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Sample records for form nuclear medicine

  1. Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive tracers? ... funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that uses ...

  2. Nuclear Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  3. Nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1986-10-17

    In 1985 and 1986 nuclear medicine became more and more oriented toward in vov chemistry, chiefly as a result of advances in positron emission tomography (PET). The most important trend was the extension of PET technology into the care of patients with brain tumors, epilepsy, and heart disease. A second trend was the increasing use of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).

  4. Nuclear medicine annual, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, L.M.; Weissmann, H.S.

    1984-01-01

    The following topics are reviewed in this work: nuclear physicians role in planning for and handling radiation accidents; the role of nuclear medicine in evaluating the hypertensive patient; studies of the heart with radionuclides; role of radionuclide imaging in the patient undergoing chemotherapy; hematologic nuclear medicine; the role of nuclear medicine in sports related injuries; radionuclide evaluation of hepatic function with emphasis on cholestatis.

  5. Clinical nuclear medicine. [Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Matin, P.

    1981-01-01

    ''Clinical Nuclear Medicine'' is an update to the author's ''Handbook of Clinical Nuclear Medicine.'' Sections on placental imaging, bone marrow imaging, biliary tract imaging and scintigraphy are included in the volume. (JMT)

  6. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... by: Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org Hello! ... d like to talk to you about nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify disease ...

  7. Nuclear Medicine Annual, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, L.M.; Weissmann, H.S.

    1989-01-01

    Among the highlights of Nuclear Medicine Annual, 1989 are a status report on the thyroid scan in clinical practice, a review of functional and structural brain imaging in dementia, an update on radionuclide renal imaging in children, and an article outlining a quality assurance program for SPECT instrumentation. Also included are discussions on current concepts in osseous sports and stress injury scintigraphy and on correlative magnetic resonance and radionuclide imaging of bone. Other contributors assess the role of nuclear medicine in clinical decision making and examine medicolegal and regulatory aspects of nuclear medicine.

  8. Atlas of nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Van Nostrand, D. ); Baum, S. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the proceeding on the atlas of nuclear medicine. Topics covered include: Radionuclide esophageal transit studies, Iodine-131 neck and chest scintigraphy, Indium-111 white blood cell imaging, and Pediatric radionuclide lymphography.

  9. What Is Nuclear Medicine?

    MedlinePlus

    ... known as cosmic radiation, is in the upper atmosphere due to solar and galactic emissions. A typical ... used in medical procedures. 4 Cosmic Radiation Sun - - + - Atmosphere - + +- + + Earth How many nuclear medicine procedures are performed ...

  10. Pediatric nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This symposium presented the latest techniques and approaches to the proper medical application of radionuclides in pediatrics. An expert faculty, comprised of specialists in the field of pediatric nuclear medicine, discussed the major indications as well as the advantages and potential hazards of nuclear medicine procedures compared to other diagnostic modalities. In recent years, newer radiopharmaceuticals labeled with technetium-99m and other short-lived radionuclides with relatively favorable radiation characteristics have permitted a variety of diagnostic studies that are very useful clinically and carry a substantially lower radiation burden then many comparable X-ray studies. This new battery of nuclear medicine procedures is now widely available for diagnosis and management of pediatric patients. Many recent research studies in children have yielded data concerning the effacacy of these procedures, and current recommendations will be presented by those involved in conducting such studies. Individual papers are processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  11. Handbooks in radiology: Nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Datz, F.L.

    1988-01-01

    This series of handbooks covers the basic facts, major concepts and highlights in seven radiological subspecialties. ''Nuclear Medicine'' is a review of the principles, procedures and clinical applications that every radiology resident and practicing general radiologist should know about nuclear medicine. Presented in an outline format it covers all of the organ systems that are imaged by nuclear medicine.

  12. Pediatric nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Treves, S.T.

    1985-01-01

    This book discusses the diagnostic techniques of nuclear medicine as applied in pediatric patients. Particular emphasis is placed on the subject of scintigraphy of organ systems for diagnostic purposes. The topics covered are: scintigraphy of skeleton, bone marrow spleen, liver, thyroid, lungs, urinary tract, brain, heart and cerebrospinal fluid. The pathology and scintigraphy of lacrimal glands is also covered. Other diagnostic techniques of radiology in pediatrics are also briefly discussed for comparative evaluation.

  13. Nuclear medicine in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Freeman, L M

    1996-12-01

    Despite the presence of many bright Vietnamese nuclear medicine physicians and scientists, the level of clinical practice languishes seriously behind that of Europe, the United States, Japan and most other parts of the world. This is directly attributable to the country's severe poverty, which places serious constraints on the number of available pieces of functioning imaging equipment, the ability to service equipment and establish appropriate quality assurance and preventative maintenance programs and the ability to purchase adequate radiopharmaceuticals to serve their patients' needs. At this time, the Vietnamese nuclear medicine community is anxious to enhance its contact with colleagues throughout the world. They need and welcome help in obtaining instrumentation, in vivo and in vitro diagnostic kits and educational aids from outside agencies, commercial countries and medical centers that are able to assist them. They would be most appreciative to receive and encourage visits from professional colleagues who would be able to provide lectures, seminars, books, journals and other teaching tools that would contribute to the upgrading of their clinical practice of nuclear medicine. PMID:8929319

  14. Nuclear medicine in oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.

    1996-12-31

    Radioactivity was discovered in the late 1890s, and as early as 1903, Alexander Graham Bell advocated that radioactivity be used to treat tumors. In 1913, the first paper describing therapeutic uses of radium was published; in 1936, {sup 24}Na was administered as a therapy to a leukemia patient. Three years later, uptake of {sup 89}Sr was noted in bone metastases. During the 1940s, there was increasing use of iodine therapy for thyroid diseases, including thyroid cancer. Diagnostic {open_quotes}imaging{close_quotes} with radioisotopes was increasingly employed in the 1930s and 40s using probes and grew in importance and utility with the development of scintillation detectors with photorecording systems. Although coincidence counting to detect positron emissions was developed in 1953, the first medical center cyclotron was not installed until 1961. The 1960s saw the development of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals, emission reconstruction tomography [giving rise to single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET)], and {sup 64}Ga tumor imaging. Nuclear medicine was recognized as a medical specialty in 1971. Radiolabeled antibodies targeting human tumors in animals was reported in 1973; antibody tumor imaging in humans was reported in 1978. Technology has continued to advance, including the development of SPECT cameras with coincidence detection able to perform FDG/PET imaging. With this overview as as backdrop, this paper focuses on the role of nuclear medicine in oncology from three perspectives: nonspecific tumor imaging agents, specific tumor imaging agents, and radioisotopes for tumor therapy. In summary, while tumor diagnosis and treatment were among the first uses explored for radioactivity, these areas have yet to reach their full potential. Development of new radioisotopes and new radiopharmaceuticals, coupled with improvements in technology, make nuclear oncology an area of growth for nuclear medicine.

  15. Frontiers in nuclear medicine symposium: Nuclear medicine & molecular biology

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This document contains the abstracts from the American College of Nuclear Physicians 1993 Fall Meeting entitled, `Frontiers in Nuclear Medicine Symposium: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Biology`. This meeting was sponsored by the US DOE, Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research. The program chairman was Richard C. Reba, M.D.

  16. Nuclear medicine annual

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    This book features a state-of-the-art report on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in abdominal imaging, which highlights the emergency of /sup 99m/Tc-red cell imaging as the procedure of choice for diagnosing heptatic hemangioma. In addition, the use of captropril scinitigraphy in the study of suspected renovascular hypertension is reviewed. Articles survey research on radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies and assess the clinical experience with bone scanning for osseous metastases from breast carcinoma. An article on the role of nuclear medicine in the management of osteoporosis examines the problems that must be overcome before the bone mineral analysis with dual photon absorptiometry gains widespread clinical acceptance.

  17. Nuclear medicine annual 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, L.M. )

    1990-01-01

    Two of the major areas of cutting-edge nuclear medicine research, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) functional brain imaging and monoclonal antibody studies receive attention in this volume. Advances in these areas are critical to the continued growth of our specialty. Fortunately, the current outlook in both areas remains quite optimistic. As has been the policy in the first decade of publication, thorough state-of-the-art reviews on existing procedures are interspersed with chapters dealing with research developments. The editor wishes to express a particular note of appreciation to a very supportive British colleague, Dr. Ignac Fogelman, who is becoming a regular contributor. His exhaustive review of the role of nuclear medicine in the evaluation of osteoporotic patients is packed with extremely useful information that will prove to be fruitful to all readers. The author would like to thank the readers and colleagues who have taken the time to offer useful and constructive comments over the past ten years. The author continue to welcome suggestions that will help to further improve this Annual.

  18. [Skeletal nuclear medicine].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, I

    1995-05-01

    Bone scintigraphy with 99mTc-phosphate compounds is the most popular examination in clinical nuclear medicine. This was developed more than 20 years ago and its roles in various skeletal disorders are well established. Furthermore, improvement of imaging apparatus and application of SPECT strengthened its value extensively. From scintigram alone, in many cases, differentiation between bone metastasis and other "benign" disorders is easily capable. Further improvement in resolution of scinticamera should strengthen its value more. Other recent developments in skeletal nuclear medicine are those in bone densitometry and in measurement of metabolic bone markers. Bone densitometry using DXA is applied on diagnosis and monitoring of therapeutic effects in various metabolic bone diseases, especially, in osteoporosis. Bone mass measurement combined with assessments of specific bone markers such as bone specific alkaline phosphatase and collagen cross-link metabolites might replace the bone biopsy in evaluating bone metabolism. Treatment of bone metastasis in patients with prostate cancer by administering radiolabeled bone seeking substances is another topics in this field and awaits for more extensive clinical evaluation. PMID:7596073

  19. Nuclear medicine imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Gerald W.; Brill, A. Bertrand; Bizais, Yves J. C.; Rowe, R. Wanda; Zubal, I. George

    1986-01-01

    A nuclear medicine imaging system having two large field of view scintillation cameras mounted on a rotatable gantry and being movable diametrically toward or away from each other is disclosed. In addition, each camera may be rotated about an axis perpendicular to the diameter of the gantry. The movement of the cameras allows the system to be used for a variety of studies, including positron annihilation, and conventional single photon emission, as well as static orthogonal dual multi-pinhole tomography. In orthogonal dual multi-pinhole tomography, each camera is fitted with a seven pinhole collimator to provide seven views from slightly different perspectives. By using two cameras at an angle to each other, improved sensitivity and depth resolution is achieved. The computer system and interface acquires and stores a broad range of information in list mode, including patient physiological data, energy data over the full range detected by the cameras, and the camera position. The list mode acquisition permits the study of attenuation as a result of Compton scatter, as well as studies involving the isolation and correlation of energy with a range of physiological conditions.

  20. Nuclear medicine imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Gerald W.; Brill, A. Bertrand; Bizais, Yves J.; Rowe, R. Wanda; Zubal, I. George

    1986-01-07

    A nuclear medicine imaging system having two large field of view scintillation cameras mounted on a rotatable gantry and being movable diametrically toward or away from each other is disclosed. In addition, each camera may be rotated about an axis perpendicular to the diameter of the gantry. The movement of the cameras allows the system to be used for a variety of studies, including positron annihilation, and conventional single photon emission, as well as static orthogonal dual multi-pinhole tomography. In orthogonal dual multi-pinhole tomography, each camera is fitted with a seven pinhole collimator to provide seven views from slightly different perspectives. By using two cameras at an angle to each other, improved sensitivity and depth resolution is achieved. The computer system and interface acquires and stores a broad range of information in list mode, including patient physiological data, energy data over the full range detected by the cameras, and the camera position. The list mode acquisition permits the study of attenuation as a result of Compton scatter, as well as studies involving the isolation and correlation of energy with a range of physiological conditions.

  1. Diagnostic interventions in nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Thrall, J.H.; Swanson, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 14 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Radionuclide Techniques in Peripherral Vascular Disease; Central Nervous System Studies; Hepatic Artery Perfusion Imaging; Drug-Radiopharmaceutical Interactions; and Formulary; Pharmacologic Interventions in Nuclear Medicine.

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... medicine imaging to evaluate organ systems, including the: kidneys and bladder. bones. liver and gallbladder. gastrointestinal tract. ... help diagnose and evaluate: urinary blockage in the kidney. backflow of urine from the bladder into the ...

  3. Nuclear medicine imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, G.W.; Brill, A.B.; Bizais, Y.J.C.; Rowe, R.W.; Zubal, I.G.

    1983-03-11

    It is an object of this invention to provide a nuclear imaging system having the versatility to do positron annihilation studies, rotating single or opposed camera gamma emission studies, and orthogonal gamma emission studies. It is a further object of this invention to provide an imaging system having the capability for orthogonal dual multipinhole tomography. It is another object of this invention to provide a nuclear imaging system in which all available energy data, as well as patient physiological data, are acquired simultaneously in list mode.

  4. Data resources for nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, M.R.; Lemmel, H.D.

    1995-07-01

    The objective of this article is to list data resources needed for nuclear medicine and provide information on how to access them. This list will include publications of data compilations or evaluations, databases, and data processing codes for both nuclear structure and decay, as well as reaction data. Sources of bibliographic and related information on nuclear data are also be listed. The authors of this article have used their judgement in choosing a representative list of data sources; a more complete listing may be found in the references.

  5. Nuclear Medicine Imaging

    MedlinePlus

    ... taking it by mouth or inhaling it in aerosol form. It travels through your bloodstream to a ... tomándolo vía oral o inhalándolo en forma de aerosol. El radiofár- maco viaja a través del torrente ...

  6. 1986 yearbook of nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffer, P.B.; Gore, J.C.; Zaret, B.L.; Gottschalk, A.; Sostman, D.

    1986-01-01

    This year's edition summarizes recent published articles about nuclear medicine in major medical journals. The book starts with a review on quantitative analysis of thallium-201 scintigraphy. Chapters then follow on magnetic resonance imaging, the cardiovascular system, peripheral vasculature, the pulmonary system, physics and instrumentation, radiochemistry, and radiopharmacology, health physics and radiation biology, oncology, infection, bone, joints and muscles, the endocrine system, the genitourinary system, the gastrointestinal tract, hemotology, and the central nervous system.

  7. Nuclear analytical techniques in medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Cesareo, R.

    1988-01-01

    This book acquaints one with the fundamental principles and the instrumentation relevant to analytical technique based on atomic and nuclear physics, as well as present and future biomedical applications. Besides providing a theoretical description of the physical phenomena, a large part of the book is devoted to applications in the medical and biological field, particularly in hematology, forensic medicine and environmental science. This volume reviews methods such as the possibility of carrying out rapid multi-element analysis of trace elements on biomedical samples, in vitro and in vivo, by XRF-analysis; the ability of the PIXE-microprobe to analyze in detail and to map trace elements in fragments of biomedical samples or inside the cells; the potentiality of in vivo nuclear activation analysis for diagnostic purposes. Finally, techniques are described such as radiation scattering (elastic and inelastic scattering) and attenuation measurements which will undoubtedly see great development in the immediate future.

  8. Nuclear medicine applications for the diabetic foot

    SciTech Connect

    Hartshorne, M.F.; Peters, V.

    1987-04-01

    Although not frequently described in the podiatric literature, nuclear medicine imaging may be of great assistance to the clinical podiatrist. This report reviews in detail the use of modern nuclear medicine approaches to the diagnosis and management of the diabetic foot. Nuclear medicine techniques are helpful in evaluating possible osteomyelitis, in determining appropriate amputation levels, and in predicting response to conservative ulcer management. Specific indications for bone, gallium, and perfusion imaging are described.

  9. Diagnostic interventions in nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Thrall, J.H.; Swanson, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    Diagnostic interventions in nuclear medicine may be defined as the coadministration of a nonradioactive drug or application of a physical stimulus or physiologic maneuver to enhance the diagnostic utility of a nuclear medicine test. The rationale for each interventional maneuver follows from the physiology or metabolism of the particular organ or organ system under evaluation. Diagnostic inference is drawn from the pattern of change in the biodistribution of the tracer in response to the intervention-induced change in metabolism or function. In current practice, the most commonly performed interventional maneuvers are aimed at studies of the heart, genitourinary system, hepatobiliary system, and gastrointestinal tract. The single most commonly performed interventional study in the United States is the stress Thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scan aimed at the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. The stress portion of the study is accomplished with dynamic leg exercise on a treadmill and is aimed at increasing myocardial oxygen demands. Areas of myocardium distal to hemodynamically significant lesions in the coronary arteries become ischemic at peak stress due to the inability of the stenotic vessel to respond to the oxygen demand/blood flow needs of the myocardium. Ischemic areas are readily recognized as photopenic defects on scans obtained immediately after exercise, with normalization upon delayed imaging. Diuresis renography is aimed at the differential diagnosis of hydroureteronephrosis. By challenging the urinary tract collecting structures with an augmented urine flow, dilated, unobstructed systems can be differentiated from systems with significant mechanical obstruction. 137 references.

  10. Atlas of nuclear medicine artifacts and variants

    SciTech Connect

    Ryo, U.Y.; Alavi, A.; Collier, D.

    1989-01-01

    This book is designed to aid in the interpretation of nuclear medicine scans. The authors purpose is to help practitioners recognize artifacts and variants on nuclear medicine scans and thereby avoid misdiagnoses. It contains 70 pages of cases, including sections on SPECT and PET.

  11. Nuclear Medicine Imaging in Pediatric Neurology

    PubMed Central

    Akdemir, Ümit Özgür; Atay Kapucu, Lütfiye Özlem

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear medicine imaging can provide important complementary information in the management of pediatric patients with neurological diseases. Pre-surgical localization of the epileptogenic focus in medically refractory epilepsy patients is the most common indication for nuclear medicine imaging in pediatric neurology. In patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, nuclear medicine imaging is particularly useful when magnetic resonance imaging findings are normal or its findings are discordant with electroencephalogram findings. In pediatric patients with brain tumors, nuclear medicine imaging can be clinically helpful in the diagnosis, directing biopsy, planning therapy, differentiating tumor recurrence from post-treatment sequelae, and assessment of response to therapy. Among other neurological diseases in which nuclear medicine has proved to be useful are patients with head trauma, inflammatory-infectious diseases and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. PMID:27299282

  12. Nuclear medicine applications: Summary of Panel 4

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, A.P.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is currently facing a desperate shortage of organic and inorganic chemists and nuclear pharmacists who also have advanced training in nuclear and radiochemistry. Ironically, this shortfall is occurring in the face of rapid growth and technological advances which have made the practice of nuclear medicine an integral part of the modern health care system. This shortage threatens to limit the availability of radiopharmaceuticals required in routine hospital procedures and to impede the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic agents. To redress this need and prevent a similar shortfall in the future, this panel recommends immediate action and a long-term commitment to the following: educating the public on the benefits of nuclear medicine; informing undergraduate and graduate chemistry students about career opportunities in nuclear medicine; offering upper level courses in nuclear and radiochemistry (including laboratory) in universities; establishing training centers and fellowships at the postgraduate level for specialized education in the aspects of nuclear and radiochemistry required by the nuclear medicine profession. 1 tab.

  13. In vivo diagnostic nuclear medicine. Pediatric experience

    SciTech Connect

    Goetz, W.A.; Hendee, W.R.; Gilday, D.L.

    1983-09-01

    The use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic tests in children is increasing and interest in these is evidenced by the addition of scientific sessions devoted to pediatric medicine at annual meetings of The Society of Nuclear Medicine and by the increase in the literature on pediatric dosimetry. Data presented in this paper describe the actual pediatric nuclear medicine experience from 26 nationally representative U.S. hospitals and provide an overview of the pediatric procedures being performed the types of radiopharmaceuticals being used, and the activity levels being administered.

  14. A Training Manual for Nuclear Medicine Technologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Guy H.; Alexander, George W.

    This manual was prepared for a training program in Nuclear Medicine Technology at the University of Cincinnati. Instructional materials for students enrolled in these courses in the training program include: Nuclear Physics and Instrumentation, Radionuclide Measurements, Radiation Protection, and Tracer Methodology and Radiopharmaceuticals. (CS)

  15. [Potential radiation hazard in nuclear medicine].

    PubMed

    Guilabert, Nadine; Ricard, Marcel; Chamoulaud, Karen; Mazelier, Carole; Schlumberger, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear medicine uses unsealed radioisotopes. The potential radiation hazards depend on the amount of radioactivity administered and the type of radionucleide. Thus, radiation safety instructions will minimize radiation exposure and contamination as low as reasonably achievable. National nuclear safety authority requires rules, regulations and exposure limits for both patients and workers. Good practices and training staff contribute to optimize the radioprotection. PMID:25842441

  16. Nuclear Medicine Scans for Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... are the possible complications? For the most part, nuclear scans are safe tests. The doses of radiation are very small, and the radionuclides have a ... else should I know about these tests? The radiation exposure from a nuclear scan comes from the radionuclides used – the scanner ...

  17. Applications of nuclear medicine in genitourinary imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Blaufox, M.D.; Kalika, V.; Scharf, S.; Milstein, D.

    1982-01-01

    Major advances in nuclear medicine instrumentation and radiopharmaceuticals for renal studies have occurred during the last decade. Current nuclear medicine methodology can be applied for accurate evaluation of renal function and for renal imaging in a wide variety of clinical situations. Total renal function can be estimated from the plasma clearance of agents excreted by glomerular filtration or tubular secretion, and individual function can be estimated by imaging combined with renography. A major area of radionuclide application is in the evaluation of obstructive uropathy. The introduction of diuretic renography and the use of computer-generated regions of interest offer the clinician added useful data which may aid in diagnosis and management. Imaging is of proven value also in trauma, renovascular hypertension, and acute and chronic renal failure. Methods for the evaluation of residual urine, vesicoureteral reflux, and testicular torsion have achieved increasing clinical use. These many procedures assure a meaningful and useful role for the application of nuclear medicine in genitourinary imaging.

  18. HOSPITAL PHYSICS: Nuclear medicine: diagnosis and therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon-Brown, Ann; Soper, Nigel D. W.

    1996-03-01

    Nuclear Medicine is a small but unique speciality, and any physics student who already enjoys computing, image processing, human biology and physiology as well as physics and chemistry, will be fascinated by this medical speciality. Those who enter, whether they be clinical or scientific, rarely leave and remain under its spell for life.

  19. Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noßke, D.; Mattsson, S.; Johansson, L.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '4.7 Necessity of Patient-Specific Dose Planning in Radionuclide Therapy' of the Chapter '4 Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy'.

  20. Radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine practice

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalsky, R.J.; Perry, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    This book discusses the basic principles and clinical applications of radiopharmaceuticals. Topics include atomic physics as applied to radiopharmaceuticals, radionuclide generator function, nuclear pharmacy and safety, and radiopharmaceutical use in evaluating the major organ systems of the body. For each body system the author explains rationale for use, typical procedures, current agents of choice, and interpretation of results. Images, tables, and graphs illustrate normal and abnormal studies.

  1. Nuclear waste forms for actinides

    PubMed Central

    Ewing, Rodney C.

    1999-01-01

    The disposition of actinides, most recently 239Pu from dismantled nuclear weapons, requires effective containment of waste generated by the nuclear fuel cycle. Because actinides (e.g., 239Pu and 237Np) are long-lived, they have a major impact on risk assessments of geologic repositories. Thus, demonstrable, long-term chemical and mechanical durability are essential properties of waste forms for the immobilization of actinides. Mineralogic and geologic studies provide excellent candidate phases for immobilization and a unique database that cannot be duplicated by a purely materials science approach. The “mineralogic approach” is illustrated by a discussion of zircon as a phase for the immobilization of excess weapons plutonium. PMID:10097054

  2. Converting energy to medical progress [nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    2001-04-01

    For over 50 years the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has been investing to advance environmental and biomedical knowledge connected to energy. The BER Medical Sciences program fosters research to develop beneficial applications of nuclear technologies for medical diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. Today, nuclear medicine helps millions of patients annually in the United States. Nearly every nuclear medicine scan or test used today was made possible by past BER-funded research on radiotracers, radiation detection devices, gamma cameras, PET and SPECT scanners, and computer science. The heart of biological research within BER has always been the pursuit of improved human health. The nuclear medicine of tomorrow will depend greatly on today's BER-supported research, particularly in the discovery of radiopharmaceuticals that seek specific molecular and genetic targets, the design of advanced scanners needed to create meaningful images with these future radiotracers, and the promise of new radiopharmaceutical treatments for cancers and genetic diseases.

  3. Coded-aperture imaging in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Warren E.; Barrett, Harrison H.; Aarsvold, John N.

    1989-11-01

    Coded-aperture imaging is a technique for imaging sources that emit high-energy radiation. This type of imaging involves shadow casting and not reflection or refraction. High-energy sources exist in x ray and gamma-ray astronomy, nuclear reactor fuel-rod imaging, and nuclear medicine. Of these three areas nuclear medicine is perhaps the most challenging because of the limited amount of radiation available and because a three-dimensional source distribution is to be determined. In nuclear medicine a radioactive pharmaceutical is administered to a patient. The pharmaceutical is designed to be taken up by a particular organ of interest, and its distribution provides clinical information about the function of the organ, or the presence of lesions within the organ. This distribution is determined from spatial measurements of the radiation emitted by the radiopharmaceutical. The principles of imaging radiopharmaceutical distributions with coded apertures are reviewed. Included is a discussion of linear shift-variant projection operators and the associated inverse problem. A system developed at the University of Arizona in Tucson consisting of small modular gamma-ray cameras fitted with coded apertures is described.

  4. Converting Energy to Medical Progress [Nuclear Medicine

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    2001-04-01

    For over 50 years the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) has been investing to advance environmental and biomedical knowledge connected to energy. The BER Medical Sciences program fosters research to develop beneficial applications of nuclear technologies for medical diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. Today, nuclear medicine helps millions of patients annually in the United States. Nearly every nuclear medicine scan or test used today was made possible by past BER-funded research on radiotracers, radiation detection devices, gamma cameras, PET and SPECT scanners, and computer science. The heart of biological research within BER has always been the pursuit of improved human health. The nuclear medicine of tomorrow will depend greatly on today's BER-supported research, particularly in the discovery of radiopharmaceuticals that seek specific molecular and genetic targets, the design of advanced scanners needed to create meaningful images with these future radiotracers, and the promise of new radiopharmaceutical treatments for cancers and genetic diseases.

  5. Coded-aperture imaging in nuclear medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Warren E.; Barrett, Harrison H.; Aarsvold, John N.

    1989-01-01

    Coded-aperture imaging is a technique for imaging sources that emit high-energy radiation. This type of imaging involves shadow casting and not reflection or refraction. High-energy sources exist in x ray and gamma-ray astronomy, nuclear reactor fuel-rod imaging, and nuclear medicine. Of these three areas nuclear medicine is perhaps the most challenging because of the limited amount of radiation available and because a three-dimensional source distribution is to be determined. In nuclear medicine a radioactive pharmaceutical is administered to a patient. The pharmaceutical is designed to be taken up by a particular organ of interest, and its distribution provides clinical information about the function of the organ, or the presence of lesions within the organ. This distribution is determined from spatial measurements of the radiation emitted by the radiopharmaceutical. The principles of imaging radiopharmaceutical distributions with coded apertures are reviewed. Included is a discussion of linear shift-variant projection operators and the associated inverse problem. A system developed at the University of Arizona in Tucson consisting of small modular gamma-ray cameras fitted with coded apertures is described.

  6. (Coordinated research programs in nuclear medicine)

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1990-10-03

    The traveler visited the Clinic for Nuclear Medicine at the University of Bonn, West Germany, to review, organize, and plan collaborative studies. He also met with the editorial board of the journal NucCompact -- European/American Communications in Nuclear Medicine, on which he serves as US editor. He also visited colleagues at the Cyclotron Research Center (CRC) at the University of Liege, Belgium, to coordinate clinical applications of the ultrashort-lived iridium-191m radionuclide obtained from the osmium-190/iridium-191m generator system. The traveler planned and coordinated continuing collaboration with colleagues at the CRC for further applications of this generator system. He also visited the University of Metz, Metz, France, to organize a three-center project for the synthesis and evaluation of various receptor-specific cerebral imaging agents, involving the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), CRC, and the University of Metz.

  7. Mathematical modelling in nuclear medicine

    PubMed Central

    Kuikka, Jyrki T.; Bassingthwaighte, James B.; Henrich, Michael M.; Feinendegen, Ludwig E.

    2010-01-01

    Modern imaging techniques can provide sequences of images giving signals proportional to the concentrations of tracers (by emission tomography), of X-ray-absorbing contrast materials (fast CT or perhaps NMR contrast), or of native chemical substances (NMR) in tissue regions at identifiable locations in 3D space. Methods for the analysis of the concentration-time curves with mathematical models describing the physiological processes and the appropriate anatomy are now available to give a quantitative portrayal of both structure and function: such is the approach to metabolic or functional imaging. One formulates a model first by defining what it should represent: this is the hypothesis. When translated into a self-consistent set of differential equations, the model becomes a mathematical model, a quantitative version of the hypothesis. This is what one would like to test against data. However, the next step is to reduce the mathematical model to a computable form; anatomically and physiologically realistic models account of the spatial gradients in concentrations within blood-tissue exchange units, while compartmental models simplify the equations by using the average concentrations. The former are known as distributed models and the latter as lumped compartmental or mixing chamber models. Since both are derived from the same ideas, the parameters are usually the same; their differences are in their ability to represent the hypothesis correctly, quantitatively, and sometimes in their computability. In this essay we review the philosophical and practical aspects of such modelling analysis for translating image sequences into physiological terms. PMID:1936044

  8. A nuclear chocolate box: the periodic table of nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Blower, Philip J

    2015-03-21

    Radioisotopes of elements from all parts of the periodic table find both clinical and research applications in radionuclide molecular imaging and therapy (nuclear medicine). This article provides an overview of these applications in relation to both the radiological properties of the radionuclides and the chemical properties of the elements, indicating past successes, current applications and future opportunities and challenges for inorganic chemistry. PMID:25406520

  9. Recent advances in pediatric nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Piepsz, A

    1995-04-01

    This review is devoted to some controversial topics in the field of pediatric nuclear medicine. In most cases, drug sedation can be avoided and the nuclear medicine procedure can be successfully achieved simply by taking the emotional life of the child into account. Factors such as past negative experiences (painful procedures, hospitalizations), unfamiliar environment (frightening examination room), physical aggressions related to the nuclear medicine procedure (intravenous injections, cystography), and the feeling of loss of parents' protection all contribute to the child's anxiety. People in charge of pediatric procedures should be adequately trained to be aware of these factors and to create the best environmental conditions to avoid unnecessarily frightening the child. Methods for measuring renal clearance in children are numerous. It is my aim to review the different methods proposed in the literature, including the nonradioisotopic methods, the reference radioisotopic methods, the various simplified algorithms using blood samples, and the gamma-camera methods. Gastroesophageal reflux scintigraphy is a well-established procedure for the detection of gastro-esophageal reflux in children. However, despite the numerous advantages of this technique, it has not gained wide acceptance in the field of pediatric gastroenterology. This review focuses mainly on the comparison between scintigraphy and pH metry. Finally, the applications of 99m technetium-hexamethylpropylenamine brain single photon emission computer tomography in the field of pediatric neurology are still under development; this part of the review is an attempt to summarize the real contribution of this technique. PMID:7597419

  10. Computers and quality control in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Brookeman, V A

    1978-04-01

    The general topic of computers and nuclear medicine quality control may be approached from two main areas; controlling the quality of computerized studies, and computer applications in general nuclear medicine quality control. Overlap occurs when quality control of computer studies is performed by the computer itself. The uses of computers in record-keeping and in quality control of imaging instrumentation and in vitro studies, including radioimmunoassay, are discussed in this review. Aspects of quality control for computerized clinical cardiovascular, cerebral, and renal studies and emission computed tomography are reviewed, including consideration of difficulties and inaccuracies involved in the studies. Any automatic computer analysis program should incorporate adequate checks and error detection protocols and should illustrate results for verification. Current routine quality control procedures using the computer unfortunately are few. Quality control criteria are needed for camera/computer systems in high count rate clinical applications, and increasing emphasis should be aimed at quality control of those computerized dynamic and function studies in current clinical use. The computer has a valuable potential for nuclear medicine quality control. In vitro and computerized in vivo studies can be analyzed by readily available statistical programs, and variances can be monitored continuously. Computers can calibrate and monitor instrument performance regularly, and can handle managerial and clerical duties such as bookkeeping. PMID:684439

  11. Hand exposure in nuclear medicine workers.

    PubMed

    Chruscielewski, W; Olszewski, J; Jankowski, J; Cygan, M

    2002-01-01

    As a result of the gamma radiation emitted by radioactive elements (e.g. 99mTc and 131I) used in nuclear medicine laboratories for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, nuclear medicine workers are exposed to whole-body doses. These doses arc usually measured by using individual film dosemeters. Lead or lead glass shields used during the handling of radioisotopes minimise the whole-body doses received. Nevertheless, part of the job has to be performed manually, hence the hands are more exposed to radiation. This paper presents the results of measuring the equivalent dose to the hands of workers employed in five selected nuclear medicine laboratories where technetium and iodine radioisotopes are in common use. Sixty workers, including physicians, nurses, radiopharmacists and technicians, were included in the study. Doses were measured at 1 month intervals. The study indicated that, in some instances, the danger of radiation dose to the hand may be significant. Monthly doses exceeded 50 mSv, which may suggest that an annual dose may be higher than 500 mSv. PMID:12382741

  12. Development of Scintillators in Nuclear Medicine.

    PubMed

    Khoshakhlagh, Mohammad; Islamian, Jalil Pirayesh; Abedi, Seyed Mohammad; Mahmoudian, Babak

    2015-01-01

    High-quality image is necessary for accurate diagnosis in nuclear medicine. There are many factors in creating a good image and detector is the most important one. In recent years, several detectors are studied to get a better picture. The aim of this paper is comparison of some type of these detectors such as thallium activated sodium iodide bismuth germinate cesium activated yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG: Ce) YAP: Ce "lutetium aluminum garnet activated by cerium" CRY018 "CRY019" lanthanum bromide and cadmium zinc telluride. We studied different properties of these crystals including density, energy resolution and decay times that are more important factors affecting the image quality. PMID:26420984

  13. [Solid liver mass. Studies with nuclear medicine].

    PubMed

    Domínguez Gadea, L; Fernández Salazar, L; García Grávalos, R; Rodríguez Eyré, J L

    2000-04-01

    We present the case of a 23 year old female with two incidentally detected hepatic mass that have not clinically o radiologically specific findings. Nuclear medicine tracers, including colloids and hepatobiliary agents showing the characteristic findings of focal nodular hyperplasia: Hypervascularization, normal uptake of colloids, accumulation of hepatobiliary tracer and hot spots due to the retention of this tracer during the clearance fhase. The patient was underwent hepatectomy. The examination of surgical specimen revealed focal nodular hyperplasia. The scintigraphic studies could be an useful tool in the noninvasive diagnosis of liver masses. PMID:10893773

  14. Horizons in nuclear medicine and molecular imaging: highlights of the Third Gulf Nuclear Medicine Conference.

    PubMed

    Elgazzar, A H

    2009-07-01

    The Third Gulf Nuclear Medicine Conference took place in the state of Kuwait at Salwa Al Sabah hall, Safir marina hotel in Salmiya. The event extended from March 29th to April 1st 2009. The assembly was a great chance for all nuclear medicine, i.e. physicians, technologists and researchers in the field to meet and exchange experience and knowledge. The number of participators registered for this conference was beyond expectations; total registrants of 611 attended the event and actively end it. The conference was attended by international, regional and local participants. There were 23 speakers, including 13 invited guest speakers who came from USA, Canada, Europe and the Gulf region. In addition to the lectures and oral presentations, there were 30 poster presentations. The latest updates in the field together with most recent findings in the participants' own research were presented. The lectures and posters covered different basic and clinical categories of nuclear medicine. This article summarizes the highlights of the major topics discussed with some recommendations when applicable. Proceedings of the conference can be found in the World Journal of Nuclear Medicine of April, 2009. PMID:20194093

  15. Employment in nuclear medicine during pregnancy

    SciTech Connect

    Benedetto, A.R.

    1986-12-01

    A nuclear medicine technologist can work throughout a pregnancy with high confidence that her occupational radiation exposure will not add any significant risk to her changes of having a normal pregnancy and child. All that is required is for the employer to provide an ALARA work place and for the technologist to observe carefully all radiation safety guidelines and to maintain her occupational exposure ALARA. Current guidance is that the total uterine dose during gestation be less than 0.5 rem (5 mSv). The vast majority of nuclear medicine technologists can achieve this dose level easily, with no modifications of duties or work practices. Technologists working with generators and radiopharmaceutical kits may wish to temporarily transfer to other duties within the clinic, not necessarily to reduce routine exposures but to minimize the changes of an accident having high-dose or high-contamination potential. All of the available human data show that there is small additional risk to the fetus or neonate due to occupational radiation exposure compared to naturally occurring risks so long as the dose is within recommended guidelines.

  16. The role of general nuclear medicine in breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, Lacey R; Wilkinson, Deborah

    2015-03-15

    The rising incidence of breast cancer worldwide has prompted many improvements to current care. Routine nuclear medicine is a major contributor to a full gamut of clinical studies such as early lesion detection and stratification; guiding, monitoring, and predicting response to therapy; and monitoring progression, recurrence or metastases. Developments in instrumentation such as the high-resolution dedicated breast device coupled with the diagnostic versatility of conventional cameras have reinserted nuclear medicine as a valuable tool in the broader clinical setting. This review outlines the role of general nuclear medicine, concluding that targeted radiopharmaceuticals and versatile instrumentation position nuclear medicine as a powerful modality for patients with breast cancer.

  17. Radiation safety in nuclear medicine: a practical guide. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sodd, V.J.

    1981-11-01

    This publication brings together, in concise form, information regarding the many recommendations and requirements for safe operation of a nuclear medicine laboratory. The need for such a compendium was perceived by the staff of the Nuclear Medicine Laboratory. This need arises from several sources. Many individuals enter the field with little training in the handling of radioactive materials; for example, a physician trained in cardiology, oncology, or neurology. The increasing development of portable instrumentation has allowed movement of radiopharmaceuticals from the confines of the nuclear medicine lab to coronary and intensive care facilities where personnel may lack adequate knowledge of safe handling procedures. A health physicist, trained to account for all radioactive material placed under his control, may have difficulty adapting to the accepted practice of releasing a patient who has been administered millicurie quantities of radioactivity, with little or no control over subsequent disposal of excreta. Further differences exist between handling practices for radioactive materials in the scientific laboratory and in the medical facility. This guide tries where possible to clarify some of these issues.

  18. Analytic parametrization for nuclear form factors

    SciTech Connect

    Atkin, G.; Dumbrajs, O.

    1982-08-01

    A new analytic parametrization of the nuclear form factor is developed using a factorization theorem. We show that the nuclear form factor can be represented in terms of its real zeros and its asymptotic behavior. The parametrization is applied to nuclear form factor data of /sup 3/He and /sup 4/He. Our results suggest that further diffraction minima can be expected at higher momentum transfer where experiments have not yet been made.

  19. Stereoscopic full aperture imaging in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strocovsky, Sergio G.; Otero, Dino

    2011-06-01

    Images of planar scintigraphy and single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) used in nuclear medicine are often low quality. They usually appear to be blurred and noisy. This problem is due to the low spatial resolution and poor sensitivity of the acquisition technique with the gamma camera (GC). Other techniques, such as coded aperture imaging (CAI) reach higher spatial resolutions than GC. However, CAI is not frequently used for imaging in nuclear medicine, due to the decoding complexity of some images and the difficulty in controlling the noise magnitude. Summing up, the images obtained through GC are low quality and it is still difficult to implement CAI technique. A novel technique, full aperture Imaging (FAI), also uses gamma ray-encoding to obtain images, but the coding system and the method of images reconstruction are simpler than those used in CAI. In addition, FAI also reaches higher spatial resolution than GC. In this work, the principles of FAI technique and the method of images reconstruction are explained in detail. The FAI technique is tested by means of Monte Carlo simulations with filiform and spherical sources. Spatial resolution tests of GC versus FAI were performed using two different source-detector distances. First, simulations were made without interposing any material between the sources and the detector. Then, other more realistic simulations were made. In these, the sources were placed in the centre of a rectangular prismatic region, filled with water. A rigorous comparison was made between GC and FAI images of the linear filiform sources, by means of two methods: mean fluence profile graphs and correlation tests. Finally, three-dimensional capacity of FAI was tested with two spherical sources. The results show that FAI technique has greater sensitivity (>100 times) and greater spatial resolution (>2.6 times) than that of GC with LEHR collimator, in both cases, with and without attenuating material and long and short

  20. Development of Scintillators in Nuclear Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Khoshakhlagh, Mohammad; Islamian, Jalil Pirayesh; Abedi, Seyed Mohammad; Mahmoudian, Babak

    2015-01-01

    High-quality image is necessary for accurate diagnosis in nuclear medicine. There are many factors in creating a good image and detector is the most important one. In recent years, several detectors are studied to get a better picture. The aim of this paper is comparison of some type of these detectors such as thallium activated sodium iodide bismuth germinate cesium activated yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG: Ce) YAP: Ce “lutetium aluminum garnet activated by cerium” CRY018 “CRY019” lanthanum bromide and cadmium zinc telluride. We studied different properties of these crystals including density, energy resolution and decay times that are more important factors affecting the image quality. PMID:26420984

  1. [Nuclear medicine diagnosis of bone metastases].

    PubMed

    Strobel, K

    2009-11-01

    Conventional bone scintigraphy is still the standard investigation for the detection of bone metastases, especially in breast and prostate cancer. In unclear scintigraphic uptakes in the appendicular skeleton conventional x-rays are problem solving in most of the cases. In unclear uptakes in the axial skeleton additional performance of SPECT/CT can increase the specificity. Fluoride-PET/CT is superior to conventional bone scintigraphy but is not yet available in clinical routine. Patients with high-risk breast cancer and patients with lung cancer should be staged with FDG-PET/CT primarily. An additional bone scan is than superfluous. The great advantage of FDG-PET/CT is the fact that bone metastases and organ metastases can be detected in the same investigation. There is a clear trend of shifting patients from conventional nuclear medicine to PET/CT. PMID:20029782

  2. Lossy compression in nuclear medicine images.

    PubMed Central

    Rebelo, M. S.; Furuie, S. S.; Munhoz, A. C.; Moura, L.; Melo, C. P.

    1993-01-01

    The goal of image compression is to reduce the amount of data needed to represent images. In medical applications, it is not desirable to lose any information and thus lossless compression methods are often used. However, medical imaging systems have intrinsic noise associated to it. The application of a lossy technique, which acts as a low pass filter, reduces the amount of data at a higher rate without any noticeable loss in the information contained in the images. We have compressed images of nuclear medicine using the discrete cosine transform algorithm. The decompressed images were considered reliable for visual inspection. Furthermore, a parameter was computed from these images and no discernible change was found from the results obtained using the original uncompressed images. PMID:8130593

  3. Computer Information System For Nuclear Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, P. T.; Knowles, R. J.....; Tsen, O.

    1983-12-01

    To meet the complex needs of a nuclear medicine division serving a 1100-bed hospital, a computer information system has been developed in sequential phases. This database management system is based on a time-shared minicomputer linked to a broadband communications network. The database contains information on patient histories, billing, types of procedures, doses of radiopharmaceuticals, times of study, scanning equipment used, and technician performing the procedure. These patient records are cycled through three levels of storage: (a) an active file of 100 studies for those patients currently scheduled, (b) a temporary storage level of 1000 studies, and (c) an archival level of 10,000 studies containing selected information. Merging of this information with reports and various statistical analyses are possible. This first phase has been in operation for well over a year. The second phase is an upgrade of the size of the various storage levels by a factor of ten.

  4. Monte Carlo simulations in Nuclear Medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Loudos, George K.

    2007-11-26

    Molecular imaging technologies provide unique abilities to localise signs of disease before symptoms appear, assist in drug testing, optimize and personalize therapy, and assess the efficacy of treatment regimes for different types of cancer. Monte Carlo simulation packages are used as an important tool for the optimal design of detector systems. In addition they have demonstrated potential to improve image quality and acquisition protocols. Many general purpose (MCNP, Geant4, etc) or dedicated codes (SimSET etc) have been developed aiming to provide accurate and fast results. Special emphasis will be given to GATE toolkit. The GATE code currently under development by the OpenGATE collaboration is the most accurate and promising code for performing realistic simulations. The purpose of this article is to introduce the non expert reader to the current status of MC simulations in nuclear medicine and briefly provide examples of current simulated systems, and present future challenges that include simulation of clinical studies and dosimetry applications.

  5. Monte Carlo simulations in Nuclear Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loudos, George K.

    2007-11-01

    Molecular imaging technologies provide unique abilities to localise signs of disease before symptoms appear, assist in drug testing, optimize and personalize therapy, and assess the efficacy of treatment regimes for different types of cancer. Monte Carlo simulation packages are used as an important tool for the optimal design of detector systems. In addition they have demonstrated potential to improve image quality and acquisition protocols. Many general purpose (MCNP, Geant4, etc) or dedicated codes (SimSET etc) have been developed aiming to provide accurate and fast results. Special emphasis will be given to GATE toolkit. The GATE code currently under development by the OpenGATE collaboration is the most accurate and promising code for performing realistic simulations. The purpose of this article is to introduce the non expert reader to the current status of MC simulations in nuclear medicine and briefly provide examples of current simulated systems, and present future challenges that include simulation of clinical studies and dosimetry applications.

  6. Nuclear medicine training and practice in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Kamínek, Milan; Koranda, Pavel

    2014-08-01

    Nuclear medicine in the Czech Republic is a full specialty with an exclusive practice. Since the training program was organized and structured in recent years, residents have had access to the specialty of nuclear medicine, starting with a two-year general internship (in internal medicine or radiology). At present, nuclear medicine services are provided in 45 departments. In total, 119 nuclear medicine specialists are currently registered. In order to obtain the title of Nuclear Medicine Specialist, five years of training are necessary; the first two years consist of a general internship in internal medicine or radiology. The remaining three years consist of training in the nuclear medicine specialty itself, but includes three months of practice in radiology. Twenty-one physicians are currently in nuclear medicine training and a mean of three specialists pass the final exam per year. The syllabus is very similar to that of the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS), namely concerning the minimum recommended numbers for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. In principle, the Czech law requires continuous medical education for all practicing doctors. The Czech Medical Chamber has provided a continuing medical education (CME) system. Other national CMEs are not accepted in Czech Republic. PMID:24867257

  7. Standardization of Administered Activities in Pediatric Nuclear Medicine: A Report of the First Nuclear Medicine Global Initiative Project, Part 2-Current Standards and the Path Toward Global Standardization.

    PubMed

    Fahey, Frederic H; Bom, Henry Hee-Seung; Chiti, Arturo; Choi, Yun Young; Huang, Gang; Lassmann, Michael; Laurin, Norman; Mut, Fernando; Nuñez-Miller, Rodolfo; O'Keeffe, Darin; Pradhan, Prasanta; Scott, Andrew M; Song, Shaoli; Soni, Nischal; Uchiyama, Mayuki; Vargas, Luis

    2016-07-01

    The Nuclear Medicine Global Initiative (NMGI) was formed in 2012 and consists of 13 international organizations with direct involvement in nuclear medicine. The underlying objectives of the NMGI are to promote human health by advancing the field of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, encourage global collaboration in education, and harmonize procedure guidelines and other policies that ultimately lead to improvements in quality and safety in the field throughout the world. For its first project, the NMGI decided to consider the issues involved in the standardization of administered activities in pediatric nuclear medicine. It was decided to divide the final report of this project into 2 parts. Part 1 was published in this journal in the spring of 2015. This article presents part 2 of the final report. It discusses current standards for administered activities in children and adolescents that have been developed by various professional organizations. It also presents an evaluation of the current practice of pediatric nuclear medicine specifically with regard to administered activities as determined by an international survey of 313 nuclear medicine clinics and centers from 29 countries. Lastly, it provides recommendations for a path toward global standardization of the administration of radiopharmaceuticals in children. PMID:27033894

  8. Anniversary Paper: Nuclear medicine: Fifty years and still counting

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Lawrence E.

    2008-01-01

    The history, present status, and possible future of nuclear medicine are presented. Beginning with development of the rectilinear scanner and gamma camera, evolution to the present forms of hybrid technology such as single photon emission computed tomography∕computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography∕CT is described. Both imaging and therapy are considered and the recent improvements in dose estimation using hybrid technologies are discussed. Future developments listed include novel radiopharmaceuticals created using short chains of nucleic acids and varieties of nanostructures. Patient-specific radiotherapy is an eventual outcome of this work. Possible application to proving the targeting of potential chemotherapeutics is also indicated. PMID:18697524

  9. Source Book of Educational Materials for Nuclear Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pijar, Mary Lou, Comp.; Lewis, Jeannine T., Comp.

    The contents of this sourcebook of educational materials are divided into the following sections: Anatomy and Physiology; Medical Terminology; Medical Ethics and Department Management; Patient Care and Medical Decision-Making; Basic Nuclear Medicine; Diagnostic in Vivo; Diagnostic in Vitro; Pediatric Nuclear Medicine; Radiation Detection and…

  10. Common uses of nonradioactive drugs in nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Ponto, J.A.; Hladik, W.B.

    1984-06-01

    A variety of nonradioactive pharmaceuticals commonly used in patients who receive nuclear medicine diagnostic tests are described. Nonradioactive drugs used in thyroid, brain, hepatobiliary, cardiac, renal, Meckel's diverticulum, gallium, adrenal, and hematological studies are described. Pharmaceutical necessities used as disinfectants, diluents, and anticoagulants are also described. Hospital pharmacists should be familiar with the uses of commonly prescribed nonradioactive drugs in nuclear medicine studies.

  11. Career prospects for graduating nuclear medicine residents: survey of nuclear medicine program directors.

    PubMed

    Harolds, Jay A; Guiberteau, Milton J; Metter, Darlene F; Oates, M Elizabeth

    2013-08-01

    There has been much consternation in the nuclear medicine (NM) community in recent years regarding the difficulty many NM graduates experience in securing initial employment. A survey designed to determine the extent and root causes behind the paucity of career opportunities was sent to all 2010-2011 NM residency program directors. The results of that survey and its implications for NM trainees and the profession are presented and discussed in this article. PMID:23763875

  12. Pulmonary nuclear medicine: Techniques in diagnosis of lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents papers on the application of nuclear medicine to the diagnosis of lung diseases. Topics considered include lung physiology and anatomy, radiopharmaceuticals in pulmonary medicine, pulmonary embolism, obstructive pulmonary disease, diffuse infiltrative lung disease, pneumoconioses, tumor localization scans in primary lung tumors, the interactions of heart diseases and lung diseases on radionuclide tests of lung anatomy and function, radionuclide imaging in pediatric lung diseases, and future possibilities in pulmonary nuclear medicine.

  13. Japanese consensus guidelines for pediatric nuclear medicine. Part 1: Pediatric radiopharmaceutical administered doses (JSNM pediatric dosage card). Part 2: Technical considerations for pediatric nuclear medicine imaging procedures.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Masaki, Hidekazu; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Uchiyama, Mayuki; Okuno, Mitsuo; Oguma, Eiji; Onuma, Hiroshi; Kanegawa, Kimio; Kanaya, Shinichi; Kamiyama, Hiroshi; Karasawa, Kensuke; Kitamura, Masayuki; Kida, Tetsuo; Kono, Tatsuo; Kondo, Chisato; Sasaki, Masayuki; Terada, Hitoshi; Nakanishi, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Teisuke; Hataya, Hiroshi; Hamano, Shin-ichiro; Hirono, Keishi; Fujita, Yukihiko; Hoshino, Ken; Yano, Masayuki; Watanabe, Seiichi

    2014-06-01

    The Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine has recently published the consensus guidelines for pediatric nuclear medicine. This article is the English version of the guidelines. Part 1 proposes the dose optimization in pediatric nuclear medicine studies. Part 2 comprehensively discusses imaging techniques for the appropriate conduct of pediatric nuclear medicine procedures, considering the characteristics of imaging in children. PMID:24647992

  14. Evolution of nuclear medicine training: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Graham, Michael M; Metter, Darlene F

    2007-02-01

    Since the official inception of nuclear medicine in 1971, the practice of nuclear medicine and its training programs have undergone major revisions. Numerous procedures that were common in the 1970s are no longer available, and many new radiotracers and procedures have since been developed. Training programs have evolved from an unstructured experience before 1971 to 2 y of nuclear medicine training after 2 clinical years, to 2 y of nuclear medicine training after 1 clinical year and, most recently, to 3 y of nuclear medicine training after 1 clinical year. The most substantial content changes in the new 2007 training program requirements are an increased emphasis on 6 clinical competencies, an increased emphasis on Nuclear Regulatory Commission requirements, and a new CT training requirement that was spawned by the advent of PET/CT. In addition to the new training program requirements, residents will need to become familiar with the concept of maintenance of certification, which will continue to be an important component of their professional careers. Nuclear medicine is gradually evolving into molecular imaging. Hence, it is inevitable that in the near future, training programs will be required to place greater emphasis on molecular imaging in both clinical and research applications. The incorporation of molecular imaging will represent a significant paradigm shift for the specialty but will ensure that nuclear medicine will be a major part of medical practice for the foreseeable future. PMID:17268024

  15. NMR clinical imaging and spectroscopy: Its impact on nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-02

    This is a collection of four papers describing aspects of past and future use of nuclear magnetic resonance as a clinical diagnostic tool. The four papers are entitled (1) What Does NMR Offer that Nuclear Medicine Does Not by Jerry W. Froelich, (2) Oncological Imaging: Now, Future and Impact Jerry W. Froelich, (3) Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/Spectroscopic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine: Past, Present and Future by H. Cecil Charles, and (4) MR Cardiology: Now, Future and Impact by Robert J. Herfkens.

  16. NMR clinical imaging and spectroscopy: Its impact on nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-02

    This is a collection of four papers describing aspects of past and future use of nuclear magnetic resonance as a clinical diagnostic tool. The four papers are entitled (1) What Does NMR Offer that Nuclear Medicine Does Not? by Jerry W. Froelich, (2) Oncological Imaging: Now, Future and Impact Jerry W. Froelich, (3) Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/Spectroscopic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine: Past, Present and Future by H. Cecil Charles, and (4) MR Cardiology: Now, Future and Impact by Robert J. Herfkens.

