budworm disturbance decreased area burned and fire severity under both scenarios when averaged across the entire 300-year simulations. Contrary to past research, area burned and fire severity during outbreak decades were each similar to that observed in non-outbreak decades. Our analyses suggest budworm disturbances within forests of the BWCA have a comparatively weak effect on long-term forest composition due to a combination of characteristics. These include strict host specificity, fine-scaled patchiness created by defoliation damage, and advance regeneration of its primary host, balsam fir (A. balsamea) that allows its host to persist despite repeated disturbances. Understanding the nature of the three-way interaction between budworm, fire, and composition has important ramifications for both fire mitigation strategies and ecosystem restoration initiatives. We conclude that budworm disturbance can partially mitigate long-term future fire risk by periodically reducing live ladder fuel within the mixed forest types of the BWCA but will do little to reverse the compositional trends caused in part by reduced fire rotations. PMID:22827135

  17. Development at the wildland–urban interface and the mitigation of forest-fire risk

    PubMed Central

    Spyratos, Vassilis; Bourgeron, Patrick S.; Ghil, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This work addresses the impacts of development at the wildland–urban interface on forest fires that spread to human habitats. Catastrophic fires in the western United States and elsewhere make these impacts a matter of urgency for decision makers, scientists, and the general public. Using a simple fire-spread model, along with housing and vegetation data, we show that fire size probability distributions can be strongly modified by the density and flammability of houses. We highlight a sharp transition zone in the parameter space of vegetation flammability and house density. Many actual fire landscapes in the United States appear to have spreading properties close to this transition. Thus, the density and flammability of buildings should be taken into account when assessing fire risk at the wildland–urban interface. Moreover, our results highlight ways for regulation at this interface to help mitigate fire risk. PMID:17717082

  18. Simulating the Effects of Fire Reintroduction Versus Continued Fire Absence on Forest Composition and Landscape Structure in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area, Northern Minnesota, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert M. Scheller; David J. Mladenoff; Thomas R. Crow; Theodore A. Sickley

    2005-01-01

    The Boundary Waters Canoe Area (BWCA) Wilderness of northern Minnesota, USA, ememplifies how fire management and natural disturbance determine forest composition and landscape structure at a broad scale. Historically, the BWCA (>400,000 ha) was subject to crown fires with a mean rotation period of 50–100 y. Fires often overlapped, creating a mosaic of differently aged stands with many stands burning

  19. LITERATURE CITED AGEE, J. K. 1993. Fire ecology of Pacific Northwest forests. Island Press, Washington, D.C.

    E-print Network

    Montana, University of

    : Current Research. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-212. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Research of landscapes to fire suppression. Oikos 66:66-71. BAKER, W. L. 1994. Restoration of landscape structure altered

  20. Synergistic effects of drought and fire on the carbon carrying capacity of tropical forests and woodlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boer, Matthias; Bradstock, Ross

    2014-05-01

    More than half of the global forest carbon stock is held in tropical forests. A relatively large proportion of the tropical forest carbon is stored in plant biomass rather than in the soil, making these stocks particularly vulnerable to disturbances such as droughts, fires and cyclones. The frequencies, duration and intensities of such disturbances may change under future climates with poorly resolved but potentially significant (synergistic) effects on the carbon carrying capacity of tropical forests and thereby on global geochemical cycles. In this study we analyse high-resolution global data sets for tropical forest biomass (Saatchi et al., 2011. PNAS) and fire affected areas (GFED4, Giglio et al.,2013. JGR 118), together with climate data (WorldClim, Hijmans et al., 2005. Int. J. Clim. 25), to quantify the sensitivity of tropical forest carbon stocks in South America, Africa and Asia/Australia to seasonal water deficits and fire. Here, the climatic water deficit (D), calculated as the difference between mean annual potential evapotranspiration and actual evapotranspiration, is used as a measure of seasonal water stress (i.e., evaporative demand not met by available water), while the mean annual burned area fraction (1995-2013) of grid cells is used as a measure of average fire activity. Tropical forest carbon stocks are maximal, as expected, where water deficits are negligible. In those densely forested environments fire tends to be extremely rare as fuels are too wet to burn for most of the time. In all three continents, potential tropical forest carbon stocks are well predicted by a non-linear decreasing function of the mean annual climatic water deficit, with a steep drop in carbon stocks at D of 700-800 mm per year. At this threshold in the climatic water deficit we observe a strong increase in fire activity that is indicative of a critical change in vegetation structure (i.e., tree/grass ratio) and associated shift in the dominant climatic constraint on fire activity from fuel dryness to fuel productivity. By comparing predictions of potential forest carbon stocks (i.e., as a function of D only) with actual carbon stocks, we quantify the sensitivity of those stocks to increasing fire activity. Finally, we map the risk of losses in carbon carrying capacity of tropical forests under scenarios of future climate.

  1. Main dynamics and drivers of boreal forests fire regimes during the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinari, Chiara; Lehsten, Veiko; Blarquez, Olivier; Clear, Jennifer; Carcaillet, Christopher; Bradshaw, Richard HW

    2015-04-01

    Forest fire is one of the most critical ecosystem processes in the boreal megabiome, and it is likely that its frequency, size and severity have had a primary role in vegetation dynamics since the Last Ice Age (Kasischke & Stocks 2000). Fire not only organizes the physical and biological attributes of boreal forests, but also affects biogeochemical cycling, particularly the carbon balance (Balshi et al. 2007). Due to their location at climatically sensitive northern latitudes, boreal forests are likely to be significantly affected by global warming with a consequent increase in biomass burning (Soja et al. 2007), a variation in vegetation structure and composition (Johnstone et al. 2004) and a rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration (Bond-Lamberty et al. 2007). Even if the ecological role of wildfire in boreal forest is widely recognized, a clearer understanding of the environmental factors controlling fire dynamics and how variations in fire regimes impact forest ecosystems is essential in order to place modern fire processes in a meaningful context for projecting ecosystem behaviour in a changing environment (Kelly et al. 2013). Because fire return intervals and successional cycles in boreal forests occur over decadal to centennial timescales (Hu et al. 2006), palaeoecological research seems to be one of the most promising tool for elucidating ecosystem changes over a broad range of environmental conditions and temporal scales. Within this context, our first aim is to reconstruct spatial and temporal patterns of boreal forests fire dynamics during the Holocene based on sedimentary charcoal records. As a second step, trends in biomass burning will be statistically analysed in order to disentangle between regional and local drivers. The use of European and north-American sites will give us the unique possibility to perform a large scale analysis on one of the broadest biome in the world and to underline the different patterns of fire in these two continents. Balshi MS, McGuire AD, Zhuang Q et al. (2007) The role of historical fire disturbance in the carbon dynamics of the pan-boreal region: A process-based analysis. J. Geophys. Res. 112:G2. Bond-Lamberty B, Peckham SD, Ahl DE et al. (2007) Fire as the dominant driver of central Canadian boreal forest carbon balance. Nature 450: 89-92. Hu FS, Brubaker LB, Gavin DG et al. (2006) How climate and vegetation influence the fire regime of the Alaskan boreal biome: the Holocene perspective. Mitigation Adapt. Strateg. Glob. Chang. 11: 829-846. Johnstone JF, Chapin III FS, Foote J et al. (2004) Decadal observations of tree regeneration following fire in boreal forests. Can. J. For. Res. 34: 267-273. Kasischke ES & Stocks BJ (2000) Fire, Climate Change and Carbon Cycling in the Boreal Forest. Ecological Studies 138, Springer-Verlag, New York. Kelly RF, Chipman ML, Higuera PE et al. (2013) Recent burning of boreal forests exceeds fire regime limits of the past 10,000 years. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110: 13055-13060. Soja AJ, Tchebakova NM, French NHF et al. (2007) Climate-induced boreal forest change: predictions versus current observations. Glob. Planet. Chang. 56: 274-296.

  2. Automatic Forest-Fire Measuring Using Ground Stations and Unmanned Aerial Systems

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-de Dios, José Ramiro; Merino, Luis; Caballero, Fernando; Ollero, Anibal

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel system for automatic forest-fire measurement using cameras distributed at ground stations and mounted on Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). It can obtain geometrical measurements of forest fires in real-time such as the location and shape of the fire front, flame height and rate of spread, among others. Measurement of forest fires is a challenging problem that is affected by numerous potential sources of error. The proposed system addresses them by exploiting the complementarities between infrared and visual cameras located at different ground locations together with others onboard Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). The system applies image processing and geo-location techniques to obtain forest-fire measurements individually from each camera and then integrates the results from all the cameras using statistical data fusion techniques. The proposed system has been extensively tested and validated in close-to-operational conditions in field fire experiments with controlled safety conditions carried out in Portugal and Spain from 2001 to 2006. PMID:22163958

  3. Estimating carbon emissions in Russia using the Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McRae, D. J.; Jin, J.; Yang, Y.; Conard, S. G.; Sukhinin, A.; Stocks, B. J.

    2009-12-01

    The Russian boreal forest zone contains about 28 percent of the global terrestrial carbon. Wildfires in Russia burn an estimated 12-15 million ha annually. In a warming climate, fires in the boreal zone are expected to increase in area and severity, with the potential for increasing global fire emissions and decreasing carbon stored in soils and biomass. Current fire data for these forests generally do not account for the large spatial and temporal variations in fuel loads and consumption for differing forest types and weather patterns. As a result, it has been difficult to obtain good estimates of annual carbon emissions. While methods are being developed to estimate carbon emission remotely, there is an immediate need for more accurate estimates. Our previous work has indicated that the Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System (CFFDRS) is suitable for use in Russia. CFFDRS fuel consumption models can be used to estimate carbon emissions. The Canadian Forest Fire Weather Indexes (FWI) System, part of the CFFDRS, estimates the moisture content of various fuel classes and uses these estimates to generate a set of relative fire behavior indicators. As part of the Russian FIRE BEAR (Fire Effects in the Boreal Eurasia Region) Project, we conducted 14 experimental surface fires on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forest sites in Siberia under a range of weather and fuel conditions. Detailed measurements of fuel consumption on each fire provided a basis for modeling carbon emissions using the FWI System. Carbon released by these experimental surface fires ranged from 4.8 to 15.4 t C ha-1 depending on burning conditions and fuel conditions. Provided burn areas and burn dates are known, and forest type and antecedent weather data are available, these models can be used to estimate the total annual carbon emissions for forest fires in Russia. Weather data was obtained for all Russian weather stations over a 55-year period (1953-2008) from the National Climate Data Center (NCDC). After correcting for missing data, we calculated FWI System values based on a fire season running from March 15 to October 31. Since the number of stations is small relative to the area of interest, we also used station data for neighboring countries (Mongolia, northern China) to assist interpolation. Seven spatial data layers created using GIS software included daily fuel moisture code and fire behavior indices of the FWI System along with Daily Severity Index across Russia and the adjacent boundary areas (1617 maps/yr). When we compared distribution of FWI values across Russia to daily fire scar data from AVHRR imagery for selected years, distribution of fire activity appeared to be well related to the FWI values. Our goal is to develop a reasonable estimate of seasonal and interannual carbon emissions for fires burning in Siberia based on daily values of the FWI System. In a related project, we are creating a post-1979 fire burn area database for Russia using AVHRR images. Our goal is to combine historical and current burned area and weather data to develop improved estimates of annual carbon emissions for the boreal zone in Russia.

  4. Quantifying post-fire recovery of forest canopy structure and its environmental drivers using satellite image time-series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanal, Shiva; Duursma, Remko; Boer, Matthias

    2014-05-01

    Fire is a recurring disturbance in most of Australia's forests. Depending on fire severity, impacts on forest canopies vary from light scorching to complete defoliation, with related variation in the magnitude and duration of post-fire gas exchange by that canopy. Estimates of fire impacts on forest canopy structure and carbon uptake for south-eastern Australia's forests do not exist. Here, we use 8-day composite measurements of the fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active radiation (FPAR) as recorded by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to characterise forest canopies before and after fire and to compare burnt and unburnt sites. FPAR is a key biophysical canopy variable and primary input for estimating Gross Primary Productivity (GPP). Post-fire FPAR loss was quantified for all forest areas burnt between 2001 and 2010, showing good agreement with independent assessments of fire severity patterns of 2009 Black Saturday fires. A new method was developed to determine the duration of post-fire recovery from MODIS-FPAR time-series. The method involves a spatial-mode principal component analysis on full FPAR time series followed by a K-means clustering to group pixels based on similarity in temporal patterns. Using fire history data, time series of FPAR for burnt and unburnt pixels in each cluster were then compared to quantify the duration of the post-fire recovery period, which ranged from less than 1 to 8 years. The results show that time series of MODIS FPAR are well suited to detect and quantify disturbances of forest canopy structure and function in large areas of highly variable climate and phenology. Finally, the role of post-fire climate conditions and previous fire history on the duration of the post-fire recovery of the forest canopy was examined using generalized additive models.

  5. Characterization and identification of smoke plume for early forest fire detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghri, John; Jacobs, John; Kohler, Daniel; Davenport, Tim; Moussa, Georges

    2012-10-01

    Characterization and discrimination of fire smoke for a land-based early forest fire detection system are discussed. Preliminary results of several fire plume identification schemes applied to multispectral video data obtained from a number of controlled fire experiments are presented. The temporal, spectral, and spatial signatures of the fire are exploited. The methods discussed include: (1) range filtering followed by entropy filtering of the infrared (IR) video data, (2) dual range moving average differencing followed by principal component analysis (PCA) of IR video data, and (3) PCA of visible color video data followed by texture analysis and segmentation. The three schemes presented are tailored to detect the fire core, the heat plume, and the smoke, respectively.

  6. How surface fire in Siberian Scots pine forests affects soil organic carbon in the forest floor: Stocks, molecular structure, and conversion to black carbon (charcoal)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia I. Czimczik; Caroline M. Preston; Michael W. I. Schmidt; Ernst-Detlef Schulze

    2003-01-01

    In boreal forests, fire is a frequent disturbance and converts soil organic carbon (OC) to more degradation-resistant aromatic carbon, i.e., black carbon (BC) which might act as a long-term atmospheric-carbon sink. Little is known on the effects of fires on boreal soil OC stocks and molecular composition. We studied how a surface fire affected the composition of the forest floor

  7. Comparing different approaches for an effective monitoring of forest fires based on MSG/SEVIRI images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laneve, Giovanni

    2010-05-01

    The remote sensing sensors on board of geostationary satellite, as consequence of the high frequency of the observations, allow, in principle, the monitoring of these phenomena characterized by a fast dynamics. The only condition for is that the events to be monitored should be enough strong to be recognizable notwithstanding the low spatial resolution of the present geostationary systems (MSG/SEVIRI, GOES Imager, MTSAT). Apart from meteorological phenomena other events, like those associated with forest fires and/or volcanic eruption, are characterized by a very fast dynamics. These events are also associated with a very strong signal that make them observable by geostationary satellite in a quasi-continuous way. However, in order to make possible the detection of small fires by using the low resolution multi-spectral imagery provided by geostationary sensor like SEVIRI (3x3 km2 at the equator) new algorithms, capable to exploit it high observation frequency, has been developed. This paper is devoted to show the results obtained by comparing some of these algorithms trying to highlight their advantages and limits. The algorithms herein considered are these developed by CRPSM (SFIDE®), UNIBAS/CNR (RST-FIRES) and ESA-ESRIN (MDIFRM). In general, the new approaches proposed by each one of them are capable to promptly detect small fires making possible an operational utilization of the satellite based fire detection system in the fire fighting phases. In fact, these algorithms are quite different from these introduced in the past and specifically devoted to fire detection using low resolution multi-spectral imagery on LEO (Low Earth Orbit) satellite. Thanks to these differences they are capable of detecting sub-hectare (0.2 ha) forest fires providing an useful instrument for monitoring quasi-continuously forest fires, estimating the FRP (Fire Radiative Power), evaluating the burned biomass, retrieving the emission in the atmosphere.

  8. Operational perspective of remote sensing-based forest fire danger forecasting systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Ehsan H.; Hassan, Quazi K.

    2015-06-01

    Forest fire is a natural phenomenon in many ecosystems across the world. One of the most important components of forest fire management is the forecasting of fire danger conditions. Here, our aim was to critically analyse the following issues, (i) current operational forest fire danger forecasting systems and their limitations; (ii) remote sensing-based fire danger monitoring systems and usefulness in operational perspective; (iii) remote sensing-based fire danger forecasting systems and their functional implications; and (iv) synergy between operational forecasting systems and remote sensing-based methods. In general, the operational systems use point-based measurements of meteorological variables (e.g., temperature, wind speed and direction, relative humidity, precipitations, cloudiness, solar radiation, etc.) and generate danger maps upon employing interpolation techniques. Theoretically, it is possible to overcome the uncertainty associated with the interpolation techniques by using remote sensing data. During the last several decades, efforts were given to develop fire danger condition systems, which could be broadly classified into two major groups: fire danger monitoring and forecasting systems. Most of the monitoring systems focused on determining the danger during and/or after the period of image acquisition. A limited number of studies were conducted to forecast fire danger conditions, which could be adaptable. Synergy between the operational systems and remote sensing-based methods were investigated in the past but too much complex in nature. Thus, the elaborated understanding about these developments would be worthwhile to advance research in the area of fire danger in the context of making them operational.

  9. D ecreased fire frequency and increased water levels affect riparian forest dynamics in southwestern boreal Quebec, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernhard Denneler; Hugo Asselin; Yves Bergeron; Yves Bégin

    2008-01-01

    The relative importance of fire and flooding on the population dynamics of eastern white-cedar (Thuja occiden- talis L.) and black ash (Fraxinus nigra Marsh.) was evaluated in eight old-growth riparian stands of southwestern boreal Quebec, Canada. Rising water levels and decreasing fire frequency since the end of the Little Ice Age (ca. 1850) were ex- pected to have favoured an

  10. Moving from Status to Trends: Forest Inventory and Analysis Symposium 2012 107GTR-NRS-P-105 EMERALD ASH BORER MODELING METHODS

    E-print Network

    Moving from Status to Trends: Forest Inventory and Analysis Symposium 2012 107GTR-NRS-P-105 EMERALD. Huggett, Jr., Ruhong Li, David N. Wear, and Patrick D. Miles1 Abstract.--The emerald ash borer (Agrilus

  11. Solutes in overland flow following fire in eucalyptus and pine forests, northern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Andrew D.; Walsh, Rory P. D.; Shakesby, Richard A.

    2000-04-01

    Small bounded plots were used to investigate dissolved nutrient losses in overland flow in eucalyptus and pine forests in northern Portugal following understorey fires. Losses of NON, POCa2+, Mg2+ and K+ were measured over 19 months during the first 2-3 years after fire. Solute losses in overland flow increased after fire in eucalyptus and pine terrain due to the mineralization of litter and vegetation and increased overland flow. The data suggest that (i) elevated losses persist for at least 2 and 3 years at the pine and eucalyptus sites respectively and (ii) soluble losses of POK+ in a post-fire cycle may exceed those adsorbed to eroded material. Losses of POalthough relatively small, are potentially the most detrimental to soil fertility and forest productivity because of the limited opportunity for P replenishment and correspondingly high P losses adsorbed to eroded sediment.

  12. Investigation of occupational radiation exposures to NORM at an Irish peat-fired power station and potential use of peat fly ash by the construction industry.

    PubMed

    Organo, C; Lee, E M; Menezes, G; Finch, E C

    2005-12-01

    Annually, approximately 15% of Ireland's electricity requirement is provided through the combustion of 3 x 10(6) tonnes of peat. While the literature on coal-fired power generation is quite abundant, studies on the peat-fired power generation industry from a radiological point of view are scarce. A study of the largest Irish peat-fired power plant was initiated to review the potential occupational radiation exposures arising from the occurrence of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) at different stages of the industrial process and to investigate any radiological health consequences that may arise should peat fly ash be used as a component of building materials. Ambient gamma dose rate measurements, radon measurements, quantification of the occupational exposure from inhalation of airborne particles (personal air sampling) and gamma spectrometry analysis of peat, peat ash and effluent samples from the ash ponds were undertaken. The results indicate that the radiation dose received by any worker involved in the processing of the peat and the handling of the ash resulting from peat combustion does not exceed 150 microSv per annum. Regulatory control of the peat-fired power generation is therefore unnecessary according to the Irish legislation with regards to NORM. The potential use of peat fly ash as a by-product in the building industry was also found to have a negligible radiological impact for construction workers and for members of the public. PMID:16340073

  13. Pneumatic conveying of coal and ash with particular reference to coal-fired ships

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, A.S.

    1981-01-01

    An overview of dense-phase (non-fluidized) pneumatic conveyings of coal and ash is presented. Today, there are over 200 dense-phase coal and ash handling systems in land-based boiler plants. In this system, the volume ratio of air-to-material is 25: 1 or less. The velocities normally range from 5 to 7 in/s for coal and 6 to 7 m/s for boiler ash. A comparison is made with lean-phase (fluidized) and medium-phase (semi-fluidized) conveying. The conveying sequences, maintenance benefits, storage, shipboard applications, and various power plant applications are explained, and illustrated with diagrams.

  14. Cadmium in upland forests after vitality fertilization with wood ash—a summary of soil microbiological studies into the potential risk of cadmium release

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonna Perkiömäki; Hannu Fritze

    2005-01-01

    The use of wood ash in forestry has been questioned because of the potential risk associated with its cadmium (Cd) content (1–30 mg kg ?1). In agriculture, wood ash is only allowed for use as a fertilizer when its Cd content is below 3 mg kg ?1. This restriction has not been applied to forest soils and there is a lack of

  15. Influence of fire frequency on carbon consumption in Alaskan blackspruce forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoy, E.; Kasischke, E. S.

    2014-12-01

    Increasing temperatures and drier conditions within the boreal forests of Alaska have resulted in increases in burned area and fire frequency, which alter carbon storage and emissions. In particular, analyses of satellite remote sensing data showed that >20% of the area impacted by fires in interior Alaska occurred in areas that had previously burned since 1950 (e.g., short to intermediate interval fires). Field studies showed that in immature black spruce forests ~ 35 to 55 years old organic layers experienced deep burning regardless of topographic position or seasonality of burning, factors that control depth of burning in mature black spruce forests. Here, refinements were made to a carbon consumption model to account for variations in fuel loads and fraction of carbon consumed associated with fire frequency based on quantifying burned area in recently burned sites using satellite imagery. An immature black spruce (Picea mariana) fuel type (including stands of ~0-50 years) was developed which contains new ground-layer carbon consumption values in order to more accurately account for differences between various age classes of black spruce forest. Both versions of the model were used to assess carbon consumption during 100 fire events (over 4.4 x 10^6 ha of burned area) from two recent ultra-large fire years (2004 and 2005). Using the improved model to better attribute fuel type and consumption resulted in higher ground-layer carbon consumption (4.9% in 2004 and 6.8% in 2005) than previously estimated. These adjustments in ground-layer burning resulted in total carbon consumption within 2004 and 2005 of 63.5 and 42.0 Tg of carbon, respectively. Results from this research could be incorporated into larger scale modeling efforts to better assess changes in the climate-fire-vegetation dynamics in interior Alaskan boreal forests, and to understand the impacts of these changes on carbon consumption and emissions.

