Science.gov

Sample records for forest service early

  1. Potential of VIIRS Time Series Data for Aiding the USDA Forest Service Early Warning System for Forest Health Threats: A Gypsy Moth Defoliation Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Ryan, Robert E.; McKellip, Rodney

    2008-01-01

    The Healthy Forest Restoration Act of 2003 mandated that a national forest threat Early Warning System (EWS) be developed. The USFS (USDA Forest Service) is currently building this EWS. NASA is helping the USFS to integrate remotely sensed data into the EWS, including MODIS data for monitoring forest disturbance at broad regional scales. This RPC experiment assesses the potential of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data for contribution to the EWS. In doing so, the RPC project employed multitemporal simulated VIIRS and MODIS data for detecting and monitoring forest defoliation from the non-native Eurasian gypsy moth (Lymantria despar). Gypsy moth is an invasive species threatening eastern U.S. hardwood forests. It is one of eight major forest insect threats listed in the Healthy Forest Restoration Act of 2003. This RPC experiment is relevant to several nationally important mapping applications, including carbon management, ecological forecasting, coastal management, and disaster management

  2. 78 FR 23903 - Forest Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... Forest Service Dixie Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting... recommendations to the Forest Service concerning projects and funding consistent with Title II of the Act. The meeting is open to the public. The purpose of the meeting is to review proposals for forest projects...

  3. Potential of VIIRS Time Series Data for Aiding the USDA Forest Service Early Warning System for Forest Health Threats: A Gypsy Moth Defoliation Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Ryan, Robert E.; Smoot, James; Kuper, Phillip; Prados, Donald; Russell, Jeffrey; Ross, Kenton; Gasser, Gerald; Sader, Steven; McKellip, Rodney

    2007-01-01

    This report details one of three experiments performed during FY 2007 for the NASA RPC (Rapid Prototyping Capability) at Stennis Space Center. This RPC experiment assesses the potential of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data for detecting and monitoring forest defoliation from the non-native Eurasian gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). The intent of the RPC experiment was to assess the degree to which VIIRS data can provide forest disturbance monitoring information as an input to a forest threat EWS (Early Warning System) as compared to the level of information that can be obtained from MODIS data. The USDA Forest Service (USFS) plans to use MODIS products for generating broad-scaled, regional monitoring products as input to an EWS for forest health threat assessment. NASA SSC is helping the USFS to evaluate and integrate currently available satellite remote sensing technologies and data products for the EWS, including the use of MODIS products for regional monitoring of forest disturbance. Gypsy moth defoliation of the mid-Appalachian highland region was selected as a case study. Gypsy moth is one of eight major forest insect threats listed in the Healthy Forest Restoration Act (HFRA) of 2003; the gypsy moth threatens eastern U.S. hardwood forests, which are also a concern highlighted in the HFRA of 2003. This region was selected for the project because extensive gypsy moth defoliation occurred there over multiple years during the MODIS operational period. This RPC experiment is relevant to several nationally important mapping applications, including agricultural efficiency, coastal management, ecological forecasting, disaster management, and carbon management. In this experiment, MODIS data and VIIRS data simulated from MODIS were assessed for their ability to contribute broad, regional geospatial information on gypsy moth defoliation. Landsat and ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission

  4. Forest Service produces risk maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    As part of an effort to improve the management and health of forests in the United States, the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) presented Congress with new maps to help assess the risks that woodlands face from catastrophic fires, pests, and disease, at a February 24 hearing of a subcommittee of the House of Representatives' Committee on Agriculture.However, Subcommittee Chair Robert Goodlatte (R-Va.) questioned the Forest Service's commitment to the mapping initiative, which the committee earlier had requested that the agency undertake. "Even if the initiative is completed on paper, there remains the question whether the Forest Service will actually implement it on the ground," he said.

  5. Accuracy of early stand exam age estimates in the Swan Valley of Western Montana. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, M.; Lesica, P.

    1994-04-01

    The stand exams conducted in western Montana over 50 years ago provide a valuable source of information on prefire suppression and preharvest condition of the region's forests. Of the early exam estimates of stand origin, 52 percent were within 20 years of estimates taken from stand exams conducted in the 1980's, and 73 percent were within 60 years. There was no significant bias toward either higher or lower age estimates. The early stand exam data can give an accurate estimate of stand age distributions over large areas.

  6. 78 FR 13621 - Forest Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    .... Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, San Bernardino National Forest (SBNF); and A Mining and Land... existing permitted Sentinel and Butterfield limestone quarries are located on mining claims within the SBNF... mining at both quarries to be extended until 2055. Depending on market demand, the combined Sentinel...

  7. Modeling the forest transition: forest scarcity and ecosystem service hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Satake, Akiko; Rudel, Thomas K

    2007-10-01

    An historical generalization about forest cover change in which rapid deforestation gives way over time to forest restoration is called "the forest transition." Prior research on the forest transition leaves three important questions unanswered: (1) How does forest loss influence an individual landowner's incentives to reforest? (2) How does the forest recovery rate affect the likelihood of forest transition? (3) What happens after the forest transition occurs? The purpose of this paper is to develop a minimum model of the forest transition to answer these questions. We assume that deforestation caused by landowners' decisions and forest regeneration initiated by agricultural abandonment have aggregated effects that characterize entire landscapes. These effects include feedback mechanisms called the "forest scarcity" and "ecosystem service" hypotheses. In the forest scarcity hypothesis, forest losses make forest products scarcer, which increases the economic value of forests. In the ecosystem service hypothesis, the environmental degradation that accompanies the loss of forests causes the value of ecosystem services provided by forests to decline. We examined the impact of each mechanism on the likelihood of forest transition through an investigation of the equilibrium and stability of landscape dynamics. We found that the forest transition occurs only when landowners employ a low rate of future discounting. After the forest transition, regenerated forests are protected in a sustainable way if forests regenerate slowly. When forests regenerate rapidly, the forest scarcity hypothesis expects instability in which cycles of large-scale deforestation followed by forest regeneration repeatedly characterize the landscape. In contrast, the ecosystem service hypothesis predicts a catastrophic shift from a forested to an abandoned landscape when the amount of deforestation exceeds the critical level, which can lead to a resource degrading poverty trap. These findings imply

  8. Montana's forest resources. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, R.C.; O'Brien, R.A.

    1993-09-01

    The report includes highlights of the forest resource in Montana as of 1989. Also the study describes the extent, condition, and location of the State's forests with particular emphasis on timberland. Includes statistical tables, area by land classes, ownership, and forest type, growing stock and sawtimber volumes, growth, mortality, and removals for timberland.

  9. 75 FR 52716 - Transfer of Land to Forest Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... Forest Service Transfer of Land to Forest Service AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of land.... Department of Agriculture, and on March 16, 2010, the Deputy Chief of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of... Federally owned lands in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico from the Farm Service Agency to the Forest...

  10. Expenditures for Early Intervention Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebbeler, Kathleen; Levin, Jesse; Perez, Maria; Lam, Irene; Chambers, Jay G.

    2009-01-01

    What does it cost to provide early intervention services? Data collected as part of the National Early Intervention Longitudinal Study were used to determine expenditures for infants, toddlers, and their families receiving services through Part C programs. The study found that the national average total expenditure for early intervention services…

  11. 36 CFR 200.3 - Forest Service functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Forest Service functions. 200.3 Section 200.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONS, AND PROCEDURES Functions and Procedures § 200.3 Forest Service functions....

  12. 36 CFR 200.3 - Forest Service functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Forest Service functions. 200.3 Section 200.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONS, AND PROCEDURES Functions and Procedures § 200.3 Forest Service functions....

  13. 36 CFR 200.3 - Forest Service functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Forest Service functions. 200.3 Section 200.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONS, AND PROCEDURES Functions and Procedures § 200.3 Forest Service functions....

  14. Contribution of Near Real Time MODIS-Based Forest Disturbance Detection Products to a National Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph; Hargrove, William; Gasser, Gerald; Smoot, James; Kuper, Philip

    2011-01-01

    U.S. forests occupy approx. 751 million acres (approx. 1/3 of total land). These forests are exposed to multiple biotic and abiotic threats that collectively damage extensive acreages each year. Hazardous forest disturbances can threaten human life and property, bio-diversity and water supplies. Timely regional forest monitoring products are needed to aid forest management and decision making by the US Forest Service and its state and private partners. Daily MODIS data products provide a means to monitor regional forest disturbances on a weekly basis. In response, we began work in 2006 to develop a Near Real Time (NRT) forest monitoring capability, based on MODIS NDVI data, as part of a national forest threat early warning system (EWS)

  15. Monitoring Regional Forest Disturbances across the US with Near Real Time MODIS NDVI Products included in the ForWarn Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph; Hargrove, William W.; Gasser, Gerald; Norman, Steve

    2013-01-01

    U.S. forests occupy approx.1/3 of total land area (approx. 304 million ha). Since 2000, a growing number of regionally evident forest disturbances have occurred due to abiotic and biotic agents. Regional forest disturbances can threaten human life and property, bio-diversity and water supplies. Timely regional forest disturbance monitoring products are needed to aid forest health management work. Near Real Time (NRT) twice daily MODIS NDVI data provide a means to monitor U.S. regional forest disturbances every 8 days. Since 2010, these NRT forest change products have been produced and posted on the US Forest Service ForWarn Early Warning System for Forest Threats.

  16. Forests and Phenology: Designing the Early Warning System to Understand Forest Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, T.; Phillips, M. B.; Hargrove, W. W.; Dobson, G.; Hicks, J.; Hutchins, M.; Lichtenstein, K.

    2010-12-01

    Vegetative phenology is the study of plant development and changes with the seasons, such as the greening-up and browning-down of forests, and how these events are influenced by variations in climate. A National Phenology Data Set, based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite images covering 2002 through 2009, is now available from work by NASA, the US Forest Service, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This new data set provides an easily interpretable product useful for detecting changes to the landscape due to long-term factors such as climate change, as well as finding areas affected by short-term forest threats such as insects or disease. The Early Warning System (EWS) is a toolset being developed by the US Forest Service and the University of North Carolina-Asheville to support distribution and use of the National Phenology Data Set. The Early Warning System will help research scientists, US Forest Service personnel, forest and natural resources managers, decision makers, and the public in the use of phenology data to better understand unexpected change within our nation’s forests. These changes could have multiple natural sources such as insects, disease, or storm damage, or may be due to human-induced events, like thinning, harvest, forest conversion to agriculture, or residential and commercial use. The primary goal of the Early Warning System is to provide a seamless integration between monitoring, detection, early warning and prediction of these forest disturbances as observed through phenological data. The system consists of PC and web-based components that are structured to support four user stages of increasing knowledge and data sophistication. Building Literacy: This stage of the Early Warning System educates potential users about the system, why the system should be used, and the fundamentals about the data the system uses. The channels for this education include a website, interactive tutorials, pamphlets, and other technology

  17. Earth Observation Services (Forest Imaging)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Two university professors used EOCAP funding to demonstrate that satellite data can generate forest classifications with equal or better accuracy than traditional aerial photography techniques. This comparison had not been previously available. CALFIRST, the resulting processing package, will be marketed to forest companies and government agencies. The EOCAP program provides government co-funding to encourage private investment in, and to broaden the use of, NASA- developed technology for analyzing information about Earth and ocean resources.

  18. 78 FR 34031 - Burned Area Emergency Response, Forest Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... Response activities on National Forest System lands. Agency regulations at 36 CFR 220.6(d)(2) (73 FR 43093...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service RIN 0596-AC73 Burned Area Emergency Response, Forest Service AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of interim directive; request for public comment. SUMMARY:...

  19. 77 FR 11569 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: USDA Forest Service, Coconino National Forest...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: USDA Forest Service, Coconino National Forest, Flagstaff, AZ AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The USDA Forest... believes itself to be culturally affiliated ] with the cultural items may contact the USDA Forest...

  20. 77 FR 5838 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: USDA Forest Service, Coconino National Forest...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: USDA Forest Service, Coconino National Forest, Flagstaff, AZ AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The USDA Forest... believes itself to be culturally affiliated with the cultural items may contact the USDA Forest...

  1. Mobile satellite communications in the Forest Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, John R.

    1988-01-01

    There are usually some places within a forest that do not have adequate communication coverage due to line-of-sight or other reasons. These areas are generally known by the foresters and radio technicians and allowances are made for that when working or traveling in those areas. However, when wildfire or other emergencies occur, communications are vital because wildfires can require hundreds of firefighters and cover thousands of acres. During these emergency operations, the existing communications are not adequate and complete radio systems are moved into the area for the conduct of fire communications. Incident command posts (ICPs) and fire camps are set up in remote locations and there is constant need for communications in the fire area and to agency headquarters and dispatch offices. Mobile satellite communications would be an ideal supplement to the Forest Service's current communications system in aiding forest fire control activities.

  2. 36 CFR 200.3 - Forest Service functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Agriculture, the broad responsibilities of the Forest Service are: (1) Leadership in forestry. The Forest Service provides overall leadership in forest and forest-range conservation, development, and use. This... Management Act of October 22, 1976 (16 U.S.C. 472a, 476, 500, 513-516, 521b; 576b, 1600-1602, 1604,...

  3. 36 CFR 200.3 - Forest Service functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Agriculture, the broad responsibilities of the Forest Service are: (1) Leadership in forestry. The Forest Service provides overall leadership in forest and forest-range conservation, development, and use. This... Management Act of October 22, 1976 (16 U.S.C. 472a, 476, 500, 513-516, 521b; 576b, 1600-1602, 1604,...

  4. 76 FR 47353 - Final Directives for Forest Service Wind Energy Special Use Authorizations, Forest Service Manual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ...The Forest Service is amending its internal directives for special use authorizations and wildlife monitoring. The amendments provide direction and guidance specific to wind energy projects on National Forest System (NFS) lands. These amendments supplement, rather than supplant or duplicate, existing special use and wildlife directives to address issues specifically associated with siting,......

  5. 78 FR 44523 - Burned Area Emergency Response, Forest Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ..., (78 FR 34031). This correction adds the Web site that was inadvertently omitted from the interim... Federal Register of June 6, 2013, in FR Doc. 2013-13459, on page 34031, column 3, after the first... Forest Service RIN 0596-AC73 Burned Area Emergency Response, Forest Service AGENCY: Forest Service,...

  6. Mapping Historic Gypsy Moth Defoliation with MODIS Satellite Data: Implications for Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spurce, Joseph P.; Hargrove, William; Ryan, Robert E.; Smooth, James C.; Prados, Don; McKellip, Rodney; Sader, Steven A.; Gasser, Jerry; May, George

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews a project, the goal of which is to study the potential of MODIS data for monitoring historic gypsy moth defoliation. A NASA/USDA Forest Service (USFS) partnership was formed to perform the study. NASA is helping USFS to implement satellite data products into its emerging Forest Threat Early Warning System. The latter system is being developed by the USFS Eastern and Western Forest Threat Assessment Centers. The USFS Forest Threat Centers want to use MODIS time series data for regional monitoring of forest damage (e.g., defoliation) preferably in near real time. The study's methodology is described, and the results of the study are shown.

  7. Old-growth definition for wet pine forests, woodlands, and savannas. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Harms, W.R.

    1996-09-01

    All Forest Service Stations and Regions began developing old-growth definitions for specific forest types. Definitions will first be developed for broad forest types and based mainly on published information and so must be viewed accordingly. Refinements will be made by the Forest Service as new information becomes available. This document represents 1 of 35 forest types for which old-growth definition will be drafted.

  8. Southern Idaho`s forest land outside national forests, 1991. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Chojnacky, D.C.

    1995-05-01

    The report presents 59 summary tables of forest statistics for land in southern Idaho outside National Forests. The tables show forest land area, tree numbers, wood volume and growth, and tree mortality organized by ownership, stand, and tree classification variables. These stimates are derived from summarization of 292 field plots and over 100,000 photo points using a two-phase sample design. Of the 292 field plots, 91 were remeasurements of plots established in 1981. The sampling was done in 1991 by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) unit located in Ogden, UT. Besides presenting detailed tables, the report briefly explains key FIA terminology, overviews the table formats, highlights some results, and discusses inventory design and data reliability.

  9. Early forest fire detection using radio-acoustic sounding system.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Yasar Guneri; Ince, Turker

    2009-01-01

    Automated early fire detection systems have recently received a significant amount of attention due to their importance in protecting the global environment. Some emergent technologies such as ground-based, satellite-based remote sensing and distributed sensor networks systems have been used to detect forest fires in the early stages. In this study, a radio-acoustic sounding system with fine space and time resolution capabilities for continuous monitoring and early detection of forest fires is proposed. Simulations show that remote thermal mapping of a particular forest region by the proposed system could be a potential solution to the problem of early detection of forest fires. PMID:22573967

  10. Early Forest Fire Detection Using Radio-Acoustic Sounding System

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Yasar Guneri; Ince, Turker

    2009-01-01

    Automated early fire detection systems have recently received a significant amount of attention due to their importance in protecting the global environment. Some emergent technologies such as ground-based, satellite-based remote sensing and distributed sensor networks systems have been used to detect forest fires in the early stages. In this study, a radio-acoustic sounding system with fine space and time resolution capabilities for continuous monitoring and early detection of forest fires is proposed. Simulations show that remote thermal mapping of a particular forest region by the proposed system could be a potential solution to the problem of early detection of forest fires. PMID:22573967

  11. Assessing Potential of VIIRS Data for Contribution to a Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the contributions by the Rapid Prototyping Capability (RPC) towards using Visible Infrared Imager / Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) data in assessing the damage to forests. The Healthy Forest Restoration Act of 2003 mandates development of national Early Warning System (EWS) for forest threat monitoring and mitigation. NASA Stennis is working with the US Forest Service to develop needed components of this EWS. The use of MODIS data for monitoring forest disturbance at broad regional scales is a componet of this program. This RPC experiment was initiated to assess potential of the MODIS follow-on, VIIRS, for monitoring forest disturbance at broad scales and thereby contributing to the EWS. This presentation reviews the potential use of the VIIRS to examine the damage to forests caused by gyspy moths in the West Virginia and Virginia area.

  12. Forest restoration and forest communities: have local communities benefited from forest service contracting of ecosystem management?

    PubMed

    Moseley, Cassandra; Reyes, Yolanda E

    2008-08-01

    Conservation-based development programs have sought to create economic opportunities for people negatively impacted by biological diversity protection. The USDA Forest Service, for example, developed policies and programs to create contracting opportunities for local communities to restore public lands to replace jobs lost from reduced timber harvest. This article examines 12 years of Forest Service land management contracting in western Oregon, Washington, and northern California to evaluate if contractors located in communities near national forests have been awarded more land management contracts and contract value over time. We find that land management contracting spending has declined dramatically and, once we control for intervening factors, we find that local contractors have received a smaller proportion of land management contracts over time. PMID:18521660

  13. Forest Restoration and Forest Communities: Have Local Communities Benefited from Forest Service Contracting of Ecosystem Management?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moseley, Cassandra; Reyes, Yolanda E.

    2008-08-01

    Conservation-based development programs have sought to create economic opportunities for people negatively impacted by biological diversity protection. The USDA Forest Service, for example, developed policies and programs to create contracting opportunities for local communities to restore public lands to replace jobs lost from reduced timber harvest. This article examines 12 years of Forest Service land management contracting in western Oregon, Washington, and northern California to evaluate if contractors located in communities near national forests have been awarded more land management contracts and contract value over time. We find that land management contracting spending has declined dramatically and, once we control for intervening factors, we find that local contractors have received a smaller proportion of land management contracts over time.

  14. Paying for Forest Ecosystem Services: Voluntary Versus Mandatory Payments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roesch-McNally, Gabrielle E.; Rabotyagov, Sergey S.

    2016-03-01

    The emergence of new markets for forest ecosystem services can be a compelling opportunity for market diversification for private forest landowners, while increasing the provision of public goods from private lands. However, there is limited information available on the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for specific forest ecosystem services, particularly across different ecosystem market mechanisms. We utilize survey data from Oregon and Washington households to compare marginal WTP for forest ecosystem services and the total WTP for cost-effective bundles of forest ecosystem services obtained from a typical Pacific Northwest forest across two value elicitation formats representing two different ecosystem market mechanisms: an incentive-compatible choice experiment involving mandatory tax payments and a hypothetical private provision scenario modeled as eliciting contributions to the preferred forest management alternative via a provision point mechanism with a refund. A representative household's total WTP for the average forest management program was estimated at 217.59 per household/year under a mandatory tax mechanism and 160.44 per household/per year under a voluntary, crowdfunding-style, contribution mechanism; however, these estimates are not statistically different. Marginal WTP estimates were assessed for particular forest ecosystem service attributes including water quality, carbon storage, mature forest habitat, and public recreational access. This study finds that survey respondents place significant economic value on forest ecosystem services in both elicitation formats and that the distributions of the marginal WTP are not statistically significantly different.