  17. Nuclear medicine imaging and therapy: gender biases in disease.

    PubMed

    Moncayo, Valeria M; Aarsvold, John N; Alazraki, Naomi P

    2014-01-01

    Gender-based medicine is medical research and care conducted with conscious consideration of the sex and gender differences of subjects and patients. This issue of Seminars is focused on diseases for which nuclear medicine is part of routine management and for which the diseases have sex- or gender-based differences that affect incidence or pathophysiology and that thus have differences that can potentially affect the results of the relevant nuclear medicine studies. In this first article, we discuss neurologic diseases, certain gastrointestinal conditions, and thyroid conditions. The discussion is in the context of those sex- or gender-based aspects of these diseases that should be considered in the performance, interpretation, and reporting of the relevant nuclear medicine studies. Cardiovascular diseases, gynecologic diseases, bone conditions such as osteoporosis, pediatric occurrences of some diseases, human immunodeficiency virus-related conditions, and the radiation dose considerations of nuclear medicine studies are discussed in the other articles in this issue. PMID:25362232

  18. [Nuclear medicine for evaluation of liver functions].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, K

    1994-05-01

    The clinical usefulness of colloid liver scintigraphy to detect space occupying lesions in the liver has been reduced by X-ray CT and ultrasonography. However, scintigraphic examinations have potentials for characteristic diagnosis of liver tumors, such as 99mTc RBC SPECT for hepatic hemangioma, 99mTc PMT for positive imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma and its extrahepatic metastasis, and radioimmunoscintigraphy for metastatic tumors. Moreover, prediction of the prognosis and monitoring therapeutic effect to liver cancer can be made by the use of nuclear medicine techniques. Recently, 99mTc galactosyl serum albumin (GSA), a newly developed radiotracer to evaluate hepatocyte function, has become commercially available. Quantitative parameters of liver functions can be obtained by analysis of time-activity curve in blood and liver after 99mTc-GSA administration. In several cases, 99mTc-GSA study showed intrahepatic unevenness of function, which could not be depicted by other imaging examinations. Positron emission tomography (PET) with 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy glucose (FDG) is useful to detect malignant tumors in the liver. Since PET can provide absolutely quantitative data in better resolution, it is expected that regional true metabolic functions in the liver may be able to be quantitatively evaluated with PET in near future. PMID:8028225

  19. The development of nuclear medicine in Slovenia and Ljubljana; half a century of nuclear medicine in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Slavec, Zvonka Zupanic; Gaberscek, Simona; Slavec, Ksenija

    2012-01-01

    Background Nuclear medicine began to be developed in the USA after 1938 when radionuclides were introduced into medicine and in Europe after radionuclides began to be produced at the Harwell reactor (England, 1947). Slovenia began its first investigations in the 1950s. This article describes the development of nuclear medicine in Slovenia and Ljubljana. The first nuclear medicine interventions were performed in Slovenia at the Internal Clinic in Ljubljana in the period 1954–1959. In 1954, Dr Jože Satler started using radioactive iodine for thyroid investigations. In the same year, Dr Bojan Varl, who is considered the pioneer of nuclear medicine in Slovenia, began systematically introducing nuclear medicine. The first radioisotope laboratories were established in January 1960 at the Institute of Oncology and at the Internal Clinic. Under the direction of Dr. Varl, the laboratory at the Internal Clinic developed gradually and in 1973 became the Clinic for Nuclear Medicine with departments for in vivo and in vitro diagnostics and for the treatment of inpatients and outpatients at the thyroid department. The Clinic for Nuclear Medicine became a teaching unit of the Medical Faculty and developed its own post-graduate programme – the first student enrolled in 1972. In the 1960s, radioisotope laboratories opened in the general hospitals of Slovenj Gradec and Celje, and in the 1970s also in Maribor, Izola and Šempeter pri Novi Gorici. Conclusions Nowadays, nuclear medicine units are modernly equipped and the staff is trained in morphological, functional and laboratory diagnostics in clinical medicine. They also work on the treatment of cancer, increased thyroid function and other diseases. PMID:22933984

  20. Structure and Activities of Nuclear Medicine in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Elgazzar, Abdelhamid H; Owunwanne, Azuwuike; Alenezi, Saud

    2016-07-01

    The practice of nuclear medicine in Kuwait began in 1965 as a clinic for treating thyroid diseases. The practice developed gradually and until 1981 when the Faculty of Medicine established the Division of Nuclear Medicine in the Department of Radiology, which later became a separate department responsible for establishing and managing the practice in all hospitals of Kuwait. In 1987, a nuclear medicine residency program was begun and it is administered by Kuwait Institute for Medical Specializations originally as a 4-year but currently as a 5-year program. Currently there are 11 departments in the ministry of health hospitals staffed by 49 qualified attending physicians, mostly the diplomats of the Kuwait Institute for Medical Specializations nuclear medicine residency program, 4 academic physicians, 2 radiopharmacists, 2 physicists, and 130 technologists. These departments are equipped with 33 dual-head gamma cameras, 10 SPET/CT, 5 PET/CT, 2 cyclotrons, 1 breast-specific gamma imaging, 1 positron-emitting mammography, 10 thyroid uptake units, 8 technegas machines, 7 PET infusion systems, and 8 treadmills. Activities of nuclear medicine in Kuwait include education and training, clinical service, and research. Education includes nuclear medicine technology program in the Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, the 5-year residency program, medical school teaching distributed among different modules of the integrated curriculum with 14 didactic lecture, and other teaching sessions in nuclear medicine MSc program, which run concurrently with the first part of the residency program. The team of Nuclear Medicine in Kuwait has been active in research and has published more than 300 paper, 11 review articles, 12 book chapters, and 17 books in addition to 36 grants and 2 patents. A PhD program approved by Kuwait University Council would begin in 2016. PMID:27237444

  1. Radiation safety audit of a high volume Nuclear Medicine Department

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Ashish Kumar; Singh, Abhijith Mohan; Shetye, Bhakti; Shah, Sneha; Agrawal, Archi; Purandare, Nilendu Chandrakant; Monteiro, Priya; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Professional radiation exposure cannot be avoided in nuclear medicine practices. It can only be minimized up to some extent by implementing good work practices. Aim and Objectives: The aim of our study was to audit the professional radiation exposure and exposure rate of radiation worker working in and around Department of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, Tata Memorial Hospital. Materials and Methods: We calculated the total number of nuclear medicine and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) procedures performed in our department and the radiation exposure to the radiation professionals from year 2009 to 2012. Results: We performed an average of 6478 PET/CT scans and 3856 nuclear medicine scans/year from January 2009 to December 2012. The average annual whole body radiation exposure to nuclear medicine physician, technologist and nursing staff are 1.74 mSv, 2.93 mSv and 4.03 mSv respectively. Conclusion: Efficient management and deployment of personnel is of utmost importance to optimize radiation exposure in a high volume nuclear medicine setup in order to work without anxiety of high radiation exposure. PMID:25400361

  2. Diagnostic Services and Communication Protocols for Remote Nuclear Medicine Laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Herbig, F.K.; Daly, J.L.; Gooch, N.E.; Donati, R.M.; Fletcher, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    A telecommunications system has been designed and implemented which provides diagnostic services to nuclear medicine laboratories established in smaller primary care medical facilities. These remote laboratories are located in areas where nuclear medicine patient services were not previously available because of the lack of trained nuclear physicians. The system provides through the use of computerized data acquisition and telephone data communication capability all routine and specialized imaging procedures with a degree of quality and sophistication normally available only in large urban medical centers. Nuclear image data acquired remotely is transmitted to Saint Louis, Missouri for interpretation by specialists in the Nuclear Medicine Service of the Veterans Administration Medical Center. The functions of hardware and software protocols necessary to assure the correctness and completeness of transmitted data are presented together with essential data descriptors for identification and format.

  3. Nuclear oncology, a fast growing field of nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivier, Pierre

    2004-07-01

    Nuclear Medicine in oncology has been for a long time synonymous with bone scintigraphy, the first ever whole body imaging modality, and with treatment of thyroid cancer with iodine-131. More recently, somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) using peptides such as 111In-labelled octreotide became a reference imaging method in the detection and staging of neuroendocrine tumors while 131I- and 123I-MIBG remain the tracers of reference for pheochromocytomas and neuroblastomas. Lymphoscintigraphic imaging based on peritumoral injection of 99mTc-labelled colloids supports, in combination with per operative detection, the procedure of sentinel node identification in breast cancers and melanomas. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is currently experiencing a considerable growth in oncology based on the use of 18F-FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose), a very sensitive, although non-specific, tumor tracer. Development of instrumentation is crucial in this expansion of PET imaging with new crystals being more sensitive and hybrid imagers that permit to reduce the acquisition time and offer fused PET-CT images. Current developments in therapy can be classified into three categories. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) based on monoclonal antibodies (or fragments) labelled with beta-emitters. This technique has recently made its entrance in clinical practice with a 90Y-labelled anti-CD20 antibody ( 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin ®)) approved in US for the treatment of some subtypes of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Radionuclide-bone pain palliation has experienced developments with 153Sm-EDTMP, 186Re-HEDP or 89Sr, efficient in patients with widespread disease. Last, the same peptides, as those used in SRS, are being developed for therapy, labelled with 90Y, 111In or 177Lu in patients who failed to respond to other treatments. Overall, nuclear oncology is currently a fast growing field thanks to the combined developments of radiopharmaceuticals and instrumentation.

  4. Nuclear medicine imaging of bone infections.

    PubMed

    Love, C; Palestro, C J

    2016-07-01

    Osteomyelitis is a broad group of infectious diseases that involve the bone and/or bone marrow. It can arise haematogenously, via extension from a contiguous infection, or by direct inoculation during surgery or trauma. The diagnosis is not always obvious and imaging tests are frequently performed as part of the diagnostic work-up. Commonly performed radionuclide tests include technetium-99m ((99m)Tc)-diphosphonate bone scintigraphy (bone), and gallium-67 ((67)Ga) and in vitro labelled leukocyte (white blood cell; WBC) imaging. Although they are useful, each of these tests has limitations. Bone scintigraphy is sensitive but not specific, especially when underlying osseous abnormalities are present. (67)Ga accumulates in tumour, trauma, and in aseptic inflammation; furthermore, there is typically an interval of 1-3 days between radiopharmaceutical injection of and imaging. Currently, this agent is used primarily for spinal infections. Except for the spine, WBC imaging is the nuclear medicine test of choice for diagnosing complicating osteomyelitis. The in vitro leukocyte labelling process requires skilled personnel, is laborious, and is not always available. Complementary marrow imaging is usually required to maximise accuracy. Not surprisingly, alternative radiopharmaceuticals are continuously being investigated. Radiolabelled anti-granulocyte antibodies and antibody fragments, investigated as in vivo leukocyte labelling agents, have their own limitations and are not widely available. (111)In-biotin is useful for diagnosing spinal infections. Radiolabelled synthetic fragments of ubiquicidin, a naturally occurring human antimicrobial peptide that targets bacteria, have shown promise as infection specific radiopharmaceuticals. 2-[(18)F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) positron-emission tomography (PET) with or without computed tomography (CT) is very useful in musculoskeletal infection. Sensitivities of more than 95% and specificities ranging from 75-99% have been

  5. Applications of CdTe to nuclear medicine. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Entine, G.

    1985-05-07

    Uses of cadmium telluride (CdTe) nuclear detectors in medicine are briefly described. They include surgical probes and a system for measuring cerebral blood flow in the intensive care unit. Other uses include nuclear dentistry, x-ray exposure control, cardiology, diabetes, and the testing of new pharmaceuticals. (ACR)

  6. IAEA support to medical physics in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Meghzifene, Ahmed; Sgouros, George

    2013-05-01

    Through its programmatic efforts and its publications, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has helped define the role and responsibilities of the nuclear medicine physicist in the practice of nuclear medicine. This paper describes the initiatives that the IAEA has undertaken to support medical physics in nuclear medicine. In 1984, the IAEA provided guidance on how to ensure that the equipment used for detecting, imaging, and quantifying radioactivity is functioning properly (Technical Document [TECDOC]-137, "Quality Control of Nuclear Medicine Instruments"). An updated version of IAEA-TECDOC-137 was issued in 1991 as IAEA-TECDOC-602, and this included new chapters on scanner-computer systems and single-photon emission computed tomography systems. Nuclear medicine physics was introduced as a part of a project on radiation imaging and radioactivity measurements in the 2002-2003 IAEA biennium program in Dosimetry and Medical Radiation Physics. Ten years later, IAEA activities in this field have expanded to cover quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) of nuclear medicine equipment, education and clinical training, professional recognition of the role of medical physicists in nuclear medicine physics, and finally, the coordination of research and development activities in internal dosimetry. As a result of these activities, the IAEA has received numerous requests to support the development and implementation of QA or QC programs for radioactivity measurements in nuclear medicine in many Member States. During the last 5 years, support was provided to 20 Member States through the IAEA's technical cooperation programme. The IAEA has also supported education and clinical training of medical physicists. This type of support has been essential for the development and expansion of the Medical Physics profession, especially in low- and middle-income countries. The need for basic as well as specialized clinical training in medical physics was identified as a

  7. Nuclear weapons and medicine: some ethical dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Haines, A; de B White, C; Gleisner, J

    1983-12-01

    The enormous destructive power of present stocks of nuclear weapons poses the greatest threat to public health in human history. Technical changes in weapons design are leading to an increased emphasis on the ability to fight a nuclear war, eroding the concept of deterrence based on mutually assured destruction and increasing the risk of nuclear war. Medical planning and civil defence preparations for nuclear war have recently been increased in several countries although there is little evidence that they will be of significant value in the aftermath of a nuclear conflict. These developments have raised new ethical dilemmas for those in health professions. If there is any risk of use of weapons of mass destruction, then support for deterrence with these weapons as a policy for national or global security appears to be incompatible with basic principles of medical ethics and international law. The primary medical responsibility under such circumstances is to participate in attempts to prevent nuclear war. PMID:6668585

  8. Comparative analysis of dosimetry parameters for nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Toohey, R.E.; Stabin, M.G.

    1999-01-01

    For years many have employed the concept of ``total-body dose`` or ``whole-body dose,`` i.e., the total energy deposited in the body divided by the mass of the body, when evaluating the risks of different nuclear medicine procedures. The effective dose equivalent (H{sub E}), first described in ICRP Publication 26, has been accepted by some as a better quantity to use in evaluating the total risk of a procedure, but its use has been criticized by others primarily because the tissue weighting factors were intended for use in the radiation worker, rather than the nuclear medicine patient population. Nevertheless, in ICRP Publication 52, the ICRP has suggested that the H{sub E} may be used in nuclear medicine. The ICRP also has published a compendium of dose estimates, including H{sub E} values, for various nuclear medicine procedures at various ages in ICRP Publication 53. The effective dose (E) of ICRP Publication 60 is perhaps more suitable for use in nuclear medicine, with tissue weighting factors based on the entire population. Other comparisons of H{sub E} and E have been published. The authors have used the program MIRDOSE 3.1 to compute total-body dose, H{sub E}, and E for 62 radiopharmaceutical procedures, based on the best current biokinetic data available.

  9. Nuclear Medicine in Pediatric and Adolescent Tumors.

    PubMed

    Kiratli, Pınar Özgen; Tuncel, Murat; Bar-Sever, Zvi

    2016-07-01

    Nuclear medicine has an important role in the management of many cancers in pediatric age group with multiple imaging modalities and radiopharmaceuticals targeting various biological uptake mechanisms. 18-Flourodeoxyglucose is the radiotracer of choice especially in patients with sarcoma and lymphoma. (18)FDG-PET, for sarcoma and lymphomas, is proved to be superior to conventional imaging in staging and therapy response. Although studies are limited in pediatric population, (18)FDG-PET/CT has found its way through international guidelines. Limitations and strengths of PET imaging must be noticed before adapting PET imaging in clinical protocols. Established new response criteria using multiple parameters derived from (18)FDG-PET would increase the accuracy and repeatability of response evaluation. Current data suggest that I-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) remains the tracer of choice in the evaluation of neuroblastoma (NB) because of its high sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy, and prognostic value. It is valuable in determining the response to therapy, surveillance for disease recurrence, and in selecting patients for I-131 therapy. SPECT/CT improves the diagnostic accuracy and the interpretation confidence of MIBG scans. (18)FDG-PET/CT is an important complementary to MIBG imaging despite its lack of specificity to NB. It is valuable in cases of negative or inconclusive MIBG scans and when MIBG findings underestimate the disease status as determined from clinical and radiological findings. F-18 DOPA is promising tracer that reflects catecholamine metabolism and is both sensitive and specific. F-18 DOPA scintigraphy provides the advantages of PET/CT imaging with early and short imaging times, high spatial resolution, inherent morphologic correlation with CT, and quantitation. Regulatory and production issues currently limit the tracer's availability. PET/CT with Ga-68 DOTA appears to be useful in NB imaging and may have a unique role in selecting

  10. Fingertip and whole body exposure to nuclear medicine personnel

    SciTech Connect

    Lis, G.A.; Zu'bi, S.M.; Brahmavar, S.M.

    1981-06-01

    We calculate radiation exposure to the nuclear medicine technologist for all common sources of exposure. Special attention is given to exposure received by fingertips. We include typical exposure rates for patient injections, reagent preparations, generator handling and elution, patient positioning, and other phases of nuclear medicine. The cumulative exposure to fingertips and whole body is estimated. When every precaution is taken to minimize exposure in our laboratory, the unavoidable annual exposure to the fingertips is 11 R; to the whole body it is 1 R from all sources. When precautions are not taken, the annual exposure to the fingertips may exceed 170 R and the whole body dose may then approach 2 R. Our nuclear medicine laboratory averages about 1000 injections per technologist per year.

  11. Training requirements for chemists in radiotracer development for nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, R.; Fowler, J.

    1988-01-01

    This panel was organized to address the current and anticipated future shortage of chemists with advanced training to fill positions in the nuclear medicine field. Although hard data and statistics are difficult to acquire, we will attempt to highlight the impact of chemistry on nuclear medicine and to describe the growth of the field which has led to an increasing need for chemists resulting in the current manpower shortage. We also will make recommendations for attracting Ph.D. chemists to careers in nuclear medicine research and possible mechanisms for postgraduate training. Solving this problem and establishing a long term committment and mechanism for advanced training is critically important to meet the current needs of the profession and to assure future growth and innovation. 3 tabs.

  12. [The psychodynamics of work with iodine-131 in nuclear medicine].

    PubMed

    da Silveira, Leila Cunha; Guilam, Maria Cristina Rodrigues; de Oliveira, Sergio Ricardo

    2013-11-01

    This paper seeks to demonstrate to what extent alternative forms adopted in the working process of professionals with iodine-131 in nuclear medicine can assist in managing risks of ionizing radiation. The design is based on the main theoretical concepts of the psychodynamics of work in relation to workers' health. In the case study, data were gathered from 15 workers of a public health institution in the city of Rio de Janeiro by means of semi-structured individual interviews and non-systematic direct observation. Bardin's content analysis method was used for the data analysis. When comparing the results obtained with standard prescribed models, it was found that the respondents had changed their approach. They developed individual defense mechanisms, such as denial of risk, and collective defensive strategies, leading them to tackle the greatest danger as a form of defense. The defensive role of ideologies of the profession are manifest. On the contrary, the acquired knowledge derived from prudence proved effective in minimizing the risks of radiation exposure. The authors discuss the limitations of security management that does not consider the workers' subjectivity and inherent knowledge. PMID:24196882

  13. Standardization of administered activities in pediatric nuclear medicine: a report of the first nuclear medicine global initiative project, part 1-statement of the issue and a review of available resources.

    PubMed

    Fahey, Frederic H; Bom, Henry Hee-Seong; Chiti, Arturo; Choi, Yun Young; Huang, Gang; Lassmann, Michael; Laurin, Norman; Mut, Fernando; Nuñez-Miller, Rodolfo; O'Keeffe, Darin; Pradhan, Prasanta; Scott, Andrew M; Song, Shaoli; Soni, Nischal; Uchiyama, Mayuki; Vargas, Luis

    2015-04-01

    The Nuclear Medicine Global Initiative (NMGI) was formed in 2012 and consists of 13 international organizations with direct involvement in nuclear medicine. The underlying objectives of the NMGI were to promote human health by advancing the field of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, encourage global collaboration in education, and harmonize procedure guidelines and other policies that ultimately lead to improvements in quality and safety in the field throughout the world. For its first project, the NMGI decided to consider the issues involved in the standardization of administered activities in pediatric nuclear medicine. This article presents part 1 of the final report of this initial project of the NMGI. It provides a review of the value of pediatric nuclear medicine, the current understanding of the carcinogenic risk of radiation as it pertains to the administration of radiopharmaceuticals in children, and the application of dosimetric models in children. A listing of pertinent educational and reference resources available in print and online is also provided. The forthcoming part 2 report will discuss current standards for administered activities in children and adolescents that have been developed by various organizations and an evaluation of the current practice of pediatric nuclear medicine specifically with regard to administered activities as determined by an international survey of nuclear medicine clinics and centers. Lastly, the part 2 report will recommend a path forward toward global standardization of the administration of radiopharmaceuticals in children. PMID:25766899

  14. Rheumatoid arthritis: Nuclear Medicine state-of-the-art imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rosado-de-Castro, Paulo Henrique; Lopes de Souza, Sergio Augusto; Alexandre, Dângelo; Barbosa da Fonseca, Lea Mirian; Gutfilen, Bianca

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease, which is associated with systemic and chronic inflammation of the joints, resulting in synovitis and pannus formation. For several decades, the assessment of RA has been limited to conventional radiography, assisting in the diagnosis and monitoring of disease. Nevertheless, conventional radiography has poor sensitivity in the detection of the inflammatory process that happens in the initial stages of RA. In the past years, new drugs that significantly decrease the progression of RA have allowed a more efficient treatment. Nuclear Medicine provides functional assessment of physiological processes and therefore has significant potential for timely diagnosis and adequate follow-up of RA. Several single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) radiopharmaceuticals have been developed and applied in this field. The use of hybrid imaging, which permits computed tomography (CT) and nuclear medicine data to be acquired and fused, has increased even more the diagnostic accuracy of Nuclear Medicine by providing anatomical localization in SPECT/CT and PET/CT studies. More recently, fusion of PET with magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) was introduced in some centers and demonstrated great potential. In this article, we will review studies that have been published using Nuclear Medicine for RA and examine key topics in the area. PMID:25035834

  15. Radiation safety and nuclear medicine policies and procedures.

    PubMed

    Berman, C G

    1999-07-01

    There is a growing concern over possible adverse effects from medical applications of ionizing radiation. Hospital personnel must be educated in procedures to minimize exposure to themselves and their patients. Basic radiation safety procedures to protect personnel and patients are discussed. Examples of the nuclear medicine policies and procedures used for lymphatic mapping are provided. PMID:10448699

  16. Society of Nuclear Medicine--57th annual meeting.

    PubMed

    Searle, Ben

    2010-08-01

    The 57th Annual Meeting of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, held in Salt Lake City, UT, USA, included topics covering new developments in imaging agents and radiopharmaceutical therapies in the field of nuclear medicine. This conference report highlights selected presentations related to imaging of the brain, the prediction of heart disease, and the detection and treatment of various cancers. Investigational drugs discussed include TF-2 plus [68Ga]IMP-288 and TF-2 plus [111In]IMP-288 (both Immunomedics Inc), [11C]PBR-170 (Royal Prince Alfred Hospital/Australian Nuclear Science & Technology Organization), [11C]LY-2795050 (Eli Lilly & Co), yttrium (90Y) clivatuzumab tetraxetan (Garden State Cancer Center/Immunomedics Inc), [18F]LMI-1195 (Lantheus Medical Imaging Inc), fluciclovine (18F) (GE Healthcare/Nihon Medi-Physics Co Ltd), [99mTc]MIP-1340 and [99mTc]MIP-1407 (both Molecular Insight Pharmaceuticals Inc). PMID:20721816

  17. Application of Technetium and Rhenium in Nuclear Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberto, Roger

    2012-06-01

    Technetium and Rhenium are the two lower elements in the manganese triad. Whereas rhenium is known as an important part of high resistance alloys, technetium is mostly known as a cumbersome product of nuclear fission. It is less known that its metastable isotope 99mTc is of utmost importance in nuclear medicine diagnosis. The technical application of elemental rhenium is currently complemented by investigations of its isotope 188Re, which could play a central role in the future for internal, targeted radiotherapy. This article will briefly describe the basic principles behind diagnostic methods with radionuclides for molecular imaging, review the 99mTc-based radiopharmaceuticals currently in clinical routine and focus on the chemical challenges and current developments towards improved, radiolabeled compounds for diagnosis and therapy in nuclear medicine.

  18. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in medicine

    PubMed Central

    McKinstry, C S

    1986-01-01

    Using the technique of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, MR, MRI), the first images displaying pathology in humans were published in 1980.1 Since then, there has been a rapid extension in the use of the technique, with an estimated 225 machines in use in the USA at the end of 1985.2 Considerable enthusiasm has been expressed for this new imaging technique,3 although awareness of its high cost in the present economic climate has led to reservations being expressed in other quarters.2 The aim of this article is to give an outline of the present state of NMR, and indicate some possible future developments. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 3(a)Fig 3 (b)Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7 (a)Fig 7 (b)Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10 PMID:3811023

  19. 42 CFR 482.53 - Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine... HOSPITALS Optional Hospital Services § 482.53 Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. If the hospital provides nuclear medicine services, those services must meet the needs of the patients...

  20. 42 CFR 482.53 - Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine... HOSPITALS Optional Hospital Services § 482.53 Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. If the hospital provides nuclear medicine services, those services must meet the needs of the patients...

  1. 42 CFR 482.53 - Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine... HOSPITALS Optional Hospital Services § 482.53 Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. If the hospital provides nuclear medicine services, those services must meet the needs of the patients...

  2. 42 CFR 482.53 - Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine... HOSPITALS Optional Hospital Services § 482.53 Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. If the hospital provides nuclear medicine services, those services must meet the needs of the patients...

  3. 42 CFR 482.53 - Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine... HOSPITALS Optional Hospital Services § 482.53 Condition of participation: Nuclear medicine services. If the hospital provides nuclear medicine services, those services must meet the needs of the patients...

  4. Impact of the prospective payment system on the delivery of nuclear medicine services

    SciTech Connect

    Crucitti, T.W.; Pappas, V.M.

    1986-07-01

    The study evaluates the effect of the Medicare Prospective Payment System (PPS) on nuclear medicine technologists and services. Since 80% of nuclear medicine technologists work in hospitals, a large segment of the professionals would be affected by the new system. The survey was designed to assess the PPSs effect on nuclear medicine departments at the early implementation stage.

  5. Evaluation of metallic osseous implants with nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, H.N.; Schauwecker, D.S.; Capello, W.N.

    1988-04-01

    Nuclear medicine has proven to have a valuable role in the evaluation of osseous metallic implants, particularly with joint prostheses, but can assist with evaluation of other appliances as well. The nuclear arthrogram has become an invaluable adjunct to simultaneously performed radiographic contrast arthrography. This application has been best evaluated in what is one of the most common of orthopedic prosthesis problems, namely, loosening of total hip prostheses. Experience indicates that both sensitivity and specificity of loosening of the femoral component can be increased to over 90% through combined use of nuclear with radiographic contrast arthrography. Furthermore the combination of routine skeletal scintimaging with the nuclear arthrogram adds a significant dimension to precise localizing of the nuclear arthrographics agent In-111 chloride. Nuclear medicine also plays an important role in further evaluating the presence of infection associated with metallic implants with In-111 WBC preparations being superior to Ga-67 as the radiopharmaceutical tracer. Infection has been detected with a sensitivity of 73% and a specificity of 93% in our series using combined In-111 WBC and simultaneous skeletal imaging with conventional Tc-99m MDP. Acute infections are more readily identifiable than chronic in association with prostheses. 29 references.

  6. Authentication of Medicines Using Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng; Zhang, Fengchao; Barras, Jamie; Althoefer, Kaspar; Bhunia, Swarup; Mandal, Soumyajit

    2016-01-01

    The production and sale of counterfeit and substandard pharmaceutical products, such as essential medicines, is an important global public health problem. We describe a chemometric passport-based approach to improve the security of the pharmaceutical supply chain. Our method is based on applying nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spectroscopy to authenticate the contents of medicine packets. NQR is a non-invasive, non-destructive, and quantitative radio frequency (RF) spectroscopic technique. It is sensitive to subtle features of the solid-state chemical environment and thus generates unique chemical fingerprints that are intrinsically difficult to replicate. We describe several advanced NQR techniques, including two-dimensional measurements, polarization enhancement, and spin density imaging, that further improve the security of our authentication approach. We also present experimental results that confirm the specificity and sensitivity of NQR and its ability to detect counterfeit medicines. PMID:26841409

  7. American College of Nuclear Physics 1991 DOE day symposium: Aids and nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    1991-12-31

    Since first described in 1981, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has become the medical dilemma of the century. AIDS retrovirus, and the economic consequences of this exposure are staggering. AIDS has been the topic of conferences and symposia worldwide. This symposium, to be held on January 25, 1991, at the 17th Annual Meeting and Scientific Sessions of the American College of Nuclear Physicians, will expose the Nuclear Medicine Physicians/Radiologists to their role in the diagnosis of AIDS, and will educate them on the socio-economic and ethical issues related to this problem. In addition, the Nuclear Medicine Physicians/Radiologists must be aware of their role in the management of their departments in order to adequately protect the health care professionals working in their laboratories. Strategies are currently being developed to control the spread of bloodborne diseases within the health care setting, and it is incumbent upon the Nuclear Medicine community to be aware of such strategies.

  8. Radiation doses to staff in a department of nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Harbottle, E A; Parker, R P; Davis, R

    1976-07-01

    A survey of data concerning radiation protection of staff working in the Nuclear Medicine Department and associated sections of the Physics Department at the Royal Marsden Hospital (Surrey Branch) is given for the period 1972 to 1975 inclusive. Results of routine film monitoring and whole-body counting are presented. Additional film monitors were used to check working areas, finger doses and any discrepancies between doses to the upper and lower trunk of personnel. In general, exposure to staff in the Nuclear Medicine Department is below 220 mrad per person per year, and below 1,000 mrad per person per year in the Radioisotope Dispensary. The dose received by radiographers is primarily due to spending time close to patients. Since about 5,000 intravenous injections of radionuclides are given each year in our department, the resulting finger doses to the staff involved may give rise to concern unless the task is shared. PMID:824004

  9. Establishment of dose reference levels for nuclear medicine in Greece.

    PubMed

    Vogiatzi, S; Kipouros, P; Chobis, M

    2011-09-01

    Greek Atomic Energy Commission's Department of Licensing and Inspections conducted a national survey for the establishment of nuclear medicine (NM) dose reference levels (DRLs) for adult patients, in Greece. The administered activities (AAs) (MBq) were collected from 120 NM departments (88 % of total), during on-site inspections for licensing purposes. Factors influencing the image quality were also investigated. The established national DRLs represent the AA value corresponding to the 75th percentile of the AA frequency distributions. In their majority, national DRLs and average AAs are comparable with the ones published in the international literature. In the light of new technologies, there might be potential for reducing the higher values of AAs, in co-operation with the nuclear medicine experts. PMID:21765158

  10. Hand exposure to ionising radiation of nuclear medicine workers.

    PubMed

    Wrzesień, M; Olszewski, J; Jankowski, J

    2008-01-01

    The specific nature of work in nuclear medicine departments involves the use of isotopes and handling procedures, which contribute to the considerable value of an equivalent dose received, in particular, by the fingertips. Standard nuclear medicine department uses ring dosemeters placed usually at the base of the middle finger. The main aim of the study was to find out whether a relationship exists between the doses recorded by thermoluminescent detectors placed at various locations on the radiopharmacists' hands and the doses recorded by the ring detectors, and to determine the character of that relationship. The correction factor represents a correction value to be used to calculate the doses which might be received by locations on the hand from the dose recorded by the ring dosemeter. The dose recorded by the ring dosemeter is on the average five times lower than that received by the fingertips of thumb, index and middle fingers. PMID:18310609

  11. Forensic Medicine: Age Written in Teeth by Nuclear Bomb Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2005-05-04

    Establishing the age of individuals is an important step in identification and a frequent challenge in forensic medicine. This can be done with high precision up to adolescence by analysis of dentition, but establishing the age of adults has remained difficult. Here we show that measuring {sup 14}C from nuclear bomb tests in tooth enamel provides a sensitive way to establish when a person was born.

  12. Radionuclide calibrator comparisons and quality improvement in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Oropesa, P; Woods, M J; Olsovcová, V; dos Santos, J A

    2008-03-01

    The traceability of activity measurements performed during the development phase of the radiopharmaceutical and in its clinical application is essential for establishing the comparability of clinical results reported in the nuclear medicine field. This paper presents and discusses the evaluation over time of the quality of activity measurement results obtained in Cuban nuclear medicine, on the basis of statistical samples taken during the radionuclide calibrator comparison program. An attempt is also made to evaluate the role played by such comparisons in quality measurement improvement in nuclear medicine, on the basis of results obtained in a number of countries and published by several authors over a period of time. Specifically, improvements of the measurement performance over time assessed by such exercises were found dissimilar in magnitudes for different countries. Two phases could be distinguished in the improvement process over time. Firstly, a fast improvement can be obtained resulting from the improvement in measurement accuracy of devices. After that, the achievement of new and sustained improvements goes slowly and requires an application of quality assurance programs where the qualification upgrading of personnel become an essential point. PMID:17855099

  13. Accuracy and Precision of Radioactivity Quantification in Nuclear Medicine Images

    PubMed Central

    Frey, Eric C.; Humm, John L.; Ljungberg, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The ability to reliably quantify activity in nuclear medicine has a number of increasingly important applications. Dosimetry for targeted therapy treatment planning or for approval of new imaging agents requires accurate estimation of the activity in organs, tumors, or voxels at several imaging time points. Another important application is the use of quantitative metrics derived from images, such as the standard uptake value commonly used in positron emission tomography (PET), to diagnose and follow treatment of tumors. These measures require quantification of organ or tumor activities in nuclear medicine images. However, there are a number of physical, patient, and technical factors that limit the quantitative reliability of nuclear medicine images. There have been a large number of improvements in instrumentation, including the development of hybrid single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography and PET/computed tomography systems, and reconstruction methods, including the use of statistical iterative reconstruction methods, which have substantially improved the ability to obtain reliable quantitative information from planar, single-photon emission computed tomography, and PET images. PMID:22475429

  14. Assessment of OEP health's risk in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santacruz-Gomez, K.; Manzano, C.; Melendrez, R.; Castaneda, B.; Barboza-Flores, M.; Pedroza-Montero, M.

    2012-10-01

    The use of ionizing radiation has been increased in recent years within medical applications. Nuclear Medicine Department offers both treatment and diagnosis of diseases using radioisotopes to controlled doses. Despite the great benefits to the patient, there is an inherent risk to workers which remains in contact with radiation sources for long periods. These personnel must be monitored to avoid deterministic effects. In this work, we retrospectively evaluated occupationally exposed personnel (OEP) to ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine during the last five years. We assessed both area and personal dosimetry of this department in a known Clinic in Sonora. Our results show an annual equivalent dose average of 4.49 ± 0.70 mSv in OEP without showing alarming changes in clinical parameters analyzed. These results allow us to conclude that health of OEP in nuclear medicine of this clinic has not been at risk during the evaluated period. However, we may suggest the use of individual profiles based on specific radiosensitivity markers.

  15. [Cost analysis of twenty-nine nuclear medicine procedures].

    PubMed

    Kastanioti, Catherine K; Alphalbouharali, Gihand; Fotopoulos, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare actual cost estimates for diagnostic procedures as applied in the nuclear medicine department of our University Hospital, with cost estimates obtained through an analytical activity-based costing methodology. Activity data on the use of twenty-nine nuclear medicine procedures were collected. The actual hospital prices for the fiscal years of 2003-2004 were obtained from the Accounting Department of the Hospital. Cost estimates were calculated per patient. Activity-based data were compared with hospital prices and also with unit costs from the activity-based costing methodology. Our results showed a significant statistical difference between unit cost estimates per patient based on hospital prices, as compared with those based on unit costs. This study shows that in our university hospital, reliance on generic hospital prices for nuclear medicine procedures, considerable underestimates their real cost by a mean value of 40% as derived through the activity-based costing methodology and can lead to substantial financial hospital deficits. PMID:15841290

  16. New filter for iodine applied in nuclear medicine services.

    PubMed

    Ramos, V S; Crispim, V R; Brandão, L E B

    2013-12-01

    In Nuclear Medicine, radioiodine, in various chemical forms, is a key tracer used in diagnostic practices and/or therapy. Medical professionals may incorporate radioactive iodine during the preparation of the dose to be administered to the patient. In radioactive iodine therapy doses ranging from 3.7 to 7.4 GBq per patient are employed. Thus, aiming at reducing the risk of occupational contamination, we developed a low cost filter to be installed at the exit of the exhaust system (where doses of radioiodine are handled within fume hoods, and new filters will be installed at their exit), using domestic technology. The effectiveness of radioactive iodine retention by silver impregnated silica [10%] crystals and natural activated carbon was verified using radiotracer techniques. The results showed that natural activated carbon and silver impregnated silica are effective for I2 capture with large or small amounts of substrate but the use of activated carbon is restricted due to its low flash point (423 K). Besides, when poisoned by organic solvents, this flash point may become lower, causing explosions if absorbing large amounts of nitrates. To hold the CH3I gas, it was necessary to use natural activated carbon since it was not absorbed by SiO2+Ag crystals. We concluded that, for an exhaust flow range of (145 ± 2)m(3)/h, a double stage filter using SiO2+Ag in the first stage and natural activated carbon in the second stage is sufficient to meet radiological safety requirements. PMID:23974306

  17. CdZnTe arrays for nuclear medicine imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, H.B.

    1996-12-31

    In nuclear medicine, a gamma-ray-emitting radiotracer is injected into the body, and the resulting biodistribution is imaged using a gamma camera. Current gamma cameras use a design developed by Anger. An Anger camera makes use of a slab of scintillation detector that is viewed by an array of photomultiplier tubes and uses an analog position estimation technique to determine the position of the gamma ray`s interaction. The image-forming optics is usually a multi-bore collimator made of lead. Such cameras are characterized by poor, system spatial resolution ({approximately}1 cm) due to poor detector resolution ({approximately}0.4 cm) and poor collimator performance. Arrays of semiconductor detectors are an attractive alternative to scintillators for use in gamma cameras. Semiconductor detectors have excellent energy resolution. High spatial resolution is also possible because large semiconductor detector arrays with small pixel sizes can be produced using photolithography techniques. A new crystal growth technique (high-pressure vertical Bridgman) allows production of detector grade CdTe and CdZnTe in multikilogram ingots. Although the cost of CdZnTe detectors has come down substantially in the last few years, in part because of economies of scale, costs are still more than an order of magnitude higher than those required for a commercial camera ($20--$50/gram). High detector costs are perhaps the major stumbling block to developing a semiconductor gamma camera. The photolithography techniques required to make large CdZnTe arrays have already been demonstrated. This paper discusses the recent developments made in CdZnTe detectors.

  18. The role of commercial nuclear pharmacy in the future practice of nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Callahan, R J

    1996-04-01

    It has been estimated that today 70% to 80% of all radiopharmaceutical doses are dispensed through commercial nuclear pharmacy channels. These services are provided by the approximately 250 facilities in the United States, with some multisite corporations dispensing in excess of 20,000 unit-dose prescriptions per day. As pressures mount within health care institutions to reduce manpower, increase cost-effectiveness, increase participation in managed care contracts, and to seek outside vendors for many services that were previously provided in-house, the future role of the commercial nuclear pharmacy in the practice of nuclear medicine will only continue to increase. The essence of nuclear pharmacy practice is the dispensing of a full range of high quality radiopharmaceuticals in patient-specific unit doses. These doses must be delivered in a timely and cost effective manner, without compromising quality or patient safety. Commercial nuclear pharmacies have expanded to provide such varied functions as radiation safety and waste management, as well as consultative and marketing activities directed towards clinicians within a nuclear medicine practitioners own facility. In-service continuing education programs directed towards physicians and technologists are frequently offered by many commercial nuclear pharmacies. Changes in health care economics, merging and down-sizing in the hospital industry, and the overall impact of managed care on the viability of hospitals in general has resulted in slow growth, or even a small decline in the number of institutionally based nuclear pharmacists. As a result, nuclear medicine practitioners will be looking to the commercial nuclear pharmacies to meet a larger portion of their radiopharmaceutical needs, as well as to value added services, such as education and research and development. Specialized practice settings, such as nuclear cardiology and free-standing nuclear medicine clinics, are especially well suited to the services

  19. Nuclear medicine imaging in dementia: a practical overview for hospitalists.

    PubMed

    Toney, Lauren Kay; McCue, Tim J; Minoshima, Satoshi; Lewis, David H

    2011-08-01

    Dementia is a clinical syndrome with diverse presentation, a challenging differential diagnosis, and time-sensitive therapy. The most common cause of dementia in patients aged > 65 years is Alzheimer's disease, which now affects 4 million people in the United States, but is often underrecognized, especially in the inpatient population. The hospitalist may have the opportunity to evaluate a patient's initial presentation of dementia. Addressing the inpatient's dementia symptoms can improve overall care and outcomes, so it is imperative that the hospitalist is abreast of recent developments in the dementia workup. The focus of this article is to overview how nuclear medicine imaging of the brain can aid in this process, with perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and fludeoxyglucose F 18 ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) as the 2 most common modalities. Our discussion focuses on Alzheimer's disease, as this the most common etiology of dementia in patients aged > 65 years; however, we also touch on the other common neurodegenerative dementias (eg, dementia with Lewy bodies, vascular dementia, and frontotemporal dementia) for completeness. We begin with a summary of the most recent published guidelines for each of these neurodegenerative diseases, and then expand on the role that nuclear imaging plays in each. We provide a basic overview of the principles of these nuclear medicine techniques, and then illustrate findings in perfusion SPECT and (18)F-FDG PET for typical patterns of dementia, with emphasis on evidence regarding diagnostic accuracy of each modality, in comparison with accepted gold standards. Finally, we outline some future research topics within the field of nuclear medicine in dementia, including amyloid plaque imaging and dopamine transporter imaging. PMID:21881402

  20. Role of nuclear medicine in chemotherapy of malignant lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, E.E.; Haynie, T.P.

    1985-01-01

    The major role of nuclear medicine in clinical oncology is in tumor imaging, which includes evaluating specific organs or the entire body for the presence of tumor. Nuclear medicine studies have been used clinically in the initial evaluation of the tumor extent and in the subsequent management of the cancer patient to assess response to treatment, to detect early relapse, and to assist in making decisions concerning follow-up treatment. Technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin perfusion study for intraarterial chemotherapy has been helpful in monitoring the catheter tip, providing a map of regional perfusion at the capillary level (tumor vascularity), evaluating the degree of arteriovenous shunt in tumor bed, and optimizing division of the dose of chemotherapeutic agent when bilateral arterial catheters are used. Quantitative and serial radionuclide angiocardiography has been useful in assessing doxorubicin (Adriamycin, Adria Laboratories, Columbus, Ohio) toxicity, and /sup 67/Ga-citrate imaging has been used to monitor chemotherapy effect on lungs and kidneys. Radionuclide venography can demonstrate suspected thrombus, and the delineation of the vascular anatomy also allows proper placement of another catheter for continuous effective chemotherapy. Serial bone scans have been the primary modality to assess the response of bone metastasis to systemic therapy in breast cancer patients, and nuclear hepatic imaging may show tumor response, hepatocellular dysfunction, and cholecystitis related to chemotherapeutic agents. 41 references.

  1. Nuclear Energy Assessment Battery. Form C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Showers, Dennis Edward

    This publication consists of a nuclear energy assessment battery for secondary level students. The test contains 44 multiple choice items and is organized into four major sections. Parts include: (1) a knowledge scale; (2) attitudes toward nuclear energy; (3) a behaviors and intentions scale; and (4) an anxiety scale. Directions are provided for…

  2. Recent developments and future trends in nuclear medicine instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Habib

    2006-01-01

    Molecular imaging using high-resolution single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) has advanced elegantly and has steadily gained importance in the clinical and research arenas. Continuous efforts to integrate recent research findings for the design of different geometries and various detector technologies of SPECT and PET cameras have become the goal of both the academic comcameras have become the goal of both the academic community and nuclear medicine industry. As PET has recently become of more interest for clinical practice, several different design trends seem to have developed. Systems are being designed for "low cost" clinical applications, very high-resolution research applications (including small-animal imaging), and just about everywhere in-between. The development of dual-modality imaging systems has revolutionized the practice of nuclear medicine. The major advantage being that SPECT/PET data are intrinsically aligned to anatomical information from the X-ray computed tomography (CT), without the use of external markers or internal landmarks. On the other hand, combining PET with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) technology is scientifically more challenging owing to the strong magnetic fields. Nevertheless, significant progress has been made resulting in the design of a prototype small animal PET scanner coupled to three multichannel photomultipliers via optical fibers, so that the PET detector can be operated within a conventional MR system. Thus, many different design paths are being pursued--which ones are likely to be the main stream of future commercial systems? It will be interesting, indeed, to see which technologies become the most popular in the future. This paper briefly summarizes state-of-the art developments in nuclear medicine instrumentation. Future prospects will also be discussed. PMID:16696367

  3. Interface requirements in nuclear medicine devices and systems

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, G.Q. Jr.; Brill, A.B.; Noz, M.E.

    1982-01-01

    Interface designs for three nuclear medicine imaging systems, and computer networking strategies proposed for medical imaging departments are presented. Configurations for two positron-emission-tomography devices (PET III and ECAT) and a general-purpose tomography instrument (the UNICON) are analyzed in terms of specific performance parameters. Interface designs for these machines are contrasted in terms of utilization of standard versus custom modules, cost, and ease of modification, upgrade, and support. The requirements of general purpose systems for medical image analysis, display, and archiving, are considered, and a realizable state-of-the-art system is specfied, including a suggested timetable.

  4. Nuclear Medicine in Thyroid Diseases in Pediatric and Adolescent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Volkan-Salancı, Bilge; Özgen Kıratlı, Pınar

    2015-01-01

    Both benign and malignant diseases of the thyroid are rare in the pediatric and adolescent population, except congenital hypothyroidism. Nuclear medicine plays a major role, both in the diagnosis and therapy of thyroid pathologies. Use of radioactivity in pediatric population is strictly controlled due to possible side effects such as secondary cancers; therefore, management of pediatric patients requires detailed literature knowledge. This article aims to overview current algorithms in the management of thyroid diseases and use of radionuclide therapy in pediatric and adolescent population. PMID:26316469

  5. The birth of nuclear medicine instrumentation: Blumgart and Yens, 1925.

    PubMed

    Patton, Dennis D

    2003-08-01

    In 1925, Hermann Blumgart performed the first diagnostic procedure using radioactive indicators on humans; this first is well recognized. Less well recognized is the fact that Blumgart and his coworker Otto C. Yens, then a medical student, developed the first instrumentation used in a diagnostic procedure involving radioactive indicators. The instrumentation, a modified Wilson cloud chamber, turned out to be the detector most suitable for their purpose. Blumgart also showed remarkable foresight in outlining the requirements both for a satisfactory indicator (tracer) and for a satisfactory detector--requirements that still hold true today. The Blumgart-Yens modified cloud chamber was the birth of nuclear medicine instrumentation. PMID:12902429

  6. Nuclear medicine for imaging of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Abedi, Seyed Mohammad; Mardanshahi, Alireza; Shahhosseini, Roza; Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jalal

    2016-05-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Usually, the diagnosis of cancer at an early stage is important to facilitate proper treatment and survival. Nuclear medicine has been successfully used in the diagnosis, staging, therapy and monitoring of cancers. Single-photon emission computed tomography and PET-based companion imaging agents are in development for use as a companion diagnostic tool for patients with ovarian cancer. The present review discusses the basic and clinical studies related to the use of radiopharmaceuticals in the diagnosis and management of ovarian cancer, focusing on their utility and comparing them with other imaging techniques such as computed tomography and MRI. PMID:26984362

  7. Nuclear medicine technologists and unauthorized self-injections.

    PubMed

    Miller, K L; King, S H; Eggli, D F; Thompson, L K

    2006-02-01

    An Office of Investigation (OI) investigation by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) determined that, on three separate occasions over the past 10 years, technologists in one licensed nuclear medicine program were injected with radiopharmaceuticals without Authorized User knowledge or approval. The most recent instance, the one that precipitated the investigation, was discovered by the licensee and self-reported to the NRC; the other two instances were discovered during the OI investigation and came as a complete surprise to the licensee. In a mediated Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) involving the licensee, a professional, independent mediator and representatives of the NRC, an agreement was worked out whereby the licensee would admit to the violations and work with the NRC to inform other licensees that this is not an acceptable practice and that there are additional precautions that licensees can and should take to assure that such violations do not happen on their watch. PMID:16404185

  8. Image Reconstruction for Prostate Specific Nuclear Medicine imagers

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Smith

    2007-01-11

    There is increasing interest in the design and construction of nuclear medicine detectors for dedicated prostate imaging. These include detectors designed for imaging the biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with single gamma as well as positron-emitting radionuclides. New detectors and acquisition geometries present challenges and opportunities for image reconstruction. In this contribution various strategies for image reconstruction for these special purpose imagers are reviewed. Iterative statistical algorithms provide a framework for reconstructing prostate images from a wide variety of detectors and acquisition geometries for PET and SPECT. The key to their success is modeling the physics of photon transport and data acquisition and the Poisson statistics of nuclear decay. Analytic image reconstruction methods can be fast and are useful for favorable acquisition geometries. Future perspectives on algorithm development and data analysis for prostate imaging are presented.

  9. Review of radiation effects in solid-nuclear-waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, W.J.

    1981-09-01

    Radiation effects on the stability of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) forms are an important consideration in the development of technology to immobilize high-level radioactive waste because such effects may significantly affect the containment of the radioactive waste. Since the required containment times are long (10/sup 3/ to 10/sup 6/ years), an understanding of the long-term cumulative effects of radiation damage on the waste forms is essential. Radiation damage of nuclear waste forms can result in changes in volume, leach rate, stored energy, structure/microstructure, and mechanical properties. Any one or combination of these changes might significantly affect the long-term stability of the nuclear waste forms. This report defines the general radiation damage problem in nuclear waste forms, describes the simulation techniques currently available for accelerated testing of nuclear waste forms, and reviews the available data on radiation effects in both glass and ceramic (primarily crystalline) waste forms. 76 references.

  10. Necessity of Internal Monitoring for Nuclear Medicine Staff in a Large Specialized Chinese Hospital.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Bo; Zhang, Qing-Zhao; Zhang, Zhen; Hou, Chang-Song; Li, Wen-Liang; Yang, Hui; Sun, Quan-Fu

    2016-01-01

    This work intends to quantify the risk of internal contaminations in the nuclear medicine staff of one hospital in Henan province, China. For this purpose, the criteria proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to determine whether it is necessary to conduct internal individual monitoring was applied to all of the 18 nuclear medicine staff members who handled radionuclides. The activity of different radionuclides used during a whole calendar year and the protection measures adopted were collected for each staff member, and the decision as to whether nuclear medicine staff in the hospital should be subjected to internal monitoring was made on the basis of the criteria proposed by IAEA. It is concluded that for all 18 members of the nuclear medicine staff in the hospital, internal monitoring is required. Internal exposure received by nuclear medicine staff should not be ignored, and it is necessary to implement internal monitoring for nuclear medicine staff routinely. PMID:27077874

  11. Avoidable challenges of a nuclear medicine facility in a developing nation

    PubMed Central

    Adedapo, Kayode Solomon; Onimode, Yetunde Ajoke; Ejeh, John Enyi; Adepoju, Adewale Oluwaseun

    2013-01-01

    The role of nuclear medicine in disease management in a developing nation is as impactful as it is in other regions of the world. However, in the developing world, the practice of nuclear medicine is faced with a myriad of challenges, which can be easily avoided. In this review, we examine the many avoidable challenges to the practice of nuclear medicine in a developing nation. The review is largely based on personal experiences of the authors who are the pioneers and current practitioners of nuclear medicine in a typical developing nation. If the challenges examined in this review are avoided, the practice of nuclear medicine in such a nation will be more effective and practitioners will be more efficient in service delivery. Hence, the huge benefits of nuclear medicine will be made available to patients in such a developing nation. PMID:24379527

  12. Necessity of Internal Monitoring for Nuclear Medicine Staff in a Large Specialized Chinese Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong-Bo; Zhang, Qing-Zhao; Zhang, Zhen; Hou, Chang-Song; Li, Wen-Liang; Yang, Hui; Sun, Quan-Fu

    2016-01-01

    This work intends to quantify the risk of internal contaminations in the nuclear medicine staff of one hospital in Henan province, China. For this purpose, the criteria proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to determine whether it is necessary to conduct internal individual monitoring was applied to all of the 18 nuclear medicine staff members who handled radionuclides. The activity of different radionuclides used during a whole calendar year and the protection measures adopted were collected for each staff member, and the decision as to whether nuclear medicine staff in the hospital should be subjected to internal monitoring was made on the basis of the criteria proposed by IAEA. It is concluded that for all 18 members of the nuclear medicine staff in the hospital, internal monitoring is required. Internal exposure received by nuclear medicine staff should not be ignored, and it is necessary to implement internal monitoring for nuclear medicine staff routinely. PMID:27077874

  13. Establishment of a national program for quality control of nuclear medicine instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Coca Perez, Marco A; Torres Aroche, Leonel A; Bejerano, Gladys López; Mayor, Roberto Fraxedas; Corona, Consuelo Varela; López, Adlin

    2008-12-01

    Monitoring the quality of instrumentation used in nuclear medicine is mandatory to guarantee the clinical efficacy of medical practice. A national program for the quality control of nuclear medicine instruments was established in Cuba and was certified and approved by the regulatory authorities. The program, which establishes official regulations and audit services, sets up educational activities, distributes technical documentation, and maintains a national phantom bank, constitutes a valuable and useful tool to guarantee the quality of nuclear medicine instrumentation. PMID:19008290

  14. Java-based PACS and reporting system for nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slomka, Piotr J.; Elliott, Edward; Driedger, Albert A.

    2000-05-01

    In medical imaging practice, images and reports often need be reviewed and edited from many locations. We have designed and implemented a Java-based Remote Viewing and Reporting System (JaRRViS) for a nuclear medicine department, which is deployed as a web service, at the fraction of the cost dedicated PACS systems. The system can be extended to other imaging modalities. JaRRViS interfaces to the clinical patient databases of imaging workstations. Specialized nuclear medicine applets support interactive displays of data such as 3-D gated SPECT with all the necessary options such as cine, filtering, dynamic lookup tables, and reorientation. The reporting module is implemented as a separate applet using Java Foundation Classes (JFC) Swing Editor Kit and allows composition of multimedia reports after selection and annotation of appropriate images. The reports are stored on the server in the HTML format. JaRRViS uses Java Servlets for the preparation and storage of final reports. The http links to the reports or to the patient's raw images with applets can be obtained from JaRRViS by any Hospital Information System (HIS) via standard queries. Such links can be sent via e-mail or included as text fields in any HIS database, providing direct access to the patient reports and images via standard web browsers.

  15. Nuclear Medicine in Diagnosis of Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Musso, Maria; Petrosillo, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decades cardiovascular disease management has been substantially improved by the increasing introduction of medical devices as prosthetic valves. The yearly rate of infective endocarditis (IE) in patient with a prosthetic valve is approximately 3 cases per 1,000 patients. The fatality rate of prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) remains stable over the years, in part due to the aging of the population. The diagnostic value of echocardiography in diagnosis is operator-dependent and its sensitivity can decrease in presence of intracardiac devices and valvular prosthesis. The modified Duke criteria are considered the gold standard for diagnosing IE; their sensibility is 80%, but in clinical practice their diagnostic accuracy in PVE is lower, resulting inconclusively in nearly 30% of cases. In the last years, these new imaging modalities have gained an increasing attention because they make it possible to diagnose an IE earlier than the structural alterations occurring. Several studies have been conducted in order to assess the diagnostic accuracy of various nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis of PVE. We performed a review of the literature to assess the available evidence on the role of nuclear medicine techniques in the diagnosis of PVE. PMID:25695043

  16. The Dosage Form of Aragh in Treatment, from the Iranian Traditional Medicine Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Adl, Mehdi; Emtiazi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Iranian traditional medicine is one of the branches of complementary medicine and it is based on using the dosage forms of plants. One of the most common forms of pharmaceutical plants is Aragh. Due to ease-of-use, distillate is a more acceptable form among the public. In this article, it is attempted to study the usage forms and effects of Aragh according to the valid traditional medicine resources. Methods: This article is a review of Iranian traditional medicine textbooks such as Makhzan-ul-dawiah, Gharabadin Kabir, Cannon of Medicine, and other recent texts on medical plants. Results: According to the traditional medicine, the process of getting Aragh is a kind of distillation, which is performed by using Ghar and Alembic (the equipment that are used in distillation). Distillation is the process of extracting and refining the fluid of a plant. Aragh of the plants is much more effective on the body than the plant itself. Traditional medicine regards Aragh as a new kind of drug (medicine) that is rarely mentioned in older texts (except for golab). However, the modern medicine regards it as a dosage form of essence, which is dissolved in water. The more the essence, the better the distillate gets. Conclusion: According to the traditional medicine sources, since the time of Hakim Aghil Khorasani, Aragh was used more and more every day. About 100 kinds of Araghs are mentioned in ancient texts, which are extracted from simple plants. Considering the distillation process and the way it performs, and by knowing that Aragh is a plant’s softest and the most influential entity, it seems that it has a huge effect on Arvah and Ghova, the main parts like heart and brain and nervous parts. PMID:27516693

  17. A background to nuclear transfer and its applications in agriculture and human therapeutic medicine*

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Keith HS

    2002-01-01

    The development of a single celled fertilized zygote to an animal capable of reproduction involves not only cell division but the differentiation or specialization to numerous cell types forming each tissue and organ of the adult animal. The technique of nuclear transfer allows the reconstruction of an embryo by the transfer of genetic material from a single donor cell, to an unfertilized egg from which the genetic material has been removed. Successful development of live offspring from such embryos demonstrates that the differentiated state of the donor nucleus is not fixed and can be reprogrammed by the egg cytoplasm to control embryo and fetal development. Nuclear transfer has many applications in agriculture and human medicine. This article will review some of the factors associated with the success of embryo development following nuclear transfer and outline the potential uses of the technology. PMID:12033731

  18. Measurement of doses to the extremities of nuclear medicine staff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shousha, Hany A.; Farag, Hamed; Hassan, Ramadan A.

    Medical uses of ionizing radiation now represent>95% of all man-made radiation exposure, and is the largest single radiation source after natural background radiation. Therefore, it is important to quantify the amount of radiation received by occupational individuals to optimize the working conditions for staff, and further, to compare doses in different departments to ensure compatibility with the recommended standards. For some groups working with unsealed sources in nuclear medicine units, the hands are more heavily exposed to ionizing radiation than the rest of the body. A personal dosimetry service runs extensively in Egypt. But doses to extremities have not been measured to a wide extent. The purpose of this study was to investigate the equivalent radiation doses to the fingers for five different nuclear medicine staff occupational groups for which heavy irradiation of the hands was suspected. Finger doses were measured for (1) nuclear medicine physicians, (2) technologists, (3) nurses and (4) physicists. The fifth group contains three technicians handling 131I, while the others handled 99mTc. Each staff member working with the radioactive material wore two thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) during the whole testing period, which lasted from 1 to 4 weeks. Staff performed their work on a regular basis throughout the month, and mean annual doses were calculated for these groups. Results showed that the mean equivalent doses to the fingers of technologist, nurse and physicist groups were 30.24±14.5, 30.37±17.5 and 16.3±7.7 μSv/GBq, respectively. Equivalent doses for the physicians could not be calculated per unit of activity because they did not handle the radiopharmaceuticals directly. Their doses were reported in millisieverts (mSv) that accumulated in one week. Similarly, the dose to the fingers of individuals in Group 5 was estimated to be 126.13±38.2 μSv/GBq. The maximum average finger dose, in this study, was noted in the technologists who handled

  19. Measurement of doses to the extremities of nuclear medicine staff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shousha, Hany A.; Farag, Hamed; Hassan, Ramadan A.