  16. Modeling airborne laser scanning data for the spatial generation of critical forest parameters in fire behavior modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Riaño; Erich Meier; Britta Allgöwer; Emilio Chuvieco; Susan L. Ustin

    2003-01-01

    Methods for using airborne laser scanning (also called airborne LIDAR) to retrieve forest parameters that are critical for fire behavior modeling are presented. A model for the automatic extraction of forest information is demonstrated to provide spatial coverage of the study area, making it possible to produce 3-D inputs to improve fire behavior models.The Toposys I airborne laser system recorded

  17. Modeling airborne laser scanning data for the spatial generation of critical forest parameters in fire behavior modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Riano; Erich Meier; Britta Allgower; Emilio Chuvieco; Susan L. Ustin

    Abstract Methods for using airborne laser scanning (also called airborne LIDAR) to retrieve forest parameters that are critical for fire behavior modeling,are presented. A model for the automatic extraction of forest information is demonstrated to provide spatial coverage of the study area, making it possible to produce 3-D inputs to improve fire behavior models. The Toposys I airborne laser system

  18. Cloud-to-ground lightning downwind of the 2002 Hayman forest fire in Timothy J. Lang and Steven A. Rutledge

    E-print Network

    Rutledge, Steven

    Cloud-to-ground lightning downwind of the 2002 Hayman forest fire in Colorado Timothy J. Lang February 2006. [1] The Hayman forest fire occurred near Denver, burning $138,000 acres during 8 June­2 July 2002. It produced aerosol that filled the troposphere over Colorado, allowing an investigation

  19. Chemical and optical properties of 2003 Siberian forest fire smoke observed at the summit of Mt. Fuji, Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naoki Kaneyasu; Yasuhito Igarashi; Yousuke Sawa; Hiroshi Takahashi; Hideshige Takada; Hidetoshi Kumata; Robert Höller

    2007-01-01

    Boreal forest fires are one of the major emission sources of trace atmospheric constituents in mid and high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. From late May through early June 2003, dense smoke aerosols that originated from large forest fires in Siberia were monitored on the summit of Mt. Fuji (3776 m msl.), Japan, a free-tropospheric height monitoring site where measurements

  20. Processes Influencing Ozone Levels in Forest Fire Plumes During Long-Range Transport Across the North Atlantic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Real; K. Law; G. Ancellet; H. Schlager; H. Huntrieser; A. Petzold; A. Stohl; J. Methven; S. Arnold; A. Lewis; J. Crawford; P. Nedelec; M. Haeffelin

    2005-01-01

    In summer 2004, plumes from intense forest fires over Alaska and Canada were observed during the IGAC Lagrangian 2K4\\/ European ITOP (Intercontinental Transport of Ozone and Precursors) campaign. Lagrangian analysis using trajectory based tools showed that forest fires plumes were sampled several time by different platforms over the North Atlantic and Europe. These plumes were characterised by high levels of

  1. Using Unplanned Fires to Help Suppressing Future Large Fires in Mediterranean Forests

    PubMed Central

    Regos, Adrián; Aquilué, Núria; Retana, Javier; De Cáceres, Miquel; Brotons, Lluís

    2014-01-01

    Despite the huge resources invested in fire suppression, the impact of wildfires has considerably increased across the Mediterranean region since the second half of the 20th century. Modulating fire suppression efforts in mild weather conditions is an appealing but hotly-debated strategy to use unplanned fires and associated fuel reduction to create opportunities for suppression of large fires in future adverse weather conditions. Using a spatially-explicit fire–succession model developed for Catalonia (Spain), we assessed this opportunistic policy by using two fire suppression strategies that reproduce how firefighters in extreme weather conditions exploit previous fire scars as firefighting opportunities. We designed scenarios by combining different levels of fire suppression efficiency and climatic severity for a 50-year period (2000–2050). An opportunistic fire suppression policy induced large-scale changes in fire regimes and decreased the area burnt under extreme climate conditions, but only accounted for up to 18–22% of the area to be burnt in reference scenarios. The area suppressed in adverse years tended to increase in scenarios with increasing amounts of area burnt during years dominated by mild weather. Climate change had counterintuitive effects on opportunistic fire suppression strategies. Climate warming increased the incidence of large fires under uncontrolled conditions but also indirectly increased opportunities for enhanced fire suppression. Therefore, to shift fire suppression opportunities from adverse to mild years, we would require a disproportionately large amount of area burnt in mild years. We conclude that the strategic planning of fire suppression resources has the potential to become an important cost-effective fuel-reduction strategy at large spatial scale. We do however suggest that this strategy should probably be accompanied by other fuel-reduction treatments applied at broad scales if large-scale changes in fire regimes are to be achieved, especially in the wider context of climate change. PMID:24727853

  2. Spring, 2006 Fire History and Climate Influences 115 FIRE HISTORY AND CLIMATE INFLUENCES FROM FORESTS IN

    E-print Network

    Stephens, Scott L.

    management eras. Fire scar formation was predominantly recorded in the latewood and at the ring boundary- (tree ring-) based fire history investigations can shed light on the spatial and temporal patterns). The majority of tree ring-based fire history studies performed

  3. Evolving forest fire burn severity classification algorithms for multi-spectral imagery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven P. Brumby; Neal R. Harvey; Jeffrey J. Bloch; James Theiler; Simon Perkins; A. Cody Young; John J. Szymanski

    2000-01-01

    Between May 6 and May 18, 2000, the Cerro Grande\\/Los Alamos wildfire burned approximately 43,000 acres (17,500 ha) and 235 residences in the town of Los Alamos, NM. Initial estimates of forest damage included 17,000 acres (6,900 ha) of 70-100% tree mortality. Restoration efforts following the fire were complicated by the large scale of the fire, and by the presence

  4. Fire and Vegetation Effects on Productivity and Nitrogen Cycling across a Forest-Grassland Continuum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter B. Reich; David W. Peterson; David A. Wedin; Keith Wrage

    2001-01-01

    Mixed tree-grass vegetation is important globally at ecotones between grass- lands and forests. To address uncertainties vis-a`-vis productivity and nitrogen (N) cycling in such systems we studied 20 mature oak savanna stands, ranging from 90% woody dominated to 80% herbaceous dominated, growing on comparable soils in a 32-yr-old fire frequency experiment in Minnesota, USA. Fire frequencies ranged from almost annual

  5. Real-time CO2 and Energy Exchange during the Utikuma Complex Forest Fire, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrone, R. M.; Devito, K. J.; Chasmer, L. E.; Kljun, N.; Waddington, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    North American boreal forest fires release approximately 53 Tg of carbon to the atmosphere each year of which models predict 50% is from direct emissions and 50% from slower decomposition over several years. North American boreal forests have seen an almost three-fold increase in area burned in recent decades and it is widely suspected that a warming climate will lengthen the fire season and increase the area burned even more. The result is a highly likely positive feedback loop that could accelerate global warming and increase fire frequency further. While there are numerous studies on the carbon dynamics of a forested ecosystem in the aftermath of a large wildfire, there is very little information on how carbon and energy fluxes behave during a wildfire. This study took advantage of the recent Utikuma Complex forest fire (SWF-060, ~90,000 ha) that burned through the Utikuma Region Study Area (URSA) in May of 2011. At the URSA, eddy covariance measurements of energy and CO2 exchange have been measured at 25 m above the surface since 2008. During SWF-060, fire was burning near, or within, the footprint of this tower for the period of May 13 - 19. This study examines whether the fire influence the regional scale energy and mass fluxes, and driving meteorological variables, and determines the spatial (distance to fire) and temporal (response to fire leading edge and persistence of altered landscape after fire) lags in NEP and meteorological drivers. Analysis of wind direction frequency and footprint modeling suggest that when the fire was burning near the footprint of flux measurements the turbulent structure of the boundary layer around the tower was altered and significant changes in net ecosystem production were observed. During the fire period, cumulative NEP reduced to almost zero as respiration (either from vegetation or advected into the ecosystem from the fire), increased and photosynthesis was stalled due to loss of biomass and reductions in Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR). The total loss/lack of sequestration of CO2 due to reduced NEP during the fire period, assuming linear increase of average NEP per day, was 6.9 g CO2 m-2 or 69 kg CO2 ha.

  6. Understanding Fire Patterns and Fuel Consumption in Russian Forests: Progress and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conard, Susan; Stocks, Brian; Cahoon, Donald; de Groot, William; Soja, Amber; Ivanova, Galina; Kukavskaya, Elena; McRae, Douglas; Ponomarev, Evgenii; Buryak, Ludmilla; Flannigan, Mike; Swetnam, Thomas; Hao, Wei Min

    2015-04-01

    Research conducted over the past 20 years has greatly changed our understanding of the extent, patterns, and impact of wildfire in the forests of Russia. The availability of remote sensing data at various scales has been essential to improvements in burned area estimates, and has allowed us to develop a new 30-year record of burned areas in Russia. Fire scar data in selected regions has provided information on fire-climate interactions over the past several centuries. And field data from experimental fires and from wildfires has provided essential information on fire behavior, fuel consumption, and ecosystem fire effects. In this presentation we discuss the historical development of improved data on burned area, fuel characterization and fuel consumption. We will emphasize the impacts of inaccuracies in source data on burned area and fire regimes, vegetation, fuels, fuel consumption, and other factors. We present model results using the Canadian BorFire to develop annual estimates of fuel consumption and emissions for the Asian part of Russia. Potential interactions of fire with large-scale atmospheric patterns appear to be an important factor in determining occurrence and timing of large fire outbreaks, and changes in these patterns are likely to drive future changes in fire regimes. Data will be presented to illustrate these effects. The presentation will conclude with a summary of the current status of knowledge and ongoing research needs.

  7. Organic composition of aerosols from controlled forest fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirante, F.; Gonçalves, C.; Rocha, A. C.; Alves, C.; Evtyugina, M.; Nunes, T.; Pio, C.; Puxbaum, H.

    2009-04-01

    Controlled field fires were carried-out in May 2008 in the Gestosa area, in the upper zone of the Serra da Lousã mountain range in central Portugal. Particulate matter (PM2.5-10/PM2.5) in the smoke plume of these burnings has been sampled. A portion of the filters was analysed by a thermal-optical method to determine the elemental and organic carbon (EC and OC). The PM2.5 in the smoke plumes reached average levels up to 13,000 ?g.m-3. The total carbon in the coarse fraction concentration (PM2.5-10) was find to range between 49 and 331 µg.m-3. The elemental carbon represented less than 3% of the carbonaceous content in PM2.5-10 varying from 0.02 to 0.58 µg.m-3. The total carbon in the fine fraction (PM2.5) ranged between 295 and 6,126 µg.m-3. More than 95% of total carbon in PM2.5 is organic presenting concentrations between 0.42 and 0.94 µg.m-3. The particulate organic matter was then solvent extracted and fractionated by vacuum flash chromatography into 5 different classes of compounds whose structure were characterised by Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The chromatographic results were dominated by odd -numbered alkanes and acids with and even number of carbon atoms. The organic speciation also enabled the quantification of specific molecular tracers (e.g. steradienes and amyryl-alkanoates) The carbon preference index (CPI) for higher plant waxes was 2.32 and is 12.19 for PM2.5 and PM2.5-10, respectively, indicating a major incorporation of recent biological components into aerosol samples. Sugar alcohols and anhydrosugars, which also represented a significant aerosol component, were analysed by HPLC with electrochemical (amperometric) detection. The Levoglucosan-to-mannosan ratio to this burnings carried out at shrub-dominated Mediterranean forest was 11.65, 6.09 for PM2.5-10 and PM10 respectively. This information could be conducive to source apportionment studies.

  8. Chemical characteristics of Siberian boreal forest fire emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engling, G.; Popovicheva, O.; Fan, T. S.; Eleftheriadis, K.; Diapouli, E.; Kozlov, V.

    2014-12-01

    Smoke emissions from Siberian boreal forest fires exert critical impacts on the aerosol/climate system of subarctic regions and the Arctic. It is, therefore, crucial to assess the ability of such particles to absorb/scatter incoming solar radiation as well as act as cloud condensation nuclei, which is closely linked to the physical and chemical aerosol properties. However, observations of Siberian wildfire emissions are limited, and no systematic database of smoke particle properties is available for this region to date. As part of this study, ambient aerosol samples were collected during two smoke episodes in Tomsk, Siberia, in the summers of 2012 and 2013. In addition, the chemical composition and optical properties of smoke particles derived from the combustion of typical Siberian fuels, including pine wood and debris, were determined during chamber burn experiments in a large aerosol/combustion chamber under controlled combustion conditions representative of wildfires and prescribed burns. Detailed multi-component characterization of individual particles and bulk properties was accomplished with a suite of techniques, including various types of chromatography, microscopy, spectroscopy, and thermo-optical analysis. Individual particle analysis by SEM-EDX combined with cluster analysis revealed characteristic smoke structural components and major types of particles, which allowed to discriminate between flaming and smoldering regimes, reflected in specific morphological and chemical microstructure. The physicochemical properties representing the combustion phase (smoldering versus flaming) and the degree of processing (fresh versus aged) were assessed in the ambient aerosol based on the chamber burn results. For instance, some chemical transformation (aging of smoke particles) was noticed over a period of two days in the absence of sun light in the combustion chamber for certain chemical species, while the molecular tracer levoglucosan appeared to be rather stable, and can thus be considered a good marker of Siberian pine wood burning, specifically in the smoldering phase. The findings from this study show the importance of various factors influencing the chemical and physical properties of smoke particles derived from Siberian biomass burning as a function of combustion conditions.

  9. Investigation of ash deposition in a pilot-scale fluidized bed combustor co-firing biomass with lignite.

    PubMed

    Gogebakan, Zuhal; Gogebakan, Yusuf; Selçuk, Nevin; Selçuk, Ekrem

    2009-01-01

    This study presents the results from investigation of ash deposition characteristics of a high ash and sulfur content lignite co-fired with three types of biomass (olive residue, 49 wt%; hazelnut shell, 42 wt%; and cotton residue, 41 wt%) in 0.3 MW(t) Middle East Technical University (METU) Atmospheric Bubbling Fluidized Bed Combustion (ABFBC) Test Rig. Deposit samples were collected on an air-cooled probe at a temperature of 500 degrees C. Samples were analyzed by SEM/EDX and XRD methods. The results reveal that co-firing lignite with olive residue, hazelnut shell and cotton residue show low deposition rates. High concentrations of silicon, calcium, sulfur, iron, and aluminum were found in deposit samples. No chlorine was detected in deposits. Calcium sulfate and potassium sulfate were detected as major and minor components of the deposits, respectively. High sulfur and alumina-silicate content of lignite resulted in formation of alkali sulfates instead of alkali chlorides. Therefore, fuel blends under consideration can be denoted to have low-fouling propensity. PMID:18762413

  10. Forest Understory Fire in the Brazilian Amazon in ENSO and Non-ENSO Years: Area Burned and Committed Carbon Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alencar, A.; Nepstad, D.; Ver-Diaz, M. Del. C.

    2004-01-01

    "Understory fires" that burn the floor of standing forests are one of the most important types of forest impoverishment in the Amazon, especially during the severe droughts of El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) episodes. However, we are aware of no estimates of the areal extent of these fires for the Brazilian Amazon and, hence, of their contribution to Amazon carbon fluxes to the atmosphere. We calculated the area of forest understory fires for the Brazilian Amazon region during an El Nino (1998) and a non El Nino (1995) year based on forest fire scars mapped with satellite images for three locations in eastern and southern Amazon, where deforestation is concentrated. The three study sites represented a gradient of both forest types and dry season severity. The burning scar maps were used to determine how the percentage of forest that burned varied with distance from agricultural clearings. These spatial functions were then applied to similar forest/climate combinations outside of the study sites to derive an initial estimate for the Brazilian Amazon. Ninety-one percent of the forest area that burned in the study sites was within the first kilometer of a clearing for the non ENSO year and within the first four kilometers for the ENSO year. The area of forest burned by understory forest fire during the severe drought (ENSO) year (3.9 millions of hectares) was 13 times greater than the area burned during the average rainfall year (0.2 million hectares), and twice the area of annual deforestation rate. Dense forest was, proportionally, the forest area most affected by understory fires during the El Nino year, while understory fires were concentrated in transitional forests during the year of average rainfall. Our estimate of aboveground tree biomass killed by fire ranged from 0.06 Pg to 0.38 Pg during the ENSO and from 0,004 Pg to 0,024 Pg during the non ENSO.

  11. Forest fires, air pollution, and mortality in Southeast Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Narayan Sastry

    2002-01-01

    I assess the population health effects in Malaysia of air pollution from a widespread series of fires that occurred in Indonesia between April and November of 1997. I describe how the fires occurred and why the associated air pollution was so widespread and long lasting. The main objective is to uncover any mortality effects and to assess how large and

  12. Evaluation of beneficial use of wood-fired boiler ash on oat and bean growth

    SciTech Connect

    Krejsl, J.A.; Scanlon, T.M. [Weyerhaeuser Co., Federal Way, WA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    An evaluation on the effects of pulp and paper mill combined boiler ashes on growth and nutrient uptake by oat (Avena sativa L., var. 501) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. blue pole) was conducted in a greenhouse. Ash with a calcium carbonate equivalent of 29.1% and a pH of 12.1 was applied at the rates 30, 40, and 50 dry Mg ha{sup -1} to Chehalis silty clay loam (fine-silty, mixed, mesic Cumulic Ultic Haploxerolls), with pH 5.4. An agricultural dolomitic lime treatment of 7.4 Mg ha{sup -1} and a nonamended control were also included. Plants grown on ash-amended soil had higher biomass compared to plants grown on lime and control treatments. Ash treatments 30, 40, and 50 dry Mg ha{sup -1} increased the bean (stems and leaves) dry matter (DM) yield over the control by 49, 57, and 64%, respectively. The lime treatment increased the bean DM yield by 31% compared with the control. The ash rate 30 dry Mg ha{sup -1}, equivalent to the recommended agronomic lime rate 7.4 Mg ha{sup -1}, increased oat (shoots) DM yields over the control by 45%, while the lime treatment increased biomass by 8% over control. The highest ash treatment, 50 Mg ha{sup -1}, produced the lowest oat biomass. The ash was as effective as dolomitic lime in raising soil pH. Ash-amended soils contained higher concentrations of P, S, and B for plant growth compared to lime and nonamended soils. Soil Zn, Fe, mn, and Cu concentrations decreased as ash application rates increased. Oat and bean plants grown in the ash-amended soil had increased concentrations of K, S, and B and decreased concentrations of Mn and Cu compared with plants grown in the nonamended control soil. Overall, oat and bean benefited from the increased nutrient availability and soil pH caused by the application of boiler ash. 20 refs., 6 tabs.

  13. Valuing fire planning alternatives in forest restoration: using derived demand to integrate economics with ecological restoration.

    PubMed

    Rideout, Douglas B; Ziesler, Pamela S; Kernohan, Nicole J

    2014-08-01

    Assessing the value of fire planning alternatives is challenging because fire affects a wide array of ecosystem, market, and social values. Wildland fire management is increasingly used to address forest restoration while pragmatic approaches to assessing the value of fire management have yet to be developed. Earlier approaches to assessing the value of forest management relied on connecting site valuation with management variables. While sound, such analysis is too narrow to account for a broad range of ecosystem services. The metric fire regime condition class (FRCC) was developed from ecosystem management philosophy, but it is entirely biophysical. Its lack of economic information cripples its utility to support decision-making. We present a means of defining and assessing the deviation of a landscape from its desired fire management condition by re-framing the fire management problem as one of derived demand. This valued deviation establishes a performance metric for wildland fire management. Using a case study, we display the deviation across a landscape and sum the deviations to produce a summary metric. This summary metric is used to assess the value of alternative fire management strategies on improving the fire management condition toward its desired state. It enables us to identify which sites are most valuable to restore, even when they are in the same fire regime condition class. The case study site exemplifies how a wide range of disparate values, such as watershed, wildlife, property and timber, can be incorporated into a single landscape assessment. The analysis presented here leverages previous research on environmental capital value and non-market valuation by integrating ecosystem management, restoration, and microeconomics. PMID:24878985

  14. Prefabricated building elements based on FGD gypsum and ashes from coal-fired electric generating plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Coppola; G. Belz; G. Dinelli; M. Collepardi

    1996-01-01

    Mixtures of fly ash, bottom ash and Flue Gas Desulphurized (FGD) gypsum, all solid wastes from coalfired electric generating\\u000a plants, can be combined with lime and 10% of water to produce a damp powder which can be moulded at a pressure of 20–40 MPa\\u000a and then steam-cured in less than 1 day at 35–80°C. The resulting building materials-in the form

  15. Forest Pattern, Fire, and Climatic Change in the Sierra Nevada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol Miller; Dean L. Urban

    1999-01-01

    In the Sierra Nevada, distributions of forest tree species are largely controlled by the soil-moisture balance. Changes in\\u000a temperature or precipitation as a result of increased greenhouse gas concentrations could lead to changes in species distributions.\\u000a In addition, climatic change could increase the frequency and severity of wildfires. We used a forest gap model developed\\u000a for Sierra Nevada forests to

  16. Fire Severity Filters Regeneration Traits to Shape Community Assembly in Alaska’s Boreal Forest

    PubMed Central

    Bernhardt, Emily L.; Chapin, F. Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Disturbance can both initiate and shape patterns of secondary succession by affecting processes of community assembly. Thus, understanding assembly rules is a key element of predicting ecological responses to changing disturbance regimes. We measured the composition and trait characteristics of plant communities early after widespread wildfires in Alaska to assess how variations in disturbance characteristics influenced the relative success of different plant regeneration strategies. We compared patterns of post-fire community composition and abundance of regeneration traits across a range of fire severities within a single pre-fire forest type– black spruce forests of Interior Alaska. Patterns of community composition, as captured by multivariate ordination with nonmetric multidimensional scaling, were primarily related to gradients in fire severity (biomass combustion and residual vegetation) and secondarily to gradients in soil pH and regional climate. This pattern was apparent in both the full dataset (n?=?87 sites) and for a reduced subset of sites (n?=?49) that minimized the correlation between site moisture and fire severity. Changes in community composition across the fire-severity gradient in Alaska were strongly correlated to variations in plant regeneration strategy and rooting depth. The tight coupling of fire severity with regeneration traits and vegetation composition after fire supports the hypothesis that disturbance characteristics influence patterns of community assembly by affecting the relative success of different regeneration strategies. This study further demonstrated that variations in disturbance characteristics can dominate over environmental constraints in determining early patterns of community assembly. By affecting the success of regeneration traits, changes in fire regime directly shape the outcomes of community assembly, and thus may override the effects of slower environmental change on boreal forest composition. PMID:23418503

  17. Preliminary effects of fire and mechanical fuel treatments on the abundance of small mammals in the mixed-conifer forest of the Sierra Nevada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew J. Amacher; Reginald H. Barrett; Jason J. Moghaddas; Scott L. Stephens

    2008-01-01

    Many western conifer forests were historically affected by frequent, low- to mixed-severity fires. A legacy of fire suppression, logging, grazing and other factors has created current forest habitats that do not reflect historical conditions. The increasing size, severity, and costs of catastrophic forest wildfires are now focusing wildland management and research towards proactive fuel treatments designed to reduce fire hazards

  18. Changes in surface albedo after fire in boreal forest ecosystems of interior Alaska assessed using MODIS satellite observations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evan A. Lyons; Yufang Jin; James T. Randerson

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the multidecadal effects of boreal forest fire on surface albedo using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite observations within the perimeters of burn scars in interior Alaska. Fire caused albedo to increase during periods with and without snow cover. Albedo during early spring had a mean of 0.50 ± 0.03 for the first three decades after fire, substantially

  19. Selection of Parameters Values to Model Post -fire Runoff and Sediment Transport at the Watershed Scale in Southwestern Forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Evan Canfield; David C. Goodrich; I. Shea Burns

    2004-01-01

    Erosion and runoff have been observed to increase following fire. Land managers and Burned Area Emergency Rehabilitation (BAER) teams must be able to estimate these post -fire changes. Studies of post -fire erosion on burned watersheds show that the concentrations of sediment eroded from burned rangeland and forested hillslopes in the southwestern United States can be extremely high. Since wildfire

  20. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-181. 2002. 621 Assessing the Effect of Fire Regime on

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-181. 2002. 621 Assessing the Effect of Fire Regime as high in landscapes having an infrequent, stand-replacing fire regime (173 Mg/ha) as in landscapes stand. CWD is therefore highest just after such a fire. This material persists as the regenerating stand

  1. Initial effects of fire and mechanical thinning on soil enzyme activity and nitrogen transformations in eight North American forest ecosystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph E. J. Boerner; Carla Giai; Jianjun Huang; Jessica R. Miesel

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the first-year effect of three ecosystem restoration treatments (prescribed fire, mechanical thinning, and their combination) on soil enzyme activity, soil N transformations, and C:N ratios of soil organic matter and mineral soil in eight North American forested ecosystems. The ecosystems we studied were part of the larger Fire and Fire Surrogate (FFS) network, and all had a

  2. The Interaction of Fire, Fuels, and Climate across Rocky Mountain Forests

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    TANIA SCHOENNAGEL, THOMAS T. VEBLEN, and WILLIAM H. ROMME (; )

    2004-07-01

    This peer-reviewed resource from Bioscience is about reducing wildfire in the rocky mountain forests. Understanding the relative influence of fuels and climate on wildfires across the Rocky Mountains is necessary to predict how fires may respond to a changing climate and to define effective fuel management approaches to controlling wildfire in this increasingly populated region. The idea that decades of fire suppression have promoted unnatural fuel accumulation and subsequent unprecedentedly large, severe wildfires across western forests has been developed primarily from studies of dry ponderosa pine forests. However, this model is being applied uncritically across Rocky Mountain forests (e.g., in the Healthy Forests Restoration Act). We synthesize current research and summarize lessons learned from recent large wildfires (the Yellowstone, Rodeo-Chediski, and Hayman fires), which represent case studies of the potential effectiveness of fuel reduction across a range of major forest types. A "one size fits all" approach to reducing wildfire hazards in the Rocky Mountain region is unlikely to be effective and may produce collateral damage in some places.

  3. Forest Management and the Evolution of Project Design in Dynamic Wildland Urban Interface Fire Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway, S.

    2014-12-01

    The Truckee Ranger District on the Tahoe National Forest, in the heart of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, has a rich history of human activities. Native American influences, comstock-era logging, fire suppression, development, and recreation have all shaped the natural environment into what it is today. Like much of our national forests in California, forest conditions that have developed are generally much more homogenous and less resistant to disturbance from fire, insect, and disease than they might have been without the myriad of human influences. However, in order to improve the resiliency of our forests to stand replacing disturbances like high severity fire, while managing for integrated anthropomorphic values, it is imperative that management evolve to meet those dynamic needs. Recent advances in remote sensing and GIS allow land managers more access to forest information and can inform site specific prescriptions to change site specific undesirable conditions. It is ecologically and politically complex, yet our forests deserve that microscope. This particular presentation will focus on how the Truckee Ranger District began this process of incorporating several values, generated from stakeholder collaboration, into one project's goals and how those lessons learned informed their most recent project.