  15. Paying for Forest Ecosystem Services: Voluntary Versus Mandatory Payments.

    PubMed

    Roesch-McNally, Gabrielle E; Rabotyagov, Sergey S

    2016-03-01

    The emergence of new markets for forest ecosystem services can be a compelling opportunity for market diversification for private forest landowners, while increasing the provision of public goods from private lands. However, there is limited information available on the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for specific forest ecosystem services, particularly across different ecosystem market mechanisms. We utilize survey data from Oregon and Washington households to compare marginal WTP for forest ecosystem services and the total WTP for cost-effective bundles of forest ecosystem services obtained from a typical Pacific Northwest forest across two value elicitation formats representing two different ecosystem market mechanisms: an incentive-compatible choice experiment involving mandatory tax payments and a hypothetical private provision scenario modeled as eliciting contributions to the preferred forest management alternative via a provision point mechanism with a refund. A representative household's total WTP for the average forest management program was estimated at $217.59 per household/year under a mandatory tax mechanism and $160.44 per household/per year under a voluntary, crowdfunding-style, contribution mechanism; however, these estimates are not statistically different. Marginal WTP estimates were assessed for particular forest ecosystem service attributes including water quality, carbon storage, mature forest habitat, and public recreational access. This study finds that survey respondents place significant economic value on forest ecosystem services in both elicitation formats and that the distributions of the marginal WTP are not statistically significantly different. PMID:26661136

  16. [Evaluation of economic forest ecosystem services in China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing; Lu, Shao-Wei

    2009-02-01

    This paper quantitatively evaluated the economic forest ecosystem services in the provinces of China in 2003, based on the long-term and continuous observations of economic forest ecosystems in this country, the sixth China national forest resources inventory data, and the price parameter data from the authorities in the world, and by applying the law of market value, the method of substitution of the expenses, and the law of the shadow project. The results showed that in 2003, the total value of economic forest ecosystem services in China was 11763.39 x 10(8) yuan, and the total value of the products from economic forests occupied 19.3% of the total ecosystem services value, which indicated that the economic forests not only provided society direct products, but also exhibited enormous eco-economic value. The service value of the functions of economic forests was in the order of water storage > C fixation and O2 release > biodiversity conservation > erosion control > air quality purification > nutrient cycle. The spatial pattern of economic forest ecosystem services in the provinces of China had the same trend with the spatial distribution of water and heat resources and biodiversity. To understand the differences of economic forest ecosystem services in the provinces of China was of significance in alternating the irrational arrangement of our present forestry production, diminishing the abuses of forest management, and establishing high grade, high efficient, and modernized economic forests. PMID:19459385

  17. Beyond deforestation: restoring forests and ecosystem services on degraded lands.

    PubMed

    Chazdon, Robin L

    2008-06-13

    Despite continued forest conversion and degradation, forest cover is increasing in countries across the globe. New forests are regenerating on former agricultural land, and forest plantations are being established for commercial and restoration purposes. Plantations and restored forests can improve ecosystem services and enhance biodiversity conservation, but will not match the composition and structure of the original forest cover. Approaches to restoring forest ecosystems depend strongly on levels of forest and soil degradation, residual vegetation, and desired restoration outcomes. Opportunities abound to combine ambitious forest restoration and regeneration goals with sustainable rural livelihoods and community participation. New forests will require adaptive management as dynamic, resilient systems that can withstand stresses of climate change, habitat fragmentation, and other anthropogenic effects. PMID:18556551

  18. Forest ecosystem services and eco-compensation mechanisms in China.

    PubMed

    Deng, Hongbing; Zheng, Peng; Liu, Tianxing; Liu, Xin

    2011-12-01

    Forests are a major terrestrial ecosystem providing multiple ecosystem services. However, the importance of forests is frequently underestimated from an economic perspective because of the externalities and public good properties of these services. Forest eco-compensation is a transfer mechanism that serves to internalize the externalities of forest ecosystem services by compensating individuals or companies for the losses or costs resulting from the provision of these services. China's current forest eco-compensation system is centered mainly on noncommercial forest. The primary measures associated with ecosystem services are (1) a charge on destructive activities, such as indiscriminate logging, and (2) compensation for individual or local activities and investments in forest conservation. The Compensation Fund System for Forest Ecological Benefits was first listed in the Forest Law of the People's Republic of China in 1998. In 2004, the Central Government Financial Compensation Fund, an important source for the Compensation Fund for Forest Ecological Benefits, was formally established. To improve the forest eco-compensation system, it is crucial to design and establish compensation criteria for noncommercial forests. These criteria should take both theoretical and practical concerns into account, and they should be based on the quantitative valuation of ecosystem services. Although some initial headway has been made on this task, the implementation of an effective forest eco-compensation system in China still has deficiencies and still faces problems. Implementing classification-based and dynamic management for key noncommercial forests and establishing an eco-compensation mechanism with multiple funding sources in the market economy are the key measures needed to conquer these problems and improve the forest eco-compensation system and China's forestry development in sequence. PMID:21882001

  19. Forest Ecosystem Services and Eco-Compensation Mechanisms in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Hongbing; Zheng, Peng; Liu, Tianxing; Liu, Xin

    2011-12-01

    Forests are a major terrestrial ecosystem providing multiple ecosystem services. However, the importance of forests is frequently underestimated from an economic perspective because of the externalities and public good properties of these services. Forest eco-compensation is a transfer mechanism that serves to internalize the externalities of forest ecosystem services by compensating individuals or companies for the losses or costs resulting from the provision of these services. China's current forest eco-compensation system is centered mainly on noncommercial forest. The primary measures associated with ecosystem services are (1) a charge on destructive activities, such as indiscriminate logging, and (2) compensation for individual or local activities and investments in forest conservation. The Compensation Fund System for Forest Ecological Benefits was first listed in the Forest Law of the People's Republic of China in 1998. In 2004, the Central Government Financial Compensation Fund, an important source for the Compensation Fund for Forest Ecological Benefits, was formally established. To improve the forest eco-compensation system, it is crucial to design and establish compensation criteria for noncommercial forests. These criteria should take both theoretical and practical concerns into account, and they should be based on the quantitative valuation of ecosystem services. Although some initial headway has been made on this task, the implementation of an effective forest eco-compensation system in China still has deficiencies and still faces problems. Implementing classification-based and dynamic management for key noncommercial forests and establishing an eco-compensation mechanism with multiple funding sources in the market economy are the key measures needed to conquer these problems and improve the forest eco-compensation system and China's forestry development in sequence.

  20. Early survival and height growth of douglas-fir and lodgepole pine seedling and variations in site factors following treatment of logging residues. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Lopushinsky, W.; Zabowski, D.; Anderson, T.D.

    1992-06-01

    Logging residues were (1) broadcast burned, (2) piled and burned, (3) removed, or (4) left in place after clearcutting in a high elevation subalpine fir/lodgepole pine forest in north-central Washington. Survival, height growth, and nutrient content of foliage of planted Douglas-fir and lodgepole pine seedlings, and variations in soil factors (nutrients, temperature, moisture, and compaction) and air temperature were compared for the four treatments. Little height growth occurred the first year, and it was similar for all treatments, probably due to transplant shock. Height growth the second year increased the most in the burned treatments, and the least in the slash-left treatment. Levels of nutrients in foliage were similar for all treatments and above threshold-deficiency levels except for sulfur. Extractable soil nutrients increased with burn treatments but returned to levels in other treatments within 3 years, best performance of seedlings during the first 2 years was in burn treatments.

  1. Regional framework of early growth response for loblolly pine relative to herbaceous, woody, and complete competition control: The comproject. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.H.; Zutter, B.R.; Zedaker, S.M.; Edwards, M.B.; Newbold, R.A.

    1995-09-01

    A common study design has been installed at 13 locations throughout the Southeastern United States to track the growth of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations established with four different competition control treatments: no control (only chopping-burning), woody control for 5 years, herbaceous control for 4 years, and total control after site preparation. This regionwide investigation is known as the competition Omission Monitoring Project, a coordinated study with the Auburn University Silvicultural Herbicide Cooperative (Study HB-4F). Data summaries for each location are presented for loblolly pine growth and competition intensities for the first 8 years. Approximately 10,000 loblolly pine seedlings have been measured annually. Responses from this network of studies should be useful in assessing and reporting relative growth of loblolly pines for other studies and operational plantings. These data sets should also be useful for the future forest growth modeling efforts.

  2. Forest resources of pennsylvania. Forest Service resource bulletin (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Widmann, R.H.

    1995-06-28

    This report presents an analysis of the results of the 1989 forest inventory of Pennsylvania as well as trends that have occurred since the previous survey. Major topics include changes in forest land by ownership, forest type, and timberland component: stand structure is characterized by stand size, understory wood vegetation, dead trees, and changes in relative stocking; and harvesting by distribution of cut, species composition, and growth to removal ratios.

  3. Recycling research progress at the forest products laboratory. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This document summarizes accomplishments of USDA Forest Service researchers in the area of recycling. Specifically, it describes work in economic assessment paper recycling, recycled housing and industrial applications of recycle materials, other recycled applications, and technology transfer. The literature list includes the references cited in the text and additional publications regarding Forest Service recycling research.

  4. Amazon Forest maintenance as a source of environmental services.

    PubMed

    Fearnside, Philip M

    2008-03-01

    Amazonian forest produces environmental services such as maintenance of biodiversity, water cycling and carbon stocks. These services have a much greater value to human society than do the timber, beef and other products that are obtained by destroying the forest. Yet institutional mechanisms are still lacking to transform the value of the standing forest into the foundation of an economy based on maintaining rather than destroying this ecosystem. Forest management for commodities such as timber and non-timber forest products faces severe limitations and inherent contradictions unless income is supplemented based on environmental services. Amazon forest is threatened by deforestation, logging, forest fires and climate change. Measures to avoid deforestation include repression through command and control, creation of protected areas, and reformulation of infrastructure decisions and development policies. An economy primarily based on the value of environmental services is essential for long-term maintenance of the forest. Much progress has been made in the decades since I first proposed such a transition, but many issues also remain unresolved. These include theoretical issues regarding accounting procedures, improved quantification of the services and of the benefits of different policy options, and effective uses of the funds generated in ways that maintain both the forest and the human population. PMID:18345379

  5. Infusing Early Childhood Mental Health into Early Intervention Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabert, John C.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the process of enhancing early childhood mental health awareness and skills in non-mental health staff. The author describes a pilot training model, conducted the U.S. Army's Early Intervention Services, that involved: (a) increasing early childhood mental health knowledge through reflective readings, (b) enhancing…

  6. Navajo Caregivers' Perceptions of Early Intervention Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applequist, Karen L.; Bailey, Donald B., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated 52 Navajo family caregiver perceptions about early intervention services and supplemental information was gathered from 15 early interventionists identified by caregivers. Overall, caregivers were satisfied with services. Caregivers' perceptions of program family-centeredness had a strong positive relationship with…

  7. Funding Early Childhood Mental Health Services & Supports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishmann, Amy; Kates, Donald; Kaufmann, Roxane

    This paper is the first of a two-part series on financing early childhood mental health services. It discusses the need for a systemic approach to financing early childhood mental health services and supports and presents a matrix to assist states and communities in the design of comprehensive financing systems. The vertical axis of the matrix…

  8. Telerehabilitation: An Adjunct Service Delivery Model For Early Intervention Services

    PubMed Central

    Cason, Jana

    2011-01-01

    Early Intervention (EI) services for children birth through two years of age are mandated by Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA); however, personnel shortages, particularly in rural areas, limit access for children who qualify. Telerehabilitation has the potential to build capacity among caregivers and local providers as well as promote family-centered services through remote consultation. This article provides an overview of research related to telerehabilitation and early intervention services; discusses the feasibility of telerehabilitation within traditional EI service delivery models; examines telecommunications technology associated with telerehabilitation; and provides hypothetical case examples designed to illustrate potential applications of telerehabilitation in early intervention. PMID:25945179

  9. Maintaining ecosystem function and services in logged tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Edwards, David P; Tobias, Joseph A; Sheil, Douglas; Meijaard, Erik; Laurance, William F

    2014-09-01

    Vast expanses of tropical forests worldwide are being impacted by selective logging. We evaluate the environmental impacts of such logging and conclude that natural timber-production forests typically retain most of their biodiversity and associated ecosystem functions, as well as their carbon, climatic, and soil-hydrological ecosystem services. Unfortunately, the value of production forests is often overlooked, leaving them vulnerable to further degradation including post-logging clearing, fires, and hunting. Because logged tropical forests are extensive, functionally diverse, and provide many ecosystem services, efforts to expand their role in conservation strategies are urgently needed. Key priorities include improving harvest practices to reduce negative impacts on ecosystem functions and services, and preventing the rapid conversion and loss of logged forests. PMID:25092495

  10. Contribution of Near Real Time MODIS-Based Forest Disturbance Detection Products to a National Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spruce, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Gasser, J.; Smoot, J.; Kuper, P.

    2011-12-01

    This presentation discusses an effort to compute and post weekly MODIS forest change products for the conterminous US (CONUS), as part of a web-based national forest threat early warning system (EWS) known as the U.S. Forest Change Assessment Viewer (FCAV). The US Forest Service, NASA, USGS, and ORNL are working collaboratively to contribute weekly change products to this EWS. Large acreages of the nation's forests are being disturbed by a growing multitude of biotic and abiotic threats that can act either singularly or in combination. When common at regional scales, such disturbances can pose hazards and threats to floral and faunal bio-diversity, ecosystem sustainability, ecosystem services, and human settlements across the conterminous US. Regionally evident forest disturbances range from ephemeral periodic canopy defoliation to stand replacement mortality events due to insects, disease, fire, hurricanes, tornadoes, ice, hail, and drought. Mandated by the Healthy Forest Restoration Act of 2003, this forest threat EWS has been actively developed since 2006 and on-line since 2010. The FCAV system employs 250-meter MODIS NDVI-based forest change products as a key element of the system, providing regional and CONUS scale products in near real time every 8 days. Each of our forest change products in FCAV is based on current versus historical 24 day composites of NDVI data gridded at 231.66 meter resolution. Current NDVI is derived from USGS eMODIS expedited products. MOD13 NDVI is used for constructing historical baselines. CONUS change products are computed for all forests as % change in the current versus historical NDVI for a given 24 day period. Change products are computed according to previous year, previous 3 year and previous 8 year historical baselines. The use of multiple baselines enables apparent forest disturbance anomalies to be more fully assessed. CONUS forest change products are posted each week on the FCAV, a web mapping service constructed and

  11. FOREST SOIL CARBON SEQUESTRATION: ACCOUNTING FOR THIS VITAL ECOSYSTEM SERVICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Forests play a crucial role in supplying many goods and services that society depends upon on a daily basis including water supply, production of oxygen, soil protection, building materials, wildlife habitat and recreation. Forests also provide a significant amount of carbon seq...

  12. Forest Services: World of Work Project: Fifth Grade: Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Board for Vocational Education, Salt Lake City.

    The document is one of the teaching units developed by the Utah World of Work Project, designed to integrate career awareness into the regular curriculum at the elementary level. The fifth grade guide is tied to the science area and focuses on conservation as practiced by Forest Service workers; the growth cycle of forests and the management of…

  13. Dead wood: The forest service needs more than pruning

    SciTech Connect

    Hodges, G.

    1996-10-01

    The author examines the conflicts involving the United States Forest Service decisions regarding the Environmental Protection Statutes and the Congressional mandates to sell timber. Historical and political aspects of these issues are presented.

  14. 37. Photo copy of map, (original in Forest Service Office, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Photo copy of map, (original in Forest Service Office, Elkins, WV, 'Blister Rust Survey Map), 1930. PARSONS NURSERY SITE PLAN - Parsons Nursery, South side of U.S. Route 219, Parsons, Tucker County, WV

  15. 6. Photo copy of photograph, (original in Forest Service Office, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photo copy of photograph, (original in Forest Service Office, Elkins, WV, photo #246860), photographer unknown, ca. 1935. EQUIPMENT DETAIL, SEED WING REMOVER. - Parsons Nursery, Seed Extractor Building, South side of U.S. Route 219, Parsons, Tucker County, WV

  16. Contribution of Near Real Time MODIS-Based Forest Disturbance Detection Products to a National Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Hargrove, William; Glasser, Jerry; Kuper, Philip D.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation discusses an effort to compute and post weekly MODIS forest change products for the conterminous US (CONUS), as part of national forest threat early warning system (EWS) known as the U.S. Forest Change Assessment Viewer (FCAV). The US Forest Service, NASA, USGS, and ORNL are working collaboratively to contribute weekly change products to this EWS. Large acreages of the nation's forests are being disturbed by a growing multitude of biotic and abiotic threats that can act either singularly or in combination. When common at regional scales, such disturbances can pose hazards and threats to floral and faunal bio-diversity, ecosystem sustainability, ecosystem services, and human settlements across the conterminous US. Regionally evident forest disturbances range from ephemeral periodic canopy defoliation to stand replacement mortality events due to insects, disease, fire, hurricanes, tornadoes, ice, hail, and drought. Mandated by the Healthy Forest Restoration Act of 2003, this forest threat EWS has been actively developed since 2006 and on-line since 2010. This FCAV system employs 250-meter MODIS NDVI-based forest change products as a key element of the system, providing regional and CONUS scale products in near real time every 8 days. Each forest change product in FCAV is based on current versus historical 24 day composite NDVI data gridded at 231.66 meter resolution. Current NDVI is derived from USGS eMODIS expedited products. MOD13 NDVI is used for constructing historical baselines. CONUS change products are computed for all forests as % change in the current versus historical NDVI. Change products are computed according to previous year, previous 3 years and previous 8 year historical baselines. The use of multiple baselines enables disturbance anomaly phenology to be more fully assessed. CONUS forest change products are posted each week on the FCAV, a web mapping service maintained by the National Environmental Modeling and Analysis Center. The

  17. U.S. Forest Service's Power-IT-Down Program

    SciTech Connect

    2016-01-01

    Case study describes the U.S. Forest Service's Power-IT-Down Program, which strongly encouraged employees to shut off their computers when leaving the office. The U.S. Forest Service first piloted the program on a voluntary basis in one region then implemented it across the agency's 43,000 computers as a joint effort by the Chief Information Office and Sustainable Operations department.

  18. 3. Photo copy of photograph, (original in Forest Service Office, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photo copy of photograph, (original in Forest Service Office, Elkins, WV, photo #292222), photographer unknown, ca. 1935. VIEW EAST, CCC CAMP PARSONS, FOREST SERVICE TRUCK STORAGE ON LEFT, WATER TANK (DEMOLISHED), MESS HALL (DEMOLISHED). (see also historic photograph WV-237-20, WV-237-35) - Parsons Nursery, Civilian Conservation Corps Garage, South side of U.S. Route 219, Parsons, Tucker County, WV

  19. Resistance to wildfire and early regeneration in natural broadleaved forest and pine plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proença, Vânia; Pereira, Henrique M.; Vicente, Luís

    2010-11-01

    The response of an ecosystem to disturbance reflects its stability, which is determined by two components: resistance and resilience. We addressed both components in a study of early post-fire response of natural broadleaved forest ( Quercus robur, Ilex aquifolium) and pine plantation ( Pinus pinaster, Pinus sylvestris) to a wildfire that burned over 6000 ha in NW Portugal. Fire resistance was assessed from fire severity, tree mortality and sapling persistence. Understory fire resistance was similar between forests: fire severity at the surface level was moderate to low, and sapling persistence was low. At the canopy level, fire severity was generally low in broadleaved forest but heterogeneous in pine forest, and mean tree mortality was significantly higher in pine forest. Forest resilience was assessed by the comparison of the understory composition, species diversity and seedling abundance in unburned and burned plots in each forest type. Unburned broadleaved communities were dominated by perennial herbs (e.g., Arrhenatherum elatius) and woody species (e.g., Hedera hibernica, Erica arborea), all able to regenerate vegetatively. Unburned pine communities presented a higher abundance of shrubs, and most dominant species relied on post-fire seeding, with some species also being able to regenerate vegetatively (e.g., Ulex minor, Daboecia cantabrica). There were no differences in diversity measures in broadleaved forest, but burned communities in pine forest shared less species and were less rich and diverse than unburned communities. Seedling abundance was similar in burned and unburned plots in both forests. The slower reestablishment of understory pine communities is probably explained by the slower recovery rate of dominant species. These findings are ecologically relevant: the higher resistance and resilience of native broadleaved forest implies a higher stability in the maintenance of forest processes and the delivery of ecosystem services.

  20. [Forest ecosystem service and its evaluation in China].

    PubMed

    Fang, Jin; Lu, Shaowei; Yu, Xinxiao; Rao, Liangyi; Niu, Jianzhi; Xie, Yuanyuan; Zhag, Zhenming

    2005-08-01

    Facing the relative lag of forest ecosystem service and estimation in China, this paper proposed to quickly carry out the research on the evaluation of forest ecosystem service. On the basis of the classification of forest ecosystem types in China, the service of artificial and semi-artificial forest ecosystems was investigated, which was divided into eight types, i.e., timber and other products, recreation and eco-tourism, water storage, C fixation and O2 release, nutrient cycling, air quality purifying, erosion control, and habitat provision. According to the assessment index system for global ecosystem service proposed by Costanza et al., a series of assessment index system suitable for Chinese forest ecosystem service was set up, by which, the total value of forest ecosystem service in China was estimated to be 30 601.20 x 10(8) yuan x yr(-1), including direct and indirect economic value about 1 920.23 x 10(8) and 28 680.97 x 10(8) yuan x yr(-1), respectively. The indirect value was as 14.94 times as the direct one. The research aimed to bring natural resources and environment factors into the account system of national economy quickly, and to realize the green GDP at last, which would be helpful to realize sustainable development and environment protection. PMID:16262073

  1. Succession Influences Wild Bees in a Temperate Forest Landscape: The Value of Early Successional Stages in Naturally Regenerated and Planted Forests

    PubMed Central

    Taki, Hisatomo; Okochi, Isamu; Okabe, Kimiko; Inoue, Takenari; Goto, Hideaki; Matsumura, Takeshi; Makino, Shun'ichi

    2013-01-01

    In many temperate terrestrial forest ecosystems, both natural human disturbances drive the reestablishment of forests. Succession in plant communities, in addition to reforestation following the creation of open sites through harvesting or natural disturbances, can affect forest faunal assemblages. Wild bees perform an important ecosystem function in human-altered and natural or seminatural ecosystems, as they are essential pollinators for both crops and wild flowering plants. To maintain high abundance and species richness for pollination services, it is important to conserve and create seminatural and natural land cover with optimal successional stages for wild bees. We examined the effects of forest succession on wild bees. In particular, we evaluated the importance of early successional stages for bees, which has been suspected but not previously demonstrated. A range of successional stages, between 1 and 178 years old, were examined in naturally regenerated and planted forests. In total 4465 wild bee individuals, representing 113 species, were captured. Results for total bees, solitary bees, and cleptoparasitic bees in both naturally regenerated and planted conifer forests indicated a higher abundance and species richness in the early successional stages. However, higher abundance and species richness of social bees in naturally regenerated forest were observed as the successional stages progressed, whereas the abundance of social bees in conifer planted forest showed a concave-shaped relationship when plotted. The results suggest that early successional stages of both naturally regenerated and conifer planted forest maintain a high abundance and species richness of solitary bees and their cleptoparasitic bees, although social bees respond differently in the early successional stages. This may imply that, in some cases, active forest stand management policies, such as the clear-cutting of planted forests for timber production, would create early successional

  2. A Job with the Forest Service. A Guide to Nonprofessional Employment. Miscellaneous Publication No. 843. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    The following questions are answered in this guide to nonprofessional employment with the U.S. Forest Service: What does the Forest Service do? What kind of work can a nonprofessional find in the Forest Service? How important are the nonprofessional workers to the Forest Service? What kind of experience does one need to qualify for a…

  3. Climate change and forests: Context for the Canadian Forest Service's science program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1999-01-01

    This paper is the second in a series of context papers intended as guides to the current and future directions of the Canadian Forest Service science program. It defines climate change in the context of forests and describes why the Service, in co-operation with its wide range of partners, addresses climate change issues through research, monitoring, and assessment activities in its science and technology research networks.

  4. Using Land Surface Phenology as the Basis for a National Early Warning System for Forest Disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargrove, W. W.; Spruce, J.; Norman, S. P.; Hoffman, F. M.