    2010-01-01

    Medical uses of ionizing radiation now represent>95% of all man-made radiation exposure, and is the largest single radiation source after natural background radiation. Therefore, it is important to quantify the amount of radiation received by occupational individuals to optimize the working conditions for staff, and further, to compare doses in different departments to ensure compatibility with the recommended standards. For some groups working with unsealed sources in nuclear medicine units, the hands are more heavily exposed to ionizing radiation than the rest of the body. A personal dosimetry service runs extensively in Egypt. But doses to extremities have not been measured to a wide extent. The purpose of this study was to investigate the equivalent radiation doses to the fingers for five different nuclear medicine staff occupational groups for which heavy irradiation of the hands was suspected. Finger doses were measured for (1) nuclear medicine physicians, (2) technologists, (3) nurses and (4) physicists. The fifth group contains three technicians handling 131I, while the others handled 99mTc. Each staff member working with the radioactive material wore two thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) during the whole testing period, which lasted from 1 to 4 weeks. Staff performed their work on a regular basis throughout the month, and mean annual doses were calculated for these groups. Results showed that the mean equivalent doses to the fingers of technologist, nurse and physicist groups were 30.24±14.5, 30.37±17.5 and 16.3±7.7 μSv/GBq, respectively. Equivalent doses for the physicians could not be calculated per unit of activity because they did not handle the radiopharmaceuticals directly. Their doses were reported in millisieverts (mSv) that accumulated in one week. Similarly, the dose to the fingers of individuals in Group 5 was estimated to be 126.13±38.2 μSv/GBq. The maximum average finger dose, in this study, was noted in the technologists who handled

  20. NMINT--introductory courseware for nuclear medicine: database design.

    PubMed

    Mankovich, N J; Verma, R C; Yue, A; Veyne, D; Ratib, O; Bennett, L R

    1991-01-01

    Computer-Aided Instruction (CAI) provides a dynamic and self-paced learning experience to the medical trainee. Microcomputer based hypermedia systems integrate text, graphics, and image information. We present the design of an introductory CAI course for nuclear medicine called NMINT and elaborate on the underlying relational database that contains clinically relevant information and links to local or remote image storage over high speed networks. The IBM PS/2 Windows system uses Toolbook software augmented by C language modules for image and image-overlay database access. The current implementation stores text, graphical lesson material, and image index information on microcomputer magnetic disk; image data are stored on the attached optical disk. The storage architecture is described in detail. We emphasize its multi-access methods and its expandability into department-wide image networks. PMID:1807706

  1. Future developments in nuclear medicine instrumentation: a review.

    PubMed

    Kuikka, J T; Britton, K E; Chengazi, V U; Savolainen, S

    1998-01-01

    This review article forecasts developments in nuclear medicine instrumentation which are on the horizon. Special attention is paid to the physical properties of detectors and multiple-processor parallel processing systems needed for fast and high-quality imaging in emission tomography. Advances in detector technology will improve imaging resolution below 5 mm and will increase sensitivity and quantitative accuracy. In addition, high count rate list-mode acquisition enables 'true' four-dimensional data-sets. A sandwich-like construction of two different crystals allows the simultaneous use of conventional tracers and positron tracers (multiple emission tomography, MET). Transmission-based attenuation and scatter compensation with fast iterative reconstruction methods will further improve image quality. The clinical and scientific importance of improved images and the limits on advances in instrumentation are also reviewed. PMID:9515542

  2. Flexible nuclear medicine camera and method of using

    DOEpatents

    Dilmanian, F.A.; Packer, S.; Slatkin, D.N.

    1996-12-10

    A nuclear medicine camera and method of use photographically record radioactive decay particles emitted from a source, for example a small, previously undetectable breast cancer, inside a patient. The camera includes a flexible frame containing a window, a photographic film, and a scintillation screen, with or without a gamma-ray collimator. The frame flexes for following the contour of the examination site on the patient, with the window being disposed in substantially abutting contact with the skin of the patient for reducing the distance between the film and the radiation source inside the patient. The frame is removably affixed to the patient at the examination site for allowing the patient mobility to wear the frame for a predetermined exposure time period. The exposure time may be several days for obtaining early qualitative detection of small malignant neoplasms. 11 figs.

  3. Flexible nuclear medicine camera and method of using

    DOEpatents

    Dilmanian, F. Avraham; Packer, Samuel; Slatkin, Daniel N.

    1996-12-10

    A nuclear medicine camera 10 and method of use photographically record radioactive decay particles emitted from a source, for example a small, previously undetectable breast cancer, inside a patient. The camera 10 includes a flexible frame 20 containing a window 22, a photographic film 24, and a scintillation screen 26, with or without a gamma-ray collimator 34. The frame 20 flexes for following the contour of the examination site on the patient, with the window 22 being disposed in substantially abutting contact with the skin of the patient for reducing the distance between the film 24 and the radiation source inside the patient. The frame 20 is removably affixed to the patient at the examination site for allowing the patient mobility to wear the frame 20 for a predetermined exposure time period. The exposure time may be several days for obtaining early qualitative detection of small malignant neoplasms.

  4. Selected Interventions in Nuclear Medicine: Gastrointestinal Motor Functions

    PubMed Central

    Odunsi, Suwebatu T.; Camilleri, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of gastrointestinal functions by scintigraphy is established in clinical practice and research. The most commonly used test is the gastric emptying test. This is acknowledged as the gold standard and is conducted according to a consensus statement from the national nuclear medicine and motility societies. Other techniques are somewhat more esoteric (e.g. measurement of gastric accommodation with SPECT) or the scintigraphic approach is not the acknowledged gold standard (e.g. colonic transit, recto-anal angle and emptying, esophageal transit). The performance characteristics of many of the scintigraphic measurements have been published and the pros and cons established in the literature. Gastrointestinal scintigraphy is an integral and important component of the assessment of gastrointestinal function. PMID:19341838

  5. Nuclear medicine in acute and chronic renal failure

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, R.A.; Byun, K.J.

    1982-07-01

    The diagnostic value of renal scintiscans in patients with acute or chronic renal failure has not been emphasized other than for the estimation of renal size. /sup 131/I OIH, /sup 67/gallium, /sup 99m/TcDTPA, glucoheptonate and DMSA all may be valuable in a variety of specific settings. Acute renal failure due to acute tubular necrosis, hepatorenal syndrome, acute interstitial nephritis, cortical necrosis, renal artery embolism, or acute pyelonephritis may be recognized. Data useful in the diagnosis and management of the patient with obstructive or reflux nephropathy may be obtained. Radionuclide studies in patients with chronic renal failure may help make apparent such causes as renal artery stenosis, chronic pyelonephritis or lymphomatous kidney infiltration. Future correlation of scanning results with renal pathology promises to further expand nuclear medicine's utility in the noninvasive diagnosis of renal disease.

  6. Development of thyroid anthropomorphic phantoms for use in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerqueira, R. A. D.; Maia, A. F.

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to develop thyroid anthropomorphic phantoms to be used in control tests of medical images in scintillation cameras. The main difference among the phantoms was the neck shape: in the first, called OSCT, it was geometrically shaped, while in the second, called OSAP, it was anthropomorphically shaped. In both phantoms, thyroid gland prototypes, which were made of acrylic and anthropomorphically shaped, were constructed to allow the simulation of a healthy thyroid and of thyroids with hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Images of these thyroid anthropomorphic phantoms were obtained using iodine 131 with an activity of 8.695 MBq. The iodine 131 was chosen because it is widely used in studies of thyroid scintigraphy. The images obtained proved the effectiveness of the phantoms to simulate normal or abnormal thyroids function. These phantoms can be used in medical imaging quality control programs and, also in the training of professionals involved in the analysis of images in nuclear medicine centers.

  7. Diffusion processes in tumors: A nuclear medicine approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaya, Helman

    2016-07-01

    The number of counts used in nuclear medicine imaging techniques, only provides physical information about the desintegration of the nucleus present in the the radiotracer molecules that were uptaken in a particular anatomical region, but that information is not a real metabolic information. For this reason a mathematical method was used to find a correlation between number of counts and 18F-FDG mass concentration. This correlation allows a better interpretation of the results obtained in the study of diffusive processes in an agar phantom, and based on it, an image from the PETCETIX DICOM sample image set from OsiriX-viewer software was processed. PET-CT gradient magnitude and Laplacian images could show direct information on diffusive processes for radiopharmaceuticals that enter into the cells by simple diffusion. In the case of the radiopharmaceutical 18F-FDG is necessary to include pharmacokinetic models, to make a correct interpretation of the gradient magnitude and Laplacian of counts images.

  8. The A-bomb, 50 years later: The evolution of nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Kotz, D.

    1995-08-01

    In the wake of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings, the U.S. government began to invest heavily in its nuclear program. Nuclear medicine stood to gain from these postwar policies, but it also suffered some setbacks. Fifty years ago this month, two atomic bombs were dropped on Japan, killing thousands of civilians and ushering in a quick and final end to World War II. The beginning of the post-war era signaled the birth of nuclear medicine as it is widely applied today. In fact, the same nuclear reactor that produced elements for the A-bomb project was turned over for the mass production of radionuclides for medicine and industry. The link between the A-bomb and nuclear medicine, however, has always been a sensitive subject among nuclear physicians whose patients may associate radionuclide injections with mushroom clouds. Although this link is not justified, the government`s interest in developing nuclear technology following World War II did have a significant impact on nuclear medicine: on the upside, millions of federal dollars were funneled into the production of radionuclides for research and medicine. On the downside, Congress established the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC)-which later became the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-to oversee safety issues, making nuclear medicine the only medical field regulated by a federal agency.

  9. [Organizational forms of emergency medicine in international comparison].

    PubMed

    Lipp, M

    1993-09-01

    The tasks of preclinical emergency medicine systems (PEMS) are to stabilize and maintain the vital functions and to guarantee qualified transport to the hospital. Worldwide, different structures exist as a result of historical developments. Legal regulations for PEMS have been introduced in most of the industrialized countries since 1960. More and more aspects have been subject to detailed regulations. PEMS are provided either by state-owned or by state-controlled (private) organisations. In most of the "underdeveloped" countries legal regulations do not exist and PEMS is often provided by social workers, by the army or by volunteers. In most countries, PEMS are financed by the state with a charge on the patient. In a few states PEMS are totally financed by the public health structure. Modern PEMS are controlled from dispatch centres which receive emergency calls (mostly by telephone) and send the appropriate rescue unit. In most states the staff of dispatch centres are paramedics; in some countries and in some urban areas physicians control the dispatch centre. In PEMS without physicians on the scene, an information exchange between the scene and the hospital can be observed frequently, in contrast to systems with physicians on the scene. Worldwide, ground-based PEMS are preferred, but in most countries an additional air rescue system has been established. The quality and quantity of the technical equipment of the ground-based PEMS differ widely: nationwide regulations exist, however, in the USA and Germany. Generally, there are two main concepts concerning the personnel structure: PEMS are either physician based or not. Requirements for emergency physicians differ greatly: in some countries no formal requirements exist, in others extensive practical and theoretical training is required.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8214535

  10. Special Radiation Protection Precautions in Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanoyiannis, A. P.; Gerogiannis, J.

    2010-01-01

    Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine concerns the administration of appropriate amounts of radioactivity of certain isotopes, in order to achieve internal localized irradiation of neoplasmatic cells. Due to the increased level and the specific isotope characteristics of administered radioactivity, special Radiation Protection precautions must be taken. This study addresses such issues, based on national as well as international legislation and guidelines. Application of the principle of optimization is of outmost importance and is based on individual dose planning. The decision about the release of Nuclear Medicine patients after therapy is determined on an individual basis, taking into account patients' pattern of contact with other people, their age and that of persons in the home environment, in addition to other factors. Estimation of the absorbed dose given to the treated organ is based on uptake measurements and other biokinetic data, as well as on the mass of the treated tissue or organ. Concerning pregnant women, the rule of thumb is that they should not be treated, unless the radionuclide therapy is required to save their lives. In that case, the potential absorbed dose and risk to the foetus should be estimated and conveyed to the patient. After radionuclide therapy, a female should be advised to avoid pregnancy for the period of time depending on the specific radionuclide. This is to ensure that the dose to a conceptus/foetus would probably not exceed 1 mGy (the member of the public dose limit). The radiation risk for relatives and caregivers is small and unlikely to exceed the legal dose constraints during the period of the patient's treatment. Solid waste from the patient's stay in hospital is a different matter, and is normally incinerated or held for a period until radioactive decay brings the activity to an acceptable level.

  11. IBA-Europhysics Prize in Applied Nuclear Science and Nuclear Methods in Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacGregor, I. J. Douglas

    2014-03-01

    The Nuclear Physics Board of the European Physical Society is pleased to announce that the 2013 IBA-Europhysics Prize in Applied Nuclear Science and Nuclear Methods in Medicine is awarded to Prof. Marco Durante, Director of the Biophysics Department at GSI Helmholtz Center (Darmstadt, Germany); Professor at the Technical University of Darmstadt (Germany) and Adjunct Professor at the Temple University, Philadelphia, USA. The prize was presented in the closing Session of the INPC 2013 conference by Mr. Thomas Servais, R&D Manager for Accelerator Development at the IBA group, who sponsor the IBA Europhysics Prize. The Prize Diploma was presented by Dr. I J Douglas MacGregor, Chair-elect of the EPS Nuclear Physics Division and Chair of the IBA Prize committee.

  12. Optical investigation of medicine solutions in micro-droplets form at interaction with laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastasa, V.; Boni, M.; Andrei, I. R.; Amaral, L.; Staicu, A.; Pascu, M. L.

    2011-10-01

    One of the alternatives to the existing medicines and treatment procedures in fighting multi drug resistance (MDR) is strengthening the effects of medicines by modifying their molecular structures through exposure to laser radiation. A method associated with this, is the generation of micro-droplets which contain medicines solutions; the droplets are utilized/produced as vectors to transport the medicines to targets. In our studies we try to combine these two methods in order to obtain a new technique to deliver the efficient medicines to targets that can be applied for a relative large number of chemicals. For this purpose we have developed an experimental set-up containing a liquid droplets generator, a tunable laser source used to irradiate droplets, a subunit to measure the laser induced fluorescence (LIF) signals and a real time recording system for droplet image analysis. Measurements on different probes, like ultrapure water, commercial grade medicines, newly developed medicines and laser dyes were performed.. All these measurements were performed on waterbased solutions. We present in this paper the laser induced fluorescence measurements results on medicine solutions (in bulk or in a micro-droplet form) that exhibit important modifications after the exposure at laser radiation. It was evidenced that the exposures to laser beams/coherent optical radiation of some medicines solutions in ultrapure water may produce molecular modifications in solutions. These slight modifications of the molecules made them more efficient against bacteria strains.

  13. [Investigation of radiation safety management of nuclear medicine facilities in Japan; contamination of radioactivity in the draining-water system. A Working Group of Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine for the Guidelines of Nuclear Medicine Therapy].

    PubMed

    Endo, K; Koizumi, M; Kinoshita, F; Nakazawa, K

    1999-12-01

    Radiation safety management condition in Japanese nuclear medicine facilities were investigated by the questionnaire method. The first questionnaire was asked in all Japanese 1,401 Nuclear Medicine facilities. Answers from 624 institutes (44.5%) were received and analyzed. The radiation-safety management in nuclear medicine institutes was considered to be very well performed everyday. Opinion for the present legal control of nuclear medicine institutes was that the regulation in Japan was too strict for the clinical use of radionuclides. The current regulation is based on the assumption that 1% of all radioactivity used in nuclear medicine institutes contaminates into the draining-water system. The second questionnaire detailing the contamination of radioactivity in the draining-water system was sent to 128 institutes, and 64 answers were received. Of them, 42 institutes were considered to be enough to evaluate the contamination of radioactivity in the draining-water system. There was no difference between 624 institutes answered to the first questionnaire and 42 institutes, where the radioactivity in the draining-water system was measured, in the distribution of the institute size, draining-water system equipment and the radioactivity measuring method, and these 42 institutes seemed to be representative of Japanese nuclear medicine institutes. Contamination rate of radioactivity into the draining system was calculated by the value of radioactivity in the collecting tank divided by the amount of radionuclides used daily in each institute. The institutes were divided into two categories on the basis of nuclear medicine practice pattern; type A: in-vivo use only and type B: both in-vivo and in-vitro use. The contamination rate in 27 type A institutes did not exceed 0.01%, whereas in 15 type B institutes the contamination rate distributed widely from undetectable to above 1%. These results indicated that the present regulation for the draining-water system, which

  14. [Bone-seeking radioactive substances in nuclear medicine].

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, G

    1976-12-01

    The concept of bone affinity of a radioactive tracer is developed on theoretical grounds and is discussed on the basis of the various substances used in nuclear medical diagnosis of bone disease. On the basis of results on the uptake of very short lived nuclides and extremely large molecules, evidence is provided that the incorporation of the tracer in the apatite crystal is not a primary criterion of bone affinity since incorporation cannot take place on timelimiting grounds in the former case and on spatial grounds in the latter. The fixation on bone is therefore more likely the result of non-specific adsorption processes. The utility of a radioactive substance in practical application in nuclear medicine depends on the radioactive characteristics of the nuclide and on its behavior in the organism. In this context the quality of the scintigram is particularly dependent on the mode and rate of elimination of that fraction of the tracer that is not bound by the skeleton. The various mechanism which cause differences in the uptake of tracer by healthy and pathological bone tissue are discussed with special regard to the role of blood flow. PMID:1012921

  15. Highlights lecture EANM 2015: the search for nuclear medicine's superheroes.

    PubMed

    Buck, Andreas; Decristoforo, Clemens

    2016-09-01

    The EANM 2015 Annual Congress, held from October 10th to 14th in Hamburg, Germany, was outstanding in many respects. With 5550 participants, this was by far the largest European congress concerning nuclear medicine. More than 1750 scientific presentations were submitted, with more than 250 abstracts from young scientists, indicating that the future success of our discipline is fuelled by a high number of young individuals becoming involved in a multitude of scientific activities. Significant improvements have been made in molecular imaging of cancer, particularly in prostate cancer. PSMA-directed PET/CT appears to become a new gold standard for staging and restaging purposes. Novel tumour specific compounds have shown their potential for target identification also in other solid neoplasms and further our understanding of tumour biology and heterogeneity. In addition, a variety of nuclear imaging techniques guiding surgical interventions have been introduced. A particular focus of the congress was put on targeted, radionuclide based therapies. Novel theranostic concepts addressing also tumour entities with high incidence rates such as prostate cancer, melanoma, and lymphoma, have shown effective anti-tumour activity. Strategies have been presented to improve further already established therapeutic regimens such as somatostatin receptor based radio receptor therapy for treating advanced neuroendocrine tumours. Significant contributions were presented also in the neurosciences track. An increasing number of target structures of high interest in neurology and psychiatry are now available for PET and SPECT imaging, facilitating specific imaging of different subtypes of dementia and movement disorders as well as neuroinflammation. Major contributions in the cardiovascular track focused on further optimization of cardiac perfusion imaging by reducing radiation exposure, reducing scanning time, and improving motion correction. Besides coronary artery disease, many

  16. Nuclear Medicine in the Philippines: A Glance at the Past, a Gaze at the Present, and a Glimpse of the Future.

    PubMed

    Bautista, Patricia A; Luis, Teofilo O L San

    2016-01-01

    While the introduction of radioactive tracers in the study of metabolic pathways has been well-documented in clinical thyroidology as early as 1924, the widespread utilization in other clinical specialties has been hampered by slow developments in radiation-detecting devices and in the production of appropriate radiopharmaceuticals, in addition to the morbid fear of radiation. In the Philippines, the first radioisotope laboratory was established in 1956. Ten years later, the Philippine Society of Nuclear Medicine was formed. Through the years, challenges were overcome, foundations were laid down, growth was encouraged, friendships with other organizations were built, adjustments were made, and rules were enforced. To date, there are approximately 58 nuclear medicine centers randomly distributed from north to south of the Philippines, 7 accredited nuclear medicine training institutions, 95 board-certified nuclear medicine physicians (a few of whom are also internationally recognized), and a regionally-indexed Philippine Journal of Nuclear Medicine. Qualifying examinations for technologists were also recently instated. International relations are constantly strengthened by sending trainees abroad and accepting foreign trainees here, as well as participating in conferences and other endeavors. While the cost of putting up nuclear medicine centers in the Philippines is still prohibitive, it should not pose too much of a constraint as there are foreign and local parties willing to help. With appropriate instrumentation, targeting radiopharmaceuticals and trained human resources, nuclear medicine can indeed contribute much to health care delivery. PMID:27408901

  17. Nuclear Medicine in the Philippines: A Glance at the Past, a Gaze at the Present, and a Glimpse of the Future

    PubMed Central

    Bautista, Patricia A.; Luis, Teofilo O.L. San

    2016-01-01

    While the introduction of radioactive tracers in the study of metabolic pathways has been well-documented in clinical thyroidology as early as 1924, the widespread utilization in other clinical specialties has been hampered by slow developments in radiation-detecting devices and in the production of appropriate radiopharmaceuticals, in addition to the morbid fear of radiation. In the Philippines, the first radioisotope laboratory was established in 1956. Ten years later, the Philippine Society of Nuclear Medicine was formed. Through the years, challenges were overcome, foundations were laid down, growth was encouraged, friendships with other organizations were built, adjustments were made, and rules were enforced. To date, there are approximately 58 nuclear medicine centers randomly distributed from north to south of the Philippines, 7 accredited nuclear medicine training institutions, 95 board-certified nuclear medicine physicians (a few of whom are also internationally recognized), and a regionally-indexed Philippine Journal of Nuclear Medicine. Qualifying examinations for technologists were also recently instated. International relations are constantly strengthened by sending trainees abroad and accepting foreign trainees here, as well as participating in conferences and other endeavors. While the cost of putting up nuclear medicine centers in the Philippines is still prohibitive, it should not pose too much of a constraint as there are foreign and local parties willing to help. With appropriate instrumentation, targeting radiopharmaceuticals and trained human resources, nuclear medicine can indeed contribute much to health care delivery. PMID:27408901

  18. Routine Quality Control of Clinical Nuclear Medicine Instrumentation: A Brief Review*

    PubMed Central

    Zanzonico, Pat

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews routine quality-control (QC) procedures for current nuclear medicine instrumentation, including the survey meter, dose calibrator, well counter, intraoperative probe, organ (“thyroid”) uptake probe, γ-camera, SPECT and SPECT/CT scanner, and PET and PET/CT scanner. It should be particularly useful for residents, fellows, and other trainees in nuclear medicine, nuclear cardiology, and radiology. The procedures described and their respective frequencies are presented only as general guidelines. PMID:18587088

  19. 42 CFR Appendix D to Part 75 - Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... for Nuclear Medicine Technologists D Appendix D to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...—Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists A. Sponsorship 1... of patient care; (b) Radiation safety and protection; (c) Nuclear medicine physics; (d)...

  20. 42 CFR Appendix D to Part 75 - Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... for Nuclear Medicine Technologists D Appendix D to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...—Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists A. Sponsorship 1... of patient care; (b) Radiation safety and protection; (c) Nuclear medicine physics; (d)...

  1. 42 CFR Appendix D to Part 75 - Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... for Nuclear Medicine Technologists D Appendix D to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...—Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists A. Sponsorship 1... of patient care; (b) Radiation safety and protection; (c) Nuclear medicine physics; (d)...

  2. 42 CFR Appendix D to Part 75 - Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... for Nuclear Medicine Technologists D Appendix D to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...—Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists A. Sponsorship 1... of patient care; (b) Radiation safety and protection; (c) Nuclear medicine physics; (d)...

  3. 42 CFR Appendix D to Part 75 - Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... for Nuclear Medicine Technologists D Appendix D to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE...—Standards for Accreditation of Educational Programs for Nuclear Medicine Technologists A. Sponsorship 1... of patient care; (b) Radiation safety and protection; (c) Nuclear medicine physics; (d)...

  4. Examining Quality Management Audits in Nuclear Medicine Practice as a lifelong learning process: opportunities and challenges to the nuclear medicine professional and beyond.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Thomas N B

    2016-08-01

    This essay will explore the critical issues and challenges surrounding lifelong learning for professionals, initially exploring within the profession and organizational context of nuclear medicine practice. It will critically examine how the peer-review process called Quality Management Audits in Nuclear Medicine Practice (QUANUM) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) can be considered a lifelong learning opportunity to instill a culture of quality to improve patient care and elevate the status of the nuclear medicine profession and practice within the demands of social changes, policy, and globalization. This will be explored initially by providing contextual background to the identity of the IAEA as an organization responsible for nuclear medicine professionals, followed by the benefits that QUANUM can offer. Further key debates surrounding lifelong learning, such as compulsification of lifelong learning and impact on professional change, will then be weaved through the discussion using theoretical grounding through a qualitative review of the literature. Keeping in mind that there is very limited literature focusing on the implications of QUANUM as a lifelong learning process for nuclear medicine professionals, this essay uses select narratives and observations of QUANUM as a lifelong learning process from an auditor's perspective and will further provide a comparative perspective of QUANUM on the basis of other lifelong learning opportunities such as continuing professional development activities and observe parallelisms on its benefits and challenges that it will offer to other professionals in other medical speciality fields and in the teaching profession. PMID:27195385

  5. IAEA programs in empowering the nuclear medicine profession through online educational resources.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Thomas Nb; Dondi, Maurizio; Paez, Diana; Kashyap, Ravi; Nunez-Miller, Rodolfo

    2013-05-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) programme in human health aims to enhance the capabilities in Member States to address needs related to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases through the application of nuclear techniques. It has the specific mission of fostering the application of nuclear medicine techniques as part of the clinical management of certain types of diseases. Attuned to the continuous evolution of this specialty as well as to the advancement and diversity of methods in delivering capacity building efforts in this digital age, the section of nuclear medicine of the IAEA has enhanced its program by incorporating online educational resources for nuclear medicine professionals into its repertoire of projects to further its commitment in addressing the needs of its Member States in the field of nuclear medicine. Through online educational resources such as the Human Health Campus website, e-learning modules, and scheduled interactive webinars, a validation of the commitment by the IAEA in addressing the needs of its Member States in the field of nuclear medicine is strengthened while utilizing the advanced internet and communications technology which is progressively becoming available worldwide. The Human Health Campus (www.humanhealth.iaea.org) is the online educational resources initiative of the Division of Human Health of the IAEA geared toward enhancing professional knowledge of health professionals in radiation medicine (nuclear medicine and diagnostic imaging, radiation oncology, and medical radiation physics), and nutrition. E-learning modules provide an interactive learning environment to its users while providing immediate feedback for each task accomplished. Webinars, unlike webcasts, offer the opportunity of enhanced interaction with the learners facilitated through slide shows where the presenter guides and engages the audience using video and live streaming. This paper explores the IAEA's available online

  6. Ethical dilemmas in today's nuclear medicine and radiology practice.

    PubMed

    Barron, Bruce J; Kim, E Edmund

    2003-11-01

    Throughout history, societies have developed their own codes of ethics, including those pertaining to the practice of medicine. In the United States, physicians have adopted a set of ethics based on religious values and historical teachings. We, as physicians, have been presented several codes of ethics, including the American Medical Association Code of Ethics and the American College of Radiology Code of Ethics. Over time, we have learned to appropriately apply these codes to our daily practice. With the advent of new technologies in imaging, we may lose sight as to the transfer of these principles to reflect current conditions. Recent history has shown a trend of new technology leading to potential misuse of this technology and further leading to stricter governmental regulations. It is the purpose of this review to give guidelines for dealing with new technologies, such as PET imaging, and we describe a radiologist's ethical responsibility in a doctor-patient relationship. A historical review of medical ethics will lead to discussions about various issues affecting radiologists and nuclear physicians. To be sure, not all ethical situations are black and white, and therefore there are many gray areas. The opinions expressed in this article are those of the authors and are based on extension of already established rules of ethical conduct. PMID:14602866

  7. Motion estimation for nuclear medicine: a probabilistic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Rhodri; Abd. Rahni, Ashrani Aizzuddin; Jones, John; Tahavori, Fatemeh; Wells, Kevin

    2014-03-01

    Accurate, Respiratory Motion Modelling of the abdominal-thoracic organs serves as a pre-requisite for motion correction of Nuclear Medicine (NM) Images. Many respiratory motion models to date build a static correspondence between a parametrized external surrogate signal and internal motion. Mean drifts in respiratory motion, changes in respiratory style and noise conditions of the external surrogate signal motivates a more adaptive approach to capture non-stationary behavior. To this effect we utilize the application of our novel Kalman model with an incorporated expectation maximization step to allow adaptive learning of model parameters with changing respiratory observations. A comparison is made with a popular total least squares (PCA) based approach. It is demonstrated that in the presence of noisy observations the Kalman framework outperforms the static PCA model, however, both methods correct for respiratory motion in the computational anthropomorphic phantom to < 2mm. Motion correction performed on 3 dynamic MRI patient datasets using the Kalman model results in correction of respiratory motion to ≍ 3mm.

  8. On the safety of persons accompanying nuclear medicine patients.

    PubMed

    Díaz Barreto, Marlenin; López Bejerano, Gladys M; Varela Corona, Consuelo; Fleitas Estévez, Ileana

    2012-12-01

    The presence of caretakers/comforters during nuclear medicine examinations is relatively common. These caretakers receive higher doses than the general public, who receive only environmental/background exposure. The aim of this research was to know about the doses received by two significant groups of caretakers: comforters of cancer patients (Group I) and mothers of small children (Group II). The patients were scheduled to undergo two different diagnostic studies: Inmuno-Scintigraphy using a monoclonal antibody bound to (99m)Tc (for adults) and Renal Scintigraphy using (99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (for children). The average effective doses were 0.27 and 0.29 mSv for Groups I and II, respectively. Additionally, environmental monitoring was performed in the waiting room for injected patients (Room I) and inside the procedure room (Room II). Equivalent environmental doses of 0.28 and 0.24 mSv for Rooms 1 and II, respectively, were found, which are similar to values reported by other authors. PMID:22517979

  9. High transparency coded apertures in planar nuclear medicine imaging.

    PubMed

    Starfield, David M; Rubin, David M; Marwala, Tshilidzi

    2007-01-01

    Coded apertures provide an alternative to the collimators of nuclear medicine imaging, and advances in the field have lessened the artifacts that are associated with the near-field geometry. Thickness of the aperture material, however, results in a decoded image with thickness artifacts, and constrains both image resolution and the available manufacturing techniques. Thus in theory, thin apertures are clearly desirable, but high transparency leads to a loss of contrast in the recorded data. Coupled with the quantization effects of detectors, this leads to significant noise in the decoded image. This noise must be dependent on the bit-depth of the gamma camera. If there are a sufficient number of measurable values, high transparency need not adversely affect the signal-to-noise ratio. This novel hypothesis is tested by means of a ray-tracing computer simulator. The simulation results presented in the paper show that replacing a highly opaque coded aperture with a highly transparent aperture, simulated with an 8-bit gamma camera, worsens the root-mean-square error measurement. However, when simulated with a 16-bit gamma camera, a highly transparent coded aperture significantly reduces both thickness artifacts and the root-mean-square error measurement. PMID:18002997

  10. Therapeutic radionuclides in nuclear medicine: current and future prospects

    PubMed Central

    Yeong, Chai-Hong; Cheng, Mu-hua; Ng, Kwan-Hoong

    2014-01-01

    The potential use of radionuclides in therapy has been recognized for many decades. A number of radionuclides, such as iodine-131 (131I), phosphorous-32 (32P), strontium-90 (90Sr), and yttrium-90 (90Y), have been used successfully for the treatment of many benign and malignant disorders. Recently, the rapid growth of this branch of nuclear medicine has been stimulated by the introduction of a number of new radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals for the treatment of metastatic bone pain and neuroendocrine and other malignant or non-malignant tumours. Today, the field of radionuclide therapy is enjoying an exciting phase and is poised for greater growth and development in the coming years. For example, in Asia, the high prevalence of thyroid and liver diseases has prompted many novel developments and clinical trials using targeted radionuclide therapy. This paper reviews the characteristics and clinical applications of the commonly available therapeutic radionuclides, as well as the problems and issues involved in translating novel radionuclides into clinical therapies. PMID:25294374

  11. Applying activity-based costing to the nuclear medicine unit.

    PubMed

    Suthummanon, Sakesun; Omachonu, Vincent K; Akcin, Mehmet

    2005-08-01

    Previous studies have shown the feasibility of using activity-based costing (ABC) in hospital environments. However, many of these studies discuss the general applications of ABC in health-care organizations. This research explores the potential application of ABC to the nuclear medicine unit (NMU) at a teaching hospital. The finding indicates that the current cost averages 236.11 US dollars for all procedures, which is quite different from the costs computed by using ABC. The difference is most significant with positron emission tomography scan, 463 US dollars (an increase of 96%), as well as bone scan and thyroid scan, 114 US dollars (a decrease of 52%). The result of ABC analysis demonstrates that the operational time (machine time and direct labour time) and the cost of drugs have the most influence on cost per procedure. Clearly, to reduce the cost per procedure for the NMU, the reduction in operational time and cost of drugs should be analysed. The result also indicates that ABC can be used to improve resource allocation and management. It can be an important aid in making management decisions, particularly for improving pricing practices by making costing more accurate. It also facilitates the identification of underutilized resources and related costs, leading to cost reduction. The ABC system will also help hospitals control costs, improve the quality and efficiency of the care they provide, and manage their resources better. PMID:16102243

  12. Preliminary investigations of active pixel sensors in Nuclear Medicine imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Robert; Evans, Noel; Evans, Phil; Osmond, J.; Clark, A.; Turchetta, R.

    2009-06-01

    Three CMOS active pixel sensors have been investigated for their application to Nuclear Medicine imaging. Startracker with 525×525 25 μm square pixels has been coupled via a fibre optic stud to a 2 mm thick segmented CsI(Tl) crystal. Imaging tests were performed using 99mTc sources, which emit 140 keV gamma rays. The system was interfaced to a PC via FPGA-based DAQ and optical link enabling imaging rates of 10 f/s. System noise was measured to be >100e and it was shown that the majority of this noise was fixed pattern in nature. The intrinsic spatial resolution was measured to be ˜80 μm and the system spatial resolution measured with a slit was ˜450 μm. The second sensor, On Pixel Intelligent CMOS (OPIC), had 64×72 40 μm pixels and was used to evaluate noise characteristics and to develop a method of differentiation between fixed pattern and statistical noise. The third sensor, Vanilla, had 520×520 25 μm pixels and a measured system noise of ˜25e. This sensor was coupled directly to the segmented phosphor. Imaging results show that even at this lower level of noise the signal from 140 keV gamma rays is small as the light from the phosphor is spread over a large number of pixels. Suggestions for the 'ideal' sensor are made.

  13. Portable gamma camera for clinical use in nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Pani, R.; Pellegrini, R.; Scopinaro, F.

    1996-12-31

    Up today Hamamatsu R3292 is the Position Sensitive Photo Multiplier Tube (PSPMT) with the largest sensitive area (10 cm of diameter). At the same time it has the minimum size for clinical application in Nuclear Medicine. A portable gamma camera was realized, based on 5 inches PSPMT coupled to a scintillating array. The head has a light weight (15 Kg.) spatial resolution resulted better than that of Anger Camera with good linearity response, good energy resolution and FOV coincident with intrinsic one of PSPMT. To optimize gamma camera response two different scintillating arrays were tested: YAP:Ce and CsI (Tl). Their overall size cover all photochatode active area, and crystal pixel size was 2 mm x 2 mm. The detection efficiency resulted comparable to that of Anger Camera. The best result was obtained by CsI (Tl) scintillating: an intrinsic spatial resolution of 1.6 mm FWHM and a relative energy resolution of 17% FWHM. With a standard general purpose collimator a spatial resolution of about 2 mm resulted. Some preliminary results were also obtained in breast scintigraphy.

  14. Proceedings of a workshop on molecular nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Reba, R.C.

    1992-12-31

    The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) of the Department of Energy (DOE) has increased the emphasis on research in structural biology and molecular biology. The Department has increased support substantially in the area of basic molecular and structural biology research. To exploit the advances in these fields, OHER has sought to apply those advances in their other areas of responsibility, e.g., health effects research, environmental biology, and, in particular, nuclear medicine. The applications of biotechnology have contributed greatly to the productive research efforts of molecular biology. These techniques include gene manipulation for targeted gene delivery; characterization of molecular probes for hormone, tumor, and neuroreceptors; the receptor-agonist/antagonist binding interactions; studies of mechanisms of cellular communication; and the development of in vitro diagnostics such as molecular probes for studying the aging process and patients with mental disorders, cancer, and atherosclerosis. The importance of this work is the reasonable expectation that mainly, through an appreciation of the molecular basis of disease, will the most effective and rapid progress be made toward understanding, identifying, solving, and preventing specific disease processes. Critical questions arising before and during the Workshop are how the following technologies can be applied in a practical clinical research or patient management setting: the recombinant DNA methodology, the technology of engineered monoclonal antibodies, the new methods for protein production and purification, and the production of transgenic animals.

  15. Status of and trends in nuclear medicine in the United States.

    PubMed

    Delbeke, Dominique; Segall, George M

    2011-12-01

    Nuclear medicine in the United States has grown because of advances in technology, including hybrid imaging, the introduction of new radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and therapy, and the development of molecular imaging based on the tracer principle, which is not based on radioisotopes. Continued growth of the field will require cost-effectiveness data and evidence that nuclear medicine procedures affect patients' outcomes. Nuclear medicine physicians and radiologists will need more training in anatomic and molecular imaging. New educational models are being developed to ensure that future physicians will be adequately prepared. PMID:22144551

  16. Nuclear medicine: proof of principle for targeted drugs in diagnosis and therapy.

    PubMed

    Leitha, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Delivering a drug to a specific target in the body is comparable to the "magic bullet principle" applied in Nuclear Medicine. If clinical medicine today found treatment options by targeting specific receptors, proteins or enzymes by "small-molecule drugs" it utilizes concepts that have been initially described by Nobel Laureate George von Hevesy as "tracer principle". This article is going to show that molecular imaging probes in Nuclear Medicine can be regarded as proof of principle of many of recent trends in diagnosis and therapy and offers exciting opportunities for further developments. Radioiodine therapy of benign and malignant thyroid disease has been established in Nuclear Medicine over six decades ago and is a fine example for using the same highly specific probe for diagnosis and treatment of a given disease. The use of radio labeled monoclonal antibodies against surface receptors of tumor cells (e.g. CEA) dominated diagnostic Nuclear Medicine in the eighties and sees a recent revival in lymphoma treatment radioimmunotherapy. Finally Nuclear Medicine has shown that it may advance drug development by visualizing its biodistribution and site of action. On the other hand some drugs like somatostatin analogues have been reinvented as diagnostic and therapeutic probes over a decade after their initial introduction as therapeutics. Molecular Imaging and targeted therapy are merging and potentiate their individual strength. Nuclear Medicine has ample experience in applying Molecular Imaging in clinical research and practice and has a bright future in this exciting field. PMID:19149611

  17. Radiation safety in the nuclear medicine department: impact of the UK Ionising Radiations Regulations.

    PubMed

    Harding, L K

    1987-09-01

    The practice of nuclear medicine requires integration of radiation safety with patient care and radiopharmaceutical standards. Nationally there was useful discussion in the UK before the Ionising Radiations Regulations and Approved Code of Practice were published, although such consultation had been lacking when the Medicines Act was implemented. Most of the new considerations relating to nuclear medicine stem from Schedule 6 of the Regulations. Generally, the presence of a single patient does not require a controlled area. However, when several patients are present, or radiopharmaceuticals are being prepared prior to injection, a controlled area is required. Classification of workers is not likely to be required in a typical nuclear medicine department in the UK, although most parts of the nuclear medicine department will need to be controlled areas. These include the radiopharmacy, radionuclide dispensary, injection room, and imaging rooms if patients are injected in them. The importance of finger dose measurements is emphasised. Patient wards, however, need not be controlled areas. A particular concern in nuclear medicine was that patients should not need to be admitted to hospital merely to comply with legislation. This is possibly the case and clarification will probably be available when the Notes for Guidance are published. Most procedures in nuclear medicine departments will remain unchanged. Further information is required, however, on patient waiting rooms, handling flood sources, pregnancy, and breast feeding. Within the hospital, detailed and multidisciplinary discussion will need to take place within the forum of the radiation safety committee. PMID:3664186

  18. The current status and future perspectives of nuclear medicine in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myung Chul; Oh, So Won; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Dong Soo

    2010-06-01

    Since the introduction of nuclear medicine in 1959, Korea accomplished a brilliant development in terms of both clinical practice and research activities, which was mainly due to the dedication of nuclear medicine specialists, consisting of physicians, technicians, and scientists, and strong support from the Korean Government. Now, Korea has 150 medical institutes, performing approximately 561,000 nuclear imaging procedures and 11.6 million in vitro studies in 2008, and ranked fourth in the number of presentations at the Annual Meeting of the Society of Nuclear Medicine (SNM) in 2008. The successful progress in this field has allowed Korea to focus on the international promotion of nuclear medicine, especially in the developing and underdeveloped countries. In consequence, the Asian Regional Cooperative Council for Nuclear Medicine (ARCCNM) was established in 2001, and Seoul hosted the 9th Congress of the World Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology (WFNMB) in 2006. In the future, Korea will strive to sustain its rate of advancement in the field and make every effort to share its progress and promote the exchange of scientific information at the international level. PMID:25013521

  19. Nuclear Medicine at Berkeley Lab: From Pioneering Beginnings to Today (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    ScienceCinema

    Budinger, Thomas [LBNL, Center for Functional Imaging

    2011-10-04

    Summer Lecture Series 2006: Thomas Budinger, head of Berkeley Lab's Center for Functional Imaging, discusses Berkeley Lab's rich history pioneering the field of nuclear medicine, from radioisotopes to medical imaging.

  20. Nuclear medicine annual external occupational dose distribution: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, year 2005.

    PubMed

    Mauricio, Claudia L P; Lima, Ana L S; da Silva, Herica L R; Souza-Santos, Denison; Silva, Claudio R

    2011-03-01

    Brazil has about 300 nuclear medicine services (NMS), 44 of them located in the state of Rio de Janeiro (RJ). Most nuclear medicine staff are routinely monitored for external dose. This paper makes a statistical analysis of all the RJ NMS annual external occupational doses in year 2005. Around 100 professionals of RJ NMS received annual doses >4.0 mSv, considering only external doses, but no one receives doses higher than the mean annual dose limit of 20 mSv. Extremities dosemeters are used by about 10 % of the staff. In some cases, these doses are more than 10 times higher than the dose in thorax. The maximum ratio of extremity dose/thorax dose, in 2005, was 72. This study shows the importance to improve radiation protection procedures in nuclear medicine, mainly because the number of occupational individuals in nuclear medicine and their external doses are increasing. PMID:21051433

  1. Radiation dose study in nuclear medicine using GATE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguwa, Kasarachi

    Dose as a result of radiation exposure is the notion generally used to disclose the imparted energy in a volume of tissue to a potential biological effect. The basic unit defined by the international system of units (SI system) is the radiation absorbed dose, which is expressed as the mean imparted energy in a mass element of the tissue known as "gray" (Gy) or J/kg. The procedure for ascertaining the absorbed dose is complicated since it involves the radiation transport of numerous types of charged particles and coupled photon interactions. The most precise method is to perform a full 3D Monte Carlo simulation of the radiation transport. There are various Monte Carlo toolkits that have tool compartments for dose calculations and measurements. The dose studies in this thesis were performed using the GEANT4 Application for Emission Tomography (GATE) software (Jan et al., 2011) GATE simulation toolkit has been used extensively in the medical imaging community, due to the fact that it uses the full capabilities of GEANT4. It also utilizes an easy to-learn GATE macro language, which is more accessible than learning the GEANT4/C++ programming language. This work combines GATE with digital phantoms generated using the NCAT (NURBS-based cardiac-torso phantom) toolkit (Segars et al., 2004) to allow efficient and effective estimation of 3D radiation dose maps. The GATE simulation tool has developed into a beneficial tool for Monte Carlo simulations involving both radiotherapy and imaging experiments. This work will present an overview of absorbed dose of common radionuclides used in nuclear medicine and serve as a guide to a user who is setting up a GATE simulation for a PET and SPECT study.

  2. Importance of Bladder Radioactivity for Radiation Safety in Nuclear Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Gültekin, Salih Sinan; Şahmaran, Turan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Most of the radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine are excreted via the urinary system. This study evaluated the importance of a reduction in bladder radioactivity for radiation safety. Methods: The study group of 135 patients underwent several organ scintigraphies [40/135; thyroid scintigraphy (TS), 30/135; whole body bone scintigraphy (WBS), 35/135; myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) and 30/135; renal scintigraphy (RS)] by a technologist within 1 month. In full and empty conditions, static bladder images and external dose rate measurements at 0.25, 0.50, 1, 1.5 and 2 m distances were obtained and decline ratios were calculated from these two data sets. Results: External radiation dose rates were highest in patients undergoing MPS. External dose rates at 0.25 m distance for TS, TKS, MPS and BS were measured to be 56, 106, 191 and 72 μSv h-1 for full bladder and 29, 55, 103 and 37 μSv h-1 for empty bladder, respectively. For TS, WBS, MPS and RS, respectively, average decline ratios were calculated to be 52%, 55%, 53% and 54% in the scintigraphic assessment and 49%, 51%, 49%, 50% and 50% in the assessment with Geiger counter. Conclusion: Decline in bladder radioactivity is important in terms of radiation safety. Patients should be encouraged for micturition after each scintigraphic test. Spending time together with radioactive patients at distances less than 1 m should be kept to a minimum where possible. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:24416625

  3. 4.8 Dose to Embryo and Foetuses in Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noßke, D.; Mattsson, S.; Johansson, L.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '4.8 Dose to Embryo and Foetuses in Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine' of the Chapter '4 Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy' with the contents:

  4. 42 CFR Appendix F to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy Technologists F Appendix F to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC..., App. F Appendix F to Part 75—Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists... licensed as Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, or Radiation Therapy Technologists. 2....

  5. 42 CFR Appendix F to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy Technologists F Appendix F to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC..., App. F Appendix F to Part 75—Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists... licensed as Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, or Radiation Therapy Technologists. 2....

  6. 42 CFR Appendix F to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy Technologists F Appendix F to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC..., App. F Appendix F to Part 75—Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists... licensed as Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, or Radiation Therapy Technologists. 2....

  7. 42 CFR Appendix F to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy Technologists F Appendix F to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC..., App. F Appendix F to Part 75—Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists... licensed as Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, or Radiation Therapy Technologists. 2....

  8. 42 CFR Appendix F to Part 75 - Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Medicine Technologists, and Radiation Therapy Technologists F Appendix F to Part 75 Public Health PUBLIC..., App. F Appendix F to Part 75—Standards for Licensing Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists... licensed as Radiographers, Nuclear Medicine Technologists, or Radiation Therapy Technologists. 2....

  9. Method for forming microspheres for encapsulation of nuclear waste

    DOEpatents

    Angelini, Peter; Caputo, Anthony J.; Hutchens, Richard E.; Lackey, Walter J.; Stinton, David P.

    1984-01-01

    Microspheres for nuclear waste storage are formed by gelling droplets containing the waste in a gelation fluid, transferring the gelled droplets to a furnace without the washing step previously used, and heating the unwashed gelled droplets in the furnace under temperature or humidity conditions that result in a substantially linear rate of removal of volatile components therefrom.

  10. Current research in nuclear medicine and molecular imaging in Italy: highlights of the 10th National Congress of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

    PubMed

    Cuocolo, A

    2011-06-01

    The 10th National Congress of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (AIMN) took place in Rimini on March 18-21, 2011 under the chairmanship of Professor Stefano Fanti. The program was of excellent quality and put a further step for the settlement of the standardized AIMN congress structure. A large industrial exhibition demonstrated the latest technological innovations and developments within the field. The congress was a great success with more than 1100 total participants and more than 360 abstracts received. Of these, 40 abstracts were accepted for oral and 285 for poster presentations. The original investigations presented were related to different areas of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, with particular focus on advances in instrumentation and data processing, progress in radiochemistry and pharmacy, novel diagnostics and therapeutics, and new insights in well established areas of clinical application, such as oncology, cardiology, neurology, psychiatry, endocrinology, paediatrics, and infection and inflammation. Noteworthy, several presentations at this congress, focusing on quantitative interpretation of the imaging data and on pragmatic endpoints, such as adverse outcomes, identified when nuclear medicine procedures achieved clinical effectiveness for patient care and patient management and further demonstrated that nuclear medicine plays a crucial role in the contemporary medical scenario. This highlights lecture is only a brief summary of the large amount of data presented and discussed, which can be found in much greater detail in the congress abstract book, published as volume 55, supplement 1 of the Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging in April 2011. PMID:21532541

  11. Recent progress in the application of extraction chromatography to radionuclide separations for nuclear medicine.

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, M. L.; Chemistry

    2004-01-01

    Numerous methods have been described for the separation and purification of radionuclides for application in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine, among them ion exchange, solvent extraction, and various forms of chromatography. Although extraction chromatography has previously been shown to provide a means of performing a number of separations of potential use in radionuclide generator systems, the application of the technique to generator development has thus far been limited. Recent work directed at improved methods for the determination of radionuclides in biological and environmental samples has led to the development of a series of novel extraction chromatographic resins exhibiting enhanced metal ion retention from strongly acidic media and excellent selectivity, among them materials suitable for the isolation of {sup 212}Bi, {sup 90}Y, and {sup 213}Bi. These resins, along with extraction chromatographic materials employing functionalized supports to improve their physical stability or metal ion retention properties, are shown to offer promise in the development of improved radionuclide generators.

  12. Radiological Justification for and Optimization of Nuclear Medicine Practices in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung Il

    2016-02-01

    Nuclear medicine is a rapidly growing discipline that employs advanced novel hybrid techniques that provide unique anatomical and functional information, as well as targets for molecular therapy. Concomitantly, there has been an increase in the attention paid to medical radiation exposure. A radiological justification for the practice of nuclear medicine has been implemented mainly through referral guidelines based on research results such as prospective randomized clinical trials. The International Commission on Radiological Protection recommends diagnostic reference levels as a practical mechanism to optimize medical radiation exposure in order to be commensurate with the medical purpose. The Korean Society of Nuclear Medicine has been implementing radiological optimization through a survey of the protocols on how each hospital determines the dose of administration of each radiopharmaceutical. In the case of nuclear medicine, radiation exposure of caregivers and comforters of patients discharged after administration of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals can occur; therefore, optimization has been implemented through written instructions for patients, based on international recommendations. The development of patient-radiation-dose monitoring software, and a national registry and management system of patient-radiation-dose is needed to implement radiological optimization through diagnostic reference levels. This management system must work in agreement with the "Institute for Quality Management of Nuclear Medicine", and must take into account the medical reality of Korea, such as low medicine fee, in order to implement reasonable radiological justification and optimization. PMID:26908990

  13. Current Status of Nuclear Medicine Practice in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Paez, Diana; Becic, Tarik; Bhonsle, Uday; Jalilian, Amir R; Nuñez-Miller, Rodolfo; Osso, Joao Alberto

    2016-07-01

    The practice of nuclear medicine (NM) in the Middle East region has experienced an important growth in the last 2 decades and has become crucial in providing healthcare to the region's population of about 395 million people. Even though there are some countries in which the services provided are limited to basic coverage of studies with (99m)Tc and (131)I, most have well-established practices covering most of the available studies in this medical specialty; this is the case in for example, Iran, Israel, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey. According to data provided by the NM professionals in the 17 countries included in the present publication, which was collected by the International Atomic Energy Agency in 2015, the total number of gamma cameras in the region is 910 with an average of 2.3 gamma cameras per million inhabitants. Out of these, 107 cameras, or 12%, are SPECT/CT cameras. There are 194 operating PET/CT scanners, translating to one PET/CT scanner for 2.04 million people on average. The availability of PET/CT scanners in relation to population is the highest in Lebanon and Kuwait, with 2.2 and 1.7 scanners per million people, respectively. There is a total of 628 NM centers in the 17 countries, whereas most NM centers belong to the public healthcare system and in most of the countries are widely spread and not confined exclusively to capital cities. As for the radionuclide therapies, (131)I is used regularly in diagnostic workup as well as in therapeutic applications in all the countries included in this analysis. Only five countries have the capability of assembling (99)Mo-(99m)Tc generators (Egypt, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Israel, and Turkey), and cold kits are produced in several countries. Although there are no capabilities in the region to produce (99)Mo from nuclear reactors, a total of 46 cyclotrons are operated for production of PET radionuclides. The most widely used PET tracer in the region is (18)F-FDG followed by (18)F-NaF; concomitantly, the

  14. Highlights of the Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine, Istanbul, 2005: The incremental value of nuclear medicine for patient management and care.

    PubMed

    Cuocolo, Alberto; Acampa, Wanda; Varrone, Andrea; Salvatore, Marco

    2006-03-01

    The 2005 Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) took place in Istanbul on October 15-19, under the chairmanship of Professor Hatice Durak. The programme was of excellent quality and represented a further step towards the achievement of a standardized EANM congress structure. A large industrial exhibition demonstrated the latest technological innovations and developments within the field. The congress was a great success: there were more than 4,000 participants, and 1,670 abstracts were received. Of these, 1,399 were accepted for oral or poster presentations, with a rejection rate of 16.2%. The original investigations presented were related to different areas of nuclear medicine, and addressed particularly advances in instrumentation and data processing, progress in radiochemistry and pharmacy, novel diagnostics and therapeutics, and new insights in well-established areas of clinical application, such as oncology, cardiology, neurology, psychiatry, endocrinology, paediatrics, nephrology, and infection and inflammation. It is noteworthy that a number of studies presented at this congress focussed on the quantitative interpretation of the imaging data and on pragmatic endpoints, such as adverse outcomes, and identified when nuclear medicine procedures achieved clinical effectiveness for patient care and management. These and many other studies presented at the congress demonstrate once more the crucial role that nuclear medicine has to play in contemporary medicine. This highlights lecture is only a brief summary of the large amount of data presented and discussed, which can be found in much greater detail in the congress proceedings book, published as volume 32, supplement 1 of the Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging in September 2005. PMID:16538466

  15. Internal dosimetry of nuclear medicine workers through the analysis of (131)I in aerosols.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Luana Gomes; de Lucena, Eder Augusto; Sampaio, Camilla da Silva; Dantas, Ana Letícia Almeida; Sousa, Wanderson Oliveira; Santos, Maristela Souza; Dantas, Bernardo Maranhão

    2015-06-01

    (131)I is widely used in nuclear medicine for diagnostic and therapy of thyroid diseases. Depending of workplace safety conditions, routine handling of this radionuclide may result in a significant risk of exposure of the workers subject to chronic intake by inhalation of aerosols. A previous study including in vivo and in vitro measurements performed recently among nuclear medicine personnel in Brazil showed the occurrence of (131)I incorporation by workers involved in the handling of solutions used for radioiodine therapy. The present work describes the development, optimization and application of a methodology to collect and analyze aerosol samples aiming to assess internal doses based on the activity of (131)I present in a radiopharmacy laboratory. Portable samplers were positioned at one meter distant from the place where non-sealed liquid sources of (131)I are handled. Samples were collected over 1h using high-efficiency filters containing activated carbon and analyzed by gamma spectrometry with a high-purity germanium detection system. Results have shown that, although a fume hood is available in the laboratory, (131)I in the form of vapor was detected in the workplace. The average activity concentration was found to be of 7.4Bq/m(3). This value is about three orders of magnitude below the Derived Air Concentration (DAC) of 8.4kBq/m(3). Assuming that the worker is exposed by inhalation of iodine vapor during 1h, (131)I concentration detected corresponds to an intake of 3.6Bq which results in a committed effective dose of 7.13×10(-5)mSv. These results show that the radiopharmacy laboratory evaluated is safe in terms of internal exposure of the workers. However it is recommended that the presence of (131)I should be periodically re-assessed since it may increase individual effective doses. It should also be pointed out that the results obtained so far reflect a survey carried out in a specific workplace. Thus, it is suggested to apply the methodology

  16. Radiological Justification for and Optimization of Nuclear Medicine Practices in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is a rapidly growing discipline that employs advanced novel hybrid techniques that provide unique anatomical and functional information, as well as targets for molecular therapy. Concomitantly, there has been an increase in the attention paid to medical radiation exposure. A radiological justification for the practice of nuclear medicine has been implemented mainly through referral guidelines based on research results such as prospective randomized clinical trials. The International Commission on Radiological Protection recommends diagnostic reference levels as a practical mechanism to optimize medical radiation exposure in order to be commensurate with the medical purpose. The Korean Society of Nuclear Medicine has been implementing radiological optimization through a survey of the protocols on how each hospital determines the dose of administration of each radiopharmaceutical. In the case of nuclear medicine, radiation exposure of caregivers and comforters of patients discharged after administration of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals can occur; therefore, optimization has been implemented through written instructions for patients, based on international recommendations. The development of patient-radiation-dose monitoring software, and a national registry and management system of patient-radiation-dose is needed to implement radiological optimization through diagnostic reference levels. This management system must work in agreement with the “Institute for Quality Management of Nuclear Medicine”, and must take into account the medical reality of Korea, such as low medicine fee, in order to implement reasonable radiological justification and optimization. PMID:26908990

  17. Radiation and transmutation effects relevant to solid nuclear waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, E.R.; Roy, R.; Pillay, K.K.S.