  4. Monitoring of the effects of fire in North American boreal forests using ERS SAR imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasischke, E. S.; French, N. H. F.; Bourgeau-Chavez, L. L.

    1997-01-01

    ERS synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery represents a tool for monitoring the effects of fires in boreal regions. Fire-scar signatures from ERS SAR collected over Canada and Alaska are presented. The temporal variability exhibited throughout the growing season is underlined. The investigation showed that these signatures have a seasonal trend related to the patterns of soil moisture originating from snow melts in the spring and precipitation during the growing season. These signatures appear in all the regions of the North American boreal forest and remain visible for up to 13 years after a fire.

  5. Scaling and correlations in the dynamics of forest-fire occurrence

    E-print Network

    Corral, Alvaro; Lasaponara, Rosa

    2007-01-01

    Forest-fire waiting times, defined as the time between successive events above a certain size in a given region, are calculated for Italy. The probability densities of the waiting times are found to verify a scaling law, despite that fact that the distribution of fire sizes is not a power law. The meaning of such behavior in terms of the possible self-similarity of the process in a nonstationary system is discussed. We find that the scaling law arises as a consequence of the stationarity of fire sizes and the existence of a non-trivial ``instantaneous'' scaling law, sustained by the correlations of the process.

  6. FOREST FIRES IN RUSSIA: CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS IN THE ATMOSPHERE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Boreal forests of Russia play a significant role in the global carbon cycle and the f lux of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. ecause f ire and other disturbances are ecologically inherent in boreal forests, large areas are burned annually and contributions to the flux of carbo...

  7. Ecological responses to el Niño-induced surface fires in central Brazilian Amazonia: management implications for flammable tropical forests.

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Jos; Peres, Carlos A

    2004-01-01

    Over the past 20 years the combined effects of El Niño-induced droughts and land-use change have dramatically increased the frequency of fire in humid tropical forests. Despite the potential for rapid ecosystem alteration and the current prevalence of wildfire disturbance, the consequences of such fires for tropical forest biodiversity remain poorly understood. We provide a pan-tropical review of the current state of knowledge of these fires, and include data from a study in a seasonally dry terra firme forest of central Brazilian Amazonia. Overall, this study supports predictions that rates of tree mortality and changes in forest structure are strongly linked to burn severity. The potential consequences for biomass loss and carbon emissions are explored. Despite the paucity of data on faunal responses to tropical forest fires, some trends are becoming apparent; for example, large canopy frugivores and understorey insectivorous birds appear to be highly sensitive to changes in forest structure and composition during the first 3 years after fires. Finally, we appraise the management implications of fires and evaluate the viability of techniques and legislation that can be used to reduce forest flammability, prevent anthropogenic ignition sources from coming into contact with flammable forests and aid the post-fire recovery process. PMID:15212091

  8. Persistent Effects of Fire Severity on Early Successional Forests in Interior Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shenoy, Aditi; Johnstone, Jill F.; Kasischke, Eric S.; Kielland, Knut

    2011-01-01

    There has been a recent increase in the frequency and extent of wildfires in interior Alaska, and this trend is predicted to continue under a warming climate. Although less well documented, corresponding increases in fire severity are expected. Previous research from boreal forests in Alaska and western Canada indicate that severe fire promotes the recruitment of deciduous tree species and decreases the relative abundance of black spruce (Picea mariana) immediately after fire. Here we extend these observations by (1) examining changes in patterns of aspen and spruce density and biomass that occurred during the first two decades of post-fire succession, and (2) comparing patterns of tree composition in relation to variations in post-fire organic layer depth in four burned black spruce forests in interior Alaska after 10-20 years of succession.Wefound that initial effects of fire severity on recruitment and establishment of aspen and black spruce were maintained by subsequent effects of organic layer depth and initial plant biomass on plant growth during post-fire succession. The proportional contribution of aspen (Populus tremuloides) to total stand biomass remained above 90% during the first and second decades of succession in severely burned sites, while in lightly burned sites the proportional contribution of aspen was reduced due to a 40- fold increase in spruce biomass in these sites. Relationships between organic layer depth and stem density and biomass were consistently negative for aspen, and positive or neutral for black spruce in all four burns. Our results suggest that initial effects of post-fire organic layer depths on deciduous recruitment are likely to translate into a prolonged phase of deciduous dominance during post-fire succession in severely burned stands. This shift in vegetation distribution has important implications for climate-albedo feedbacks, future fire regime, wildlife habitat quality and natural resources for indigenous subsistence activities in interior Alaska.

  9. Implementing watershed investment programs to restore fire-adapted forests for watershed services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springer, A. E.

    2013-12-01

    Payments for ecosystems services and watershed investment programs have created new solutions for restoring upland fire-adapted forests to support downstream surface-water and groundwater uses. Water from upland forests supports not only a significant percentage of the public water supplies in the U.S., but also extensive riparian, aquatic, and groundwater dependent ecosystems. Many rare, endemic, threatened, and endangered species are supported by the surface-water and groundwater generated from the forested uplands. In the Ponderosa pine forests of the Southwestern U.S., post Euro-American settlement forest management practices, coupled with climate change, has significantly impacted watershed functionality by increasing vegetation cover and associated evapotranspiration and decreasing runoff and groundwater recharge. A large Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program project known as the Four Forests Restoration Initiative is developing landscape scale processes to make the forests connected to these watersheds more resilient. However, there are challenges in financing the initial forest treatments and subsequent maintenance treatments while garnering supportive public opinion to forest thinning projects. A solution called the Flagstaff Watershed Protection Project is utilizing City tax dollars collected through a public bond to finance forest treatments. Exit polling from the bond election documented the reasons for the 73 % affirmative vote on the bond measure. These forest treatments have included in their actions restoration of associated ephemeral stream channels and spring ecosystems, but resources still need to be identified for these actions. A statewide strategy for developing additional forest restoration resources outside of the federal financing is being explored by state and local business and governmental leaders. Coordination, synthesis, and modeling supported by a NSF Water Sustainability and Climate project has been instrumental in facilitating the forest restoration and watershed health decision making processes.

  10. Associations between Forest Fire and Mexican Spotted Owls

    E-print Network

    or reproduction, but we have no data on long-term effects of fire. We recommend proactive fuels, occupancy, reproduction, stand-replacement, stand- maintenance. ILDFIRE HISTORICALLY HAS BEEN 3. major dis

  11. Does forest fire effect chemical composition of surface water

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, A.T. (Illinois State Univ., Normal, IL (United States). Dept. of Geography and Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Chemical Data for stream drainages in Yellowstone National Park area have been examined for trends associated with the 1988 burn. Limited pre-fire data make assessment difficult. Data from the Snake River (at maximum recorded discharge) suggest that TDS decreases, total Nitrogen remains constant and total Phosphorus increases from pre-fire (and very dry conditions) to post-fire (and more normal conditions). To test these apparent trends post-fire data from adjacent valleys (Jones Creek, burned; Crow Creek, unburned) were compared. Each shows a decrease in TDS, similar nearly constant total Nitrogen and an increase in total Phosphorus. Although year to year changes in surface water seem greater from the burned valley, the data from the unburned valley show similar trends. Therefore these data do not clearly distinguish trends resulting solely from the burn.

  12. Fuel reduction and coarse woody debris dynamics with early season and late season prescribed fire in a Sierra Nevada mixed conifer forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric E. Knapp; Jon E. Keeley; Elizabeth A. Ballenger; Teresa J. Brennan

    2005-01-01

    Fire exclusion has led to an unnatural accumulation and greater spatial continuity of organic material on the ground in many forests. This material serves both as potential fuel for forest fires and habitat for a large array of forest species. Managers must balance fuel reduction to reduce wildfire hazard with fuel retention targets to maintain other forest functions. This study

  13. The 1998 Forest Fires in East Kalimantan (Indonesia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florian Siegert; Anja A. Hoffmann

    2000-01-01

    Boosted by the 1997\\/98 El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomena, uncontrolled fires have destroyed huge areas of rainforest and bush land in Indonesia. Thick smoke covered large areas over SE Asia for months. Due to their cloud and haze penetrating capability SAR sensors could complement existing fire monitoring systems based on NOAA-AVHRR data, providing a 900 times higher spatial resolution. This

  14. Rehabilitating boreal forest structure and species composition in Finland through logging, dead wood creation and fire: The EVO experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Vanha-Majamaa; S. Lilja; R. Ryomaa; J. S. Kotiaho; S. Laaka-Lindberg; H. Lindberg; P. Puttonen; P. Tamminen; T. Toivanen; T. Kuuluvainen

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews an ongoing, large-scale multidisciplinary experiment designed to study the possibilities of rehabilitating forest structure and species composition through logging, dead wood creation and fire in managed Norway spruce (Picea abies) forests in southern Finland. These forests have been utilized for several centuries with intensive management and clear-cut harvesting, which has been the dominant practice in Finland since

  15. Modelling forest–savanna mosaic dynamics in man-influenced environments: effects of fire, climate and soil heterogeneity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charly Favier; Jérôme Chave; Aline Fabing; Dominique Schwartz; Marc A. Dubois

    2004-01-01

    Forests and savannas are the major ecotypes in humid tropical regions. Under present climatic conditions, forest is in a phase of natural expansion over savanna, but traditional human activities, especially fires, have strongly influenced the succession. We here present a new model, FORSAT, dedicated to the forest–savanna mosaic on a landscape scale and based on stochastic modelling of key processes

  16. Development and analysis of a 12-year daily 1-km forest fire dataset across North America from NOAA/AVHRR data

    E-print Network

    Li, Zhanqing

    forests play a significant role in the global carbon cycle. While forest fires in North America (NA) have uncertainties in determining whether boreal forests serve as a sink or source in the global carbon cycle (Fung

  17. Dynamics of ground vegetation after surface fires in hemiboreal Pinus sylvestris L. forests1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vitas Marozas; Jonas Racinskas; Edmundas Bartkevicius

    The aim of this work was to investigate the changes of ground vegetation (field layer: mosses, lichens, and ground layer: herbs, shrubs, tree seedlings and saplings) and regeneration of tree species in pine forests after surface fires. The study area was located in Southern part of Lithuania in hemiboreal zone of Europe. The field and ground vegetation was recorded in

  18. Forest fire smog feature extraction based on Pulse-Coupled neural network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wu Jiang; Huang Rule; Xu Ziyue; Han Ning

    2011-01-01

    A novel algorithm for image-based forest fire smog feature extraction based on Pulse-Coupled neural network (PCNN) is proposed. The PCNN is derived from the phenomena of synchronous pulse burst in mammals' visual cortex. The outputs of PCNN represent unique features of imported images, and has been proved to be invariant to translation, rotation and distortion. In this paper the image

  19. Finnish Comprehensive School Students Contemplate the Forest Fires of Indonesia 1997 from Internet and Newspaper Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallin-Oittinen, Toini

    2004-01-01

    The topic of the assignment for eighth-grade students was reporting on the forest fires in Indonesia in chronological order, from 26 August to 27 September 1997. The final stage of the assignment was composing a report in essay format. The goal of this presentation was to examine the historical interpretation of the events and to simultaneously…

  20. Raman water vapour concentration measurements for reduction of false alarms in forest fire detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Bellecci; P. Gaudio; M. Gelfusa; T. Lo Feudo; A. Malizia; M. Richetta; P. Ventura

    2009-01-01

    Forest fires can be the cause of environmental catastrophe, with the natural outcomes of serious ecological and economic damages, together with the possibility to endanger human safety. At the aim to reduce this catastrophe several author have been shown that the Laser light scattering can be uses to reveals the particulate emitted in the smoke. Infact experimental and theoretical investigations

  1. Hydrologic ramifications of an increased role of wildland fire across the rangeland-dry forest continuum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increased role of wildland fire across the rangeland-dry forest continuum in the western United States (US) presents landscape-scale consequences relative runoff and erosion. Much of the Intermountain West now exists in a state in which rangeland and woodland wildfires stimulated by invasive che...

  2. Research on Particle Swarm Optimization strategy for forest fire detection system based on Wireless Sensor Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lin Zhu-liang; Ma Shi-ping; Tao Zuo-ying

    2009-01-01

    In order to improve the network performance, to increase network coverage rate, to achieve the maximization of network coverage and extend the network of life in the forest fire detection system, the present research has proposed a wireless sensor networks (WSNs) coverage particle swarm optimization (PSO) strategy on the basis of probability measuring model. Through the PSO, the strategy achieves

  3. Wildfire Effects on Vegetation and Soils at the Purdy Fire Site, Gallatin National Forest

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Wildfire Effects on Vegetation and Soils at the Purdy Fire Site, Gallatin National Forest Photo nitrogen, available phosphorous, and other macro- and micronutrients (Hungerford et al. 1990). Soil nitrate, and leaching of water-soluble nutrients typically reduce nitrate levels to pre-burn conditions within one year

  4. Spatial pattern of seedlings 1 year after fire in a Mediterranean pine forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Ne'eman; H. Lahav; I. Izhaki

    1992-01-01

    The spatial distribution of seedlings of the dominant perennial plant species (Pinus halepensis, Cistus salviifolius, Rhus coriaria) and may annual species was studied after a wild fire in an eastern Mediterranean pine forest. The spatial distribution of all seedlings is affected by the location of the old burned pine trees. Seedling density of Pinus and Cistus is higher at a

  5. Bark beetles, fuels and future fire hazard in contrasting conifer forests of Greater Yellowstone

    E-print Network

    Turner, Monica G.

    1 Bark beetles, fuels and future fire hazard in contrasting conifer forests of Greater Yellowstone State University Roy Renkin, Federal Cooperator, Yellowstone National Park *Contact: Email: turnermg in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), where we build on > 20 yrs of research and our recently initiated

  6. Developing resilient ponderosa pine forests with mechanical thinning and prescribed fire in central Oregon's pumice region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matt D. Busse; P. H. Cochran; William E. Hopkins; William H. Johnson; Gregg M. Riegel; Gary O. Fiddler; Alice W. Ratcliff; Carol J. Shestak

    2009-01-01

    Thinning and prescribed burning are common management practices for reducing fuel buildup in ponderosa pine forests. However, it is not well understood if their combined use is required to lower wildfire risk and to help restore natural ecological function. We compared 16 treatment combinations of thinning, prescribed fire, and slash retention for two decades across a site quality gradient of

  7. Impact of prescribed fire and other factors on cheatgrass persistence in a Sierra Nevada ponderosa pine forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, J.E.; McGinnis, T.W.

    2007-01-01

    Following the reintroduction of fire Bromus tectorum has invaded the low elevation ponderosa pine forests in parts of Kings Canyon National Park, California. We used prescribed burns, other field manipulations, germination studies, and structural equation modelling, to investigate how fire and other factors affect the persistence of cheatgrass in these forests. Our studies show that altering burning season to coincide with seed maturation is not likely to control cheatgrass because sparse fuel loads generate low fire intensity. Increasing time between prescribed fires may inhibit cheatgrass by increasing surface fuels (both herbaceous and litter), which directly inhibit cheatgrass establishment, and by creating higher intensity fires capable of killing a much greater fraction of the seed bank. Using structural equation modelling, postfire cheatgrass dominance was shown to be most strongly controlled by the prefire cheatgrass seedbank; other factors include soil moisture, fire intensity, soil N, and duration of direct sunlight. Current fire management goals in western conifer forests are focused on restoring historical fire regimes; however, these frequent fire regimes may enhance alien plant invasion in some forest types. Where feasible, fire managers should consider the option of an appropriate compromise between reducing serious fire hazards and exacerbating alien plant invasions. ?? IAWF 2007.

  8. The 1987 forest fire disaster in California: Assessment of emergency room visits

    SciTech Connect

    Duclos, P.; Sanderson, L.M.; Lipsett, M. (Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    During a 5-d period that commenced on August 30, 1987, dry lightning strikes ignited more than 1,500 fires that destroyed in excess of 600,000 acres of California forests. To evaluate the public health impact of the smoke on the general population, all hospital emergency rooms located in the six counties most severely affected by smoke or fire were surveyed. Selected hospital information was abstracted for a 2 1/2-wk period during the fires and during two reference periods. During the period of major forest fire activity, visits of persons with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease increased in number (observed/expected ratios of 1.4 and 1.3, respectively), as did visits of persons with sinusitis, upper respiratory infections, and laryngitis. A few patients with acute respiratory or eye irritation also visited the emergency rooms. Even recognizing the limited sensitivity of emergency room surveys, the overall public health impact was relatively modest. The increased respiratory morbidity detected in this survey, however, supports the notion that persons with pre-existing respiratory disease represent a sensitive subpopulation, who should be targeted for purposes of public health intervention when exposure to forest fire smoke is likely.

  9. Climate exerts sub-regional to regional controls over multicentury fire history across Mongolia's southern boreal forest ecotone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, T.; Mack, K.; Heyerdahl, E.

    2013-12-01

    The forest-steppe of Mongolia is a sensitive ecotone system found at the southern border of the Eurasian boreal forest. Recent climate data analysis shows that during the past two centuries Mongolia's rate of warming exceeded that of Asia, the Northern Hemisphere, or the planet as a whole. Fire appears to drive forest recruitment within the forest-steppe, but little is understood about how fire regimes vary spatially and temporally. This study analyzes 530 fire scar samples and 3200 tree demography samples collected from 22 sites across 300,000 square kilometers in north central Mongolia, dominated by Larix sibirica, along with ancillary data on climate and land use history. We ask 1) what are the current and historical fire regimes in this region? and 2) were fires regionally synchronous during the past 500 years, and if so, was the climate during synchronous years different from that in other years? This study expands our growing knowledge of fire-prone forests elsewhere in the world, where extreme climatic conditions can override local controls of fire activity, facilitating regional synchrony. We reconstructed a low- to mixed-severity fire regime with sub-regional (hundreds of square kilometers) to regional (thousands of square kilometers) synchrony occurring during dry years, as measured by the Monsoon Asia Drought Atlas (MADA). Analysis of modern weather data shows trends of spatial variation at sub-regional scales, which are correlated with sub-regional fire synchrony. Regionally synchronous fire years represent a climatic control of fire that overrides local and sub-regional drivers in those years. Based upon these findings, we conclude that if a drying phase were to accompany the warming already occurring in this region, sub-regional to regional scale fires will occur more frequently. By supporting more fire at larger spatial scales, a warmer and drier climate would likely lead to more rapid shifting and/or fragmentation of the Eurasian southern boreal forest ecotone.

  10. Response of the post-fire bryophyte community to salvage logging in boreal mixedwood forests of northeastern Alberta, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Bradbury

    2006-01-01

    Salvage logging is common practice in the boreal forest of northeastern Alberta, Canada. Fire-killed aspen snags are harvested as soon as is feasible after fire, and in the case of the House River fire (which burned over 250,000ha in May and June 2002), planning and harvesting began before the fire was extinguished and continued until summer 2003. The ecological consequences

  11. Water quality in mountain ash forests — separating the impacts of roads from those of logging operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grayson, R. B.; Haydon, S. R.; Jayasuriya, M. D. A.; Finlayson, B. L.

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of the two catchment studies reported here was to allow the effects on water quality of road use and maintenance to be separated from the effects of a logging operation. In the first project, known as the Myrtle experiment, two small catchments in an old-growth mountain ash ( Eucalyptus regnans) forest were chosen for a paired catchment study of the effects on physical and chemical water quality (baseflow and stormflow) of logging under a strict code of practice and with no roads crossing runoff producing areas. In the second project, known as the Road 11 experiment, the effect on sediment production from unsealed forest roads of vehicle use and level of road maintenance was assessed. The Myrtle experiment showed that the harvesting and regeneration operation did not have a major impact on the stream physical or chemical water quality. Increases were detected in turbidity, iron and suspended solids at baseflows, but these were small in absolute terms and of similar magnitude to the measurement error. The stormflow data revealed no significant influence of the logging operation. The suspension of logging during wet weather, the protection of the runoff producing areas with buffer strips and the management of runoff from roads, snig tracks and log landing areas eliminated intrusion of contaminated runoff into the streams, thereby avoiding the adverse effects of logging. The Road 11 study determined that annual sediment production from forest roads was in the range of 50-90 t of sediment per hectare of road surface per year, with approximately two-thirds being suspended sediment and one-third coarse material. The use of gravel reduced sediment production, provided a sufficient depth of material was used. Increasing the level of road maintenance with increasing traffic load controlled sediment production rates, but when maintenance was not increased, sediment production increased by approximately 40%. The results indicate that by identifying the areas that produce runoff it is possible to prevent contaminated runoff reaching the streams. Roads, on the other hand, produce large quantities of sediment, even when well maintained, so careful consideration of their placement and management is paramount.

  12. Wind-blown volcanic ash in forest and agricultural locations as related to meteorological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, W. B.; Lopushinsky, W.

    During the spring and summer of 1981, airborne ash previously deposited from the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens volcano was monitored at several field locations near the major axis of the depositional pattern in Washington State. Airborne ash was collected daily with standard high-volume samplers and other equipment that sampled the ash at selected windspeeds. Analysis of high-volume filtered deposits showed poor linear correlations to local meteorological conditions. At Moses Lake, weights of windspeed-selected samples indicated an exponential increase in suspended material with increasing windspeed. Wind tunnel tests with ash from two locations varying in distance from the volcano showed that the finer ash fractions from both locations became airborne at similar windspeeds. Threshold wind velocity was about 12 km h -1 for newly deposited ash, compared to more than 69 km h -1 for ash consolidated by wetting and drying.

  13. The efficacy of salvage logging in reducing subsequent fire severity in conifer-dominated forests of Minnesota, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fraver, S.; Jain, T.; Bradford, J.B.; D'Amato, A.W.; Kastendick, D.; Palik, B.; Shinneman, D.; Stanovick, J.

    2011-01-01

    Although primarily used to mitigate economic losses following disturbance, salvage logging has also been justified on the basis of reducing fire risk and fire severity; however, its ability to achieve these secondary objectives remains unclear. The patchiness resulting from a sequence of recent disturbances-blowdown, salvage logging, and ildfire- provided an excellent opportunity to assess the impacts of blowdown and salvage logging on wildfire severity. We used two fire-severity assessments (tree-crown and forest-floor characteristics) to compare post-wildfire conditions among three treatment combinations (Blowdown-Salvage-Fire, Blowdown-Fire, and Fire only). Our results suggest that salvage logging reduced the intensity (heat released) of the subsequent fire. However, its effect on severity (impact to the system) differed between the tree crowns and forest floor: tree-crown indices suggest that salvage logging decreased fire severity (albeit with modest statistical support), while forest-floor indices suggest that salvage logging increased fire severity. We attribute the latter finding to the greater exposure of mineral soil caused by logging operations; once exposed, soils are more likely to register the damaging effects of fire, even if fire intensity is not extreme. These results highlight the important distinction between fire intensity and severity when formulating post-disturbance management prescriptions. ?? 2011 by the Ecological Society of America.

  14. A wireless sensor network deployment for rural and forest fire detection and verification.

    PubMed

    Lloret, Jaime; Garcia, Miguel; Bri, Diana; Sendra, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    Forest and rural fires are one of the main causes of environmental degradation in Mediterranean countries. Existing fire detection systems only focus on detection, but not on the verification of the fire. However, almost all of them are just simulations, and very few implementations can be found. Besides, the systems in the literature lack scalability. In this paper we show all the steps followed to perform the design, research and development of a wireless multisensor network which mixes sensors with IP cameras in a wireless network in order to detect and verify fire in rural and forest areas of Spain. We have studied how many cameras, sensors and access points are needed to cover a rural or forest area, and the scalability of the system. We have developed a multisensor and when it detects a fire, it sends a sensor alarm through the wireless network to a central server. The central server selects the closest wireless cameras to the multisensor, based on a software application, which are rotated to the sensor that raised the alarm, and sends them a message in order to receive real-time images from the zone. The camera lets the fire fighters corroborate the existence of a fire and avoid false alarms. In this paper, we show the test performance given by a test bench formed by four wireless IP cameras in several situations and the energy consumed when they are transmitting. Moreover, we study the energy consumed by each device when the system is set up. The wireless sensor network could be connected to Internet through a gateway and the images of the cameras could be seen from any part of the world. PMID:22291533

  15. The Relationship of Forest Fires Detected by MODIS and SRTM Derived Topographic Features in Central Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranson, Jon K.; Kovacs, Katalin; Kharuk, Viatcheslav; Burke, Erin

    2006-01-01

    Fires are a common occurrence in the Siberian boreal forest. The MOD14 Thermal anomalies product of the Terra MODIS Moderate Resolution Spectroradiometer) product set is designed to detect thermal anomalies (i.e. hotspots or fires) on the Earth's surface. Recent field studies showed a dependence of fire occurrence on topography. In this study MODIS thermal anomaly data and SRTM topography data were merged and analyzed to evaluate if forest fires are more likely to occur at certain combinations of elevation, slope and aspect. Using the satellite data over a large area can lead to better understanding how topography and forest fires are related. The study area covers a 2.5 Million krn(exp 2) portion of the Central Siberian southern taiga from 72 deg to 110 deg East and from 50 deg to 60 deg North. About 57% of the study area is forested and 80% of the forest grows between 200 and 1000 m. Forests with pine (Pinus sylvestris), larch (Larix sibirica, L. gmelinii), Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica), spruce (Picea obovata.) and fir (Abies sibirica) cover most of the landscape. Deciduous stands with birch (Betula pendula, B. pubescens) and aspen (Populus tremula) cover the areas of lower elevation in this region. The climate of this area is distinctly continental with long, cold winters and short hot summers. The tree line in this part of the world is around 1500 m in elevation with alpine tundra, snow and ice fields and rock outcrops extending up to over 3800 m. A 500 m resolution landcover map was developed using 2001 MODIS MOD13 Normalized Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Middle Infrared (MIR) products for seven 16-day periods. The classification accuracy was over 87%. The SRTM version 2 data, which is distributed in 1 degree by 1 degree tiles were mosaiced using the ENVI software. In this study, only those MODIS pixels were used that were flagged as "nominal or high confidence fire" by the MODIS fire product team. Using MODIS data from the years 2000 to 2005 along with the improved Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) version 2 data at 100 m resolution, the distribution of hot spots was examined by elevation, slope and aspect as well as by forest type. The results show that more forest area burns at lower elevations but a larger percentage of the available forest area burns at higher elevations. This is probably because steep slopes occur at higher elevations. Fires are only more common on slopes with a southern exposure if the slope is steeper than 15 degrees. The next step in this study will be to monitor areas where the risk of fire is high (steep slopes with a southern exposure) and to refine this method by incorporating anthropogenic features for more accurate fire disturbance monitoring.