    2011-12-01

    The National Early Warning System (EWS) provides an 8-day coast-to-coast snapshot of potentially disturbed forests across the U.S.. A prototype system has produced national maps of potential forest disturbances every eight days since January 2010, identifying locations that may require further investigation. Through phenology, the system shows both early and delayed vegetation development and detects all types of unexpected forest disturbances, including insects, disease, wildfires, frost and ice damage, tornadoes, hurricanes, blowdowns, harvest, urbanization, landslides, drought, flood, and climate change. The USDA Forest Service Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center is collaborating with NASA Stennis Space Center and the Western Wildland Environmental Threat Assessment Center to develop the tool. The EWS uses differences in phenological responses between an expectation based on historical data and a current view to strategically identify potential forest disturbances and direct attention to locations where forest behavior seems unusual. Disturbance maps are available via the Forest Change Assessment Viewer (FCAV) (http://ews.forestthreats.org/gis), which allows resource managers and other users to see the most current national disturbance maps as soon as they are available. Phenology-based detections show not only vegetation disturbances in the classical sense, but all departures from normal seasonal vegetation behavior. In 2010, the EWS detected a repeated late-frost event at high elevations in North Carolina, USA, that resulted in delayed seasonal development, contrasting with an early spring development at lower elevations, all within close geographic proximity. Throughout 2011, there was a high degree of correspondence between the National Climatic Data Center's North American Drought Monitor maps and EWS maps of phenological drought disturbance in forests. Urban forests showed earlier and more severe phenological drought disturbance than

  5. Estimating the value of watershed services following forest restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Julie M.; Swaffar, Wes; Nielsen, Erik A.; Springer, Abraham E.; Lopez, Sharon Masek

    2013-04-01

    Declining forest health, climate change, and development threaten the sustainability of water supplies in the western United States. While forest restoration may buffer threats to watershed services, funding shortfalls for landscape-scale restoration efforts limit management action. The hydrologic response and reduction in risk to watersheds following forest restoration treatments could create significant nonmarket benefits for downstream water users. Historic experimental watershed studies indicate a significant and positive response from forest thinning by a reallocation of water from evapotranspiration to surface-water yield. In this study, we estimate the willingness to pay (WTP) for improved watershed services for one group of downstream users, irrigators, following forest restoration activities. We find a positive and statistically significant WTP within our sample of 183.50 per household, at an aggregated benefit of more than 400,000 annually for 2181 irrigators. Our benefit estimate provides evidence that downstream irrigators may be willing to invest in landscape-scale forest restoration to maintain watershed services.

  6. An Early Warning System for Identification and Monitoring of Disturbances to Forest Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, A. A.; Hoffman, F. M.; Kumar, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Spruce, J.; Mills, R. T.

    2011-12-01

    Forest ecosystems are susceptible to damage due to threat events like wildfires, insect and disease attacks, extreme weather events, land use change, and long-term climate change. Early identification of such events is desired to devise and implement a protective response. The mission of the USDA Forest Service is to sustain the health, diversity, and productivity of the nation's forests. However, limited resources for aerial surveys and ground-based inspections are insufficient for monitoring the large areas covered by the U.S. forests. The USDA Forest Service, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and NASA Stennis Space Center are developing an early warning system for the continuous tracking and long-term monitoring of disturbances and responses in forest ecosystems using high resolution satellite remote sensing data. Geospatiotemporal data mining techniques were developed and applied to normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) products derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) MOD 13 data at 250 m resolution on eight day intervals. Representative phenologically similar regions, or phenoregions, were developed for the conterminous United States (CONUS) by applying a k-means clustering algorithm to the NDVI data spanning the full eight years of the MODIS record. Annual changes in the phenoregions were quantitatively analyzed to identify the significant changes in phenological behavior. This methodology was successfully applied for identification of various forest disturbance events, including wildfire, tree mortality due to Mountain Pine Beetle, and other insect infestation and diseases, as well as extreme events like storms and hurricanes in the United States. Where possible, the results were validated and quantitatively compared with aerial and ground-based survey data available from different agencies. This system was able to identify most of the disturbances reported by aerial and ground-based surveys, and it also identified

  7. Ecosystem services capacity across heterogeneous forest types: understanding the interactions and suggesting pathways for sustaining multiple ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Alamgir, Mohammed; Turton, Stephen M; Macgregor, Colin J; Pert, Petina L

    2016-10-01

    As ecosystem services supply from tropical forests is declining due to deforestation and forest degradation, much effort is essential to sustain ecosystem services supply from tropical forested landscapes, because tropical forests provide the largest flow of multiple ecosystem services among the terrestrial ecosystems. In order to sustain multiple ecosystem services, understanding ecosystem services capacity across heterogeneous forest types and identifying certain ecosystem services that could be managed to leverage positive effects across the wider bundle of ecosystem services are required. We sampled three forest types, tropical rainforests, sclerophyll forests, and rehabilitated plantation forests, over an area of 32,000m(2) from Wet Tropics bioregion, Australia, aiming to compare supply and evaluate interactions and patterns of eight ecosystem services (global climate regulation, air quality regulation, erosion regulation, nutrient regulation, cyclone protection, habitat provision, energy provision, and timber provision). On average, multiple ecosystem services were highest in the rainforests, lowest in sclerophyll forests, and intermediate in rehabilitated plantation forests. However, a wide variation was apparent among the plots across the three forest types. Global climate regulation service had a synergistic impact on the supply of multiple ecosystem services, while nutrient regulation service was found to have a trade-off impact. Considering multiple ecosystem services, most of the rehabilitated plantation forest plots shared the same ordination space with rainforest plots in the ordination analysis, indicating that rehabilitated plantation forests may supply certain ecosystem services nearly equivalent to rainforests. Two synergy groups and one trade-off group were identified. Apart from conserving rainforests and sclerophyll forests, our findings suggest two additional integrated pathways to sustain the supply of multiple ecosystem services from a

  8. Conservation science and forest service policy for roadless areas.

    PubMed

    Turner, James Morton

    2006-06-01

    Questions persist regarding whether the science of conservation biology can successfully affect environmental decision making. One of the most prominent fields of intersection between conservation science and environmental policy is public-lands debates in the United States. I reviewed the role of conservation science in the roadless-area policies of the U.S. Forest Service. Since 1971, the Forest Service has systematically evaluated roadless areas on national forests three times, most recently during the Clinton administration's Roadless Area Conservation Review (1998-2000) (U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service 2000b). Drawing on the agency's environmental impact statements and supporting documents and the internal records of conservation organizations, I examined the changing goals, methodology, and outcome of roadless-area advocacy and policy Since the 1970s, conservation science has successfully informed public and administrative concern for roadless-area protection. Conservation science has transformed public discourse regarding roadless areas and has changed the scope and rationale of national conservation organizations' goals for roadless-area policy from protecting some to protecting all remaining national forest roadless areas. The Forest Service has increasingly drawn on the lessons of conservation biology to justify its methodology and its administrative recommendations to protect roadless areas. The 2000 Roadless Area Conservation Review resulted in a recommendation to protect all remaining national forest roadless areas, up from 22% of roadless areas in the first roadless review. Despite the scientific merits of recent roadless-area advocacy and policy, however such initiatives have faced political difficulties. The emphasis on large-scale, top-down, national approaches to conservation policy has rendered such policies politically problematic. PMID:16909564

  9. Scan angle calculation and image compositing for the Mexico Forest Mapping Project. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Z.

    1994-02-01

    Data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) were used in a cooperative project, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, and the United Nations, Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), to map Mexico's forest cover types. To provide satisfactory AVHRR data sets for the project, the sensor scan angle needed to be calculated for data points in the composite image data, and the clouds had to be removed and composite image data created from individual data sets. Techniques used to accomplish those two tasks are described here. Concepts illustrated here should be applicable to other similar projects.

  10. Nonmarket economic impacts of forest insect pests: A literature review. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberger, R.S.; Smith, E.L.

    1997-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of research on the nonmarket economic impacts of forest insect pests. The majority of the research reports are journal articles or fulfillment of three USDA Forest Service research contracts. This report also reviews the foundations for methodologies used and classifies the forest insect pests studied, the regions in which research has been conducted, the designated land-use areas, the stakeholders, the values, the measurement methods used, and the measures of value indicators. Information on each research project is described with relevant information condensed in tabular form.

  11. Affordability Funding Models for Early Childhood Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcal, Christiane; Fisher, Karen

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a model of the approaches open to government to ensure that early childhood services are affordable to families. We derived the model from a comparative literature review of affordability approaches taken by government, both in Australia and internationally. The model adds significantly to the literature by proposing a means to…

  12. 14. Photo copy of photograph, (original in Forest Service Office, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photo copy of photograph, (original in Forest Service Office, Elkins, WV, photo #333469, 'Tree nurseries-seed bed preparation'), D. A. Oliver, November 1936. VIEW NORTHEAST, ORIGINAL WASH HOUSE, GARAGE (DEMOLISHED), WORKSHOP/WAREHOUSE, AND NURSERY OFFICE. - Parsons Nursery, South side of U.S. Route 219, Parsons, Tucker County, WV

  13. 4. Photocopy of photograph, (original in Forest Service Office, Elkins, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of photograph, (original in Forest Service Office, Elkins, WV), photographer unknown, 1937. VIEW NORTHWEST. (see also historic photographs WV-237-11, WV-237-12, WV-237-13, WV-237-14) - Parsons Nursery, Nursery Office, South side of U.S. Route 219, Parsons, Tucker County, WV

  14. 4. Photo copy of photograph, (original in Forest Service Office, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photo copy of photograph, (original in Forest Service Office, Elkins, WV, photo #302582, 'Insect/disease control'), D. A. Oliver, May 1935. VIEW NORTHEAST. - Parsons Nursery, Packing Building, South side of U.S. Route 219, Parsons, Tucker County, WV

  15. 29. Photo copy of photograph, (original in Forest Service Office, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Photo copy of photograph, (original in Forest Service Office, Elkins, WV, photo #292218, 'Planting with 10 ft. transplant board'), D. A. Oliver, 1934. VIEW EAST, FIRMING EARTH BEFORE REMOVING TRANSPLANT BOARD FROM NEWLY TRANSPLANTED SEEDLINGS. - Parsons Nursery, South side of U.S. Route 219, Parsons, Tucker County, WV

  16. 7. Photo copy of photograph, (original in Forest Service Office, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photo copy of photograph, (original in Forest Service Office, Elkins, WV, photo #246865, 'Drying racks'), D. A. Oliver, 1934. FURNISHING DETAIL, DRYING RACKS. - Parsons Nursery, Cone Drying Shed, South side of U.S. Route 219, Parsons, Tucker County, WV

  17. 3. Photo copy of blue print, (original in Forest Service ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photo copy of blue print, (original in Forest Service Office, Elkins, WV), George W. Root, draftsman, 1928. DETAILS FOR PUMP HOUSE. (see also historic photograph WV-237-13) (see also WV-237-B-3, FOR CONSTRUCTION DETAILS) - Parsons Nursery, Pump House, South side of U.S. Route 219, Parsons, Tucker County, WV

  18. 39. Photo copy of site plan, (original in Forest Service ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. Photo copy of site plan, (original in Forest Service Office, Elkins, WV, 'Parsons Nursery Special Use Permit, West Virginia Department of Natural Resources'), 1969. PARSONS NURSERY SITE PLAN. CORROLATES TO PARSONS NURSERY AT TIME OF FLOOD, NOVEMBER, 1985. - Parsons Nursery, South side of U.S. Route 219, Parsons, Tucker County, WV

  19. 4. Photo copy of photograph, (original in Forest Service Office, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photo copy of photograph, (original in Forest Service Office, Elkins, WV, photo #298180, 'seed extracting equipment'), D. A. Oliver, 1934. LOWER FLOOR, LOOKING WEST, SEED EXTRACTOR. - Parsons Nursery, Seed Extractor Building, South side of U.S. Route 219, Parsons, Tucker County, WV

  20. 23. Photo copy of photograph, (original in Forest Service Office, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Photo copy of photograph, (original in Forest Service Office, Elkins, WV, photo #248336, 'Tree nurseries-seed bed seeding machine'), D. A. Oliver, 1930. VIEW WEST, SEEDING MACHINE. - Parsons Nursery, South side of U.S. Route 219, Parsons, Tucker County, WV

  1. 22. Photo copy of photograph, (original in Forest Service Office, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photo copy of photograph, (original in Forest Service Office, Elkins, WV, photo #244025, 'seed planter'), D. A. Oliver, 1930. VIEW EAST, FRONT OF WORKSHOP/WAREHOUSE, SEED BED PLANTER. - Parsons Nursery, South side of U.S. Route 219, Parsons, Tucker County, WV

  2. 5. Photo copy of photograph, (original in Forest Service Office, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photo copy of photograph, (original in Forest Service Office, Elkins, WV, photo #298181), D. A. Oliver, 1934. LOWER FLOOR, LOOKING WEST, SEED EXTRACTOR. - Parsons Nursery, Seed Extractor Building, South side of U.S. Route 219, Parsons, Tucker County, WV

  3. 36 CFR 222.32 - Use of non-Forest Service personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of non-Forest Service personnel. 222.32 Section 222.32 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.32 Use of...

  4. 36 CFR 222.32 - Use of non-Forest Service personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Use of non-Forest Service personnel. 222.32 Section 222.32 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.32 Use of...

  5. 36 CFR 222.72 - Use of non-Forest Service personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Use of non-Forest Service personnel. 222.72 Section 222.72 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.72 Use of...

  6. 36 CFR 222.32 - Use of non-Forest Service personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Use of non-Forest Service personnel. 222.32 Section 222.32 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.32 Use of...

  7. 36 CFR 222.72 - Use of non-Forest Service personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Use of non-Forest Service personnel. 222.72 Section 222.72 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.72 Use of...

  8. Field guide for forested plant associations of the Wenatchee National Forest. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Lillybridge, T.R.; Kovalchik, B.L.; Williams, C.K.; Smith, B.G.

    1995-10-01

    A classification of forest vegetation is presented for the Wenatchee National Forest (NF). It is based on potential vegetation, with the plant association as the basic unit. The sample includes about 570 intensive plots and 840 reconnaissance plots distributed across the Wenatchee National Forest and the southwest portion of the Okanogan National Forest from 1975 through 1994. The hierarchical classification includes 10 forest series and 104 types (plant association or community type). Deagnostic keys and descriptions are presented for each tree series and type. Detailed descriptions are given for each type having at least five sample standard in the Wenatchee NF. Those descriptions include information about plant species occurrences, type distribution, environment and soils, potential timber productivity, management considerations, and relationships to other classifications. Brief descriptions are presented for miscellaneous types (those having fewer than five plots in the Wenatchee NF).

  9. Spatial analysis of early successional, temperate forest community structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, R. H.; Williams, C. A.; MacLean, R. G.; Epstein, H. E.; Vanderhoof, M. K.

    2013-12-01

    The global importance of sequestration of carbon by temperate forests makes characterizing the regrowth of these forests post-disturbance both ecologically and economically important. High intensity disturbances, such as logging, result in substantial alteration of community composition post-disturbance, creating the potential for alterations to the cycling of carbon, water, and nutrients in the ecosystem. Because logging pressure in New England continues to increase, understanding how forest ecosystems in this region respond to disturbance is crucial. This study aims to characterize interspecies interactions within New England forests by identifying synchronous and asynchronous colocation of species following a disturbance. To accomplish this, line-intercept surveys of vegetation were conducted in a clearcut forest stand located within the Harvard Forest LTER site. Survey data collected two (2010) and five (2013) years post-clearcut were analyzed using a one-dimensional Ripley's K. From 2010 to 2013, an increase in the number of interspecies relationships was observed, indicating the development of community structure. Additionally, the analysis found an increase in total vegetative cover from 2010 to 2013, and also found the majority of observed interspecies relationships to be asynchronous relationships. Together, these results imply an increase in resource competition that had the potential to drive the increase in community structure. Specifically, an increase in community structure led to the development of three distinct sub-communities: homogenous fern, tree seedling canopy over ground cover, and shrub dominated. This creates a patchy landscape in the early successional forest that allows for high species diversity (Shannon's H = 2.455). Based on the results of the Ripley's K analyses, species demonstrated definite patterns of synchronicity and asynchronicity based on both specific species interactions as well as functional group interactions. These

  10. Sustainable carbon uptake - important ecosystem service within sustainable forest management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorana Ostrogović Sever, Maša; Anić, Mislav; Paladinić, Elvis; Alberti, Giorgio; Marjanović, Hrvoje

    2016-04-01

    Even-aged forest management with natural regeneration under continuous cover (i.e. close to nature management) is considered to be sustainable regarding the yield, biodiversity and stability of forest ecosystems. Recently, in the context of climate change, there is a raising question of sustainable forest management regarding carbon uptake. Aim of this research was to explore whether current close to nature forest management approach in Croatia can be considered sustainable in terms of carbon uptake throughout the life-time of Pedunculate oak forest. In state-owned managed forest a chronosequence experiment was set up and carbon stocks in main ecosystem pools (live biomass, dead wood, litter and mineral soil layer), main carbon fluxes (net primary production, soil respiration (SR), decomposition) and net ecosystem productivity were estimated in eight stands of different age (5, 13, 38, 53, 68, 108, 138 and 168 years) based on field measurements and published data. Air and soil temperature and soil moisture were recorded on 7 automatic mini-meteorological stations and weekly SR measurements were used to parameterize SR model. Carbon balance was estimated at weekly scale for the growing season 2011 (there was no harvesting), as well as throughout the normal rotation period of 140 years (harvesting was included). Carbon stocks in different ecosystem pools change during a stand development. Carbon stocks in forest floor increase with stand age, while carbon stocks in dead wood are highest in young and older stands, and lowest in middle-aged, mature stands. Carbon stocks in mineral soil layer were found to be stable across chronosequence with no statistically significant age-dependent trend. Pedunculate Oak stand, assuming successful regeneration, becomes carbon sink very early in a development phase, between the age of 5 and 13 years, and remains carbon sink even after the age of 160 years. Greatest carbon sink was reached in the stand aged 53 years. Obtained results

  11. 7 CFR 1.624 - How will the Forest Service respond to any hearing requests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false How will the Forest Service respond to any hearing... Conditions in FERC Hydropower Licenses Initiation of Hearing Process § 1.624 How will the Forest Service... Forest Service may file with the Hearing Clerk an answer to any hearing request under § 1.621....

  12. 7 CFR 1.624 - How will the Forest Service respond to any hearing requests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false How will the Forest Service respond to any hearing... Conditions in FERC Hydropower Licenses Initiation of Hearing Process § 1.624 How will the Forest Service... Forest Service may file with the Hearing Clerk an answer to any hearing request under § 1.621....

  13. 7 CFR 1.624 - How will the Forest Service respond to any hearing requests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How will the Forest Service respond to any hearing... Conditions in FERC Hydropower Licenses Initiation of Hearing Process § 1.624 How will the Forest Service... Forest Service may file with the Hearing Clerk an answer to any hearing request under § 1.621....

  14. 7 CFR 1.624 - How will the Forest Service respond to any hearing requests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How will the Forest Service respond to any hearing... Conditions in FERC Hydropower Licenses Initiation of Hearing Process § 1.624 How will the Forest Service... Forest Service may file with the Hearing Clerk an answer to any hearing request under § 1.621....

  15. 7 CFR 1.624 - How will the Forest Service respond to any hearing requests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false How will the Forest Service respond to any hearing... Conditions in FERC Hydropower Licenses Initiation of Hearing Process § 1.624 How will the Forest Service... Forest Service may file with the Hearing Clerk an answer to any hearing request under § 1.621....

  16. Influence of forest management systems on natural resource use and provision of ecosystem services in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Strauch, Ayron M; Rurai, Masegeri T; Almedom, Astier M

    2016-09-15

    Social, religious and economic facets of rural livelihoods in Sub-Saharan Africa are heavily dependent on natural resources, but improper resource management, drought, and social instability frequently lead to their unsustainable exploitation. In rural Tanzania, natural resources are often governed locally by informal systems of traditional resource management (TRM), defined as cultural practices developed within the context of social and religious institutions over hundreds of years. However, following independence from colonial rule, centralized governments began to exercise jurisdictional control over natural resources. Following decades of mismanagement that resulted in lost ecosystem services, communities demanded change. To improve resource protection and participation in management among stakeholders, the Tanzanian government began to decentralize management programs in the early 2000s. We investigated these two differing management approaches (traditional and decentralized government) in Sonjo communities, to examine local perceptions of resource governance, management influences on forest use, and their consequences for forest and water resources. While 97% of households understood the regulations governing traditionally-managed forests, this was true for only 39% of households for government-managed forests, leading to differences in forest use. Traditional management practices resulted in improved forest condition and surface water quality. This research provides an essential case study demonstrating the importance of TRM in shaping decision frameworks for natural resource planning and management. PMID:27203700

  17. Monitoring Regional Forest Disturbances across the US with near Real Time MODIS NDVI Products Resident to the ForWarn Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Hargrove, William W.; Gasser, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Forest threats across the US have become increasingly evident in recent years. Sometimes these have resulted in regionally evident disturbance progressions (e.g., from drought, bark beetle outbreaks, and wildfires) that can occur across multiyear durations and have resulted in extensive forest overstory mortality. In addition to stand replacement disturbances, other forests are subject to ephemeral, sometimes yearly defoliation from various insects and varying types and intensities of ephemeral damage from storms. Sometimes, after prolonged severe disturbance, signs of recovery in terms of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) can occur. The growing prominence and threat of forest disturbances in part have led to the formation and implementation of the 2003 Healthy Forest Restoration Act which mandated that national forest threat early warning system be developed and deployed. In response, the US Forest Service collaborated with NASA, DOE Oakridge National Laboratory, and the USGS Eros Data Center to build and roll-out the near real time ForWarn early warning system for monitoring regionally evident forest disturbances. Given the diversity of disturbance types, severities, and durations, ForWarn employs multiple historical baselines that are used with current NDVI to derive a suite of six forest change products that are refreshed every 8 days. ForWarn employs daily quarter kilometer MODIS NDVI data from the Aqua and Terra satellites, including MOD13 data for deriving historical baseline NDVIs and eMODIS 7 NDVI for compiling current NDVI. In doing so, the Time Series Product Tool and the Phenological Parameters Estimation Tool are used to temporally de-noise, fuse, and aggregate current and historical MODIS NDVIs into 24 day composites refreshed every 8 days with 46 dates of products per year. The 24 day compositing interval enables disturbances to be detected, while minimizing the frequency of residual atmospheric contamination. Forest change products are

  18. Advances of air pollution science: from forest decline to multiple-stress effects on forest ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Paoletti, E; Schaub, M; Matyssek, R; Wieser, G; Augustaitis, A; Bastrup-Birk, A M; Bytnerowicz, A; Günthardt-Goerg, M S; Müller-Starck, G; Serengil, Y

    2010-06-01

    Over the past 20 years, the focus of forest science on air pollution has moved from forest decline to a holistic framework of forest health, and from the effects on forest production to the ecosystem services provided by forest ecosystems. Hence, future research should focus on the interacting factorial impacts and resulting antagonistic and synergistic responses of forest trees and ecosystems. The synergistic effects of air pollution and climatic changes, in particular elevated ozone, altered nitrogen, carbon and water availability, must be key issues for research. Present evidence suggests air pollution will become increasingly harmful to forests under climate change, which requires integration amongst various stressors (abiotic and biotic factors, including competition, parasites and fire), effects on forest services (production, biodiversity protection, soil protection, sustained water balance, socio-economical relevance) and assessment approaches (research, monitoring, modeling) to be fostered. PMID:20036449

  19. Early forest soils and their role in Devonian global change

    SciTech Connect

    Retallack, G.J.