    1981-03-15

    Radiation effects in insulating solids are discussed in a general way as an introduction to the quite sparse published work on radiation effects in candidate nuclear waste forms other than glasses. Likely effects of transmutation in crystals and the chemical mitigation strategy are discussed. It seems probable that radiation effects in solidified HLW will not be serious if the actinides can be wholly incorporated in such radiation-resistant phases as monazite or uraninite.

  18. [A questionnaire about radiation safety management of the draining-water system at nuclear medicine facilities].

    PubMed

    Shizukuishi, Kazuya; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Narita, Hiroto; Kanaya, Shinichi; Kobayashi, Kazumi; Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Tsukada, Masaru; Iwanaga, Tetsuo; Ikebuchi, Shuji; Kusama, Keiji; Tanaka, Mamoru; Namiki, Norio; Fuiimura, Youko; Horikoshi, Akiko; Inoue, Tomio; Kusakabe, Kiyoko

    2004-05-01

    We conducted a questionnaire survey about radiation-safety management condition in Japanese nuclear medicine facilities to make materials of proposition for more reasonable management of medical radioactive waste. We distributed a questionnaire to institutions equipped with Nuclear Medicine facilities. Of 1,125 institutions, 642 institutes (52.8%) returned effective answers. The questionnaire covered the following areas: 1) scale of an institution, 2) presence of enforcement of radiotherapy, 3) system of a tank, 4) size and number of each tank, 5) a form of draining-water system, 6) a displacement in a radioactive rays management area, 7) a measurement method of the concentration of medical radioactive waste in draining water system, 8) planned and used quantity of radioisotopes for medical examination and treatment, 9) an average displacement of hospital for one month. In most institutions, a ratio of dose limitation of radioisotope in draining-water system was less than 1.0, defined as an upper limitation in ordinance. In 499 hospitals without facilities of hospitalization for unsealed radioisotope therapy, 473 hospitals reported that sum of ratios of dose limits in a draining-water system was less than 1.0. It was calculated by used dose of radioisotope and monthly displacement from hospital, on the premise that all used radioisotope entered in the general draining-water system. When a drainage including radioactivity from a controlled area join with that from other area before it flows out of a institution, it may be diluted and its radioactive concentration should be less than its upper limitation defined in the rule. Especially, in all institutions with a monthly displacement of more than 25,000 m3, the sum of ratio of the concentration of each radionuclide to the concentration limit dose calculated by used dose of radioisotope, indicated less than 1.0. PMID:15354724

  19. Proceedings of the DOE workshop on the role of a high-current accelerator in the future of nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, D.C.; Peterson, E.J.

    1989-05-01

    The meeting was prompted by recent problems with isotope availability from DOE accelerator facilities; these difficulties have resulted from conflicting priorities between physics experiments and isotope production activities. The workshop was a forum in which the nuclear medicine community, isotope producers, industry, and other interested groups could discuss issues associated with isotope availability (including continuous supply options), the role of DOE and industry in isotope production, and the importance of research isotopes to the future of nuclear medicine. The workshop participants endorsed DOE's presence in supplying radioisotopes for research purposes and recommended that DOE should immediately provide additional support for radionuclide production in the form of personnel and supplies, DOE should establish a policy that would allow income from sales of future ''routine'' radionuclide production to be used to support technicians, DOE should obtain a 70-MeV, 500-/mu/A variable-energy proton accelerator as soon as possible, and DOE should also immediately solicit proposals to evaluate the usefulness of a new or upgraded high-energy, high-current machine for production of research radionuclides. This proceedings volume is a summary of workshop sessions that explored the future radionuclide needs of the nuclear medicine community and discussed the DOE production capabilities that would be required to meet these needs.

  20. Quality Assessment of Research Articles in Nuclear Medicine Using STARD and QUADAS-2 Tools

    PubMed Central

    Roysri, Krisana; Chotipanich, Chanisa; Laopaiboon, Vallop; Khiewyoo, Jiraporn

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Diagnostic nuclear medicine is being increasingly employed in clinical practice with the advent of new technologies and radiopharmaceuticals. The report of the prevalence of a certain disease is important for assessing the quality of that article. Therefore, this study was performed to evaluate the quality of published nuclear medicine articles and determine the frequency of reporting the prevalence of studied diseases. Methods: We used Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD) and Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2) checklists for evaluating the quality of articles published in five nuclear medicine journals with the highest impact factors in 2012. The articles were retrieved from Scopus database and were selected and assessed independently by two nuclear medicine physicians. Decision concerning equivocal data was made by consensus between the reviewers. Results: The average STARD score was approximately 17 points, and the highest score was 17.19±2.38 obtained by the European Journal of Nuclear Medicine. QUADAS-2 tool showed that all journals had low bias regarding study population. The Journal of Nuclear Medicine had the highest score in terms of index test, reference standard, and time interval. Lack of clarity regarding the index test, reference standard, and time interval was frequently observed in all journals including Clinical Nuclear Medicine, in which 64% of the studies were unclear regarding the index test. Journal of Nuclear Cardiology had the highest number of articles with appropriate reference standard (83.3%), though it had the lowest frequency of reporting disease prevalence (zero reports). All five journals had the same STARD score, while index test, reference standard, and time interval were very unclear according to QUADAS-2 tool. Unfortunately, data were too limited to determine which journal had the lowest risk of bias. In fact, it is the author's responsibility to provide details of

  1. Monitoring of radiation dose rates around a clinical nuclear medicine site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Chia-Ho; Lu, Cheng-Chang; Chen, Tou-Rong; Weng, Jui-Hung; Kao, Pan-Fu; Dong, Shang-Lung; Chou, Ming-Jen

    2014-11-01

    The monitoring of radiation dose around the nuclear medicine site is an important study issue. In this study, TLD-100H radiation dosimeters were used to measure the ambient radiation dose rates around a clinical nuclear medicine site in order to investigate the latent hot zones of radiation exposure. Results of this study showed that the radiation doses measured from all piping and storage systems were comparable to the background dose. A relatively high dose was observed at the single bend point of waste water piping of the PET/CT. Another important finding was the unexpected high dose rates observed at the non-restricted waiting area (NRWA) of SPECT. To conclude, this study provides useful information for further determination of an appropriate dose reduction strategy to achieve the ALARA principle in a clinical nuclear medicine site.

  2. Management of the pediatric nuclear medicine patient (or children are not small adults)

    SciTech Connect

    Kieffer, C.T.; Suto, P.A.

    1983-03-01

    The first of a four-part continuing education series on pediatric nuclear medicine is presented. Included are: (1) clinical indications for performing nuclear medicine studies in children; (2) comparison of nuclear medicine procedures for adult and pedicatric patients; (3) appropriate radiopharmaceuticals for performing pediatric studies; (4) radiation protection techniques (5) the principles of pediatric radiopharmaceutical dose calculation and common calculation methods; (6) possible injection sites and administration methods (7) radiopharmaceutical clearance times and imaging times in adults and children; (8) the collimators of choice for most procedures performed in children; (9) certain behaviors exhibited by children according to their stage of emotional development and children's response to the hospital setting; and (10) patient immobilization techniques and advantages of physical restraint over sedation. (JMT)

  3. In vivo mutagenicity and clastogenicity of ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, K.T.

    1991-01-01

    The overall goal of our research remains to investigate the mutagenic and clastogenic effects of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation to human lymphocytes. Principally, we are studying hospital patients referred to a nuclear medicine department for diagnostic cardiac imaging and nuclear medicine technologies who administer radionuclides. Emphasis in the first year, as described in the first progress report, was on optimization of the hprt mutation assay, measurement of mutant frequencies in patients imaged with thallium-201, and measurement of mutant frequencies in controls. Emphasis in the second year has been on measurements of (1) chromosome aberrations in patients imaged with thallium-201, (2) mutant frequencies in patients imaged with technetium-99, (3) mutant frequencies in nuclear medicine technicians and physical therapists, (4) mutant frequencies in patients treated for Hodgkins disease with radiotherapy. The progress in these areas is described.

  4. In vivo mutagenicity and clastogenicity of ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine. Annual technical progress report, [1991

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, K.T.

    1991-12-31

    The overall goal of our research remains to investigate the mutagenic and clastogenic effects of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation to human lymphocytes. Principally, we are studying hospital patients referred to a nuclear medicine department for diagnostic cardiac imaging and nuclear medicine technologies who administer radionuclides. Emphasis in the first year, as described in the first progress report, was on optimization of the hprt mutation assay, measurement of mutant frequencies in patients imaged with thallium-201, and measurement of mutant frequencies in controls. Emphasis in the second year has been on measurements of (1) chromosome aberrations in patients imaged with thallium-201, (2) mutant frequencies in patients imaged with technetium-99, (3) mutant frequencies in nuclear medicine technicians and physical therapists, (4) mutant frequencies in patients treated for Hodgkins disease with radiotherapy. The progress in these areas is described.

  5. Neutron interaction tool, PyNIC, for advanced applications in nuclear power, nuclear medicine, and nuclear security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffitt, Gregory Bruce

    A neutron interaction simulation tool, PyNIC, was developed for the calculation of neutron activation products and prompt gamma ray emission from neutron capture, neutron inelastic scattering, and fission interactions. This tool was developed in Python with a graphical user interface to facilitate its easy applications. The tool was validated for neutron activation analysis of a number of samples irradiated in the University of Utah TRIGA Reactor. These samples included nickel wire and the NIST standard for coal fly ash. The experimentally determined isotopes for coal fly ash were 56Mn, 40K, and 139Ba. The samples were irradiated at reactor power levels from 1 kW to 90 kW, and the average percent difference between PyNIC estimated and laboratory measured values was 4%, 24%, 38%, and 22% for 64Ni, 56Mn, 40K, and 139Ba, respectively. These differences are mainly attributed to calibration of the high-purity germanium detector and too short of count times. The PyNIC tool is applicable to neutron activation analysis but also can find its applications in nuclear power, nuclear medicine, and in homeland security such as predicting the contents of explosives and special nuclear materials in samples of complex and unknown origins.

  6. Assessment of radiation safety awareness among nuclear medicine nurses: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunus, N. A.; Abdullah, M. H. R. O.; Said, M. A.; Ch'ng, P. E.

    2014-11-01

    All nuclear medicine nurses need to have some knowledge and awareness on radiation safety. At present, there is no study to address this issue in Malaysia. The aims of this study were (1) to determine the level of knowledge and awareness on radiation safety among nuclear medicine nurses at Putrajaya Hospital in Malaysia and (2) to assess the effectiveness of a training program provided by the hospital to increase the knowledge and awareness of the nuclear medicine nurses. A total of 27 respondents attending a training program on radiation safety were asked to complete a questionnaire. The questionnaire consists 16 items and were categorized into two main areas, namely general radiation knowledge and radiation safety. Survey data were collected before and after the training and were analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired sample t-test. Respondents were scored out of a total of 16 marks with 8 marks for each area. The findings showed that the range of total scores obtained by the nuclear medicine nurses before and after the training were 6-14 (with a mean score of 11.19) and 13-16 marks (with a mean score of 14.85), respectively. Findings also revealed that the mean score for the area of general radiation knowledge (7.59) was higher than that of the radiation safety (7.26). Currently, the knowledge and awareness on radiation safety among the nuclear medicine nurses are at the moderate level. It is recommended that a national study be conducted to assess and increase the level of knowledge and awareness among all nuclear medicine nurses in Malaysia.

  7. Nuclear medicine dose equivalent a method for determination of radiation risk

    SciTech Connect

    Huda, W.

    1986-12-01

    Conventional nuclear medicine dosimetry involves specifying individual organ doses. The difficulties that can arise with this approach to radiation dosimetry are discussed. An alternative scheme is described that is based on the ICRP effective dose equivalent, H/sub E/, and which is a direct estimate of the average radiation risk to the patient. The mean value of H/sub E/ for seven common /sup 99m/Tc nuclear medicine procedures is 0.46 rem and the average radiation risk from this level of exposure is estimated to be comparable to the risk from smoking approx. 28 packs of cigarettes or driving approx. 1300 miles.

  8. Sources and magnitude of occupational and public exposures from nuclear medicine procedures

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-11

    This Report addresses the sources of exposures incurred in the practice of nuclear medicine and provides the necessary data to evaluate the magnitude of exposures to those directly associated with that practice and to those who provide nursing care to the patients containing radiopharmaceuticals. Exposure to members of the public are also addressed. The primary emphasis of this Report is on these individuals and not on the patient, since the patient receives the direct benefit from the nuclear medicine procedure. It is recognized that the patient also receives the bulk of any potential radiation decrement.

  9. EC Project 'GUIDELINES ON MPE': proposed qualification and curriculum frameworks and the MPE in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruana, C. J.

    2011-09-01

    The objectives of EC project 'Guidelines on Medical Physics Expert' are to provide for improved implementation of the provisions relating to the Medical Physics Expert within Council Directive 97/43/EURATOM and the proposed recast Basic Safety Standards directive. This includes harmonisation of the mission statement for Medical Physics Services as well as the education and training of the MPE. It also includes detailed knowledge-skills-competence inventories for the Medical Physics Expert in each of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy. This paper presents the proposed Qualification and Curriculum Frameworks and their application to the Medical Physics Expert in Nuclear Medicine.

  10. Internal radiation therapy: a neglected aspect of nuclear medicine in the molecular era

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yansong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract With increasing evidence, internal radiation therapy, also known as brachytherapy, has become a neglected aspect of nuclear medicine in the molecular era. In this paper, recent developments regarding internal radiation therapy, including developments in radioiodine-131 (131I) and thyroid, radioimmunotherapy (RIT) for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), and radiopharmaceuticals for bone metastases. Relevant differences and status of their applications in China were mentioned as well. These molecular mediated internal radiation therapies are gaining increasing importance by providing palliative and curative treatments for an increasing number of diseases and becoming one of the important parts of molecular nuclear medicine. PMID:26445567

  11. Tracking patient radiation exposure: challenges to integrating nuclear medicine with other modalities.

    PubMed

    Mercuri, Mathew; Rehani, Madan M; Einstein, Andrew J

    2012-10-01

    The cumulative radiation exposure to the patient from multiple radiological procedures can place some individuals at significantly increased risk for stochastic effects and tissue reactions. Approaches, such as those in the International Atomic Energy Agency's Smart Card program, have been developed to track cumulative radiation exposures to individuals. These strategies often rely on the availability of structured dose reports, typically found in the DICOM header. Dosimetry information is currently readily available for many individual x-ray-based procedures. Nuclear medicine, of which nuclear cardiology constitutes the majority of the radiation burden in the US, currently lags behind x-ray-based procedures with respect to reporting of radiation dosimetric information. This article discusses qualitative differences between nuclear medicine and x-ray-based procedures, including differences in the radiation source and measurement of its strength, the impact of biokinetics on dosimetry, and the capability of current scanners to record dosimetry information. These differences create challenges in applying, monitoring, and reporting strategies used in x-ray-based procedures to nuclear medicine, and integrating dosimetry information across modalities. A concerted effort by the medical imaging community, dosimetry specialists, and manufacturers of imaging equipment is required to develop strategies to improve the reporting of radiation dosimetry data in nuclear medicine. Some ideas on how to address this issue are suggested. PMID:22695788

  12. NUCLEAR STAR-FORMING RING OF THE MILKY WAY: SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sungsoo S.; Jeon, Myoungwon; Saitoh, Takayuki R.; Figer, Donald F.; Merritt, David; Wada, Keiichi

    2011-07-01

    We present hydrodynamic simulations of gas clouds in the central kpc region of the Milky Way that is modeled with a three-dimensional bar potential. Our simulations consider realistic gas cooling and heating, star formation, and supernova feedback. A ring of dense gas clouds forms as a result of X{sub 1}-X{sub 2} orbit transfer, and our potential model results in a ring radius of {approx}200 pc, which coincides with the extraordinary reservoir of dense molecular clouds in the inner bulge, the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ). The gas clouds accumulated in the CMZ can reach high enough densities to form stars, and with an appropriate choice of simulation parameters, we successfully reproduce the observed gas mass and the star formation rate (SFR) in the CMZ, {approx}2 x 10{sup 7} M{sub sun} and {approx}0.1 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. Star formation in our simulations takes place mostly in the outermost X{sub 2} orbits, and the SFR per unit surface area outside the CMZ is much lower. These facts suggest that the inner Galactic bulge may harbor a mild version of the nuclear star-forming rings seen in some external disk galaxies. Furthermore, from the relatively small size of the Milky Way's nuclear bulge, which is thought to be a result of sustained star formation in the CMZ, we infer that the Galactic inner bulge probably had a shallower density profile or stronger bar elongation in the past.

  13. [The way for carrying medicine and its containers (XI): "dosage form of patent medicine in the Edo Period"].

    PubMed

    Hattori, A

    1993-01-01

    In the Edo period, there was a prescribed medicine and a patent one. The former was liquid preparation to be decocted and the latter was solid one. It took a lot of time to prepare a decoction medicine and it was troublesome work. A scene where a person was preparing a decoction medicine in a tumble-down house for a patient was often described in literature of the Edo period to express that they have a serious patent by a novelist. On the other hand, a solid preparation was handy to carry it and convenient for taking so that it was accepted by customers. PMID:11639717

  14. The IAEA technical cooperation programme and nuclear medicine in the developing world: objectives, trends, and contributions.

    PubMed

    Casas-Zamora, Juan Antonio; Kashyap, Ridhi

    2013-05-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's technical cooperation (TC) programme helps Member States in the developing world with limited infrastructure and human resource capacity to harness the potential of nuclear technologies in meeting socioeconomic development challenges. As a part of its human health TC initiatives, the Agency, through the TC mechanism, has the unique role of promoting nuclear medicine applications of fellowships, scientific visits, and training courses, via technology procurement, and in the past decade has contributed nearly $54 million through 180 projects in supporting technology procurement and human resource capacity development among Member States from the developing world (low- and middle-income countries). There has been a growing demand in nuclear medicine TC, particularly in Africa and ex-Soviet Union States where limited infrastructure presently exists, based on cancer and cardiovascular disease management projects. African Member States received the greatest allocation of TC funds in the past 10 years dedicated to building new or rehabilitating obsolete nuclear medicine infrastructure through procurement support of single-photon emission computed tomography machines. Agency support in Asia and Latin America has emphasized human resource capacity building, as Member States in these regions have already acquired positron emission tomography and hybrid modalities (positron emission tomography/computed tomography and single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography) in their health systems. The strengthening of national nuclear medicine capacities among Member States across different regions has enabled stronger regional cooperation among developing countries who through the Agency's support and within the framework of regional cooperative agreements are sharing expertise and fostering the sustainability and productive integration of nuclear medicine within their health systems. PMID:23561454

  15. Is hybridic positron emission tomography/computerized tomography the only option? The future of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging.

    PubMed

    Grammaticos, Philip; Zerva, Cherry; Asteriadis, Ioannis; Trontzos, Christos; Hatziioannou, Kostas

    2007-01-01

    As we all know, Nuclear Medicine is the medical science using nuclear radiation for diagnosis, treatment and research. Nuclear Medicine, in contrast to Radiology, makes use of unsealed sources of radiation. Nuclear Medicine a few years ago has partly offered Nuclear Cardiology, the most lucrative of all Nuclear Medicine "children" at that time, to Cardiology. Radiology, has succeeded in being recognized by the European Union Authorities as Clinical Radiology. The word "clinical" offers greater independence to Clinical Radiology and makes it difficult for such a specialty to relinquish any of its equipment i.e. the diagnostic CT scan or the newly developed fast angiography CT, to other specialties. Contrary to Clinical Radiology, Nuclear Medicine being a laboratory specialty in most countries seems to have no right to deny offering, after some period of "proper certified education", its PET camera to Clinical Radiologists. Nuclear Medicine by virtue of its unique diagnostic techniques and treatments, is and should be recognized as a "Clinical Specialty" The interference of other specialties in the fields of Nuclear Medicine is also indicated by the fact that in vitro techniques of Nuclear Medicine are often used by Endocrinologists and Oncologists in their own laboratories. Also in some hospitals the Director of the Radiology Department acts as the Director of Nuclear Medicine Laboratory. Finally at present, Radiologists wish after "proper certified education", to be on equal terms in charge of the new hybridic equipment, the PET/CT scanner. If that is followed to happen, Nuclear Medicine will be in a difficult position losing at least part of PET and consequently should ask for help from its "Overlords and Protectors" i.e. the National and the European Societies of Nuclear Medicine and the Society of Nuclear Medicine of the United States of America. Radiology as a specialty participating om equal terms with the PET camera will then include the study of: a) "open

  16. Solid Tumor-Targeting Theranostic Polymer Nanoparticle in Nuclear Medicinal Fields

    PubMed Central

    Makino, Akira; Kimura, Shunsaku

    2014-01-01

    Polymer nanoparticles can be prepared by self-assembling of amphiphilic polymers, and various types of molecular assemblies have been reported. In particular, in medicinal fields, utilization of these polymer nanoparticles as carriers for drug delivery system (DDS) has been actively tried, and some nanoparticulate drugs are currently under preclinical evaluations. A radionuclide is an unstable nucleus and decays with emission of radioactive rays, which can be utilized as a tracer in the diagnostic imaging systems of PET and SPECT and also in therapeutic purposes. Since polymer nanoparticles can encapsulate most of diagnostic and therapeutic agents with a proper design of amphiphilic polymers, they should be effective DDS carriers of radionuclides in the nuclear medicinal field. Indeed, nanoparticles have been recently attracting much attention as common platform carriers for diagnostic and therapeutic drugs and contribute to the development of nanotheranostics. In this paper, recent developments of solid tumor-targeting polymer nanoparticles in nuclear medicinal fields are reviewed. PMID:25379530

  17. Solid tumor-targeting theranostic polymer nanoparticle in nuclear medicinal fields.

    PubMed

    Makino, Akira; Kimura, Shunsaku

    2014-01-01

    Polymer nanoparticles can be prepared by self-assembling of amphiphilic polymers, and various types of molecular assemblies have been reported. In particular, in medicinal fields, utilization of these polymer nanoparticles as carriers for drug delivery system (DDS) has been actively tried, and some nanoparticulate drugs are currently under preclinical evaluations. A radionuclide is an unstable nucleus and decays with emission of radioactive rays, which can be utilized as a tracer in the diagnostic imaging systems of PET and SPECT and also in therapeutic purposes. Since polymer nanoparticles can encapsulate most of diagnostic and therapeutic agents with a proper design of amphiphilic polymers, they should be effective DDS carriers of radionuclides in the nuclear medicinal field. Indeed, nanoparticles have been recently attracting much attention as common platform carriers for diagnostic and therapeutic drugs and contribute to the development of nanotheranostics. In this paper, recent developments of solid tumor-targeting polymer nanoparticles in nuclear medicinal fields are reviewed. PMID:25379530

  18. Recommendations for quality assurance programs in nuclear medicine facilities. Radiation recommendations series

    SciTech Connect

    Segal, P.; Hamilton, D.R.

    1984-10-01

    The publication provides the elements that should be considered by nuclear medicine facilities to improve their existing programs or develop new quality assurance programs. The important administrative aspects of quality assurance programs are stressed. Each facility is encouraged to adopt those elements of the recommended program that are appropriate to its individual needs and resources.

  19. Nuclear medicine and imaging research (instrumentation and quantitative methods of evaluation)

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, R.N.; Cooper, M.; Chen, C.T.

    1992-07-01

    This document is the annual progress report for project entitled 'Instrumentation and Quantitative Methods of Evaluation.' Progress is reported in separate sections individually abstracted and indexed for the database. Subject areas reported include theoretical studies of imaging systems and methods, hardware developments, quantitative methods of evaluation, and knowledge transfer: education in quantitative nuclear medicine imaging.

  20. What You Should Know About Pediatric Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Pediatric Imaging Council of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, as well as over 50 other societies, are members of this group. We are a group of over 700,000 health care professionals in radiology, pediatrics, medical physics and radiation protection. More information can be found ...

  1. Nuclear Medicine to Evaluate Complications of Cerebral Shunts: Two Cases and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Vettiyil, Beth; Bessette, Sabrina; McQuiston, Samuel; Greiner, Francis

    2015-01-01

    We present two cases of cerebral shunts - a ventriculopleural shunt and a ventriculoperitoneal shunt, with their associated complications. We also hope to provide a comprehensive literature review on various imaging modalities, including nuclear medicine studies in evaluating cerebral shunt complications. PMID:26420995

  2. Printing medicines as orodispersible dosage forms: Effect of substrate on the printed micro-structure.

    PubMed

    Planchette, C; Pichler, H; Wimmer-Teubenbacher, M; Gruber, M; Gruber-Woelfler, H; Mohr, S; Tetyczka, C; Hsiao, W-K; Paudel, A; Roblegg, E; Khinast, J

    2016-07-25

    We present our recent advancements in developing a viable manufacturing process for printed medicine. Our approach involves using a non-contact printing system that incorporates both piezoelectric- and solenoid valve-based inkjet printing technologies, to deliver both active and inactive pharmaceutical materials onto medical-graded orodispersible films. By using two complimentary inkjet technologies, we were able to dispense an extensive range of fluids, from aqueous drug solutions to viscous polymer coating materials. Essentially, we demonstrate printing of a wide range of formulations for patient-ready, orodispersible drug dosage forms, without the risk of drug degradation by ink heating and of substrate damages (by contact printing). In addition, our printing process has been optimized to ensure that the drug doses can be loaded onto the orally dissolvable films without introducing defects, such as holes or tears, while retaining a smooth surface texture that promotes patient adherence and allows for uniform post-coatings. Results show that our platform technology can address key issues in manufacturing orodispersible drug dosage forms and bring us closer to delivering personalized and precision medicine to targeted patient populations. PMID:26541301

  3. Mitochondrial and nuclear genomics and the emergence of personalized medicine

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Developing early detection biosensors for disease has been the long‒held goal of the Human Genome Project, but with little success. Conversely, the biological properties of the mitochondrion coupled with the relative simplicity of the mitochondrial genome give this organelle extraordinary functionality as a biosensor and places the field of mitochondrial genomics in a position of strategic advantage to launch significant advances in personalized medicine. Numerous factors make the mitochondrion organelle uniquely suited to be an early detection biosensor with applications in oncology as well as many other aspects of human health and disease. Early detection of disease translates into more effective, less expensive treatments for disease and overall better prognoses for those at greater risk for developing diseases. PMID:23244780

  4. Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... better. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration is in charge of assuring the safety ... prescription and over-the-counter medicines. Even safe drugs can cause unwanted side effects or interactions with ...

  5. Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... you get better. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration is in charge of assuring ... can cause unwanted side effects or interactions with food or other medicines you may be taking. They ...

  6. Current global and Korean issues in radiation safety of nuclear medicine procedures.

    PubMed

    Song, H C

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, the management of patient doses in medical imaging has evolved as concern about radiation exposure has increased. Efforts and techniques to reduce radiation doses are focussed not only on the basis of patient safety, but also on the fundamentals of justification and optimisation in cooperation with international organisations such as the International Commission on Radiological Protection, the International Atomic Energy Agency, and the World Health Organization. The Image Gently campaign in children and Image Wisely campaign in adults to lower radiation doses have been initiated in the USA. The European Association of Nuclear Medicine paediatric dosage card, North American consensus guidelines, and Nuclear Medicine Global Initiative have recommended the activities of radiopharmaceuticals that should be administered in children. Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs), developed predominantly in Europe, may be an important tool to manage patient doses. In Korea, overexposure to radiation, even from the use of medical imaging, has become a public issue, particularly since the accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant. As a result, the Korean Nuclear Safety and Security Commission revised the technical standards for radiation safety management in medical fields. In parallel, DRLs for nuclear medicine procedures have been collected on a nationwide scale. Notice of total effective dose from positron emission tomography-computed tomography for cancer screening has been mandatory since mid-November 2014. PMID:26960820

  7. Self-assessment of current knowledge in nuclear medicine (second edition)

    SciTech Connect

    Selby, J.B.; Frey, G.D.; Cooper, J.F.; Klobukoski, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    In this updated second edition, the order of contents of the textbook has been reorganized. It has been divided into main parts: Basic Science and Clinical Nuclear Medicine. Basic Science, Part I, encompasses basic physics, radiation protection, interaction of radiation with matter and radiation detection, imaging, nuclear pharmacy, and radiation biology. Part II, Clinical Nuclear Medicine, covers the central nervous system, bone, gastroenterology (liver/spleen), cardiovascular system, pulmonary system, genitourinary system, thyroid and endocrine systems, gallium studies, radioassay, hematology, and therapy. The total number of pages of the current edition is increased to 250 from the 213 of the first edition but there are fewer questions because those in the basic science area have been carefully selected to 60 of the original 98 questions. Compared with the previous edition, there are two advantages in the current one: (1) the addition of explanatory answers; and (2) the inclusion of up-to-date scintiphotos replacing rectilinear scan illustrations.

  8. Nuclear medicine survey recommendations for a changing regulatory environment.

    PubMed

    Vernig, P G; Schumacher, T A

    2001-11-01

    The revision of 10 CFR 35 approved on 23 September 2000 and due for implementation in 2001, reduces the number of required radiation and contamination surveys to one ambient radiation survey each day when an administration requiring a written directive is used. This paper compares the current requirements in 10 CFR 35; the single, remaining, specific requirement in the revised part 35; the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's guidance in the proposed NUREG SR1556 and the general requirement for surveys to demonstrate compliance with 10 CFR 20. We also make recommendations on what periodic surveys are prudent. PMID:11669196

  9. Fast count-dependent digital filtering of nuclear medicine images: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    King, M.A.; Doherty, P.W.; Schwinger, R.B.; Jacobs, D.A.; Kidder, R.E.; Miller, T.R.

    1983-11-01

    The formulation of an ''optimal'' filter for improving the quality of digitally recorded nuclear medicine images is reported in this paper. The method forms a Metz filter for each image based upon the total number of counts in the image, which in turn determines the average noise level. The parameters of the filter were optimized for a set of simulated images using the minimization of the mean-square error as the criterion. The speed of the image formation results from the use of an array processor. In a study of localization receiver operating characteristics (LROC) using the Alderson liver phantom, a significant improvement in tumor localization was found in images filtered with this technique, compared with the original digital images and those filtered by the nine-point binomial smoothing algorithm. The technique has been found useful for the filtering of static and dynamic studies as well as the two-dimensional pre-reconstruction filtering of images from single photon emission computerized tomography.

  10. An overview of radioactive waste disposal procedures of a nuclear medicine department.

    PubMed

    Ravichandran, R; Binukumar, J P; Sreeram, Rajan; Arunkumar, L S

    2011-04-01

    Radioactive wastes from hospitals form one of the various types of urban wastes, which are managed in developed countries in a safe and organized way. In countries where growth of nuclear medicine services are envisaged, implementations of existing regulatory policies and guidelines in hospitals in terms of handling of radioactive materials used in the treatment of patients need a good model. To address this issue, a brief description of the methods is presented. A designed prototype waste storage trolley is found to be of great help in decaying the I-131 solid wastes from wards before releasing to waste treatment plant of the city. Two delay tanks with collection time of about 2 months and delay time of 2 months alternately result in 6 releases of urine toilet effluents to the sewage treatment plant (STP) of the hospital annually. Samples of effluents collected at releasing time documented radioactive releases of I-131 much below recommended levels of bi-monthly release. External counting of samples showed good statistical correlation with calculated values. An overview of safe procedures for radioactive waste disposal is presented. PMID:21731225

  11. NUCLEAR ACTIVITY IS MORE PREVALENT IN STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Rosario, D. J.; Lutz, D.; Berta, S.; Popesso, P.; Genzel, R.; Saintonge, A.; Tacconi, L.; Wuyts, S. E-mail: lutz@mpe.mpg.de E-mail: popesso@mpe.mpg.de E-mail: amelie@mpe.mpg.de E-mail: swuyts@mpe.mpg.de; and others

    2013-07-01

    We explore the question of whether low and moderate luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are preferentially found in galaxies that are undergoing a transition from active star formation (SF) to quiescence. This notion has been suggested by studies of the UV-optical colors of AGN hosts, which find them to be common among galaxies in the so-called Green Valley, a region of galaxy color space believed to be composed mostly of galaxies undergoing SF quenching. Combining the deepest current X-ray and Herschel/PACS far-infrared (FIR) observations of the two Chandra Deep Fields with redshifts, stellar masses, and rest-frame photometry derived from the extensive and uniform multi-wavelength data in these fields, we compare the rest-frame U - V color distributions and star formation rate distributions of AGNs and carefully constructed samples of inactive control galaxies. The UV-to-optical colors of AGNs are consistent with equally massive inactive galaxies at redshifts out to z {approx} 2, but we show that such colors are poor tracers of SF. While the FIR distributions of both star-forming AGNs and star-forming inactive galaxies are statistically similar, we show that AGNs are preferentially found in star-forming host galaxies, or, in other words, AGNs are less likely to be found in weakly star-forming or quenched galaxies. We postulate that, among X-ray-selected AGNs of low and moderate accretion luminosities, the supply of cold gas primarily determines the accretion rate distribution of the nuclear black holes.

  12. Radiation risk and nuclear medicine: An interview with a Nobel Prize winner

    SciTech Connect

    Yalow, R.S.

    1995-12-01

    In a speech given years ago at the Veterans Administration Medical Center, Bronx, NY, Rosalyn S. Yalow, 1977 Nobel Prize recipient for her invention of radioimmunoassay, made several salient points on the perception of fear or hazards from exposure to low-level radiation and low-level radioactive wastes. For the past three years, Yalow has been concerned with the general fear of radiation. In this interview, Newsline solicited Yalow`s views on public perceptions on radiation risk and what the nuclear medicine community can do to emphasize the fact that, if properly managed, the use of isotopes in medicine and other cases is not dangerous.

  13. Quantitative 35Cl nuclear quadrupole resonance in tablets of the antidiabetic medicine Diabinese.

    PubMed

    Tate, Elizabeth; Althoefer, Kaspar; Barras, Jamie; Rowe, Michael D; Smith, John A S; Pearce, Gareth E S; Wren, Stephen A C

    2009-07-01

    Pulsed (35)Cl nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) experiments have been performed on 250-mg tablets of the antidiabetic medicine Diabinese to establish the conditions needed for noninvasive quantitative analysis of the medicine in standard bottles. One important condition is the generation of a uniform radio-frequency (RF) field over the sample, which has been achieved by two designs of sample coil: one of variable pitch, and the other a resonator that has been fabricated from a single turn of copper sheet with a longitudinal gap bridged by tuning capacitors. The results from blind tests show that the number of tablets in a bottle could be predicted to within +/-3%. PMID:19492808

  14. Observation Leads to Improved Operations in Nuclear Medicine.

    PubMed

    Religioso, Deo G

    2016-01-01

    The concept of observation--going out and seeing what is happening in daily operations---would seem like a normal management activity, but the reality in practice of the philosophy and technique is often underutilized. Once an observation has been determined, the next steps are to test and validate any discoveries on paper. For process change to be implemented, numerical data is needed to back-up observations in order to be heard and taken seriously by the executive team. Boca Raton Regional Hospital saw an opportunity to improve the process for radiopharmaceutical standing orders within its nuclear imaging department. As a result of this observation, the facility realized improved savings and an increase in employee motivation. PMID:27172652

  15. Antimicrobial flavonoids isolated from Indian medicinal plant Scutellaria oblonga inhibit biofilms formed by common food pathogens.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, Narendran; Subramaniam, Shankar; Christena, Lowrence Rene; Muthuraman, Meenakshi Sundaram; Subramanian, Nagarajan Sai; Pemiah, Brindha; Sivasubramanian, Aravind

    2016-09-01

    Scutellaria oblonga Benth., a hitherto phytochemically unexplored Indian medicinal folklore plant was extracted with acetone and subjected to chromatography to yield nine flavonoids, for the first time from this plant. Antimicrobial assays were performed against 11 foodborne pathogens, and three molecules (Techtochrysin, Negletein and Quercitin-3-glucoside) depicted significant activity. These molecules were assessed for their rate of antibacterial action using time-kill curves which depicted complete inhibition of most of the bacteria within 12-16 h. The significant biofilm-reducing capability exhibited by these three molecules formed a significant finding of the current study. In most of the experiments, a 90-95% reduction in biofilms was observed. Thus, flavonoids as natural molecules from S. oblonga could be further researched to be used as potent antimicrobial and antibiofilm agents. PMID:26508034

  16. Melt processed multiphase ceramic waste forms for nuclear waste immobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoroso, Jake; Marra, James C.; Tang, Ming; Lin, Ye; Chen, Fanglin; Su, Dong; Brinkman, Kyle S.

    2014-11-01

    Ceramic waste forms are promising hosts for nuclear waste immobilization as they have the potential for increased durability and waste loading compared with conventional borosilicate glass waste forms. Ceramics are generally processed using hot pressing, spark plasma sintering, and conventional solid-state reaction, however such methods can be prohibitively expensive or impractical at production scales. Recently, melt processing has been investigated as an alternative to solid-state sintering methods. Given that melter technology is currently in use for High Level Waste (HLW) vitrification in several countries, the technology readiness of melt processing appears to be advantageous over sintering methods. This work reports the development of candidate multi-phase ceramic compositions processed from a melt. Cr additions, developed to promote the formation and stability of a Cs containing hollandite phase were successfully incorporated into melt processed multi-phase ceramics. Control of the reduction-oxidation (Redox) conditions suppressed undesirable Cs-Mo containing phases, and additions of Al and Fe reduced the melting temperature.

  17. Intra-operative nuclear medicine in surgical practice.

    PubMed

    Perkins, A C; Hardy, J G

    1996-12-01

    The use of radionuclides for the intra-operative localization of tumours has increased steadily over the past 15 years. We reviewed more than 15 years experience of a peripatetic service using a sterilizable probe system in operating theatres throughout the UK for localizing bone and soft tissue lesions. The technique requires the positive concentration of an appropriate radiopharmaceutical, together with a suitably designed detector system which can be sterilized for use during surgery. All surgical procedures were undertaken following initial positive imaging studies. A well-collimated nuclear probe with a 5 mm diameter CdTe detector was sterilized with ethylene oxide gas and coupled to a digital counter and ratemeter for use in the operating theatre. A total of 68 surgical procedures have been undertaken at 35 hospitals. Fifty-eight patients underwent excision of osteoid osteoma subsequently proven by histology. The other lesions successfully resected included osteoblastoma, hamartoma, Brodie's abscess, chronic bone infection, ectopic parathyroid adenoma and metastatic neuroblastoma. The technique can now be regarded as the method of choice for the surgical localization of osteoid osteoma. The successful detection of lesions at surgery can be assured providing that clear localization of the radiopharmaceutical occurs on the pre-operative images. The intra-operative use of conventional and new tumour-specific radiopharmaceuticals is reviewed and we confirm an increasing role for the surgical-probe-guided localization of primary and metastatic tumours. PMID:9004295

  18. Application of TlBr to nuclear medicine imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirignano, Leonard; Kim, Hadong; Kargar, Alireza; Churilov, Alexei V.; Ciampi, Guido; Higgins, William; Kim, Suyoung; Barber, Bradford; Haston, Kyle; Shah, Kanai

    2012-10-01

    Thallium bromide (TlBr) has been under development for room temperature gamma ray spectroscopy due to high density, high Z and wide bandgap of the material. Furthermore, its low melting point (460 °C), cubic crystal structure and congruent melting with no solid-solid phase transitions between the melting point and room temperature, TlBr can be grown by relatively simple melt based methods. As a result of improvements in material processing and detector fabrication over the last several years, TlBr with electron mobility-lifetime products (μeτe) in the mid 10-3 cm2/V range has been obtained. In this paper we are going to report on our unipolar charging TlBr results for the application as a small animal imaging. For SPECT application, about 5 mm thick pixellated detectors were fabricated and tested. About 1 % FWHM at 662 keV energy resolution was estimated at room temperature. By applying the depth correction technique, less than 1 % energy resolution was estimated. We are going to report the results from orthogonal strip TlBr detector for PET application. In this paper we also present our latest detector highlights and recent progress made in long term stability of TlBr detectors at or near room temperature. This work is being supported by the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) and the Department of Energy (DOE).

  19. Nuclear medicine progress report for quarter ending March 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Butler, T.A.; Goodman, M.M.; Srivastava, P.C.

    1984-08-01

    In this report the evaluation of a new potential approach for brain-specific delivery of radioiodinated agents is described. These studies were supported by ORNL Seed Money funds. The p-aminophenethylamine group was attached as an amide linkage to the methyliodide quaternized form of nicotinic acid by reaction with the activated succinimidyl ester. The p-amino group was converted to the piperidinyl triazene and iodine-125 introduced into the p-position by decomposition with H/sup 125/I. Following reduction of the pyridinium ring with NaBH/sub 4/, the dihydro form was administered to rats and showed good brain uptake (5 min, approx. 0.3% dose). The quaternary compound, however, showed low brain uptake (5 min, approx. 0.03% dose). These studies suggest that the dihydro agent readily crosses the intact blood:brain barrier and is quaternized in vivo preventing its release. In contrast, the administered quaternary form cannot cross the blood:brain barrier and thus shows low brain uptake. These data demonstrate that brain-specific delivery of radiopharmaceuticals using this method is possible and several other model compounds are being evaluated. Studies of new radiolabeled fatty acids for the evaluation of heart disease were extended to investigate the subcellular distribution of various agents in rat heart cells following intravenous administration. Distribution profiles were determined for six radiolabeled structurally-modified fatty acids, including two Te fatty acids and three 3-methyl-branched fatty acids. It was determined that those agents which show low myocardial uptake also show low localization in microsomal and mitochrondrial fractions. Subcellular distribution experiments coupled with lipid analysis of the fractions to determine the relation between uptake, metabolism and incorporation within the various lipid pools are continuing. 5 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  20. Characterisation of crystal matrices and single pixels for nuclear medicine applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbert, D. J.; Belcari, N.; Camarda, M.; Guerra, A. Del; Vaiano, A.

    2005-01-01

    Commercially constructed crystal matrices are characterised for use with PSPMT detectors for PET system developments and other nuclear medicine applications. The matrices of different scintillation materials were specified with pixel dimensions of 1.5×1.5 mm2 in cross-section and a length corresponding to one gamma ray interaction length at 511 keV. The materials used in this study were BGO, LSO, LYSO, YSO and CsI(Na). Each matrix was constructed using a white TiO loaded epoxy that forms a 0.2 mm septa between each pixel. The white epoxy is not the optimum choice in terms of the reflective properties, but represents a good compromise between cost and the need for optical isolation between pixels. We also tested a YAP matrix that consisted of pixels of the same size specification but was manufactured by a different company, who instead of white epoxy, used a thin aluminium reflective layer for optical isolation that resulted in a septal thickness of just 0.01 mm, resulting in a much higher packing fraction. The characteristics of the scintillation materials, such as the light output and energy resolution, were first studied in the form of individual crystal elements by using a single pixel HPD. A comparison of individual pixels with and without the epoxy/dielectric coatings was also performed. Then the matrices themselves were coupled to a PSPMT in order to study the imaging performance. In particular, the system pixel resolution and the peak to valley ratio were measured at 511 and 122 keV.

  1. Nuclear medicine progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Allred, J.F.; Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, A.P.; Rice, D.E.; Srivastava, P.C.

    1988-03-01

    In this report the preparation of a new radioiodinated nucleoside as a potential tumor-localizing agent is described. The p-iodophenyl analogue of 5-amino-1-..beta..-D-ribofuranosylimidazole-4-carboxamide (AlCA) was prepared by a 5-step reaction sequence. The iodine-125-labeled analogue was evaluated in rats and nude mice with implanted tumors. This agent crossed the intact blood-brain barrier (0.28% injected dose/gm at 5 min) and also showed some uptake in implanted tumors (0.74% injected dose/gm at 30 min). These preliminary results demonstrate that radioiodinated nucleoside analogues are good candiates for tumor localization. To evaluate the possible formation of 3-R,S-hydroxy-3-methyl metabolites from radioiodinated 15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid (''BMIPP''), a new synthesis of 3-R,S-hydroxy fatty acids has been developed involving C-2 acylation of the ester (''Meldrum's'' acid) formed by condensation of malonic acid with acetone. Treatment with acid forms the methyl ketone which is condensed under Reformatsky conditions to give the racemic ..beta..-hydroxy-..beta..-methyl ester which is then hydrolyzed with base. In this way, the ..beta..-hydroxy analogues of BMIPP and 3-methylheptadecanoic acid have been prepared for the first time and are being used in biological studies. 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Botanical compounds and their regulation of nuclear receptor action: the case of traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Bonneton, François; Chen, Xiao Yong; Laudet, Vincent

    2015-02-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are major pharmacological targets that allow an access to the mechanisms controlling gene regulation. As such, some NRs were identified as biological targets of active compounds contained in herbal remedies found in traditional medicines. We aim here to review this expanding literature by focusing on the informative articles regarding the mechanisms of action of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). We exemplified well-characterized TCM action mediated by NR such as steroid receptors (ER, GR, AR), metabolic receptors (PPAR, LXR, FXR, PXR, CAR) and RXR. We also provided, when possible, examples from other traditional medicines. From these, we draw a parallel between TCMs and phytoestrogens or endocrine disrupting chemicals also acting via NR. We define common principle of action and highlight the potential and limits of those compounds. TCMs, by finely tuning physiological reactions in positive and negative manners, could act, in a subtle but efficient way, on NR sensors and their transcriptional network. PMID:25449417

  3. Nuclear physics for medicine: how nuclear research is improving human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracco, Angela

    2015-05-01

    The Nuclear Physics European Collaboration Committee (NuPECC) is an associated Committee of the European Science Foundation (ESF). Its mission is to strengthen European Collaboration in nuclear science through the promotion of nuclear physics, and its trans-disciplinary use and application in collaborative ventures between research groups.

  4. Redundant array of independent disks: practical on-line archiving of nuclear medicine image data.

    PubMed

    Lear, J L; Pratt, J P; Trujillo, N

    1996-02-01

    While various methods for long-term archiving of nuclear medicine image data exist, none support rapid on-line search and retrieval of information. We assembled a 90-Gbyte redundant array of independent disks (RAID) system using 10-, 9-Gbyte disk drives. The system was connected to a personal computer and software was used to partition the array into 4-Gbyte sections. All studies (50,000) acquired over a 7-year period were archived in the system. Based on patient name/number and study date, information could be located within 20 seconds and retrieved for display and analysis in less than 5 seconds. RAID offers a practical, redundant method for long-term archiving of nuclear medicine studies that supports rapid on-line retrieval. PMID:8814767

  5. MAGIC-f Gel in Nuclear Medicine Dosimetry: study in an external beam of Iodine-131

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarcke, M.; Marques, T.; Garrido, C.; Nicolucci, P.; Baffa, O.

    2010-11-01

    MAGIC-f gel applicability in Nuclear Medicine dosimetry was investigated by exposure to a 131I source. Calibration was made to provide known absorbed doses in different positions around the source. The absorbed dose in gel was compared with a Monte Carlo Simulation using PENELOPE code and a thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD). Using MRI analysis for the gel a R2-dose sensitivity of 0.23 s-1Gy-1was obtained. The agreement between dose-distance curves obtained with Monte Carlo simulation and TLD was better than 97% and for MAGIC-f and TLD was better than 98%. The results show the potential of polymer gel for application in nuclear medicine where three dimensional dose distribution is demanded.

  6. Some results of a simulated test for administration of activity in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Oropesa, P; Hernández, A T; Serra, R A; Varela, C; Woods, M J

    2006-04-01

    This paper describes the results obtained using a simulated test for administration of activity in nuclear medicine between 2002 and 2004. Measurements in the radionuclide calibrator are made during the different stages of the procedure. The test attempts to obtain supplementary information on the quality of the measurement, with the aim of evaluating in a more complete way the accuracy of the administered activity value compared with the prescribed one. The participants' performance has been assessed by means of a statistical analysis of the reported data. Dependences between several attributes of the simulated administration tests results are discussed. Specifically, the proportion of satisfactory results in the 2003-2004 period was found to be higher than in 2002. It reveals an improvement of the activity administration in the Cuban nuclear medicine departments since 2003. PMID:16303312

  7. NEED FOR INDIVIDUAL CANCER RISK ESTIMATES IN X-RAY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE IMAGING.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, Sören

    2016-06-01

    To facilitate the justification of an X-ray or nuclear medicine investigation and for informing patients, it is desirable that the individual patient's radiation dose and potential cancer risk can be prospectively assessed and documented. The current dose-reporting is based on effective dose, which ignores body size and does not reflect the strong dependence of risk on the age at exposure. Risk estimations should better be done through individual organ dose assessments, which need careful exposure characterisation as well as anatomical description of the individual patient. In nuclear medicine, reference biokinetic models should also be replaced with models describing individual physiological states and biokinetics. There is a need to adjust population-based cancer risk estimates to the possible risk of leukaemia and solid tumours for the individual depending on age and gender. The article summarises reasons for individual cancer risk estimates and gives examples of methods and results of such estimates. PMID:26994092

  8. [Nationwide survey of nuclear medicine practice and estimation of collective effective dose in Japan.].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Masaki; Nishizawa, Kanae; Iwai, Kazuo; Akahane, Keiichi; Maruyama, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    For the estimation of collective effective dose from radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine diagnosis, a national survey was carried out in Japan. The survey contents covered radiopharmaceutical use, sex, age, activity, and so on of each patient in October 1997 and the monthly number of examinations in 1997. The annual number of diagnostic examinations using radiopharmaceuticals was 0.82 million for males and 0.74 million for females. The frequency of examination was about 3% for patients less than 17 years old and about 60% for those more than 60 years old. Effective dose was calculated on the basis of such literature as ICRP publications. The dose used most frequently was 5-6mSv per examination. The collective effective doses from diagnostic nuclear medicine examinations were estimated to be 13100 man .Sv for males and 20200 man .Sv for females. PMID:17164536

  9. Survey of physician requirements in six specialties: manpower needs in anesthesiology, neurology, nuclear medicine, pathology, physical medicine and rehabilitation, radiology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wills, J.

    1980-07-01

    This report was prepared to assist the Graduate Medical Education National Advisory Committee (GMENAC) in its efforts to model physician manpower requirements in six specialties: anesthesiology, neurology, nuclear medicine, pathology, physical medicine and rehabilitation, and radiology. The purpose of this report is to (1) survey and present the existing literature on manpower requirements in each of these six specialties, and (2) discuss the special problems present in each specialty in modeling manpower requirements, and where possible, suggest possible avenues of resolution.

  10. Radiation damage studies related to nuclear waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, W.J.; Wald, J.W.; Turcotte, R.P.

    1981-12-01

    Much of the previously reported work on alpha radiation effects on crystalline phases of importance to nuclear waste forms has been derived from radiation effects studies of composite waste forms. In the present work, two single-phase crystalline materials, Gd/sub 2/Ti/sub 2/O/sub 7/ (pyrochlore) and CaZrTi/sub 2/O/sub 7/ (zirconolite), of relative importance to current waste forms were studied independently by doping with /sup 244/Cm at the 3 wt % level. Changes in the crystalline structure measured by x-ray diffraction as a function of dose show that damage ingrowth follows an expected exponential relationship of the form ..delta..V/V/sub 0/ = A(1-exp(-BD)). In both cases, the materials became x-ray amorphous before the estimated saturation value was reached. The predicted magnitudes of the unit cell volume changes at saturation are 5.4% and 3.5%, respectively, for Gd/sub 2/Ti/sub 2/O/sub 7/ and CaZrTi/sub 2/O/sub 7/. The later material exhibited anisotropic behavior in which the expansion of the monoclinic cell in the c/sub 0/ direction was over five times that of the a/sub 0/ direction. The effects of transmutations on the properties of high-level waste solids have not been studied until now because of the long half-lives of the important fission products. This problem was circumvented in the present study by preparing materials containing natural cesium and then irradiating them with neutrons to produce /sup 134/Cs, which has only a 2y half-life. The properties monitored at about one year intervals following irradiation have been density, leach rate and microstructure. A small amount of x-ray diffraction work has also been done. Small changes in density and leach rate have been observed for some of the materials, but they were not large enough to be of any consequence for the final disposal of high level wastes.

  11. Reactor production and processing of radioisotopes for therapeutic applications in nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Mirzadeh, S.; Beets, A.L.

    1995-02-01

    Nuclear reactors continue to play an important role in providing radioisotopes for nuclear medicine. Many reactor-produced radioisotopes are ``neutron rich`` and decay by beta-emission and are thus of interest for therapeutic applications. This talk discusses the production and processing of a variety of reactor-produced radioisotopes of current interest, including those produced by the single neutron capture process, double neutron capture and those available from beta-decay of reactorproduced radioisotopes. Generators prepared from reactorproduced radioisotopes are of particular interest since repeated elution inexpensively provides many patient doses. The development of the alumina-based W-188/Re-188 generator system is discussed in detail.

  12. [German Society of Nuclear Medicine procedure guideline on beta-amyloid brain PET imaging].

    PubMed

    Barthel, Henryk; Meyer, Philipp T; Drzezga, Alexander; Bartenstein, Peter; Boecker, Henning; Brust, Peter; Buchert, Ralph; Coenen, Heinz H; la Fougère, Christian; Gründer, Gerhard; Grünwald, Frank; Krause, Bernd J; Kuwert, Torsten; Schreckenberger, Matthias; Tatsch, Klaus; Langen, Karl-Josef; Sabri, Osama

    2016-08-01

    Recently, a number of positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers have been approved for clinical use. These tracers target cerebral beta-amyloid (Aβ) plaques, a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. Increasing use of this method implies the need for respective standards. This German Society of Nuclear Medicine guideline describes adequate procedures for Aβ plaque PET imaging. It not only discusses the tracers used for that purpose, but also lists measures for correct patient preparation, image data generation, processing, analysis and interpretation. With that, this "S1" category (according to the German Association of the Scientific Medical Societies standard) guideline aims at contributing to quality assurance of nuclear imaging in Germany. PMID:27080914

  13. Evaluation of 133Xe radiation exposure dosimetry for workers in nuclear medicine laboratories.

    PubMed

    Piltingsrud, H V; Gels, G L

    1982-06-01

    Evaluation of past studies of 133Xe dosimetry and nuclear medicine laboratory air concentrations of 133Xe indicates that significant levels of 133Xe may exist in routine operational environments of a nuclear medicine laboratory. This leads to the question of whether present health physics radiation control methods are adequate to keep occupational personnel exposures within acceptable levels. It would appear that if personnel dosimeters (film and TLD badges) respond properly to the radiation of 133Xe, normal health physics control procedures are probably adequate. If they do not respond adequately, personnel exposures may exceed recommended levels and special instrumentation or administrative procedures are called for. Therefore, the first step in studying potential problems in the subject area is to evaluate the response of a variety of personnel radiation dosimeters to 133Xe. This paper describes the methods and materials used to expose personnel dosimeters to known amounts of 133Xe radiations in an exposure chamber constructed at the BRH Nuclear Medicine Laboratory. Also presented are calculated values for Dose Equivalents (D.E.) in a phantom from external radiation resulting from immersion in clouds having a constant concentration of 133Xe but varying cloud radii. This implies the relative importance of the beta and the X + gamma radiation responses of the personnel dosimeters under various exposure conditions. Results of this study indicate that none of the dosimeter systems evaluated provide adequate performance for use as a primary indicator of the D.E. resulting from 133Xe radiations for a worker in a nuclear medicine laboratory, and that personnel dosimetry considerations in 133Xe-containing atmospheres are very dependent on the radii of the 133Xe clouds. PMID:7107291

  14. Applications of CdTe to nuclear medicine. Annual report, February 1, 1979-January 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Entine, G

    1980-01-01

    The application of CdTe gamma detectors in nuclear medicine is reported on. An internal probe was developed which can be inserted into the heart to measure the efficiency of various radiopharmaceuticals in the treatment of heart attacks. A second application is an array of detectors which is light enough to be worn by ambulatory patients and can measure the change in cardiac output over an eight hour period during heart attack treatment. The instrument includes an on board tape recorder. (ACR)

  15. An image-dependent Metz filter for nuclear medicine images.

    PubMed

    King, M A; Penney, B C; Glick, S J

    1988-12-01

    To provide optimal image quality, digital filters should account for both the count level and the object imaged. That is, they should be image-dependent. By using the constraint equation of constrained least-squares (CLS) restoration to determine one parameter of the Metz filter, a filter which adapts to the image has been developed. This filter has been named the Constrained Least-Squares Metz filter. The filter makes use of a regression relation to convert the Metz filter parameter determined using the CLS criterion to the value which would minimize the normalized mean square error (NMSE). The regression relation and the parameters which specify the general form of the Metz filter were determined using images of the Alderson liver and spleen phantoms. The designed filter was tested for its ability to adapt to other objects with images from each of three different test objects. When the values of the Metz filter parameters for these images determined by the CLS-Metz filter were compared by a regression analysis to those which minimized the NMSE for each image, a correlation coefficient of 0.98, a slope of 0.95, and a zero intercept of 0.1 were obtained. With clinical images, the CLS-Metz filter has been shown to provide consistently good image quality with images as diverse as heart perfusion images and bone studies. PMID:3264021

  16. A Poisson resampling method for simulating reduced counts in nuclear medicine images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Duncan; Lawson, Richard S.