  16. The effects of wildfire, salvage logging, and post-fire N-fixation on the nutrient budgets of a Sierran forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. Johnson; J. F. Murphy; R. B. Susfalk; T. G. Caldwell; W. W. Miller; R. F. Walker; R. F. Powers

    2005-01-01

    The effects of fire, post-fire salvage logging, and revegetation on nutrient budgets were estimated for a site in the eastern Sierra Nevada Mountains that burned in a wildfire in 1981. Approximately two decades after the fire, the shrub (former fire) ecosystem contained less C and more N than the adjacent forest ecosystem. Reconstruction of pre-fire nutrient budgets suggested that most

  17. Examining Historical and Current Mixed-Severity Fire Regimes in Ponderosa Pine and Mixed-Conifer Forests of Western North America

    PubMed Central

    Odion, Dennis C.; Hanson, Chad T.; Arsenault, André; Baker, William L.; DellaSala, Dominick A.; Hutto, Richard L.; Klenner, Walt; Moritz, Max A.; Sherriff, Rosemary L.; Veblen, Thomas T.; Williams, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    There is widespread concern that fire exclusion has led to an unprecedented threat of uncharacteristically severe fires in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex. Laws) and mixed-conifer forests of western North America. These extensive montane forests are considered to be adapted to a low/moderate-severity fire regime that maintained stands of relatively old trees. However, there is increasing recognition from landscape-scale assessments that, prior to any significant effects of fire exclusion, fires and forest structure were more variable in these forests. Biota in these forests are also dependent on the resources made available by higher-severity fire. A better understanding of historical fire regimes in the ponderosa pine and mixed-conifer forests of western North America is therefore needed to define reference conditions and help maintain characteristic ecological diversity of these systems. We compiled landscape-scale evidence of historical fire severity patterns in the ponderosa pine and mixed-conifer forests from published literature sources and stand ages available from the Forest Inventory and Analysis program in the USA. The consensus from this evidence is that the traditional reference conditions of low-severity fire regimes are inaccurate for most forests of western North America. Instead, most forests appear to have been characterized by mixed-severity fire that included ecologically significant amounts of weather-driven, high-severity fire. Diverse forests in different stages of succession, with a high proportion in relatively young stages, occurred prior to fire exclusion. Over the past century, successional diversity created by fire decreased. Our findings suggest that ecological management goals that incorporate successional diversity created by fire may support characteristic biodiversity, whereas current attempts to “restore” forests to open, low-severity fire conditions may not align with historical reference conditions in most ponderosa pine and mixed-conifer forests of western North America. PMID:24498383

  18. Self-cementitious properties of fly ashes from CFBC boilers co-firing coal and high-sulphur petroleum coke

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng Guanghong [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Li Qin [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhai Jianping [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)]. E-mail: jpzhai@nju.edu.cn; Li Feihu [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2007-06-15

    Self-cementitious properties of fly ash from circulating fluidized bed combustion boiler co-firing coal and high-sulphur petroleum coke (CPFA) were investigated. CPFA was self-cementitious which was affected by its fineness and chemical compositions, especially the contents of SO{sub 3} and free lime (f-CaO). Higher contents of SO{sub 3} and f-CaO were beneficial to self-cementitious strength; the self-cementitious strength increases with a decrease of its 45 {mu}m sieve residue. The expansive ratio of CPFA hardened paste was high because of generation of ettringite (AFt), which was influenced by its water to binder ratio (W/A), curing style and grinding of the ash. The paste cured in water had the highest expansive ratio, and grinding of CPFA was beneficial to its volume stability. The hydration products of CPFA detected by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were portlandite, gypsum, AFt and hydrated calcium silicate (C-S-H)

  19. Effects of fire temperature on the physical and chemical characteristics of the ash from two plots of Cork oak (Quercus Suber)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ubeda, X.; Pereira, P.; Outeiro, L.; Martin, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    Cork oak, (Quercus suber) is widely distributed in the Mediterranean region, an area subject to frequent fires. The ash produced by burning can have impacts on the soil status and water resources that can differ according to the temperature reached during fire and the characteristics of the litter, defined as the dead organic matter accumulated on the soil surface prior to the fire. The aim of this work is to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of ash produced in laboratory experiments to approximate conditions typical of fires in this region. The litter of Quercus suber collected from two different plots on the Iberian Peninsula, Mas Bassets (Catalonia) and Albufeira (Portugal), was combusted at different temperatures for 2h. We measured Mass Loss (ML per cent), ash colour and CaCO3 content, pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC) and the major cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ and Na+) released from ash slurries created by mixing ash with deionized water. The results showed that ML per cent is higher at all temperatures in Albufeira samples compared to Mas Bassets samples, except at 550??C, and the rate of loss increases faster with temperature than the Mas Bassets samples. At 150??C the ash colour is yellowish, becoming reddish at 200- 250??C and black at 300??C. Above 400??C the ash is grey/white. This thermal degradation is mostly observed in Albufeira litter. The formation of CaCO3 was identified at a lower temperature in Albufeira litter. At temperatures <300??C, pH and EC values are lower, rising at higher temperatures, especially in Albufeira slurries. The concentration of cations at lower temperatures does not differ substantially from the unburned sample except for Mg2+. The cation concentration increases at medium temperatures and decrease at higher temperatures, especially the concentration of divalent cations. The monovalent cations showed a larger concentration at moderate temperatures, mainly in Albufeira ash slurries. The analysis of the Ca:Mg ratio also showed that for the same temperature, a higher severity results for Albufeira litter. Potential negative effects on soil properties are observed at medium and higher temperatures. These negative effects include a higher percentage of mass loss, meaning more soil may be exposed to erosion, higher pH values and greater cation release from ash, especially monovalalent cations (K+,Na+) in higher proportions than the divalent ions (Ca2+, Mg2+), that can lead to impacts on soil physical properties like aggregate stability. Furthermore, the ions in ash may alter soil chemistry which may be detrimental to some plants thus altering the recovery of these ecosystems after fire. Low intensity prescribed fire can be a useful tool to land management in these sites, due to the reduced effects of fire temperatures on the physical and chemical properties of surface litter, and can reduce the risk of high temperature wildland fires by reducing fuel loadings. From the perspective of water resources, lower fire temperatures produce fewer impacts on the chemistry of overland flow and there is less probability that the soil surface will be eroded. Copyright ?? 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Risk perceptions and behavioral context: U.S. Forest Service fire management professionals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Jonathan G.; Carpenter, Edwin H.; Cortner, Hanna J.; Cleaves, David A.

    1989-01-01

    Fire managers from the U.S. Forest Service were surveyed to determine which decision factors most strongly influenced their fire?risk decisions. Safety, the resources at risk, public opinion, and the reliability of information were important influences on these decisions. This research allowed direct comparison between fire managers’ perceptions of factor importance and how their fire?risk decisions changed in response to those factors. These risk decisions were highly responsive to changes in context (an escaped wildfire decision versus a prescribed burning decision) as well as to changing factors. The results demonstrate the utility of using scenarios in risk research and the vital importance of context in studying risk?taking behavior. Research which attempts to remove risk decisions from their real?world context may well distort the nature of risk?taking behavior.

  1. Local aerosol concentrations and optical characteristics influenced by the Indonesian forest fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ru, Jianfei; Minomura, Mitsuo; Kuze, Hiroaki; Takeuchi, Nobuo

    1998-08-01

    Indonesian forest fire took place on Kalimantan and Sumatera islands in 1997 and continuously influenced the atmospheric conditions of South-East Asia nearly throughout the last half of that year. The color composed images of visible, near IR and IR channels from NOAA AVHRR daily data, arbitrarily assigned to red, green and blue respectively, were synthesized for distinguishing the smoke area. The data of three periods, the beginning, mid, and ending parts of the fire, were collected and analyzed in order to show the variation of atmosphere with the development of fire. A retrieval algorithm was established by use of Mie theory calculation and the radiative transfer codes. Local aerosol concentrations and properties over ocean parts between the two islands were derived. It is found that the aerosol optical thickness increased in accordance with the exacerbation of the fires. The changes of angstrom exponents show that smaller particle amounts were raised by the effects of burning.

  2. forest ecology Future Fire Probability Modeling with Climate

    E-print Network

    Stambaugh, Michael C

    a primary influence on the occurrence and rate of combustion in ecosystems with carbon-based fuels climate simulations of temperature and precipitation. The probability of a fire occurring in a particular and probabilities from the difference between current and future climates and mapped climate-forced percentage

  3. Glomalin content of forest soils in relation to fire frequency and landscape position.

    PubMed

    Knorr, Melissa A; Boerner, R E J; Rillig, Matthias C

    2003-08-01

    Low-intensity, dormant season fires were frequent and widespread in oak-hickory ( Quercus-Carya) forests of eastern North America until widespread fire suppression began in the mid-1900s. To assess how reintroduction of fire into such ecosystems might affect the activity of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and, thereby, predict the long-term responses of plants and soils to fire, we analyzed the content of the immunoreactive fractions of the AM-fungus-specific glycoprotein glomalin in soils taken in 1994 and 2000 from three forested watersheds in southern Ohio, USA. One watershed remained unburned, one was burned annually from 1996-1999 and one was burned twice, in 1996 and 1999. In addition, to account for the strong landscape-scale gradients of microclimate and soil that typify these watersheds, we stratified each watershed-scale treatment area into three microclimatic zones (=landscape positions) using a GIS-based integrated moisture index (IMI). In the unburned control, the concentrations of immunoreactive, easily-extractable glomalin (IREEG) and immunoreactive total glomalin (IRTG) did not change significantly over the 6-year interval between sampling times, either overall or within any of the three IMI classes. IRTG content was greatest in the mesic landscape positions and lowest in the relatively xeric landscape positions, but IREEG did not vary among landscape positions. Neither IREEG nor IRTG contents were affected by fire, nor were there significant interactions between fire and landscape position in glomalin content. Both correlation and regression analyses demonstrated significant linkages between soil glomalin content, the density/diversity of herbaceous plants, and soil N availability. Despite significant effects of fires on soil N availability and root growth, we resolved no effect of fire on AM fungal activity at this spatial scale. PMID:12938033

  4. Avifaunal responses to fire in southwestern montane forests along a burn severity gradient

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kotliar, N.B.; Kennedy, P.L.; Ferree, K.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of burn severity on avian communities are poorly understood, yet this information is crucial to fire management programs. To quantify avian response patterns along a burn severity gradient, we sampled 49 random plots (2001-2002) at the 17 351-ha Cerro Grande Fire (2000) in New Mexico, USA. Additionally, pre-fire avian surveys (1986-1988, 1990) created a unique opportunity to quantify avifaunal changes in 13 pre-fire transects (resampled in 2002) and to compare two designs for analyzing the effects of unplanned disturbances: after-only analysis and before-after comparisons. Distance analysis was used to calculate densities. We analyzed after-only densities for 21 species using gradient analysis, which detected a broad range of responses to increasing burn severity: (I) large significant declines, (II) weak, but significant declines, (III) no significant density changes, (IV) peak densities in low- or moderate-severity patches, (V) weak, but significant increases, and (VI) large significant increases. Overall, 71% of the species included in the after-only gradient analysis exhibited either positive or neutral density responses to fire effects across all or portions of the severity gradient (responses III-VI). We used pre/post pairs analysis to quantify density changes for 15 species using before-after comparisons; spatiotemporal variation in densities was large and confounded fire effects for most species. Only four species demonstrated significant effects of burn severity, and their densities were all higher in burned compared to unburned forests. Pre- and post-fire community similarity was high except in high-severity areas. Species richness was similar pre- and post-fire across all burn severities. Thus, ecosystem restoration programs based on the assumption that recent severe fires in Southwestern ponderosa pine forests have overriding negative ecological effects are not supported by our study of post-fire avian communities. This study illustrates the importance of quantifying burn severity and controlling confounding sources of spatiotemporal variation in studies of fire effects. After-only gradient analysis can be an efficient tool for quantifying fire effects. This analysis can also augment historical data sets that have small samples sizes coupled with high non-process variation, which limits the power of before-after comparisons. ?? 2007 by the Ecological Society of America.

  5. Comparison of time series NDVI between two different seasonal forest fires in Daxing'anling region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaolian; Lanorte, Antonio; Telesca, Luciano; Lasaponara, Rosa

    2015-04-01

    The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) changes with the variation in the chlorophyll content and the intracellular spaces in spongy mesophyll of plant leaves. Some previous studies indicate that NDVI would drop sharply during fire occurrence and recover in a few years after fire. Obviously, it can be used as an assistant tool for detecting fire, mapping burned area and monitoring vegetation recovery. The aim of this study was to compare the change of NDVI values during fire occurrence and after fire between two forest fires that happed in different seasons. The MYD09Q1 (8 days composite product) and MYD13Q1 (16 days composite product) data were taken into consideration in this study. Investigations are conducted in two fires which happened in Daxing'anling region located in northeastern China in different seasons. The first fire happened on April 27, 2009 and lasted for several days (spring fire). The second fire happened on June 28, 2010 (summer fire).The NDVI time series values of fire-affected pixels of each fire were extracted from MYD09Q1 and MYD13Q1 respectively. Then the periodic oscillation was removed from the NDVI time series data. The results show that 1) the NDVI time series values of fire affected pixels in spring fire have a slight decrease whereas the NDVI time series values of summer fire decreased sharply during the fire occurrence; 2) the NDVI time series values of spring fire recovered rapidly in a few month (the maximum of NDVI in one year recovered to the same level with that of before fire) whereas that of the summer fire didn't recover in a few years after fire. The results of these two different seasonal fires are obviously different. The reason of the significant difference may be that the vegetations are in different status in different seasons. In summary, the NDVI values has difference among before fire, fire occurrence and after fire, but the season in which the fires happen should be taken into account as a factor in future studies in this region. Key words: NDVI, forest fire, MODIS, time series analysis

  6. The effects of bark beetle outbreaks on forest development, fuel loads and potential fire behavior in salvage logged and untreated lodgepole pine forests

    E-print Network

    Fried, Jeremy S.

    in north-central Colorado that had experienced >70% overstory mortality from mountain pine beetles. We usedThe effects of bark beetle outbreaks on forest development, fuel loads and potential fire behavior 14 July 2012 Accepted 17 July 2012 Keywords: Mountain pine beetle Salvage logging Fire behavior Rocky

  7. Shifts in microbial communities and soil nutrients along a fire chronosequence in Alaskan boreal forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treseder, K. K.; Mack, M. C.; Cross, A.

    2002-12-01

    Fires are important pathways of carbon loss from boreal forests, while microbial communities form equally important mechanisms for carbon accumulation between fires. We used a chronosequence in Alaska to examine shifts in microbial abundance and community composition in the several decades following severe fire, and then related these responses to soil characteristics in the same sites. The sites are located in upland forests near Delta Junction, Alaska, and represent stages at 3-, 15-, 45-, and over 100-yr following fire. Plant communities shift from herbaceous species in the youngest site, to deciduous shrubs and trees (e.g. Populus tremuloides and Salix) in the intermediate sites, to black spruce (Picea mariana) forest in the oldest site. Soil organic matter accumulated 2.8-fold over time. Potential mineralization was highest in the intermediate-aged sites, as was nitrification and standing pools of inorganic nitrogen. In contrast, inorganic phosphorus pools were highest immediately following fire, and then decreased nine-fold with age. As measured with BiologTM plates, bacterial diversity and abundance were greatest in the oldest sites. Plant roots in the intermediate-aged sites displayed higher colonization by ecto- and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi than those in the youngest and oldest sites. Likewise, glomalin, a glycoprotein produced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, was most abundant in the 14-yr old site. Glomalin is believed to contribute to the formation of water-stable aggregates in the soil. However, water stable aggregates were most abundant in the younger sites and did not follow the pattern of glomalin or arbuscular mycorrhizal abundance. Our results indicate that fire may maintain landscape-level diversity of microbial functional groups, and that carbon sequestration in microbial tissues (e.g. glomalin and fungal biomass) may be greatest in areas that have burned several decades earlier. Changes in soil structure may not be directly attributable to microbial activity.

  8. The Economical Microbolometer-Based Environmental Radiometer Satellite (EMBERSat) Designed for Forest Fire Detection and Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lancaster, Redgie S.; Skillman, David R.; Welch, Wayne C.; Spinhirne, James D.; Manizade, Katherine F.; Beecken, Brian P.

    2004-01-01

    Thermal infrared imagery from several satellite instruments, such as the NOAA AVHRR and the NASA MODIS, is presently used to detect and map forest fires. But while these radiometers can identify fires they are designed and optimized for cloud detection, providing relatively low spatial resolution and quickly saturating even for small fires. Efforts to detect and monitor forest fires from space would benefit from the development of single-sensor satellites designed specifically for this purpose. With the advent of uncooled thermal detectors, and thus the absence of aggressive cooling, the possibility of developing small satellites for the purpose of fire detection and monitoring becomes practical and cost-effective. Thus is the case with the Economical Microbolometer Based Environmental Radiometer Satellite (EMBERSat) program. The objective of this program is to develop a single, prototype satellite that will provide multiband thermal imagery with a spatial resolution of 250m and a dynamic range of 300-1000K. The thermal imaging payload has flight heritage in the Infrared Spectral Imaging Radiometer that flew aboard mission STS-85 and the spacecraft is a variant of the SimpleSat bus launched from the shuttle Columbia as part of STS-105. The EMBERSat program is a technology demonstration initiative with the eventual goal of providing high-resolution thermal imagery to both the scientific community and the public.

  9. The Economical Microbolometer-Based Environmental Radiometer Satellite (EMBERSAT) Designed for Forest Fire Detection and Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lancaster, Redgie S.; Skillman, David R.; Welch, Wayne; Spinhirne, James D.; Manizade, Kathrine F.; Beecken, Brian P.

    2003-01-01

    Thermal infrared imagery from several satellite instruments, such as the NOAA AVHRR and the NASA MODIS, is presently used to detect and map forest fires. But while these radiometers can identify fires they are designed and optimized for cloud detection, providing relatively low spatial resolution and quickly saturating even for small fires. Efforts to detect and monitor forest fires from space would benefit from the development of single-sensor satellites designed specifically for this purpose. With the advent of uncooled thermal detectors, and thus the absence of aggressive cooling, the possibility of developing small satellites for the purpose of fire detection and monitoring becomes practical and cost-effective. Thus is the case with the Economical Microbolometer Based Environmental Radiometer Satellite (EMBERSat) program. The objective of this program is to develop a single, prototype satellite that will provide multiband thermal imagery with a spatial resolution of 250m and a dynamic range of 300-1000K. The thermal imaging payload has flight heritage in the Infrared Spectral Imaging Radiometer that flew aboard mission STS-85 and the spacecraft is a variant of the SimpleSat bus launched from the shuttle Columbia as part of STS-109. The EMBERSat program is a technology demonstration initiative with the eventual goal of providing high-resolution thermal imagery to both the scientific community and the public.

  10. Chemical and optical aging of forest fire plumes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. G. Howell; A. D. Clarke; S. Freitag; V. N. Kapustin; C. S. McNaughton; L. Shank

    2010-01-01

    During recent aircraft-based projects, we have penetrated fresh fire plumes, followed them for tens of kilometers, and sampled them thousands of kms from their sources. Chemical analysis with an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) for non-refractory composition and a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) alongside nephelometers and a Particle Soot Absorption Spectrometer (PSAP) for optical properties of the aerosol show consistent

  11. Scaling laws and simulation results for the self-organized critical forest-fire model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clar, S.; Drossel, B.; Schwabl, F.

    1994-08-01

    We discuss the properties of a self-organized critical forest-fire model which has been introduced recently [B. Drossel and F. Schwabl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1629 (1992)]. We derive scaling laws and define critical exponents. The values of these critical exponents are determined by computer simulations in one to eight dimensions. The simulations suggest a critical dimension dc=6 above which the critical exponents assume their mean-field values. Changing the lattice symmetry and allowing trees to be immune against fire, we show that the critical exponents are universal.

  12. Evaluation of forest fire models on a large observation database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippi, J. B.; Mallet, V.; Nader, B.

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the evaluation of several fire propagation models using a large set of observed fires. The observation base is composed of 80 Mediterranean fire cases of different sizes, which come with the limited information available in an operational context (burned surface and approximative ignition point). Simulations for all cases are carried out with four different front velocity models. The results are compared with several error scoring methods applied to each of the 320 simulations. All tasks are performed in a fully automated manner, with simulations run as first guesses with no tuning for any of the models or cases. This approach leads to a wide range of simulation performance, including some of the bad simulation results to be expected in an operational context. Disregarding the quality of the input data, it is found that the models can be ranked based on their performance and that the most complex models outperform the more empirical ones. Data and source codes used for this paper are freely available to the community.

  13. Evaluation of forest fire models on a large observation database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippi, J.-B.; Mallet, V.; Nader, B.

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents the evaluation of several fire propagation models using a large set of observed fires. The observation base is composed of 80 Mediterranean fire cases of different sizes, which come with the limited information available in an operational context (burned surface and approximative ignition point). Simulations for all cases are carried out with 4 different front velocity models. The results are compared with several error scoring methods applied to each of the 320 simulations. All tasks are performed in a fully automated manner, with simulations ran as first guesses with no tuning for any of the models or cases. This approach leads a wide range of simulation performance, including some of the bad simulation results to be expected in an operational context. Regardless the quality of the input data, it is found that the models can be ranked based on their performance and that the most complex models outperform the more empirical ones. Data and source code used for this paper are freely available to the community.

  14. Application of a CO2 dial system for infrared detection of forest fire and reduction of false alarm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellecci, C.; Francucci, M.; Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.; Martellucci, S.; Richetta, M.; Lo Feudo, T.

    2007-04-01

    Forest fires can be the cause of serious environmental and economic damages. For this reason considerable effort has been directed toward forest protection and fire fighting. The means traditionally used for early fire detection mainly consist in human observers dispersed over forest regions. A significant improvement in early warning capabilities could be obtained by using automatic detection apparatus. In order to early detect small forest fires and minimize false alarms, the use of a lidar system and dial technique will be considered. A first evaluation of the lowest detectable concentration will be estimated by numerical simulation. The theoretical model will also be used to get the capability of the dial system to control wooded areas. Fixing the burning rate for several fuels, the maximum range of detection will be evaluated. Finally results of simulations will be reported.

  15. Fire in ice: two millennia of boreal forest fire history from the Greenland NEEM ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zennaro, P.; Kehrwald, N.; McConnell, J. R.; Schüpbach, S.; Maselli, O. J.; Marlon, J.; Vallelonga, P.; Leuenberger, D.; Zangrando, R.; Spolaor, A.; Borrotti, M.; Barbaro, E.; Gambaro, A.; Barbante, C.

    2014-10-01

    Biomass burning is a major source of greenhouse gases and influences regional to global climate. Pre-industrial fire-history records from black carbon, charcoal and other proxies provide baseline estimates of biomass burning at local to global scales spanning millennia, and are thus useful to examine the role of fire in the carbon cycle and climate system. Here we use the specific biomarker levoglucosan together with black carbon and ammonium concentrations from the North Greenland Eemian (NEEM) ice cores (77.49° N, 51.2° W; 2480 m a.s.l) over the past 2000 years to infer changes in boreal fire activity. Increases in boreal fire activity over the periods 1000-1300 CE and decreases during 700-900 CE coincide with high-latitude NH temperature changes. Levoglucosan concentrations in the NEEM ice cores peak between 1500 and 1700 CE, and most levoglucosan spikes coincide with the most extensive central and northern Asian droughts of the past millennium. Many of these multi-annual droughts are caused by Asian monsoon failures, thus suggesting a connection between low- and high-latitude climate processes. North America is a primary source of biomass burning aerosols due to its relative proximity to the Greenland Ice Cap. During major fire events, however, isotopic analyses of dust, back trajectories and links with levoglucosan peaks and regional drought reconstructions suggest that Siberia is also an important source of pyrogenic aerosols to Greenland.