    1997-04-25

    A paleosol in the Middle Devonian Aztec Siltstone of Victoria Land, Antarctica, is the most ancient known soil of well-drained forest ecosystems. Clay enrichment and chemical weathering of subsurface horizons in this and other Devonian forested paleosols culminate a long-term increase initiated during the Silurian. From Silurian into Devonian time, red clayey calcareous paleosols show a greater volume of roots and a concomitant decline in the density of animal burrows. These trends parallel the decline in atmospheric carbon dioxide determined from isotopic records of pedogenic carbonate in these same paleosols. The drawdown of carbon dioxide began well before the Devonian appearance of coals, large logs, and diverse terrestrial plants and animals, and it did not correlate with temporal variation in volcanic or metamorphic activity. The early Paleozoic greenhouse may have been curbed by the evolution of rhizospheres with an increased ratio of primary to secondary production and by more effective silicate weathering during Silurian time. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Use of Current 2010 Forest Disturbance Monitoring Products for the Conterminous United States in Aiding a National Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Hargrove, William; Gasser, J.; Smoot, J.; Kuper, P.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation discusses contributions of near real time (NRT) MODIS forest disturbance detection products for the conterminous United States to an emerging national forest threat early warning system (EWS). The latter is being developed by the USDA Forest Service s Eastern and Western Environmental Threat Centers with help from NASA Stennis Space Center and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Building off work done in 2009, this national and regional forest disturbance detection and viewing capability of the EWS employs NRT MODIS NDVI data from the USGS eMODIS group and historical NDVI data from standard MOD13 products. Disturbance detection products are being computed for 24 day composites that are refreshed every 8 days. Products for 2010 include 42 dates of the 24 day composites. For each compositing date, we computed % change in forest maximum NDVI products for 2010 with respect to each of three historical baselines of 2009, 2007-2009, and 2003-2009,. The three baselines enable one to view potential current, recent, and longer term forest disturbances. A rainbow color table was applied to each forest change product so that potential disturbances (NDVI drops) were identified in hot color tones and growth (NDVI gains) in cold color tones. Example products were provided to end-users responsible for forest health monitoring at the Federal and State levels. Large patches of potential forest disturbances were validated based on comparisons with available reference data, including Landsat and field survey data. Products were posted on two internet mapping systems for US Forest Service internal and collaborator use. MODIS forest disturbance detection products were computed and posted for use in as little as 1 day after the last input date of the compositing period. Such products were useful for aiding aerial disturbance detection surveys and for assessing disturbance persistence on both inter- and intra-annual scales. Multiple 2010 forest disturbance events were

  1. Assessing human health risk in the USDA forest service

    SciTech Connect

    Hamel, D.R.

    1990-12-31

    This paper identifies the kinds of risk assessments being done by or for the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service. Summaries of data sources currently in use and the pesticide risk assessments completed by the agency or its contractors are discussed. An overview is provided of the agency`s standard operating procedures for the conduct of toxicological, ecological, environmental fate, and human health risk assessments.

  2. 24. Photo copy of photograph, (original in Forest Service Office, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Photo copy of photograph, (original in Forest Service Office, Elkins, WV, photo #397508, 'Women weeding in the one-year old red spruce seedlings at the Parsons Nursery at Parsons, W. Va. Women are used for weeding here because of the dexterity of their hands. They are paid 40 cents an hour'), B. W. Muir, 1940. VIEW NORTHEAST, PACKING BUILDING IN BACKGROUND, WOMEN WEEDING. - Parsons Nursery, South side of U.S. Route 219, Parsons, Tucker County, WV

  3. Comparison of NASA OMI and MLS Ozone Products with US Forest Service Ground-based Ozone Monitoring Data for US Forest Service Air Quality / Forest Management Decision Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, S.; Brooks, A.; Moussa, Y.; Spencer, T.; Thompson, J.

    2013-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone, formed when nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) react with sunlight, is a significant threat to the health of US National Forests. Approximately one third of ozone is absorbed by plants during the uptake of carbon dioxide. This increases the vegetation's susceptibility to drought, beetle infestation, and wildfire. Currently the US Forest Service has ground monitoring stations sparsely located across the country. This project looks specifically at the area surrounding several Class I Wilderness Areas in the Appalachian region. These areas are the highest priority for protection from air pollutants. The Forest Service must interpolate ozone concentrations for areas between these monitoring stations. Class I Wilderness Areas are designated by the Forest Service and are defined as a total 5000 acres or greater when the Clean Air Act was passed in 1977. This Act mandated that the EPA create national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for six major air pollutants including ground-level ozone. This project assessed the feasibility of incorporating NASA ozone data into Forest Service ozone monitoring in an effort to enhance the accuracy and precision of ozone exposure measurements in Class I Wilderness Areas and other federally managed lands in order to aid in complying with the Clean Air Act of 1977. This was accomplished by establishing a method of comparison between a preliminary data product produced at the Goddard Space Flight Center that uses OMI/MLS data to derive global tropospheric ozone measurements and Forest Service ozone monitoring station measurements. Once a methodology for comparison was established, statistical comparisons of these data were performed to assess the quantitative differences.

  4. Urban Forest Ecosystem Service Optimization, Tradeoffs, and Disparities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodnaruk, E.; Kroll, C. N.; Endreny, T. A.; Hirabayashi, S.; Yang, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Urban land area and the proportion of humanity living in cities is growing, leading to increased urban air pollution, temperature, and stormwater runoff. These changes can exacerbate respiratory and heat-related illnesses and affect ecosystem functioning. Urban trees can help mitigate these threats by removing air pollutants, mitigating urban heat island effects, and infiltrating and filtering stormwater. The urban environment is highly heterogeneous, and there is no tool to determine optimal locations to plant or protect trees. Using spatially explicit land cover, weather, and demographic data within biophysical ecosystem service models, this research expands upon the iTree urban forest tools to produce a new decision support tool (iTree-DST) that will explore the development and impacts of optimal tree planting. It will also heighten awareness of environmental justice by incorporating the Atkinson Index to quantify disparities in health risks and ecosystem services across vulnerable and susceptible populations. The study area is Baltimore City, a location whose urban forest and environmental justice concerns have been studied extensively. The iTree-DST is run at the US Census block group level and utilizes a local gradient approach to calculate the change in ecosystem services with changing tree cover across the study area. Empirical fits provide ecosystem service gradients for possible tree cover scenarios, greatly increasing the speed and efficiency of the optimization procedure. Initial results include an evaluation of the performance of the gradient method, optimal planting schemes for individual ecosystem services, and an analysis of tradeoffs and synergies between competing objectives.

  5. Monitoring Regional Forest Disturbances across the US with Near Real Time MODIS NDVI Products included in the ForWarn Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spruce, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Gasser, J.; Norman, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    Forest threats across the US have become increasingly evident in recent years. These include regionally extensive disturbances (e.g., from drought, bark beetle outbreaks, and wildfires) that can occur across multiyear durations and result in extensive forest mortality. In addition, forests can be subject to ephemeral, sometimes yearly defoliation from various insects and types of storm damage. After prolonged severe disturbance, signs of forest recovery can vary in terms of satellite-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values. The increased extent and threat of forest disturbances in part led to the enactment of the 2003 Healthy Forest Restoration Act, which mandated that a national forest threat Early Warning System (EWS) be deployed. In response, the US Forest Service collaborated with NASA, DOE Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the USGS Eros Data Center to build the near real time ForWarn forest threat EWS for monitoring regionally evident forest disturbances, starting on-line operations in 2010. Given the diversity of disturbance types, severities, and durations, ForWarn employs multiple historical baselines used with current NDVI to derive a suite of six nationwide 'weekly' forest change products. ForWarn uses daily 232 meter MODIS Aqua and Terra satellite NDVI data, including MOD13 products for deriving historical baseline NDVIs and eMODIS products for compiling current NDVI. Separately pre-processing the current and historical NDVIs, the Time Series Product Tool and the Phenological Parameters Estimation Tool are used to temporally reduce noise, fuse, and aggregate MODIS NDVIs into 24 day composites refreshed every 8 days with 46 dates of forest change products per year. The 24 day compositing interval typically enables new disturbances to be detected, while minimizing the frequency of residual atmospheric contamination. ForWarn's three standard forest change products compare current NDVI to that from the previous year, previous 3 years, and

  6. 7 CFR 1.625 - What will the Forest Service do with any hearing requests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What will the Forest Service do with any hearing... Conditions in FERC Hydropower Licenses Initiation of Hearing Process § 1.625 What will the Forest Service do with any hearing requests? (a) Case referral. Within 5 days after receipt of the Forest...

  7. 7 CFR 1.625 - What will the Forest Service do with any hearing requests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What will the Forest Service do with any hearing... Conditions in FERC Hydropower Licenses Initiation of Hearing Process § 1.625 What will the Forest Service do with any hearing requests? (a) Case referral. Within 5 days after receipt of the Forest...

  8. 7 CFR 1.625 - What will the Forest Service do with any hearing requests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What will the Forest Service do with any hearing... Conditions in FERC Hydropower Licenses Initiation of Hearing Process § 1.625 What will the Forest Service do with any hearing requests? (a) Case referral. Within 5 days after receipt of the Forest...

  9. 7 CFR 1.625 - What will the Forest Service do with any hearing requests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What will the Forest Service do with any hearing... Conditions in FERC Hydropower Licenses Initiation of Hearing Process § 1.625 What will the Forest Service do with any hearing requests? (a) Case referral. Within 5 days after receipt of the Forest...

  10. 7 CFR 1.625 - What will the Forest Service do with any hearing requests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What will the Forest Service do with any hearing... Conditions in FERC Hydropower Licenses Initiation of Hearing Process § 1.625 What will the Forest Service do with any hearing requests? (a) Case referral. Within 5 days after receipt of the Forest...

  11. Use of Current 2010 Forest Disturbance Monitoring Products for the Conterminous United States in Aiding a National Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spruce, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Gasser, J.; Smoot, J.; Kuper, P.

    2010-12-01

    This presentation discusses contributions of near real time (NRT) MODIS forest disturbance detection products for the conterminous United States to an emerging national forest threat early warning system (EWS). The latter is being developed by the USDA Forest Service’s Eastern and Western Environmental Threat Centers with help from NASA Stennis Space Center and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Building off work done in 2009, this national and regional forest disturbance detection and viewing capability of the EWS employs NRT MODIS NDVI data from the USGS eMODIS group and historical NDVI data from standard MOD13 products. Disturbance detection products are being computed for 24 day composites that are refreshed every 8 days. Products for 2010 include 42 dates of the 24 day composites. For each compositing date, we computed % change in forest maximum NDVI products for 2010 with respect to each of three historical baselines of 2009, 2007-2009, and 2003-2009. The three baselines enable one to view potential current, recent, and longer term forest disturbances. A rainbow color table was applied to each forest change product so that potential disturbances (NDVI drops) were identified in hot color tones and growth (NDVI gains) in cold color tones. Example products were provided to end-users responsible for forest health monitoring at the Federal and State levels. Large patches of potential forest disturbances were validated based on comparisons with available reference data, including Landsat and field survey data. Products were posted on two internet mapping systems for US Forest Service internal and collaborator use. MODIS forest disturbance detection products were computed and posted for use in as little as 1 day after the last input date of the compositing period. Such products were useful for aiding aerial disturbance detection surveys and for assessing disturbance persistence on both inter- and intra-annual scales. Multiple 2010 forest disturbance events were

  12. Dynamics of Ecosystem Services during Forest Transitions in Reventazón, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Vallet, Améline; Locatelli, Bruno; Levrel, Harold; Brenes Pérez, Christian; Imbach, Pablo; Estrada Carmona, Natalia; Manlay, Raphaël; Oszwald, Johan

    2016-01-01

    The forest transition framework describes the temporal changes of forest areas with economic development. A first phase of forest contraction is followed by a second phase of expansion once a turning point is reached. This framework does not differentiate forest types or ecosystem services, and describes forests regardless of their contribution to human well-being. For several decades, deforestation in many tropical regions has degraded ecosystem services, such as watershed regulation, while increasing provisioning services from agriculture, for example, food. Forest transitions and expansion have been observed in some countries, but their consequences for ecosystem services are often unclear. We analyzed the implications of forest cover change on ecosystem services in Costa Rica, where a forest transition has been suggested. A review of literature and secondary data on forest and ecosystem services in Costa Rica indicated that forest transition might have led to an ecosystem services transition. We modeled and mapped the changes of selected ecosystem services in the upper part of the Reventazón watershed and analyzed how supply changed over time in order to identify possible transitions in ecosystem services. The modeled changes of ecosystem services is similar to the second phase of a forest transition but no turning point was identified, probably because of the limited temporal scope of the analysis. Trends of provisioning and regulating services and their tradeoffs were opposite in different spatial subunits of our study area, which highlights the importance of scale in the analysis of ecosystem services and forest transitions. The ecosystem services transition framework proposed in this study is useful for analyzing the temporal changes of ecosystem services and linking socio-economic drivers to ecosystem services demand at different scales. PMID:27390869

  13. Dynamics of Ecosystem Services during Forest Transitions in Reventazón, Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Vallet, Améline; Locatelli, Bruno; Levrel, Harold; Brenes Pérez, Christian; Imbach, Pablo; Estrada Carmona, Natalia; Manlay, Raphaël; Oszwald, Johan

    2016-01-01

    The forest transition framework describes the temporal changes of forest areas with economic development. A first phase of forest contraction is followed by a second phase of expansion once a turning point is reached. This framework does not differentiate forest types or ecosystem services, and describes forests regardless of their contribution to human well-being. For several decades, deforestation in many tropical regions has degraded ecosystem services, such as watershed regulation, while increasing provisioning services from agriculture, for example, food. Forest transitions and expansion have been observed in some countries, but their consequences for ecosystem services are often unclear. We analyzed the implications of forest cover change on ecosystem services in Costa Rica, where a forest transition has been suggested. A review of literature and secondary data on forest and ecosystem services in Costa Rica indicated that forest transition might have led to an ecosystem services transition. We modeled and mapped the changes of selected ecosystem services in the upper part of the Reventazón watershed and analyzed how supply changed over time in order to identify possible transitions in ecosystem services. The modeled changes of ecosystem services is similar to the second phase of a forest transition but no turning point was identified, probably because of the limited temporal scope of the analysis. Trends of provisioning and regulating services and their tradeoffs were opposite in different spatial subunits of our study area, which highlights the importance of scale in the analysis of ecosystem services and forest transitions. The ecosystem services transition framework proposed in this study is useful for analyzing the temporal changes of ecosystem services and linking socio-economic drivers to ecosystem services demand at different scales. PMID:27390869

  14. Thresholds in forest bird occurrence as a function of the amount of early-seral broadleaf forest at landscape scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Betts, M.G.; Hagar, J.C.; Rivers, J.W.; Alexander, J.D.; McGarigal, K.; McComb, B.C.

    2010-01-01

    Recent declines in broadleaf-dominated, early-seral forest globally as a function of intensive forest management and/or fire suppression have raised concern about the viability of populations dependent on such forest types. However, quantitative information about the strength and direction of species associations with broadleaf cover at landscape scales are rare. Uncovering such habitat relationships is essential for understanding the demography of species and in developing sound conservation strategies. It is particularly important to detect points in habitat reduction where rates of population decline may accelerate or the likelihood of species occurrence drops rapidly (i.e., thresholds). Here, we use a large avian point-count data set (N = 4375) from southwestern and northwestern Oregon along with segmented logistic regression to test for thresholds in forest bird occurrence as a function of broadleaf forest and early-seral broadleaf forest at local (150-m radius) and landscape (500–2000-m radius) scales. All 12 bird species examined showed positive responses to either broadleaf forest in general, and/or early-seral broadleaf forest. However, regional variation in species response to these conditions was high. We found considerable evidence for landscape thresholds in bird species occurrence as a function of broadleaf cover; threshold models received substantially greater support than linear models for eight of 12 species. Landscape thresholds in broadleaf forest ranged broadly from 1.35% to 24.55% mean canopy cover. Early-seral broadleaf thresholds tended to be much lower (0.22–1.87%). We found a strong negative relationship between the strength of species association with early-seral broadleaf forest and 42-year bird population trends; species most associated with this forest type have declined at the greatest rates. Taken together, these results provide the first support for the hypothesis that reductions in broadleaf-dominated early-seral forest due to

  15. Small target identification. Forest Service project record. [Raptors

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, R.T.

    1984-02-01

    The identification, observation, and counting of raptor (hawks, owls, ospreys, eagles, etc.) nests, fledglings, and eggs are accomplished by Forest Service wildlife biologists as part of the eagle recovery effort, the protection of endangered species, and wildlife management in general. One alternative to real-time direct observation would be some sort of a stabilized television platform, equipped with a television camera which has a remotely zoomable lens, and a real-time monitor. The objective of the tests described in the report is to determine if a stabilized, real-time optical system (hereinafter called simply sight) is available to do the raptor observation job.

  16. 75 FR 67998 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Chattahoochee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service... objects in the possession of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,...

  17. ECOSYSTEM SERVICES OF SECONDARY FORESTS IN THE MATA ATLÂNTICA OF BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Land use history can be an important driver of many ecosystem services. Carbon storage and species richness of primary forests likely will exceed that of secondary forests. Productivity of secondary forests may be limited by nitrogen and/or phosphorus because of nutrient re...

  18. 75 FR 68000 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Hiawatha National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service... inventory of human remains in the control of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Hiawatha... assessment of the human remains was made by U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,...

  19. Toward a National Early Warning System for Forest Disturbances Using Remotely Sensed Canopy Phenology

    SciTech Connect

    HargroveJr., William Walter; Spruce, Joe; Gasser, Gerry; Hoffman, Forrest M

    2009-01-01

    Imagine a national system with the ability to quickly identify forested areas under attack from insects or disease. Such an early warning system might minimize surprises such as the explosion of caterpillars referred to in the quotation to the left. Moderate resolution (ca. 500m) remote sensing repeated at frequent (ca. weekly) intervals could power such a monitoring system that would respond in near real-time. An ideal warning system would be national in scope, automated, able to improve its prognostic ability with experience, and would provide regular map updates online in familiar and accessible formats. Such a goal is quite ambitious - analyzing vegetation change weekly at a national scale with moderate resolution is a daunting task. The foremost challenge is discerning unusual or unexpected disturbances from the normal backdrop of seasonal and annual changes in vegetation conditions. A historical perspective is needed to define a 'baseline' for expected, normal behavior against which detected changes can be correctly interpreted. It would be necessary to combine temperature, precipitation, soils, and topographic information with the remotely sensed data to discriminate and interpret the changing vegetation conditions on the ground. Conterminous national coverage implies huge data volumes, even at a moderate resolution (250-500m), and likely requires a supercomputing capability. Finally, such a national warning system must carefully balance the rate of successful threat detection with false positives. Since 2005, the USDA Forest Service has partnered with the NASA Stennis Space Center and Oak Ridge National Laboratory to develop methods for monitoring environmental threats, including native insects and diseases, wildfire, invasive pests and pathogens, tornados, hurricanes, and hail. These tools will be instrumental in helping the Forest Service's two Environmental Threat Assessment Centers better meet their Congressional mandate to help track the health of the

  20. Climate Change and Ecosystem Services Output Efficiency in Southern Loblolly Pine Forests.

    PubMed

    Susaeta, Andres; Adams, Damian C; Carter, Douglas R; Dwivedi, Puneet

    2016-09-01

    Forests provide myriad ecosystem services that are vital to humanity. With climate change, we expect to see significant changes to forests that will alter the supply of these critical services and affect human well-being. To better understand the impacts of climate change on forest-based ecosystem services, we applied a data envelopment analysis method to assess plot-level efficiency in the provision of ecosystem services in Florida natural loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) forests. Using field data for n = 16 loblolly pine forest plots, including inputs such as site index, tree density, age, precipitation, and temperatures for each forest plot, we assessed the relative plot-level production of three ecosystem services: timber, carbon sequestered, and species richness. The results suggested that loblolly pine forests in Florida were largely inefficient in the provision of these ecosystem services under current climatic conditions. Climate change had a small negative impact on the loblolly pine forests efficiency in the provision of ecosystem services. In this context, we discussed the reduction of tree density that may not improve ecosystem services production. PMID:27263100

  1. 7 CFR 1.672 - What will the Forest Service do with a proposed alternative?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... comments to FERC's NEPA document under 18 CFR 5.25(c): (a) Analyze the alternative under § 1.673; and (b... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What will the Forest Service do with a proposed... Conditions in FERC Hydropower Licenses Alternatives Process § 1.672 What will the Forest Service do with...

  2. 7 CFR 1.672 - What will the Forest Service do with a proposed alternative?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... comments to FERC's NEPA document under 18 CFR 5.25(c): (a) Analyze the alternative under § 1.673; and (b... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What will the Forest Service do with a proposed... Conditions in FERC Hydropower Licenses Alternatives Process § 1.672 What will the Forest Service do with...

  3. 7 CFR 1.672 - What will the Forest Service do with a proposed alternative?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... comments to FERC's NEPA document under 18 CFR 5.25(c): (a) Analyze the alternative under § 1.673; and (b... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What will the Forest Service do with a proposed... Conditions in FERC Hydropower Licenses Alternatives Process § 1.672 What will the Forest Service do with...

  4. 7 CFR 1.672 - What will the Forest Service do with a proposed alternative?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... comments to FERC's NEPA document under 18 CFR 5.25(c): (a) Analyze the alternative under § 1.673; and (b... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What will the Forest Service do with a proposed... Conditions in FERC Hydropower Licenses Alternatives Process § 1.672 What will the Forest Service do with...

  5. 7 CFR 1.672 - What will the Forest Service do with a proposed alternative?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... comments to FERC's NEPA document under 18 CFR 5.25(c): (a) Analyze the alternative under § 1.673; and (b... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What will the Forest Service do with a proposed... Conditions in FERC Hydropower Licenses Alternatives Process § 1.672 What will the Forest Service do with...