    2015-05-01

    Nuclear medicine computers now commonly offer resolution recovery and other software techniques which have been developed to improve image quality for images with low counts. These techniques potentially mean that these images can give equivalent clinical information to a full-count image. Reducing the number of counts in nuclear medicine images has the benefits of either allowing reduced activity to be administered or reducing acquisition times. However, because acquisition and processing parameters vary, each user should ideally evaluate the use of images with reduced counts within their own department, and this is best done by simulating reduced-count images from the original data. Reducing the counts in an image by division and rounding off to the nearest integer value, even if additional Poisson noise is added, is inadequate because it gives incorrect counting statistics. This technical note describes how, by applying Poisson resampling to the original raw data, simulated reduced-count images can be obtained while maintaining appropriate counting statistics. The authors have developed manufacturer independent software that can retrospectively generate simulated data with reduced counts from any acquired nuclear medicine image.

  17. Radiation exposure from diagnostic nuclear medicine in Alagoas (Brazil) in 2002-2005.

    PubMed

    Yano, V F; Lima, F F

    2010-01-01

    Use of radionuclides in medical practice has grown steadily in recent years due to the introduction of new radiopharmaceuticals and new equipments. This paper presents a survey of nuclear medicine procedures performed in Alagoas, State of Brazil, in order to help establish reference levels for nuclear medicine patients. Data were gathered on the type of radiopharmaceuticals used and administered activity of each kind of examination, and the age and sex of the patients involved over the period 2002-2005. Based on ICRP-60, the effective dose (E) and collective effective dose (Ecol) have been calculated. The results showed an annual increase in the nuclear medicine examinations during the period of study and cardiac scintigraphy are the most common procedure. The results also indicated that the activities administered to patients are higher than the guidance levels of the Basic Safety Standards (BSS) in most of the kind of examinations. The differences found in the administered activities may reflect the differences in the quality assurance programs implemented. It was observed that the Ecol and E/inhabitant are higher than other countries. Therefore, it is suggested that the protocols have been revised in order to reduce the patient dose without reduce the image quality. PMID:20525455

  18. USE OF RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS IN DIAGNOSTIC NUCLEAR MEDICINE IN THE UNITED STATES: 1960–2010

    PubMed Central

    Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Brill, Aaron B.; Callahan, Ronald J.; Clanton, Jeffrey A.; DePietro, Allegra; Goldsmith, Stanley J.; Greenspan, Bennett S.; Gross, Milton D.; Hays, Marguerite T.; Moore, Stephen C.; Ponto, James A.; Shreeve, Walton W.; Melo, Dunstana R.; Linet, Martha S.; Simon, Steven L.

    2014-01-01

    To reconstruct reliable nuclear medicine-related occupational radiation doses or doses received as patients from radiopharmaceuticals over the last five decades, we assessed which radiopharmaceuticals were used in different time periods, their relative frequency of use, and typical values of the administered activity. This paper presents data on the changing patterns of clinical use of radiopharmaceuticals and documents the range of activity administered to adult patients undergoing diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures in the U.S. between 1960 and 2010. Data are presented for 15 diagnostic imaging procedures that include thyroid scan and thyroid uptake, brain scan, brain blood flow, lung perfusion and ventilation, bone, liver, hepatobiliary, bone marrow, pancreas, and kidney scans, cardiac imaging procedures, tumor localization studies, localization of gastrointestinal bleeding, and non-imaging studies of blood volume and iron metabolism. Data on the relative use of radiopharmaceuticals were collected using key informant interviews and comprehensive literature reviews of typical administered activities of these diagnostic nuclear medicine studies. Responses of key informants on relative use of radiopharmaceuticals are in agreement with published literature. Results of this study will be used for retrospective reconstruction of occupational and personal medical radiation doses from diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals to members of the U.S. radiologic technologist’s cohort and in reconstructing radiation doses from occupational or patient radiation exposures to other U.S. workers or patient populations. PMID:25811150

  19. Nuclear medicine program progress report for quarter ending December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Beets, A.L.; Boll, R.; Luo, H.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.

    1997-03-20

    In this report the authors describe the use of an effective method for concentration of the rhenium-188 bolus and the results of the first Phase 1 clinical studies for bone pain palliation with rhenium-188 obtained from the tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator. Initial studies with therapeutic levels of Re-188-HEDP at the Clinic for Nuclear Medicine at the University of Bonn, Germany, have demonstrated the expected good metastatic uptake of Re-188-HEDP in four patients who presented with skeletal metastases from disseminated prostatic cancer with good pain palliation and minimal marrow suppression. In addition, skeletal metastatic targeting of tracer doses of Re-188(V)-DMSA has been evaluated in several patients with metastases from prostatic cancer at the Department of Nuclear Medicine at the Canterbury and Kent Hospital in Canterbury, England. In this report the authors also describe further studies with the E-(R,R)-IQNP ligand developed in the ORNL Nuclear Medicine Program as a potential imaging agent for detection of changes which may occur in the cerebral muscarinic-cholinergic receptors (mAChR) in Alzheimer`s and other diseases.

  20. Radionuclide radiologist directed nuclear medicine services in district general hospitals in the South Thames Region.

    PubMed

    Conry, B G; Burwood, R J

    2001-08-01

    The equipment, staffing levels and imaging workload of all 14 radiologist directed nuclear medicine services in district general hospitals in the South Thames Region are presented. These are generally single camera departments providing a broad range of imaging procedures, including cardiac studies and white cell labelling, as well as the more usual renal, lung, thyroid and bone examinations. All departments have a high throughput, averaging 2358 examinations per year. Departmental staffing levels are variable, with some institutions having inadequate consultant radiology sessions free of other commitments as well as inadequate physics support. Potentially, these are important quality and legal issues that departments may need to address with hospital Trusts and Commissioning Agencies. Four small departments provided a service without any formally contracted radiologist sessions for nuclear medicine in the radiologists' job plans. The three medium sized departments have a closer match between sessions contracted and those actually worked, but in only one of these did the contracted sessional commitment equal the recommendation of the Nuclear Medicine Committee of the Royal College of Physicians. There is a disparity between the number of contracted consultant sessions and those actually worked in most institutions (86%), being at least two sessions in eight hospitals. Recommendations are made regarding the adequacy of some of the elements of provision in South Thames and the legal and safety implications for hospital Trust management and Commissioning Agencies. PMID:11511496

  1. Review of common occupational hazards and safety concerns for nuclear medicine technologists.

    PubMed

    Bolus, Norman E

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to address common occupational hazards and safety concerns of nuclear medicine technologists. There are many possible occupational hazards, but this review is intended to concentrate on common hazards and safety concerns. These include radiation safety issues and concerns about the possibility of developing latent diseases, such as eye cataracts or cancer; pregnant workers and radiation safety issues; biohazard concerns associated with patient body fluids; possible low-back pain from moving heavy equipment and performing patient transfers; and possible repetitive trauma disorders, such as carpal tunnel syndrome, from computer work. Suggestions are made regarding how to identify potential hazards and avoid them. After reading this article, nuclear medicine technologists should be able to explain the importance of the as-low-as-reasonably-achievable concept, discuss the possible effects of ionizing radiation on the adult and the developing fetus, list several basic principles to avoid injury to the back, list and describe the more common repetitive trauma disorders or injuries and how to avoid them, and list and describe the biohazard safety issues that nuclear medicine technologists face and how to develop policy to minimize exposure risk. PMID:18287195

  2. 10 CFR 140.91 - Appendix A-Form of nuclear energy liability policy for facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appendix A-Form of nuclear energy liability policy for facilities. 140.91 Section 140.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS AND INDEMNITY AGREEMENTS Violations Appendixes to Part 140 § 140.91 Appendix A—Form of nuclear energy liability policy for...

  3. 10 CFR 140.91 - Appendix A-Form of nuclear energy liability policy for facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appendix A-Form of nuclear energy liability policy for facilities. 140.91 Section 140.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS AND INDEMNITY AGREEMENTS Violations Appendixes to Part 140 § 140.91 Appendix A—Form of nuclear energy liability policy for...

  4. 10 CFR 140.91 - Appendix A-Form of nuclear energy liability policy for facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appendix A-Form of nuclear energy liability policy for facilities. 140.91 Section 140.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS AND INDEMNITY AGREEMENTS Violations Appendixes to Part 140 § 140.91 Appendix A—Form of nuclear energy liability policy for...

  5. 10 CFR 140.91 - Appendix A-Form of nuclear energy liability policy for facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appendix A-Form of nuclear energy liability policy for facilities. 140.91 Section 140.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS AND INDEMNITY AGREEMENTS Violations Appendixes to Part 140 § 140.91 Appendix A—Form of nuclear energy liability policy for...

  6. 10 CFR 140.91 - Appendix A-Form of nuclear energy liability policy for facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appendix A-Form of nuclear energy liability policy for facilities. 140.91 Section 140.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS AND INDEMNITY AGREEMENTS Violations Appendixes to Part 140 § 140.91 Appendix A—Form of nuclear energy liability policy for...

  7. Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Srivastava, P.C.; Allred, J.F.; Blystone, S.L.; Kropp, A.; Lisic, E.C.; Rice, D.E.

    1989-03-01

    During this period the properties of the unknown metabolite released from Langendorff-perfused rat hearts administered radioiodinated 15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) have been further evaluated. Identification of this metabolite is important to provide a better understanding of the myocardial metabolism of methyl-branched fatty acids and to illuminate the factors affecting myocardial retention of such agents. The metabolite is the principal component in the outflow of the isolated rat hearts. Following isolation and purification of the metabolite, treatment with NaBH/sub 4/ had no effect on the chromatographic properties. In contrast, a much less polar product was formed by treatment with acetic anhydride, suggesting the presence of a primary or secondary hydroxyl group. In addition, the metabolite is soluble in dilute base and extracted from an acid solution with ether, demonstrating the presence of a carboxyl group. These combined results suggest BMIPP is metabolized to a hydroxy acid of unknown structure. Studies are now in progress to identify this material. Studies of the effects of chain length on the complexation of a series of p-carboxyalkylphenylglyoxal bis-(N-alkylthiosemicarbazones) (TSC) have continued. After complexation with either Cu-64 or Cu-67 followed by activation to the tetrafluorophenyl esters, the bifunctional ligands were attached to BSA and purified by G-25 Sephadex. Yields varied from 2--3% to 40%, with higher yields for the shorter chain analogues. Because of simpler formation and higher yield, future studies will focus on the radiolabeling of antibodies with the short-chain analogues of the 1,2-diketone TSC derivatives. Also during this period (I-131)IPPA was supplied to collaborators at the Institute of Clinical and Experimental Nuclear Medicine in Bonn, West Germany, for studies with an isolated working rat heart model.

  8. SUS in nuclear medicine in Brazil: analysis and comparison of data provided by Datasus and CNEN*

    PubMed Central

    Pozzo, Lorena; Coura Filho, George; Osso Júnior, João Alberto; Squair, Peterson Lima

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the outpatient access to nuclear medicine procedures by means of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS), analyzing the correspondence between data provided by this system and those from Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) (National Commission of Nuclear Energy). Materials and Methods Data provided by Datasus regarding number of scintillation chambers, outpatient procedures performed from 2008 to 2012, administrative responsibility for such procedures, type of service providers and outsourced services were retrieved and evaluated. Also, such data were compared with those from institutions certified by CNEN. Results The present study demonstrated that the system still lacks maturity in terms of correct data input, particularly regarding equipment available. It was possible to list the most common procedures and check the growth of the specialty along the study period. Private centers are responsible for most of the procedures covered and reimbursed by SUS. However, many healthcare facilities are not certified by CNEN. Conclusion Datasus provides relevant data for analysis as done in the present study, although some issues still require attention. The present study has quantitatively depicted the Brazilian reality regarding access to nuclear medicine procedures offered by/for SUS. PMID:25741070

  9. Pictorial review of SPECT/CT imaging applications in clinical nuclear medicine

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, Peeyush; He, Guocheng; Samarghandi, Amin; Delpassand, Ebrahim S

    2012-01-01

    Integrated SPECT/CT scanners are gaining popularity as hybrid molecular imaging devices which can acquire SPECT and CT in a single exam. CT can be a low dose non-contrast enhanced scan for attenuation correction and anatomical localization, or a contrast enhanced diagnostic quality scan for additional anatomical characterization. We present a pictorial review highlighting the usefulness of this emerging technology. We present SPECT/CT images of 13 patients where additional information was provided by the co-registered low dose non-contrast enhanced CT scan. They belong to 12 male and 1 female patients with age ranging from 28 to 76 yrs, who were referred to the Nuclear Medicine Department for various indications. We describe these cases under in the following categories: bone scintigraphy (2), leukocyte scintigraphy (2), nuclear oncology (5), nuclear cardiology (1), and general nuclear medicine (3). Additional information provided by the co-registered low dose CT improves the diagnostic confidence in image interpretation of SPECT imaging. PMID:23133813

  10. Radiation and Thermal Stability of Murataite Ceramics Nuclear Waste Forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, J.; Yudintsev, S. V.; Stefanovsky, S. V.

    2006-05-01

    The wide range of complex nuclear wastes requires a variety of robust hosts for long-term storage during disposal. Wastes with high actinide and iron concentrations have generated intense interest in murataite ceramics as a candidate waste form due to its four distinct cation sites as well as cation vacancies. Critical to this application is the radiation stability of the waste host. We have determined both the radiation and thermal stabilities of murataite ceramics using in situ observations in a transmission electron microscope during ion bombardment at the Electron Microscopy Center at Argonne National Laboratory. A central issue for structural stability is radiation damage-induced crystalline-to-amorphous transformation that may result in macroscopic swelling, cracking and phase decomposition. Such a response would lead to a significant change in chemical durability and release of incorporated radionuclides. We found that, murataite ceramics are susceptible to ion beam induce ordered-disordered transition and amorphization. The ion dose required for amorphization was determined as a function of temperature and the degree of initial structural disorder. The upper temperature limit for amorphization of murataites was determined to be in the range of 860 K to 1060 K for 1 MeV Kr2+ ion irradiation. Decrease of the susceptibility to irradiation induced amorphization for disordered murataite, suggests that the amorphization susceptibility depends, in part, on the initial degree of intrinsic disorder prior to irradiation. The thermal stability of murataite polytypes was studied by in-situ TEM observation. Phase decomposition with the precipitation of Fe-rich nanocrystals was induced in the murataite structure. The phase decomposition and nanocrystal formation have no significant effects on the radiation resistance of murataite ceramics used as potential host phases for the immobilization of actinides.

  11. 78 FR 23742 - Nomination Form of Veterinary Shortage Situations for the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-22

    ... Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP) AGENCY: National Institute of Food and Agriculture, USDA... Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP). This notice initiates a 30-day comment period and prescribes the... having their full effect. ADDRESSES: You may submit comments by any of the following methods: Federal...

  12. Development of a new photon diffraction imaging system for diagnostic nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roa, D. E.; Smither, R. K.; Zhang, X.; Nie, K.; Shieh, Y. Y.; Ramsinghani, N. S.; Milne, N.; Kuo, J. V.; Redpath, J. L.; Al-Ghazi, M. S. A. L.; Caligiuri, P.

    2005-12-01

    The objective of this project is to develop and construct an innovative imaging system for nuclear medicine and molecular imaging that uses photon diffraction and is capable of generating 1 2 mm spatial resolution images in two or three dimensions. The proposed imaging system would be capable of detecting radiopharmaceuticals that emit 100 200 keV gamma rays which are typically used in diagnostic nuclear medicine and in molecular imaging. The system is expected to be optimized for the 140.6 keV gamma ray from a Tc-99m source, which is frequently used in nuclear medicine. This new system will focus the incoming gamma rays in a manner analogous to a magnifying glass focusing sunlight into a small focal point on a detector's sensitive area. Focusing gamma rays through photon diffraction has already been demonstrated with the construction of a diffraction lens telescope for astrophysics and a scaled-down lens for medical imaging, both developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). In addition, spatial resolutions of 3 mm have been achieved with a prototype medical lens. The proposed imaging system would be comprised of an array of photon diffraction lenses tuned to diffract a specific gamma ray energy (within 100 200 keV) emitted by a common source. The properties of photon diffraction make it possible to diffract only one specific gamma ray energy at a time, which significantly reduces scattering background. The system should be sufficiently sensitive to the detection of small concentrations of radioactivity that can reveal potential tumor sites at their initial stages of development. Moreover, the system's sensitivity would eliminate the need for re-injecting a patient with more radiopharmaceutical if this patient underwent a prior nuclear imaging scan. Detection of a tumor site at its inception could allow for an earlier initiation of treatment and wider treatment options, which can potentially improve the chances for cure.

  13. Energetic electron processes fluorescence effects for structured nanoparticles X-ray analysis and nuclear medicine applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taborda, A.; Desbrée, A.; Carvalho, A.; Chaves, P. C.; Reis, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles are widely used as contrast agents for nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and can be modified for improved imaging or to become tissue-specific or even protein-specific. The knowledge of their detailed elemental composition characterisation and potential use in nuclear medicine applications, is, therefore, an important issue. X-ray fluorescence techniques such as particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) or X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), can be used for elemental characterisation even in problematic situations where very little sample volume is available. Still, the fluorescence coefficient of Fe is such that, during the decay of the inner-shell ionised atomic structure, keV Auger electrons are produced in excess to X-rays. Since cross-sections for ionisation induced by keV electrons, for low atomic number atoms, are of the order of 103 barn, care should be taken to account for possible fluorescence effects caused by Auger electrons, which may lead to the wrong quantification of elements having atomic number lower than the atomic number of Fe. Furthermore, the same electron processes will occur in iron oxide nanoparticles containing 57Co, which may be used for nuclear medicine therapy purposes. In the present work, simple approximation algorithms are proposed for the quantitative description of radiative and non-radiative processes associated with Auger electrons cascades. The effects on analytical processes and nuclear medicine applications are quantified for the case of iron oxide nanoparticles, by calculating both electron fluorescence emissions and energy deposition on cell tissues where the nanoparticles may be embedded.

  14. The differences between the branded and generic medicines using solid dosage forms: In-vitro dissolution testing

    PubMed Central

    Al Ameri, Mubarak Nasser; Nayuni, Nanda; Anil Kumar, K.G.; Perrett, David; Tucker, Arthur; Johnston, Atholl

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Dissolution is the amount of substance that goes into solution per unit time under standardised conditions of liquid/solid interface, solvent composition and temperature. Dissolution is one of the most important tools to predict the in-vivo bioavailability and in some cases to determine bioequivalence and assure interchangeability. Aim To compare the differences in dissolution behaviour of solid dosage forms between innovators (reference products) and their generic counterparts (tested products). Methods Four replicates for each batch of 37 tested medicines was carried out using A PT-DT70 dissolution tester from Pharma Test. A total of 13 branded medicines and 24 generic counterparts were obtained locally and internationally to detect any differences in their dissolution behaviour. They were tested according to the British Pharmacopeia, European Pharmacopeia and the US Pharmacopeia with the rate of dissolution determined by ultra-violet Spectrophotometery. Results Most tested medicines complied with the pharmacopoeial specifications and achieved 85% dissolution in 60 min. However, some generic medicines showed significant differences in dissolution rate at 60 and 120 min. Many generic medicines showed a slower dissolution rate than their branded counterparts such as the generic forms of omeprazole 20 mg. Some showed an incomplete dissolution such as the generic form of nifedipine 10 mg. Other generics showed faster dissolution rate than their branded counterpart such as the generic forms of meloxicam 15 mg. Moreover, some generics from different batches of the same manufacturer showed significant differences in their dissolution rate such as the generic forms of meloxicam 7.5 mg. Nevertheless, some generic medicines violated the EMA and the FDA guidelines for industry when they failed to achieve 85% dissolution at 60 min, such as the generic form of diclofenac sodium 50 mg. Conclusion Most medicines in this study complied with the pharmacopeial

  15. PREFACE: International Conference on Image Optimisation in Nuclear Medicine (OptiNM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christofides, Stelios; Parpottas, Yiannis

    2011-09-01

    Conference logo The International Conference on Image Optimisation in Nuclear Medicine was held at the Atlantica Aeneas Resort in Ayia Napa, Cyprus between 23-26 March 2011. It was organised in the framework of the research project "Optimising Diagnostic Value in SPECT Myocardial Perfusion Imaging" (YΓΕΙΑ/ΔYΓΕΙΑ/0308/11), funded by the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation and the European Regional Development Fund, to present the highlights of the project, discuss the progress and results, and define future related goals. The aim of this International Conference was to concentrate on image optimization approaches in Nuclear Medicine. Experts in the field of nuclear medicine presented their latest research results, exchanged experiences and set future goals for image optimisation while balancing patient dose and diagnostic value. The conference was jointly organized by the Frederick Research Centre in Cyprus, the Department of Medical and Public Health Services of the Cyprus Ministry of Health, the Biomedical Research Foundation in Cyprus and the AGH University of Science and Technology in Poland. It was supported by the Cyprus Association of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, and the Cyprus Society of Nuclear Medicine. The conference was held under the auspices of the European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics and the European Association of Nuclear Medicine. The conference scientific programme covered several important topics such as functional imaging; image optimization; quantification for diagnosis; justification; simulations; patient dosimetry, staff exposures and radiation risks; quality assurance and clinical audit; education, training and radiation protection culture; hybrid systems and image registration; and new and competing technologies. The programme consisted of 13 invited and keynote presentations as well as workshops, round table discussions and a number of scientific sessions. A total of 51 speakers presented their

  16. Health concerns related to radiation exposure of the female nuclear medicine patient.

    PubMed Central

    Stabin, M G

    1997-01-01

    The female nuclear medicine patient is of special concern in evaluating radiation dose and risk in nuclear medicine. The female's overall body size and organ sizes generally are smaller than those of her male counterpart (thus her radiation doses will be higher, given the same amounts of administered activity and similar biokinetics); female gonads are inside the body instead of outside and are near several organs often important as source organs in internal dosimetry (urinary bladder, liver, kidneys, intestines); risk of breast cancer is significantly higher among females than males; and in the case of pregnancy, exposure to radiation of the embryo/fetus and the nursing infant are of special concern in such an analysis. All these concerns are addressed in this study through a comparative study of radiation doses for males and females over a large number (approximately 60) of nuclear medicine studies and through a study of what is known about radiation dosimetry in pregnancy and breast feeding. It was found that women's critical organ doses and effective doses (as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection 60 [ICRP 60] are about 25% higher than those for men across all these studies. Women's gonad doses, however, may be as much as 10 to 30 times higher than those in men, although 2- to 3-fold differences are common. Many radiopharmaceuticals are administered to women of childbearing age; however, little is known about how much activity crosses the placenta and about the biokinetics in the fetus should it occur. Nonetheless, dose estimates are provided at four stages of pregnancy (early, 3-month, 6-month, and 9-month gestation) for a large number of radiopharmaceuticals, whether or not quantitative estimates of placental crossover can be made. Many radiopharmaceuticals are also excreted in breast milk of nursing mothers. Breast feeding interruption schedules are suggested through analysis of the observed kinetics of these pharmaceuticals and

  17. Role of nuclear medicine bone scans in evaluating pain in athletic injuries

    SciTech Connect

    Martire, J.R.

    1987-10-01

    The utilization of nuclear medicine bone scanning examinations early in the diagnostic process allows physicians to render prompt and correct treatment in urgent or difficult athletic cases. Bone scanning should be performed for athletic injuries whenever (1) x-rays are normal but bone or joint pain persists; (2) x-rays are positive but it cannot be determined if the findings are acute or chronic; (3) soft-tissue injuries present and x-rays are not useful; and (4) bone pain or joint impairment present without a history of trauma.89 references.

  18. The traceability chain of 131I measurements for nuclear medicine in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Oropesa, P; Moreno, Y; Serra, R A; Hernández, A T

    2012-09-01

    The national traceability chain for (131)I activity measurements performed in nuclear medicine in Cuba is described. At the highest (primary) level, liquid scintillation counting employing the CIEMAT/NIST method is used; at the secondary level, a secondary standard radionuclide calibrator is utilized that allows for a quick and simple transference of the measurement unit to the tertiary level of end-users' instruments. The equivalence of Cuban standards and the assessment of measurement uncertainties at the end-user level are determined through the results of measurement comparisons. PMID:22534014

  19. Detection of thoracic infections by nuclear medicine techniques in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, E.L.; Sanger, J.J. )

    1989-11-01

    The challenge of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) for nuclear medicine has been the early detection of related intrathoracic opportunistic infections, inflammatory conditions, and neoplasms. Gallium-67 citrate scanning has proved a sensitive test not only for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia but for many of the other opportunistic infections and malignancies, including mycobacterial infections and lymphoma. Patterns and intensity of gallium uptake may suggest more specific diagnoses. Indium-111-labeled white blood cells may also be a valuable diagnostic tool in the AIDS patient.41 references.

  20. Radiation safety review for 511-keV emitters in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Dell, M A

    1997-03-01

    With the advent of high-energy collimators and dual-head coincidence cameras, standard nuclear medicine facilities will soon begin imaging with PET isotopes. The use of 511-keV emitters raises new radiation safety concerns for technologists traditionally limited to handling 99mTc and other low-energy isotopes. This article is a basic review of positron emitters, measurement concerns, exposure rates, shielding requirements and external radiation exposure mitigation. Newly developed PET shielding products are presented and regulatory status is discussed briefly. PMID:9239598

  1. Modification of generalized vector form factors and transverse charge densities of the nucleon in nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Ju-Hyun; Yakhshiev, Ulugbek; Kim, Hyun-Chul

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the medium modification of the generalized vector form factors of the nucleon, which include the electromagnetic and energy-momentum tensor form factors, based on an in-medium modified π -ρ -ω soliton model. We find that the vector form factors of the nucleon in nuclear matter fall off faster than those in free space, which implies that the charge radii of the nucleon become larger in nuclear medium than in free space. We also compute the corresponding transverse charge densities of the nucleon in nuclear matter, which clearly reveal the increasing of the nucleon size in nuclear medium.

  2. METHOD OF FORMING A FUEL ELEMENT FOR A NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Layer, E.H. Jr.; Peet, C.S.

    1962-01-23

    A method is given for preparing a fuel element for a nuclear reactor. The method includes the steps of sandblasting a body of uranium dioxide to roughen the surface thereof, depositing a thin layer of carbon thereon by thermal decomposition of methane, and cladding the uranium dioxide body with zirconium by gas pressure bonding. (AEC)

  3. SiPM MEPhI Megagrant Developments in Nuclear Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, E. V.; Belyaev, V. N.; Berdnikov, V. V.; Buzhan, P. Zh.; Ilyin, A. L.; Lazarenko, E. O.; Philippov, D. E.; Skryabin, A. A.; Stifutkin, A. A.

    Three projects has been started in our laboratory as part of megagrant "High energy physics and nuclear medicine with silicon photomultiplier detectors" in NRNU MEPHI. The goal of these projects is development of devices for nuclear medicine in which replacement of photomultiplier tubes (PMT) with solid-state silicon photomultipliers promises various advantages. The first project is full-body SPECT, where replacement of PMT's could reduce size of the detector module and improve spatial resolution while keeping other parameters. The second project is development of a TOF-PET module. Replacement of PMTs with silicon photomultipliers makes it possible to use that detector not only in high magnetic fields but also for Time-of-Flight measurements (higher signal-to-noise ratio on final image) due to very high timing resolution of a SiPM. And the last project is the SiPM-based position-sensitive Gamma-spectrometer for dose monitoring in neutron-capture therapy based on SiPM's.

  4. [Development of the software package of the nuclear medicine data processor for education and research].

    PubMed

    Maeda, Hisato; Yamaki, Noriyasu; Azuma, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a personal computer-based nuclear medicine data processor for education and research in the field of nuclear medicine. We call this software package "Prominence Processor" (PP). Windows of Microsoft Corporation was used as the operating system of this PP, which have 1024 × 768 image resolution and various 63 applications classified into 6 groups. The accuracy was examined for a lot of applications of the PP. For example, in the FBP reconstruction application, there was visually no difference in the image quality as a result of comparing two SPECT images obtained from the PP and GMS-5500A (Toshiba). Moreover, Normalized MSE between both images showed 0.0003. Therefore the high processing accuracy of the FBP reconstruction application was proven as well as other applications. The PP can be used in an arbitrary place if the software package is installed in note PC. Therefore the PP is used to lecture and to practice on an educational site and used for the purpose of the research of the radiological technologist on a clinical site etc. widely now. PMID:22449907

  5. Collective effective dose in Europe from X-ray and nuclear medicine procedures.

    PubMed

    Bly, R; Jahnen, A; Järvinen, H; Olerud, H; Vassileva, J; Vogiatzi, S

    2015-07-01

    Population doses from radiodiagnostic (X-ray and nuclear medicine) procedures in Europe were estimated based on data collected from 36 European countries. For X-ray procedures in EU and EFTA countries (except Liechtenstein) the collective effective dose is 547,500 man Sv, resulting in a mean effective dose of 1.06 mSv per caput. For all European countries included in the survey the collective effective dose is 605,000 man Sv, resulting in a mean effective dose of 1.05 mSv per caput. For nuclear medicine procedures in EU countries and EFTA (except Liechtenstein) countries the collective effective dose is 30,700 man Sv, resulting in a mean effective dose of 0.06 mSv per caput. For all European countries included in the survey the collective effective dose is 31,100 man Sv, resulting in a mean effective dose of 0.05 mSv per caput. PMID:25848115

  6. Minimizing nuclear medicine technologist radiation exposure during 131I-MIBG therapy.

    PubMed

    Turpin, Brian K; Morris, Victoria R; Lemen, Lisa; Weiss, Brian D; Gelfand, Michael J

    2013-02-01

    131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine is a norepinephrine analog that concentrates in adrenergic tissue and has been shown to be an effective radiotherapeutic agent used to treat tumors of neural crest origin, particularly neuroblastoma, a sympathetic nervous system malignancy of children. The purpose of this study was to determine the radiation dose received by nuclear medicine technologists while preparing and administering 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine therapy dosages, and if any changes could be implemented that would reduce a technologist's dose. The study involves the collection of total whole body doses received by technologists during the treatment of six patients. Patient dosages ranged from 9.25 to 31.1 GBq, with radiation exposures to the nuclear medicine technologists averaging 0.024 μSv per MBq administered to the patient. Subsequently, the doses received by the technologists were analyzed with respect to specific process steps performed during 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine therapy including package receipt, dosage preparation, and dosage administration. Results show that the largest contribution to the technologist's whole body radiation dose (>83%) is received during the dosage administration process step. After additional shielding was installed for use during the dosage administration process step, technologists' doses decreased 80%. PMID:23287519

  7. The role of ultrasound and nuclear medicine methods in the preoperative diagnostics of primary hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Cacko, Marek; Królicki, Leszek

    2015-01-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PH) represents one of the most common endocrine diseases. In most cases, the disorder is caused by parathyroid adenomas. Bilateral neck exploration has been a widely used treatment method for adenomas since the 20's of the twentieth century. In the last decade, however, it has been increasingly replaced by a minimally invasive surgical treatment. Smaller extent, shorter duration and lower complication rate of such a procedure are emphasized. Its efficacy depends on a precise location of parathyroid tissue during the preoperative imaging. Scintigraphy and ultrasound play a major role in the diagnostic algorithms. The efficacy of both methods has been repeatedly verified and compared. The still-current guidelines of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (2009) emphasize the complementary role of scintigraphy and ultrasonography in the preoperative diagnostics in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. At the same time, attempts are made to improve both these techniques by implementing new study protocols or innovative technologies. Publications have emerged in the recent years in the field of ultrasonography, whose authors pointed out the usefulness of elastography and contrast media. Nuclear medicine studies, on the other hand, focus mainly on the assessment of new radiotracers used in the positron emission tomography (PET). The aim of this article is to present, based on literature data, the possibilities of ultrasound and scintigraphy in the preoperative diagnostics in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Furthermore, the main directions in the development of imaging techniques in PH patients were evaluated. PMID:26807297

  8. The role of ultrasound and nuclear medicine methods in the preoperative diagnostics of primary hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Nieciecki, Michał; Cacko, Marek; Królicki, Leszek

    2015-12-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PH) represents one of the most common endocrine diseases. In most cases, the disorder is caused by parathyroid adenomas. Bilateral neck exploration has been a widely used treatment method for adenomas since the 20's of the twentieth century. In the last decade, however, it has been increasingly replaced by a minimally invasive surgical treatment. Smaller extent, shorter duration and lower complication rate of such a procedure are emphasized. Its efficacy depends on a precise location of parathyroid tissue during the preoperative imaging. Scintigraphy and ultrasound play a major role in the diagnostic algorithms. The efficacy of both methods has been repeatedly verified and compared. The still-current guidelines of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (2009) emphasize the complementary role of scintigraphy and ultrasonography in the preoperative diagnostics in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. At the same time, attempts are made to improve both these techniques by implementing new study protocols or innovative technologies. Publications have emerged in the recent years in the field of ultrasonography, whose authors pointed out the usefulness of elastography and contrast media. Nuclear medicine studies, on the other hand, focus mainly on the assessment of new radiotracers used in the positron emission tomography (PET). The aim of this article is to present, based on literature data, the possibilities of ultrasound and scintigraphy in the preoperative diagnostics in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Furthermore, the main directions in the development of imaging techniques in PH patients were evaluated. PMID:26807297

  9. Russian practical guidance on radiological support for justification of X-ray and nuclear medicine examinations.

    PubMed

    Balonov, M; Golikov, V; Kalnitsky, S; Zvonova, I; Chipiga, L; Sarycheva, S; Shatskiy, I; Vodovatov, A

    2015-07-01

    An important part of the justification process is assessment of the radiation risks caused by exposure of a patient during examination. The authors developed official national methodology both for medical doctors and sanitary inspectors called 'assessment of radiation risks of patients undergoing diagnostic examinations with the use of ionizing radiation'. The document addresses patients of various age groups and a wide spectrum of modern X-ray and nuclear medicine examinations. International scale of risk categorisation was implemented by the use of effective dose with account for age dependence of radiation risk. The survey of effective doses in radiology, including CT, mammography, and intervention radiology, and nuclear medicine, including single-photon emission tomography and positron emission tomography, for patients of various age groups from several regions of Russia was used for the risk assessment. The output of the methodology is a series of tables for each diagnostic technology with lists of examinations for three age groups (children/adolescents, adults and seniors) corresponding to various radiation risk categories. PMID:25862538

  10. Radiation accidents and their management: emphasis on the role of nuclear medicine professionals

    PubMed Central

    Novruzov, Fuad; Vinjamuri, Sobhan

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale radiation accidents are few in number, but those that have occurred have subsequently led to strict regulation in most countries. Here, different accident scenarios involving exposure to radiation have been reviewed. A triage of injured persons has been summarized and guidance on management has been provided in accordance with the early symptoms. Types of casualty to be expected in atomic blasts have been discussed. Management at the scene of an accident has been described, with explanation of the role of the radiation protection officer, the nature of contaminants, and monitoring for surface contamination. Methods for early diagnosis of radiation injuries have been then described. The need for individualization of treatment according to the nature and grade of the combined injuries has been emphasized, and different approaches to the treatment of internal contamination have been presented. The role of nuclear medicine professionals, including physicians and physicists, has been reviewed. It has been concluded that the management of radiation accidents is a very challenging process and that nuclear medicine physicians have to be well organized in order to deliver suitable management in any type of radiation accident. PMID:25004166

  11. Automated motion correction based on target tracking for dynamic nuclear medicine studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xinhua; Tetrault, Tracy; Fahey, Fred; Treves, Ted

    2008-03-01

    Nuclear medicine dynamic studies of kidneys, bladder and stomach are important diagnostic tools. Accurate generation of time-activity curves from regions of interest (ROIs) requires that the patient remains motionless for the duration of the study. This is not always possible since some dynamic studies may last from several minutes to one hour. Several motion correction solutions have been explored. Motion correction using external point sources is inconvenient and not accurate especially when motion results from breathing, organ motion or feeding rather than from body motion alone. Centroid-based motion correction assumes that activity distribution is only inside the single organ (without background) and uniform, but this approach is impractical in most clinical studies. In this paper, we present a novel technique of motion correction that first tracks the organ of interest in a dynamic series then aligns the organ. The implementation algorithm for target tracking-based motion correction consists of image preprocessing, target detection, target positioning, motion estimation and prediction, tracking (new search region generation) and target alignment. The targeted organ is tracked from the first frame to the last one in the dynamic series to generate a moving trajectory of the organ. Motion correction is implemented by aligning the organ ROIs in the image series to the location of the organ in the first image. The proposed method of motion correction has been applied to several dynamic nuclear medicine studies including radionuclide cystography, dynamic renal scintigraphy, diuretic renography and gastric emptying scintigraphy.

  12. BOOK REVIEW: Therapeutic Applications of Monte Carlo Calculations in Nuclear Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulot, J.

    2003-08-01

    H Zaidi and G Sgouros (eds) Bristol: Institute of Physics Publishing (2002) £70.00, ISBN: 0750308168 Monte Carlo techniques are involved in many applications in medical physics, and the field of nuclear medicine has seen a great development in the past ten years due to their wider use. Thus, it is of great interest to look at the state of the art in this domain, when improving computer performances allow one to obtain improved results in a dramatically reduced time. The goal of this book is to make, in 15 chapters, an exhaustive review of the use of Monte Carlo techniques in nuclear medicine, also giving key features which are not necessary directly related to the Monte Carlo method, but mandatory for its practical application. As the book deals with `therapeutic' nuclear medicine, it focuses on internal dosimetry. After a general introduction on Monte Carlo techniques and their applications in nuclear medicine (dosimetry, imaging and radiation protection), the authors give an overview of internal dosimetry methods (formalism, mathematical phantoms, quantities of interest). Then, some of the more widely used Monte Carlo codes are described, as well as some treatment planning softwares. Some original techniques are also mentioned, such as dosimetry for boron neutron capture synovectomy. It is generally well written, clearly presented, and very well documented. Each chapter gives an overview of each subject, and it is up to the reader to investigate it further using the extensive bibliography provided. Each topic is discussed from a practical point of view, which is of great help for non-experienced readers. For instance, the chapter about mathematical aspects of Monte Carlo particle transport is very clear and helps one to apprehend the philosophy of the method, which is often a difficulty with a more theoretical approach. Each chapter is put in the general (clinical) context, and this allows the reader to keep in mind the intrinsic limitation of each technique

  13. Joint CDRH (Center for Devices and Radiological Health) and state quality-assurance surveys in nuclear medicine: Phase 2 - radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, D.R.; Evans, C.D.

    1986-08-01

    The report discusses survey results on aspects of the quality assurance of radio-pharmaceuticals from 180 nuclear-medicine facilities in the United States. Data were collected from facilities in 8 states. Demographic information about nuclear-medicine operations and quality-assurance programs was gathered by state radiation-control-program personnel. The data collected from the survey show an incomplete acceptance of quality-assurance practices for radiopharmaceuticals. Most of the facilities in the survey indicated that, because an inferior radiopharmaceutical was prepared so infrequently, they did not believe it was cost-effective to perform extensive quality-assurance testing. The Center for Devices and Radiological Health hopes that the information from the survey will stimulate nuclear-medicine professionals and their organizations to encourage appropriate testing of all radiopharmaceuticals.

  14. In vivo mutagenicity and clastogenicity of ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine. Final performance report, January 1, 1989--December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, K.T.

    1991-12-31

    The overall goal of our research was to investigate the mutagenic and clastogenic effects of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation to human lymphocytes. Principally, we studied hospital patients referred to a nuclear medicine department for diagnostic cardiac imaging and nuclear medicine technologists who administer radionuclides. Emphasis in the first year, as described in the first progress report, was on optimization of the hprt mutation assay, measurement of mutant frequencies in patients imaged with thallium-201, and measurement of mutant frequencies in controls. Emphasis in the second and third years was on measurements of: (1) chromosome aberrations in patients imaged with thallium-201; (2) mutant frequencies in patients imaged with technetium-99; (3) mutant frequencies in nuclear medicine technicians and physical therapists; and (4) mutant frequencies in patients treated for Hodgkins disease with radiotherapy. The completed work has been published and is described below in more detail.

  15. Coating crystalline nuclear waste forms to improve inertness

    SciTech Connect

    Stinton, D.P.; Angelini, P.; Caputo, A.J.; Lackey, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    Crystalline waste forms of high simulated waste loading were successfully coated with layers of pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide. Sol-gel technology was used to produce microspheres that contained simulated waste. A separate process for cesium immobilization was developed, which loads 5 wt % Cs onto zeolite particles for subsequent coating. The chemical vapor deposition process was developed for depositing thin layers of carbon and silicon carbide onto particles in a fluidized-bed coater. Pyrolytic carbon-coated particles were extremely inert in numerous leach tests. Aqueous leach test results of coated waste forms were below detection limits of such sensitive analytical techniques as atomic absorption and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission.

  16. Disposability Assessment: Aluminum-Based Spent Nuclear Fuel Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Vinson, D.W.

    1998-11-06

    This report provides a technical assessment of the Melt-Dilute and Direct Al-SNF forms in disposable canisters with respect to meeting the requirements for disposal in the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) and for interim dry storage in the Treatment and Storage Facility (TSF) at SRS.

  17. Design and operation of a nuclear medicine picture archiving and communication system.

    PubMed

    Brown, P H; Krishnamurthy, G T

    1990-07-01

    Construction of a new Veterans Administration Medical Center provided a unique opportunity to design and implement a state-of-the-art nuclear medicine department in a large teaching and research hospital. The new medical center allowed the acquisition of all new gamma cameras and computer systems without any historical need to patch together a system of old and new equipment. The picture archiving and communication system (PACS) was designed to link five gamma cameras to four image viewing areas, followed by digital archive on an optical disc. The gamma cameras' computers and viewing areas' computers are linked to a central networking computer in a manner that provides nine independent but digitally communicating image computers. Each nuclear medicine computer is capable of acquiring gamma camera data while possibly also performing up to three other simultaneous tasks: analysis of image data, transfer of image data from node to node, and patient database manipulation. The nine image computers each appear to the user as a digital file cabinet, containing various folders, which in turn contain patient studies. To transfer a patient study from one location to another, the user simply queues a transfer request by selecting a file drawer-folder combination for the source and destination locations. It takes only a few seconds to queue a transfer request, and the transfer is complete about a minute later without any further user intervention. A computer genie awakens during the early morning off-hours and performs housekeeping tasks, including movement of patient studies (based on date of acquisition) from active viewing folders to inactive archive folders. All scheduling, workload data, patient image reports, etc, are handled by a patient textual information database system. Patient reports and scheduling information are transmitted to the medical center's central computer where they are made readily available throughout the medical center. The PACS, in clinical use

  18. Nuclear medicine and the failed joint replacement: Past, present, and future

    PubMed Central

    Palestro, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    Soon after the introduction of the modern prosthetic joint, it was recognized that radionuclide imaging provides useful information about these devices. The bone scan was used extensively to identify causes of prosthetic joint failure. It became apparent, however, that although sensitive, regardless of how the images were analyzed or how it was performed, the test was not specific and could not distinguish among the causes of prosthetic failure. Advances in anatomic imaging, notably cross sectional modalities, have facilitated the diagnosis of many, if not most, causes of prosthetic failure, with the important exception of infection. This has led to a shift in the diagnostic paradigm, in which nuclear medicine investigations increasingly have focused on diagnosing infection. The recognition that bone scintigraphy could not reliably diagnose infection led to the development of combined studies, first bone/gallium and subsequently leukocyte/bone and leukocyte/marrow imaging. Labeled leukocyte imaging, combined with bone marrow imaging is the most accurate (about 90%) imaging test for diagnosing joint arthroplasty infection. Its value not withstanding, there are significant disadvantages to this test. In-vivo techniques for labeling leukocytes, using antigranulocyte antibodies have been explored, but have their own limitations and the results have been inconsistent. Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has been extensively investigated for more than a decade but its role in diagnosing the infected prosthesis has yet to be established. Antimicrobial peptides bind to bacterial cell membranes and are infection specific. Data suggest that these agents may be useful for diagnosing prosthetic joint infection, but large scale studies have yet to be undertaken. Although for many years nuclear medicine has focused on diagnosing prosthetic joint infection, the advent of hybrid imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography

  19. A no-gold-standard technique for objective assessment of quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods.

    PubMed

    Jha, Abhinav K; Caffo, Brian; Frey, Eric C

    2016-04-01

    The objective optimization and evaluation of nuclear-medicine quantitative imaging methods using patient data is highly desirable but often hindered by the lack of a gold standard. Previously, a regression-without-truth (RWT) approach has been proposed for evaluating quantitative imaging methods in the absence of a gold standard, but this approach implicitly assumes that bounds on the distribution of true values are known. Several quantitative imaging methods in nuclear-medicine imaging measure parameters where these bounds are not known, such as the activity concentration in an organ or the volume of a tumor. We extended upon the RWT approach to develop a no-gold-standard (NGS) technique for objectively evaluating such quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods with patient data in the absence of any ground truth. Using the parameters estimated with the NGS technique, a figure of merit, the noise-to-slope ratio (NSR), can be computed, which can rank the methods on the basis of precision. An issue with NGS evaluation techniques is the requirement of a large number of patient studies. To reduce this requirement, the proposed method explored the use of multiple quantitative measurements from the same patient, such as the activity concentration values from different organs in the same patient. The proposed technique was evaluated using rigorous numerical experiments and using data from realistic simulation studies. The numerical experiments demonstrated that the NSR was estimated accurately using the proposed NGS technique when the bounds on the distribution of true values were not precisely known, thus serving as a very reliable metric for ranking the methods on the basis of precision. In the realistic simulation study, the NGS technique was used to rank reconstruction methods for quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) based on their performance on the task of estimating the mean activity concentration within a known volume of interest

  20. A no-gold-standard technique for objective assessment of quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Abhinav K.; Caffo, Brian; Frey, Eric C.

    2016-04-01

    The objective optimization and evaluation of nuclear-medicine quantitative imaging methods using patient data is highly desirable but often hindered by the lack of a gold standard. Previously, a regression-without-truth (RWT) approach has been proposed for evaluating quantitative imaging methods in the absence of a gold standard, but this approach implicitly assumes that bounds on the distribution of true values are known. Several quantitative imaging methods in nuclear-medicine imaging measure parameters where these bounds are not known, such as the activity concentration in an organ or the volume of a tumor. We extended upon the RWT approach to develop a no-gold-standard (NGS) technique for objectively evaluating such quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods with patient data in the absence of any ground truth. Using the parameters estimated with the NGS technique, a figure of merit, the noise-to-slope ratio (NSR), can be computed, which can rank the methods on the basis of precision. An issue with NGS evaluation techniques is the requirement of a large number of patient studies. To reduce this requirement, the proposed method explored the use of multiple quantitative measurements from the same patient, such as the activity concentration values from different organs in the same patient. The proposed technique was evaluated using rigorous numerical experiments and using data from realistic simulation studies. The numerical experiments demonstrated that the NSR was estimated accurately using the proposed NGS technique when the bounds on the distribution of true values were not precisely known, thus serving as a very reliable metric for ranking the methods on the basis of precision. In the realistic simulation study, the NGS technique was used to rank reconstruction methods for quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) based on their performance on the task of estimating the mean activity concentration within a known volume of interest

  1. Iron Minerals Formed by a Nuclear Explosion in a Salt Bed.

    PubMed

    Nathans, M W; Smith, D K; Kahn, J S

    1965-11-19

    The nuclear event, Gnome, was carried out in halite in the Salado formation and yielded a varied mineral assemblage. The iron suppor members reacted in the salt melt and formed several iron oxide phases. The magnetite which formed during the fireball stage reached in various ways with the environment to form higher oxides and hydrated oxides. PMID:17810111

  2. An intermetallic forming steel under radiation for nuclear applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofer, C.; Stergar, E.; Maloy, S. A.; Wang, Y. Q.; Hosemann, P.

    2015-03-01

    In this work we investigated the formation and stability of intermetallics formed in a maraging steel PH 13-8 Mo under proton radiation up to 2 dpa utilizing nanoindentation, microcompression testing and atom probe tomography. A comprehensive discussion analyzing the findings utilizing rate theory is introduced, comparing the aging process to radiation induced diffusion. New findings of radiation induced segregation of undersize solute atoms (Si) towards the precipitates are considered.

  3. Fundamental Science-Based Simulation of Nuclear Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Devanathan, Ramaswami; Gao, Fei; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2010-10-04

    This report presents a hierarchical multiscale modeling scheme based on two-way information exchange. To account for all essential phenomena in waste forms over geological time scales, the models have to span length scales from nanometer to kilometer and time scales from picoseconds to millenia. A single model cannot cover this wide range and a multi-scale approach that integrates a number of different at-scale models is called for. The approach outlined here involves integration of quantum mechanical calculations, classical molecular dynamics simulations, kinetic Monte Carlo and phase field methods at the mesoscale, and continuum models. The ultimate aim is to provide science-based input in the form of constitutive equations to integrated codes. The atomistic component of this scheme is demonstrated in the promising waste form xenotime. Density functional theory calculations have yielded valuable information about defect formation energies. This data can be used to develop interatomic potentials for molecular dynamics simulations of radiation damage. Potentials developed in the present work show a good match for the equilibrium lattice constants, elastic constants and thermal expansion of xenotime. In novel waste forms, such as xenotime, a considerable amount of data needed to validate the models is not available. Integration of multiscale modeling with experimental work is essential to generate missing data needed to validate the modeling scheme and the individual models. Density functional theory can also be used to fill knowledge gaps. Key challenges lie in the areas of uncertainty quantification, verification and validation, which must be performed at each level of the multiscale model and across scales. The approach used to exchange information between different levels must also be rigorously validated. The outlook for multiscale modeling of wasteforms is quite promising.

  4. Towards medicinal mechanochemistry: evolution of milling from pharmaceutical solid form screening to the synthesis of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs).

    PubMed

    Tan, Davin; Loots, Leigh; Friščić, Tomislav

    2016-06-14

    This overview highlights the emergent area of mechanochemical reactions for making active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), and covers the latest advances in the recently established area of mechanochemical screening and synthesis of pharmaceutical solid forms, specifically polymorphs, cocrystals, salts and salt cocrystals. We also provide an overview of the most recent developments in pharmaceutical uses of mechanochemistry, including real-time reaction monitoring, techniques for polymorph control and approaches for continuous manufacture using twin screw extrusion, and more. Most importantly, we show how the overlap of previously unrelated areas of mechanochemical screening for API solid forms, organic synthesis by milling, and mechanochemical screening for molecular recognition, enables the emergence of a new research discipline in which different aspects of pharmaceutical and medicinal chemistry are addressed through mechanochemistry rather than through conventional solution-based routes. The emergence of such medicinal mechanochemistry is likely to have a strong impact on future pharmaceutical and medicinal chemistry, as it offers not only access to materials and reactivity that are sometimes difficult or even impossible to access from solution, but can also provide a general answer to the demands of the pharmaceutical industry for cleaner, safer and efficient synthetic solutions. PMID:27185190

  5. One-year clinical experience with a fully digitized nuclear medicine department: organizational and economical aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anema, P. C.; de Graaf, C. N.; Wilmink, J. B.; Hall, David R.; Hoekstra, A. G.; van Rijk, P. P.; Van Isselt, J. W.; Viergever, Max A.

    1991-07-01

    At the department of nuclear medicine of the University Hospital Utrecht a single-modality PACS has been operational since mid-1990. After one year of operation the functionality, the organizational and economical consequences, and the acceptability of the PACS were evaluated. The functional aspects reviewed were: viewing facilities, patient data management, connectivity, reporting facilities, archiving, privacy, and security. It was concluded that the improved quality of diagnostic viewing and the potential integration with diagnosis, reporting, and archiving are highly appreciated. The many problems that have occurred during the transition period, however, greatly influence the appreciation and acceptability of the PACS. Overall, it is felt that in the long term there will be a positive effect on the quality and efficiency of the work.

  6. New imaging systems in nuclear medicine. Technical progress report, January 1, 1985-November 1, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Brownell, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    Developments of improved imaging systems in nuclear medicine are reported with emphasis on development of positron emission tomographs that combine high resolution, with high sensitivity and high count rate capability. A second generation cylindrical analog positron camera design has provided excellent light collection with limited light spread, characteristics needed for high spatial and temporal resolution. Other aspects of the camera development include the design of associated electronics, and provision for data storage and processing. Utilizing the above camera basic studies have been performed to evaluate blood flow in the cat brain stem during auditory stimulation, ventilation in the dog using /sup 13/N and blood flow in the canine heart. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  7. [Conservative calibration of a clearance monitor system for waste material from nuclear medicine].

    PubMed

    Wanke, Carsten; Geworski, Lilli

    2014-09-01

    Clearance monitor systems are used for gross gamma measurements of waste potentially contaminated with radioactivity. These measurements are to make sure that legal requirements, e.g. clearance criteria according to the german radiation protection ordinance, are met. This means that measurement results may overestimate, but must not underestimate the true values. This paper describes a pragmatic way using a calibrated Cs-137 point source to generate a conservative calibration for the clearance monitor system used in the Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (MHH). The most important nuclides used in nuclear medicine are considered. The measurement result reliably overestimates the true value of the activity present in the waste. The calibration is compliant with the demands for conservativity and traceability to national standards. PMID:24560040

  8. An iterative particle filter approach for respiratory motion estimation in nuclear medicine imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd. Rahni, Ashrani Aizzuddin; Wells, Kevin; Lewis, Emma; Guy, Matthew; Goswami, Budhaditya

    2011-03-01

    The continual improvement in spatial resolution of Nuclear Medicine (NM) scanners has made accurate compensation of patient motion increasingly important. A major source of corrupting motion in NM acquisition is due to respiration. Therefore a particle filter (PF) approach has been proposed as a powerful method for motion correction in NM. The probabilistic view of the system in the PF is seen as an advantage that considers the complexity and uncertainties in estimating respiratory motion. Previous tests using XCAT has shown the possibility of estimating unseen organ configuration using training data that only consist of a single respiratory cycle. This paper augments application specific adaptation methods that have been implemented for better PF estimates with an iterative model update step. Results show that errors are further reduced to an extent up to a small number of iterations and such improvements will be advantageous for the PF to cope with more realistic and complex applications.

  9. The patient as a radioactive source: an intercomparison of survey meters for measurements in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Uhrhan, K; Drzezga, A; Sudbrock, F

    2014-11-01

    In this work, the radiation exposure in nuclear medicine is evaluated by measuring dose rates in the proximity of patients and those in close contact to sources like capsules and syringes. A huge number of different survey meters (SMs) are offered commercially. This topic has recently gained interest since dosemeters and active personal dosemeters (APD) for the new dose quantities (ambient and directional dose equivalent) have become available. One main concern is the practical use of SMs and APD in daily clinical routines. Therefore, the radiation field of four common radiopharmaceuticals containing (18)F, (90)Y, (99m)Tc and (131)I in radioactive sources or after application to the patient was determined. Measurements were carried out with different SMs and for several distances. Dose rates decline significantly with the distance to the patient, and with some restrictions, APD can be used as SMs. PMID:25071244

  10. [A system for decontamination of liquid radioactive waste produced in in vitro tests in nuclear medicine].

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, T; Norimura, T; Ueno, T

    1983-06-01

    It is well known that very large storage tanks for radioactive liquids are necessary for the disposal of liquid radioactive waste. In vitro tests in radioimmunoassay in nuclear medicine are rapidly increasing for clinical examination causing marked increase in the volume of liquid radioactive waste. Thus we have developed a system for decontaminating radioactivity from liquid waste. In the first step, the liquid waste is boiled by a sterilizer and, in the second step, this sterilised liquid is filtered by a cylindrical filter (Toyo filter No. 84). After filtration, the liquid waste is passed into a beaded charcoal column and an ion exchange resin (Amberlite IRA 402) column. After these treatments, the radioactivity level of liquid waste is lowered to less than 1% of the original radioactivity. We are now in the planning stages of building an apparatus for practical use. PMID:6622764

  11. A gaussian band pass filter for digital enhancement of nuclear medicine images

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, M.T.; Park, C.H.; Hichwa, R.D.