  16. Simulating boreal forest carbon dynamics after stand-replacing fire disturbance: insights from a global process-based vegetation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, C.; Ciais, P.; Luyssaert, S.; Cadule, P.; Harden, J.; Randerson, J.; Bellassen, V.; Wang, T.; Piao, S. L.; Poulter, B.; Viovy, N.

    2013-04-01

    Stand-replacing fires are the dominant fire type in North American boreal forest and leave a historical legacy of a mosaic landscape of different aged forest cohorts. To accurately quantify the role of fire in historical and current regional forest carbon balance using models, one needs to explicitly simulate the new forest cohort that is established after fire. The present study adapted the global process-based vegetation model ORCHIDEE to simulate boreal forest fire CO2 emissions and follow-up recovery after a stand-replacing fire, with representation of postfire new cohort establishment, forest stand structure and the following self-thinning process. Simulation results are evaluated against three clusters of postfire forest chronosequence observations in Canada and Alaska. Evaluation variables for simulated postfire carbon dynamics include: fire carbon emissions, CO2 fluxes (gross primary production, total ecosystem respiration and net ecosystem exchange), leaf area index (LAI), and biometric measurements (aboveground biomass carbon, forest floor carbon, woody debris carbon, stand individual density, stand basal area, and mean diameter at breast height). The model simulation results, when forced by local climate and the atmospheric CO2 history on each chronosequence site, generally match the observed CO2 fluxes and carbon stock data well, with model-measurement mean square root of deviation comparable with measurement accuracy (for CO2 flux ~100 g C m-2 yr-1, for biomass carbon ~1000 g C m-2 and for soil carbon ~2000 g C m-2). We find that current postfire forest carbon sink on evaluation sites observed by chronosequence methods is mainly driven by historical atmospheric CO2 increase when forests recover from fire disturbance. Historical climate generally exerts a negative effect, probably due to increasing water stress caused by significant temperature increase without sufficient increase in precipitation. Our simulation results demonstrate that a global vegetation model such as ORCHIDEE is able to capture the essential ecosystem processes in fire-disturbed boreal forests and produces satisfactory results in terms of both carbon fluxes and carbon stocks evolution after fire, making it suitable for regional simulations in boreal regions where fire regimes play a key role on ecosystem carbon balance.

  17. In-situ Observations of Mid-latitude Forest Fire Plumes Deep in the Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jost, Hans-Juerg; Drdla, Katja; Stohl, Andreas; Pfister, Leonhard; Loewenstein, Max; Lopez, Jimena P.; Hudson, Paula K.; Murphy, Daniel M.; Cziczo, Daniel J.; Fromm, Michael

    2004-01-01

    We observed a plume of air highly enriched in carbon monoxide and particles in the stratosphere at altitudes up to 15.8 km. It can be unambiguously attributed to North American forest fires. This plume demonstrates an extratropical direct transport path from the planetary boundary layer several kilometers deep into the stratosphere, which is not fully captured by large-scale atmospheric transport models. This process indicates that the stratospheric ozone layer could be sensitive to changes in forest burning associated with climatic warming.

  18. Project Title: Optimizing landscape treatments for reducing wildfire risk and improving ecological sustainability of ponderosa pine forests with mixed severity fire regimes JFSP Project No.: 01-1-3-22 Project Location: Colorado State University, Western Forest Fire Research Center

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip N. Omi

    2006-01-01

    Summary: Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) forests in the Colorado Front Range comprise a mixed-severity fire regime with true-mountain mahogany (Cercocarpus montanus Raf.) as the dominant undergrowth shrub species. The objective of this project is to relate the sprouting behavior of true mountain mahogany to fire severity gradients at both landscape and individual shrub scales following the 2000 Hi Meadow

  19. A Geographic Perspective on Factors Controlling Post-Fire Succession in Boreal Black Spruce Forests in Western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasischke, E. S.; Kane, E. S.; Genet, H.; Turetsky, M. R.; ODonnell, J. A.; Hoy, E.; Barrett, K.; Baltzer, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    Recent changes to climate and the fire regime have resulted in a number of distinct changes to patterns of post-fire succession in the boreal forest region of western North America. In interior Alaska and Yukon, these responses include a shift from spruce to deciduous dominated forests in black spruce forests that experienced exposure of mineral soils from deep burning of surface organic soils, as well as low seedling recruitment in white spruce forests as a result of moisture stress. In this presentation, we will use a physical geography framework to analyze factors controlling low seedling recruitment in recently burned black spruce forests in Alaska. This approach allows for understanding how changes in the biologic components of black spruce forest ecosystems (e.g., biogeography) are controlled by factors related to geomorphology and climate over multiple spatial and temporal scales. In particular, this framework will be used to examine how the interactions between fire, climate, topography and soil texture influence pre-fire and post-fire permafrost conditions, which interact to have a strong influence on variations in soil moisture. In turn, recent changes to climate combined with variations in soil moisture controlled by differences in permafrost conditions (ground ice content, active layer thickness) can be used to explain variations in post-fire seedling recruitment in black spruce forests, where low recruitment is occurring on the sites with the driest soils. In addition, we will examine the need for further research in other boreal forest regions of western North America where the presence of pine species (jack and lodgepole) that are absent in Alaska, as well as differences in soils and permafrost conditions, are likely resulting in additional patterns of post-fire succession as a result of recent changes to climate and the fire regime.

  20. Estimating aboveground forest biomass carbon and fire consumption in the U.S. Utah High Plateaus using data from the Forest Inventory and Analysis Program, Landsat, and LANDFIRE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xuexia Chen; Shuguang Liu; Zhiliang Zhu; James Vogelmann; Zhengpeng Li; Donald Ohlen

    2009-01-01

    The concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have been increasing and greatly affecting global climate and socio-economic systems. Actively growing forests are generally considered to be a major carbon sink, but forest wildfires lead to large releases of biomass carbon into the atmosphere. Aboveground forest biomass carbon (AFBC), an important ecological indicator, and fire-induced carbon emissions

  1. Extreme Fire Severity Patterns in Topographic, Convective and Wind-Driven Historical Wildfires of Mediterranean Pine Forests

    PubMed Central

    Lecina-Diaz, Judit; Alvarez, Albert; Retana, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Crown fires associated with extreme fire severity are extremely difficult to control. We have assessed fire severity using differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) from Landsat imagery in 15 historical wildfires of Pinus halepensis Mill. We have considered a wide range of innovative topographic, fuel and fire behavior variables with the purposes of (1) determining the variables that influence fire severity patterns among fires (considering the 15 wildfires together) and (2) ascertaining whether different variables affect extreme fire severity within the three fire types (topographic, convective and wind-driven fires). The among-fires analysis showed that fires in less arid climates and with steeper slopes had more extreme severity. In less arid conditions there was more crown fuel accumulation and closer forest structures, promoting high vertical and horizontal fuel continuity and extreme fire severity. The analyses carried out for each fire separately (within fires) showed more extreme fire severity in areas in northern aspects, with steeper slopes, with high crown biomass and in climates with more water availability. In northern aspects solar radiation was lower and fuels had less water limitation to growth which, combined with steeper slopes, produced more extreme severity. In topographic fires there was more extreme severity in northern aspects with steeper slopes and in areas with more water availability and high crown biomass; in convection-dominated fires there was also more extreme fire severity in northern aspects with high biomass; while in wind-driven fires there was only a slight interaction between biomass and water availability. This latter pattern could be related to the fact that wind-driven fires spread with high wind speed, which could have minimized the effect of other variables. In the future, and as a consequence of climate change, new zones with high crown biomass accumulated in non-common drought areas will be available to burn as extreme severity wildfires. PMID:24465492

  2. Transport of forest fire smoke above the tropopause by supercell convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fromm, Michael D.; Servranckx, René

    2003-05-01

    A recent letter [Fromm et al., 2000] postulated a link between boreal forest fire smoke and observed stratospheric aerosol enhancements in 1998. Therein a case was made that severe convection played a role in the cross-tropopause transport. A similar occurrence of stratospheric aerosol enhancements in the boreal summer of 2001 was the stimulus to investigate the causal mechanism more deeply. Herein, we show a detailed case illustrating the unambiguous creation of a widespread, dense smoke cloud in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) by a Canadian forest fire and explosive convection in May 2001. This event is the apparent common point for several downstream stratospheric mystery cloud observations. Implications of this finding and those pertaining to the boreal summer of 1998 are that convection and boreal biomass burning have an under-resolved and under-appreciated impact on the upper troposphere, lower stratosphere, radiative transfer, and atmospheric chemistry.

  3. Growth Characteristics of Introduced Green Ash ( Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) and Narrow-leaved Ash ( F. angustifolia L.) in Lowland Forest Region in Croatia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Kremer; J. Cavlovic; M. Bozic

    2006-01-01

    American ash and green ash were used about 100 years ago in the lowland regions of Croatia to afforest and fill the depressions\\u000a where narrow-leaved ash (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl) could not survive. The growth of mean stand trees of green ash and narrow-leaved ash were studied in 14 sites (a systematic\\u000a sample of 0.03 ha circular plots). A total of 212 trees

  4. Particle-size distribution of postpyrogenic soils after forest fires in Russia in 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimova, Ekaterina; Abakumov, Evgeny

    2014-05-01

    Extreme summer temperatures of 2010 in Russia were critically important for appearing of the catastrophic wildfires. Hot weather has been started in the middle of June and occupied the whole Russian European part and Eastern Europe. The area of soils affected by wildfires assessed as more than 744 000 ha. Forest fires in 2010 have occupied Moscow, Yekaterinburg, Kaluga, Pskov, Samara and many other regions. The study plots were so-called «steppe island of pine forests» near Togljatty city, Samara region, which were exposed to catastrophic forest fires in 2010. Three soil pits were studied in order to compare the influence of different types of fires on soils: a place of local forest fire (in the end of July, 2010), riding forest fire (in the end of July, 2010) and unaffected site by fire - control (mature). The studied postpyrogenic soils are characterized by fine earth dominance over a soil the coarse fraction; soils investigated were classified as sandy loams. Data obtained by traditional sedimentometry method shows that clay content in postfire soils was higher than in mature ones. With aim to testify these trend we have measure the clay content by the laser diffractometry method. Clay content by diffractometry were lower in these case for all studied soil that this index determined by sedimentometry. This was co-called effect of pseudofractions in sedimentometry, while organic matter particles, including the black carbon components, partially forms the clay fraction while there are not truth component of this fraction. There seeming increasing of clay in postfire soils can be interpreted by increasing black carbon components but not real increasing of very fine particles in fine earth. Investigation conducted in 2012 shows that particle size distribution as a whole hasn't changed for two years. However, a decrease of the fine earth fractions content in the solum is observed as a result of linear sufrace erosion. The results of particle-size composition analysis of soils in various landscape and geochemical positions show that the silt fraction moves to accumulative positions, and its minimum contents is characteristic for slope positions. This study was a contribution to the Russian foundation for basic research, project for young scientists No.14-04-32132.

  5. Unprecedented recent burning of the Alaskan boreal forest points to shifting controls on fire: A paleoecological data-model investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, R.; Chipman, M. L.; Higuera, P. E.; Raible, C.; Rupp, T. S.; Brubaker, L.; Hu, F.

    2011-12-01

    Fire is the primary disturbance in the boreal forest, and variations in fire regime have important ecological, biogeochemical, and socioeconomic implications. Climate has been a dominant control on boreal wildfire throughout the brief observational record, and recent warming is associated with widespread burning. However, fire-regime dynamics are highly scale-dependent, and it is unclear whether the observed climate-fire relationship is applicable to long-term projections. Paleo-fire reconstructions offer a valuable extension to historical fire records, and simulation models allow prescribed ecosystem processes to be played out through hypothetical scenarios. Together, the two approaches offer unique insight: reconstructions can validate long-term model behavior, which then becomes a credible basis for inference on the unobserved drivers of past and potential future fire-regime shifts. To infer fire-regime variations over the past 10,000 years, we created a composite charcoal record from eleven lakes in the Alaskan boreal forest. We compared the record to fires documented in the 60-year observational fire history, and to a 500-year fire history simulated by ALFRESCO, a stochastic model of boreal-forest fire dynamics. This paleodata-observation-model comparison allows us to (1) evaluate recent burning in the context of Holocene variability, (2) solidify the link between proxy charcoal data and actual fire regime characteristics, (3) validate centennial-scale model behavior, and (4) explore nonlinear fire-climate-vegetation interactions over decadal to millennial time scales. Our composite record reveals that recent charcoal production is unprecedented in the context of Holocene variability. Agreement among simulated, observed, and reconstructed fire histories implies that this charcoal signal is indicative of peak burning rates in the past several decades, likely driven by warm and dry summer conditions. The simulation results also reveal emergent long-term system dynamics not captured in direct observations to date. When the climatic warming of the past 50-100 years is prescribed to ALFRESCO, extensive burning eventually depletes standing late-successional forest, reducing flammability at the landscape scale. This vegetation feedback dampens the direct effect of rising temperature on regional fire-regime characteristics. Thus, although boreal-forest burning is demonstrably climate-driven in both the recent historical record and ALFRESCO simulations, continued warming may promote a shift to a substantially fuel-limited system. The composite charcoal record shows that such a status has not been reached previously, suggesting additional novelty of modern conditions in the boreal forests of Alaska. Our results highlight the importance of historical perspective and integrative understanding of processes and feedbacks in long-range forecasts of ecosystem dynamics.

  6. Restoration of a Mediterranean forest after a fire: bioremediation and rhizoremediation field-scale trial.

    PubMed

    Pizarro-Tobías, Paloma; Fernández, Matilde; Niqui, José Luis; Solano, Jennifer; Duque, Estrella; Ramos, Juan-Luis; Roca, Amalia

    2015-01-01

    Forest fires pose a serious threat to countries in the Mediterranean basin, often razing large areas of land each year. After fires, soils are more likely to erode and resilience is inhibited in part by the toxic aromatic hydrocarbons produced during the combustion of cellulose and lignins. In this study, we explored the use of bioremediation and rhizoremediation techniques for soil restoration in a field-scale trial in a protected Mediterranean ecosystem after a controlled fire. Our bioremediation strategy combined the use of Pseudomonas putida strains, indigenous culturable microbes and annual grasses. After 8 months of monitoring soil quality parameters, including the removal of monoaromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as well as vegetation cover, we found that the site had returned to pre-fire status. Microbial population analysis revealed that fires induced changes in the indigenous microbiota and that rhizoremediation favours the recovery of soil microbiota in time. The results obtained in this study indicate that the rhizoremediation strategy could be presented as a viable and cost-effective alternative for the treatment of ecosystems affected by fires. PMID:25079309

  7. Interactions across spatial scales among forest dieback, fire, and erosion in northern New Mexico landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, C.D.

    2007-01-01

    Ecosystem patterns and disturbance processes at one spatial scale often interact with processes at another scale, and the result of such cross-scale interactions can be nonlinear dynamics with thresholds. Examples of cross-scale pattern-process relationships and interactions among forest dieback, fire, and erosion are illustrated from northern New Mexico (USA) landscapes, where long-term studies have recently documented all of these disturbance processes. For example, environmental stress, operating on individual trees, can cause tree death that is amplified by insect mortality agents to propagate to patch and then landscape or even regional-scale forest dieback. Severe drought and unusual warmth in the southwestern USA since the late 1990s apparently exceeded species-specific physiological thresholds for multiple tree species, resulting in substantial vegetation mortality across millions of hectares of woodlands and forests in recent years. Predictions of forest dieback across spatial scales are constrained by uncertainties associated with: limited knowledge of species-specific physiological thresholds; individual and site-specific variation in these mortality thresholds; and positive feedback loops between rapidly-responding insect herbivore populations and their stressed plant hosts, sometimes resulting in nonlinear "pest" outbreak dynamics. Fire behavior also exhibits nonlinearities across spatial scales, illustrated by changes in historic fire regimes where patch-scale grazing disturbance led to regional-scale collapse of surface fire activity and subsequent recent increases in the scale of extreme fire events in New Mexico. Vegetation dieback interacts with fire activity by modifying fuel amounts and configurations at multiple spatial scales. Runoff and erosion processes are also subject to scale-dependent threshold behaviors, exemplified by ecohydrological work in semiarid New Mexico watersheds showing how declines in ground surface cover lead to non-linear increases in bare patch connectivity and thereby accelerated runoff and erosion at hillslope and watershed scales. Vegetation dieback, grazing, and fire can change land surface properties and cross-scale hydrologic connectivities, directly altering ecohydrological patterns of runoff and erosion. The interactions among disturbance processes across spatial scales can be key drivers in ecosystem dynamics, as illustrated by these studies of recent landscape changes in northern New Mexico. To better anticipate and mitigate accelerating human impacts to the planetary ecosystem at all spatial scales, improvements are needed in our conceptual and quantitative understanding of cross-scale interactions among disturbance processes. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  8. Mediterranean forest vegetation to fire disturbance during the Holocene: insights from the peri-Adriatic region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniele Colombaroli; Willy Tinner; Jacqueline van Leeuwen; Roland Noti; Elisa Vescovi; Boris Vanniere; Michel Magny; Roland Schmidt; Harald Bugmann

    Aim To test whether fire contributed to the expansion and compositional change of evergreen forests in the Mediterranean region during the Holocene. Location The peri-Adriatic region, encompassing the Italian peninsula, Sicily and the western and southern Balkans between latitudes 46? and 37? N. Methods New high-resolution pollen and microscopic charcoal data from Lago dell'Accesa (Tuscany, Italy) were used to estimate

  9. Tradeoffs Between Fire and Habitat Management in a Forest Reserve1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Hummel; D. Calkin; R. J. Barbour

    Silvicultural treatments to manage fire behavior affect both forest values that can be priced (market) and those that cannot (non-market). When the purpose of the treatments is to benefit a non-market value, evaluating their net effect is complicated by difficulties in assessing their total cost. Production possibility (PP) curves illustrate the relative cost, or tradeoffs, of managing for a non-market

  10. Estimating release of carbon from 1990 and 1991 forest fires in Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaisischke, Eric S.; French, Nancy H. F.; Bourgeau-Chavez, Laura L.; Christensen, N. L., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    An improved method to estimate the amounts of carbon released during fires in the boreal forest zone of Alaska in 1990 and 1991 is described. This method divides the state into 64 distinct physiographic regions and estimates areal extent of five different land covers: two forest types, peat land, tundra, and nonvegetated. The areal extent of each cover type was estimated from a review of topographic maps of each region and observations on the distribution of foreat types within the state. Using previous observations and theoretical models for the two forest types found in interior Alaska, models of biomass accumulation as a function of stand age were developed. Stand age distributions for each region were determined using a statistical distribution based on fire frequency, which was from available long-term historical records. Estimates of the degree of biomass combusted were based on recent field observations as well as research reported in the literature. The location and areal extent of fires in this region for 1990 and 1991 were based on both field observations and analysis of satellite (advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR)) data sets. Estimates of average carbon release for the two study years ranged between 2.54 and 3.00 kg/sq m, which are 2.2 to 2.6 times greater than estimates used in other studies of carbon release through biomass burning in boreal forests. Total average annual carbon release for the two years ranged between 0.012 and 0.018 Pg C/yr, with the lower value resulting from the AVHRR estimates of fire location and area.

  11. Evacuation of a mental health center during a forest fire in Israel.

    PubMed

    Kreinin, Anatoly; Shakera, Tatiana; Sheinkman, Ayala; Levi, Tamar; Tal, Vered; Polakiewicz, Jacob

    2014-08-01

    Tirat Carmel Mental Health Center was successfully evacuated in December 2010 during a ravaging forest fire in the nearby Carmel Mountains. A total of 228 patients were successfully evacuated from the center within 45 minutes. No fatalities or injuries associated with the evacuation occurred. We believe that the efficient functioning of the administrative and medical staff provides a replicable model that can contribute to the level of awareness and readiness of hospital staff members for natural and manmade disasters. PMID:24989110

  12. Interactions Across Spatial Scales among Forest Dieback, Fire, and Erosion in Northern New Mexico Landscapes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig D. Allen

    2007-01-01

    Ecosystem patterns and disturbance processes at one spatial scale often interact with processes at another scale, and the\\u000a result of such cross-scale interactions can be nonlinear dynamics with thresholds. Examples of cross-scale pattern-process\\u000a relationships and interactions among forest dieback, fire, and erosion are illustrated from northern New Mexico (USA) landscapes,\\u000a where long-term studies have recently documented all of these disturbance

  13. REVIEW ARTICLE: Forest fires and other examples of self-organized criticality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siegfried Clar; Barbara Drossel; Franz Schwabl

    1996-01-01

    We review the properties of the self-organized critical (SOC) forest-fire model. The paradigm of self-organized criticality refers to the tendency of certain large dissipative systems to drive themselves into a critical state independent of the initial conditions and without fine tuning of the parameters. After an introduction, we define the rules of the model and discuss various large-scale structures which

  14. Scaling laws and simulation results for the self-organized critical forest-fire model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Clar; B. Drossel; F. Schwabl

    1994-01-01

    We discuss the properties of a self-organized critical forest-fire model which has been introduced recently [B. Drossel and F. Schwabl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1629 (1992)]. We derive scaling laws and define critical exponents. The values of these critical exponents are determined by computer simulations in one to eight dimensions. The simulations suggest a critical dimension dc=6 above which the

  15. Responses of hardwood regeneration to fire in mesic forest openings. I. Post-fire community dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric L. Kruger; Peter B. Reich

    1997-01-01

    The influence of fire on the regeneration ecology of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) and sympatric tree species was examined in mesic hardwood stands in southwestern Wisconsin. A plot in each of four openings was burned in the spring of 1989 and 1990. Density and height growth of tree regeneration, and leaf area index and percent cover of all

  16. Estimating stand structure using discrete-return lidar: an example from low density, fire prone ponderosa pine forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Hall; D. O. Box; Eagle Scan

    The ponderosa pine forests of the Colorado Front Range, USA, have historically been subjected to wildfires. Recent large burns have increased public interest in fire behavior and effects, and scientific interest in the carbon consequences of wildfires. Remote sensing techniques can provide spatially explicit estimates of stand structural characteristics. Some of these characteristics can be used as inputs to fire

  17. Simulating effects of fire disturbance and climate change on boreal forest productivity and evapotranspiration.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sinkyu; Kimball, John S; Running, Steven W

    2006-06-01

    We used a terrestrial ecosystem process model, BIOME-BGC, to investigate historical climate change and fire disturbance effects on regional carbon and water budgets within a 357,500 km(2) portion of the Canadian boreal forest. Historical patterns of increasing atmospheric CO2, climate change, and regional fire activity were used as model drivers to evaluate the relative effects of these impacts to spatial patterns and temporal trends in forest net primary production (NPP) and evapotranspiration (ET). Historical trends of increasing atmospheric CO2 resulted in overall 13% and 5% increases in annual NPP and ET from 1994 to 1996, respectively. NPP was found to be relatively sensitive to changes in air temperature (T(a)), while ET was more sensitive to precipitation (P) change within the ranges of observed climate variability (e.g., +/-2 degrees C for T(a) and +/-20% for P). In addition, the potential effect of climate change related warming on NPP is exacerbated or offset depending on whether these changes are accompanied by respective decreases or increases in precipitation. Historical fire activity generally resulted in reductions of both NPP and ET, which consumed an average of approximately 6% of annual NPP from 1959 to 1996. Areas currently occupied by dry conifer forests were found to be subject to more frequent fire activity, which consumed approximately 8% of annual NPP. The results of this study show that the North American boreal ecosystem is sensitive to historical patterns of increasing atmospheric CO2, climate change and regional fire activity. The relative impacts of these disturbances on NPP and ET interact in complex ways and are spatially variable depending on regional land cover and climate gradients. PMID:16364407

  18. Effects of fire on regional evapotranspiration in the central Canadian boreal forest

    SciTech Connect

    Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Peckham, Scott D.; Gower, Stith T.; Ewers, Brent

    2009-04-08

    Changes in fire regimes are driving the carbon balance of much of the North American boreal forest, but few studies have examined fire-driven changes in evapotranspiration (ET) at a regional scale. This study used a version of the Biome-BGC process model with dynamic and competing vegetation types, and explicit spatial representation of a large (106 km2) region, to simulate the effects of wildfire on ET and its components from 1948 to 2005 by comparing the fire dynamics of the 1948-1967 period with those of 1968-2005. Simulated ET averaged, over the entire temporal and spatial modeling domain, 323 mm yr-1; simulation results indicated that changes in fire in recent decades decreased regional ET by 1.4% over the entire simulation, and by 3.9% in the last ten years (1996-2005). Conifers dominated the transpiration (EC) flux (120 mm yr-1) but decreased by 18% relative to deciduous broadleaf trees in the last part of the 20th century, when increased fire resulted in increased soil evaporation, lower canopy evaporation, lower EC and a younger and more deciduous forest. Well- and poorly-drained areas had similar rates of evaporation from the canopy and soil, but EC was twice as high in the well-drained areas. Mosses comprised a significant part of the evaporative flux to the atmosphere (22 mm yr-1). Modeled annual ET was correlated with net primary production, but not with temperature or precipitation; ET and its components were consistent with previous field and modeling studies. Wildfire is thus driving significant changes in hydrological processes, changes that may control the future carbon balance of the boreal forest.