  6. Forest Service Films Available On Loan For Educational Purposes to Schools, Civic Groups, Churches, Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Over 100 films prepared by the Forest Service are listed in this catalog. Sixty-five general interest films and seven "Smokey the Bear" fire prevention films are available on loan, free of charge, to the public. Twenty-nine Forest Service training films are also listed which are not available for public use except under special circumstances. All…

  7. Forest Service Career Guide. Professional Opportunities in Natural Resource Management, Planning, and Research. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    The guide provides information on professional opportunities in natural resource management, planning, and research. Reasons for careers in forest service are presented and a brief description of the forest service is provided. Career opportunities in the following areas are described: forestry, engineering, geology, hydrology, landscape…

  8. Climate Change and Ecosystem Services Output Efficiency in Southern Loblolly Pine Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susaeta, Andres; Adams, Damian C.; Carter, Douglas R.; Dwivedi, Puneet

    2016-09-01

    Forests provide myriad ecosystem services that are vital to humanity. With climate change, we expect to see significant changes to forests that will alter the supply of these critical services and affect human well-being. To better understand the impacts of climate change on forest-based ecosystem services, we applied a data envelopment analysis method to assess plot-level efficiency in the provision of ecosystem services in Florida natural loblolly pine ( Pinus taeda L.) forests. Using field data for n = 16 loblolly pine forest plots, including inputs such as site index, tree density, age, precipitation, and temperatures for each forest plot, we assessed the relative plot-level production of three ecosystem services: timber, carbon sequestered, and species richness. The results suggested that loblolly pine forests in Florida were largely inefficient in the provision of these ecosystem services under current climatic conditions. Climate change had a small negative impact on the loblolly pine forests efficiency in the provision of ecosystem services. In this context, we discussed the reduction of tree density that may not improve ecosystem services production.

  9. Encouraging family forest owners to create early successional wildlife habitat in Southern New England.

    PubMed

    Buffum, Bill; Modisette, Christopher; McWilliams, Scott R

    2014-01-01

    Encouraging family forest owners to create early successional habitat is a high priority for wildlife conservation agencies in the northeastern USA, where most forest land is privately owned. Many studies have linked regional declines in wildlife populations to the loss of early successional habitat. The government provides financial incentives to create early successional habitat, but the number of family forest owners who actively manage their forests remains low. Several studies have analyzed participation of family forest owners in federal forestry programs, but no study to date has focused specifically on creation of wildlife habitat. The objective of our study was to analyze the experience of a group of wildlife-oriented family forest owners who were trained to create early successional habitat. This type of family forest owners represents a small portion of the total population of family forest owners, but we believe they can play an important role in creating wildlife habitat, so it is important to understand how outreach programs can best reach them. The respondents shared some characteristics but differed in terms of forest holdings, forestry experience and interest in earning forestry income. Despite their strong interest in wildlife, awareness about the importance of early successional habitat was low. Financial support from the federal government appeared to be important in motivating respondents to follow up after the training with activities on their own properties: 84% of respondents who had implemented activities received federal financial support and 47% would not have implemented the activities without financial assistance. In order to mobilize greater numbers of wildlife-oriented family forest owners to create early successional habitat we recommend focusing outreach efforts on increasing awareness about the importance of early successional habitat and the availability of technical and financial assistance. PMID:24587160

  10. Encouraging Family Forest Owners to Create Early Successional Wildlife Habitat in Southern New England

    PubMed Central

    Buffum, Bill; Modisette, Christopher; McWilliams, Scott R.

    2014-01-01

    Encouraging family forest owners to create early successional habitat is a high priority for wildlife conservation agencies in the northeastern USA, where most forest land is privately owned. Many studies have linked regional declines in wildlife populations to the loss of early successional habitat. The government provides financial incentives to create early successional habitat, but the number of family forest owners who actively manage their forests remains low. Several studies have analyzed participation of family forest owners in federal forestry programs, but no study to date has focused specifically on creation of wildlife habitat. The objective of our study was to analyze the experience of a group of wildlife-oriented family forest owners who were trained to create early successional habitat. This type of family forest owners represents a small portion of the total population of family forest owners, but we believe they can play an important role in creating wildlife habitat, so it is important to understand how outreach programs can best reach them. The respondents shared some characteristics but differed in terms of forest holdings, forestry experience and interest in earning forestry income. Despite their strong interest in wildlife, awareness about the importance of early successional habitat was low. Financial support from the federal government appeared to be important in motivating respondents to follow up after the training with activities on their own properties: 84% of respondents who had implemented activities received federal financial support and 47% would not have implemented the activities without financial assistance. In order to mobilize greater numbers of wildlife-oriented family forest owners to create early successional habitat we recommend focusing outreach efforts on increasing awareness about the importance of early successional habitat and the availability of technical and financial assistance. PMID:24587160

  11. 34 CFR 303.12 - Early intervention services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Early intervention services. 303.12 Section 303.12 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General...

  12. 34 CFR 303.12 - Early intervention services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Early intervention services. 303.12 Section 303.12 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General...

  13. Early Intervention Services: Effectively Supporting Maori Children and their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berryman, Mere; Woller, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines Early Intervention (EI) service provision from within one Ministry of Education region in New Zealand. It does this in order to better understand what works well and what needs to change if children from Maori families, of Early Childhood age, are to be provided with the most effective EI services. By engaging with Maori…

  14. Parent Choice of Early Childhood Education and Care Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Karen

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study designed to enhance knowledge and understanding of parent choice in relation to early childhood education and care (ECEC) services. It investigates the ways parents make their choices of early childhood services and examines and interprets the meanings they ascribe to those choices. An orthodox grounded theory…

  15. 36 CFR 213.2 - Authority for Chief, Forest Service, to group, define, and name national grasslands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Authority for Chief, Forest Service, to group, define, and name national grasslands. 213.2 Section 213.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ADMINISTRATION OF LANDS UNDER TITLE III OF THE...

  16. 36 CFR 213.2 - Authority for Chief, Forest Service, to group, define, and name national grasslands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Authority for Chief, Forest Service, to group, define, and name national grasslands. 213.2 Section 213.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ADMINISTRATION OF LANDS UNDER TITLE III OF THE...

  17. 36 CFR 213.2 - Authority for Chief, Forest Service, to group, define, and name national grasslands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authority for Chief, Forest Service, to group, define, and name national grasslands. 213.2 Section 213.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ADMINISTRATION OF LANDS UNDER TITLE III OF THE...

  18. 36 CFR 228.63 - Removal under terms of a timber sale or other Forest Service contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Removal under terms of a timber sale or other Forest Service contract. 228.63 Section 228.63 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials Types and Methods...

  19. 36 CFR 228.63 - Removal under terms of a timber sale or other Forest Service contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Removal under terms of a timber sale or other Forest Service contract. 228.63 Section 228.63 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials Types and Methods...

  20. 36 CFR 228.63 - Removal under terms of a timber sale or other Forest Service contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Removal under terms of a timber sale or other Forest Service contract. 228.63 Section 228.63 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials Types and Methods...

  1. 36 CFR 213.2 - Authority for Chief, Forest Service, to group, define, and name national grasslands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Authority for Chief, Forest Service, to group, define, and name national grasslands. 213.2 Section 213.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ADMINISTRATION OF LANDS UNDER TITLE III OF THE...

  2. 36 CFR 228.63 - Removal under terms of a timber sale or other Forest Service contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Removal under terms of a timber sale or other Forest Service contract. 228.63 Section 228.63 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials Types and Methods...

  3. 36 CFR 213.2 - Authority for Chief, Forest Service, to group, define, and name national grasslands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Authority for Chief, Forest Service, to group, define, and name national grasslands. 213.2 Section 213.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ADMINISTRATION OF LANDS UNDER TITLE III OF THE...

  4. 36 CFR 228.63 - Removal under terms of a timber sale or other Forest Service contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Removal under terms of a timber sale or other Forest Service contract. 228.63 Section 228.63 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials Types and Methods...

  5. US Forest Service and National Park Service Wilderness Aircraft Overflight Study: Sociological background and study plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Robin T.; Hartmann, Lawrence

    1990-04-01

    The background and sociological aspects of the combined U.S. Forest Service and National Park Service Wilderness Aircraft Overflight Study (WACOS) are presented. The WACOS broaches a new area of research by combining aspects of outdoor recreation sociology and aircraft noise response studies. The tasks faced create new challenges and require innovative solutions. Background information on the WACOS is presented with special emphasis on sociological considerations. At the time of this writing, no data have yet been collected, so this paper will present background information, related issues, and plans for data collection. Some recent studies indicate that managers of Forest Service wildernesses and National Park Service areas consider aircraft overflights to be a problem to their users in some areas. Additional relevant background research from outdoor recreation sociology is discussed, followed by presentation of the authors' opinions of the most salient sociological issues faced by this study. The goals and desired end products are identified next, followed by a review of the methods anticipated to be used to obtain these results. Finally, a discussion and conclusion section is provided.

  6. US Forest Service and National Park Service Wilderness Aircraft Overflight Study: Sociological background and study plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, Robin T.; Hartmann, Lawrence

    1990-01-01

    The background and sociological aspects of the combined U.S. Forest Service and National Park Service Wilderness Aircraft Overflight Study (WACOS) are presented. The WACOS broaches a new area of research by combining aspects of outdoor recreation sociology and aircraft noise response studies. The tasks faced create new challenges and require innovative solutions. Background information on the WACOS is presented with special emphasis on sociological considerations. At the time of this writing, no data have yet been collected, so this paper will present background information, related issues, and plans for data collection. Some recent studies indicate that managers of Forest Service wildernesses and National Park Service areas consider aircraft overflights to be a problem to their users in some areas. Additional relevant background research from outdoor recreation sociology is discussed, followed by presentation of the authors' opinions of the most salient sociological issues faced by this study. The goals and desired end products are identified next, followed by a review of the methods anticipated to be used to obtain these results. Finally, a discussion and conclusion section is provided.

  7. [Forest ecosystem services and their ecological valuation--a case study of tropical forest in Jianfengling of Hainan Island].

    PubMed

    Xiao, H; Ouyang, Z; Zhao, J; Wang, X

    2000-08-01

    This paper attempts to present forest ecosystem services and their indirect economic value of Jianfengling tropical forest in Hainan Island. The results show that average annual integrated ecosystem service value of Jianfengling tropical forest, which covers 44667.00 hm2, adds up to 664.38 million yuan(Chinese RMB), of which, about 71.64 million yuan is of the output of standing trees and other forest products, about 394.29 million yuan of water-holding, about 2.47 million yuan of soil conservation against erosion, about 13.16 million yuan of carbon fixation for reducing green house effect, about 4.29 million yuan of nutrient retention for N, P, K, Ca and Mg, about 178.53 million yuan of air purification. PMID:11767660

  8. Assessing the ecosystem service potential of Tucson AZ's urban forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavao-Zuckerman, M.

    2011-12-01

    canopy photos) to asses growth of the trees in the urban environment. These growth rates, and associated ecosystem services (C-sequestration, energy savings, pollution mitigation, etc.) are evaluated using US Forest Service models (Tree Carbon Calculator and i-tree software) to determine how the performance of trees in the Tucson urban environment perform vs. model predictions. We hypothesize that the models overestimate tree performance as Tucson differs in water availability relative to the cities the model was parameterized in (e.g. Glendale), both in terms of soil water holding capacities and also city "water culture." This preliminary study will provide a data collection framework for a citizen science urban forestry project which will provide data to improve environmental decision making related to the interaction of plants, water, and energy balance in this arid city.

  9. 7 CFR 1.620 - What supporting information must the Forest Service provide with its preliminary conditions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What supporting information must the Forest Service... § 1.620 What supporting information must the Forest Service provide with its preliminary conditions? (a) Supporting information. (1) When the Forest Service files preliminary conditions with FERC,...

  10. 7 CFR 1.673 - How will the Forest Service analyze a proposed alternative and formulate its modified condition?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How will the Forest Service analyze a proposed... will the Forest Service analyze a proposed alternative and formulate its modified condition? (a) In deciding whether to adopt a proposed alternative, the Forest Service must consider evidence and...

  11. 7 CFR 1.620 - What supporting information must the Forest Service provide with its preliminary conditions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What supporting information must the Forest Service... § 1.620 What supporting information must the Forest Service provide with its preliminary conditions? (a) Supporting information. (1) When the Forest Service files preliminary conditions with FERC,...

  12. 7 CFR 1.620 - What supporting information must the Forest Service provide with its preliminary conditions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What supporting information must the Forest Service... § 1.620 What supporting information must the Forest Service provide with its preliminary conditions? (a) Supporting information. (1) When the Forest Service files preliminary conditions with FERC,...

  13. 7 CFR 1.620 - What supporting information must the Forest Service provide with its preliminary conditions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What supporting information must the Forest Service... § 1.620 What supporting information must the Forest Service provide with its preliminary conditions? (a) Supporting information. (1) When the Forest Service files preliminary conditions with FERC,...

  14. 7 CFR 1.620 - What supporting information must the Forest Service provide with its preliminary conditions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What supporting information must the Forest Service... § 1.620 What supporting information must the Forest Service provide with its preliminary conditions? (a) Supporting information. (1) When the Forest Service files preliminary conditions with FERC,...

  15. 75 FR 45656 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Siuslaw National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service.... Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Siuslaw National Forest, Waldport, OR. The human remains...

  16. 78 FR 11677 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Apache-Sitgreaves...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service... Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service, Apache-Sitgreaves National Forests and the Field Museum of Natural...

  17. Aquatic biodiversity in forests: A weak link in ecosystem services resilience

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Penaluna, Brooke E.; Olson, Deanna H.; Flitcroft, Rebecca L; Weber, Matthew A.; Bellmore, James R.; Wondzell, Steven M.; Dunham, Jason; Johnson, Sherri L.; Reeves, Gordon H.

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of aquatic ecosystems is being quickly reduced on many continents, warranting a closer examination of the consequences for ecological integrity and ecosystem services. Here we describe intermediate and final ecosystem services derived from aquatic biodiversity in forests. We include a summary of the factors framing the assembly of aquatic biodiversity in forests in natural systems and how they change with a variety of natural disturbances and human-derived stressors. We consider forested aquatic ecosystems as a multi-state portfolio, with diverse assemblages and life-history strategies occurring at local scales as a consequence of a mosaic of habitat conditions and past disturbances and stressors. Maintaining this multi-state portfolio of assemblages requires a broad perspective of ecosystem structure, various functions, services, and management implications relative to contemporary stressors. Because aquatic biodiversity provides multiple ecosystem services to forests, activities that compromise aquatic ecosystems and biodiversity could be an issue for maintaining forest ecosystem integrity. We illustrate these concepts with examples of aquatic biodiversity and ecosystem services in forests of northwestern North America, also known as Northeast Pacific Rim. Encouraging management planning at broad as well as local spatial scales to recognize multi-state ecosystem management goals has promise for maintaining valuable ecosystem services. Ultimately, integration of information from socio-ecological ecosystems will be needed to maintain ecosystem services derived directly and indirectly from forest aquatic biota.

  18. Aboveground-belowground biodiversity linkages differ in early and late successional temperate forests.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Wang, Xugao; Liang, Chao; Hao, Zhanqing; Zhou, Lisha; Ma, Sam; Li, Xiaobin; Yang, Shan; Yao, Fei; Jiang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Understanding ecological linkages between above- and below-ground biota is critical for deepening our knowledge on the maintenance and stability of ecosystem processes. Nevertheless, direct comparisons of plant-microbe diversity at the community level remain scarce due to the knowledge gap between microbial ecology and plant ecology. We compared the α- and β- diversities of plant and soil bacterial communities in two temperate forests that represented early and late successional stages. We documented different patterns of aboveground-belowground diversity relationships in these forests. We observed no linkage between plant and bacterial α-diversity in the early successional forest, and even a negative correlation in the late successional forest, indicating that high bacterial α-diversity is not always linked to high plant α-diversity. Beta-diversity coupling was only found at the late successional stage, while in the early successional forest, the bacterial β-diversity was closely correlated with soil property distances. Additionally, we showed that the dominant competitive tree species in the late successional forest may play key roles in driving forest succession by shaping the soil bacterial community in the early successional stage. This study sheds new light on the potential aboveground-belowground linkage in natural ecosystems, which may help us understand the mechanisms that drive ecosystem succession. PMID:26184121

  19. Aboveground-belowground biodiversity linkages differ in early and late successional temperate forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui; Wang, Xugao; Liang, Chao; Hao, Zhanqing; Zhou, Lisha; Ma, Sam; Li, Xiaobin; Yang, Shan; Yao, Fei; Jiang, Yong

    2015-07-01

    Understanding ecological linkages between above- and below-ground biota is critical for deepening our knowledge on the maintenance and stability of ecosystem processes. Nevertheless, direct comparisons of plant-microbe diversity at the community level remain scarce due to the knowledge gap between microbial ecology and plant ecology. We compared the α- and β- diversities of plant and soil bacterial communities in two temperate forests that represented early and late successional stages. We documented different patterns of aboveground-belowground diversity relationships in these forests. We observed no linkage between plant and bacterial α-diversity in the early successional forest, and even a negative correlation in the late successional forest, indicating that high bacterial α-diversity is not always linked to high plant α-diversity. Beta-diversity coupling was only found at the late successional stage, while in the early successional forest, the bacterial β-diversity was closely correlated with soil property distances. Additionally, we showed that the dominant competitive tree species in the late successional forest may play key roles in driving forest succession by shaping the soil bacterial community in the early successional stage. This study sheds new light on the potential aboveground-belowground linkage in natural ecosystems, which may help us understand the mechanisms that drive ecosystem succession.

  20. Aboveground-belowground biodiversity linkages differ in early and late successional temperate forests

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Wang, Xugao; Liang, Chao; Hao, Zhanqing; Zhou, Lisha; Ma, Sam; Li, Xiaobin; Yang, Shan; Yao, Fei; Jiang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Understanding ecological linkages between above- and below-ground biota is critical for deepening our knowledge on the maintenance and stability of ecosystem processes. Nevertheless, direct comparisons of plant-microbe diversity at the community level remain scarce due to the knowledge gap between microbial ecology and plant ecology. We compared the α- and β- diversities of plant and soil bacterial communities in two temperate forests that represented early and late successional stages. We documented different patterns of aboveground-belowground diversity relationships in these forests. We observed no linkage between plant and bacterial α-diversity in the early successional forest, and even a negative correlation in the late successional forest, indicating that high bacterial α-diversity is not always linked to high plant α-diversity. Beta-diversity coupling was only found at the late successional stage, while in the early successional forest, the bacterial β-diversity was closely correlated with soil property distances. Additionally, we showed that the dominant competitive tree species in the late successional forest may play key roles in driving forest succession by shaping the soil bacterial community in the early successional stage. This study sheds new light on the potential aboveground-belowground linkage in natural ecosystems, which may help us understand the mechanisms that drive ecosystem succession. PMID:26184121

  1. Glossary of terms used in timber harvesting and forest engineering. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Stokes, B.J.; Ashmore, C.; Rawlins, C.L.; Sirois, D.L.

    1989-09-01

    With the increasing cost and complexity of forest operations, there is an ever-growing need for standardization of forest-engineering terminology. This publication provides a glossary of definitions for a broad group of terms used in forestry and in forest engineering, with an emphasis on harvesting.

  2. Carbon sequestration and water flow regulation services in mature Mediterranean Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beguería, S.; Ovando, P.

    2015-12-01

    We develop a forestland use and management model that integrates spatially-explicit biophysical and economic data, to estimate the expected pattern of climate regulation services through carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in tree and shrubs biomass, and water flow regulation. We apply this model to examine the potential trade-offs and synergies in the supply of CO2 sequestration and water flow services in mature Mediterranean forest, considering two alternative forest management settings. A forest restoration scenario through investments in facilitating forest regeneration, and a forestry activity abandonment scenario as result of unprofitable forest regeneration investment. The analysis is performed for different discount rates and price settings for carbon and water. The model is applied at the farm level in a group of 567 private silvopastoral farms across Andalusia (Spain), considering the main forest species in this region: Quercus ilex, Q. suber, Pinus pinea, P. halepensis, P. pinaster and Eucalyptus sp., as well as for tree-less shrubland and pastures. The results of this research are provided by forest land unit, vegetation, farm and for the group of municipalities where the farms are located. Our results draw attention to the spatial variability of CO2 and water flow regulation services, and point towards a trade-off between those services. The pattern of economic benefits associated to water and carbon services fluctuates according to the assumptions regarding price levels and discounting rates, as well as in connection to the expected forest management and tree growth models, and to spatially-explicit forest attributes such as existing tree and shrubs inventories, the quality of the sites for growing different tree species, soil structure or the climatic characteristics. The assumptions made regarding the inter-temporal preferences and relative prices have a large effect on the estimated economic value of carbon and water services. These results

  3. Higher levels of multiple ecosystem services are found in forests with more tree species.

    PubMed

    Gamfeldt, Lars; Snäll, Tord; Bagchi, Robert; Jonsson, Micael; Gustafsson, Lena; Kjellander, Petter; Ruiz-Jaen, María C; Fröberg, Mats; Stendahl, Johan; Philipson, Christopher D; Mikusiński, Grzegorz; Andersson, Erik; Westerlund, Bertil; Andrén, Henrik; Moberg, Fredrik; Moen, Jon; Bengtsson, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Forests are of major importance to human society, contributing several crucial ecosystem services. Biodiversity is suggested to positively influence multiple services but evidence from natural systems at scales relevant to management is scarce. Here, across a scale of 400,000 km(2), we report that tree species richness in production forests shows positive to positively hump-shaped relationships with multiple ecosystem services. These include production of tree biomass, soil carbon storage, berry production and game production potential. For example, biomass production was approximately 50% greater with five than with one tree species. In addition, we show positive relationships between tree species richness and proxies for other biodiversity components. Importantly, no single tree species was able to promote all services, and some services were negatively correlated to each other. Management of production forests will therefore benefit from considering multiple tree species to sustain the full range of benefits that the society obtains from forests. PMID:23299890

  4. Higher levels of multiple ecosystem services are found in forests with more tree species

    PubMed Central

    Gamfeldt, Lars; Snäll, Tord; Bagchi, Robert; Jonsson, Micael; Gustafsson, Lena; Kjellander, Petter; Ruiz-Jaen, María C.; Fröberg, Mats; Stendahl, Johan; Philipson, Christopher D.; Mikusiński, Grzegorz; Andersson, Erik; Westerlund, Bertil; Andrén, Henrik; Moberg, Fredrik; Moen, Jon; Bengtsson, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Forests are of major importance to human society, contributing several crucial ecosystem services. Biodiversity is suggested to positively influence multiple services but evidence from natural systems at scales relevant to management is scarce. Here, across a scale of 400,000 km2, we report that tree species richness in production forests shows positive to positively hump-shaped relationships with multiple ecosystem services. These include production of tree biomass, soil carbon storage, berry production and game production potential. For example, biomass production was approximately 50% greater with five than with one tree species. In addition, we show positive relationships between tree species richness and proxies for other biodiversity components. Importantly, no single tree species was able to promote all services, and some services were negatively correlated to each other. Management of production forests will therefore benefit from considering multiple tree species to sustain the full range of benefits that the society obtains from forests. PMID:23299890

  5. The US Forest Service Framework for Climate Adaptation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleaves, D.

    2013-12-01

    Public lands are changing in response to climate change and related stressors such that resilience-based management plans that integrate climate-smart adaptation are needed. The goal of these plans is to facilitate land managers' consideration of a range of potential futures while simplifying the complex array of choices and assumptions in a rigorous, defensible manner. The foundation for climate response has been built into recent Forest Service policies, guidance, and strategies like the climate change Roadmap and Scorecard; 2012 Planning Rule; Cohesive Wildland Fire Management strategy; and Inventory, Monitoring & Assessment strategy. This has driven the need for information that is relevant, timely, and accessible to support vulnerability assessments and risk management to aid in designing and choosing alternatives and ranking actions. Managers must also consider carbon and greenhouse gas implications as well as understand the nature and level of uncertainties. The major adjustments that need to be made involve: improving risk-based decision making and working with predictive models and information; evaluating underlying assumptions against new realities and possibilities being revealed by climate science; integrating carbon cycle science and a new ethic of carbon stewardship into management practices; and preparing systems for inevitable changes to ameliorate negative effects, capture opportunities, or accept different and perhaps novel ecosystem configurations. We need to avoid waiting for complete science that never arrives and take actions that blend science and experience to boost learning, reduce costs and irreversible losses, and buy lead time.