    1985-05-01

    Information in nuclear medicine images is obscured due to the presence of Poisson noise and the finite resolution of the detection system. Many filters have been developed to recover resolution and suppress noise, most notably the Metz and Wiener filters. The generation of these filters requires knowledge of the system MTF. The authors have investigated the properties of a two dimensional circularly symmetric truncated Gaussian function as a filter to be applied in the spatial frequency domain. The filter is expressed as exp(-(..mu..-..mu../sub o/)/sup 2//2sigma/sup 2/) where ..mu../sub o/ is the displacement of the Gaussian from the origin and sigma is the degree of spread. These parameters are optimized from the image power spectrum according to the following empirical rules the magnitude at the origin is 0.3, and the spatial frequency at which the magnitude of the power spectrum exceeds twice that of the noise level is 2sigma from the mean of the Gaussian (..mu../sub o/). Condition 1 preferentially enhances the information in the middle frequencies while condition 2 assures that the filter goes to 0 at spatial frequencies where noise dominates. The filter can be generated automatically by computer program. It does not require the knowledge of MTF. In addition, the coordinate space representation is a Gaussian modulated by a cosine function which can be analytically determined allowing straightfoward application of this filter as a convolution in coordinate space. The filter has been successfully applied to all types of nuclear medicine images including PET brain section images.

  12. Nuclear Medicine Imaging of Infection in Cancer Patients (With Emphasis on FDG-PET)

    PubMed Central

    Vos, Fidel J.; van der Graaf, Winette T.A.; Oyen, Wim J.G.

    2011-01-01

    Infections are a common cause of death and an even more common cause of morbidity in cancer patients. Timely and adequate diagnosis of infection is very important. This article provides clinicians as well as nuclear medicine specialists with a concise summary of the most important and widely available nuclear medicine imaging techniques for infectious and inflammatory diseases in cancer patients with an emphasis on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). 67Ga-citrate has many unfavorable characteristics, and the development of newer radiopharmaceuticals has resulted in the replacement of 67Ga-citrate scintigraphy by scintigraphy with labeled leukocytes or FDG-PET for the majority of conditions. The sensitivity of labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in non-neutropenic cancer patients is comparable with that in patients without malignancy. The specificity, however, is lower because of the uptake of labeled leukocytes in many primary tumors and metastases, most probably as a result of their inflammatory component. In addition, labeled leukocyte scintigraphy cannot be used for febrile neutropenia because of the inability to harvest sufficient peripheral leukocytes for in vitro labeling. FDG-PET has several advantages over these conventional scintigraphic techniques. FDG-PET has shown its usefulness in diagnosing septic thrombophlebitis in cancer patients. It has also been shown that imaging of infectious processes using FDG-PET is possible in patients with severe neutropenia. Although larger prospective studies examining the value of FDG-PET in cancer patients suspected of infection, especially in those with febrile neutropenia, are needed, FDG-PET appears to be the most promising scintigraphic technique for the diagnosis of infection in this patient group. PMID:21680576

  13. Nur77 forms novel nuclear structures upon DNA damage that cause transcriptional arrest

    SciTech Connect

    Leseleuc, Louis de; Denis, Francois . E-mail: francois.denis@iaf.inrs.ca

    2006-05-15

    The orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 has been implicated in both growth and apoptosis, and its function and activity can be modulated by cellular redistribution. Green fluorescent protein-tagged Nur77 was used to evaluate the role of Nur77 intracellular redistribution in response to genotoxic stress. Selected DNA damaging agents and transcription inhibition lead to rapid redistribution of Nur77 into nuclear structures distinct from conventional nuclear bodies. These nuclear bodies formed transiently were tightly bound to the nuclear matrix and conditions that lead to their appearance were associated with Nur77 transcriptional inhibition. The formation of Nur77 nuclear bodies might be involved in programmed cell death modulation upon exposure to DNA damaging agents that inhibit transcription by sequestrating this proapoptotic factor in dense nuclear structures.

  14. Leaching behavior of glass ceramic nuclear waste forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokken, R. O.

    1981-11-01

    Glass ceramic waste forms were investigated as alternatives to borosilicate glasses for the immobilization of high-level radioactive waste. Three glass ceramic systems were investigated, including basalt, celsian, and fresnoite, each containing 20 wt percent simulated high-level waste calcine. Static leach tests were performed on seven glass ceramic materials and one parent glass (before recrystallization). Samples were leached at 90 C for 3 to 28 days in deionized water and silicate water. The results, expressed in normalized elemental mass loss, show comparable releases from celsian and fresnoite glass ceramics. Basalt glass ceramics demonstrated the lowest normalized elemental losses with a nominal release less than 2 grams per square meter when leached in polypropylene containers. The releases from basalt glass ceramics when leached in silicate water were nearly identical with those in deionized water. The overall leachability of celsian and fresnoite glass ceramics was improved when silicate water was used as the leachant.

  15. Development of departmental standard for traceability of measured activity for I-131 therapy capsules used in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Binukumar, Jp

    2011-01-01

    International Basic Safety Standards (International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA) provide guidance levels for diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine indicating the maximum usual activity for various diagnostic tests in terms of activities of injected radioactive formulations. An accuracy of ± 10% in the activities of administered radio-pharmaceuticals is being recommended, for expected outcome in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine procedures. It is recommended that the long-term stability of isotope calibrators used in nuclear medicine is to be checked periodically for their performance using a long-lived check source, such as Cs-137, of suitable activity. In view of the un-availability of such a radioactive source, we tried to develop methods to maintain traceability of these instruments, for certifying measured activities for human use. Two re-entrant chambers [(HDR 1000 and Selectron Source Dosimetry System (SSDS)] with I-125 and Ir-192 calibration factors in the Department of Radiotherapy were used to measure Iodine-131 (I-131) therapy capsules to establish traceability to Mark V isotope calibrator of the Department of Nuclear Medicine. Special nylon jigs were fabricated to keep I-131 capsule holder in position. Measured activities in all the chambers showed good agreement. The accuracy of SSDS chamber in measuring Ir-192 activities in the last 5 years was within 0.5%, validating its role as departmental standard for measuring activity. The above method is adopted because mean energies of I-131 and Ir-192 are comparable. PMID:21430859

  16. Nuclear medicine and imaging research (instrumentation and quantitative methods of evaluation). Progress report, January 15, 1992--January 14, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, R.N.; Cooper, M.; Chen, C.T.

    1992-07-01

    This document is the annual progress report for project entitled ``Instrumentation and Quantitative Methods of Evaluation.`` Progress is reported in separate sections individually abstracted and indexed for the database. Subject areas reported include theoretical studies of imaging systems and methods, hardware developments, quantitative methods of evaluation, and knowledge transfer: education in quantitative nuclear medicine imaging.

  17. Use of a reusable shielded marker to enhance the accuracy, safety, and efficacy of nuclear medicine procedures.

    PubMed

    Hayes, M; Altes, T; Teates, C D; Parekh, J

    2000-05-01

    Three cases illustrate the use of a reusable, shielded marker to identify anatomic structures and mark pathologic lesions. No other nuclear medicine marker is available with a shutter mechanism designed to interrupt radiation, thus protecting the patient and technologist from unnecessary radiation and minimizing image artifacts. PMID:10795694

  18. Potassium Iodide ("KI"): Instructions to Make Potassium Iodide Solution for Use During a Nuclear Emergency (Liquid Form)

    MedlinePlus

    ... make Potassium Iodide Solution for Use During a Nuclear Emergency (Liquid Form) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Preparation and Dosing Instructions for Use During a Nuclear Emergency To Make KI Solution (Liquid Form), using ...

  19. Laūq: A Sustained-Release Dosage Form for Respiratory Disorders in Traditional Persian Medicine.

    PubMed

    Karegar-Borzi, Hossein; Salehi, Mehdi; Rahimi, Roja

    2016-01-01

    Laūq is a pharmaceutical dosage form that had been mainly used for the treatment of various respiratory disorders in traditional Persian medicine. It is important from 2 aspects: a dosage form with efficient and optimum delivery of drugs to the respiratory tract and biological effects of its ingredients. Natural medicine in laūq has been demonstrated to act in respiratory disorders by their antitussive, antiallergic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, spasmolytic, and antibacterial activities. Some of these natural remedies act by most of the mentioned mechanisms such as Cydonia oblonga, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Crocus sativus, Hyssopus officinalis, Foeniculum vulgare, and honey. However, the evidence is limited including Cassia fistula, Papaver somniferum, and Drimia maritima. According to positive pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects of laūqs, they may be considered as efficient dosage forms for delivery of drugs to the respiratory tract. For better compatibility of patients, it could be substituted laūqs with newer drug delivery systems like lozenges. PMID:26008751

  20. Feasibility of an antibiotic order form. First experience in the department of internal medicine of a university hospital.

    PubMed

    Blok, W L; Gyssens, I C; Hekster, Y A; Koopmans, P P; van der Meer, J W

    1996-08-01

    Inadequate control of antimicrobial drug use may lead to excessive expenditure for antimicrobial drugs and improper prescribing it may also result in the emergence of multiresistant bacteria. An antibiotic order form may improve the quality of prescriptions by increasing the awareness of the physician of the antimicrobial spectrum needed (i.e. which microorganism is expected in a given patient), the desired duration of treatment, the potential need to adjust dosage, and the potential allergy of the patient to the drug. Furthermore, such an antibiotic order form facilitates prospective evaluation of both the quantity and the quality of prescribing practice. However, the introduction of yet another form to fill in may be met with opposition from prescribers. We have developed an easy-to-use antibiotic order form that incorporated the conventional medication order that was already in use in our hospital. Compliance (percentage of antimicrobial drug prescriptions for which an order form was used) was on average 58% in the first two weeks after introduction, and remained thereafter between 60% and 90%, varying between the different wards. Data retrieved from the antibiotic order forms could be used for surveillance We conclude that this antibiotic order form was feasible in a large department of internal medicine of a university hospital. Future usefulness will depend on compliance and on personnel support for data processing and intervention. PMID:8873229

  1. Medical Image Processing Server applied to Quality Control of Nuclear Medicine.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergara, C.; Graffigna, J. P.; Marino, E.; Omati, S.; Holleywell, P.

    2016-04-01

    This paper is framed within the area of medical image processing and aims to present the process of installation, configuration and implementation of a processing server of medical images (MIPS) in the Fundación Escuela de Medicina Nuclear located in Mendoza, Argentina (FUESMEN). It has been developed in the Gabinete de Tecnologia Médica (GA.TE.ME), Facultad de Ingeniería-Universidad Nacional de San Juan. MIPS is a software that using the DICOM standard, can receive medical imaging studies of different modalities or viewing stations, then it executes algorithms and finally returns the results to other devices. To achieve the objectives previously mentioned, preliminary tests were conducted in the laboratory. More over, tools were remotely installed in clinical enviroment. The appropiate protocols for setting up and using them in different services were established once defined those suitable algorithms. Finally, it’s important to focus on the implementation and training that is provided in FUESMEN, using nuclear medicine quality control processes. Results on implementation are exposed in this work.

  2. Self-irradiation of the blood from selected nuclides in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänscheid, H.; Fernández, M.; Eberlein, U.; Lassmann, M.

    2014-03-01

    Nuclear medicine dosimetry and research in biodosimetry often require the knowledge of the absorbed dose to the blood. This study provides coefficients for the absorbed dose rates to the blood related to the activity concentration in the blood as a function of the vessel radius for radionuclides commonly used in targeted radiotherapy and in PET-diagnostics: C-11, F-18, Ga-68, Y-90, Tc-99 m, I-124, I-131, and Lu-177. The energy deposition patterns after nuclear disintegrations in blood vessel lumina (cylinders homogeneously filled with blood) with radii from 0.01 to 25.0 mm were simulated with the Monte-Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX. An additional contribution from photon radiation from activity in blood in the remainder of the body was taken into account based on a reasonable blood distribution model. The fraction of energy absorbed from non-penetrating radiation in the blood is low in thin blood vessels but approaches the total energy emitted by particles with increasing lumen radius. For photon radiation, irradiation to blood in small vessels is almost completely due to radioactive decays in distant blood distributed throughout the body, whereas the contribution from activity in the vessel becomes dominant for lumen radii exceeding 13 mm. The dependences of the absorbed dose rates on the lumen radius can be described with good accuracy by empirical functions which can be used to determine the absorbed doses to the blood and to the surrounding tissue.

  3. Characterization of nuclear waste forms by EPR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Boatner, L.A.; Abraham, M.M.; Rappaz, M.

    1980-10-01

    Single crystals of LaPO/sub 4/ have been grown with the addition of various amounts of PW-4b simulated waste, and the EPR spectra of Gd/sup 3 +/ in these samples have been compared with that obtained for a pure LaPO/sub 4/ single crystal. The relationship between the average linewidth of two symmetric EPR transitions and their magnetic field separation for pure and PW-4b doped LaPO/sub 4/ crystals are shown quantitatively. These measurements were carried out for four different crystals and two different magnetic field orientations. Since the linewidth of each transition is proportional to its magnetic field separation from the central line, it can be concluded that the line broadening is inhomogeneous (i.e., the line broadening is due to a distribution of line positions with this distribution resulting from a distribution of impurities in the crystal). The sensitivity of Gd/sup 3 +/ linewidths to defects or strains is also under investigation as a means of detecting metamictization phenomena in orthophosphates. Mixed Ln/sub 1-x/An/sub x/PO/sub 4/ crystals, where Ln is a rare earth and An an actinide, have been grown and EPR spectra of Gd/sup 3 +/ in these systems are of considerable interest for detecting radiation damage created by ..cap alpha..-particles or recoil of the daughter nuclei. Although the examples of the application of EPR to waste form characterization described here have emphasized studies of lanthanide orthophosphates, the same techniques can be applied to perovskite, hollandite, zirconolite, etc. single crystals or powders or to amorphous materials.

  4. [Organizational forms of emergency medicine from the perspective of DIVI. Discipline-specific or interdisciplinary?].

    PubMed

    Quintel, M; Kumle, B

    2011-04-01

    Modern processes in the organization in German hospitals are decisive to the development of emergency departments and as these represent the interface between outpatient and inpatient care, they have been identified as a strategic success factor. In larger hospitals emergency departments are generally run as independent units with their own management. The growing number of patients in emergency rooms each year demonstrates the future importance of these structures and successful hospital management has to face and handle this challenge. Clear job profiles for the leadership, staff members and structures of these units are needed. This article highlights the requirements for these structures from the perspective of the German Interdisciplinary Association of Critical Care Medicine (DIVI). PMID:21424295

  5. Exposing Exposure: Enhancing Patient Safety through Automated Data Mining of Nuclear Medicine Reports for Quality Assurance and Organ Dose Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Ikuta, Ichiro; Wasser, Elliot J.; Warden, Graham I.; Gerbaudo, Victor H.; Khorasani, Ramin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and validate an open-source informatics toolkit capable of creating a radiation exposure data repository from existing nuclear medicine report archives and to demonstrate potential applications of such data for quality assurance and longitudinal patient-specific radiation dose monitoring. Materials and Methods: This study was institutional review board approved and HIPAA compliant. Informed consent was waived. An open-source toolkit designed to automate the extraction of data on radiopharmaceuticals and administered activities from nuclear medicine reports was developed. After iterative code training, manual validation was performed on 2359 nuclear medicine reports randomly selected from September 17, 1985, to February 28, 2011. Recall (sensitivity) and precision (positive predictive value) were calculated with 95% binomial confidence intervals. From the resultant institutional data repository, examples of usage in quality assurance efforts and patient-specific longitudinal radiation dose monitoring obtained by calculating organ doses from the administered activity and radiopharmaceutical of each examination were provided. Results: Validation statistics yielded a combined recall of 97.6% ± 0.7 (95% confidence interval) and precision of 98.7% ± 0.5. Histograms of administered activity for fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose and iodine 131 sodium iodide were generated. An organ dose heatmap which displays a sample patient’s dose accumulation from multiple nuclear medicine examinations was created. Conclusion: Large-scale repositories of radiation exposure data can be extracted from institutional nuclear medicine report archives with high recall and precision. Such repositories enable new approaches in radiation exposure patient safety initiatives and patient-specific radiation dose monitoring. © RSNA, 2012 PMID:22627599

  6. Ambient Dose Equivalent measured at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia Department of Nuclear Medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Avila, O.; Torres-Ulloa, C. L.; Medina, L. A.; Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.; Gamboa de Buen, I.; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E.

    2010-12-07

    Ambient dose equivalent values were determined in several sites at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Departmento de Medicina Nuclear, using TLD-100 and TLD-900 thermoluminescent dosemeters. Additionally, ambient dose equivalent was measured at a corridor outside the hospitalization room for patients treated with {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Laboratorio de Metrologia, to known {sup 137}Cs gamma radiation air kerma. Radionuclides considered for this study are {sup 131}I, {sup 18}F, {sup 67}Ga, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In, {sup 201}Tl and {sup 137}Cs, with main gamma energies between 93 and 662 keV. Dosemeters were placed during a five month period in the nuclear medicine rooms (containing gamma-cameras), injection corridor, patient waiting areas, PET/CT study room, hot lab, waste storage room and corridors next to the hospitalization rooms for patients treated with {sup 131}I and {sup 137}Cs. High dose values were found at the waste storage room, outside corridor of {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy patients and PET/CT area. Ambient dose equivalent rate obtained for the {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy corridor is equal to (18.51{+-}0.02)x10{sup -3} mSv/h. Sites with minimum doses are the gamma camera rooms, having ambient dose equivalent rates equal to (0.05{+-}0.03)x10{sup -3} mSv/h. Recommendations have been given to the Department authorities so that further actions are taken to reduce doses at high dose sites in order to comply with the ALARA principle (as low as reasonably achievable).

  7. The American College of nuclear physicians 18th annual meeting and scientific sessions DOE day: Substance abuse and nuclear medicine abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    Despite the enormous personal and social cost Of substance abuse, there is very little knowledge with respect to the mechanisms by which these drugs produce addiction as well as to the mechanisms of toxicity. Similarly, there is a lack of effective therapeutic intervention to treat the drug abusers. In this respect, nuclear medicine could contribute significantly by helping to gather information using brain imaging techniques about mechanisms of drug addiction which, in turn, could help design better therapeutic interventions, and by helping in the evaluation and diagnosis of organ toxicity from the use of drugs of abuse. This volume contains six short descriptions of presentations made at the 18th Meeting of the American College of Nuclear Physicians -- DOE Day: Substance Abuse and Nuclear Medicine.

  8. Radiation exposure to nuclear medicine personnel handling positron emitters from Ge-68/Ga-68 generator

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Durgesh Kumar; Snehlata; Dwivedi, Alok Kumar; Lochab, Satya Pal; Kumar, Rakesh; Naswa, Niraj; Sharma, Punit; Malhotra, Arun; Bandopadhayaya, Guru Pad; Bal, Chandrashekhar; Pant, Gauri Shankar

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To measure the radiation exposure to nuclear medicine personnel during synthesis and injection to the patients of Ga-68 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N′,N″,N″′-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-1-Nal3-octreotide (NOC)- (DOTA-NOC) using ring thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs). Materials and Methods: Synthesis of Ga-68 DOTA-NOC was done on a semi-automated system. Finger doses were measured during synthesis and injection of Ga-68 DOTA-NOC. The occupational workers wore TLDs at the base of ring finger of both hands. The finger doses of two radio chemists were measured during synthesis of Ga-68 DOTA-NOC while that of a physician during its injection to the patients. Results: Duration of the study was eight months and a total of 20 samples were prepared. During synthesis, the mean dose to base of left ring finger was 3.02 ± 1.01 mSv and to base of right ring finger was 1.96 ± 0.86 mSv. Mean dose to base of left ring finger was 1.26 ± 0.35 mSv while that to base of right ring finger was 1.03 ± 0.13 mSv during injection. The mean dose was observed to be higher during synthesis than injection. However, the difference was not significant (P = 0.27 and P = 0.18, respectively). Overall mean finger dose of left hand was 2.43 ± 1.21 mSv, whereas for the right hand the same was 1.65± 0.82 mSv. Conclusion: Finger doses to radio chemists during semi-automated synthesis of Ga-68 DOTA-NOC and that to the physician involved in injection of Ga-68 DOTA-NOC were found to be within permissible limits. Ring dosimeters must be worn for the safety of the nuclear medicine personnel involved in synthesis and injection of Ga-68 DOTA-NOC. PMID:22174513

  9. Nuclear medicine techniques in Merkel cell carcinoma: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    KRITIKOS, NIKOLAOS; PRIFTAKIS, DIMITRIOS; STAVRINIDES, STAVROS; KLEANTHOUS, STEFANOS; SARAFIANOU, ELENI

    2015-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive type of neuroendocrine cancer of the skin. It predominantly affects the elderly, with a predilection for the sun-exposed skin of the head and neck. Risk factors include immune-suppressing diseases, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), chronic lymphocytic leukemia and multiple myeloma, organ transplantation, and the presence of the newly-identified Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV). Diagnosis is based on pathological findings, primarily the immunohistochemical determination of cytokeratin 20 positivity. By contrast, staging relies on conventional imaging methods, such as ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging, and nuclear medicine techniques, such as sentinel lymph node scintigraphy, somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS), and positron emission tomography (PET)/CT with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) or alternative radiopharmaceuticals. The treatment of MCC is primarily surgical, with possible adjuvant radiation, while the use of chemotherapy appears to be an alternative therapeutic option that is used only in specific cases. The present study describes the case of a 43-year-old HIV-positive Caucasian man with MCC located on the posterior surface of the left thigh, which was identified by cytological and histological examination of tissue sampled by fine needle aspiration and biopsy performed under CT. SRS demonstrated a high uptake of 111In-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid-octreotide at the affected site. Therefore, the lesion was surgically excised, and the patient received chemotherapy and adjuvant radiotherapy. Three months subsequent to treatment, the patient underwent a PET/CT scan with 18F-FDG that demonstrated uptake in the cervical lymph nodes and the area of the excised lesion. These findings indicated that the disease was in remission. The aim of the present study was to highlight the value and contribution of nuclear medicine in the diagnosis, staging and

  10. Rationale for the combination of nuclear medicine with magnetic resonance for pre-clinical imaging.

    PubMed

    Wagenaar, Douglas J; Kapusta, Maciej; Li, Junqiang; Patt, Bradley E

    2006-08-01

    Multi-modality combinations of SPECT/CT and PET/CT have proven to be highly successful in the clinic and small animal SPECT/CT and PET/CT are becoming the norm in the research and drug development setting. However, the use of ionizing radiation from a high-resolution CT scanner is undesirable in any setting and particularly in small animal imaging (SAI), in laboratory experiments where it can result in radiation doses of sufficient magnitude that the experimental results can be influenced by the organism's response to radiation. The alternative use of magnetic resonance (MR) would offer a high-resolution, non-ionizing method for anatomical imaging of laboratory animals. MR brings considerably more than its 3D anatomical capability, especially regarding the imaging of laboratory animals. Dynamic MR imaging techniques can facilitate studies of perfusion, oxygenation, and diffusion amongst others. Further, MR spectroscopy can provide images that can be related to the concentration of endogenous molecules in vivo. MR imaging of injected contrast agents extends MR into the domain of molecular imaging. In combination with nuclear medicine (NM) SPECT and PET modalities in small animal imaging, MR would facilitate studies of dynamic processes such as biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics. However, the detectors for nearly all PET and SPECT systems are still based on vacuum tube technology, namely: photomultiplier tubes (PMT's) in which the signal is generated by transporting electrons over a substantial distance within an evacuated glass tube, making them inoperable in even small magnetic fields. Thus the combination of SPECT or PET with MR has not been practical until the recent availability of semiconductor detectors such as silicon avalanche photodiodes (APD's) for PET and CdZnTe (CZT) detectors for SPECT coupled with the availability of high-density low noise ASIC electronics to read out the semiconductor detectors. The strong advantage of these

  11. Bound Nucleon Form Factors, Quark-Hadron Duality, and the Nuclear EMC Effect

    SciTech Connect

    K. Tsushima; D.H. Lu; W. Melnitchouk; K. Saito; A.W. Thomas

    2002-09-13

    We discuss the electromagnetic form factors, axial form factors, and structure functions of a nucleon bound in the quark-meson coupling (QMC) model. Free space nucleon form factors are calculated using the improved cloudy bag model (ICBM). After describing finite nuclei and nuclear matter in the quark-based (EMC) model, the in-medium modification of the bound nucleon form factors is calculated in the same model. Finally, the bound nucleon structure function, F2, is extracted using the calculated in-medium electromagnetic form factors and Bloom-Gilman (quark-hadron) duality.

  12. Dose received by occupationally exposed workers at a nuclear medicine department

    SciTech Connect

    Avila, O.; Sanchez-Uribe, N. A.; Rodriguez-Laguna, A.; Medina, L. A.; Estrada, E.; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E.

    2012-10-23

    Personal Dose Equivalent (PDE) values were determined for occupational exposed workers (OEW) at the Nuclear Medicine Department (NMD) of 'Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia' (INCan), Mexico, using TLD-100 thermoluminescent dosemeters. OEW at NMD, INCan make use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Radionuclides associated to a pharmaceutical compound used at this Department are {sup 131}I, {sup 18}F, {sup 68}Ga, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In and {sup 11}C with main gamma emission energies between 140 and 511 keV. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the metrology department of 'Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares' (ININ), Mexico. Every occupational worker used dark containers with three dosimeters which were replaced monthly for a total of 5 periods. Additionally, control dosemeters were also placed at a site free of radioactive sources in order to determine the background radiation. Results were adjusted to find PDE/day and estimating annual PDE values in the range between 2 mSv (background) and 9 mSv. The mean annual value is 3.51 mSv and the standard deviation SD is 0.78 mSv. Four of the 16 OEW received annual doses higher than the average +1 SD (4.29 mSv). Results depend on OEW daily activities and were consistent for each OEW for the 5 studied periods as well as with PDE values reported by the firm that performs the monthly service. All obtained values are well within the established annual OEW dose limit stated in the {sup R}eglamento General de Seguridad Radiologica{sup ,} Mexico (50 mSv), as well as within the lower limit recommended by the 'International Commission on Radiation Protection' (ICRP), report no.60 (20 mSv). These results verify the adequate compliance of the NMD at INCan, Mexico with the norms given by the national regulatory commission.

  13. Current Status of Nuclear Medicine Practice in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Páez, Diana; Orellana, Pilar; Gutiérrez, Claudia; Ramirez, Raúl; Mut, Fernando; Torres, Leonel

    2015-10-01

    The practice of nuclear medicine (NM) in the Latin American and Caribbean region has experienced important growth in the last decade. However, there is great heterogeneity among countries regarding the availability of technology and human resources. According to data collected through June 2014 by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the total number of γ cameras in the region is 1,231, with an average of 2.16 per million inhabitants. Over 90% of the equipment is SPECT cameras; 7.6% of which have hybrid technology. There are 161 operating PET or PET/CT cameras in 12 member states, representing a rate of 0.3 per million people. Most NM centers belong to the private health system and are in capitals or major cities. Only 4 countries have the capability of assembling 99Mo-99mTc generators, and 2 countries produce 99mTc from nuclear reactors. Cold kits are produced in some countries, and therapeutic agents are mostly imported from outside the region. There are 35 operative cyclotrons. In relation to human resources: there is 1 physician per γ camera, 1.6 technologists per γ camera, 0.1 medical physicist per center, and approximately 0.1 radiochemist or radiopharmacist per center. Nearly 94% of the procedures are diagnostic. PET studies represent about 4% of the total. The future of NM in the Latin American and Caribbean region is promising, with great potential and possibilities. Some of the most important factors driving the region toward greater homogeneity in the availability and application of NM, and bridging the gaps between countries, are clinician awareness of the importance of NM in managing diseases prevalent in the region, increased building of capacity, continuous and strong support from international organizations such as the IAEA through national and regional projects, and strong public-private partnerships and government commitment. PMID:26229143

  14. Dose received by occupationally exposed workers at a nuclear medicine department

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ávila, O.; Sánchez-Uribe, N. A.; Rodríguez-Laguna, A.; Medina, L. A.; Estrada, E.; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E.

    2012-10-01

    Personal Dose Equivalent (PDE) values were determined for occupational exposed workers (OEW) at the Nuclear Medicine Department (NMD) of "Instituto Nacional de Cancerología" (INCan), Mexico, using TLD-100 thermoluminescent dosemeters. OEW at NMD, INCan make use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Radionuclides associated to a pharmaceutical compound used at this Department are 131I, 18F, 68Ga, 99mTc, 111In and 11C with main gamma emission energies between 140 and 511 keV. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the metrology department of "Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares" (ININ), Mexico. Every occupational worker used dark containers with three dosimeters which were replaced monthly for a total of 5 periods. Additionally, control dosemeters were also placed at a site free of radioactive sources in order to determine the background radiation. Results were adjusted to find PDE/day and estimating annual PDE values in the range between 2 mSv (background) and 9 mSv. The mean annual value is 3.51 mSv and the standard deviation SD is 0.78 mSv. Four of the 16 OEW received annual doses higher than the average +1 SD (4.29 mSv). Results depend on OEW daily activities and were consistent for each OEW for the 5 studied periods as well as with PDE values reported by the firm that performs the monthly service. All obtained values are well within the established annual OEW dose limit stated in the "Reglamento General de Seguridad Radiológica", México (50 mSv), as well as within the lower limit recommended by the "International Commission on Radiation Protection" (ICRP), report no.60 (20 mSv). These results verify the adequate compliance of the NMD at INCan, Mexico with the norms given by the national regulatory commission.

  15. Effect of revulsive cultivation on the yield and quality of newly formed sclerotia in medicinal Wolfiporia cocos.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhangyi; Tang, Wenrui; Xiong, Bin; Wang, Keqin; Bian, Yinbing

    2014-07-01

    Wolfiporia cocos is a well-known medicinal mushroom widely used in China, Japan and other Asiatic countries for its various therapeutic effects. 'Revulsive cultivation' is a newly developed method for promoting sclerotia growth in W. cocos field cultivation in China. In this report, we have systematically examined the effects of 'revulsive cultivation' on the yield and quality of newly formed sclerotia. The results showed that the genetic differences between the cultivated strain and the revulsive strain of T1 used in this study did not affect the formation process of new, large sclerotia in which the mycelia of the cultivated strain grew on pine logs directionally assembled on the revulsive strain. Additionally, 'revulsive cultivation', in which the cultivated strain and the revulsive strain used had the same or different genotypes, could remarkably increase the yield, lower the water content, and increase the water-soluble polysaccharide content of the newly formed sclerotia. Moreover, we observed that the changes in the values of the tested economic traits obtained from different genotype combinations through 'revulsive cultivation' were dissimilar. The correlations of these changes with the original sclerotium-forming ability of the cultivated strains and the genetic differences between the cultivated strain and the revulsive strain were not significant. These results will broaden our knowledge regarding the field cultivation of this medical fungus, stimulate new thinking on the study of sclerotium formation in some sclerotium-forming fungi, and promote further studies on the mechanism of sclerotium formation in W. cocos. PMID:24799082

  16. A Spartan 6 FPGA-based data acquisition system for dedicated imagers in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fysikopoulos, E.; Loudos, G.; Georgiou, M.; David, S.; Matsopoulos, G.

    2012-12-01

    We present the development of a four-channel low-cost hardware system for data acquisition, with application in dedicated nuclear medicine imagers. A 12 bit octal channel high-speed analogue to digital converter, with up to 65 Msps sampling rate, was used for the digitization of analogue signals. The digitized data are fed into a field programmable gate array (FPGA), which contains an interface to a bank of double data rate 2 (DDR2)-type memory. The FPGA processes the digitized data and stores the results into the DDR2. An ethernet link was used for data transmission to a personal computer. The embedded system was designed using Xilinx's embedded development kit (EDK) and was based on Xilinx's Microblaze soft-core processor. The system has been evaluated using two different discrete optical detector arrays (a position-sensitive photomultiplier tube and a silicon photomultiplier) with two different pixelated scintillator arrays (BGO, LSO:Ce). The energy resolution for both detectors was approximately 25%. A clear identification of all crystal elements was achieved in all cases. The data rate of the system with this implementation can reach 60 Mbits s-1. The results have shown that this FPGA data acquisition system is a compact and flexible solution for single-photon-detection applications. This paper was originally submitted for inclusion in the special feature on Imaging Systems and Techniques 2011.

  17. Simulation of beta radiator handling procedures in nuclear medicine by means of a movable hand phantom.

    PubMed

    Blunck, Ch; Becker, F; Urban, M

    2011-03-01

    In nuclear medicine therapies, people working with beta radiators such as (90)Y may be exposed to non-negligible partial body doses. For radiation protection, it is important to know the characteristics of the radiation field and possible dose exposures at relevant positions in the working area. Besides extensive measurements, simulations can provide these data. For this purpose, a movable hand phantom for Monte Carlo simulations was developed. Specific beta radiator handling scenarios can be modelled interactively with forward kinematics or automatically with an inverse kinematics procedure. As a first investigation, the dose distribution on a medical doctor's hand injecting a (90)Y solution was measured and simulated with the phantom. Modelling was done with the interactive method based on five consecutive frames from a video recorded during the injection. Owing to the use of only one camera, not each detail of the radiation scenario is visible in the video. In spite of systematic uncertainties, the measured and simulated dose values are in good agreement. PMID:21044994

  18. Estimating the population dose from nuclear medicine examinations towards establishing diagnostic reference levels

    PubMed Central

    Niksirat, Fatemeh; Monfared, Ali Shabestani; Deevband, Mohammad Reza; Amiri, Mehrangiz; Gholami, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: This study conducted a review on nuclear medicine (NM) services in Mazandaran Province with a view to establish adult diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) and provide updated data on population radiation exposure resulting from diagnostic NM procedures. Materials and Methods: The data were collected from all centers in all cities of Mazandaran Province in the North of Iran from March 2014 to February 2015. The 75th percentile of the distribution and the average administered activity (AAA) were calculated and the average effective dose per examination, collective effective dose to the population and annual effective dose per capita were estimated using dose conversion factors. The gathered data were analyzed via SPSS (version 18) software using descriptive statistics. Results: Based on the data of this study, the collective effective dose was 95.628 manSv, leading to a mean effective dose of 0.03 mSv per capita. It was also observed that the myocardial perfusion was the most common procedure (50%). The 75th percentile of the distribution of administered activity (AA) represents the DRL. The AAA and the 75th percentile of the distribution of AA are slightly higher than DRL of most European countries. Conclusions: Myocardial perfusion is responsible for most of the collective effective dose and it is better to establish national DRLs for myocardial perfusion and review some DRL values through the participation of NM specialists in the future. PMID:26917891

  19. Potential dose to nuclear medicine technologists from 99mTc-DTPA aerosol lung studies.

    PubMed

    Achey, Bryan; Miller, Ken; Erdman, Mike; King, Steve

    2004-05-01

    Air sampling performed during 190 Tc-labeled DTPA aerosol lung ventilation studies indicated that the maximum airborne concentration to which the nuclear medicine technologists might be exposed was 7.1 x 10(-1) Bq mL(-1) (1.9 x 10(-5) microCi mL(-1)). If a single technologist performed ALL the aerosol studies, at this maximum airborne concentration, based on the Annual Limit on Intake (ALI), the resulting dose equivalents could be either 1 mSv (100 mrem) to the lungs or 0.1 mSv (10 mrem) to the total body. However, the procedures are shared by the technical staff, the times of exposure are represented by only a fraction of the overall procedure time, and the average airborne concentrations were found to be more than an order of magnitude lower than the maximum. This resulted in a projected average annual dose equivalent of 7.0 x 10(-3) mSv (0.7 mrem) to the lungs or 7.0 x 10(-4) mSv (0.07 mrem) to the whole body from the performance of these procedures. PMID:15069295

  20. Applicability of radioactive 99mTc-O4- magnetic fluid to nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong-Hee; Kim, Seong-Min; Kim, Keun-Ho; Kim, Chong-Oh

    2011-01-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized with solution of ferrous and ferric chlorides and ammonia water by sonochemical method. The hydrophilically radioactive magnetic fluids were prepared by labeling technetium pertechnetate (99mTc-O4-) and then adsorbing alginic acid on the magnetite particles. In order to measure some properties of the dispersed particles, the magnetic fluids were freezed down to -70 oC, and were dried in vacuum. The total size of the particles was about 15 nm with the core diameter of 12 nm and their superparamagnetic saturation magnetization was 63 emu/g for the core-shell of Fe3O4/Algin and 52 emu/g for that of Fe3O4/99mTc-O4-/Algin. The labeling of radioactive 99mTc-O4- to the magnetite particles was efficient to about 70 %. The fluid of magnetic particles on which the radioisotopic substance is labeled with such an efficiency level may be applied as a tracer for diagnosis in nuclear medicine.

  1. A Perspective of the Future of Nuclear Medicine Training and Certification.

    PubMed

    Arevalo-Perez, Julio; Paris, Manuel; Graham, Michael M; Osborne, Joseph R

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine (NM) has evolved from a medical subspecialty using quite basic tests to one using elaborate methods to image organ physiology and has truly become "Molecular Imaging." Concurrently, there has also been a timely debate about who has to be responsible for keeping pace with all of the components of the developmental cycle-imaging, radiopharmaceuticals, and instrumentation. Since the foundation of the American Board of NM, the practice of NM and the process toward certification have undergone major revisions. At present, the debate is focused on the inevitable future convergence of Radiology and NM. The potential for further cooperation or fusion of the American Board of Radiology and the American Board of NM is likely to bring about a new path for NM and Molecular Imaging training. If the merger is done carefully, respecting the strengths of both partners equally, there is an excellent potential to create a hybrid NM-Radiology specialty that combines Physiology and Molecular Biology with detailed anatomical imaging that sustains the innovation that has been central to NM residency and practice. We introduce a few basic trends in imaging use in the United States. These trends do not predict future use, but highlight the need for an appropriately credentialed practitioner to interpret these examination results and provide value to the health care system. PMID:26687859

  2. Bone metastases: assessment of therapeutic response through radiological and nuclear medicine imaging modalities.

    PubMed

    Vassiliou, V; Andreopoulos, D; Frangos, S; Tselis, N; Giannopoulou, E; Lutz, S

    2011-11-01

    Radiological and nuclear medicine imaging modalities used for assessing bone metastases treatment response include plain and digitalised radiography (XR), skeletal scintigraphy (SS), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), [(18)F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and PET/CT. Here we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these assessment modalities as evident through different clinical trials. Additionally, we present the more established response criteria of the International Union Against Cancer and the World Health Organization and compare them with newer MD Anderson criteria. Even though serial XR and SS have been used to assess the therapeutic response for decades, several months are required before changes are evident. Newer techniques, such as MRI or PET, may allow an earlier evaluation of response that may be quantified through monitoring changes in signal intensity and standard uptake value, respectively. Moreover, the application of PET/CT, which can follow both morphological and metabolic changes, has yielded interesting and promising results that give a new insight into the natural history of metastatic bone disease. However, only a few studies have investigated the application of these newer techniques and further clinical trials are needed to corroborate their promising results and establish the most suitable imaging parameters and evaluation time points. Last, but not least, there is an absolute need to adopt uniform response criteria for bone metastases through an international consensus in order to better assess treatment response in terms of accuracy and objectivity. PMID:21530193

  3. NOTE: Externally triggered gating of nuclear medicine acquisitions: a useful method for partitioning data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Dale L.; Kalemis, Antonis

    2005-04-01

    Physiological gating in nuclear medicine image acquisition was introduced over 30 years ago to subdivide data from the beating heart into short time frames to minimize motion blurring and permit evaluation of contractile parameters. It has since been widely applied in planar gamma camera imaging, SPECT, positron tomography (PET) and anatomical modalities such as x-ray CT and MRI, mostly for cardiac or respiratory investigations. However, the gating capability of gamma cameras and PET scanners can be employed to produce multiply partitioned, statistically independent projection data that can be used in various ways such as to study the effect of varying total acquired counts or time, or administered radioactivity, on image quality and multiple observations for statistical image analyses. Externally triggered gating essentially provides 'something for nothing' as no data are lost and a 'non-gated' data set is easily synthesized post hoc, and there are few reasons for not acquiring the data in this manner (e.g., slightly longer processing time, extra disk space, etc). We present a number of examples where externally triggered gating and partitioning of image data has been useful.

  4. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of biokinetic models for radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Li, W B; Hoeschen, C

    2010-01-01

    Mathematical models for kinetics of radiopharmaceuticals in humans were developed and are used to estimate the radiation absorbed dose for patients in nuclear medicine by the International Commission on Radiological Protection and the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) Committee. However, due to the fact that the residence times used were derived from different subjects, partially even with different ethnic backgrounds, a large variation in the model parameters propagates to a high uncertainty of the dose estimation. In this work, a method was developed for analysing the uncertainty and sensitivity of biokinetic models that are used to calculate the residence times. The biokinetic model of (18)F-FDG (FDG) developed by the MIRD Committee was analysed by this developed method. The sources of uncertainty of all model parameters were evaluated based on the experiments. The Latin hypercube sampling technique was used to sample the parameters for model input. Kinetic modelling of FDG in humans was performed. Sensitivity of model parameters was indicated by combining the model input and output, using regression and partial correlation analysis. The transfer rate parameter of plasma to other tissue fast is the parameter with the greatest influence on the residence time of plasma. Optimisation of biokinetic data acquisition in the clinical practice by exploitation of the sensitivity of model parameters obtained in this study is discussed. PMID:20185457

  5. The development of new radionuclide generator systems for nuclear medicine applications

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Callahan, A.P.; Mirzadeh, S. ); Brihaye, C.; Guillaume, M. . Cyclotron Research Center)

    1991-01-01

    Radioisotope generator systems have traditionally played a central role in nuclear medicine in providing radioisotopes for both research and clinical applications. In this paper, the development of several tungsten-188/rhenium-188 prototype generators which provide rhenium-188 for radioimmunotherapy (RAIT) is discussed. The authors have recently demonstrated that carrier-free iridium-194 can be obtained from the activated carbon system from decay of reactor-produced osmium-194 for potential RAIT applications. Instrumentation advances such as the new generation of high-count-rate (fast) gamma camera systems for first-pass technology require the availability of generator-produced ultra short-lived radioisotopes for radionuclide angiography (RNA). The activated carbon generator is an efficient system to obtain ultra short-lived iridium-191 m from osmium-191 for RNA. In addition, the growing number of PET centers has stimulated research in generators which provide positron-emitting radioisotopes. Copper-62, obtained from the zinc-62 generator, is currently used for PET evaluation of organ perfusion. The availability of the parent radioisotopes, the fabrication and use of these generators, and the practical factors for use of these systems in the radiopharmacy are discussed. 74 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Radiation exposure to nuclear medicine staff involved in PET/CT practice in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Antic, V; Ciraj-Bjelac, O; Stankovic, J; Arandjic, D; Todorovic, N; Lucic, S

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the radiation exposure to nuclear medicine (NM) staff in the two positron emission tomography-computed tomography centres in Serbia and to investigate the possibilities for dose reduction. Dose levels in terms of Hp(10) for whole body and Hp(0.07) for hands of NM staff were assessed using thermoluminescence and electronic personal dosemeters. The assessed doses per procedure in terms of Hp(10) were 4.2-7 and 5-6 μSv, in two centres, respectively, whereas the extremity doses in terms of Hp(0.07) in one of the centres was 34-126 μSv procedure(-1). The whole-body doses per unit activity were 17-19 and 21-26 μSv GBq(-1) in two centres, respectively, and the normalised finger dose in one centre was 170-680 μSv GBq(-1). The maximal estimated annual whole-body doses in two centres were 3.4 and 2.0 mSv, while the corresponding extremity dose in the later one was 45 mSv. Improvements as introduction of automatic dispensing system and injection and optimisation of working practice resulted in dose reduction ranging from 12 up to 67 %. PMID:24464817

  7. Investigation of public exposure resulted from the radioiodine delay tank facility of nuclear medicine department

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusof, Mohd Fahmi Mohd; Ali, Abdul Muhaimin Mat; Abdullah, Reduan; Idris, Abdullah Waidi

    2016-01-01

    The study is carried out to assess the exposure rate that could contribute to public exposure in a radioiodine ward delay tank facility of Radiotherapy, Oncology and Nuclear Medicine, Department, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM). The exposure rate at several locations including the delay tank room, doorway and at the public walking route was measured using Victoreen 415P-RYR survey meter. The radioactive level of the 131I waste was measured using Captus 3000 well counting system. The results showed that exposure rate and total count of the delay tank sample increased when the radioiodine ward was fully occupied with patient and reduced when the ward was vacant. Occupancy of radioiodine ward for two consecutive weeks had dramatically increased the exposure rate around the delay tank and radioactive level of 131I waste. The highest exposure rate and radioactive level was recorded when the ward was occupied for two consecutive weeks with 177.00 µR/h and 58.36 kcpm respectively. The exposure rate decreased 15.76 % when the door of the delay tank room was closed. The exposure rate at public walking route decreased between 15.58 % and 36.92 % as the distance increased between 1 and 3 m.

  8. Knowledge-based factor analysis of multidimensional nuclear medicine image sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yap, Jeffrey T.; Chen, Chin-Tu; Cooper, Malcolm; Treffert, Jon D.

    1994-05-01

    We have developed a knowledge-based approach to analyzing dynamic nuclear medicine data sets using factor analysis. Prior knowledge is used as constraints to produce factor images and their associated time functions which are physically and physiologically realistic. These methods have been applied to both planar and tomographic image sequences acquired using various single-photon emitting and positron emitting radiotracers. Computer-simulated data, non-human primate studies, and human clinical studies have been used to develop and evaluate the methodology. The organ systems studied include the kidneys, heart, brain, liver, and bone. The factors generated represent various isolated aspects of physiologic function, such as tissue perfusion and clearance. In some clinical studies, the factors have indicated the potential to isolate diseased tissue from normally functioning tissue. In addition, the factor analysis of data acquired using newly developed radioligands has shown the ability to differentiate the specific binding of the radioligand to the targeted receptors from the non-specific binding. This suggests the potential use of factor analysis in the development and evaluation of radiolabeled compounds as well as in the investigation of specific receptor systems and their role in diagnosing disease.

  9. Highlights of the 25th Anniversary EANM Congress Milan 2012: nuclear medicine and molecular imaging at its best.

    PubMed

    Langsteger, Werner; Beheshti, Mohsen

    2013-09-01

    The European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) celebrated its 25th Anniversary Congress in Milan under the chairmanship of Professor Emilio Bombardieri and the auspices of the Italian Society of Nuclear Medicine. As always, the Congress was a great success: more than 5,530 participants from 88 countries came from Europe and beyond. In spite of limited budgets, industry again made an important contribution: New innovative equipment and tracers demonstrating the latest technology and innovations were presented by 122 companies. This review is a brief summary of the major scientific contributions made in the fields of oncology, multimodality imaging, cardiovascular science, neurology and psychiatry, technological innovation and novel tracers, and in other clinical sciences as well as in radionuclide therapy, which all show promising and great innovations. PMID:23917722

  10. State-of-the-art review of materials properties of nuclear waste forms.

    SciTech Connect

    Mendel, J. E.; Nelson, R. D.; Turcotte, R. P.; Gray, W. J.; Merz, M. D.; Roberts, F. P.; Weber, W. J.; Westsik, Jr., J. H.; Clark, D. E.

    1981-04-01

    The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) was established at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to assemble a standardized nuclear waste materials data base for use in research, systems and facility design, safety analyses, and waste management decisions. This centralized data base will be provided through the means of a Nuclear Waste Materials Handbook. The first issue of the Handbook will be published in the fall of 1981 in looseleaf format so that it can be updated as additional information becomes available. To ensure utmost reliability, all materials data appearing in the Handbook will be obtained by standard procedures defined in the Handbook and approved by an independent Materials Review Board (MRB) comprised of materials experts from Department of Energy laboratories and from universities and industry. In the interim before publication of the Handbook there is need for a report summarizing the existing materials data on nuclear waste forms. This review summarizes materials property data for the nuclear waste forms that are being developed for immobilization of high-level radioactive waste. It is intended to be a good representation of the knowledge concerning the properties of HLW forms as of March 1981. The table of contents lists the following topics: introduction which covers waste-form categories, and important waste-form materials properties; physical properties; mechanical properties; chemical durability; vaporization; radiation effects; and thermal phase stability.

  11. Computational Efficient Upscaling Methodology for Predicting Thermal Conductivity of Nuclear Waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Dongsheng; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2011-09-28

    This study evaluated different upscaling methods to predict thermal conductivity in loaded nuclear waste form, a heterogeneous material system. The efficiency and accuracy of these methods were compared. Thermal conductivity in loaded nuclear waste form is an important property specific to scientific researchers, in waste form Integrated performance and safety code (IPSC). The effective thermal conductivity obtained from microstructure information and local thermal conductivity of different components is critical in predicting the life and performance of waste form during storage. How the heat generated during storage is directly related to thermal conductivity, which in turn determining the mechanical deformation behavior, corrosion resistance and aging performance. Several methods, including the Taylor model, Sachs model, self-consistent model, and statistical upscaling models were developed and implemented. Due to the absence of experimental data, prediction results from finite element method (FEM) were used as reference to determine the accuracy of different upscaling models. Micrographs from different loading of nuclear waste were used in the prediction of thermal conductivity. Prediction results demonstrated that in term of efficiency, boundary models (Taylor and Sachs model) are better than self consistent model, statistical upscaling method and FEM. Balancing the computation resource and accuracy, statistical upscaling is a computational efficient method in predicting effective thermal conductivity for nuclear waste form.

  12. Pregnane X receptor, constitutive androstane receptor and hepatocyte nuclear factors as emerging players in cancer precision medicine.

    PubMed

    De Mattia, Elena; Cecchin, Erika; Roncato, Rossana; Toffoli, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    Great research effort has been focused on elucidating the contribution of host genetic variability on pharmacological outcomes in cancer. Nuclear receptors have emerged as mediators between environmental stimuli and drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. The pregnane X receptor, constitutive androstane receptor and hepatocyte nuclear factors have been reported to regulate transcription of genes that encode drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters. Altered nuclear receptor expression has been shown to affect the metabolism and pharmacological profile of traditional chemotherapeutics and targeted agents. Accordingly, polymorphic variants in these genes have been studied as pharmacogenetic markers of outcome variability. This review summarizes the state of knowledge about the roles played by pregnane X receptor, constitutive androstane receptor and hepatocyte nuclear factor expression and genetics as predictive markers of anticancer drug toxicity and efficacy, which can improve cancer precision medicine. PMID:27561454

  13. Annual report on the development and characterization of solidified forms for nuclear wastes, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Chick, L.A.; McVay, G.L.; Mellinger, G.B.; Roberts, F.P.

    1980-12-01

    Development and characterization of solidified nuclear waste forms is a major continuing effort at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Contributions from seven programs directed at understanding chemical composition, process conditions, and long-term behaviors of various nuclear waste forms are included in this report. The major findings of the report are included in extended figure captions that can be read as brief technical summaries of the research, with additional information included in a traditional narrative format. Waste form development proceeded on crystalline and glass materials for high-level and transuranic (TRU) wastes. Leaching studies emphasized new areas of research aimed at more basic understanding of waste form/aqueous solution interactions. Phase behavior and thermal effects research included studies on crystal phases in defense and TRU waste glasses and on liquid-liquid phase separation in borosilicate waste glasses. Radiation damage effects in crystals and glasses from alpha decay and from transmutation are reported.

  14. Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Callahan, A.P.; Hsieh, B.T.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Lambert, C.R.

    1993-07-01

    The ``IQNP`` agent is an antagonist for the cholinergic-muscarinic receptor. Since the IQNP molecule has two asymmetric centers and either cis or trans isomerism of the vinyl iodide, there are eight possible isomeric combinations. In this report, the systematic synthesis, purification and animal testing of several isomers of radioiodinated ``IQNP`` are reported. A dramatic and unexpected relation between the absolute configuration at the two asymmetric centers and the stereochemistry of the vinyl iodide on receptor specificity was observed. The E-(R)(R) isomer shows specific and significant localization (per cent dose/gram at 6 hours) in receptor-rich cerebral structures (i.e. Cortex = 1.38 + 0.31; Striatum = 1.22 + 0.20) and low uptake in tissues rich in the M{sub 2} subtype (Heart = 0.10; Cerebellum = 0.04). In contrast, the E-(R)(S) isomer shows very low receptor-specific uptake (Cortex = 0.04; Striatum = 0.02), demonstrating the importance of absolute configuration at the acetate center. An unexpected and important observation is that the stereochemistry of the vinyl iodine appears to affect receptor subtype specificity, since the Z-(R,S)(R) isomer shows much higher uptake in the heart (0.56 + 0.12) and cerebellum (0.17 + 0.04). Studies are now in progress to confirm these exciting results in vitro. Progress has also continued during this period with several collaborative programs. The first large-scale clinical tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator prototype (500 mCi) was fabricated and supplied to the Center for Molecular Medicine and Immunology (CMMI), in Newark, New Jersey, for Phase I clinical trials of rhenium-188-labeled anti CEA antibodies for patient treatment. Collaborative studies are also continuing in conjunction with the Nuclear Medicine Department at the University of Massachusetts where a generator is in use to compare the biological properties of {open_quotes}direct{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}indirect{close_quotes} labeled antibodies.

  15. The long-term performance of nuclear waste forms: Natural materials - three case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, R.C.

    1993-12-31

    Natural materials may be used to advantage in the evaluation of the long-term performance of nuclear waste forms. Three case studies are presented: (I) radiation effects in ceramic waste forms; (II) corrosion products of UO{sub 2} under oxic conditions; (III) corrosion rate of nuclear waste glasses. For each case, a natural phase which is structurally and chemically analogous to the waste form is identified and used to evaluate the long-term behavior of a nuclear waste form. Short-term experimental results are compared to the observations made of analogous natural phases. The three cases studies illustrate that results ma range between providing fundamental data needed for the long-term evaluation of a waste form to only providing qualitative data of limited use. Although in the most rigorous view the long-term behavior of a phase cannot be predicted, the correspondence between short-term experimental results and observations made of natural phases provides confidence in the {open_quotes}predicted{close_quotes} behavior of the waste form. The strength of this approach rests with the degree to which a mechanistic understanding of the phenomenon is attained.

  16. Secondary phases formed during nuclear waste glass-water interactions: Thermodynamic and derived properties

    SciTech Connect

    McKenzie, W.F.

    1992-08-01

    The thermodynamic properties of secondary phases observed to form during nuclear waste glass-water interactions are of particular interest as it is with the application of these properties together with the thermodynamic properties of other solid phases, fluid phases, and aqueous species that one may predict the environmental consequences of introducing radionuclides contained in the glass into groundwater at a high-level nuclear waste repository. The validation of these predicted consequences can be obtained from laboratory experiments and field observations at natural analogue sites. The purpose of this report is to update and expand the previous compilation (McKenzie, 1991) of thermodynamic data retrieved from the literature and/or estimated for secondary phases observed to form (and candidate phases from observed chemical compositions) during nuclear waste glass-water interactions. In addition, this report includes provisionally recommended thermodynamic data of secondary phases.

  17. [Social medicine and healthcare economics. The framework for future forms of healthcare].

    PubMed

    Rebscher, Herbert

    2008-05-01

    In the political debate, even in academia, the concepts of "profitability" or "efficiency" are thrown around very robustly and freely with no regard for the players themselves. Economically speaking there can be no efficiency without a definition of targets in terms of outcomes and their level of quality. If even the government's Council of Economic Experts itself finds in its assessment of hospital funding that the "reform's target parameters - improving the profitability of service provision - have developed positively", but adds that "whether this also applies to the quality of services provided or to the realisation of healthcare outcomes remains to be seen due to the lack of evidence" [21], this indicates a one-sided and problematic curtailment of the concept even by highly competent bodies. Economic control of new forms of healthcare by means of prices and fees for clearly defined services is a complex problem that has not been dealt with adequately. All pricing is based on classification models aimed at ensuring cost and benefit clusters that are as homogeneous as possible. Classification models in healthcare as a basis for price control targets need constant adjusting to ensure accuracy of mapping and appropriateness to performance. A prerequisite for the methodology behind price control models of this kind is presupposing a responsible, rule-bound and criteria-based handling of "variance" and "coincidence" by means of risk-adjusted quality and price systems. They will define the character of a wide range of steering tools and have an effect that goes beyond the narrow formal confines of the sector. That is why the regulatory framework will need first and foremost to define a qualitative framework for the political "security infrastructure" by means of deregulated economic processes in which price control becomes accountable and is justified in terms of content. PMID:18425693

  18. Energy-momentum tensor form factors of the nucleon in nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Chul; Schweitzer, Peter; Yakhshiev, Ulugbek

    2012-12-01

    The nucleon form factors of the energy-momentum tensor are studied in nuclear medium in the framework of the in-medium modified Skyrme model. We obtain a negative D-term, in agreement with results from other approaches, and find that medium effects make the value of d1 more negative.

  19. Global Developmental Gene Programing Involves a Nuclear Form of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor-1 (FGFR1).