  19. Chemical and optical aging of forest fire plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, S. G.; Clarke, A. D.; Freitag, S.; Kapustin, V. N.; McNaughton, C. S.; Shank, L.

    2010-12-01

    During recent aircraft-based projects, we have penetrated fresh fire plumes, followed them for tens of kilometers, and sampled them thousands of kms from their sources. Chemical analysis with an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) for non-refractory composition and a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) alongside nephelometers and a Particle Soot Absorption Spectrometer (PSAP) for optical properties of the aerosol show consistent changes in particle properties as they age. We use BC to normalize for dilution and scavenging, as it is unlikely to be created outside of the fire. Chemical changes are rapid within the first 50 minutes as the organic matter becomes more oxygenated. Single Scatter Albedo rises concurrently which reflects increasing non-absorbing aerosol mass. Somewhat unexpectedly, the absorption ?ngstrom exponent (between 470 and 660 nm) also rises, indicating that the complex aromatic organic material, sometimes referred to as Brown Carbon, either takes some time to condense or has its absorption amplified as other material condenses upon it. At long range from the source, biomass burning plumes can be significant sources of CCN to remote areas even when diluted and scavenged to such an extent that direct optical effects are inconsequential.

  20. How knowledge influences a MCDM analysis: WOCAT Portuguese experience on prevention of forest fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carreiras, M.; Ferreira, A. J. D.; Moreira, J.; Esteves, T. C. J.; Valente, S.; Soares, J.; Coelho, C. O. A.; Schwilch, G.; Bachmann, F.

    2012-04-01

    Forest management is a major concern for land managers due to its impact on biomass production, surface water quality or landscape beauty. Pursuing the development of a holistic view of the issue (considering economic, environmental and social aspects), an appreciation of the variety policies and techniques is considered essential due to its importance in the context of sustainability. It this context, MCDM could be an important tool on the establishment for the use of the forest. It could be used for exploiting the preferences of decision-makers, stakeholders, or environmental experts obtaining economic values for impacts whose monetization remains problematic. WOCAT has developed a framework for Sustainable Land Management knowledge, covering all steps from data collection, database implementation and decision support. WOCAT methodology allows the environmental risks knowledge and also stakeholder's participation and involvement. It leads to the discussion of issues of the territory and through a participatory, integrative, holistic and impartial process, it identifies environmental problems. In the end guidelines / actions for the territory are settled based on the problems identified. Having an active participatory nature, this process reveals itself as an excellent public participation process. The methodology also brings the territory's decision-makers in contact with the stakeholders. The procedure for identification, assessment and selection of strategies has been developed by the EU project DESIRE in collaboration with WOCAT. The methodology was tested by DESIRE in 16 study sites around the world. As an outcome of the procedure, the methodology may serve as a basis for prioritizing land-use policies, conservation measures and research at a national level. It integrates several exercises for prioritizing land-use policies, conservation measures and research at a regional and national level. In Portugal, forest fires are one of the major factors of land degradation processes. Affecting large areas every year, they also have serious human, socio-economic and psychological impacts. Under the DESIRE project two Portuguese study sites were selected - Góis e Mação. Both study sites are located in Central Portugal and are frequently affected by forest fires. Nowadays different types of solutions applied at the local level are related with the prevention, combat and mitigation of forest fires. At a higher level of analysis the main solution is related with the diversification of the soil uses, mainly by the mixture of cropland, pastures and forest areas. But the selection of the technique isn't so far an open, participative and effective process, and the interests of land users are not represented most of the time. This paper aims to present WOCAT approach and results to forest fire prevention in Portugal considering stakeholder's perspectives and policy recommendations and it's evolution based on an increased of knowledge.

  1. Biogeochemical legacy of prescribed fire in a giant sequoia–mixed conifer forest: A 16-year record of watershed balances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diana L. Engle; James O. Sickman; Claudette M. Moore; Annie M. Esperanza; John M. Melack; Jon E. Keeley

    2008-01-01

    The effects of prescription burning on watershed balances of major ions in mixed conifer forest were examined in a 16-year paired catchment study in Sequoia National Park, California. The objective was to determine whether fire-related changes in watershed balances persist as long as estimated low-end natural fire-return intervals (?10 years), and whether cumulative net export caused by fire could deplete

  2. Understory responses to fire and artificial seeding in an eastern Cascades Abies grandis forest, U.S.A

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tania L. Schoennagel; Donald M. Waller

    1999-01-01

    To mitigate erosion after fire, land managers often seed non-native grasses onto burned slopes. To assess how post-fire seeding affects plant recovery, we compared areas that were either unseeded or artificially seeded after high-intensity fire in a dry Abies grandis (Dougl.) Lindl. forest in the northeastern Cascades. Seeding with a mix of non-native grasses and a legume significantly reduced the

  3. Multi-scale influence of vapor pressure deficit on fire ignition and spread in boreal forest ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedano, F.; Randerson, J. T.

    2014-07-01

    Climate-driven changes in the fire regime within boreal forest ecosystems are likely to have important effects on carbon cycling and species composition. In the context of improving fire management options and developing more realistic scenarios of future change, it is important to understand how meteorology regulates different aspects of fire dynamics, including ignition, daily fire spread, and cumulative annual burned area. Here we combined Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) active fires (MCD14ML), MODIS imagery (MOD13A1) and ancillary historic fire perimeter information to produce a data set of daily fire spread maps for Alaska during 2002-2011. This approach provided a spatial and temporally continuous representation of fire progression and a precise identification of ignition and extinction locations and dates for each wildfire. The fire-spread maps were analyzed with daily vapor pressure deficit (VPD) observations from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) and lightning strikes from the Alaska Lightning Detection Network (ALDN). We found a significant relationship between daily VPD and likelihood that a lightning strike would develop into a fire ignition. In the first week after ignition, above average VPD increased the probability that fires would grow to large or very large sizes. Strong relationships also were identified between VPD and burned area at several levels of temporal and spatial aggregation. As a consequence of regional coherence in meteorology, ignition, daily fire spread, and fire extinction events were often synchronized across different fires in interior Alaska. At a regional scale, the sum of positive VPD anomalies during the fire season was positively correlated with annual burned area during the NARR era (1979-2011; R2 = 0.45). Some of the largest fires we mapped had slow initial growth, indicating opportunities may exist for suppression efforts to adaptively manage these forests for climate change. The results of our spatiotemporal analysis provide new information about temporal and spatial dynamics of wildfires and have implications for modeling the terrestrial carbon cycle.

  4. Deforestation and Forest Fires in Roraima and Their Relationship with Phytoclimatic Regions in the Northern Brazilian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barni, Paulo Eduardo; Pereira, Vaneza Barreto; Manzi, Antonio Ocimar; Barbosa, Reinaldo Imbrozio

    2015-05-01

    Deforestation and forest fires in the Brazilian Amazon are a regional-scale anthropogenic process related to biomass burning, which has a direct impact on global warming due to greenhouse gas emissions. Containment of this process requires characterizing its spatial distribution and that of the environmental factors related to its occurrence. The aim of this study is to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of deforested areas and forest fires in the State of Roraima from 2000 to 2010. We mapped deforested areas and forest fires using Landsat images and associated their occurrence with two phytoclimatic zones: zone with savanna influence (ZIS), and zone without savanna influence (ZOS). Total deforested area during the interval was estimated at 3.06 × 103 km2 (ZIS = 55 %; ZOS = 45 %) while total area affected by forest fires was estimated at 3.02 × 103 km2 (ZIS = 97.7 %; ZOS = 2.3 %). Magnitude of deforestation in Roraima was not related to the phytoclimatic zones, but small deforested areas (?17.9 ha) predominated in ZOS while larger deforestation classes (>17.9 ha) predominated in ZIS, which is an area with a longer history of human activities. The largest occurrence of forest fires was observed in the ZIS in years with El Niño events. Our analysis indicates that the areas most affected by forest fires in Roraima during 2000-2010 were associated with strong climatic events and the occurrence these fires was amplified in ZIS, a sensitive phytoclimatic zone with a higher risk of anthropogenic fires given its drier climate and open forest structure.

  5. Deforestation and forest fires in Roraima and their relationship with phytoclimatic regions in the northern Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Barni, Paulo Eduardo; Pereira, Vaneza Barreto; Manzi, Antonio Ocimar; Barbosa, Reinaldo Imbrozio

    2015-05-01

    Deforestation and forest fires in the Brazilian Amazon are a regional-scale anthropogenic process related to biomass burning, which has a direct impact on global warming due to greenhouse gas emissions. Containment of this process requires characterizing its spatial distribution and that of the environmental factors related to its occurrence. The aim of this study is to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of deforested areas and forest fires in the State of Roraima from 2000 to 2010. We mapped deforested areas and forest fires using Landsat images and associated their occurrence with two phytoclimatic zones: zone with savanna influence (ZIS), and zone without savanna influence (ZOS). Total deforested area during the interval was estimated at 3.06 × 10(3) km(2) (ZIS = 55 %; ZOS = 45 %) while total area affected by forest fires was estimated at 3.02 × 10(3) km(2) (ZIS = 97.7 %; ZOS = 2.3 %). Magnitude of deforestation in Roraima was not related to the phytoclimatic zones, but small deforested areas (?17.9 ha) predominated in ZOS while larger deforestation classes (>17.9 ha) predominated in ZIS, which is an area with a longer history of human activities. The largest occurrence of forest fires was observed in the ZIS in years with El Niño events. Our analysis indicates that the areas most affected by forest fires in Roraima during 2000-2010 were associated with strong climatic events and the occurrence these fires was amplified in ZIS, a sensitive phytoclimatic zone with a higher risk of anthropogenic fires given its drier climate and open forest structure. PMID:25604215

  6. Fire history from soil charcoal in a mixed hardwood forest on the Cumberland Plateau, Tennessee, USA1

    E-print Network

    Hart, Justin

    Fire history from soil charcoal in a mixed hardwood forest on the Cumberland Plateau, Tennessee history from soil charcoal in a mixed hardwood forest on the Cumberland Plateau, Tennessee, USA. J. Torrey) charcoal, quantified charcoal mass, and radiocarbon-dated charcoal macrofossils in 10 soil cores to develop

  7. Transformation of a northern hardwood forest by aboriginal (Iroquois) fire: charcoal evidence from Crawford Lake, Ontario, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Clark; P. D. Royall

    1995-01-01

    Ecologists have long debated whether Indian burning had important impacts on presettlement forests. We obtained stratigraphic evidence for fire using charcoal analysis of southern Ontario lake sediments. The record spans a period of Iroquois occupation when cultivation coincides with pollen evidence for transition from northern hardwoods to white pine\\/oak forests. Charcoal data reveal that this transition was attended by increased

  8. Influence of Fire on Permafrost in Lowland Forests of the Tanana Flats, Interior Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, D. N.; Jorgenson, T.; Douglas, T. A.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Kielland, K.; Euskirchen, E. S.; Ruess, R.

    2014-12-01

    The degradation of ice-rich permafrost in lowland ecosystems may have particularly strong ecological impacts due to the potential for thaw settlement and subsequent water impoundment. We examined the effects of fire disturbance on permafrost across a chronosequence of fire scars (1930-2010) in the forested areas of collapse-scar bog complexes in the Tanana Flats of Interior Alaska, and utilized a thermal permafrost model (GIPL) to assess the roles of soil physical properties and historic climate. Field-based calculations of potential thaw settlement following the loss of ice-rich permafrost ranged from 0.4 m to 0.9 m. This subsidence would cause the surface elevations of current day forests to drop, on average, to 0.1 m below the surface water level of adjacent collapse-scar bogs, likely resulting in water impoundment. However, the vulnerability of permafrost to deep thawing and talik formation was variable among fire scars due to heterogeneity in organic layer thickness, soil texture, moisture, and associated thermal properties. Simulated reductions in organic layer thickness predicted talik formation in peat and silt loam-dominated soils, but not in sandy loams. The vulnerability of permafrost to talik formation increased under the climatic conditions since 1970, which were characterized by higher air temperatures. Pronounced permafrost thawing occurred during periods of high snow accumulation, whereas periods of low snow accumulation appeared to facilitate permafrost recovery. Simulations of the complete removal of the organic layer (high severity fire) in silt loam-dominated sites suggested the long-term loss of permafrost under the climate of the last century. Overall, the influence of fire on permafrost in these lowland ecosystems appears to be dependent on soil physical properties, fire severity, and climatic conditions.

  9. Multi-season climate synchronized forest fires throughout the 20th century, northern Rockies, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Penelope; Heyerdahl, Emily K; Gibson, Carly E

    2008-03-01

    We inferred climate drivers of 20th-century years with regionally synchronous forest fires in the U.S. northern Rockies. We derived annual fire extent from an existing fire atlas that includes 5038 fire polygons recorded from 12,070,086 ha, or 71% of the forested land in Idaho and Montana west of the Continental Divide. The 11 regional-fire years, those exceeding the 90th percentile in annual fire extent from 1900 to 2003 (>102,314 ha or approximately 1% of the fire atlas recording area), were concentrated early and late in the century (six from 1900 to 1934 and five from 1988 to 2003). During both periods, regional-fire years were ones when warm springs were followed by warm, dry summers and also when the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) was positive. Spring snowpack was likely reduced during warm springs and when PDO was positive, resulting in longer fire seasons. Regional-fire years did not vary with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) or with climate in antecedent years. The long mid-20th century period lacking regional-fire years (1935-1987) had generally cool springs, generally negative PDO, and a lack of extremely dry summers; also, this was a period of active fire suppression. The climate drivers of regionally synchronous fire that we inferred are congruent with those of previous centuries in this region, suggesting a strong influence of spring and summer climate on fire activity throughout the 20th century despite major land-use change and fire suppression efforts. The relatively cool, moist climate during the mid-century gap in regional-fire years likely contributed to the success of fire suppression during that period. In every regional-fire year, fires burned across a range of vegetation types. Given our results and the projections for warmer springs and continued warm, dry summers, forests of the U.S. northern Rockies are likely to experience synchronous, large fires in the future. PMID:18459335

  10. Forest soil and water chemistry following bark boiler bottom ash application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas M. Williams; Charles A. Hollis; Bill R. Smith

    1996-01-01

    Ash from the bark-fueled power boiler at International Paper`s Georgetown mill was applied in a column study and a field trial to test land application. Tested application rates were 11, 22, and 44 Mg\\/ha of ash per rotation. The soil column study found a flush of cations, primarily K and Ca, with the initial 76 cm of 10⁻⁵ M oxalic

  11. Forest health conditions in North America.

    PubMed

    Tkacz, Borys; Moody, Ben; Castillo, Jaime Villa; Fenn, Mark E

    2008-10-01

    Some of the greatest forest health impacts in North America are caused by invasive forest insects and pathogens (e.g., emerald ash borer and sudden oak death in the US), by severe outbreaks of native pests (e.g., mountain pine beetle in Canada), and fires exacerbated by changing climate. Ozone and N and S pollutants continue to impact the health of forests in several regions of North America. Long-term monitoring of forest health indicators has facilitated the assessment of forest health and sustainability in North America. By linking a nationwide network of forest health plots with the more extensive forest inventory, forest health experts in the US have evaluated current trends for major forest health indicators and developed assessments of future risks. Canada and Mexico currently lack nationwide networks of forest health plots. Development and expansion of these networks is critical to effective assessment of future forest health impacts. PMID:18479794

  12. Wildfire Ash: Chemical Composition, Ash-Soil Interactions and Environmental Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brook, Anna; Hamzi, Seham; Wittenberg, Lea

    2015-04-01

    Of the five classical factors of soil formation, climate, parent material, topography, time, organisms, and recently recognized human activity, it is the latter factor which discretely includes fire and post-burn impact. However, it is considered that soil undergoing fire just experience a temporary removal of the top organic horizon, thus slightly modified and often labeled as 'temporarily disturbed' soil or soil 'under restoration/rehabilitation'. In fact the suggested seventh factor, post-burned produced ash, can act both dependently and independently of the other soil forming factors (Levin et al., 2013; Certini 2013). They are interdependent in cases where ash influences occur on time scales similar to 'natural' soil formation (Keesstra et ai., 2014) such as changes in vegetation. On the other hand, in post-fire areas a strong dependency is expected between soil-water retention mechanism, climate and topography. Wild-land fires exert many changes on the physical, chemical, mineralogical, biological, and morphological properties of soil that, in turn, affect the soil's hydrology and nutrient flux, modifying its ability to support vegetation and resist erosion. The ash produced by forest fires is a complex mixture composed of organic and inorganic particles characterized by vary physical-chemical and morphological properties. The importance of this study is straightforwardly related to the frequency and large-scales wildfires in Mediterranean region. In fact, wildfires are major environmental and land management concern in the world, where the number and severity of wildfires has increased during the past decades (Bodi, 2013). Certini (2013) assumed that cumulatively all of the vegetated land is burned in about 31 years annually affecting 330-430 Mha (over 3% of the Earth's surface) and wide range of land cover types worldwide including forests, peatlands, shrublands and grasslands. Whereas, the fire is identified as an important factor in soil formation, the produced ash has significant and not always constructive pedological, ecological, hydrological and geomorphological effects and impacts (Shakesby, 2011). Abundant scientific information is assembled either from control fires by collecting samples before and after wildfire event, or conducting laboratory experiments exanimating data under truly isolated conditions (Lugassi et al., 2013). However, an integration and synthesis of the knowledge about ash including deeper understanding of inter-correlation between chemical, physical and morphological compounds in open post-burn environment and its possible interactions in soil formation or impact on soil composition are highly needed. The main aim of the presented study was to advance the science of soil-fire relationship by recognizing the remains ash as a new soil-forming factor, on par with the traditionally recognized factors: parent material, topography, time, climate, organisms, and recently recognized human activity as the sixth factor. This research was conducted to develop new methods to assess impacts and quantify the contributions/influences of post-fire products, mainly ash, on soil composition and soil properties in post-burned environment. We conducted several controlled experiments using 40 soil samples (typical Mediterranean Rendzina soil, pH 6.84, a grayish-brown, humus- and free calcium carbonate- rich, intra-zonal). The samples include bare soils and different types and loads of forest litter, were exposed to different temperatures (200° C, 400° C and 600° C) in a muffle furnace for 2 hours (Pereira et al. 2011) as fire temperature plays a key role in determining ash properties. The ash produced at a low temperatures (50% carbon and retains many of the structural characteristics of the parent material. At higher temperatures, the residue ash is greyish, consisted of very fine particles that preserve almost none of the original structural characteristics of the fuel (Woods and Balfour, 2008) creating gradient of layered ash with diverse physicochemical properties. The obtained post-burned soils we

  13. Mapping Canopy Damage from Understory Fires in Amazon Forests Using Annual Time Series of Landsat and MODIS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, Douglas C.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Nagol, Jyoteshwar; Souza, Carlos M., Jr.; Kasischke, Eric S.; Hurtt, George C.; Dubayah, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    Understory fires in Amazon forests alter forest structure, species composition, and the likelihood of future disturbance. The annual extent of fire-damaged forest in Amazonia remains uncertain due to difficulties in separating burning from other types of forest damage in satellite data. We developed a new approach, the Burn Damage and Recovery (BDR) algorithm, to identify fire-related canopy damages using spatial and spectral information from multi-year time series of satellite data. The BDR approach identifies understory fires in intact and logged Amazon forests based on the reduction and recovery of live canopy cover in the years following fire damages and the size and shape of individual understory burn scars. The BDR algorithm was applied to time series of Landsat (1997-2004) and MODIS (2000-2005) data covering one Landsat scene (path/row 226/068) in southern Amazonia and the results were compared to field observations, image-derived burn scars, and independent data on selective logging and deforestation. Landsat resolution was essential for detection of burn scars less than 50 ha, yet these small burns contributed only 12% of all burned forest detected during 1997-2002. MODIS data were suitable for mapping medium (50-500 ha) and large (greater than 500 ha) burn scars that accounted for the majority of all fire-damaged forest in this study. Therefore, moderate resolution satellite data may be suitable to provide estimates of the extent of fire-damaged Amazon forest at a regional scale. In the study region, Landsat-based understory fire damages in 1999 (1508 square kilometers) were an order of magnitude higher than during the 1997-1998 El Nino event (124 square kilometers and 39 square kilometers, respectively), suggesting a different link between climate and understory fires than previously reported for other Amazon regions. The results in this study illustrate the potential to address critical questions concerning climate and fire risk in Amazon forests by applying the BDR algorithm over larger areas and longer image time series.

  14. Alkali activated solidification/stabilisation of air pollution control residues and co-fired pulverised fuel ash.

    PubMed

    Shirley, Robin; Black, Leon

    2011-10-30

    This paper examines the potential treatment by solidification/stabilisation (S/S) of air pollution control (APC) residues using only waste materials otherwise bound for disposal, namely a pulverised fuel ash (PFA) from a co-fired power station and a waste caustic solution. The use of waste materials to stabilise hazardous wastes in order to meet waste acceptance criteria (WAC) would offer an economical and efficient method for reducing the environmental impact of the hazardous waste. The potential is examined against leach limits for chlorides, sulphates and total dissolved solids, and compressive strength performance described in the WAC for stable non-reactive (SNR) hazardous waste landfill cells in England and Wales. The work demonstrates some potential for the treatment, including suitable compressive strengths to meet regulatory limits. Monolithic leach results showed good encapsulation compared to previous work using a more traditional cement binder. However, consistent with previous work, SNR WAC for chlorides was not met, suggesting the need for a washing stage. The potential problems of using a non-EN450 PFA for S/S applications were also highlighted, as well as experimental results which demonstrate the effect of ionic interactions on the mobility of phases during regulatory leach testing. PMID:21880422

  15. Resistance of mixed subalpine forest to fire frequency changes: the ecological function of dwarf pine (Pinus mugo ssp. mugo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leys, Bérangère; Carcaillet, Christopher; Blarquez, Olivier; Lami, Andrea; Musazzi, Simona; Trevisan, Renata

    2014-04-01

    The availability of fuel and climate are major factors responsible for forest fire activity over time. Here, we tested the hypothesis that forest ecosystems containing a high shrub biomass, which constitutes a fuel load, and affected by a warmer climate, which is associated with drier conditions and a longer fire season, are more prone to fire. Fire occurrence and woody vegetation histories were reconstructed for a subalpine site (Lago di Colbricon Inferiore) in the Dolomites, part of the eastern Italian Alps, for the past 13,000 years. The modern wet climate prevents fire in this area, in spite of the warm summers and an abundant biomass of dwarf pine (Pinus mugo) and three other conifer tree species (Pinus cembra, Picea abies, and Larix decidua). Past fire history reconstructed from sedimentary charcoal showed a median fire return interval of 140 years (30-735 yr fire-1), with a high variability (SD ± 170 years) throughout the Holocene, suggesting that the past environment was more favourable to fire than the modern one, probably due to a drier climate or to different fuel availability. The subalpine community containing P. mugo remained stable for the past 9000 years, despite the variability of the fire return interval. Interestingly, the fire frequency is higher at Lago di Colbricon than at sites in the western Alps that lack P. mugo, suggesting that this species tolerates fire disturbance. In fact, it probably favours the spread of fire due to its flammable biomass, prostrated form, and dense layering canopy, thus offsetting the influence of the wet climate. Since the 19th century, the removal of dwarf pine to promote subalpine grasslands may have suppressed fires in this region.

  16. The relationship between the Central Pacific El Niño and forest fire occurrence in the North American West

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banholzer, S. P.; Donner, S. D.; McKendry, I.

    2011-12-01

    In recent decades, the frequency of forest fires has been increasing in western North America (NAW). Several studies have already established a connection between climate oscillations, such as ENSO, and forest fire occurrence. However, a recently discovered variant of El Niño, called El Niño Modoki or Central Pacific El Niño (CP-El Niño), has been observed more frequently in the last few decades. This may cause different extra tropical teleconnections than the canonical El Niño (Eastern Pacific El Niño or EP-El Niño). The objective of this research is to find out if the past CP-El Niño events are associated with a different fire pattern across the NAW than during past EP-El Niño events. To investigate the possibly different fire regime, historical climate and forest fire data of the NAW over the last three decades were analyzed. Past CP-El Niño events during 1980-2010 were identified with the Improved El Niño Modoki Index (IEMI) and the HadISST dataset. Nino3 index was used to identify canonical El Niño and La Niña events. Seasonal climate composites of temperature and precipitation were generated for the NAW with the NARR dataset, separately for the past EP-El Niño and CP-El Niño years. Forest fire data were compiled for the same time period for the NAW (from California up to Alaska). Forest fire data sources for western Canada are the Canadian National Fire Database and for the western United States the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) as well as the National Interagency Fire Center. The seasonal climate composites reveal different climate patterns related to the two types of El Niño. Quantitative analysis of the fire data shows also a different pattern during CP years than during EP years. These differences may be related to the altered teleconnections of the two types of El Niño. The conclusions drawn from this study could be used for forest fire management regarding fire suppression and also for predicting fire severity.