  6. Forest statistics for Michigan`s northern lower peninsula unit, 1993. Forest Service research bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Leatherberry, E.C.

    1994-10-30

    Michigan`s Northern Lower Peninsula Unit (fig. 1) is comprised of 33 counties. This region of the State is rich with resources that support a network of social, economic, and ecological processes that are forest dependent. The forest resource of the Unit presently supports an industry that operates on a sustaining basis. In 1990 nearly half of Michigan`s saw-log production--297 million board feet--was harvest in the Unit. The forests of the Northern Lower Peninsula are vital to the region. The forest contains a variety of both deciduous and coniferous forest species, which results in regionally unique ecosystems that contribute to biodiversity.

  7. Independence and Interdependence in Early Childhood Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitington, Victoria

    2004-01-01

    It is through culture that children make sense of their worlds (Trevarthen, 1998). Cross- cultural models show that families are likely to primarily foster either independence or interdependence in their children (Gonzalez-Mena, 1997; Greenfield, 1994). Young children are likely to pay the "price of acculturation" when they enter early childhood…

  8. Early Childhood Services for Aboriginal Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnochie, K. R.; Russell, A.

    The report is the result of a 1981 research project commissioned by Australia's Commonwealth Department of Education to investigate early childhood education for Aborigines. The study encompassed the care and education of Aboriginal children from age 0 to age 5 in government and non-government school systems. The report is divided into three major…

  9. Diversity in Early Childhood Services in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebbeck, Marjory

    This study used structured interviews to examine the views of 101 South Australian immigrant families, grouped by country of origin, concerning their educational expectations for their children ages birth to 8 years. The overall research questions were: (1) What are the parental expectations of immigrant groups for the early education of their…

  10. Early Childhood Services: Physical Resources Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Introduced by a parable on the value of children's play, this guidebook includes a list of 10 developmental functions of play, a discussion of matters for consideration in selecting and organizing equipment and facilities for early childhood programs, and a description of indoor and outdoor program resources for children's activities. Various…

  11. Service Provider Combinations and the Delivery of Early Intervention Services to Children and Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raspa, Melissa; Hebbeler, Kathleen; Bailey, Donald B., Jr.; Scarborough, Anita A.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the National Early Intervention Longitudinal Study, this study provides a framework for characterizing the delivery of early intervention services based on the combinations of service providers who work with infants and toddlers with disabilities and their families. Five groups of providers were identified. Results showed that the…

  12. Radiative forcing by forest and subsequent feedbacks in the early Eocene climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Port, U.; Claussen, M.; Brovkin, V.

    2015-03-01

    Using the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology Earth System Model, we investigate the forcing of forests and the feedback triggered by forests in the pre-industrial climate and in the early Eocene climate (about 54 to 52 million years ago). Other than the interglacial, pre-industrial climate, the early Eocene climate was characterised by high temperatures which led to almost ice-free poles. We compare simulations in which all continents are covered either by dense forest or by bare soil. To isolate the effect of soil albedo, we choose either bright soils or dark soils, respectively. Considering bright soil, forests warm in both, the early Eocene climate and the current climate, but the warming differs due to differences in climate feedbacks. The lapse-rate and water-vapour feedback is stronger in early Eocene climate than in current climate, but strong and negative cloud feedbacks and cloud masking in the early Eocene climate outweigh the stronger positive lapse-rate and water-vapour feedback. In the sum, global mean warming is weaker in the early Eocene climate. Sea-ice related feedbacks are weak in the almost ice-free climate of the early Eocene leading to a weak polar amplification. Considering dark soil, our results change. Forests cools stronger in the early Eocene climate than in the current climate because the lapse-rate and water-vapour feedback is stronger in the early Eocene climate while cloud feedbacks and cloud masking are equally strong in both climates. The different temperature change by forest in both climates highlights the state-dependency of vegetation's impact on climate.

  13. Staff Training Tips: Focusing on Early Childhood Education and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    This document collects 15 brief guides to staff training in inclusive early childhood education settings. Guides offer examples of successful programs, research findings, and practical tips. Titles are: (1) "Giving Families Better Access to Early Intervention Services"; (2) "Creating Integrated Classrooms that Work"; (3) "Seamless Transition…

  14. Woody biomass resource of Arkansas, 1988. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Rosson, J.F.

    1993-04-01

    Data from the most recent Arkansas forest survey were used to derive estimates of wood and bark biomass by counties. Wood and bark biomass estimates for all trees on timberland are summarized in the report. The resource is described by dimension (size), forest type, ownership, species, stand attributes, and tree merchantability class. Also, estimates pertaining to timberland acreage were included.

  15. Participation Patterns among Families Receiving Part C Early Intervention Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khetani, Mary Alunkal

    2010-01-01

    Participation in the natural settings of home and community is one of four major goals for families receiving Part C early intervention services. While participation has been formally recognized as an important service-related outcome, there is a need to build knowledge about its key features to adequately apply the concept in practice. The need…

  16. A decision framework for identifying models to estimate forest ecosystem services gains from restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christin, Zachary; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Verdone, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Restoring degraded forests and agricultural lands has become a global conservation priority. A growing number of tools can quantify ecosystem service tradeoffs associated with forest restoration. This evolving “tools landscape” presents a dilemma: more tools are available, but selecting appropriate tools has become more challenging. We present a Restoration Ecosystem Service Tool Selector (RESTS) framework that describes key characteristics of 13 ecosystem service assessment tools. Analysts enter information about their decision context, services to be analyzed, and desired outputs. Tools are filtered and presented based on five evaluative criteria: scalability, cost, time requirements, handling of uncertainty, and applicability to benefit-cost analysis. RESTS uses a spreadsheet interface but a web-based interface is planned. Given the rapid evolution of ecosystem services science, RESTS provides an adaptable framework to guide forest restoration decision makers toward tools that can help quantify ecosystem services in support of restoration.

  17. Michigan`s forests 1993: An analysis. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, T.L.; Spencer, J.S.; Bertsch, R.

    1997-02-04

    Michigan`s forests are abundant, diverse, healthy, productive, and expanding. These forests make important contributions to the quality of life by providing a wide array of benefits, including wildlife habitat, biological diversity, outdoor recreation, improved air and water quality, and economic resources such as the estimated $12 billion of value added and 200,000 jobs annually supported by forest-based industries/tourism/recreation.

  18. Preliminary checklist of fungi of the Fernow Experimental Forest. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, S.L.; Kumar, A.; Bhatt, R.; Dubey, T.; Landolt, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    The report provides a checklist of fungi found on the Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia during 4 years of research and collecting by the authors. More than 500 fungi in seven major taxonomic groups (Acrasiomycetes, Myxomycetes, Chytridiomycetes, Oomycetes, Ascomycetes, Deuteromycetes, and Basidiomycetes) are listed alphabetically by genus and species. Also provided is a general description of the forest vegetation of the Fernow Experimental Forest.

  19. Forest statistics for southeast texas counties, 1992. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, J.F.; Miller, P.E.; Hartsell, A.J.

    1992-11-01

    The report includes tables derived from data obtained during a 1992 forest inventory of southeast Texas counties. The Southern Forest Experiment Station, Forest Inventory and Analysis unit (SO-FIA) uses a two-phase sample of temporary aerialphoto points and a systematic grid of permanent ground plots. The area of forested land was determined by photointerpretation of temporary points and field checks of permanent plots. Tree data were used to estimate volumes, basal area, number of trees, and other plot-level variables. Ownership information was obtained for each measurement plot using tax records and other sources.

  20. Forest statistics for New York: 1980 and 1993. Forest Service resource bulletin. (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Alerich, C.L.; Drake, D.A.

    1995-08-01

    A statistical report on the fourth forest inventory of New York conducted in 1991-94 by the Forest Inventory and Analysis Unit, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. Statistical for forest area, numbers of trees, wildlife habitat, tree biomass, timber volume, timber products output, growth and change are displayed at the state and, when appropriate, at the unit and county levels. The current inventory indicates that there approximately 21.8 billion cubic feet of growing-stock volume on 15.4 million acres of timberland in New York.

  1. 77 FR 51562 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest.... SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service, Coconino National Forest,...

  2. 77 FR 52055 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest.... SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service, Coconino National Forest,...

  3. 75 FR 44808 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest... repatriate cultural items in the control of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Coconino... Canyon with the Hopi Tribe of Arizona. Officials of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest...

  4. 75 FR 52014 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Cherokee National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ..., Cherokee National Forest, Cleveland, TN AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice is... control of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Cherokee National Forest, Cleveland, TN... with the Cherokee Tribes. The Cherokee are represented by the Cherokee Nation, Oklahoma; Eastern...

  5. Implementing watershed investment programs to restore fire-adapted forests for watershed services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springer, A. E.

    2013-12-01

    Payments for ecosystems services and watershed investment programs have created new solutions for restoring upland fire-adapted forests to support downstream surface-water and groundwater uses. Water from upland forests supports not only a significant percentage of the public water supplies in the U.S., but also extensive riparian, aquatic, and groundwater dependent ecosystems. Many rare, endemic, threatened, and endangered species are supported by the surface-water and groundwater generated from the forested uplands. In the Ponderosa pine forests of the Southwestern U.S., post Euro-American settlement forest management practices, coupled with climate change, has significantly impacted watershed functionality by increasing vegetation cover and associated evapotranspiration and decreasing runoff and groundwater recharge. A large Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program project known as the Four Forests Restoration Initiative is developing landscape scale processes to make the forests connected to these watersheds more resilient. However, there are challenges in financing the initial forest treatments and subsequent maintenance treatments while garnering supportive public opinion to forest thinning projects. A solution called the Flagstaff Watershed Protection Project is utilizing City tax dollars collected through a public bond to finance forest treatments. Exit polling from the bond election documented the reasons for the 73 % affirmative vote on the bond measure. These forest treatments have included in their actions restoration of associated ephemeral stream channels and spring ecosystems, but resources still need to be identified for these actions. A statewide strategy for developing additional forest restoration resources outside of the federal financing is being explored by state and local business and governmental leaders. Coordination, synthesis, and modeling supported by a NSF Water Sustainability and Climate project has been instrumental in

  6. Forest statistics for northeast texas counties, 1992. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, J.F.; Miller, P.E.; Hartsell, A.J.

    1992-11-01

    Tabulated results were derived from data obtained during a 1992 forest inventory of northeast Texas counties. Core tables are compatible among Forest Inventory and Analysis units in the Eastern United States. Supplemental tables provide information beyond that provided by the core tables. Comparisons are made between results of the 1992 inventory and previous inventories conducted in 1986 and 1975.

  7. Silvicultural guidelines for forest stands threatened by the Gypsy moth. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Gottschalk, K.W.

    1993-02-02

    The ecological and silvicultural information on the interaction of gypsy moth and its host forest types is incorporated into silvicultural guidelines for minimizing the impacts of gypsy moth on forest stands threatened by the insect. Decision charts are used to match stand and insect conditions to the proper prescription that includes instructions for implementing it.

  8. Carbon storage increases by major forest ecosystems in tropical South America since the Last Glacial Maximum and the early Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behling, Hermann

    2002-06-01

    To study the carbon storage increase of major forest ecosystems in tropical South America, such as Amazon rain forest, Atlantic rain forest, semideciduous forest, and Araucaria forest, the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and the early Holocene vegetation cover were reconstructed by pollen records. Marked forest expansion points to a significant total carbon storage increase by tropical forests in South America since the LGM and the early Holocene. The Amazon rain forest expansion, about 39% in area, had 28.3×10 9 tC (+20%), the highest carbon storage increase since the LGM. The expansion of the other much smaller forest areas also had a significant carbon storage increase since the LGM, the Atlantic rain forest with 4.9×10 9 tC (+55%), the semideciduous forest of eastern Brazil with 6.3×10 9 tC (+46%), the Araucaria forest with 3.4×10 9 tC (+108%). The estimated carbon storage increase of the four forest biomes since the early Holocene is also remarkable. The extensive deforestation in the last century strongly affected the carbon storage by tropical forests.

  9. [Evaluation of ecological services of Populus simonii forest on Heerqin sandy land].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Li, Fengrui; Zhang, Tonghui; Zhao, Liya; Yasuhito, Shirato

    2003-10-01

    The main ecological services of the sand-fixed forest are windbreak, soil erosion control, and atmospheric dust retention. In this paper, the ecological services of Populus simonii forest were assessed by simultaneous measurements of wind speeds, daily amount of soil surface wind erosion, and amount of atmospheric dust deposition at different observation sites located within and outside the forestland. The results showed that compared with the control site (mobile sand dune), the daily mean wind velocity at 2 m height was reduced by 18.3, 31.6, 66.1, 66.0, 62.3 and 45.2% for the observation sites over the distances of 6 and 3 H (H meant average tree height) from forest edge of the windward side, forest center, and observation sites over the distances of 0, 6 and 8 H from forest edge of the leeward side, respectively. The greatest reduction in daily mean wind velocity was occurred in both forest center and forest edge of the leeward side. There was a significant positive relationship between leaf area index of the forest and monthly declining index of mean wind speed. The monthly declining index of mean wind speed increased with increasing the forest leaf area index by a cubic function. The daily wind erosion rates of soil surface in observation sites at 6 and 3 H from forest edge of the windward side, forest center, and at 0, 6 and 8 H from forest edge of the leeward side were reduced by as much as 85.2%-99.9%, in comparison with the control site. The greatest reduction in daily wind erosion rate of soil surface occurred in forest edge of the leeward side, followed in decreasing order by forest center, 6 and 8 H from forest edge of the leeward side, 3 and 6 H from forest edge of the windward side. During the observation period, the daily mean dust deposition within the forestland was 13.2 kg.hm-2, compared with 9.9 kg.hm-2 outside the forestland, with a 33% increase. All these results suggested that the poplar forest played an important role in reducing damaging

  10. Remnants of an ancient forest provide ecological context for Early Miocene fossil apes.

    PubMed

    Michel, Lauren A; Peppe, Daniel J; Lutz, James A; Driese, Steven G; Dunsworth, Holly M; Harcourt-Smith, William E H; Horner, William H; Lehmann, Thomas; Nightingale, Sheila; McNulty, Kieran P

    2014-01-01

    The lineage of apes and humans (Hominoidea) evolved and radiated across Afro-Arabia in the early Neogene during a time of global climatic changes and ongoing tectonic processes that formed the East African Rift. These changes probably created highly variable environments and introduced selective pressures influencing the diversification of early apes. However, interpreting the connection between environmental dynamics and adaptive evolution is hampered by difficulties in locating taxa within specific ecological contexts: time-averaged or reworked deposits may not faithfully represent individual palaeohabitats. Here we present multiproxy evidence from Early Miocene deposits on Rusinga Island, Kenya, which directly ties the early ape Proconsul to a widespread, dense, multistoried, closed-canopy tropical seasonal forest set in a warm and relatively wet, local climate. These results underscore the importance of forested environments in the evolution of early apes. PMID:24549336

  11. The Price of Snow: Valuing Albedo as an Ecosystem Service in Northeastern Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, D. A.; Howarth, R. B.

    2013-12-01

    Surface albedo is a property of forests that provides an important climate regulating ecosystem service, particularly in environments where snow is frequent. In some cases, the influence of albedo can equal and surpass the climatic benefits of carbon sequestration from forest growth. However, no current climate mitigation platforms consider albedo in their framework. Therefore, it is essential to integrate these two climatic services in an economic context for the effective design and implementation of forestry climate projects. Here we place an economic value on albedo-related shortwave radiation through the use of shadow prices derived from an integrated assessment model (DICE). We then examine the potential impact of this value on optimal forest rotation in the White Mountain National Forest in New Hampshire using an ecological and economic forest model. Our results suggest that including albedo can shorten optimal rotation periods significantly compared to scenarios where only timber and carbon are considered. For instance, in spruce-fir stands, very short rotation periods of just 25 years become economically optimal. Annual snowfall and productivity were important variables in assessing the net benefits of albedo in forested environments. Therefore, in high latitude forests with low carbon storage and high snowfall, we expect optimal rotation periods to approach zero, indicating that these forests should be maintained instead as open fields for optimal climatic benefits, which may have serious implications for biodiversity and biogeochemical cycling in these areas.

  12. Wildfires, Ecosystem Services, and Biodiversity in Tropical Dry Forest in India.

    PubMed

    Schmerbeck, Joachim; Fiener, Peter

    2015-08-01

    This review is intended to contribute to the understanding of the interlinkage between wildfire in India's tropical dry forest (TDF) and selected ecosystem services (ES), namely forest provisioning and water regulating services, as well as biodiversity. TDF covers approximately 146,000 km(2) (4.4%) of India, whereas according to the MODIS fire product about 2200 km(2) (1.4%) burns per year. As studies on wildfire effects upon ESs and biodiversity in Indian TDFs are rare we partly transferred findings from other (dry) forest areas to the environmental situation in India. In India (intentionally lit) wildfires have a very important connection to local livelihoods and the availability of non-wood forest products. Very important adverse long-term effects are the deterioration of forest ecosystems and soil degradation. The potential for TDF to regulate hydrological cycles is expected to be greater in the absence of fire than with it. A general judgment on the effect of fire on biodiversity is difficult as it depends on the community and species involved but a loss of biodiversity under regular burnings is apparent. Consequently, forest managers need sound knowledge regarding the interplay of wildfires and ecosystem behavior in general and more specific knowledge regarding the effects on taxa being considered for conservation efforts. Generally, much more research is needed to understand the trade-offs between the short-term benefits gained from forest provisioning services and long-term adverse effects. PMID:25900601

  13. Wildfires, Ecosystem Services, and Biodiversity in Tropical Dry Forest in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmerbeck, Joachim; Fiener, Peter

    2015-08-01

    This review is intended to contribute to the understanding of the interlinkage between wildfire in India's tropical dry forest (TDF) and selected ecosystem services (ES), namely forest provisioning and water regulating services, as well as biodiversity. TDF covers approximately 146,000 km2 (4.4 %) of India, whereas according to the MODIS fire product about 2200 km2 (1.4 %) burns per year. As studies on wildfire effects upon ESs and biodiversity in Indian TDFs are rare we partly transferred findings from other (dry) forest areas to the environmental situation in India. In India (intentionally lit) wildfires have a very important connection to local livelihoods and the availability of non-wood forest products. Very important adverse long-term effects are the deterioration of forest ecosystems and soil degradation. The potential for TDF to regulate hydrological cycles is expected to be greater in the absence of fire than with it. A general judgment on the effect of fire on biodiversity is difficult as it depends on the community and species involved but a loss of biodiversity under regular burnings is apparent. Consequently, forest managers need sound knowledge regarding the interplay of wildfires and ecosystem behavior in general and more specific knowledge regarding the effects on taxa being considered for conservation efforts. Generally, much more research is needed to understand the trade-offs between the short-term benefits gained from forest provisioning services and long-term adverse effects.

  14. Variability in stream nitrogen at US Forest Service Experimental Forests and relevance to proposed stream nutrient criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhoades, C.; Johnson, S. L.; Sebestyen, S. D.; Argerich, A.; Edwards, P.; Greathouse, E.; Ice, G. G.; Knoepp, J.; Amatya, D. M.; Wohlgemuth, P. M.; Wright, D.

    2011-12-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and state agencies are attempting to develop criteria that will help monitor and sustain delivery of clean water and protect aquatic ecosystems. However, the factors that control stream nitrogen export are not well enough understood to meet this challenge. A number of approaches to generate and assess numeric nutrient criteria are underway; some combination of high-frequency monitoring of well-characterized sites and spatially extensive synoptic sampling will likely be needed to capture the dominant sources of variability. The US Forest Service Experimental Forest and Range Network measures stream chemistry weekly to monthly at sites in untreated forest catchments across the USA. Originally designed to evaluate the effects of forest practices and other disturbances across a broad range of catchment size, vegetation, soil and climate conditions, these stream chemistry records are also pertinent to discussions of nutrient criteria. We examined a decade of stream nitrate and total nitrogen concentrations from 19 reference catchments at 8 Experimental Forest sites relative to stream N criteria under consideration by the US EPA and state regulatory agencies. Stream N concentrations exceeded draft criteria to varying extents at all sites. At two forests in the central and western US that are exposed to high atmospheric N deposition, stream nitrate-N consistently surpassed draft criteria. For a third of the remaining catchments, stream nitrate exceeded proposed criteria in >20% of the samples. During summer, total N typically reached peak concentrations when for most sites nitrate concentrations were at their lowest levels. At individual Experimental Forests, stream nitrate varied as much as 2- to 10-fold among catchments in a given season. Differences in physical characteristics and natural disturbance history often outweigh seasonal and regional sources of variability among these reference catchments. Such local variability

  15. Avian research on U.S. Forest Service Experimental Forests and Ranges: Emergent themes, opportunities, and challenges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoleson, S.H.; King, D.I.; Tomosy, M.