    PubMed

    Terranova, Christopher; Narla, Sridhar T; Lee, Yu-Wei; Bard, Jonathan; Parikh, Abhirath; Stachowiak, Ewa K; Tzanakakis, Emmanuel S; Buck, Michael J; Birkaya, Barbara; Stachowiak, Michal K

    2015-01-01

    Genetic studies have placed the Fgfr1 gene at the top of major ontogenic pathways that enable gastrulation, tissue development and organogenesis. Using genome-wide sequencing and loss and gain of function experiments the present investigation reveals a mechanism that underlies global and direct gene regulation by the nuclear form of FGFR1, ensuring that pluripotent Embryonic Stem Cells differentiate into Neuronal Cells in response to Retinoic Acid. Nuclear FGFR1, both alone and with its partner nuclear receptors RXR and Nur77, targets thousands of active genes and controls the expression of pluripotency, homeobox, neuronal and mesodermal genes. Nuclear FGFR1 targets genes in developmental pathways represented by Wnt/β-catenin, CREB, BMP, the cell cycle and cancer-related TP53 pathway, neuroectodermal and mesodermal programing networks, axonal growth and synaptic plasticity pathways. Nuclear FGFR1 targets the consensus sequences of transcription factors known to engage CREB-binding protein, a common coregulator of transcription and established binding partner of nuclear FGFR1. This investigation reveals the role of nuclear FGFR1 as a global genomic programmer of cell, neural and muscle development. PMID:25923916

  20. Individual dose monitoring of the nuclear medicine departments staff controlled by Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection.

    PubMed

    Szewczak, Kamil; Jednoróg, Sławomir; Krajewski, Paweł

    2013-01-01

    Presented paper describes the results of the individual doses measurements for ionizing radiation, carried out by the Laboratory of Individual and Environmental Doses Monitoring (PDIS) of the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection in Warsaw (CLOR) for the medical staff employees in several nuclear medicine (NM) departments across Poland. In total there are48 NM departments in operation in Poland [1] (consultation in Nuclear Atomic Agency). Presented results were collected over the period from January 2011 to December 2011 at eight NM departments located in Krakow, Warszawa (two departments), Rzeszow (two departments), Opole, Przemysl and Gorzow Wielkopolski. For radiation monitoring three kinds of thermo luminescence dosimeters (TLD) were used. The first TLD h collected information about whole body (C) effective dose, the second dosimeter was mounted in the ring (P) meanwhile the third on the wrist (N) of the tested person. Reading of TLDs was performed in quarterly periods. As a good approximation of effective and equivalent dose assessment of operational quantities both the individual dose equivalent Hp(10) and the Hp(0.07) were used. The analysis of the data was performed using two methods The first method was based on quarterly estimations of Hp(10)q and Hp(0.07)q while the second measured cumulative annual doses Hp(10)a and Hp(0.07)a. The highest recorded value of the radiation dose for quarterly assessments reached 24.4 mSv and was recorded by the wrist type dosimeter worn by a worker involved in source preparation procedure. The mean values of Hp(10)q(C type dosimeter) and Hp(0.07)q (P and N type dosimeter) for all monitored departments were respectively 0.46 mSv and 3.29 mSv. There was a strong correlation between the performed job and the value of the received dose. The highest doses always were absorbed by those staff members who were involved in sources preparation. The highest annual cumulative dose for a particular worker in the considered time

  1. Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, AP.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.; Rice, D.E.; Srivastava, P.C.

    1992-08-01

    In this report the results of preliminary studies of pancreatic exocrine function in normal patients and volunteers by a simple urine analysis using a new iodine-131-labeled triglyceride are described. The new ORNL agent, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-((15-piodophenyl)pentadecan-l-oyl)-rac-glycerol (1,2-Pal-3-IPPA) was radiolabeled with iodine-131 and used in clinical studies in a collaborative program with the Clinic for Nuclear Medicine at the University of Bonn, Germany. The observed rapid urinary excretion of high levels of the orally administered test agent from patients corroborated results from initial studies conducted in laboratory animals (ORNL/TM-12110). In the initial group of normal volunteers and 11 patients with normal pancreatic function an average of 76 {plus_minus} 13.8% of the administered activity was excreted in the urine in 24 h. Studies will now also focus on evaluation of this agent in patients with pancreatic insufficiency. The reactor production of dysprosium-166 in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and the separation of carrier-free holmium-166 have also been pursued. Holmium-166 (t{sub {1/2}}226.4 h) decays with the emission of high energy beta particles and abundant secondary electrons and is thus of interest for various therapeutic applications. Four-day irradiation of {sup 165}Ho in the HFIR resulted in production of {sup 166}Ho with a specific activity of 7.25 mCi/mg. The formation of {sup 166}Ho by beta-decay of reactor-produced {sup 166}Dy was also evaluated. The specific activity of {sup 166}Dy for an 8-day HFIR irradiation was 3.5 mCi/mg. Preliminary results indicate that carrier-free {sup 166}Ho can be separated from the neutron-irradiated target by HNO{sub 3} elution from di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP) impregnated glass beads.

  2. Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, AP.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.; Rice, D.E.; Srivastava, P.C.

    1992-08-01

    In this report the results of preliminary studies of pancreatic exocrine function in normal patients and volunteers by a simple urine analysis using a new iodine-131-labeled triglyceride are described. The new ORNL agent, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-((15-piodophenyl)pentadecan-l-oyl)-rac-glycerol (1,2-Pal-3-IPPA) was radiolabeled with iodine-131 and used in clinical studies in a collaborative program with the Clinic for Nuclear Medicine at the University of Bonn, Germany. The observed rapid urinary excretion of high levels of the orally administered test agent from patients corroborated results from initial studies conducted in laboratory animals (ORNL/TM-12110). In the initial group of normal volunteers and 11 patients with normal pancreatic function an average of 76 {plus minus} 13.8% of the administered activity was excreted in the urine in 24 h. Studies will now also focus on evaluation of this agent in patients with pancreatic insufficiency. The reactor production of dysprosium-166 in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and the separation of carrier-free holmium-166 have also been pursued. Holmium-166 (t{sub {1/2}}226.4 h) decays with the emission of high energy beta particles and abundant secondary electrons and is thus of interest for various therapeutic applications. Four-day irradiation of {sup 165}Ho in the HFIR resulted in production of {sup 166}Ho with a specific activity of 7.25 mCi/mg. The formation of {sup 166}Ho by beta-decay of reactor-produced {sup 166}Dy was also evaluated. The specific activity of {sup 166}Dy for an 8-day HFIR irradiation was 3.5 mCi/mg. Preliminary results indicate that carrier-free {sup 166}Ho can be separated from the neutron-irradiated target by HNO{sub 3} elution from di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (HDEHP) impregnated glass beads.

  3. New Perspectives Offered by Nuclear Medicine for the Imaging and Therapy of Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Mesguich, Charles; Zanotti-Fregonara, Paolo; Hindié, Elif

    2016-01-01

    The management of multiple myeloma has fundamentally changed over the years and imaging techniques able to match the therapeutic advances are now much needed. Although many patients now achieve complete response after first-line treatment, relapse is common. Therefore, it would be important to improve the initial prognostic stratification and to detect minimal residual disease after treatment. 18F-FDG-PET/CT is a useful imaging tool which has a high prognostic value at baseline evaluation and can effectively differentiate active from inactive lesions during induction treatment or after autologous stem-cell transplantation. In combination with biological data, it improves the prediction of relapse. Other PET tracers may soon enter clinical practice and overcome some of the limitations of 18F-FDG, such as the low sensitivity in detecting early bone marrow infiltration. Excellent results with 11C-Methionine are reported by Lapa and colleagues in this issue of the Journal. 11C-Methionine uptake reflects the increased protein synthesis of malignant plasmocytes and correlates well with bone marrow infiltration. Other promising PET ligands include lipid tracers, such as 11C-Choline or 11C-acetate, and some peptide tracers, such as 68Ga-Pentixafor, that targets CXCR4 (chemokine receptor-4), which is often expressed with high density by myeloma cells. Malignant plasma cells are radiosensitive and thus potentially amenable to systemic radionuclide therapy. Indeed, excellent preclinical results were obtained with radioimmunotherapy targeting CD38. Also, preliminary clinical results with peptides targeting CXCR4 (e.g. 177Lu- or 90Y-Pentixather) are encouraging. Multiple myeloma may represent a renewal of the already strong partnership between hematologists and nuclear medicine physicians. PMID:26877786

  4. Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, A.P.; Allred, J.F.; Blystone, S.L.; Hasan, A.; McPherson, D.W.; Srivastava, P.C.; Lambert, C.R.; Lambert, S.J.; Rice, D.E.

    1989-12-01

    In this report, an evaluation of the effects of albumin and albumin plus sodium palmitate in the phosphate buffer perfusate on the relative of unmetabolized fatty acid and the unknown metabolite(s) from isolated rat hearts administered 15-(p-(I-125)iodophenyl)-3-(R, S)-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) is described. Earlier studies had demonstrated the presence of a major unidentified polar radioactive component in the outflow of hearts injected with BMIPP and perfused with the traditional Krebs-Henseleit (KH) buffer, which does not contain albumin. The current studies were performed with KH buffer containing either albumin (BSA) or albumin and palmitate (BSA/PAL) to assess the relative loss of the metabolite and unmetabolized BMIPP from the perfused hearts. The results demonstrated that in the presence of albumin both the unidentified material and BMIPP are present in the outflow (i.e., 5 min perfusate buffer, % BMIPP: KH, 3%; KH + BSA, 10%; KH + BSA/PAL, 41%). These results demonstrate that BMIPP is a major radioactive component in the outflow of isolated hearts using a perfusate containing BSA and palmitate and, more importantly, suggest for the first time that the slow myocardial wash-out observed in humans after administration of (I-123)BMIPP probably represents loss of both unmetabolized BMIPP and the unidentified metabolite. Coronary sinus sampling studies with dogs are now in progress to relate the relative contribution of these two components to the release of radioactivity from the heart. Also in this report, our population experience for several radioisotopes being used by the ORNL Nuclear Medicine Program is summarized.

  5. New Perspectives Offered by Nuclear Medicine for the Imaging and Therapy of Multiple Myeloma.

    PubMed

    Mesguich, Charles; Zanotti-Fregonara, Paolo; Hindié, Elif

    2016-01-01

    The management of multiple myeloma has fundamentally changed over the years and imaging techniques able to match the therapeutic advances are now much needed. Although many patients now achieve complete response after first-line treatment, relapse is common. Therefore, it would be important to improve the initial prognostic stratification and to detect minimal residual disease after treatment. (18)F-FDG-PET/CT is a useful imaging tool which has a high prognostic value at baseline evaluation and can effectively differentiate active from inactive lesions during induction treatment or after autologous stem-cell transplantation. In combination with biological data, it improves the prediction of relapse. Other PET tracers may soon enter clinical practice and overcome some of the limitations of (18)F-FDG, such as the low sensitivity in detecting early bone marrow infiltration. Excellent results with (11)C-Methionine are reported by Lapa and colleagues in this issue of the Journal. (11)C-Methionine uptake reflects the increased protein synthesis of malignant plasmocytes and correlates well with bone marrow infiltration. Other promising PET ligands include lipid tracers, such as (11)C-Choline or (11)C-acetate, and some peptide tracers, such as (68)Ga-Pentixafor, that targets CXCR4 (chemokine receptor-4), which is often expressed with high density by myeloma cells. Malignant plasma cells are radiosensitive and thus potentially amenable to systemic radionuclide therapy. Indeed, excellent preclinical results were obtained with radioimmunotherapy targeting CD38. Also, preliminary clinical results with peptides targeting CXCR4 (e.g. (177)Lu- or (90)Y-Pentixather) are encouraging. Multiple myeloma may represent a renewal of the already strong partnership between hematologists and nuclear medicine physicians. PMID:26877786

  6. Nuclear medicine program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Luo, H.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.

    1995-12-31

    In this report, we describe the results for study of the production of lutetium-177 ({sup 177}Lu) in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Two pathways for production of {sup 177}Lu were studied which involved both direct neutron capture on enriched {sup 176}Lu, {sup 176}Lu (n,{gamma}){sup 177}Lu, reaction and by decay of ytterbium-177 ({sup 177}Yb) produced by the {sup 176}Yb(n,{gamma}){sup 177}Yb ({beta}{sup {minus}} {sup {yields}}) reaction. Although the direct route is more straight forward and does not involve any separation steps, the indirect method via {beta}{sup {minus}}-decay of {sup 177}Yb has the advantage of providing carrier-free {sup 177}Lu, which would be required for antibody radiolabeling and other applications where very high specific activity is required.Substrates required for preparation of tissue-specific agents and several radioisotopes were also provided during this period through several Medical Cooperative Programs. These include the substrate for preparation of the ``BMIPP`` cardiac imaging which was developed in the ORNL Nuclear Medicine Program, which was provided to Dr. A. Giodamo, M.D. and colleagues at the Catholic University Hospital in Rome, Italy. Tungsten-188 produced in the ORNL HFIR was also provided to the Catholic University Hospital for fabrication of a tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator to provide carrier-free rhenium-188 which will be used for preparation of rhenium-188 labeled methylenediphosphonate (MDP) for initial clinical evaluation for palliative treatment of bone pain (L. Troncone, M.D.). Samples of substrates for preparation of the new ORNL ``IQNP`` agent for imaging of muscarinic-cholinergic receptors were provided to the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden, for preparation of radioiodinated IQNP for initial imaging studies with this new agent in monkeys and for tissue binding studies with human brain samples obtained from autopsy (C. Halldin, Ph.D.).

  7. Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Srivastava, P.C.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.; Lambert, S.J.; Rice, D.E.

    1992-02-01

    Rat tissue distribution properties of IQNP,'' a new radioiodinated cholinergic-muscarinic receptor antagonist, are described. IQNP is the acronym for 1-azabicyclo(2.2.2)oct-3-yl {alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenyl-{alpha}(1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl) acetate, which is an analogue of the QNB muscarinic antagonist in which the p-iodophenyl moiety has been replaced with the 1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl moiety. The radioiodinated IQNP analogue is easier to prepare in much higher yields than QNB and is thus a candidate for the evaluation of muscarinic receptors by external imaging techniques. Studies in rats demonstrated that IQNP shows high uptake in those cerebral regions rich in muscarinic receptors QNB-treatment of rats either 1 h before (pre) or 2 h after (post) administration of radioiodinated IQNP resulted in significant displacement or blocking of cerebral specific IQNP uptake (% dose/gm) in the cortex and striatum. These studies demonstrate that IQNP has specificity for the cholinergic-muscarinic receptor and is a good candidate for further studies. Also during this period, several agents developed in the ORNL Nuclear Medicine Program were supplied to Medical Cooperative Programs for collaborative studies including the iodine-125-labeled BMIPP and DMIPP fatty acid analogues and the IPM antibody labeling agent. Tin-117m and gold-199 were produced in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and supplied to the OHER-supported program in the Medical Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory to aid in their research until the re-start of the High Flux Brookhaven Reactor.

  8. Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Srivastava, P.C.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.; Lambert, S.J.; Rice, D.E.

    1992-02-01

    Rat tissue distribution properties of ``IQNP,`` a new radioiodinated cholinergic-muscarinic receptor antagonist, are described. IQNP is the acronym for 1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl {alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenyl-{alpha}(1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl) acetate, which is an analogue of the QNB muscarinic antagonist in which the p-iodophenyl moiety has been replaced with the 1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl moiety. The radioiodinated IQNP analogue is easier to prepare in much higher yields than QNB and is thus a candidate for the evaluation of muscarinic receptors by external imaging techniques. Studies in rats demonstrated that IQNP shows high uptake in those cerebral regions rich in muscarinic receptors QNB-treatment of rats either 1 h before (pre) or 2 h after (post) administration of radioiodinated IQNP resulted in significant displacement or blocking of cerebral specific IQNP uptake (% dose/gm) in the cortex and striatum. These studies demonstrate that IQNP has specificity for the cholinergic-muscarinic receptor and is a good candidate for further studies. Also during this period, several agents developed in the ORNL Nuclear Medicine Program were supplied to Medical Cooperative Programs for collaborative studies including the iodine-125-labeled BMIPP and DMIPP fatty acid analogues and the IPM antibody labeling agent. Tin-117m and gold-199 were produced in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and supplied to the OHER-supported program in the Medical Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory to aid in their research until the re-start of the High Flux Brookhaven Reactor.

  9. The effect of gamma ray penetration on angle-dependent sensitivity for pinhole collimation in nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.F.; Jaszczak, R.J. |

    1997-11-01

    The sensitivity of a pinhole collimator for gamma ray imaging in nuclear medicine is dependent on the angle of incidence of the gamma rays. The effect of penetration near the pinhole aperture on angle-dependent sensitivity was investigated using experimental measurements and numerical modeling. Projection data measurements were acquired with Tc-99m and I-131 point sources using tungsten pinhole inserts with 1.0 to 4.0 mm diameter apertures. Curves of the form sin{sup x}{theta}, where {theta} is the angle of the incident ray with the surface of the detector crystal, were fit to sensitivity measurements from the projection data. Experimentally measured x values were between 3.3 and 4.1 for Tc-99m and between 5.1 and 7.2 for I-131. Penetration near the pinhole aperture was modeled using (1) an expression for effective pinhole diameter that is a generalization of Anger{close_quote}s formula for normally incident photons and (2) a photon transport simulation code. Experimentally measured sensitivity exponents x from new and previously reported experimental observations were modeled within 15{percent} by the numerical simulations. For modeling using the generalized expression for effective diameter the average error was 1.4{percent} and the standard deviation was 7.7{percent}. For the photon transport simulation code the average error was 1.5{percent} and the standard deviation also was 7.7{percent}. The effect of pinhole aperture design parameters on angle-dependent sensitivity for high resolution pinhole apertures was modeled using a photon transport simulation code. The sensitivity exponents x were greater for 364 keV photons than for 140 keV photons and were greater for small aperture diameters, small acceptance angles, and large aperture channel heights. (Abstract Truncated)

  10. (14) N nuclear quadrupole resonance study of piroxicam: confirmation of new polymorphic form V.

    PubMed

    Lavrič, Zoran; Pirnat, Janez; Lužnik, Janko; Puc, Uroš; Trontelj, Zvonko; Srčič, Stane

    2015-06-01

    A new polymorphic crystal form of piroxicam was discovered while preparing crystalline samples of piroxicam for (14) N nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) analysis. The new crystal form, designated as V, was prepared by evaporative recrystallization from dichloromethane. Three known polymorphic forms (I, II, and III) were also prepared. Our aim was to apply (14) N NQR to characterize the new polymorphic form of piroxicam and compare the results with those of the other known polymorphic forms. Additional analytical methods used for characterization were X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), thermal analysis, and vibrational spectroscopy. For the first time, a complete set of nine characteristic (14) N NQR frequencies was found for each prepared polymorph of piroxicam. The consistent set of measured frequencies and calculated characteristic quadrupole parameters found for the new polymorphic form V is a convincing evidence that we are dealing with a new form. The already known piroxicam polymorphic forms were characterized similarly. The XRPD results were in accordance with the conclusions of (14) N NQR analysis. The performed study clearly demonstrates a strong potential of (14) N NQR method to be applied as a highly discriminative spectroscopic analytical tool to characterize polymorphic forms. PMID:25776345

  11. Conventional and Nuclear Medicine Imaging in Ectopic Cushing's Syndrome: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Isidori, Andrea M.; Sbardella, Emilia; Zatelli, Maria Chiara; Boschetti, Mara; Vitale, Giovanni; Colao, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    Context: Ectopic Cushing's Syndrome (ECS) can be a diagnostic challenge with the hormonal source difficult to find. This study analyzes the accuracy of imaging studies in ECS localization. Evidence Acquisition: Systematic review of medical literature for ECS case series providing individual patient data on at least one conventional imaging technique (computed tomography [CT]/magnetic resonance imaging) and one of the following: 111In-pentetreotide (OCT), 131I/123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine, 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), 18F-fluorodopa-PET (F-DOPA-PET), 68Ga-DOTATATE-PET/CT or 68Ga-DOTATOC-PET/CT scan (68Gallium-SSTR-PET/CT). Evidence Summary: The analysis comprised 231 patients (females, 50.2%; age, 42.6 ± 17 y). Overall, 52.4% (121/231) had “overt” ECS, 18.6% had “occult” ECS, and 29% had “covert” ECS. Tumors were located in the lung (55.3%), mediastinum-thymus (7.9%), pancreas (8.5%), adrenal glands (6.4%), gastrointestinal tract (5.4%), thyroid (3.7%), and other sites (12.8%), and primary tumors were mostly bronchial neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) (54.8%), pancreatic NETs (8%), mediastinum-thymus NETs (6.9%), gastrointestinal NETs (5.3%), pheochromocytoma (6.4%), neuroblastoma (3.2%), and medullary thyroid carcinoma (3.2%). Tumors were localized by CT in 66.2% (137/207), magnetic resonance imaging in 51.5% (53/103), OCT in 48.9% (84/172), FDG-PET in 51.7% (46/89), F-DOPA-PET in 57.1% (12/21), 131/123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine in 30.8% (4/13), and 68Gallium-SSTR-PET/CT in 81.8% (18/22) of cases. Molecular imaging discovered 79.1% (53/67) of tumors unidentified by conventional radiology, with OCT the most commonly used, revealing the tumor in 64%, followed by FDG-PET in 59.4%. F-DOPA-PET was used in only seven covert cases (sensitivity, 85.7%). Notably, 68Gallium-SSTR-PET/CT had 100% sensitivity among covert cases. Conclusions: Nuclear medicine improves the sensitivity of conventional radiology when tumor site

  12. Implementation of test for quality assurance in nuclear medicine gamma camera

    SciTech Connect

    Montoya Moreno, A.; Rodriguez Laguna, A.; Trujillo Zamudio, Flavio E

    2012-10-23

    In nuclear medicine (NM) over 90% of procedures are performed for diagnostic purposes. To ensure adequate diagnostic quality of images and the optimization of the doses received by patients originated from the radioactive material is essential for regular monitoring and equipment performance through a quality assurance program (QAP). The QAP consists of 15 proposed performance tomographic and not tomographic gamma camera (GC) tests, and is based on recommendations of international organizations. We describe some results of the performance parameters of QAP applied to a GC model e.cam Siemens, of the Department of NM of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico (INCan). The results were: (1) The average intrinsic spatial resolution (R{sub in}) was 4.67 {+-} 0.25 mm at the limit of acceptance criterion of 4.4 mm. (2) The sensitivity extrinsic (S{sub ext}), with maximum variations of 1.8% (less than 2% which is the criterion of acceptance). (3) Rotational Uniformity (U{sub rot}), with values of integral uniformity (IU) in the useful field of view detector (UFOV), with maximum percentage change of 0.97% and monthly variations equal angles, ranging from 0.13 to 0.99% less than 1%. (4) The displacement of the center of rotation (DCOR), indicated a maximum deviation of 0.155 {+-} 0.039 mm less than 4.795 mm, an absolute deviation of less than 0.5 where pixel 0.085 pixel is suggested, the criteria are assigned to low-energy collimator high resolution. (5) In tomographic uniformity (U{sub tomo}), UI values (%) and percentage noise level (rms%) were 7.54 {+-} 1.53 and 4.18 {+-} 1.69 which are consistent with the limits of acceptance of 7.0-12.0% and 3.0-6.0% respectively. The smallest cold sphere has a diameter of 11.4 mm. The implementation of a QAP allows for high quality diagnostic images, optimization of the doses given to patients, a reduction of exposure to occupationally exposed workers (POE, by its Spanish acronym), and generally improves the productivity of the

  13. A Compton camera for low energy gamma ray imaging in nuclear medicine applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, James Walter

    C-SPRINT is a prototype electronically-collimated imaging system that has been built using pixellated, low-noise, position-sensitive silicon as the first detector, and a sodium iodide scintillation detector ring as the second detector. The camera was intended to characterize potential performance gains of Compton cameras in nuclear medicine applications. The system consists of a single 4.5 x 1.5 x 0.03 cm3 silicon pad detector module with 2 keV energy resolution centered at the front face of a 50 cm diameter, 12 cm long NaI detector annulus. Calculations of the Uniform Cramer-Rao lower bound show that a "design Compton camera" based on our prototype can challenge existing mechanically-collimated systems at low to medium energies (˜140.5 - 400 keV) despite the deleterious effects of Doppler broadening. Measurements with our current system have yielded system sensitivity and spatial resolution estimates using 99mTc and 131I isotopes. Results showed an absolute efficiency of 1.8 x 10 -7 for 99mTc and 1.2 x 10-6 for 131I. The 99mTc value is an order of magnitude lower than predicted because of a combination of worse than expected silicon detector triggering performance, timing resolution issues, and system dead time effects. After correcting for these, efficiency predictions based on Monte Carlo analysis fall within 10% of the measured values. Spatial resolution estimates are also within 10% of analytical predictions. Measured resolution for the 99mTc point source was 15 min FWHM while in the 131I case, resolution improved to 8 mm FWHM. Extended source imaging was performed to characterize system performance under more challenging conditions. Images obtained were compared with measurements using a clinically-available mechanically collimated Anger camera. A resolution-variance study was also conducted for both isotopes. The results showed that the C-SPRINT camera performance on a per-detected photon basis was worse than the Anger camera for 99mTc but was similar for

  14. Development and validation of a fast voxel-based dose evaluation system in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Cheng-Chang; Lin, Hsin-Hon; Chuang, Keh-Shih; Dong, Shang-Lung; Wu, Jay; Ni, Yu-Ching; Jan, Meei-Ling

    2014-11-01

    PET imaging has been widely used in the detection and staging of malignancies and the evaluation of patient-specific dosimetry for PET scans is important in nuclear medicine. However, patient-specific dosimetry can be estimated only by Monte Carlo methods which are usually time-consuming. The purpose of this study is to develop a fast dose evaluation system namely SimDOSE. SimDOSE is a Monte Carlo code embedded in SimSET with a dose scoring routine to record the deposited energy of the photons and electrons. Fluorine-18 is one of the most commonly used radionuclides that decay predominantly by positron emission. Only a 635 keV (Emax) positron and two annihilation photons should be concerned in F-18 radiation dosimetry, hence simulation is relatively simple. To evaluate the effects of resolution, an F-18 point source placed in a 20 cm diameter sphere filled with water was simulated by SimDOSE and GATE v6.1. Grid sizes of 1 mm, 3 mm, and 5 mm were tested and each was simulated with a total of 107 decays. The resultant dose distribution functions were compared. Dose evaluation on ORNL phantom was also performed to validate the accuracy of SimDOSE. The grid size of phantom was set as 3 mm and the number of decays was 107. The S-values of liver computed by SimDOSE were compared with GATE and OLINDA (Organ Level INternal Dose Assessment) for 11C, 15O, and 18F.Finally, the CPU time of simulations was compared between SimDOSE and GATE. The dose profiles show the absorption doses located 3 mm outside the center are similar between SimDOSE and GATE. However, 71% (19%) difference of the center dose between SimDOSE and GATE are observed for 1 mm (3 mm) grid. The differences of the profile lie in the assumption in SimDOSE that all kinetic energies of electrons are locally absorbed. The ratios of S values of (SimDOSE/OLINDA) range from 0.95 to 1.11 with a mean value of 1.02±0.043. To compare simulation time from SimDOSE to GATE for calculation of 1 mm, 3 mm, 5 mm gird point

  15. Reference waste forms and packing material for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project

    SciTech Connect

    Oversby, V.M.

    1984-03-30

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, Calif., has been given the task of designing and verifying the performance of waste packages for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project. NNWSI is studying the suitability of the tuffaceous rocks at Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site, for the potential construction of a high-level nuclear waste repository. This report gives a summary description of the three waste forms for which LLNL is designing waste packages: spent fuel, either as intact assemblies or as consolidated fuel pins, reprocessed commercial high-level waste in the form of borosilicate glass, and reprocessed defense high-level waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility in Aiken, S.C. Reference packing material for use with the alternative waste package design for spent fuel is also described. 14 references, 8 figures, 20 tables.

  16. Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine Project for an Integral Oncology Center at the Oaxaca High Specialization Regional Hospital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Jesús, M.; Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.

    2010-12-01

    A building project of Radiotherapy & Nuclear Medicine services (diagnostic and therapy), within an Integral Oncology Center (IOC), requires interdisciplinary participation of architects, biomedical engineers, radiation oncologists and medical physicists. This report focus on the medical physicist role in designing, building and commissioning stages, for the final clinical use of an IOC at the Oaxaca High Specialization Regional Hospital (HRAEO). As a first step, during design stage, the medical physicist participates in discussions about radiation safety and regulatory requirements for the National Regulatory Agency (called CNSNS in Mexico). Medical physicists propose solutions to clinical needs and take decisions about installing medical equipment, in order to fulfill technical and medical requirements. As a second step, during the construction stage, medical physicists keep an eye on building materials and structural specifications. Meanwhile, regulatory documentation must be sent to CNSNS. This documentation compiles information about medical equipment, radioactivity facility, radiation workers and nuclear material data, in order to obtain the license for the linear accelerator, brachytherapy and nuclear medicine facilities. As a final step, after equipment installation, the commissioning stage takes place. As the conclusion, we show that medical physicists are essentials in order to fulfill with Mexican regulatory requirements in medical facilities.

  17. The export receptor Crm1 forms a dimer to promote nuclear export of HIV RNA

    PubMed Central

    Booth, David S; Cheng, Yifan; Frankel, Alan D

    2014-01-01

    The HIV Rev protein routes viral RNAs containing the Rev Response Element (RRE) through the Crm1 nuclear export pathway to the cytoplasm where viral proteins are expressed and genomic RNA is delivered to assembling virions. The RRE assembles a Rev oligomer that displays nuclear export sequences (NESs) for recognition by the Crm1-RanGTP nuclear receptor complex. Here we provide the first view of an assembled HIV-host nuclear export complex using single-particle electron microscopy. Unexpectedly, Crm1 forms a dimer with an extensive interface that enhances association with Rev-RRE and poises NES binding sites to interact with a Rev oligomer. The interface between Crm1 monomers explains differences between Crm1 orthologs that alter nuclear export and determine cellular tropism for viral replication. The arrangement of the export complex identifies a novel binding surface to possibly target an HIV inhibitor and may point to a broader role for Crm1 dimerization in regulating host gene expression. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04121.001 PMID:25486595

  18. Chromatin insulator bodies are nuclear structures that form in response to osmotic stress and cell death.

    PubMed

    Schoborg, Todd; Rickels, Ryan; Barrios, Josh; Labrador, Mariano

    2013-07-22

    Chromatin insulators assist in the formation of higher-order chromatin structures by mediating long-range contacts between distant genomic sites. It has been suggested that insulators accomplish this task by forming dense nuclear foci termed insulator bodies that result from the coalescence of multiple protein-bound insulators. However, these structures remain poorly understood, particularly the mechanisms triggering body formation and their role in nuclear function. In this paper, we show that insulator proteins undergo a dramatic and dynamic spatial reorganization into insulator bodies during osmostress and cell death in a high osmolarity glycerol-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-independent manner, leading to a large reduction in DNA-bound insulator proteins that rapidly repopulate chromatin as the bodies disassemble upon return to isotonicity. These bodies occupy distinct nuclear territories and contain a defined structural arrangement of insulator proteins. Our findings suggest insulator bodies are novel nuclear stress foci that can be used as a proxy to monitor the chromatin-bound state of insulator proteins and provide new insights into the effects of osmostress on nuclear and genome organization. PMID:23878275

  19. Historical Patterns in the Types of Procedures Performed and Radiation Safety Practices Used in Nuclear Medicine From 1945-2009.

    PubMed

    Van Dyke, Miriam E; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Doody, Michele M; Lim, Hyeyeun; Bolus, Norman E; Simon, Steven L; Alexander, Bruce H; Kitahara, Cari M

    2016-07-01

    The authors evaluated historical patterns in the types of procedures performed in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine and the associated radiation safety practices used from 1945-2009 in a sample of U.S. radiologic technologists. In 2013-2014, 4,406 participants from the U.S. Radiologic Technologists (USRT) Study who previously reported working with medical radionuclides completed a detailed survey inquiring about the performance of 23 diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclide procedures and the use of radiation safety practices when performing radionuclide procedure-related tasks during five time periods: 1945-1964, 1965-1979, 1980-1989, 1990-1999, and 2000-2009. An overall increase in the proportion of technologists who performed specific diagnostic or therapeutic procedures was observed across the five time periods. Between 1945-1964 and 2000-2009, the median frequency of diagnostic procedures performed substantially increased (from 5 wk to 30 wk), attributable mainly to an increasing frequency of cardiac and non-brain PET scans, while the median frequency of therapeutic procedures performed modestly decreased (from 4 mo to 3 mo). Also a notable increase was observed in the use of most radiation safety practices from 1945-1964 to 2000-2009 (e.g., use of lead-shielded vials during diagnostic radiopharmaceutical preparation increased from 56 to 96%), although lead apron use dramatically decreased (e.g., during diagnostic imaging procedures, from 81 to 7%). These data describe historical practices in nuclear medicine and can be used to support studies of health risks for nuclear medicine technologists. PMID:27218293

  20. Energy-Momentum Tensor Form Factors of the Nucleon in Nuclear Matter in the Chiral Soliton Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakhshiev, Ulugbek; Kim, Hyun-Chul; Schweitzer, Peter

    2013-08-01

    In the present talk, we report a recent investigation on the nucleon form factors of the energy-momentum tensor in nuclear matter, based on the in-medium modified chiral soliton model. The results in free space are in agreement with those from other approaches. We have discussed the changes of the energy-momentum tensor form factors in nuclear matter and the modification of the soliton structure due to the surrounding nuclear environment.

  1. Evaluation of a deterministic grid-based Boltzmann solver (GBBS) for voxel-level absorbed dose calculations in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikell, Justin; Cheenu Kappadath, S.; Wareing, Todd; Erwin, William D.; Titt, Uwe; Mourtada, Firas

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the 3D Grid-based Boltzmann Solver (GBBS) code ATTILA ® for coupled electron and photon transport in the nuclear medicine energy regime for electron (beta, Auger and internal conversion electrons) and photon (gamma, x-ray) sources. Codes rewritten based on ATTILA are used clinically for both high-energy photon teletherapy and 192Ir sealed source brachytherapy; little information exists for using the GBBS to calculate voxel-level absorbed doses in nuclear medicine. We compared DOSXYZnrc Monte Carlo (MC) with published voxel-S-values to establish MC as truth. GBBS was investigated for mono-energetic 1.0, 0.1, and 0.01 MeV electron and photon sources as well as 131I and 90Y radionuclides. We investigated convergence of GBBS by analyzing different meshes ({{M}0},{{M}1},{{M}2} ), energy group structures ({{E}0},{{E}1},{{E}2} ) for each radionuclide component, angular quadrature orders (≤ft. {{S}4},{{S}8},{{S}16}\\right) , and scattering order expansions ({{P}0} –{{P}6} ); higher indices imply finer discretization. We compared GBBS to MC in (1) voxel-S-value geometry for soft tissue, lung, and bone, and (2) a source at the interface between combinations of lung, soft tissue, and bone. Excluding Auger and conversion electrons, MC agreed within  ≈5% of published source voxel absorbed doses. For the finest discretization, most GBBS absorbed doses in the source voxel changed by less than 1% compared to the next finest discretization along each phase space variable indicating sufficient convergence. For the finest discretization, agreement with MC in the source voxel ranged from  ‑3% to  ‑20% with larger differences at lower energies (‑3% for 1 MeV electron in lung to  ‑20% for 0.01 MeV photon in bone); similar agreement was found for the interface geometries. Differences between GBBS and MC in the source voxel for 90Y and 131I were  ‑6%. The GBBS ATTILA was benchmarked against MC in the nuclear medicine regime. GBBS can be a

  2. [Bibliographic consideration of proper management of radioactive waste on short-lived period nuclides that are used in nuclear medicine].

    PubMed

    Kida, Tetsuo; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Ichirou; Nagaoka, Hiroaki; Fujibuchi, Toshioh; Tanaka, Shinji; Hayakawa, Toshio

    2009-05-20

    A rational clearance system for medical radioactive waste has not yet been established in Japan. As Europe and USA's ways, the establishment of DIS that medical radioactive waste what are kept in storage room for more than decided period each nuclide except from regulation of radiation's control. The purpose of this report is to clarify the problems with the establishment of DIS in Japan through a literature review of the experience in Europe and the USA and previous research that has been reported in Japan. To establish the DIS system, the radiation control system in nuclear medicine should be rebuilt and put into effect. PMID:19498253

  3. Evaluation of a deterministic grid-based Boltzmann solver (GBBS) for voxel-level absorbed dose calculations in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Mikell, Justin; Cheenu Kappadath, S; Wareing, Todd; Erwin, William D; Titt, Uwe; Mourtada, Firas

    2016-06-21

    To evaluate the 3D Grid-based Boltzmann Solver (GBBS) code ATTILA (®) for coupled electron and photon transport in the nuclear medicine energy regime for electron (beta, Auger and internal conversion electrons) and photon (gamma, x-ray) sources. Codes rewritten based on ATTILA are used clinically for both high-energy photon teletherapy and (192)Ir sealed source brachytherapy; little information exists for using the GBBS to calculate voxel-level absorbed doses in nuclear medicine. We compared DOSXYZnrc Monte Carlo (MC) with published voxel-S-values to establish MC as truth. GBBS was investigated for mono-energetic 1.0, 0.1, and 0.01 MeV electron and photon sources as well as (131)I and (90)Y radionuclides. We investigated convergence of GBBS by analyzing different meshes ([Formula: see text]), energy group structures ([Formula: see text]) for each radionuclide component, angular quadrature orders ([Formula: see text], and scattering order expansions ([Formula: see text]-[Formula: see text]); higher indices imply finer discretization. We compared GBBS to MC in (1) voxel-S-value geometry for soft tissue, lung, and bone, and (2) a source at the interface between combinations of lung, soft tissue, and bone. Excluding Auger and conversion electrons, MC agreed within  ≈5% of published source voxel absorbed doses. For the finest discretization, most GBBS absorbed doses in the source voxel changed by less than 1% compared to the next finest discretization along each phase space variable indicating sufficient convergence. For the finest discretization, agreement with MC in the source voxel ranged from  -3% to  -20% with larger differences at lower energies (-3% for 1 MeV electron in lung to  -20% for 0.01 MeV photon in bone); similar agreement was found for the interface geometries. Differences between GBBS and MC in the source voxel for (90)Y and (131)I were  -6%. The GBBS ATTILA was benchmarked against MC in the nuclear medicine regime. GBBS can be a

  4. Materials characterization center workshop on the irradiation effects in nuclear waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, F.P.; Turcotte, R.P.; Weber, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Workshop on Irradiation Effects in Nuclear Waste Forms sponsored by the Materials Characterization Center (MCC) brought together experts in radiation damage in materials and waste-management technology to review the problems associated with irradiation effects on waste-form integrity and to evaluate standard methods for generating data to be included in the Nuclear Waste Materials Handbook. The workshop reached the following conclusions: the concept of Standard Test for the Effects of Alpha-Decay in Nuclear Waste Solids, (MCC-6) for evaluating the effects of alpha decay is valid and useful, and as a result of the workshop, modifications to the proposed procedure will be incorpoated in a revised version of MCC-6; the MCC-6 test is not applicable to the evaluation of radiation damage in spent fuel; plutonium-238 is recommended as the dopant for transuranic and defense high-level waste forms, and when high doses are required, as in the case of commercial high-level waste forms, /sup 244/Cm can be used; among the important property changes caused by irradiation are those that lead to greater leachability, and additionally, radiolysis of the leachant may increase leach rates; research is needed in this area; ionization-induced changes in physical properties can be as important as displacement damage in some materials, and a synergism is also likely to exist from the combined effects of ionization and displacement damage; and the effect of changing the temperature and dose rates on property changes induced by radiation damage needs to be determined.

  5. Comparison between different forms of estrogen cytosol receptor and the nuclear receptor extracted by micrococcal nuclease.

    PubMed

    Rochefort, H; André, J

    1978-11-01

    As an approach to the mechanism of the nuclear translocation of estrogen receptor, the estradiol nuclear receptor (RN) of lamb endometrium was extracted with micrococcal nuclease at 2--4 degrees and compared to the "native" 8S and to the Ca2+-transformed cytosol receptors. After extensive digestion of chromatin, giving up to 10% perchloric acid-soluble DNA and a majority of nucleosome monomers, up to 80% of the RN was extracted and under low ionic strength. This RN was found to be completely different from the partially proteolyzed Ca2+-transformed cytosol receptor. It migrated with a sedimentation constant of 4 and 6 S. The Stokes radius of the predominant form as determined by ACA 34 chromatography was 5.3 nm. The calculated apparent molecular weights were 130,000 and 90,000, respectively. The RN was able to bind DNA and was eluted from a diethylaminoethyl cellulose column at 0.23 and 0.30 M KCl. We conclude that the mechanism proposed by Puca et al., according to which the Ca2+-transformed cytosol receptor is split by a Ca2+ receptor-transforming factor into a smaller form able to cross the nuclear membrane, is very unlikely. PMID:698961

  6. Nuclear medicine in the detection, staging and treatment of gastrointestinal carcinoid tumours.

    PubMed

    Oberg, Kjell; Eriksson, Barbro

    2005-06-01

    Carcinoid tumours belong to the family of neuroendocrine tumours with a capacity to take up and concentrate amines and precursors as well as peptides, and can thereby be detected by nuclear medicine techniques. These rare tumours are difficult to diagnose at earlier stages because of small size and multiplicity. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are mostly of benefit for detection of larger primary tumours (1-3 cm) and liver and lymph-node metastases. A majority of carcinoid tumours express somatostatin receptors, particularly receptor type 2, and thus somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) can be used for detection and staging of carcinoid tumours. The detection rate of carcinoid tumours has been reported to be somewhere between 80 and 100% in different studies. The scintigraphy gives a good staging of the disease and detection of unexpected tumour sites, which were not determined by conventional imaging. This method also indicates content of somatostatin receptors, which might indicate efficacy of treatment with octreotide or other somatostatin analogues. Another new non-invasive technique for detection of carcinoid tumours is positron emission tomography (PET). The biological substance for study can be labelled for radioactive imaging with radionuclears, such as (11)C, (15)O and (18)F, with emission of positrons. More than 95% of patients studied displayed high tracer uptake from PET with (11)C-5HTP (5-hydroxytryptophan), which is significantly higher compared to both computer tomography and somatostatin receptor scintigraphy. MIBG has been used for decades to visualize carcinoid tumours, because MIBG is concentrated in the endocrine cells. It was initially developed to detect phaeochromocytomas of the adrenal with reported high sensitivity (87%) and specificity as high as 99%. The method can be used when other methods fail to localize carcinoid tumours and particularly when treatment with (131)I-MIBG is being considered. Tumour

  7. Proliferation dangers associated with nuclear medicine: getting weapons-grade uranium out of radiopharmaceutical production.

    PubMed

    Williams, Bill; Ruff, Tilman A

    2007-01-01

    Abolishing the threat of nuclear war requires the outlawing of nuclear weapons and dismantling current nuclear weapon stockpiles, but also depends on eliminating access to fissile material (nuclear weapon fuel). The near-universal use of weapons-grade, highly enriched uranium (HEU) to produce radiopharmaceuticals is a significant proliferation hazard. Health professionals have a strategic opportunity and obligation to progress the elimination of medically-related commerce in HEU, closing one of the most vulnerable pathways to the much-feared 'terrorist bomb'. PMID:17987979

  8. Initial tests of a new phantom for investigation of spatial resolution, partial volume effect and detectability in nuclear medicine tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Söderberg, M.; Engeland, U.; Mattsson, S.; Ebel, G.; Leide-Svegborn, S.

    2011-09-01

    A new phantom has been designed that can provide simultaneously different target to background activity ratios with a linearly changing diameter of lesions. The purpose of the study was to describe and perform initial measurements with the phantom aimed to characterize different nuclear medicine tomographic systems and reconstruction algorithms in their performance and behaviour concerning partial volume effect (PVE) and detectability by varying the acquisition parameters and the count statistics. The phantom has an external vessel whose outline is half-cylindrical and allows it to be incorporated into an anthropomorphic thorax phantom. The phantom itself contains 16 fillable cones with an inner diameter linearly decreasing from 16 mm to 2 mm and a wall thickness of 1 mm acrylic glass. They as well as the outer vessel were separately filled with 99mTc- and 18F-solutions respectively of different activity concentrations. The phantom was easy to fill and air bubbles could easily be avoided. Images taken using a SPECT/CT and a PET/CT system are presented as well as evaluations of PVE. The new phantom seems to be useful for comparison and optimisation of different acquisition and reconstruction parameters in nuclear medicine tomographic studies and for comparisons between various tomographic units.

  9. Development of Ceramic Waste Forms for High-Level Nuclear Waste Over the Last 30 Years

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, Eric

    2007-07-01

    Many types of ceramics have been put forward for immobilisation of high-level waste (HLW) from reprocessing of nuclear power plant fuel or weapons production. After describing some historical aspects of waste form research, the essential features of the chemical design and processing of these different ceramic types will be discussed briefly. Given acceptable laboratory and long-term predicted performance based on appropriately rigorous chemical design, the important processing parameters are mostly waste loading, waste throughput, footprint, offgas control/minimization, and the need for secondary waste treatment. It is concluded that the 'problem of high-level nuclear waste' is largely solved from a technical point of view, within the current regulatory framework, and that the main remaining question is which technical disposition method is optimum for a given waste. (author)

  10. Colloid formation during waste form reaction: implications for nuclear waste disposal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bates, J. K.; Bradley, J.; Teetsov, A.; Bradley, C. R.; ten Brink, Marilyn Buchholtz

    1992-01-01

    Insoluble plutonium- and americium-bearing colloidal particles formed during simulated weathering of a high-level nuclear waste glass. Nearly 100 percent of the total plutonium and americium in test ground water was concentrated in these submicrometer particles. These results indicate that models of actinide mobility and repository integrity, which assume complete solubility of actinides in ground water, underestimate the potential for radionuclide release into the environment. A colloid-trapping mechanism may be necessary for a waste repository to meet long-term performance specifications.

  11. Properties of SYNROC C nuclear-waste form: a state-of-the-art review

    SciTech Connect

    Oversby, V.M.

    1982-09-01

    SYNROC C is a titanate ceramic waste form designed to contain the waste generated by the reprocessing of commercial nuclear reactor fuel. The properties of SYNROC C are described with particular emphasis on the distribution of chemical elements in SYNROC, the fabrication of good quality specimens, and the chemical durability of SYNROC. Data obtained from testing of natural mineral analogues of SYNROC minerals are briefly discussed. The information available on radiation effects in SYNROC in relation to structural alteration and changes in chemical durability are summarized. 26 references, 2 figures, 18 tables.

  12. Epsilon Metal Waste Form for Immobilization of Noble Metals from Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Strachan, Denis M.; Rohatgi, Aashish; Zumhoff, Mac R.

    2013-10-01

    Epsilon metal (ε-metal), an alloy of Mo, Pd, Rh, Ru, and Tc, is being developed as a waste form to treat and immobilize the undissolved solids and dissolved noble metals from aqueous reprocessing of commercial used nuclear fuel. Epsilon metal is an attractive waste form for several reasons: increased durability relative to borosilicate glass, it can be fabricated without additives (100% waste loading), and in addition it also benefits borosilicate glass waste loading by eliminating noble metals from the glass and thus the processing problems related there insolubility in glass. This work focused on the processing aspects of the epsilon metal waste form development. Epsilon metal is comprised of refractory metals resulting in high reaction temperatures to form the alloy, expected to be 1500 - 2000°C making it a non-trivial phase to fabricate by traditional methods. Three commercially available advanced technologies were identified: spark-plasma sintering, microwave sintering, and hot isostatic pressing, and investigated as potential methods to fabricate this waste form. Results of these investigations are reported and compared in terms of bulk density, phase assemblage (X-ray diffraction and elemental analysis), and microstructure (scanning electron microscopy).

  13. Leaching characteristics of paraffin waste forms generated from Korean nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Kim, J Y; Kim, C L; Chung, C H

    2001-01-01

    Leaching tests of paraffin waste forms including boric acid, cobalt, strontium and cesium were performed to investigate the leaching characteristics of paraffin waste forms which had been generated in Korean nuclear power plants. The leaching tests were conducted according to ANSI/ANS-16.1 test procedure and the cumulative fractions leached (CFLs) of boric acid, cobalt, strontium and cesium were obtained. The compressive strength before and after the leaching test was measured for various waste forms with different mixing ratios of boric acid to paraffin. It was observed that boric acid and other nuclides immobilized within paraffin waste forms were congruently released and the leaching rates were influenced by reacted layer depth as the dissolution reaction progressed. A shrinking core model based on the diffusion-controlled dissolution kinetics was developed in order to simulate the test results. The CFLs and the leaching rates were well expressed by the shrinking core model and the cross-sectional view of specimen after the test demonstrated the applicability of this model with the shrinking dissolution front to the leaching analysis of paraffin waste forms. PMID:11300532

  14. STAR CLUSTERS IN A NUCLEAR STAR FORMING RING: THE DISAPPEARING STRING OF PEARLS

    SciTech Connect

    Väisänen, Petri; Barway, Sudhanshu; Randriamanakoto, Zara

    2014-12-20

    An analysis of the star cluster population in a low-luminosity early-type galaxy, NGC 2328, is presented. The clusters are found in a tight star forming nuclear spiral/ring pattern and we also identify a bar from structural two-dimensional decomposition. These massive clusters are forming very efficiently in the circumnuclear environment and they are young, possibly all less than 30 Myr of age. The clusters indicate an azimuthal age gradient, consistent with a ''pearls-on-a-string'' formation scenario, suggesting bar-driven gas inflow. The cluster mass function has a robust down turn at low masses at all age bins. Assuming clusters are born with a power-law distribution, this indicates extremely rapid disruption at timescales of just several million years. If found to be typical, it means that clusters born in dense circumnuclear rings do not survive to become old globular clusters in non-interacting systems.

  15. Mineralogy and thermodynamic properties of magnesium phyllosilicates formed during the alteration of a simplified nuclear glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debure, Mathieu; De Windt, Laurent; Frugier, Pierre; Gin, Stéphane; Vieillard, Philippe

    2016-07-01

    The precipitation of crystallized magnesium phyllosilicates generally sustains the alteration rate of nuclear waste containment glass. However, glass alteration slows down to a residual rate as soon as Mg disappears from the solution. The identification of the phyllosilicates formed is therefore crucial for modeling the long-term behavior of nuclear glass. This study deals with batch alteration of the simplified nuclear glass ISG in presence of magnesium, and the characterization of the secondary phases. Morphological, chemical and structural analyses (MET, EDX, XRD) were performed to determine the nature and structure of the precipitated phases identified as trioctahedral smectites. Analyses conducted on the secondary phases proved the presence of Al, Na and Ca in the Mg-phyllosilicate phases. Such elements had been suspected but never quantitatively measured. The experimental results were then used to determine the thermodynamic solubility constants for each precipitated secondary phase at various temperatures. The calculated values were consistent with those available for sodium and magnesium saponites in the existing thermodynamic databases.

  16. [The business game as a form of organization of competent approach in teaching of history of medicine].

    PubMed

    Konopleva, E L; Ostapenko, V M

    2015-01-01

    The article considers issue of implementation of competent approach in teaching of course of history of medicine in medical universities. The such methods of active training as imitation role business games are proposed as a mean of developing common cultural and professional competences offuture medical personnel. The business games promote development of motivation basis or education and require activities related to practical implementation of acquired knowledge and skills (analysis of historical event, work with map, reading of historical documents, participation in scientific discussion, etc.). As a result, students acquire sufficiently large notion concerning world of medicine, relationship of historical epochs and occurrences and unity of medical systems. PMID:26012281

  17. Ayurvedic Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... in varying forms in Southeast Asia. What the Science Says About the Safety and Side Effects of ... and integrative health approaches you use. What the Science Says About the Effectiveness of Ayurvedic Medicine Research ...

  18. Comparison of 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography Ventilation With Nuclear Medicine Ventilation-Perfusion Imaging: A Clinical Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy; Koo, Phillip J.; Castillo, Richard; Castillo, Edward; Guerrero, Thomas; Gaspar, Laurie E.; Miften, Moyed; Kavanagh, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) ventilation imaging provides lung function information for lung cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy. Before 4DCT-ventilation can be implemented clinically it needs to be validated against an established imaging modality. The purpose of this work was to compare 4DCT-ventilation to nuclear medicine ventilation, using clinically relevant global metrics and radiologist observations. Methods and Materials Fifteen lung cancer patients with 16 sets of 4DCT and nuclear medicine ventilation-perfusion (VQ) images were used for the study. The VQ-ventilation images were acquired in planar mode using Tc-99m-labeled diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid aerosol inhalation. 4DCT data, spatial registration, and a density-change-based model were used to compute a 4DCT-based ventilation map for each patient. The percent ventilation was calculated in each lung and each lung third for both the 4DCT and VQ-ventilation scans. A nuclear medicine radiologist assessed the VQ and 4DCT scans for the presence of ventilation defects. The VQ and 4DCT-based images were compared using regional percent ventilation and radiologist clinical observations. Results Individual patient examples demonstrate good qualitative agreement between the 4DCT and VQ-ventilation scans. The correlation coefficients were 0.68 and 0.45, using the percent ventilation in each individual lung and lung third, respectively. Using radiologist-noted presence of ventilation defects and receiver operating characteristic analysis, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the 4DCT-ventilation were 90%, 64%, and 81%, respectively. Conclusions The current work compared 4DCT with VQ-based ventilation using clinically relevant global metrics and radiologist observations. We found good agreement between the radiologist’s assessment of the 4DCT and VQ-ventilation images as well as the percent ventilation in each lung. The agreement lessened when the data were analyzed

  19. Comparison of 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography Ventilation With Nuclear Medicine Ventilation-Perfusion Imaging: A Clinical Validation Study

    SciTech Connect

    Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy; Koo, Phillip J.; Castillo, Richard; Castillo, Edward; Guerrero, Thomas; Gaspar, Laurie E.; Miften, Moyed; Kavanagh, Brian D.

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: Four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) ventilation imaging provides lung function information for lung cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy. Before 4DCT-ventilation can be implemented clinically it needs to be validated against an established imaging modality. The purpose of this work was to compare 4DCT-ventilation to nuclear medicine ventilation, using clinically relevant global metrics and radiologist observations. Methods and Materials: Fifteen lung cancer patients with 16 sets of 4DCT and nuclear medicine ventilation-perfusion (VQ) images were used for the study. The VQ-ventilation images were acquired in planar mode using Tc-99m-labeled diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid aerosol inhalation. 4DCT data, spatial registration, and a density-change-based model were used to compute a 4DCT-based ventilation map for each patient. The percent ventilation was calculated in each lung and each lung third for both the 4DCT and VQ-ventilation scans. A nuclear medicine radiologist assessed the VQ and 4DCT scans for the presence of ventilation defects. The VQ and 4DCT-based images were compared using regional percent ventilation and radiologist clinical observations. Results: Individual patient examples demonstrate good qualitative agreement between the 4DCT and VQ-ventilation scans. The correlation coefficients were 0.68 and 0.45, using the percent ventilation in each individual lung and lung third, respectively. Using radiologist-noted presence of ventilation defects and receiver operating characteristic analysis, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the 4DCT-ventilation were 90%, 64%, and 81%, respectively. Conclusions: The current work compared 4DCT with VQ-based ventilation using clinically relevant global metrics and radiologist observations. We found good agreement between the radiologist's assessment of the 4DCT and VQ-ventilation images as well as the percent ventilation in each lung. The agreement lessened when the data were analyzed

  20. Traditional medicine as an alternative form of health care system: a preliminary case study of Nangabo sub-county, central Uganda.

    PubMed

    Galabuzi, Charles; Agea, Jacob Godfrey; Fungo, Bernard L; Kamoga, Regina M N

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted in Nangabo sub-county of Wakiso district. The purpose was to document the common Traditional Medicine (TM) practices; assess the local people's preferences for TM versus western medicine (WM) and lastly to determine the awareness about the importance of TM by local people. Data were collected using semi-structured administered face-to-face with respondents. A total of 120 interviewed. Six focused group discussions (FGDs) were held to validate the questionnaire responses. Data were analyzed descriptively using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The findings indicated that most (43%) respondents derive their livelihoods from traditional medicine practices. Three forms of TM were reported-herbalism (67%), spiritual counseling (23%) and bone setting (10%). Although the majority (81%) of respondents were quite aware of the importance of TM in the sustenance of health care system, majority (55%) of them shunned TM in preference to WM, largely because of the belief that TM is evil-founded and devilish in nature. Only 45% of the respondents preferred TM to WM. The main reasons given for visiting TM practioners rather than western medical practitioners were that TM is sometimes more effective than WM and that in many instances it has very minimal side effects on the human body. There is, however, a need for Ugandan government to legitimize the practice of TM since it contributes a lot to health care needs in areas where western medicine is insufficiently provided. In addition, there is a need for further research into the efficacy and safety of traditional medicines if it is to be adequately integrated into western medicine. PMID:21304607

  1. Cerium, uranium, and plutonium behavior in glass-bonded sodalite, a ceramic nuclear waste form.

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M. A.; Lexa, D.; Morss, L. R.; Richmann, M. K.