  17. Fire severity impacts trajectories of vegetative regrowth and delta13C in organic pools and fluxes in Siberian\\/Alaskan forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Fessenden; J. T. Randerson; E. Schuur; S. Zimov

    2002-01-01

    Stable carbon isotope ratios of carbon dioxide and leaf organic matter were measured in boreal forests of varying age and fire severity in Siberia and Alaska. This study focused on moderate and extreme severity burn sites in neighboring Alaskan forests ranging from 2 years to 160 years and Siberian forests ranging from 1 year to 200 years. The Alaskan forests

  18. Volatile organic compounds composition of merged and aged forest fire plumes from Alaska and western Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gouw, J. A.; Warneke, C.; Stohl, A.; Wollny, A. G.; Brock, C. A.; Cooper, O. R.; Holloway, J. S.; Trainer, M.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Atlas, E. L.; Donnelly, S. G.; Stroud, V.; Lueb, A.

    2006-05-01

    The NOAA WP-3 aircraft intercepted aged forest fire plumes from Alaska and western Canada during several flights of the NEAQS-ITCT 2k4 mission in 2004. Measurements of acetonitrile (CH3CN) indicated that the air masses had been influenced by biomass burning. The locations of the plume intercepts were well described using emissions estimates and calculations with the transport model FLEXPART. The best description of the data was generally obtained when FLEXPART injected the forest fire emissions to high altitudes in the model. The observed plumes were generally drier than the surrounding air masses at the same altitude, suggesting that the fire plumes had been processed by clouds and that moisture had been removed by precipitation. Different degrees of photochemical processing of the plumes were determined from the measurements of aromatic VOCs. The removal of aromatic VOCs was slow considering the transport times estimated from the FLEXPART model. This suggests that the average OH levels were low during the transport, which may be explained by the low humidity and high concentrations of carbon monoxide and other pollutants. In contrast with previous work, no strong secondary production of acetone, methanol and acetic acid is inferred from the measurements. A clear case of removal of submicron particle volume and acetic acid due to precipitation scavenging was observed.

  19. An integrated methodology for estimation of forest fire-loss using geospatial information.

    PubMed

    Heo, Joon; Park, Ji Sang; Song, Yeong-Sun; Lee, Suk Kun; Sohn, Hong-Gyoo

    2008-09-01

    These days, wildfires are prevalent in almost all areas of the world. Researchers have been actively analyzing wildfire damage using a variety of satellite images and geospatial datasets. This paper presents a method for detailed estimation of wildfire losses using various geospatial datasets and an actual case of wildfire at Kang-Won-Do, Republic of Korea in 2005. A set of infrared (IR) aerial images acquired after the wildfire were used to visually delineate the damaged regions, and information on forest type, diameter class, age class, and canopy density within the damaged regions was retrieved from GIS layers of the Korean national forest inventory. Approximate tree heights were computed from airborne LIDAR and verified by ground LIDAR datasets. The corresponding stand volumes were computed using tree volume equations (TVE). The proposed algorithm can efficiently estimate fire loss using the geospatial information; in the present case, the total fire loss was estimated as $5.9 million, which is a more accurate estimate than $4.5 million based on conventional approach. The proposed method can be claimed as a powerful alternative for estimating damage caused by wildfires, because the aerial image interpretation can delineate and analyze damaged regions in a comprehensive and consistent manner; moreover, LIDAR datasets and national forest inventory data can significantly reduce field work. PMID:17972150

  20. Effects of the Cerro Grande Fire (Smoke and Fallout Ash) on Soil Chemical Properties Within and Around Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Fresquez, P.R.; Velasquez, W.R.; Naranjo, L. Jr.

    2000-11-01

    Soil surface (0- to 2-in. depth) samples were collected from areas within and around Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) just after the Cerro Grande fire, analyzed for radionuclides, radioactivity, and trace elements (heavy metals), and compared to soil samples collected in 1999 from the same sites. In addition, many types of organic substances (volatile and semivolatile organic compounds, organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, high explosives, and dioxin and dioxin-like compounds) were assessed in soils from LANL, perimeter, and regional sites after the fire. Results show that impacts to regional, perimeter, and on-site (mesa top) areas from smoke and fallout ash as a result of the Cerro Grande fire were minimal.

  1. Isotopic composition of carbon dioxide from a boreal forest fire: Inferring carbon loss from measurements and modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuur, E.A.G.; Trumbore, S.E.; Mack, M.C.; Harden, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    Fire is an important pathway for carbon (C) loss from boreal forest ecosystems and has a strong effect on ecosystem C balance. Fires can range widely in severity, defined as the amount of vegetation and forest floor consumed by fire, depending on local fuel and climatic conditions. Here we explore a novel method for estimating fire severity and loss of C from fire using the atmosphere to integrate ecosystem heterogeneity at the watershed scale. We measured the ??13C and ??14C isotopic values of CO2 emitted from an experimental forest fire at the Caribou-Poker Creek Research Watershed (CPCRW), near Fairbanks, Alaska. We used inverse modeling combined with dual isotope near measurements of C contained in aboveground black spruce biomass and soil organic horizons to estimate the amount of C released by this fire. The experimental burn was a medium to severe intensity fire that released, on average, about 2.5 kg Cm-2, more than half of the C contained in vegetation and soil organic horizon pools. For vegetation, the model predicted that approximately 70-75% of pools such as needles, fine branches, and bark were consumed by fire, whereas only 20-30% of pools such as coarse branches and cones were consumed. The fire was predicted to have almost completely consumed surface soil organic horizons and burned about half of the deepest humic horizon. The ability to estimate the amount of biomass combusted and C emission from fires at the watershed scale provides an extensive approach that can complement more limited intensive ground-based measurements.

  2. The role of fire during climate change in an eastern deciduous forest at Devil`s Bathtub, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.S. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Royall, P.D. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Chumbley, C. [Rust Environment and Infrastructure, Waterloo, IA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Annual record of charcoal and sedimentation rate were compared with fossil pollen to investigate the role of fire in eastern deciduous forest around Devil`s Bathtub, New York, USA. Changes in peak and background charcoal suggest that changes in fire regime have accompanied the principal vegetation and climatic changes of the last 10 400 yr. A distribution of return times (50-200-yr intervals) similar to parts of modern boreal Canada prevailed when late-Glacial spruce woodland dominated the site. Expansion of Pinus banksiana appears to have altered the fire regime to one of crown fires with high particulate emissions, but return intervals similar to those of the preceding Picea forest. Expansion of Pinus strobus might be linked to change in fire occurrence, but the broad dispersal of Pinus pollen makes interpretation difficult. If Pinus strobus expansion around the site is reflected in its pollen curve, then that expansion coincides with a time of frequent fire. Alternatively, if increasing pollen abundance precedes the local expansion of trees, as has been observed elsewhere, then local expansion might correspond to an abrupt decline in fire frequency and in regional importance of fire. An abrupt decline in background charcoal follows a fire and coincides ({+-} 100 yr) with the expansion of hardwood taxa such as Fagus. The decline in background charcoal occurs over several years, suggesting that it may be linked to effects of hardwood expansion on fuels. Fires do not appear to have occurred during the time of hardwood dominance, suggesting that fire may not be an explanation for maintenance of species diversity in this deciduous forest. However, frequent occurrence of thick varves during the latter half of the Holocene suggests that the frequency of other types of disturbance may have increased. 85 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Testing the Amazon savannization hypothesis: fire effects on invasion of a neotropical forest by native cerrado and exotic pasture grasses.

    PubMed

    Silvério, Divino V; Brando, Paulo M; Balch, Jennifer K; Putz, Francis E; Nepstad, Daniel C; Oliveira-Santos, Claudinei; Bustamante, Mercedes M C

    2013-06-01

    Changes in climate and land use that interact synergistically to increase fire frequencies and intensities in tropical regions are predicted to drive forests to new grass-dominated stable states. To reveal the mechanisms for such a transition, we established 50 ha plots in a transitional forest in the southwestern Brazilian Amazon to different fire treatments (unburned, burned annually (B1yr) or at 3-year intervals (B3yr)). Over an 8-year period since the commencement of these treatments, we documented: (i) the annual rate of pasture and native grass invasion in response to increasing fire frequency; (ii) the establishment of Brachiaria decumbens (an African C4 grass) as a function of decreasing canopy cover and (iii) the effects of grass fine fuel on fire intensity. Grasses invaded approximately 200 m from the edge into the interiors of burned plots (B1yr: 4.31 ha; B3yr: 4.96 ha) but invaded less than 10 m into the unburned plot (0.33 ha). The probability of B. decumbens establishment increased with seed availability and decreased with leaf area index. Fine fuel loads along the forest edge were more than three times higher in grass-dominated areas, which resulted in especially intense fires. Our results indicate that synergies between fires and invasive C4 grasses jeopardize the future of tropical forests. PMID:23610179

  4. Proceedings of the 4th Fire in Eastern Oak Forests Conference 69GTR-NRS-P-102 OAK SAVANNA RESTORATION: OAK RESPONSE TO FIRE AND THINNING

    E-print Network

    Proceedings of the 4th Fire in Eastern Oak Forests Conference 69GTR-NRS-P-102 OAK SAVANNA for restoration of oak savanna, oak woodlands, pine-bluestem woodlands, and pine savanna for application but with 4-year burn regime treatment units. We included two additional thinning treatments, the oak-savanna

  5. The tropical forest and fire emissions experiment: Trace gases emitted by smoldering logs and dung from deforestation and pasture fires in Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ted J. Christian; Robert J. Yokelson; Joao A. Carvalho Jr; David W. T. Griffith; Ernesto C. Alvarado; José C. Santos; Turibio Gomes Soares Neto; Carlos A. Gurgel Veras; Wei Min Hao

    2007-01-01

    Earlier work showed that Amazonian biomass burning produces both lofted and initially unlofted emissions in large amounts. A mobile, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) measured the unlofted emissions of 17 trace gases from residual smoldering combustion (RSC) of logs as part of the Tropical Forest and Fire Emissions Experiment (TROFFEE) during the 2004 Amazonian dry season. The RSC emissions were

  6. Effect of a forest fire in splash erosion: a short term study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Raga, María; García Gutierrez, Estefanía; Marcos Porras, Elena; Palencia Coto, Covadonga

    2014-05-01

    Wildfires alter the properties of soils and remove vegetation, sometimes leading to severe degradation processes. One of the most important processes associated with the fires is the splash erosion. The region of "El Bierzo" annually records one of the highest number of fires in the North of Spain, exposing much of their soils to erosion. Therefore, the main objective of this work is to estimate soil loss due to splash erosion in the first months after a forest fire, and establishes its relationship with the characteristics of precipitation and changes in the soil as vegetation. The work was carried out in the town of Congosto, after a fire in May 2012 which burned 23 hectares of scrubland and Pinus radiata afforestation. Four study areas were chosen: two burned (one with pine tree and the other with scrubland) and two not fired (one with the control of the pine tree area and the other with the control of scrubland area). Transects were established for each study area. Five splash erosion devices were installed per area, called funnels, and several measurements of hydrophobicity, infiltration capacity and soil moisture were performed simultaneously. Soil samples were taken to determine the effect of fire on it and two vegetation sampling were conducted to study its evolution. One disdrometer was installed to study the characteristics of precipitation. The biggest splash soil losses occur in burned areas, especially in the scrubland. The factor that has the greatest influence on soil loss by splash is the presence of bare soil exposed to raindrop impact. Kinetic energy is the main property associated with rain splash erosion. The rate of vegetation recovery was very slow, which significantly affects the bulk soil loss. The changes do not significantly influence soil splash erosion, although an increase in the smaller class aggregates may promote erosion in areas of scrubland. A high infiltration rate and a low hydrophobicity rate can decrease significantly the soil loss by erosion.

  7. Forest fire risk estimation from time series analisys of NOAA NDVI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabban, Andrea; Liberta, Giorgio; San-Miguel-Ayanz, Jesus; Barbosa, Paulo

    2004-02-01

    The values of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index obtained from NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) have often been used for forestry application, including the assessment of fire risk. Forest fire risk estimates were based mainly on the decrease of NDVI values during the summer in areas subject to summer drought. However, the inter-annual variability of the vegetation response has never been extensively taken into account. The present work was based on the assumption that Mediterranean vegetation is adapted to summer drought and one possible estimator of the vegetation stress was the inter-annual variability of the vegetation status, as reflected by NDVI values. This article presents a novel methodology for the assessment of fire risk based on the comparison of the current NDVI values, on a given area, with the historical values along a time series of 13 years. The first part of the study is focused on the characterization of the Minimum and Maximum long term daily images. The second part is centered on the best method to compare the long term Maximum and Minimum with the current NDVI. A statistical index, Dynamic Relative Greenness, DRG, was tested on as a novel potential fire risk indicator.

  8. Polyacrylamide application versus forest residue mulching for reducing post-fire runoff and soil erosion.

    PubMed

    Prats, Sergio Alegre; Martins, Martinho António Dos Santos; Malvar, Maruxa Cortizo; Ben-Hur, Meni; Keizer, Jan Jacob

    2014-01-15

    For several years now, forest fires have been known to increase overland flow and soil erosion. However, mitigation of these effects has been little studied, especially outside the USA. This study aimed to quantify the effectiveness of two so-called emergency treatments to reduce post-fire runoff and soil losses at the microplot scale in a eucalyptus plantation in north-central Portugal. The treatments involved the application of chopped eucalyptus bark mulch at a rate of 10-12 Mg ha(-1), and surface application of a dry, granular, anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) at a rate of 50 kg ha(-1). During the first year after a wildfire in 2010, 1419 mm of rainfall produced, on average, 785 mm of overland flow in the untreated plots and 8.4 Mg ha(-1) of soil losses. Mulching reduced these two figures significantly, by an average 52 and 93%, respectively. In contrast, the PAM-treated plots did not differ from the control plots, despite slightly lower runoff but higher soil erosion figures. When compared to the control plots, mean key factors for runoff and soil erosion were different in the case of the mulched but not the PAM plots. Notably, the plots on the lower half of the slope registered bigger runoff and erosion figures than those on the upper half of the slope. This could be explained by differences in fire intensity and, ultimately, in pre-fire standing biomass. PMID:24055663

  9. Quantifying Soil Organic Carbon Redistribution after Forest Fire using Thermal Analyses, Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuklewicz, K. B.; Rasmussen, C.

    2014-12-01

    The frequency and severity of wildfire in western conifer forests is expected to increase with continued climate change induced warming and drying. The effects of wildfire on carbon cycle processes, and particularly surface soil organic matter composition and post fire erosive redistribution is poorly understood. The recent Thompson Ridge wildfire event in 2013 in the Valles Caldera, part of the Jemez-Catalina Critical Zone Observatory, provides the opportunity to track post-fire changes in surface soil organic matter composition over time relative to pre-fire conditions. Here we applied thermal analyses to quantify changes in surface soil organic matter composition, with a focus on charred materials, across a range of hillslope and convergent landscape positions. It was hypothesized that the fraction of charred material would increase post-burn in all surface soils, with a subsequent decline in hillslope positions and a gain in convergent positions as surface material was eroded and deposited in water gathering portions of the landscape. Our results confirmed that charcoal increased directly after the fire in all samples, but a clear signal of erosive redistribution was not observed, suggesting that the movement of charcoal throughout a landscape is more complex than the simple hypothesis put forward here. Future work will expand the spatial distribution of samples in a systematic fashion that better captures variation in topography and erosive versus depositional areas of the landscape.

  10. Modis data acquisition and utilization for forest fire management in india

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satyanarayana, A. N.; Chandrashekara Rao, B.; Lalitha, D.; Lakshmi, B.

    2014-12-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument onboard Terra & Aqua Spacecrafts Scans the earth in 36 spectral bands & covers the entire earth in two days. MODIS data has proved to be very useful for ocean & land studies with resolution ranging from 250 m to 1000 meters. The Data Reception system at Shadnagar (Refer to the Block diagram Fig.1), receives the data transmitted in X-band on 8160 MHz carrier SQPSK modulated with a data rate of 15 MBPS from the Aqua satellite. The down converted IF signal is fed to the demodulator & bit-synchronizer unit. The data and clock output signals of bitsynchronizer unit are given to a PC based DAQLB system where real-time telemetry processing is carried out and data is recorded onto hard disk in real time. The effectiveness of the system in supporting the forest fire management during the 2011, 12, 13 & 14 is also presented in the paper. Near real-time active fire monitoring, interactive fire visualization, fire database and statistical analysis functions also presented. Preliminary results of the upgrading satellite receiving system and in expanding the utilization of satellite data for multi-disciplinary resources management will also be presented and discussed.

  11. Modeling Forest Composition and Carbon Dynamics Under Projected Climate-Fire Interactions in the Sierra Nevada, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, S.; Hurteau, M. D.; Westerling, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    The Sierra Nevada Mountains are occupied by a diversity of forest types that sort by elevation. The interaction of changing climate and altered disturbance regimes (e.g. fire) has the potential to drive changes in forest distribution as a function of species-specific response. Quantifying the effects of these drivers on species distributions and productivity under future climate-fire interactions is necessary for informing mitigation and adaptation efforts. In this study, we assimilated forest inventory and soil survey data and species life history traits into a landscape model, LANDIS-II, to quantify the response of forest dynamics to the interaction of climate change and large wildfire frequency in the Sierra Nevada. We ran 100-year simulations forced with historical climate and climate projections from three models (GFDL, CNRM and CCSM3) driven by the A2 emission scenario. We found that non-growing season NPP is greatly enhanced by 15%-150%, depending on the specific climate projection. The greatest increase occurs in subalpine forests. Species-specific response varied as a function of life history characteristics. The distribution of drought and fire-tolerant species, such as ponderosa pine, expanded by 7.3-9.6% from initial conditions, while drought and fire-intolerant species, such as white fir, showed little change in the absence of fire. Changes in wildfire size and frequency influence species distributions by altering the successional stage of burned patches. The range of responses to different climate models demonstrates the sensitivity of these forests to climate variability. The scale of climate projections relative to the scale of forest simulations presents a source of uncertainty, particularly at the ecotone between forest types and for identifying topographically mediated climate refugia. Improving simulations will likely require higher resolution climate projections.

  12. Program for Prediction, Prevention and Mitigation of Forest Fire and Flood risk in Albania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Centoducati, C.; D'Angelo, L.; Deda, M.; Ferraris, L.; Fiori, E.; Gjonaj, M.; Kelmendi, S.; Massabò, M.; Olli, A.; Siccardi, F.

    2012-04-01

    The rationale lying behind the program jointly managed by the Albanian and the Italian Civil protections is that of strengthening the Albanian National System for the prediction and prevention of forest fires and flooding. This is an initiative of the Italian government aimed at implementing in Albania the systems currently used by the Italian National "Functional Centers". The "Functional Centers" are the Operations Centers in charge for assessment forecasting, and surveillance of natural and man-made risks and represent a key component of the Italian Civil Protection System. CIMA Foundation is acting in its capacity as Executing Agency of the Italian Department of Civil Protection (DPC) in the framework of the International Cooperation between the two Countries. CIMA Foundation has been founded by DPC and the University of Genoa with the aim of advancing the scientific research and technical development, high profile engineering and environmental science education, whose ultimate goal is to guarantee public health and safety as well as to safeguard land and sea ecosystems. The "Program for Prediction, Prevention and Mitigation of Forest Fire and Flood risk in Albania" addresses four objectives: Object 1- to establish a National Center for Forecasting and Monitoring of Natural Risk/National Functional Center, a National Operations Center and two Regional Operations Centers; Object 2 to design and to implement an intensive training programme for risk assessment and management; Object 3 - to adapt the Italian Early Warning System for forest fires to the whole Albanian territory; Object 4 - to adapt the Italian Early Warning System for flooding to the Buna river and the Shkodra region, the latter recently affected by two disastrous floods.

  13. Californian forest fire plumes over Southwestern British Columbia: lidar, sunphotometry, and mountaintop chemistry observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKendry, I.; Strawbridge, K.; Karumudi, M. L.; O'Neill, N.; MacDonald, A. M.; Leaitch, R.; Jaffe, D.; Cottle, P.; Sharma, S.; Sheridan, P.; Ogren, J.

    2011-01-01

    Forest fires in Northern California and Oregon were responsible for two significant regional scale aerosol transport events observed in southern British Columbia during summer 2008. A combination of ground based (CORALNet) and satellite (CALIPSO) lidar, sunphotometry and high altitude chemistry observations permitted unprecedented characterization of forest fire plume height and mixing as well as description of optical properties and physicochemistry of the aerosol. In southwestern BC, lidar observations show the smoke to be mixed through a layer extending to 5-6 km a.g.l. where the aerosol was confined by an elevated inversion in both cases. Depolarization ratios for a trans-Pacific dust event (providing a basis for comparison) and the two smoke events were consistent with observations of dust and smoke events elsewhere and permit discrimination of aerosol events in the region. Based on sunphotometry, the Aerosol Optical Thicknesses (AOT) reached maxima of ~0.7 and ~0.4 for the two events respectively. Dubovik-retrieval values of reff, f during both the June/July and August events varied between about 0.13 and 0.15 ?m and confirm the dominance of accumulation mode size particles in the forest fire plumes. Both Whistler Peak and Mount Bachelor Observatory data show that smoke events are accompanied by elevated CO and O3 concentrations as well as elevated K+/SO4 ratios. In addition to documenting the meteorology and physic-chemical characteristics of two regional scale biomass burning plumes, this study demonstrates the positive analytical synergies arising from the suite of measurements now in place in the Pacific Northwest, and complemented by satellite borne instruments.

  14. Effect of forest fire on the fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O in boreal forest soils, interior Alaska

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yongwon Kim; Noriyuki Tanaka

    2003-01-01

    Flux measurements at sites of mixed hardwood and black spruce stands from an area (C4) of the Caribou-Poker Creek Research Watershed (CPCRW), interior Alaska, in the summer seasons of 1998, 1999, and 2000 are used to estimate the fluxes of CO2, CH4, and N2O before and after forest fires. The FROSTFIRE burning experiment was executed in typical boreal forest from

  15. Assessing the Hazard of Emerald Ash Borer and Other Exotic Stressors to Community Forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Ball; Sarah Mason; Aaron Kiesz; Dan McCormick; Craig Brown

    2007-01-01

    Exotic stressors such as emerald ash borer are an increasing concern to many communities across North America. One means of assessing the hazard these stressors may represent to a community's publicly managed trees is through an inventory of their street trees. The South Dakota Division of Resource Conservation and Forestry conducted street tree inventories in selected communities across the state

  16. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Ultrafast multiphoton forest fires and fractals in clusters and dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaier, L. N.; Lein, M.; Stockman, M. I.; Knight, P. L.; Corkum, P. B.; Ivanov, M. Yu; Yudin, G. L.

    2004-02-01

    We describe the interaction of ultrashort infrared laser pulses with clusters and dielectrics. Rapid ionization occurs on a sub-laser wavelength scale below the conventional breakdown threshold. It starts with the formation of nano-droplets of plasma which grow like forest fires, without any need for heating of the electrons promoted to the conduction band. The dimensionality of the damaged area can be fractal and changes during the laser pulse. This mechanism is operative in both rare gas clusters and dielectrics interacting with ultrashort, moderately intense laser pulses which include only several periods of the driving field, so that the traditional avalanche mechanisms have no time to develop.

  17. Observations of boreal forest fire smoke in the stratosphere by POAM III, SAGE II, and lidar in 1998

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fromm, Michael; Alfred, Jerome; Hoppel, Karl; Hornstein, John; Bevilacqua, Richard; Shettle, Eric; Servranckx, René; Li, Zhanqing; Stocks, Brian

    2000-05-01

    A substantial increase in stratospheric aerosol was recorded between May and October 1998 between 55° and 70°N. This phenomenon was recorded in the absence of reported volcanic eruptions with stratospheric impact potential. The POAM III and SAGE II instruments made numerous measurements of layers of enhanced aerosol extinction substantially higher than typical values 3 to 5 km above the tropopause. A comparison of these observations with lidar profiles, TOMS aerosol index data, and forest fire statistics reveals a strong link between stratospheric aerosol and forest fire smoke. Our analysis strongly suggests that smoke from boreal forest fires was lofted across the tropopause in substantial amounts in several episodes occurring in Canada and eastern Russia. Observations reveal a broad zonal increase in stratospheric aerosol that persisted for at least three months.

  18. Carbon Dynamics of Natural Disturbance (Storms and Fire) in the Eastern U.S. Temperate Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felzer, B. S.; Phelps, P.