    2011-01-01

    Since 1908, U.S. Forest Service Experimental Forests and Ranges have been dedicated to long-term interdisciplinary research on a variety of ecological and management questions. They encompass a wide diversity of life zones and ecoregions, and provide access to research infrastructure, opportunities for controlled manipulations, and integration with other types of long-term data. These features have facilitated important advances in a number of areas of avian research, including furthering our understanding of population dynamics, the effects of forest management on birds, avian responses to disturbances such as fire and hurricanes, and other aspects of avian ecology and conservation. However, despite these contributions, this invaluable resource has been underutilized by ornithologists. Most of the Experimental Forests and Ranges have had no ornithological work done on them. We encourage the ornithological community, especially graduate students and new faculty, to take advantage of this largely untapped potential for long-term work, linkage with long-term data sets, multiple disciplines, and active forest management. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Westwide forest inventory data base: User`s manual. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Woudenberg, S.W.; Farrenkopf, T.O.

    1995-06-01

    Describes the standard Westwide data base (WWDB) structure. This computer file structure was developed to provide consistent data on the forest resources of the Western United States. These data files are available to the public.

  17. Lake states regional forest resources assessments: Technical papers. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, H.H.; Vasievich, J.M.

    1997-07-23

    Contains 21 technical working papers prepared for the Lake States regional forest resources assessment, Lake States Forestry Alliance 1995. They represent significant contributions from many individuals and organizations and form the technical background for the Assessment.

  18. Flora of the Fraser Experimental Forest, Colorado. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Popovich, S.J.; Shepperd, W.D.; Reichert, D.W.; Cone, M.A.

    1993-08-01

    The report lists 441 vascular plant taxa in 228 genera and 63 families encountered on the 9,300-ha Fraser Experimental Forest in central Colorado. Synonyms appearing in previous publications and other works pertaining to the Fraser Experimental Forest, as well as appropriate Colorado floras and less-technical field guides, are included. Plant communities and habitats are discussed, and a list of 54 lichens is also presented. A glossary of related terms is included.

  19. Operational Remote Sensing Services in North Eastern Region of India for Natural Resources Management, Early Warning for Disaster Risk Reduction and Dissemination of Information and Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, P. L. N.; Sarma, K. K.; Barman, D.; Handique, B. K.; Chutia, D.; Kundu, S. S.; Das, R. Kr.; Chakraborty, K.; Das, R.; Goswami, J.; Das, P.; Devi, H. S.; Nongkynrih, J. M.; Bhusan, K.; Singh, M. S.; Singh, P. S.; Saikhom, V.; Goswami, C.; Pebam, R.; Borgohain, A.; Gogoi, R. B.; Singh, N. R.; Bharali, A.; Sarma, D.; Lyngdoh, R. B.; Mandal, P. P.; Chabukdhara, M.

    2016-06-01

    North Eastern Region (NER) of India comprising of eight states considered to be most unique and one of the most challenging regions to govern due to its unique physiographic condition, rich biodiversity, disaster prone and diverse socio-economic characteristics. Operational Remote Sensing services increased manifolds in the region with the establishment of North Eastern Space Applications Centre (NESAC) in the year 2000. Since inception, NESAC has been providing remote sensing services in generating inventory, planning and developmental activities, and management of natural resources, disasters and dissemination of information and services through geo-web services for NER. The operational remote sensing services provided by NESAC can be broadly divided into three categories viz. natural resource planning and developmental services, disaster risk reduction and early warning services and information dissemination through geo-portal services. As a apart of natural resources planning and developmental services NESAC supports the state forest departments in preparing the forest working plans by providing geospatial inputs covering entire NER, identifying the suitable culturable wastelands for cultivation of silkworm food plants, mapping of natural resources such as land use/land cover, wastelands, land degradation etc. on temporal basis. In the area of disaster risk reduction, NESAC has initiated operational services for early warning and post disaster assessment inputs for flood early warning system (FLEWS) using satellite remote sensing, numerical weather prediction, hydrological modeling etc.; forest fire alert system with actionable attribute information; Japanese Encephalitis Early Warning System (JEWS) based on mosquito vector abundance, pig population and historical disease intensity and agriculture drought monitoring for the region. The large volumes of geo-spatial databases generated as part of operational services are made available to the administrators and

  20. 77 FR 68819 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Ozark-St. Francis...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Ozark...: Notice. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service, Ozark-St. Francis...

  1. 78 FR 59953 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Coconino National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service... Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest...

  2. 77 FR 68821 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Ozark-St. Francis...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Ozark...: Notice. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service, Ozark-St. Francis...

  3. 77 FR 68822 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Ozark-St. Francis...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Ozark...: Notice. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service, Ozark-St. Francis...

  4. Project risk and appeals in U.S. Forest Service planning

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, Marc J.; Predmore, S. Andrew; Morse, Wayde C.; Seesholtz, David N.

    2013-09-15

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requires U.S. Forest Service planning processes to be conducted by interdisciplinary teams of resource specialists to analyze and disclose the likely environmental impacts of proposed natural resource management actions on Forest Service lands. Multiple challenges associated with these processes have been a source of frustration for the agency. One of these challenges involves administrative appeals through which public entities can challenge a Forest Service decision following a NEPA process. These appeals instigate an internal review process and can result in an affirmation of the Forest Service decision, a reversal of that decision, or additional work that re-initiates all or part of the NEPA process. We examine the best predictors of appeals and their outcomes on a representative sample of 489 Forest Service NEPA processes that were decided between 2007 and 2009. While certain factors associated with pre-existing social contexts (such as a history of controversy) or pre-determined elements of a proposed action (such as the extraction of forest products) predispose certain processes to a higher risk of appeals, other practices and process-related strategies within the control of the agency also appear to bear meaningful influence on the occurrence of appeals and their outcomes. Appeals and their outcomes were most strongly related to programmatic, structural (turnover of personnel in particular), and relationship risks (both internal and external) within the processes, suggesting the need for greater focus within the agency on cultivating positive internal and external relationships to manage the risk of appeals. -- Highlights: ► We examined appeals and their outcomes on 489 U.S. Forest Service NEPA processes. ► Project type, context, team turnover, and personal relationships predicted appeals. ► External relationship management and staff turnover best predicted appeal outcomes. ► Positive internal and

  5. When Service Learning Meets the Project Approach: Incorporating Service Learning in an Early Childhood Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chun, Eul Jung; Hertzog, Nancy B.; Gaffney, Janet S.; Dymond, Stacy K.

    2012-01-01

    The researchers described in this case study how Service Learning was incorporated within the context of an early childhood program where the teachers used the Project Approach. The Service Learning project was embedded in an investigation about water and was designed to help tsunami victims in Asia. Participants included two teachers and 12…

  6. Potential of VIIRS Data for Regional Monitoring of Gypsy Moth Defoliation: Implications for Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spruce, J. P.; Ryan, R. E.; Smoot, J. C.; Prados, D. L.; McKellip, R. D.; Sader, S. A.; Gasser, G.; May, G.; Hargrove, W.

    2007-12-01

    A NASA RPC (Rapid Prototyping Capability) experiment was conducted to assess the potential of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) data for monitoring non-native gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) defoliation of forests. This experiment compares defoliation detection products computed from simulated VIIRS and from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) time series products as potential inputs to a forest threat EWS (Early Warning System) being developed for the USFS (USDA Forest Service). Gypsy moth causes extensive defoliation of broadleaved forests in the United States and is specifically identified in the Healthy Forest Restoration Act (HFRA) of 2003. The HFRA mandates development of a national forest threat EWS. This system is being built by the USFS, and NASA is aiding integration of needed satellite data products into this system, including MODIS products. This RPC experiment enabled the MODIS follow-on, VIIRS, to be evaluated as a data source for EWS forest monitoring products. The experiment included 1) assessment of MODIS-simulated VIIRS NDVI products, and 2) evaluation of gypsy moth defoliation mapping products from MODIS-simulated VIIRS and from MODIS NDVI time series data. This experiment employed MODIS data collected over the approx. 15 million acre mid-Appalachian Highlands during the annual peak defoliation time frame (June 10 through July 27) during 2000-2006. NASA Stennis Application Research Toolbox software was used to produce MODIS-simulated VIIRS data and NASA Stennis Time Series Product Tool software was employed to process MODIS and MODIS-simulated VIIRS time series data scaled to planetary reflectance. MODIS-simulated VIIRS data was assessed through comparison to Hyperion-simulated VIIRS data using data collected during gypsy moth defoliation. Hyperion- simulated MODIS data showed a high correlation with actual MODIS data. MODIS-simulated VIIRS data for the same date showed moderately high correlation with Hyperion

  7. A Framework for Providing Culturally Responsive Early Intervention Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a framework that offers a way for early intervention (EI) service providers to better meet the needs of the culturally diverse children and families they serve. This framework was created to organize existing research and literature on cultural responsiveness in a way that fit the unique context of EI. The…

  8. Service Delivery Complexities: Early Intervention for Children with Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziviani, Jenny; Darlington, Yvonne; Feeney, Rachel; Rodger, Sylvia; Watter, Pauline

    2013-01-01

    Early intervention (EI) for children with physical disabilities is advocated as a means of enhancing child outcomes and family functioning. The issues confronted by service providers in delivering this support have received relatively little attention. The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the experiences of frontline EI staff…

  9. Building Leadership Capacity in Early Childhood Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell-Evans, Glenda; Stamopoulos, Elizabeth; Maloney, Carmel

    2014-01-01

    Building leadership capacity has emerged as a key concern within the early childhood profession in Australia as the sector responds to recent national reforms focusing on raising standards and improving quality provision of services. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the discussion around these reforms and to make a case for changes…

  10. State Policy and Service Achievements in Early Childhood Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, William W.

    1984-01-01

    This study documents each state's 1982-1983 policy and service achievements in early childhood special education (ECSE) along four dimensions: (1) legislation; (2) guidelines/regulations; (3) certification standards; and (4) interagency agreements. Recommendations for future directions are given based on the supportive social and political…

  11. Managing coarse woody debris in forests of the Rocky Mountains. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.T.; Harvey, A.E.; Jurgensen, M.F.; Jain, T.B.; Tonn, J.R.

    1994-09-01

    Recommendations for managing coarse woody debris after timber harvest were developed for 14 habitat types, ranging from ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) habitat types of Arizona to subalpine fir (Abis lasiocarpa) habitat types of western Montana. Ectomycorrhizae were used as a bioindicator of health, productive forest soils. Undisturbed stands were studied to determine the optimum amounts of organic material for ectomycorrhizal activity. The management recommendations are intentionally conservative to ensure that enough organic matter is left after timber harvest to maintain long-term forest productivity.

  12. Stand hazard rating for central idaho forests. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, R.; Williams, R.E.; Weatherby, J.C.; Reinhardt, E.D.; Hoffman, J.T.

    1996-03-01

    Growing concern over sustainability of central Idaho forests has created a need to assess the health of forest stands on a relative basis. A stand hazard rating was developed as a composite of 11 individual ratings to compare the health hazards of different stands. The composite rating includes Douglas-fire bettle, mountain pine beetle, western pine beetle, spruce beetle, Douglas-fire tussock moth, western spruce budworm, dwarf mistletoes, annosus root disease, Swhweinitzii root and butt rot, and wildfire. The interacting effects of these agents were also considered.

  13. National forest trail users: Planning for recreation opportunities. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Daigle, J.J.; Watson, A.E.; Haas, G.E.

    1994-03-01

    National forest trail users in four geographical regions of the United States are described based on participation in clusters of recreation activities. Visitors are classified into day hiking, undeveloped recreation, and two developed camping and hiking activity clusters for the Appalachian, Pacific, Rocky Mountain, and Southwestern regions. Distance and time traveled to national forest sites from home varied for activity clusters. Length of time at the site varied across activity clusters. Recreation activities combined with home range allows for assessing relative availability of, and demand for, different types of place-related opportunities and experiences users seek within a particular region.

  14. Indicators of Access to Early Childhood Services in the Mississippi Delta. Rural Early Childhood Report No. 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shores, Elizabeth F.; Barbaro, Erin; Barbaro, Michael C.; Flenner, Michelle; Bell, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    The Early Childhood Atlas facilitates spatial analysis in early childhood services research for the promotion of greater quality and accessibility of early care and education. The Atlas team collects and geocodes federal, state and nongovernmental datasets about early childhood services, integrating selected data elements into its online mapmaking…

  15. 77 FR 57113 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Arapaho and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ..., Arapaho and Roosevelt National Forest and Pawnee National Grasslands, Fort Collins, CO AGENCY: National... Service, Arapaho and Roosevelt National Forest and the Pawnee National Grassland (ARP) has completed an... National Forest and Pawnee National Grasslands, 2150 Centre Avenue, Building E, Fort Collins, CO...

  16. Forest statistics for east Texas counties, 1992. Forest Service Resource Bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, P.E.; Hartsell, A.J.

    1992-12-01

    The report contains statistical tables and figures derived from data obtained during a recent inventory of east Texas. The multiresource inventory included 43 counties and two survey regions. Classification of forest-nonforest points was accomplished, each representing approximately 230 acres. The sampling methods are designed to achieve suitable sampling errors for estimates of area and volume at the State level.

  17. Timber resource of the superior national forest. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Kingsley, N.P.; Ramquist, J.

    1993-01-01

    Contents: forest area; timber volume; timber growth and removals; appendix; (accuracy of the survey, survey procedures, comparing minnesota's fifth inventory with the fourth inventory, log grade, metric equivalents of units used in the report, tree species groups in minnesota, definition of terms, and tables).

  18. Remote Sensing: A valuable tool in the Forest Service decision making process. [in Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanton, F. L.

    1975-01-01

    Forest Service studies for integrating remotely sensed data into existing information systems highlight a need to: (1) re-examine present methods of collecting and organizing data, (2) develop an integrated information system for rapidly processing and interpreting data, (3) apply existing technological tools in new ways, and (4) provide accurate and timely information for making right management decisions. The Forest Service developed an integrated information system using remote sensors, microdensitometers, computer hardware and software, and interactive accessories. Their efforts substantially reduce the time it takes for collecting and processing data.

  19. Upland forests of the American/Pacific islands: Research opportunities in Micronesia and American Samoa. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    DeBell, D.S.; Whitesell, C.D.

    1993-07-01

    The Upland forests of Micronesia and American Samoa can provide many social, ecological, and esthetic benefits for island inhabitants. Substantial upland areas (the majority of acreage on some islands) are now occupied by secondary and grassland/savanna vegetation: such areas represent opportunities for restoration, with both native forest cover and plantations of introduced species. The review briefly describes characteristics of the islands and the nature of existing and potential upland forests, including the most common upland tree species. Principal information needs and research opportunities are discussed for 10 subjects: watershed rehabilitation, forest restoration in secondary vegetation areas, basic ecology, soils and nutrient relationships, damaging agents, forest inventory and productivity assessment, silvicultural systems, valuation of forest products and services, threatened and endangered species, and description and protection of native forest habitats.

  20. Collaboration between the US Forest Service and the USDA Agricultural Research Service on the complementary conservation of crop wild relatives in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two USDA agencies, the Forest Service (USFS) and the Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) are cooperating on the complementary conservation of crop wild relatives (CWR) native to the United States. The USFS manages 193 million acres of National Forest System lands in 43 states and provides suppo...

  1. Role of MODIS Vegetation Phenology Products in the U.S. for Warn Early Warning System for Forest Threats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph; Hargrove, William; Norman, Steve; Gasser, Gerald; Smoot, James; Kuper, Philip

    2012-01-01

    U.S. forests occupy approx 751 million acres (approx 1/3 of total land). Several abiotic and biotic damage agents disturb, damage, kill, and/or threaten these forests. Regionally extensive forest disturbances can also threaten human life and property, bio-diversity and water supplies. timely regional forest disturbance monitoring products are needed to aid forest health management work at finer scales. daily MODIS data provide a means to monitor regional forest disturbances on a weekly basis, leveraging vegetation phenology. In response, the USFS and NASA began collaborating in 2006 to develop a Near Real Time (NRT) forest monitoring capability, based on MODIS NDVI data, as part of a national forest threat Early Warning System (EWS).

  2. Chicago's evolving urban forest: Initial report of the Chicago Urban Forest Climate Project, 1993. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    McPherson, E.G.; Nowak, D.J.; Sacamano, P.L.; Prichard, S.E.; Makra, E.M.

    1993-01-01

    The report traces the history of Chicago's landscape as it has evolved from a mixture of prairie, wetlands, and oak-hickory forests into a major metropolis. An analysis of 1987 aerial photographs indicates that Chicago-area tree cover has increased from a presettlement level of about 13 percent to nearly 20 percent today. Street trees predominate in Chicago's residential areas, where buildings and paving restrict tree cover in many off-street locations. Larger percentages of tree cover were found for off-street trees in suburban Cook and DuPage Counties. Chicago's urban climate is associated with increases in rainfall and flooding, summertime temperatures and air conditioning use, and unhealthy levels of ozone. The potential of urban vegetation to improve environmental quality is reviewed and the Chicago urban Forest Climate Project research plan is described.

  3. Toward a National Early Warning System for Forest Disturbances Using Remotely Sensed Land-Surface Phenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargrove, W. W.; Spruce, J.

    2010-12-01

    A prototype National Early Warning System (EWS) for Forest Disturbances was established in 2010 by producing national maps showing potential forest disturbance across the conterminous United States at 231m resolution every 8 days. Each map is based on Land-Surface Phenology (LSP), calculated using temporally smoothed MODIS MOD13 imagery obtained over the preceding 24-day analysis window. Potential disturbance maps are generated by comparing a spatially and temporally specific historical expectation of normal NDVI "greenness" with NDVI "greenness" from a series of current satellite views. Three different disturbance products are produced using differing lengths of historical baseline periods to calculate the expected normal greenness. The short-term baseline products show only disturbances newer than one year ago, while the intermediate baseline products show disturbances since the prior three years, and the long-term baseline products show all disturbances over the MODIS historical period. A Forest Change Assessment Viewer website, http://ews.forestthreats.org/NPDE/NPDE.html, showcases the three most recent national disturbance maps in full spatial context. Although 2010 was a wet el Nino year without major forest problems, disturbances in 2010 in MI, NY, CO and LA will be highlighted. Forest disturbances caused by wildfire, hurricanes, tornadoes, hail, ice storms, and defoliating insects, including fall cankerworms, forest tent caterpillars, gypsy moths, baldcypress leafrollers and winter moths were successfully detected during the 2009 and 2010 field seasons. The EWS was used in 2010 to detect and alert Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Aerial Disturbance Survey personnel to an otherwise-unknown outbreak of forest tent caterpillar and baldcypress leafroller in the Atchafalaya and Pearl River regions of southern Louisiana. A local FHM Program Coordinator verified these EWS-detected outbreaks. Many defoliator-induced disturbances were ephemeral, and were followed by

  4. Early vegetational changes on a forested wetland constructed for mitigation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, M.C.; Osenton, P.C.; Sibrel, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    Changes in vegetation were studied on 15 acres of a 35 acre forested wetland created as a mitigation site in Anne Arundel County, Maryland during 1994-96. Meter-square sampling on four different hydrologic elevations determined that grasses initially dominated the area, but decreased from 59 percent in 1994 to 51 percent in 1995 and 30 percent in 1996. Herbaceous non-grass plants (forbs) increased from 19 percent to 56 percent in the three-year period. Area with no plant cover decreased from 21 percent in 1994 to 11 percent in 1995, and 10 percent in 1996. Woody plants comprised 2 percent of the cover in 1994, increased to 4 percent in 1995, and remained at 4 percent in 1996. The increase of woody plants was mainly from natural regeneration (pioneer) plants. Monitoring of the transplanted trees and shrubs indicated 35 percent mortality and little growth of surviving plants. The pioneer woody plant forming most of the cover was black willow (Salix nigra). Differences in the vegetation were observed among the four elevations, although no differences were observed for the major vegetation classes between plots that were planted and those that were not planted with woody plants. Dominant grass species was redtop (Agrostis stolonifera), which comprised 51 percent of the cover in 1994 and 42 percent cover in 1995 and 23 percent in 1996. Other species that were common were bush clover (Lespedeza cuneata), Japanese clover (Lespedeza striata) and flat pea (Lathyrus sylvestris). All four of these dominant species were part of the original seed mixtures that were seeded on the site. A total of 134 species of plants was recorded on the site indicating a fairly diverse community for a newly established habitat.

  5. Consume users guide. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Ottmar, R.D.; Burns, M.F.; Hall, J.N.; Hanson, A.D.

    1993-01-01

    CONSUME is a user-friendly computer program designed for resource managers with some working knowledge of IBM-PC applications. The software predicts the amount of fuel consumption on logged units based on weather data, the amount and fuel moisture of fuels, and a number of other factors. Using these predictions, the resource manager can accurately determine when and where to conduct a prescribed burn to achieve desired objectives, while reducing impacts on other resources. CONSUME can be used for most broadcast and underburns on forested lands in the western states if the woody fuels are relatively homogeneous and composed of Douglas-fir, hemlock, alder, lodgepole pine, or mixed conifer species.

  6. Forest statistics for north Mississippi counties, 1994. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Faulkner, J.L.; Miller, P.E.; Hartsell, A.J.; London, J.D.

    1993-06-01

    The report includes tabulated results which were derived from data obtained during a 1994 forest inventory of north Mississippi counties. Field work was conducted from December 1992 to May 1993. The major change affecting the 1994 inventory is the modified tree classification system that has been in effect since the 1988 inventory of Arkansas. Changes in the forest resources of north Mississippi are evident. Timberland area increased 10 percent, and the area in pine plantations showed a large increase. Sapling-seedling stands now constitute the greatest portion of the timberland base. Removals of all live trees increased significantly during this period. This reveals a change over the previous period from an increasing inventory to a decreasing inventory.

  7. EO Underpinning the Quality of Ecosystem Services with Geospatial Data- The Case of Sustainable Forest Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosthwaite Eyre, Charles

    2010-12-01

    Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) is an exciting and expanding opportunity for sustainably managed forests. PES are derived from a range of ecosystem benefits from forests including climate change mitigation through afforestation and avoided deforestation, green power generation, wetland and watershed rehabilitation, water quality improvement, marine flood defence and the reduction in desertification and soil erosion. Forests are also the ancestral home to many vulnerable communities which need protection. Sustainable forest management plays a key role in many of these services which generates a potentially critical source of finance. However, for forests to realise revenues from these PES, they must meet demanding standards of project validation and service verification. They also need geospatial data to manage and monitor operational risk. In many cases the data is difficult to collect on the ground - in some cases impossible. This will create a new demand for data that must be impartial, timely, area wide, accurate and cost effective. This presentation will highlight the unique capacity of EO to provide these geospatial inputs required in the generation of PES from forestry and demonstrate products with practical examples.

  8. Measuring ecosystem capacity to provide regulating services: forest removal and recovery at Hubbard Brook (USA).

    PubMed

    Beier, Colin M; Caputo, Jesse; Groffman, Peter M

    2015-10-01

    In this study, by coupling long-term ecological data with empirical proxies of societal demand for benefits, we measured the capacity of forest watersheds to provide ecosystem services over variable time periods, to different beneficiaries, and in response to discrete perturbations and drivers of change. We revisited one of the earliest ecosystem experiments in North America: the 1963 de-vegetation of a forested catchment at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire, USA. Potential benefits of the regulation of water flow, water quality, greenhouse gases, and forest growth were compared between experimental (WS 2) and reference (WS 6) watersheds over a 30-year period. Both watersheds exhibited similarly high capacity for flow regulation, in part because functional loads remained low (i.e., few major storm events) during the de-vegetation period. Drought mitigation capacity, or the maintenance of flows sufficient to satisfy municipal water consumption, was higher in WS 2 due to reduced evapotranspiration associated with loss of plant cover. We also assessed watershed capacity to regulate flows to satisfy different beneficiaries, including hypothetical flood averse and drought averse types. Capacity to regulate water quality was severely degraded during de-vegetation, as nitrate concentrations exceeded drinking water standards on 40% of measurement days. Once forest regeneration began, WS 2 rapidly recovered the capacity to provide safe drinking water, and subsequently mitigated the eutrophication potential of rainwater at a marginally higher level than WS 6. We estimated this additional pollution removal benefit would have to accrue for approximately 65-70 years to offset the net eutrophication cost incurred during forest removal. Overall, our results affirmed the critical role of forest vegetation in water regulation, but also indicated trade-offs associated with forest removal and recovery that partially depend on larger-scale exogenous changes in climate

  9. 75 FR 70026 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service... funerary objects in the possession and control of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest...

  10. PREFER: a European service providing forest fire management support products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eftychidis, George; Laneve, Giovanni; Ferrucci, Fabrizio; Sebastian Lopez, Ana; Lourenco, Louciano; Clandillon, Stephen; Tampellini, Lucia; Hirn, Barbara; Diagourtas, Dimitris; Leventakis, George

    2015-06-01

    PREFER is a Copernicus project of the EC-FP7 program which aims developing spatial information products that may support fire prevention and burned areas restoration decisions and establish a relevant web-based regional service for making these products available to fire management stakeholders. The service focuses to the Mediterranean region, where fire risk is high and damages from wildfires are quite important, and develop its products for pilot areas located in Spain, Portugal, Italy, France and Greece. PREFER aims to allow fire managers to have access to online resources, which shall facilitate fire prevention measures, fire hazard and risk assessment, estimation of fire impact and damages caused by wildfire as well as support monitoring of post-fire regeneration and vegetation recovery. It makes use of a variety of products delivered by space borne sensors and develop seasonal and daily products using multi-payload, multi-scale and multi-temporal analysis of EO data. The PREFER Service portfolio consists of two main suite of products. The first refers to mapping products for supporting decisions concerning the Preparedness/Prevention Phase (ISP Service). The service delivers Fuel, Hazard and Fire risk maps for this purpose. Furthermore the PREFER portfolio includes Post-fire vegetation recovery, burn scar maps, damage severity and 3D fire damage assessment products in order to support relative assessments required in context of the Recovery/Reconstruction Phase (ISR Service) of fire management.

  11. Improving planting stock quality: The humboldt experience. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkinson, J.L.; Nelson, J.A.; Huddleston, M.E.

    1993-05-01

    A seedling testing program was developed to improve the survival and growth potential of planting stock produced in the USDA Forest Service Humboldt Nursery, situated on the Pacific Coast in northern California. Coastal and inland seed sources of Douglas-fir and eight other conifers in the Pacific Slope forests of western Oregon and northern California were assessed in both nursery and field studies. Seedling top and root growth capacities were evaluated just after lifting and after cold storage, and stored seedlings were tested for suvival and growth on cleared planting sites in the seed zones of origin. Safe lifting and cold storage schedules were defined, and seedling cultural regimes were formulated to produce successful 1-0, 1-1, and 2-0 stock types. Testing deomonstrated the critical elements of reforestation and proved that rapid establishment is attainable on diverse sites. Accomplishments of the Humboldt program recommended similar programs for other forest nurseries and their service regions.

  12. Costa Rican environmental service payments: The use of a financial instrument in participatory forest management.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Miriam; Dieperink, Carel; Glasbergen, Pieter

    2006-10-01

    The core element of the Costa Rican forestry policy is a financial instrument called the environmental service payment. This instrument rewards forest owners for the environmental services (the mitigation of greenhouse gases, the protection of watersheds and scenic beauty, and the development of biodiversity) their forests provide. In this article, the experiences with this new instrument are analyzed by focusing on the way interests are represented and access is granted, the openness of information exchange, whether social learning occurred, and whether decision-making authority is shared. The analysis is based on a survey conducted in the Huetar Norte Region and on in-depth interviews with the major stakeholders. The Costa Rican case indicates that financial instruments can be used to share responsibilities and that stakeholders can successfully cooperate on forest issues. It also shows that such a participatory approach is only promising if certain cultural, economic, organizational, and political conditions are met. PMID:16933086

  13. Managing pinon-juniper ecosystems for sustainability and social needs. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Aldon, E.F.; Shaw, D.W.

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of the symposium was to assist the USDA Forest Service, other federal land management agencies, and the New Mexico State Land Office in the future development and management of the pinon-juniper ecosystem in the Southwest. Authors assessed the current state of knowledge about the pinon-juniper resources and helped develop future research and management goals.

  14. Opportunities in Manpower Training Programs for the Forest Service and Its Cooperators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Manpower programs in which the U.S. Forest Service can participate are identified in this booklet, and methods and procedures for initiating programs in the interest of meeting the needs of rural areas are explained. Major divisions of the document are Overall Planning, Program Sponsorship, The Program-Operation Mainstream, Manpower Development…

  15. US forest service technical cooperation visit Badia Rangeland and irrigation analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A US Forest Service (USFS) team comprised of a rangeland management advisor, a dryland water resource, and irrigation specialist, and a Middle East program specialist visited Jordan to provide technical assistance to the Ministry of Agriculture-Water Harvesting Directorate (MoA) and the Hashemite Fu...

  16. Woody biomass resource of Louisiana, 1991. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Rosson, J.F.

    1993-09-01

    Data from the 1991 Louisiana forest survey were used to derive fresh and dry biomass estimates for all trees, on timberland, greater than 1.0 inch in diameter at breast height (d.b.h.). There are 470.0 million fresh tons in softwood species and 757.5 million fresh tons in hardwood species. The woody biomass resource averages 45.9 and 61.9 tons per acre for softwoods and hardwoods where they occur, respectively. Most of this biomass is in the stem portion of the trees--85 percent for softwoods and 75 percent for hardwoods. Nonindustrial private landowners hold 58 and 69 percent of the total softwood and hardwood biomass resource, respectively.

  17. Annotated bibliography of thinning literature. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Stokes, B.J.

    1992-12-01

    The bibliography is a general review of thinning, with an emphasis on harvesting in the Southern United States. The bibliography was developed to aid the decision-making process of foresters and as a basis for continued research on thinning of pine stands. Much information is available for the formulation of policies and strategies, as well as for the premises of innovative concepts and ideas. Some silvicultural aspects are included, but these are not intensively reviewed. References were compiled from many sources. Abstracts and associated information are included for each publication. The citations are displayed in computer fields. Publications are listed alphabetically by primary author, and an index by year, keywords, and author has been included.

  18. Psychological Distress of Fathers Attending an Australian Early Parenting Service for Early Parenting Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giallo, Rebecca; Cooklin, Amanda; Zerman, Nikki; Vittorino, Renzo

    2013-01-01

    Background: Early parenting centres are in a unique position to identify and provide support to fathers experiencing mental health difficulties. However, the extent to which fathers attending these services experience mental health difficulties is not known. This study aimed to assess fathers' mental health, identify specific clinical…

  19. Estate planning for forest landowners. What will become of your timberland. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Haney, H.L.; Siegel, W.C.

    1993-09-01

    The book's purpose is to provide guidelines and assistance to nonindustrial private woodland owners in applying estate planning techniques to their forest properties. It presents a working knowledge of the Federal estate and gift tax law as it relates to timberland ownership. The unique character of timber assets is addressed in terms of tree farm estate planning goals. The book has four major parts plus a glossary, selected tax forms, and a list of additional readings. The foundation for estate planning is developed in part I. The general estate planning tools are explained in part II and integrated with forestry examples. Part III is concerned with forestry-specific estate planning tools.

  20. Suggested stocking levels for forest stands in northeastern Oregon and southeastern Washington. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, P.H.; Geist, J.M.; Clemens, D.L.; Clausnitzer, R.R.; Powell, D.C.

    1994-04-01

    Catastrophes and manipulation of stocking levels are primary determinants of stand development and the appearance of future forest landscapes. Managers need stocking level guides particularly for sites incapable of supporting stocking levels presented in normal yield tables. To take advantage of information currently available the authors used some assumptions to relate growth basal area (GBA) to stand density index (SDI) and then create stocking level curves for use in northeastern Oregon and southeastern Washington. Use of these curves cannot be expected to eliminate all insect and disease problems, but the impact of mountain pine beetle should be moderated.

  1. Enhancing early engagement with mental health services by young people

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Jane; Birrell, Emma

    2014-01-01

    International studies have shown that the prevalence of mental illness, and the fundamental contribution it make to the overall disease burden, is greatest in children and young people. Despite this high burden, adolescents and young adults are the least likely population group to seek help or to access professional care for mental health problems. This issue is particularly problematic given that untreated, or poorly treated, mental disorders are associated with both short- and long-term functional impairment, including poorer education and employment opportunities, potential comorbidity, including drug and alcohol problems, and a greater risk for antisocial behavior, including violence and aggression. This cycle of poor mental health creates a significant burden for the young person, their family and friends, and society as a whole. Australia is enviably positioned to substantially enhance the well-being of young people, to improve their engagement with mental health services, and – ultimately – to improve mental health. High prevalence but potentially debilitating disorders, such as depression and anxiety, are targeted by the specialized youth mental health service, headspace: the National Youth Mental Health Foundation and a series of Early Psychosis Prevention and Intervention Centres, will provide early intervention specialist services for low prevalence, complex illnesses. Online services, such as ReachOut.com by Inspire Foundation, Youthbeyondblue, Kids Helpline, and Lifeline Australia, and evidence-based online interventions, such as MoodGYM, are also freely available, yet a major challenge still exists in ensuring that young people receive effective evidence-based care at the right time. This article describes Australian innovation in shaping a comprehensive youth mental health system, which is informed by an evidence-based approach, dedicated advocacy and, critically, the inclusion of young people in service design, development, and ongoing

  2. Enhancing early engagement with mental health services by young people.

    PubMed

    Burns, Jane; Birrell, Emma

    2014-01-01

    International studies have shown that the prevalence of mental illness, and the fundamental contribution it make to the overall disease burden, is greatest in children and young people. Despite this high burden, adolescents and young adults are the least likely population group to seek help or to access professional care for mental health problems. This issue is particularly problematic given that untreated, or poorly treated, mental disorders are associated with both short- and long-term functional impairment, including poorer education and employment opportunities, potential comorbidity, including drug and alcohol problems, and a greater risk for antisocial behavior, including violence and aggression. This cycle of poor mental health creates a significant burden for the young person, their family and friends, and society as a whole. Australia is enviably positioned to substantially enhance the well-being of young people, to improve their engagement with mental health services, and - ultimately - to improve mental health. High prevalence but potentially debilitating disorders, such as depression and anxiety, are targeted by the specialized youth mental health service, headspace: the National Youth Mental Health Foundation and a series of Early Psychosis Prevention and Intervention Centres, will provide early intervention specialist services for low prevalence, complex illnesses. Online services, such as ReachOut.com by Inspire Foundation, Youthbeyondblue, Kids Helpline, and Lifeline Australia, and evidence-based online interventions, such as MoodGYM, are also freely available, yet a major challenge still exists in ensuring that young people receive effective evidence-based care at the right time. This article describes Australian innovation in shaping a comprehensive youth mental health system, which is informed by an evidence-based approach, dedicated advocacy and, critically, the inclusion of young people in service design, development, and ongoing evaluation to

  3. An outcomes evaluation of an emergency department early pregnancy assessment service and early pregnancy assessment protocol

    PubMed Central

    Wendt, Kim; Crilly, Julia; May, Chris; Bates, Kym; Saxena, Rakhee

    2014-01-01

    Background Complications in early pregnancy, such as threatened or actual miscarriage is a common occurrence resulting in many women presenting to the emergency department (ED). Early pregnancy service delivery models described in the literature vary in terms of approach, setting and outcomes. Our objective was to determine outcomes of women who presented to an Australian regional ED with diagnoses consistent with early pregnancy complications following the implementation of an early pregnancy assessment service (EPAS) and early pregnancy assessment protocol (EPAP) in July 2011. Methods A descriptive, comparative (6 months before and after) study was undertaken. Data were extracted from the hospital ED information system and medical healthcare records. Outcome measures included: time to see a clinician, ED length of stay, admission rate, re-presentation rate, hospital admission and types of pathology tests ordered. Results Over the 12 -month period, 584 ED presentations were made to the ED with complications of early pregnancy (268 PRE and 316 POST EPAS–EPAP). Outcomes that improved statistically and clinically following implementation included: time to see a clinician (decreased by 6 min from 35 to 29 min), admission rate (decreased 6% from 14.5% to 8.5%), increase in β-human chorionic gonadotrophin ordering by 10% (up to 80% POST), increase in ultrasound (USS) performed by 10% (up to 73% POST) and increase in pain score documentation by 23% (up to 36% POST). Conclusions The results indicate that patient and service delivery improvements can be achieved following the implementation of targeted service delivery models such as EPAS and EPAP in the ED. PMID:24136123

  4. Possibilities of a Personal Laser Scanning System for Forest Mapping and Ecosystem Services

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xinlian; Kukko, Antero; Kaartinen, Harri; Hyyppä, Juha; Yu, Xiaowei; Jaakkola, Anttoni; Wang, Yunsheng

    2014-01-01

    A professional-quality, personal laser scanning (PLS) system for collecting tree attributes was demonstrated in this paper. The applied system, which is wearable by human operators, consists of a multi-constellation navigation system and an ultra-high-speed phase-shift laser scanner mounted on a rigid baseplate and consisting of a single sensor block. A multipass-corridor-mapping method was developed to process PLS data and a 2,000 m2 forest plot was utilized in the test. The tree stem detection accuracy was 82.6%; the root mean square error (RMSE) of the estimates of tree diameter at breast height (DBH) was 5.06 cm; the RMSE of the estimates of tree location was 0.38 m. The relative RMSE of the DBH estimates was 14.63%. The results showed, for the first time, the potential of the PLS system in mapping large forest plots. Further research on mapping accuracy in various forest conditions, data correction methods and multi-sensoral positioning techniques is needed. The utilization of this system in different applications, such as harvester operations, should also be explored. In addition to collecting tree-level and plot-level data for forest inventory, other possible applications of PLS for forest ecosystem services include mapping of canopy gaps, measuring leaf area index of large areas, documenting and visualizing forest routes feasible for recreation, hiking and berry and mushroom picking. PMID:24434879

  5. Threats and knowledge gaps for ecosystem services provided by kelp forests: a northeast Atlantic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Smale, Dan A; Burrows, Michael T; Moore, Pippa; O'Connor, Nessa; Hawkins, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    Kelp forests along temperate and polar coastlines represent some of most diverse and productive habitats on the Earth. Here, we synthesize information from >60 years of research on the structure and functioning of kelp forest habitats in European waters, with particular emphasis on the coasts of UK and Ireland, which represents an important biogeographic transition zone that is subjected to multiple threats and stressors. We collated existing data on kelp distribution and abundance and reanalyzed these data to describe the structure of kelp forests along a spatial gradient spanning more than 10° of latitude. We then examined ecological goods and services provided by kelp forests, including elevated secondary production, nutrient cycling, energy capture and flow, coastal defense, direct applications, and biodiversity repositories, before discussing current and future threats posed to kelp forests and identifying key knowledge gaps. Recent evidence unequivocally demonstrates that the structure of kelp forests in the NE Atlantic is changing in response to climate- and non-climate-related stressors, which will have major implications for the structure and functioning of coastal ecosystems. However, kelp-dominated habitats along much of the NE Atlantic coastline have been chronically understudied over recent decades in comparison with other regions such as Australasia and North America. The paucity of field-based research currently impedes our ability to conserve and manage these important ecosystems. Targeted observational and experimental research conducted over large spatial and temporal scales is urgently needed to address these knowledge gaps. PMID:24198956

  6. Possibilities of a personal laser scanning system for forest mapping and ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xinlian; Kukko, Antero; Kaartinen, Harri; Hyyppä, Juha; Yu, Xiaowei; Jaakkola, Anttoni; Wang, Yunsheng

    2013-01-01

    A professional-quality, personal laser scanning (PLS) system for collecting tree attributes was demonstrated in this paper. The applied system, which is wearable by human operators, consists of a multi-constellation navigation system and an ultra-high-speed phase-shift laser scanner mounted on a rigid baseplate and consisting of a single sensor block. A multipass-corridor-mapping method was developed to process PLS data and a 2,000 m2 forest plot was utilized in the test. The tree stem detection accuracy was 82.6%; the root mean square error (RMSE) of the estimates of tree diameter at breast height (DBH) was 5.06 cm; the RMSE of the estimates of tree location was 0.38 m. The relative RMSE of the DBH estimates was 14.63%. The results showed, for the first time, the potential of the PLS system in mapping large forest plots. Further research on mapping accuracy in various forest conditions, data correction methods and multi-sensoral positioning techniques is needed. The utilization of this system in different applications, such as harvester operations, should also be explored. In addition to collecting tree-level and plot-level data for forest inventory, other possible applications of PLS for forest ecosystem services include mapping of canopy gaps, measuring leaf area index of large areas, documenting and visualizing forest routes feasible for recreation, hiking and berry and mushroom picking. PMID:24434879

  7. Cost-effectiveness of dryland forest restoration evaluated by spatial analysis of ecosystem services

    PubMed Central

    Birch, Jennifer C.; Newton, Adrian C.; Aquino, Claudia Alvarez; Cantarello, Elena; Echeverría, Cristian; Kitzberger, Thomas; Schiappacasse, Ignacio; Garavito, Natalia Tejedor

    2010-01-01

    Although ecological restoration is widely used to combat environmental degradation, very few studies have evaluated the cost-effectiveness of this approach. We examine the potential impact of forest restoration on the value of multiple ecosystem services across four dryland areas in Latin America, by estimating the net value of ecosystem service benefits under different reforestation scenarios. The values of selected ecosystem services were mapped under each scenario, supported by the use of a spatially explicit model of forest dynamics. We explored the economic potential of a change in land use from livestock grazing to restored native forest using different discount rates and performed a cost–benefit analysis of three restoration scenarios. Results show that passive restoration is cost-effective for all study areas on the basis of the services analyzed, whereas the benefits from active restoration are generally outweighed by the relatively high costs involved. These findings were found to be relatively insensitive to discount rate but were sensitive to the market value of carbon. Substantial variation in values was recorded between study areas, demonstrating that ecosystem service values are strongly context specific. However, spatial analysis enabled localized areas of net benefits to be identified, indicating the value of this approach for identifying the relative costs and benefits of restoration interventions across a landscape. PMID:21106761

  8. Cost-effectiveness of dryland forest restoration evaluated by spatial analysis of ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Birch, Jennifer C; Newton, Adrian C; Aquino, Claudia Alvarez; Cantarello, Elena; Echeverría, Cristian; Kitzberger, Thomas; Schiappacasse, Ignacio; Garavito, Natalia Tejedor

    2010-12-14

    Although ecological restoration is widely used to combat environmental degradation, very few studies have evaluated the cost-effectiveness of this approach. We examine the potential impact of forest restoration on the value of multiple ecosystem services across four dryland areas in Latin America, by estimating the net value of ecosystem service benefits under different reforestation scenarios. The values of selected ecosystem services were mapped under each scenario, supported by the use of a spatially explicit model of forest dynamics. We explored the economic potential of a change in land use from livestock grazing to restored native forest using different discount rates and performed a cost-benefit analysis of three restoration scenarios. Results show that passive restoration is cost-effective for all study areas on the basis of the services analyzed, whereas the benefits from active restoration are generally outweighed by the relatively high costs involved. These findings were found to be relatively insensitive to discount rate but were sensitive to the market value of carbon. Substantial variation in values was recorded between study areas, demonstrating that ecosystem service values are strongly context specific. However, spatial analysis enabled localized areas of net benefits to be identified, indicating the value of this approach for identifying the relative costs and benefits of restoration interventions across a landscape. PMID:21106761

  9. Understanding landowner intentions to create early successional forest habitat in the northeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dayer, Ashley A.; Stedman, Richard C.; Allred, Shorna B.; Rosenberg, Kenneth V.; Fuller, Angela K.

    2016-01-01

    Early successional forest habitat (ESH) and associated wildlife species in the northeastern United States are in decline. One way to help create early successional forest conditions is engaging private forest landowners in even-aged forest management because their limited participation may have contributed to declines in ESH for wildlife species of high conservation concern. We applied the reasoned action approach from social psychology to predict intentions of landowners in the 13-county Southern Tier of New York State, USA, to conduct patch-cuts, which is a type of even-aged forest management. We tested the predictive ability of the model using data from a mail survey of landowners conducted from November 2010 to January 2011. Landowner intention to conduct patch-cuts was high (55% of respondents), with attitude being the strongest direct predictor of behavioral intention. Our results suggest that patch-cutting intentions are most likely expressed by landowners who think the behavior is good for their land and wildlife, believe in positive outcomes of land and wildlife management, belong to a game wildlife organization, and have conducted patch-cuts in the past. Strategies to engage more landowners in ESH management will have the highest likelihood of success if outreach efforts focus on influencing behavioral beliefs and subsequently attitudes, possibly working with game wildlife organizations to communicate a unified message for habitat conservation, including the importance of maintaining and creating ESH. Our results demonstrate the importance of social science research to increase the likelihood that conservation targets for declining wildlife species are met. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. 47 CFR 17.58 - Facilities to be located on land under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Forest Service or the Bureau...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... jurisdiction of the U.S. Forest Service or the Bureau of Land Management. 17.58 Section 17.58 Telecommunication... land under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Forest Service or the Bureau of Land Management. Any... the U.S. Forest Service or the Bureau of Land Management shall include a statement that the...