    2013-12-01

    Most temperate forests in the eastern U.S. are currently recovering from disturbance. These disturbances are commonly human disturbances of agricultural abandonment or timber harvest, but natural disturbances have also had an impact. Prior to 1920, fire was more prevalent, while along the coast, tropical storms and hurricanes in the south are also common. We have constructed gridded datasets at the 0.5ox0.5o resolution of tropical storm and hurricane return frequencies based on the Zeng et al. (2009) data and fire return intervals for pre-1920 and the 20th century based on LANDFIRE Rapid Assessment Vegetation Models and vegetation types from Nowacki and Abrams (2008). These data are used within the TEM-Hydro model to determine the carbon dynamics of the temperate forest ecosystem as a result of these disturbances, but applying them both stochastically once within the last hundred years and an equivalent total, but smaller, yearly disturbance spread out evenly over the century. A fraction of trees are killed by storms, of which the leaf and root carbon and nitrogen are added to the soil and coarse woody debris is divided between decomposition directly to the atmosphere with a specified decay constant and addition to the soils over a 100 year period. A fraction of trees are killed by fire, of which leaf and root carbon and nitrogen are added to the soils, a fraction of the coarse woody debris carbon and nitrogen is volatilized, and the remainder either decomposes directly to the atmosphere or is added to the soils over time. Preliminary runs for deciduous trees in Harvard Forest, MA from 1901 to 2000, with tropical storms and mid-intensity fires applied in 1938 (year of the Harvard Forest hurricane), show that while the effect of disturbance on present-day Net Ecosystem Productivity (NEP) is minor (small carbon sink in all cases), it has a large impact on net carbon sequestration. The cumulative NEP, accounting for all carbon lost during conversion, shows largest net sequestration without disturbance (3429 gCm-2), near neutral carbon with disturbance, but positive sequestration for yearly fires. Total vegetation carbon increases in all cases, with stochastic fires containing the smallest increase, while soil carbon decreases the most when there is no disturbance. Disturbances therefore release carbon to the atmosphere and the soils, while simultaneous recovery from disturbance increases growth and carbon in the vegetation. Ultimately the vegetation regrowth occurs towards original conditions, but the path differs depending upon the severity and frequency of disturbance. These differences depend upon the rate of resupplying soil organic carbon and nitrogen to the soil and how that affects decomposition. We will present results from forests throughout the eastern U.S., as well as combine these results with simulations of human disturbance.

  19. Properties and evolution of biomass burning organic aerosol from Canadian boreal forest fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolleys, M. D.; Coe, H.; McFiggans, G.; Taylor, J. W.; O'Shea, S. J.; Le Breton, M.; Bauguitte, S. J.-B.; Moller, S.; Di Carlo, P.; Aruffo, E.; Palmer, P. I.; Lee, J. D.

    2014-10-01

    Airborne measurements of biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) from boreal forest fires reveal highly contrasting properties for plumes of different ages. These measurements, performed using an Aerodyne Research Inc. compact time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (C-ToF-AMS) during the BORTAS (quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites) experiment in the summer of 2011, have been used to derive normalised excess organic aerosol (OA) mass concentrations (?OA/?CO), with higher average ratios observed closer to source (0.190 ± 0.010) than in the far-field (0.097 ± 0.002). The difference in ?OA/?CO between fresh and aged plumes is influenced by a change in dominant combustion conditions throughout the campaign. Measurements at source sampled largely smouldering fires, while plumes encountered in the far-field originated from fires occurring earlier in the campaign when fire activity had been more intense. Changing combustion conditions also affect the vertical distribution of biomass burning emissions, as aged plumes from more flaming-dominated fires are injected to higher altitudes of up to 6000 m. Proportional contributions of the mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) 60 and 44 peaks in the AMS mass spectra to the total OA mass (denoted f60 and f44) are used as tracers for primary and oxidized BBOA, respectively. Given the shorter aging times associated with near-field plumes, f44 is lower on average than in more aged, transported plumes. However, high levels of ?O3/?CO and -log(NOx/NOy) close to source indicate that emissions can be subject to very rapid oxidation over short timescales. Conversely, the lofting of plumes into the upper troposphere can lead to the retention of source profiles after transportation over extensive temporal and spatial scales, with f60 also higher on average in aged plumes. Evolution of OA composition with aging is comparable to observations of BB tracers in previous studies, revealing a consistent progression from f60 to f44. The elevated levels of oxygenation in aged plumes, and their association with lower average ?OA/?CO, highlight the influence of OA losses during aging, although there remain considerable uncertainties regarding the role of combustion processes on BBOA production and composition.

  20. Effects of Fire on Ecosystem Carbon Exchange in Siberian Larch Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natali, S.; Alexander, H. D.; Davydov, S. P.; Loranty, M. M.; Mack, M. C.; Zimov, N.

    2014-12-01

    Fire frequency and severity have been increasing across the Arctic, and fires are expected to intensify as the climate becomes warmer and dryer. Fire plays a prominent role in global carbon cycling through direct emissions of greenhouse gases from organic matter combustion as well as through indirect effects of vegetation changes and permafrost thaw, both of which can impact ecosystem carbon exchange over timescales ranging from years to centuries. We examined the indirect effects of fire (i.e., years to decades timescales) on ecosystem carbon exchange in Siberian larch (Larix cajanderi) forests underlain by continuous permafrost and carbon-rich yedoma deposits. We measured understory net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and ecosystem respiration (Reco) from experimental burns, and from larch stands of varying stand densities occurring within a 75-yr burn scar in the vicinity of Cherskiy, Russia. The plot-level (4 m2) experimental burns were conducted in 2012 and comprise four burn treatments based on residual soil organic layer (SOL) depths: control, low severity (> 8 cm), moderate severity (5-8 cm), and high severity (2-5 cm). After three growing seasons, thaw depth was 6%, 11% and 30% deeper in the low, mid, and high severity burn plots compared to control. Immediately following the burns, Reco declined and was related to burn severity; Reco in the mid and high severity plots was fourfold lower than in low severity and control. In the second and third growing seasons, understory Reco continued to be lower in the burn plots relative to control, but effects of burn severity varied across measurement years. While Reco declined as a result of fire, there was a greater net release of CO2 (i.e., NEE) from the burn plots compared to control because there was limited carbon uptake by the regenerating plant community. In the 75-yr burn, we found that variation in stand density, which was likely related to fire severity, significantly impacted understory CO2 exchange through changes in light, SOL depth, and thaw depth. These results highlight the consequences of shifting fire regimes in boreal ecosystems for permafrost carbon vulnerability and the importance of understanding the responses of boreal ecosystems to fire for determining the long-term trajectory of ecosystem carbon exchange in the Arctic.

  1. Rare earth elements in fly ashes created during the coal burning process in certain coal-fired power plants operating in Poland - Upper Silesian Industrial Region.

    PubMed

    Smolka-Danielowska, Danuta

    2010-11-01

    The subject of the study covered volatile ashes created during hard coal burning process in ash furnaces, in power plants operating in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region, Southern Poland. Coal-fired power plants are furnished with dust extracting devices, electro precipitators, with 99-99.6% combustion gas extracting efficiency. Activity concentrations ofTh-232, Ra-226, K-40, Ac-228, U-235 and U-238 were measured with gamma-ray spectrometer. Concentrations of selected rare soil elements (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Y, Gd, Th, U) were analysed by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Mineral phases of individual ash particles were identified with the use of scanning electron microscope equipped with EDS attachment. Laser granulometric analyses were executed with the use of Analyssette analyser. The activity of the investigated fly-ash samples is several times higher than that of the bituminous coal samples; in the coal, the activities are: 226Ra - 85.4 Bq kg(-1), 40 K-689 Bq kg(-1), 232Th - 100.8 Bq kg(-1), 235U-13.5 Bq kg(-1), 238U-50 Bq kg(-1) and 228Ac - 82.4 Bq kg(-1). PMID:20713303

  2. Simulating Climate, Fire, and Management Influences on Forest Carbon Dynamics in Single- and Multi-Species Forests of the Southwestern and Southeastern US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurteau, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    The interaction of climate, disturbance, and management on forest structure and composition can alter carbon dynamics. Understanding how these factors influence forest carbon dynamics individually and in combination is necessary for making forest projections under altered climatic conditions. Model and emission scenario uncertainty in climate projections presents one challenge. When simulating disturbance, such as fire, projected climate influences both fire behavior and post-wildfire regeneration. The outcome of management actions implemented to alter forest conditions can be influenced by both climate and disturbance. Simulation results in both single- and multi-species forests occupying different future climate space indicate the importance of between climate model variation and variation between emission scenarios. The variation in projected biomass as a function of climate model input is as much as 40%. Response to emission scenario varies as a function of climate space, with increased late-century divergence in net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and biomass. When fire is simulated, climate model influence on biomass ranged from 0-27 Mg ha-1, while the effect on NEE ranged from -279 to 238 g m-2. Management implemented to reduce fire risk or provide wildlife habitat influences near- and long-term carbon dynamics as a function of projected climate, with the difference between no management and management for fire risk yielding a range in biomass of 0.6 to 10.78 Mg ha-1 and relatively little change in NEE (-8 to 21 g m-2). Given the range of results, including a suite of models and emission scenarios allow for bracketing the range of future forest conditions. However, the mismatch in scales between climate projections and the microclimatic influences on regeneration and the influence of projected climate on wildfire frequency and type add sources of uncertainty to these projections that require additional investigation.

  3. Monitoring the short-term effects of prescribed fire on an endemic mollusk in the dry forests of the eastern Cascades, Washington, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William L. Gaines; Andrea L. Lyons; Kathleen Weaver; Ann Sprague

    2011-01-01

    The restoration of natural fire regimes has emerged as a primary management objective within fire-prone forests in the interior western US. However, this objective becomes contentious when perceived to be in conflict with the conservation of rare or endemic species. We monitored the effects of two forest restoration treatments, spring- vs fall-prescribed burning, on the density of the endemic Tiny

  4. A comparative evaluation of minerals and trace elements in the ashes from lignite, coal refuse, and biomass fired power plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Smriti Singh; Lal C. Ram; Reginald E. Masto; Santosh K. Verma

    2011-01-01

    Coal being a limited source of energy, extraction of energy from other sources like lignite, coal-refuse, and biomass is being attempted worldwide. The minerals and inorganic elements present in fuel feeds pose different technological and environmental concerns. Lignite ash, refuse ash, and biomass ash collected from Indian power plants burning lignite, coal-refuse, and mustard stalk, respectively, were analyzed for physico-chemical

  5. Repeated prescribed fires decrease stocks and change attributes of coarse woody debris in a temperate eucalypt forest.

    PubMed

    Aponte, Cristina; Tolhurst, Kevin G; Bennett, Lauren T

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies have found negligible effects of single prescribed fires on coarse woody debris (CWD), but the cumulative effects of repeated low-intensity prescribed fires are unknown. This represents a knowledge gap for environmental management because repeated prescribed fires are a key tool for mitigating wildfire risk, and because CWD is recognized as critical to forest biodiversity and functioning. We examined the effects of repeated low-intensity prescribed fires on the attributes and stocks of (fallen) CWD in a mixed-species eucalypt forest of temperate Australia. Prescribed fire treatments were a factorial combination of two seasons (Autumn, Spring) and two frequencies (three yearly High, 10 yearly Low), were replicated over five study areas, and involved two to seven low-intensity fires over 27 years. Charring due to prescribed fires variously changed carbon and nitrogen concentrations and C to N ratios of CWD pieces depending on decay class, but did not affect mean wood density. CWD biomass and C and N stocks were significantly less in Fire than Control treatments. Decreases in total CWD C stocks of -8 Mg/ha in Fire treatments were not balanced by minor increases in pyrogenic (char) C (-0.3 Mg/ha). Effects of prescribed fire frequency and season included significantly less C and N stocks in rotten CWD in High than Low frequency treatments, and in the largest CWD pieces in Autumn than Spring treatments. Our study demonstrates that repeated low-intensity prescribed fires have the potential to significantly decrease CWD stocks, in pieces of all sizes and particularly decayed pieces, and to change CWD chemical attributes. CWD is at best a minor stock of pyrogenic C under such fire regimes. These findings suggest a potential trade-off in the management of temperate eucalypt forests between sustained reduction of wildfire risk, and the consequences of decreased CWD C stocks, and of changes in CWD as a habitat and biogeochemical substrate. Nonetheless, negative impacts on CWD of repeated low-intensity prescribed fires could be lessened by fire intervals of 10 rather than three years (to decrease losses of decayed CWD), and fires in moist rather than dry conditions (to conserve large CWD). PMID:25154091

  6. Detection, emission estimation and risk prediction of forest fires in China using satellite sensors and simulation models in the past three decades--an overview.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia-Hua; Yao, Feng-Mei; Liu, Cheng; Yang, Li-Min; Boken, Vijendra K

    2011-08-01

    Forest fires have major impact on ecosystems and greatly impact the amount of greenhouse gases and aerosols in the atmosphere. This paper presents an overview in the forest fire detection, emission estimation, and fire risk prediction in China using satellite imagery, climate data, and various simulation models over the past three decades. Since the 1980s, remotely-sensed data acquired by many satellites, such as NOAA/AVHRR, FY-series, MODIS, CBERS, and ENVISAT, have been widely utilized for detecting forest fire hot spots and burned areas in China. Some developed algorithms have been utilized for detecting the forest fire hot spots at a sub-pixel level. With respect to modeling the forest burning emission, a remote sensing data-driven Net Primary productivity (NPP) estimation model was developed for estimating forest biomass and fuel. In order to improve the forest fire risk modeling in China, real-time meteorological data, such as surface temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, have been used as the model input for improving prediction of forest fire occurrence and its behavior. Shortwave infrared (SWIR) and near infrared (NIR) channels of satellite sensors have been employed for detecting live fuel moisture content (FMC), and the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) was used for evaluating the forest vegetation condition and its moisture status. PMID:21909297

  7. Variation in Aboveground Cover Influences Soil Nitrogen Availability at Fine Spatial Scales Following Severe Fire in Subalpine Conifer Forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monica G. Turner; William H. Romme; Erica A. H. Smithwick; Daniel B. Tinker; Jun Zhu

    Following fire, fine-scale variation in early successional vegetation and soil nutrients may influence development of ecosystem\\u000a structure and function. We studied conifer forests burned by stand-replacing wildfire in Greater Yellowstone (Wyoming, USA)\\u000a to address two questions: (1) How do the variability and spatial structure of aboveground cover and soil nitrogen availability\\u000a change during the first 4 years following stand-replacing fire? (2)

  8. Geospatial characterization of deforestation, fragmentation and forest fires in Telangana state, India: conservation perspective.

    PubMed

    Sudhakar Reddy, C; Vazeed Pasha, S; Jha, C S; Dadhwal, V K

    2015-07-01

    Conservation of biodiversity has been put to the highest priority throughout the world. The process of identifying threatened ecosystems will search for different drivers related to biodiversity loss. The present study aimed to generate spatial information on deforestation and ecological degradation indicators of fragmentation and forest fires using systematic conceptual approach in Telangana state, India. Identification of ecosystems facing increasing vulnerability can help to safeguard the extinctions of species and useful for conservation planning. The technological advancement of satellite remote sensing and Geographical Information System has increased greatly in assessment and monitoring of ecosystem-level changes. The areas of threat were identified by creating grid cells (5 × 5 km) in Geographical Information System (GIS). Deforestation was assessed using multi-source data of 1930, 1960, 1975, 1985, 1995, 2005 and 2013. The forest cover of 40,746 km(2), 29,299 km(2), 18,652 km(2), 18,368 km(2), 18,006 km(2), 17,556 km(2) and 17,520 km(2) was estimated during 1930, 1960, 1975, 1985, 1995, 2005 and 2013, respectively. Historical evaluation of deforestation revealed that major changes had occurred in forests of Telangana and identified 1095 extinct, 397 critically endangered, 523 endangered and 311 vulnerable ecosystem grid cells. The fragmentation analysis has identified 307 ecosystem grid cells under critically endangered status. Forest burnt area information was extracted using AWiFS data of 2005 to 2014. Spatial analysis indicates total fire-affected forest in Telangana as 58.9 % in a decadal period. Conservation status has been recorded depending upon values of threat for each grid, which forms the basis for conservation priority hotspots. Of existing forest, 2.1 % grids had severe ecosystem collapse and had been included under the category of conservation priority hotspot-I, followed by 27.2 % in conservation priority hotspot-II and 51.5 % in conservation priority hotspot-III. This analysis complements assessment of ecosystems undergoing multiple threats. An integrated approach involving the deforestation and degradation indicators is useful in formulating the strategies to take appropriate conservation measures. PMID:26093894

  9. Using the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) System to assess the performance of fire management in Portugal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Fernandes; M. G. Pereira

    2009-01-01

    The success of fire management policies can be gauged by changes on the fire regime characteristics. Climate, vegetation (fuel) and topography determine the fire regime, and exert their influences at distinct temporal and spatial scales whose relative importance is quite debated. Climate factors are expected to prevail at the regional scale, while the local control of fire behaviour is determined

  10. The state of microbial complexes in soils of forest ecosystems after fires and defoliation of stands by gypsy moths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogorodskaya, A. V.; Baranchikov, Yu. N.; Ivanova, G. A.

    2009-03-01

    The state of microbial cenoses in the soils of forest ecosystems damaged by fires of different strengths and gypsy moth outbreaks (Central Siberia) was assessed by the intensity of the basal respiration, the content of carbon of the microbial biomass, and the microbial metabolic quotient. The degree of the disturbance of the microbial cenoses in the soils under pine forests after fires was higher than that in the soils under the forests defoliated by gypsy moths. The greatest changes of the microbial complexes were recorded after the fires of high and medium intensity. In the litters, the content of the microbial biomass, the intensity of basal respiration, and the microbial metabolic quotient value were restored on the fifth year after the fires, whereas in the upper (0-10 cm) soil layer, these parameters still differed from those in the control variant, especially after the highly intense fires. After the weak fires, the ecophysiological state of the microbial complexes was restored within two-three years.

  11. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Fire in Whitebark Pine Stands on two Mountains in the Lolo National Forest, Montana, USA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, E. R.; Grissino-Mayer, H. D.

    2004-12-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) is a long-lived tree species that exists throughout high elevation and treeline forest communities of western North America. It is the foundation of a diminishing ecosystem that supports Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana), red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), grizzly bears (Ursus arctos), and black bears (U. americana). Several factors are directly linked to the decline of the whitebark pine ecosystem: mortality from recent and widespread mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreaks, infestation by the invasive white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola, an exotic fungal canker that weakens and eventually kills white pines), and fire suppression that may have altered the historic fire regime and enabled fire-intolerant tree species to encroach upon whitebark pine stands. The synergistic effects of these factors have led to a dramatic decline in whitebark pine communities throughout its native range, and in response land managers and conservationists have called for research to better understand the ecological dynamics of this little studied ecosystem. My research uses dendrochronology to investigate the fire history of whitebark pine stands on three mountains in the Lolo National Forest, Montana, via fire-scar and age structure analyses. I present here the results from the fire-scar analyses from Morrell Mountain where I obtained 40 cross sections from dead and down whitebark pines. Individual tree mean fire return intervals (MFRI) range from 33 to 119 years, with a stand MFRI of 49 years that includes fire scars dating to the 16th century. Fire events scarred multiple trees in AD 1754, 1796, and 1843, indicating a mixed-severity fire regime. The majority of the samples recorded a frost event in AD 1601, perhaps evidence of the AD 1600 eruption of Mt. Huaynapatina in the Peruvian Andes. My research not only provides an historical framework for land managers, but also provides an opportunity to examine long-term spatiotemporal dynamics of fire activity over the northern Rocky Mountains in terms of climate change and atmospheric teleconnections.

  12. Satellite measurements of large-scale air pollution: Measurements of forest fire smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrare, R.A.; Fraser, R.S.; Kaufman, Y.J. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (USA))

    1990-06-20

    The transport, optical properties, total mass, and removal of smoke produced by forest fires in western Canada during late July and early August 1982 are studied using NOAA 7 Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data. Color composite imagery is produced to track the movement of the smoke over Canada and the United States as the smoke traveled thousands of kilometers from the source region. Smoke optical thickness, particle size, and single scattering albedo (ratio of particle scattering to extinction) are computed using radiances measured by AVHRR bands 1 (0.58-0.68 {mu}m) and 2 (0.72-1.10 {mu}m). Results show that smoke optical thickness ranged from less than 0.1 greater than 3.7 and the geometric mean mass radii ranged from 0.3 to 0.9 {mu}m. The smoke single scattering albedo ranged from 0.9 to nearly 1.0. The total smoke mass over the eastern United States, computed using the derived particle size and optical thickness, ranged from 0.1 to 0.5 Tg which is close to the 0.5 Tg estimated to have been produced by the fires based on the forest fuel content. The smoke lifetime is estimated to be between 15 and 20 days.

  13. Effects of seeding ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) on vegetation recovery following fire in a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela D. Barclay; Julio L. Betancourt; Craig D. Allen

    Abstract. Forty-nine vegetation transects were measured in 1997 and 1998 to determine the impact of grass seed- ing after the 1996 Dome Fire, which burned almost 6900 ha of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson) forest in the Jemez Mountains of north-central New Mexico. High- and moderate-burned areas in Santa Fe National Forest were seeded with a mixture that included the

  14. Late Holocene vegetation, fire, climate and upper forest line dynamics in the Podocarpus National Park, southeastern Ecuador

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernando Rodríguez; Hermann Behling

    2011-01-01

    Late Holocene vegetation, fire, climate and upper forest line dynamics were studied based on detailed pollen and charcoal\\u000a analyses. Two sediment cores, from the Rabadilla de Vaca mire (RVM) and the Valle Pequeño bog (VP), with an age of about 2100\\u000a and 1630 cal yrs b.p., respectively, were taken at the modern upper forest line in the Parque Nacional Podocarpus (Podocarpus National

  15. Characteristics of fly ashes from full-scale coal-fired power plants and their relationship to mercury adsorption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Y.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Chang, R.; Richardson, C.; Paradis, J.

    2007-01-01

    Nine fly ash samples were collected from the particulate collection devices (baghouse or electrostatic precipitator) of four full-scale pulverized coal (PC) utility boilers burning eastern bituminous coals (EB-PC ashes) and three cyclone utility boilers burning either Powder River Basin (PRB) coals or PRB blends,(PRB-CYC ashes). As-received fly ash samples were mechanically sieved to obtain six size fractions. Unburned carbon (UBC) content, mercury content, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET)-N2 surface areas of as-received fly ashes and their size fractions were measured. In addition, UBC particles were examined by scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission microscopy, and thermogravimetry to obtain information on their surface morphology, structure, and oxidation reactivity. It was found that the UBC particles contained amorphous carbon, ribbon-shaped graphitic carbon, and highly ordered graphite structures. The mercury contents of the UBCs (Hg/UBC, in ppm) in raw ash samples were comparable to those of the UBC-enriched samples, indicating that mercury was mainly adsorbed on the UBC in fly ash. The UBC content decreased with a decreasing particle size range for all nine ashes. There was no correlation between the mercury and UBC contents of different size fractions of as-received ashes. The mercury content of the UBCs in each size fraction, however, generally increased with a decreasing particle size for the nine ashes. The mercury contents and surface areas of the UBCs in the PRB-CYC ashes were about 8 and 3 times higher than UBCs in the EB-PC ashes, respectively. It appeared that both the particle size and surface area of UBC could contribute to mercury capture. The particle size of the UBC in PRB-CYC ash and thus the external mass transfer was found to be the major factor impacting the mercury adsorption. Both the particle size and surface reactivity of the UBC in EB-PC ash, which generally had a lower carbon oxidation reactivity than the PRB-PC ashes, appeared to be important for the mercury adsorption. ?? 2007 American Chemical Society.

  16. Session A--Equipping Tomorrow's Fire Managers--Dicus USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-189. 2008. 1

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    Session A--Equipping Tomorrow's Fire Managers--Dicus USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-189. 2008. 1 Equipping Tomorrow's Fire Managers1 Christopher A. Dicus2 Abstract Fire managers's managers must be equipped with the skills necessary to understand and liaise with a burgeoning group

  17. Poster Session--Fuel Consumption During Prescribed Fires in Big Sage--Wright, Ottmar USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-189. 2008. 363

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    Poster Session--Fuel Consumption During Prescribed Fires in Big Sage--Wright, Ottmar USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-189. 2008. 363 Fuel Consumption During Prescribed Fires in Big Sage of operational prescribed fires in big sage (Artemisia tridentata) ecosystems throughout the interior West. Pre

  18. Decreasing frequency of forest fires in the southern boreal zone of Québec and its relation to global warming since the end of the 'Little Ice Age'

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yves Bergeron; Sylvain Archambault

    1993-01-01

    Although an increasing frequency of forest fires has been suggested as a consequence of global warming, there are no empirical data that have shown a climatically driven change in fire frequency since the warming that has followed the end of the 'Little Ice Age'. We present here evidence from fire and tree-ring chronologies that the post-'Little Ice Age' climate change

  19. 147USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-158. 1995. A Balanced Approach: Dr. Biswell's Solution to Fire Issues

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    147USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-158. 1995. A Balanced Approach: Dr. Biswell's Solution to Fire Issues in Urban Interface and Wildland Ecosystems1 Carol Rice2 Abstract: Dr. Biswell's approach to fire management balanced fire prevention, suppression, and fuel management. Dr. Biswell

  20. Evaluation of potential strategies to SLow Ash Mortality (SLAM) caused by emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis): SLAM in an urban forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah G. McCullough; Rodrigo J. Mercader

    2012-01-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive pest native to Asia, has killed millions of ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees in North America since it was first discovered there in 2002. As of autumn 2011, A. planipennis has been detected in 15 US states and two Canadian provinces. A pilot project to slow the onset and progression of