    1999-09-03

    Glass-bonded sodalite is being developed as a ceramic waste form (CWF) to immobilize radioactive fission products, actinides, and salt residues from electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear reactor fuel. The CWF consists of about 75 mass % sodalite, 25 mass % glass, and small amounts of other phases. This paper presents some results and interpretation of physical measurements to characterize the CWF structure, and dissolution tests to measure the release of matrix components and radionuclides from the waste form. Tests have been carried out with specimens of the CWF that contain rare earths at concentrations similar to those expected in the waste form. Parallel tests have been carried out on specimens that have uranium or plutonium as well as the rare earths at concentrations similar to those expected in the waste forms; in these specimens UCl{sub 3} forms UO{sub 2} and PuCl{sub 3} forms PuO{sub 2}. The normalized releases of rare earths in dissolution tests were found to be much lower than those of matrix elements (B, Si, Al, Na). When there is no uranium in the CWF, the release of cerium is two to ten times lower than the release of the other rare earths. The low release of cerium may be due to its tetravalent state in uranium-free CWF. However, when there is uranium in the CWF, the release of cerium is similar to that of the other rare earths. This trivalent behavior of cerium is attributed to charge transfer or covalent interactions among cerium, uranium, and oxygen in (U,Ce)O{sub 2}.

  2. Characterization of DNA complexes formed by the nuclear receptor constitutive androstane receptor.

    PubMed

    Frank, Christian; Gonzalez, Manuel Macias; Oinonen, Carita; Dunlop, Thomas W; Carlberg, Carsten

    2003-10-31

    The nuclear receptor constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) acts as a xenobiotic sensor and regulates the expression of enzymes, such as several cytochromes P450s and the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) type 1A1. CAR binds as a heterodimer with the retinoid X receptor (RXR) to specific DNA sites, called response elements (REs). Clusters of CAR REs, referred to as phenobarbital response enhancer modules (PBREMs), have been identified in several CAR target genes. In this study we confirm that REs formed by direct repeats of two AGTTCA hexamers with 4 spacing nucleotides are optimal for the binding of CAR-RXR heterodimers. In addition, we found that the heterodimers also form complexes on everted repeat-type arrangements with 8 spacing nucleotides. We also observed that CAR is able to bind DNA as a monomer and to interact in this form with different coregulators even in the presence of RXR. Systematic variation of the nucleotides 5'-flanking to both AGTTCA hexamers showed that the dinucleotide sequence modulates the DNA complex formation of CAR monomers and CAR-RXR heterodimer by a factor of up to 20. The highest preference was found for the sequence AG and lowest for CC. The increased DNA affinity of CAR is mediated by the positively charged arginines 90 and 91 located in the carboxyl-terminal extension of the DNA-binding domain of the receptor. Furthermore, we show that one of the three CAR REs of the human UGT1A1 PBREM is exclusively bound by CAR monomers and this is regulated by ligands that bind to this nuclear receptor. This points to a physiological role for CAR monomers. Therefore, both CAR-RXR heterodimers and CAR monomers can contribute to the gene activating function of PBREMs in CAR target genes. PMID:12896978

  3. Nuclear medicine practices in the 1950s through the mid-1970s and occupational radiation doses to technologists from diagnostic radioisotope procedures.

    PubMed

    Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Brill, Aaron B; Mettler, Fred A; Beckner, William M; Goldsmith, Stanley J; Gross, Milton D; Hays, Marguerite T; Kirchner, Peter T; Langan, James K; Reba, Richard C; Smith, Gary T; Bouville, André; Linet, Martha S; Melo, Dunstana R; Lee, Choonsik; Simon, Steven L

    2014-10-01

    Data on occupational radiation exposure from nuclear medicine procedures for the time period of the 1950s through the 1970s is important for retrospective health risk studies of medical personnel who conducted those activities. However, limited information is available on occupational exposure received by physicians and technologists who performed nuclear medicine procedures during those years. To better understand and characterize historical radiation exposures to technologists, the authors collected information on nuclear medicine practices in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. To collect historical data needed to reconstruct doses to technologists, a focus group interview was held with experts who began using radioisotopes in medicine in the 1950s and the 1960s. Typical protocols and descriptions of clinical practices of diagnostic radioisotope procedures were defined by the focus group and were used to estimate occupational doses received by personnel, per nuclear medicine procedure, conducted in the 1950s to 1960s using radiopharmaceuticals available at that time. The radionuclide activities in the organs of the reference patient were calculated using the biokinetic models described in ICRP Publication 53. Air kerma rates as a function of distance from a reference patient were calculated by Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations using a hybrid computational phantom. Estimates of occupational doses to nuclear medicine technologists per procedure were found to vary from less than 0.01 μSv (thyroid scan with 1.85 MBq of administered I-iodide) to 0.4 μSv (brain scan with 26 MBq of Hg-chlormerodin). Occupational doses for the same diagnostic procedures starting in the mid-1960s but using Tc were also estimated. The doses estimated in this study show that the introduction of Tc resulted in an increase in occupational doses per procedure. PMID:25162420

  4. NUCLEAR MEDICINE PRACTICES IN THE 1950s THROUGH THE mid-1970s AND OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION DOSES TO TECHNOLOGISTS FROM DIAGNOSTIC RADIOISOTOPE PROCEDURES

    PubMed Central

    Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Brill, Aaron B.; Mettler, Fred A.; Beckner, William M.; Goldsmith, Stanley J.; Gross, Milton D.; Hays, Marguerite T.; Kirchner, Peter T.; Langan, James K.; Reba, Richard C.; Smith, Gary T.; Bouville, André; Linet, Martha S.; Melo, Dunstana R.; Lee, Choonsik; Simon, Steven L.

    2014-01-01

    Data on occupational radiation exposure from nuclear medicine procedures for the time period of the 1950s through the 1970s is important for retrospective health risk studies of medical personnel who conducted those activities. However, limited information is available on occupational exposure received by physicians and technologists who performed nuclear medicine procedures during those years. To better understand and characterize historical radiation exposures to technologists, we collected information on nuclear medicine practices in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. To collect historical data needed to reconstruct doses to technologists, a focus group interview was held with experts who began using radioisotopes in medicine in the 1950s and the 1960s. Typical protocols and descriptions of clinical practices of diagnostic radioisotope procedures were defined by the focus group and were used to estimate occupational doses received by personnel, per nuclear medicine procedure, conducted in the 1950s-1960s using radiopharmaceuticals available at that time. The radionuclide activities in the organs of the reference patient were calculated using the biokinetic models described in ICRP Publication 53. Air kerma rates as a function of distance from a reference patient were calculated by Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations using a hybrid computational phantom. Estimates of occupational doses to nuclear medicine technologists per procedure were found to vary from less than 0.01 μSv (thyroid scan with 1.85 MBq of administered 131I-iodide) to 0.4 μSv (brain scan with 26 MBq of 203Hg-chlormerodin). Occupational doses for the same diagnostic procedures starting in the mid-1960s but using 99mTc were also estimated. The doses estimated in this study show that the introduction of 99mTc resulted in an increase in occupational doses per procedure. PMID:25162420

  5. Coupling of Nuclear Waste Form Corrosion and Radionuclide Transports in Presence of Relevant Repository Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, Nathalie A.; Neeway, James J.; Qafoku, Nikolla P.; Ryan, Joseph V.

    2015-09-30

    Assessments of waste form and disposal options start with the degradation of the waste forms and consequent mobilization of radionuclides. Long-term static tests, single-pass flow-through tests, and the pressurized unsaturated flow test are often employed to study the durability of potential waste forms and to help create models that predict their durability throughout the lifespan of the disposal site. These tests involve the corrosion of the material in the presence of various leachants, with different experimental designs yielding desired information about the behavior of the material. Though these tests have proved instrumental in elucidating various mechanisms responsible for material corrosion, the chemical environment to which the material is subject is often not representative of a potential radioactive waste repository where factors such as pH and leachant composition will be controlled by the near-field environment. Near-field materials include, but are not limited to, the original engineered barriers, their resulting corrosion products, backfill materials, and the natural host rock. For an accurate performance assessment of a nuclear waste repository, realistic waste corrosion experimental data ought to be modeled to allow for a better understanding of waste form corrosion mechanisms and the effect of immediate geochemical environment on these mechanisms. Additionally, the migration of radionuclides in the resulting chemical environment during and after waste form corrosion must be quantified and mechanisms responsible for migrations understood. The goal of this research was to understand the mechanisms responsible for waste form corrosion in the presence of relevant repository sediments to allow for accurate radionuclide migration quantifications. The rationale for this work is that a better understanding of waste form corrosion in relevant systems will enable increased reliance on waste form performance in repository environments and potentially

  6. Boron in nuclear medicine: New synthetic approaches to PET and SPECT. Progress report, May 1, 1993--April 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Kabalka, G.W.

    1994-02-01

    New methods based on reactive organometallic precursors containing organic functional groups that are generally responsible for physiologic responses are being exploited for preparation of radiopharmaceutials. This program focuses on the design of new chemistry (molecular architecture) and technology as opposed to the application of known reactions to the synthesis of specific radiopharmaceutical. The new technology which is often based on organoborane chemistry is then utilized in nuclear medicine research at the UT Biomedical Imaging Center and in collaboration with colleagues at other DOE. facilities such as Brookhaven National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. New radiopharmaceutical are evaluated preclinically by colleagues at UT, Emory University and The University of Pennsylvania, and by Nova Screen.

  7. Calculation of electron and isotopes dose point kernels with fluka Monte Carlo code for dosimetry in nuclear medicine therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Botta, F.; Mairani, A.; Battistoni, G.; Cremonesi, M.; Di Dia, A.; Fasso, A.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, M.; Paganelli, G.; Pedroli, G.; Valente, M.

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: The calculation of patient-specific dose distribution can be achieved by Monte Carlo simulations or by analytical methods. In this study, fluka Monte Carlo code has been considered for use in nuclear medicine dosimetry. Up to now, fluka has mainly been dedicated to other fields, namely high energy physics, radiation protection, and hadrontherapy. When first employing a Monte Carlo code for nuclear medicine dosimetry, its results concerning electron transport at energies typical of nuclear medicine applications need to be verified. This is commonly achieved by means of calculation of a representative parameter and comparison with reference data. Dose point kernel (DPK), quantifying the energy deposition all around a point isotropic source, is often the one. Methods: fluka DPKs have been calculated in both water and compact bone for monoenergetic electrons (10{sup -3} MeV) and for beta emitting isotopes commonly used for therapy ({sup 89}Sr, {sup 90}Y, {sup 131}I, {sup 153}Sm, {sup 177}Lu, {sup 186}Re, and {sup 188}Re). Point isotropic sources have been simulated at the center of a water (bone) sphere, and deposed energy has been tallied in concentric shells. fluka outcomes have been compared to penelope v.2008 results, calculated in this study as well. Moreover, in case of monoenergetic electrons in water, comparison with the data from the literature (etran, geant4, mcnpx) has been done. Maximum percentage differences within 0.8{center_dot}R{sub CSDA} and 0.9{center_dot}R{sub CSDA} for monoenergetic electrons (R{sub CSDA} being the continuous slowing down approximation range) and within 0.8{center_dot}X{sub 90} and 0.9{center_dot}X{sub 90} for isotopes (X{sub 90} being the radius of the sphere in which 90% of the emitted energy is absorbed) have been computed, together with the average percentage difference within 0.9{center_dot}R{sub CSDA} and 0.9{center_dot}X{sub 90} for electrons and isotopes, respectively. Results: Concerning monoenergetic electrons

  8. Calculation of electron and isotopes dose point kernels with fluka Monte Carlo code for dosimetry in nuclear medicine therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Botta, F; Di Dia, A; Pedroli, G; Mairani, A; Battistoni, G; Fasso, A; Ferrari, A; Ferrari, M; Paganelli, G; Valente, M

    2011-06-01

    The calculation of patient-specific dose distribution can be achieved by Monte Carlo simulations or by analytical methods. In this study, fluka Monte Carlo code has been considered for use in nuclear medicine dosimetry. Up to now, fluka has mainly been dedicated to other fields, namely high energy physics, radiation protection, and hadrontherapy. When first employing a Monte Carlo code for nuclear medicine dosimetry, its results concerning electron transport at energies typical of nuclear medicine applications need to be verified. This is commonly achieved by means of calculation of a representative parameter and comparison with reference data. Dose point kernel (DPK), quantifying the energy deposition all around a point isotropic source, is often the one.Methods: fluka DPKs have been calculated in both water and compact bone for monoenergetic electrons (10–3 MeV) and for beta emitting isotopes commonly used for therapy (89Sr, 90Y, 131I, 153Sm, 177Lu, 186Re, and 188Re). Point isotropic sources have been simulated at the center of a water (bone) sphere, and deposed energy has been tallied in concentric shells. fluka outcomes have been compared to penelope v.2008 results, calculated in this study as well. Moreover, in case of monoenergetic electrons in water, comparison with the data from the literature (etran, geant4, mcnpx) has been done. Maximum percentage differences within 0.8·RCSDA and 0.9·RCSDA for monoenergetic electrons (RCSDA being the continuous slowing down approximation range) and within 0.8·X90 and 0.9·X90 for isotopes (X90 being the radius of the sphere in which 90% of the emitted energy is absorbed) have been computed, together with the average percentage difference within 0.9·RCSDA and 0.9·X90 for electrons and isotopes, respectively.Results: Concerning monoenergetic electrons, within 0.8·RCSDA (where 90%–97% of the particle energy is deposed), fluka and penelope agree mostly within 7%, except for 10 and 20 keV electrons (12% in water, 8

  9. Design and manufacturing of anthropomorphic thyroid-neck phantom for use in nuclear medicine centres in Chile.

    PubMed

    Hermosilla, A; Díaz Londoño, G; García, M; Ruíz, F; Andrade, P; Pérez, A

    2014-12-01

    Anthropomorphic phantoms are used in nuclear medicine for imaging quality control, calibration of gamma spectrometry system for the study of internal contamination with radionuclides and for internal dosimetric studies. These are constructed of materials that have radiation attenuation coefficients similar to those of the different organs and tissues of the human body. The material usually used for the manufacture of phantoms is polymethyl methacrylate. Other materials used for this purpose are polyethylene, polystyrene and epoxy resin. This project presents the design and manufacture of an anthropomorphic thyroid-neck phantom that includes the cervical spine, trachea and oesophagus, using a polyester resin (ρ = 1.1 g cm(-3)). Its linear and mass attenuation coefficients were experimentally determined and simulated by means of XCOM software, finding that this material reproduces the soft tissue ICRU-44 in a range of energies between 80 keV and 11 MeV, with less than a 5 % difference. PMID:24567500

  10. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy For Metabolic Profiling of Medicinal Plants and Their Products.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dinesh

    2016-09-01

    NMR spectroscopy has multidisciplinary applications, including excellent impact in metabolomics. The analytical capacity of NMR spectroscopy provides information for easy qualitative and quantitative assessment of both endogenous and exogenous metabolites present in biological samples. The complexity of a particular metabolite and its contribution in a biological system are critically important for understanding the functional state that governs the organism's phenotypes. This review covers historical aspects of developments in the NMR field, its applications in chemical profiling, metabolomics, and quality control of plants and their derived medicines, foods, and other products. The bottlenecks of NMR in metabolic profiling are also discussed, keeping in view the future scope and further technological interventions. PMID:26575437

  11. Nuclear war in the Middle East: where is the voice of medicine and public health.

    PubMed

    Dallas, Cham E; Burkle, Frederick M

    2011-10-01

    Once again, the politically volatile Middle East and accompanying rhetoric has escalated the risk of a major nuclear exchange. Diplomatic efforts have failed to make the medical consequences of such an exchange a leading element in negotiations. The medical and academic communities share this denial. Without exaggeration, the harsh reality of the enormous consequences of an imminently conceivable nuclear war between Iran and Israel will encompass an unprecedented millions of dead and an unavoidable decline in public health and environmental devastation that would impact major populations in the Middle East for decades to come. Nuclear deterrence and the uncomfortable but real medical and public health consequences must become an integral part of a broader global health diplomacy that emphasizes health security along with poverty reduction and good governance. PMID:22509536

  12. Discovery of rhenium and masurium (technetium) by Ida Noddack-Tacke and Walter Noddack. Forgotten heroes of nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Biersack, H-J; Stelzner, F; Knapp, F F

    2015-01-01

    The history of the early identification of elements and their designation to the Mendeleev Table of the Elements was an important chapter in German science in which Ida (1896-1978) and Walter (1893-1960) Noddack played an important role in the first identification of rhenium (element 75, 1925) and technetium (element 43, 1933). In 1934 Ida Noddack was also the first to predict fission of uranium into smaller atoms. Although the Noddacks did not for some time later receive the recognition for the first identification of technetium-99m, their efforts have appropriately more recently been recognized. The discoveries of these early pioneers are even more astounding in light of the limited technologies and resources which were available during this period. The Noddack discoveries of elements 43 and 75 are related to the subsequent use of rhenium-188 (beta/gamma emitter) and technetium-99m (gamma emitter) in nuclear medicine. In particular, the theranostic relationship between these two generator-derived radioisotopes has been demonstrated and offers new opportunities in the current era of personalized medicine. PMID:26478117

  13. Inhibition of Nuclear Factor κB Activation and Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression by Aqueous Extracts of Hispanic Medicinal Herbs

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Amanda M.; Hunsaker, Lucy A.; Franco, Carolina R.; Royer, Robert E.; Vander Jagt, David L.; Vander Jagt, Dorothy J.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a primary choice of therapy for diseases with a chronic inflammatory component. Unfortunately, long-term NSAID therapy is often accompanied by severe side effects, including cardiovascular and gastrointestinal complications. Because of this, there is critical need for identification of new and safer treatments for chronic inflammation to circumvent these side effects. Inflammatory diseases have been successfully remedied with natural herbs by many cultures. To better understand the potential of natural herbs in treating chronic inflammation and to identify their mechanism of action, we have evaluated the anti-inflammatory activities of 20 medicinal herbs commonly used in the Hispanic culture. We have established a standardized method for preparing aqueous extracts (teas) from the selected medicinal herbs and screened for inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-α-induced activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), which is the central signaling pathway of the inflammatory response. A number of herbal teas were identified that exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity. In particular, tea from the herb commonly called laurel was found to be an especially potent inhibitor of NF-κB-dependent cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression and prostaglandin E2 production in cultured murine macrophages. These findings indicate that laurel tea extract contains potent anti-inflammatory compounds that function by inhibiting the major signal transduction pathway responsible for inducing an inflammatory event. Based on these results, laurel may represent a new, safe therapeutic agent for managing chronic inflammation. PMID:20482259

  14. A comparative study of nuclear form factor, area and diameter in non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and reactive lymph nodes.

    PubMed Central

    Crocker, J; Jones, E L; Curran, R C

    1983-01-01

    The mean nuclear area, maximum nuclear diameter (Dmax) and form factor (FF) have been measured in 30 specimens of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and 10 reactive lymph nodes, using the Reichert-Jung (Kontron) MOP-AMO3 image analyzer. Nuclear area and Dmax were found to be greater in high-grade NHL than in low-grade lymphomas and reactive nodes. In addition, there was close correlation between nuclear area and Dmax, especially for low-grade NHL and reactive specimens. As a means of distinguishing between high- and low-grade lymphomas, however, the FF appears to be of little value. PMID:6338055

  15. Properties of SYNROC-D nuclear waste form: a state-of-the-art reivew

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.; Hoenig, C.; Bazan, F.; Ryerson, F.; Guinan, M.; Van Konynenburg, R.; Rozsa, R.

    1982-01-01

    SYNROC is a titanate-based ceramic waste form being developed to immobilize high-level nuclear reactor wastes. SYNROC-D is a unique variation of SYNROC designed to contain high-level defense wastes, particularly those in storage at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). In this report, we review results from physical property and performance tests on SYNROC-D containing simulated SRP wastes. These results provide a data base for comparing SYNROC-D with other defense waste forms. The test data are grouped into three categories: (1) waste loading, (2) mechanical and thermal properties, (3) leach resistance. We also examine the possible effects of radiation damage on SYNROC during long-term storage in a geologic repository. The test data were collected from a series of SYNROC-D samples prepared as part of a comparative testing program initiated by Savannah River Laboratory. These samples were prepared by conventional ceramic hot-pressing techniques and then characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe analysis. Whenever possible, standardized test procedures were used for evaluating the waste form properties. For example, leach rates were measured using the Material Characterization Center's (MCC) standard MCC-1 and MCC-2 tests. 66 references

  16. Three proliferating cell nuclear antigen homologues from Metallosphaera sedula form a head-to-tail heterotrimer.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Fumiya; Hirakawa, Hidehiko; Nagamune, Teruyuki

    2016-01-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a sliding clamp that plays a key role in DNA metabolism. Genome sequence analysis has revealed that some crenarchaea possess three PCNA genes in their genome, but it has been reported that three PCNAs do not always form a unique heterotrimer composed of one of each molecule. The thermoacidophilic archaeon, Metallosphaera sedula, has three PCNA homologue genes. Here, we demonstrated that the three PCNA homologues, MsePCNA1, MsePCNA2 and MsePCNA3, exclusively form a heterotrimer in a stepwise fashion; MsePCNA1 and MsePCNA2 form a heterodimer, and then MsePCNA3 binds to the heterodimer. We determined that the dissociation constants between MsePCNA1 and MsePCNA2, and between MsePCNA3 and the MsePCNA1:MsePCNA2 heterodimer are 0.29 and 43 nM, respectively. Moreover, the MsePCNA1, MsePCNA2 and MsePCNA3 heterotrimer stimulated M. sedula DNA ligase 1 activity, suggesting that the heterotrimer works as a DNA sliding clamp in the organism. The stable and stepwise heterotrimerization of M. sedula PCNA homologues would be useful to generate functional protein-based materials such as artificial multi-enzyme complexes, functional hydrogels and protein fibres, which have recently been achieved by protein self-assembly. PMID:27228945

  17. Direct Measurement of Surface Dissolution Rates in Potential Nuclear Waste Forms: The Example of Pyrochlore.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Cornelius; Finkeldei, Sarah; Brandt, Felix; Bosbach, Dirk; Luttge, Andreas

    2015-08-19

    The long-term stability of ceramic materials that are considered as potential nuclear waste forms is governed by heterogeneous surface reactivity. Thus, instead of a mean rate, the identification of one or more dominant contributors to the overall dissolution rate is the key to predict the stability of waste forms quantitatively. Direct surface measurements by vertical scanning interferometry (VSI) and their analysis via material flux maps and resulting dissolution rate spectra provide data about dominant rate contributors and their variability over time. Using pyrochlore (Nd2Zr2O7) pellet dissolution under acidic conditions as an example, we demonstrate the identification and quantification of dissolution rate contributors, based on VSI data and rate spectrum analysis. Heterogeneous surface alteration of pyrochlore varies by a factor of about 5 and additional material loss by chemo-mechanical grain pull-out within the uppermost grain layer. We identified four different rate contributors that are responsible for the observed dissolution rate range of single grains. Our new concept offers the opportunity to increase our mechanistic understanding and to predict quantitatively the alteration of ceramic waste forms. PMID:26186697

  18. Three proliferating cell nuclear antigen homologues from Metallosphaera sedula form a head-to-tail heterotrimer

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Fumiya; Hirakawa, Hidehiko; Nagamune, Teruyuki

    2016-01-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a sliding clamp that plays a key role in DNA metabolism. Genome sequence analysis has revealed that some crenarchaea possess three PCNA genes in their genome, but it has been reported that three PCNAs do not always form a unique heterotrimer composed of one of each molecule. The thermoacidophilic archaeon, Metallosphaera sedula, has three PCNA homologue genes. Here, we demonstrated that the three PCNA homologues, MsePCNA1, MsePCNA2 and MsePCNA3, exclusively form a heterotrimer in a stepwise fashion; MsePCNA1 and MsePCNA2 form a heterodimer, and then MsePCNA3 binds to the heterodimer. We determined that the dissociation constants between MsePCNA1 and MsePCNA2, and between MsePCNA3 and the MsePCNA1:MsePCNA2 heterodimer are 0.29 and 43 nM, respectively. Moreover, the MsePCNA1, MsePCNA2 and MsePCNA3 heterotrimer stimulated M. sedula DNA ligase 1 activity, suggesting that the heterotrimer works as a DNA sliding clamp in the organism. The stable and stepwise heterotrimerization of M. sedula PCNA homologues would be useful to generate functional protein-based materials such as artificial multi-enzyme complexes, functional hydrogels and protein fibres, which have recently been achieved by protein self-assembly. PMID:27228945

  19. Evaluation of stainless steel zirconium alloys as high-level nuclear waste forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDeavitt, S. M.; Abraham, D. P.; Park, J. Y.

    1998-09-01

    Stainless steel-zirconium (SS-Zr) alloys have been developed for the consolidation and disposal of waste stainless steel, zirconium, and noble metal fission products such as Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Pd, and Ag recovered from spent nuclear fuel assemblies. These remnant waste metals are left behind following electrometallurgical treatment, a molten salt-based process being demonstrated by Argonne National Laboratory. Two SS-Zr compositions have been selected as baseline waste form alloys: (a) stainless steel-15 wt% zirconium (SS-15Zr) for stainless steel-clad fuels and (b) zirconium-8 wt% stainless steel (Zr-8SS) for Zircaloy-clad fuels. Simulated waste form alloys were prepared and tested to characterize the metallurgy of SS-15Zr and Zr-8SS and to evaluate their physical properties and corrosion resistance. Both SS-15Zr and Zr-8SS have multi-phase microstructures, are mechanically strong, and have thermophysical properties comparable to other metals. They also exhibit high resistance to corrosion in simulated groundwater as determined by immersion, electrochemical, and vapor hydration tests. Taken together, the microstructure, physical property, and corrosion resistance data indicate that SS-15Zr and Zr-8SS are viable materials as high-level waste forms.

  20. A novel waste form for disposal of spent-nuclear-fuel reprocessing waste: A vitrifiable cement

    SciTech Connect

    Gougar, M.L.D.; Scheetz, B.E.; Siemer, D.D.

    1999-01-01

    A cement capable of being hot isostatically pressed into a glass ceramic has been proposed as the waste form for spent-nuclear-fuel reprocessing wastes at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). This intermediate cement, with a composition based on that of common glasses, has been designed and tested. The cement formulations included mixed INEEL wastes, blast furnace slag, reactive silica, and INEEL soil or vermiculite, which were activated with potassium or sodium hydroxide. Following autoclave processing, the cements were characterized. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed three notable crystalline phases: quartz, calcite, and fluorite. Results of compressive strength testing ranged from 1452 and 4163 psi, exceeding the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-suggested standard of >500 psi. From American National Standards Institute/American Nuclear Society 16.1-1986 leach testing, effective diffusivities for Cs were determined to be on the order of 10{sup {minus}11} to 10{sup {minus}10} cm{sup 2}/s and for Sr were 10{sup {minus}12} cm{sup 2}/s, which are four orders of magnitude less than diffusivities in some other radwaste materials. Average leach indices (LI) were 9.6 and 11.9 for Cs and Sr, respectively, meeting the NRC Standard of LI > 6. The 28-day Materials Characterization Center-1 leach testing resulted in normalized elemental mass losses between 0.63 and 28 g/(m{sup 2}{center_dot}day) for Cs and between 0.34 and 0.70 g/(m{sup 2}{center_dot}day) industry-accepted standard while Cs losses indicate a process sensitive parameter.

  1. Systematic analysis of barrier-forming FG hydrogels from Xenopus nuclear pore complexes.

    PubMed

    Labokha, Aksana A; Gradmann, Sabine; Frey, Steffen; Hülsmann, Bastian B; Urlaub, Henning; Baldus, Marc; Görlich, Dirk

    2013-01-23

    Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) control the traffic between cell nucleus and cytoplasm. While facilitating translocation of nuclear transport receptors (NTRs) and NTR·cargo complexes, they suppress passive passage of macromolecules 30 kDa. Previously, we reconstituted the NPC barrier as hydrogels comprising S. cerevisiae FG domains. We now studied FG domains from 10 Xenopus nucleoporins and found that all of them form hydrogels. Related domains with low FG motif density also substantially contribute to the NPC's hydrogel mass. We characterized all these hydrogels and observed the strictest sieving effect for the Nup98-derived hydrogel. It fully blocks entry of GFP-sized inert objects, permits facilitated entry of the small NTR NTF2, but arrests importin β-type NTRs at its surface. O-GlcNAc modification of the Nup98 FG domain prevented this arrest and allowed also large NTR·cargo complexes to enter. Solid-state NMR spectroscopy revealed that the O-GlcNAc-modified Nup98 gel lacks amyloid-like β-structures that dominate the rigid regions in the S. cerevisiae Nsp1 FG hydrogel. This suggests that FG hydrogels can assemble through different structural principles and yet acquire the same NPC-like permeability. PMID:23202855

  2. Systematic analysis of barrier-forming FG hydrogels from Xenopus nuclear pore complexes

    PubMed Central

    Labokha, Aksana A; Gradmann, Sabine; Frey, Steffen; Hülsmann, Bastian B; Urlaub, Henning; Baldus, Marc; Görlich, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) control the traffic between cell nucleus and cytoplasm. While facilitating translocation of nuclear transport receptors (NTRs) and NTR·cargo complexes, they suppress passive passage of macromolecules ⩾30 kDa. Previously, we reconstituted the NPC barrier as hydrogels comprising S. cerevisiae FG domains. We now studied FG domains from 10 Xenopus nucleoporins and found that all of them form hydrogels. Related domains with low FG motif density also substantially contribute to the NPC's hydrogel mass. We characterized all these hydrogels and observed the strictest sieving effect for the Nup98-derived hydrogel. It fully blocks entry of GFP-sized inert objects, permits facilitated entry of the small NTR NTF2, but arrests importin β-type NTRs at its surface. O-GlcNAc modification of the Nup98 FG domain prevented this arrest and allowed also large NTR·cargo complexes to enter. Solid-state NMR spectroscopy revealed that the O-GlcNAc-modified Nup98 gel lacks amyloid-like β-structures that dominate the rigid regions in the S. cerevisiae Nsp1 FG hydrogel. This suggests that FG hydrogels can assemble through different structural principles and yet acquire the same NPC-like permeability. PMID:23202855

  3. Bacterial diversity in biofilms formed on condenser tube surfaces in a nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dong H; Noh, Jae H; Yu, Ok H; Kang, Yeon S

    2010-11-01

    To elucidate the bacterial diversity in biofilms formed on a condenser tube from a nuclear power plant, 16S rRNA gene sequences were examined using a PCR-cloning-sequencing approach. Twelve operational taxonomic units were retrieved in the clone library, and the estimated species richness was low (13.2). Most of the clones (94.7%) were affiliated with α-Proteobacteria; Planctomycetes and γ-Proteobacteria were much rarer. Interestingly, except for one clone belonging to Pseudoalteromonas, most of the sequences displayed sequence similarities <97% of those of the closest type strains. Based on 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis, most bacteria were assigned to novel taxa above the species level. The low species richness and unusual bacterial composition may be attributable to selective pressure from chlorine in the cooling water. To prevent or control bacterial biofilms in cooling circuits, additional studies of the physiology and ecology of these species will be essential. PMID:21058056

  4. An update on radiation absorbed dose to patients from diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures in Tehran: A study on four academic centers

    PubMed Central

    Motazedian, Motahareh; Tabeie, F; Vatankhah, P; Shafiei, B; Amoui, M; Atefi, M; Ansari, M; Asli, I Neshandar

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures is one of the main sources of radiation exposure. We performed this study with respect to the rapid growth in nuclear medicine in Iran and lack of updated statistics. Materials and Methods: The data were obtained for all active Nuclear Medicine Centers affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences during 2009 and 2010. Results: The most frequently performed procedures were bone (30.16%), cardiac (28.96%), renal (17.97%), and thyroid (7.93%) scans. There was a significant decrease in the number of thyroid scintigraphies with 131I and 99mTc-sulfur colloid liver/spleen scans and tremendous increase in the frequencies of cardiac and bone scintigraphies compared to one decade ago. Conclusion: Compared to previous studies, there were striking changes in trends of diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures in Tehran. This field is still evolving in the country, and this trend will further change with the introduction of positron emission tomography scanners in future. PMID:27095860

  5. Medicinal Plants Used by a Mbyá-Guarani Tribe Against Infections: Activity on KPC-Producing Isolates and Biofilm-Forming Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Brandelli, Clara Lia Costa; Ribeiro, Vanessa Bley; Zimmer, Karine Rigon; Barth, Afonso Luís; Tasca, Tiana; Macedo, Alexandre José

    2015-11-01

    The traditional use of medicinal plants for treatment of infectious diseases by an indigenous Mbyá-Guarani tribe from South Brazil was assessed by evaluating the antibiotic and antibiofilm activities against relevant bacterial pathogens. Aqueous extracts from 10 medicinal plants were prepared according to indigenous Mbyá-Guarani traditional uses. To evaluate antibiotic (OD600) and antibiofilm (crystal violet method) activities, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 35984 and seven multi-drug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing bacterial clinical isolates were challenged with the extracts. Furthermore, the susceptibility profile of KPC-producing bacteria and the ability of these isolates to form biofilm were evaluated. The plants Campomanesia xanthocarpa, Maytenus ilicifolia, Bidens pilosa and Verbena sp. showed the best activity against bacterial growth and biofilm formation. The majority of KPC-producing isolates, which showed strong ability to form biofilm and a multidrug resistance profile, was inhibited by more than 50% by some extracts. The Enterobacter cloacae (KPC 05) clinical isolate was the only one resistant to all extracts. This study confirms the importance of indigenous traditional medicinal knowledge and describes for the first time the ability of these plants to inhibit biofilm formation and/or bacterial growth of multi-drug resistant KPC-producing isolates. PMID:26749812

  6. U1 small nuclear RNA variants differentially form ribonucleoprotein particles in vitro.

    PubMed

    Somarelli, Jason A; Mesa, Annia; Rodriguez, Carol E; Sharma, Shalini; Herrera, Rene J

    2014-04-25

    The U1 small nuclear (sn)RNA participates in splicing of pre-mRNAs by recognizing and binding to 5' splice sites at exon/intron boundaries. U1 snRNAs associate with 5' splice sites in the form of ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNPs) that are comprised of the U1 snRNA and 10 core components, including U1A, U1-70K, U1C and the 'Smith antigen', or Sm, heptamer. The U1 snRNA is highly conserved across a wide range of taxa; however, a number of reports have identified the presence of expressed U1-like snRNAs in multiple species, including humans. While numerous U1-like molecules have been shown to be expressed, it is unclear whether these variant snRNAs have the capacity to form snRNPs and participate in splicing. The purpose of the present study was to further characterize biochemically the ability of previously identified human U1-like variants to form snRNPs and bind to U1 snRNP proteins. A bioinformatics analysis provided support for the existence of multiple expressed variants. In vitro gel shift assays, competition assays, and immunoprecipitations (IPs) revealed that the variants formed high molecular weight assemblies to varying degrees and associated with core U1 snRNP proteins to a lesser extent than the canonical U1 snRNA. Together, these data suggest that the human U1 snRNA variants analyzed here are unable to efficiently bind U1 snRNP proteins. The current work provides additional biochemical insights into the ability of the variants to assemble into snRNPs. PMID:24583175

  7. Integrating workplace exposure databases for occupational medicine services and epidemiologic studies at a former nuclear weapons facility.

    PubMed

    Ruttenber, A J; McCrea, J S; Wade, T D; Schonbeck, M F; LaMontagne, A D; Van Dyke, M V; Martyny, J W

    2001-02-01

    We outline methods for integrating epidemiologic and industrial hygiene data systems for the purpose of exposure estimation, exposure surveillance, worker notification, and occupational medicine practice. We present examples of these methods from our work at the Rocky Flats Plant--a former nuclear weapons facility that fabricated plutonium triggers for nuclear weapons and is now being decontaminated and decommissioned. The weapons production processes exposed workers to plutonium, gamma photons, neutrons, beryllium, asbestos, and several hazardous chemical agents, including chlorinated hydrocarbons and heavy metals. We developed a job exposure matrix (JEM) for estimating exposures to 10 chemical agents in 20 buildings for 120 different job categories over a production history spanning 34 years. With the JEM, we estimated lifetime chemical exposures for about 12,000 of the 16,000 former production workers. We show how the JEM database is used to estimate cumulative exposures over different time periods for epidemiological studies and to provide notification and determine eligibility for a medical screening program developed for former workers. We designed an industrial hygiene data system for maintaining exposure data for current cleanup workers. We describe how this system can be used for exposure surveillance and linked with the JEM and databases on radiation doses to develop lifetime exposure histories and to determine appropriate medical monitoring tests for current cleanup workers. We also present time-line-based graphical methods for reviewing and correcting exposure estimates and reporting them to individual workers. PMID:11217711

  8. Ambient Dose Equivalent measured at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología Department of Nuclear Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ávila, O.; Torres-Ulloa, C. L.; Medina, L. A.; Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.; de Buen, I. Gamboa; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E.

    2010-12-01

    Ambient dose equivalent values were determined in several sites at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Departmento de Medicina Nuclear, using TLD-100 and TLD-900 thermoluminescent dosemeters. Additionally, ambient dose equivalent was measured at a corridor outside the hospitalization room for patients treated with 137Cs brachytherapy. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Laboratorio de Metrología, to known 137Cs gamma radiation air kerma. Radionuclides considered for this study are 131I, 18F, 67Ga, 99mTc, 111In, 201Tl and 137Cs, with main gamma energies between 93 and 662 keV. Dosemeters were placed during a five month period in the nuclear medicine rooms (containing gamma-cameras), injection corridor, patient waiting areas, PET/CT study room, hot lab, waste storage room and corridors next to the hospitalization rooms for patients treated with 131I and 137Cs. High dose values were found at the waste storage room, outside corridor of 137Cs brachytherapy patients and PET/CT area. Ambient dose equivalent rate obtained for the 137Cs brachytherapy corridor is equal to (18.51±0.02)×10-3 mSv/h. Sites with minimum doses are the gamma camera rooms, having ambient dose equivalent rates equal to (0.05±0.03)×10-3 mSv/h. Recommendations have been given to the Department authorities so that further actions are taken to reduce doses at high dose sites in order to comply with the ALARA principle (as low as reasonably achievable).

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC WASTE FORMS FOR AN ADVANCED NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J.; Billings, A.; Brinkman, K.; Fox, K.

    2010-11-30

    A series of ceramic waste forms were developed and characterized for the immobilization of a Cesium/Lanthanide (CS/LN) waste stream anticipated to result from nuclear fuel reprocessing. Simple raw materials, including Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2} were combined with simulated waste components to produce multiphase ceramics containing hollandite-type phases, perovskites (particularly BaTiO{sub 3}), pyrochlores and other minor metal titanate phases. Three fabrication methodologies were used, including melting and crystallizing, pressing and sintering, and Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS), with the intent of studying phase evolution under various sintering conditions. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) results showed that the partitioning of the waste elements in the sintered materials was very similar, despite varying stoichiometry of the phases formed. Identification of excess Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} via XRD and SEM/EDS in the first series of compositions led to a Phase II study, with significantly reduced Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations and increased waste loadings. The Phase II compositions generally contained a reduced amount of unreacted Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as identified by XRD. Chemical composition measurements showed no significant issues with meeting the target compositions. However, volatilization of Cs and Mo was identified, particularly during melting, since sintering of the pressed pellets and SPS were performed at lower temperatures. Partitioning of some of the waste components was difficult to determine via XRD. SEM/EDS mapping showed that those elements, which were generally present in small concentrations, were well distributed throughout the waste forms.

  10. [Presentation of multidimensional observed vectors in the form of trigonometric functions, explained by means of an example from internal medicine].

    PubMed

    Röhl, F W; Nahrendorf, W

    1982-04-01

    In the present paper a method of the graphic representation of multivariate data is described which depicts the vectors of the measuring values in form of trigonometric functions. The usefulness of this form of representation is demonstrated with the help of a material of medical data from the field of diseases of the thyroid gland. Here a comparison with the representation of multidimensional vectors of the observed values in form of graphs or in form of transformation into the plane emphasizes the good perceptibility of particularities of the data. PMID:7102007

  11. Radiologic and nuclear medicine studies in the United States and worldwide: frequency, radiation dose, and comparison with other radiation sources--1950-2007.

    PubMed

    Mettler, Fred A; Bhargavan, Mythreyi; Faulkner, Keith; Gilley, Debbie B; Gray, Joel E; Ibbott, Geoffrey S; Lipoti, Jill A; Mahesh, Mahadevappa; McCrohan, John L; Stabin, Michael G; Thomadsen, Bruce R; Yoshizumi, Terry T

    2009-11-01

    The U.S. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements and United Nations Scientific Committee on Effects of Atomic Radiation each conducted respective assessments of all radiation sources in the United States and worldwide. The goal of this article is to summarize and combine the results of these two publicly available surveys and to compare the results with historical information. In the United States in 2006, about 377 million diagnostic and interventional radiologic examinations and 18 million nuclear medicine examinations were performed. The United States accounts for about 12% of radiologic procedures and about one-half of nuclear medicine procedures performed worldwide. In the United States, the frequency of diagnostic radiologic examinations has increased almost 10-fold (1950-2006). The U.S. per-capita annual effective dose from medical procedures has increased about sixfold (0.5 mSv [1980] to 3.0 mSv [2006]). Worldwide estimates for 2000-2007 indicate that 3.6 billion medical procedures with ionizing radiation (3.1 billion diagnostic radiologic, 0.5 billion dental, and 37 million nuclear medicine examinations) are performed annually. Worldwide, the average annual per-capita effective dose from medicine (about 0.6 mSv of the total 3.0 mSv received from all sources) has approximately doubled in the past 10-15 years. PMID:19789227

  12. [Sudeck syndrome--a combined clinico-roentgenologic-nuclear medicine study].

    PubMed

    Schurawitzki, H; Wickenhauser, J; Fezoulidis, I; Sadil, V; Fialka, V

    1988-10-01

    147 patients with clinical suspicion of a Sudeck syndrome were submitted to X-ray and nuclear medical examinations. The clinical suspicion was confirmed in 122 patients. In six cases showing no X-ray symptoms, the diagnosis could only be confirmed by scintigraphy. A new classification of stages was necessary for therapeutic reasons: I = early stage, II = acute/subacute stage, III = healing stage, IV = defective recovery. Modifications due to therapy were demonstrated early by 100 scintigraphic check-up examinations, whereas the evidence of such modifications in X-ray pictures was delayed. The study describes the X-ray morphology as well as the scintigraphic manifestations of the Sudeck syndrome. The study shows that scintigraphy is a valuable examination method. It is useful in diagnosing early stages often not detected in X-ray examination, in the assessment of the evolution of a disease, and in the classification of stages. PMID:2467419

  13. Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending June 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Srivastava, P.C.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.; Lambert, S.J.; Rice, D.E.

    1991-09-01

    In this report the excitation functions for production of gallium-66 via {alpha}-induced nuclear reactions on enriched zinc-66 have been measured with E{sub {alpha}}{le}27.3 Mev and E{sub {alpha}}{le}43.7 MeV employing the stack thin-target technique. In addition, the induced activity of gallium-67 in the same sets of targets allowed an evaluation of the excitation functions of the corresponding nuclear reactions. These preliminary studies have demonstrated that sufficient levels of gallium-66 can be produced by {alpha}-induced reactions on enriched zinc targets. A series of radioiodinated analogues of 1-azabicyclo(2.2.2)oct-3-yl {alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}, {alpha}-diphenylacetate (QNB) have been prepared. These new analogues include 1-azabicyclo-(2.2.2)oct-3-yl{alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-(4-iodophenyl)-{alpha}-methylacetate(2,I-WNA), 1-azabicyclo(2.2.2)oct-3-yl (3-iodo)-xanthene-9-carboxylate (3,I-QNX), and 1-azabicyclo(2.2.2)oct-3-yl {alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-(E-1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl)-{alpha}-phenylacetate (4,I-QNP), which have also been radiolabeled with iodine-125 with high specific activity. The biodistribution, brain uptake, and receptor specificity of these new analogues are currently being studied. Shipments of radioactive agents made to collaborators during this period included. One shipment of iodine-125-labeled 15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) and tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator. 16 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  14. [Organizational forms of emergency medicine from the perspective of DGCH and BDC. Discipline-specific or interdisciplinary?].

    PubMed

    Bauer, H; Bruch, H P

    2011-04-01

    Due to logistic, organizational and economic advantages, interdisciplinary emergency centers are gaining more and more acceptance compared to established, discipline-specific and independent emergency rooms. Organizational concepts for interdisciplinary emergency centers need to consider the mandate for comprehensive patient care and the consequential performance spectrum. Thus, the implementation of generally accepted guidelines and specifications is demanding.Currently developed concepts of the accordant interdisciplinary working groups try to fulfill these premises. Further fundamental criteria to be met are the quality and education of medical and nursing staff, which are predominantly doing their jobs within the interdisciplinary emergency centers. The concept of the German surgical societies and connected organizations is not the implementation of a new definition of the role of emergency specialized physicians but rather a substantial advancement of the existing and established regulations for further education. Therefore, a further advanced-training program for clinical emergency medicine has to be implemented in addition to the existing emergency education within the common trunk, which every physician has to pass through during discipline-specific education. Furthermore, this program should complement the existing pre-clinical emergency education, which can be acquired after specialization.The accordant criteria to be developed and the coordination with the German Medical Association (Bundesärztekammer) are currently prioritized on the agenda of the interdisciplinary working group. Due to reasons of compatibility with the regulations for further education, specific management skills for future heads and directors of such interdisciplinary emergency centers should not be stipulated within the advanced-training program for clinical emergency medicine but should be gained through specific course concepts beyond this program. PMID:21424296

  15. Reaction sintered glass: A durable matrix for spinel-forming nuclear waste compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, W. L.; Lutze, W.; Ewing, R. C.

    2000-01-01

    Glass formation by reaction sintering under isostatic pressure is an innovative process to vitrify refractory-rich high-level radioactive waste. We used a typical defense waste composition, containing spinel-forming components such as ˜4 wt% of Cr 2O 3, ˜23 wt% Al 2O 3, ˜13 wt% Fe 2O 3, and ˜9 wt% UO 2, with CeO 2 simulating UO 2. Reaction sintered silicate glasses with waste loading up to 45 wt% were prepared within three hours, by hot pressing at 800°C. The glass former was amorphous silica. Simulated waste was added as calcined oxides. The reaction sintered glass samples were characterized using scanning and analytical electron microscopy. The results show that extensive reaction sintering took place and a continuous glass phase formed. Waste components such as Na 2O, CaO, MnO 2, and Fe 2O 3, dissolved completely in the continuous glass phase. Cr 2O 3, Al 2O 3, and CeO 2 were only partially dissolved due to incomplete dissolution (Al 2O 3) or super-saturation and reprecipitation (Cr 2O 3 and CeO 2). The precipitation mechanism is related to a time dependent alkali content in the developing glass phase. Short-term corrosion tests in water showed that the glasses are chemically more durable than melted nuclear waste glasses. Based on hydration energies calculations, the long-term chemical durability of our reaction sintered glasses is expected to be comparable to that of rhyolitic and tektite glasses.

  16. Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.

    1992-12-01

    The radioiodination and in vivo evaluation of p-iodocaramiphen a muscarinic antagonist which binds with high affinity to the M[sub 1] receptor subtype in vitro are described. Biodistribution studies in female Fischer rats demonstrated that [[sup 125]I]-piodocaraminphen had significant cerebral localization, but the uptake did not demonstrate specific uptake in those cerebral regions rich in muscarinic receptors, and radioactivity washed out rapidly from the brain. In addition there was no significant blockage of activity when the rats were preinjected with quinuclidinyl benzilate. These results suggest that p-iodocaramiphen is not a good candidate for the in vivo study of M[sub 1] muscarinic receptor populations by SPECT. Because of the widespread interest and expected importance of the availability of large amounts of tungsten-188 required for the tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator systems, we have investigated the large-scale production of tungsten-188 in the ORNL HFIR. We have also compared our production data with the theoretical production values and with experimental data available in the literature from other reactors. Tungsten-188 is produced in a fission nuclear reactor by double neutron capture of tungsten-186. The experimental yield of tungsten-188 is approximately 4 mCi/mg of tungsten-186 at the end of bombardment (EOB) in the HFIR operating at 85 MWt power for a one cycle irradiation ([approximately]21 days) at a thermal neutron flux of 2 [times] 10[sup 15] n.s[sup [minus]1]cm[sup [minus]2].

  17. Nuclear Medicine Program progress report for quarter ending September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.; Callahan, A.P.; McPherson, D.W.; Mirzadeh, S.; Hasan, A.; Lambert, C.R.

    1992-12-01

    The radioiodination and in vivo evaluation of p-iodocaramiphen a muscarinic antagonist which binds with high affinity to the M{sub 1} receptor subtype in vitro are described. Biodistribution studies in female Fischer rats demonstrated that [{sup 125}I]-piodocaraminphen had significant cerebral localization, but the uptake did not demonstrate specific uptake in those cerebral regions rich in muscarinic receptors, and radioactivity washed out rapidly from the brain. In addition there was no significant blockage of activity when the rats were preinjected with quinuclidinyl benzilate. These results suggest that p-iodocaramiphen is not a good candidate for the in vivo study of M{sub 1} muscarinic receptor populations by SPECT. Because of the widespread interest and expected importance of the availability of large amounts of tungsten-188 required for the tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator systems, we have investigated the large-scale production of tungsten-188 in the ORNL HFIR. We have also compared our production data with the theoretical production values and with experimental data available in the literature from other reactors. Tungsten-188 is produced in a fission nuclear reactor by double neutron capture of tungsten-186. The experimental yield of tungsten-188 is approximately 4 mCi/mg of tungsten-186 at the end of bombardment (EOB) in the HFIR operating at 85 MWt power for a one cycle irradiation ({approximately}21 days) at a thermal neutron flux of 2 {times} 10{sup 15} n.s{sup {minus}1}cm{sup {minus}2}.

  18. Tantalum-178--a short-lived nuclide for nuclear medicine: development of a potential generator system.

    PubMed

    Neirinckx, R D; Jones, A G; Davis, M A; Harris, G I; Holman, B L

    1978-05-01

    We describe a chemical separation that may form the basis of a generator system for the short-lived radionuclide Ta-178 (T 1/2 = 9 min). The parent nuclide W-178 (T 1/2 = 21.7 days) is loaded on an anion-exchange column and the daughter eluted with a mixture of dilute hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The yields of tantalum and the breakthrough of the tungsten parent as a function of the eluting conditions are discussed, and preliminary animal distribution data are presented for various treatments of the eluant solution. PMID:641574

  19. Accelerometer-Based Method for Extracting Respiratory and Cardiac Gating Information for Dual Gating during Nuclear Medicine Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Pänkäälä, Mikko; Paasio, Ari

    2014-01-01

    Both respiratory and cardiac motions reduce the quality and consistency of medical imaging specifically in nuclear medicine imaging. Motion artifacts can be eliminated by gating the image acquisition based on the respiratory phase and cardiac contractions throughout the medical imaging procedure. Electrocardiography (ECG), 3-axis accelerometer, and respiration belt data were processed and analyzed from ten healthy volunteers. Seismocardiography (SCG) is a noninvasive accelerometer-based method that measures accelerations caused by respiration and myocardial movements. This study was conducted to investigate the feasibility of the accelerometer-based method in dual gating technique. The SCG provides accelerometer-derived respiratory (ADR) data and accurate information about quiescent phases within the cardiac cycle. The correct information about the status of ventricles and atria helps us to create an improved estimate for quiescent phases within a cardiac cycle. The correlation of ADR signals with the reference respiration belt was investigated using Pearson correlation. High linear correlation was observed between accelerometer-based measurement and reference measurement methods (ECG and Respiration belt). Above all, due to the simplicity of the proposed method, the technique has high potential to be applied in dual gating in clinical cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) to obtain motion-free images in the future. PMID:25120563

  20. A heartrending burden of gynaecological cancers in advance stage at nuclear institute of medicine and radiotherapy Jamshoro Sindh

    PubMed Central

    Bibi, Seema; Ashfaque, Sanober; Laghari, Naeem Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: In Pakistan gynaecological cancers are among the leading causes of women’s morbidity and mortality posing huge financial burden on families, communities and state. Due to lack of national cancer registry exact facts and figures are unknown therefore this study was planned to find out prevalence, age, site and stage of presentation of gynaecological cancers at Nuclear Institute of Medicine and Radiotherapy (NIMRA), Jamshoro. Methods: A retrospective, cross sectional study was conducted from 1st January 2011 to 31st December 2011 at NIMRA Jamshoro. All cases of genital tract cancers were evaluated, required data was entered on predesigned performa and results were analyzed manually. Results: Out of 2401 total registered cancer cases, 231 (9.6%) patients were suffering from gynaecological cancer making it third most common cancer. Ovary was commonest site followed by cervix and uterus. More than 60% cases presented in advanced stage, mostly during 4th and 5th decade of life. Conclusion: Gynecological cancer was among top three cancers at one of the busiest public sector cancer institute in Sindh province and significant number presented in advance stage making treatment difficult and expensive. There is urgent need for development and implementation of an effective health policy regarding cancer prevention and treatment. PMID:27022358

  1. Comparisons of activity measurements with radionuclide calibrators-A tool for quality assessment and improvement in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Oropesa, P; Hernández, A T; Serra, R; Varela, C

    2005-10-01

    A national program of ongoing comparisons for assaying gamma-emitting radiopharmaceuticals for amount of radioactivity using radionuclide calibrators was begun in 2000. Nuclides of the most wide-spread use in Cuban nuclear medicine, 131I, 201Tl and (99m)Tc, as well as two measurement geometries, glass vials and plastic syringes, were employed. In this paper, the participants' performance is assessed by mean of a statistical analysis of the reported data. Performance tables have been obtained and a chi2 statistic is calculated from observed and expected frequencies, with the aim of testing the hypothesis about the independence of some characteristics of the comparison results, at a significance level alpha=0.05. The proportion of satisfactory results in the years 2002-2004 were found to be at the same level, but higher than in 2000. It reveals an improvement of the measurement quality since 2002. The causes of improvement were investigated using the statistical treatment of several data available as supplementary information. PMID:16039865

  2. Development of more efficacious [Tc]-99m organ imaging agents for use in nuclear medicine by analytical characterization of radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Heineman, W.R.

    1993-05-03

    This research program is detailed at development of more efficacious technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals for use as imaging agents in diagnostic nuclear medicine. We seek to isolate and develop distinct site imaging agents to provide diagnostic information concerning a given pathological condition. Analytical techniques are being developed to enable complete analysis of radiopharmaceutical preparations so that individual complexes can be characterized with respect to imaging efficacy and to enable a radiopharmaceutical to be monitored after injection into a test animal to determine the species that actually accumulates in an organ to provide the image. Administration of the isolated, single most effective imaging complex, rather than a mixture of technetium-containing complexes, wi-11 minimize radiation exposure to the patient and maximize diagnostic information available to the clinician. This report specifically describes the development of capillary electrophoresis (CE) for characterizating diphosphonate skeletal imaging agents. Advances in the development of electrochemical and fiber optic sensors for Tc and Re imaging agents are described. These sensors will ultimately be capable of monitoring a specific chemical state of an imaging agent in vivo after injection into a test animal by implantation in the organ of interest.

  3. A novel non-linear recursive filter design for extracting high rate pulse features in nuclear medicine imaging and spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sajedi, Salar; Kamal Asl, Alireza; Ay, Mohammad R; Farahani, Mohammad H; Rahmim, Arman

    2013-06-01

    Applications in imaging and spectroscopy rely on pulse processing methods for appropriate data generation. Often, the particular method utilized does not highly impact data quality, whereas in some scenarios, such as in the presence of high count rates or high frequency pulses, this issue merits extra consideration. In the present study, a new approach for pulse processing in nuclear medicine imaging and spectroscopy is introduced and evaluated. The new non-linear recursive filter (NLRF) performs nonlinear processing of the input signal and extracts the main pulse characteristics, having the powerful ability to recover pulses that would ordinarily result in pulse pile-up. The filter design defines sampling frequencies lower than the Nyquist frequency. In the literature, for systems involving NaI(Tl) detectors and photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), with a signal bandwidth considered as 15 MHz, the sampling frequency should be at least 30 MHz (the Nyquist rate), whereas in the present work, a sampling rate of 3.3 MHz was shown to yield very promising results. This was obtained by exploiting the known shape feature instead of utilizing a general sampling algorithm. The simulation and experimental results show that the proposed filter enhances count rates in spectroscopy. With this filter, the system behaves almost identically as a general pulse detection system with a dead time considerably reduced to the new sampling time (300 ns). Furthermore, because of its unique feature for determining exact event times, the method could prove very useful in time-of-flight PET imaging. PMID:22964063

  4. Center for Nuclear Medicine Research in Alzheimer`s Disease Health Sciences Center, West Virginia University. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The Environmental Assessment (EA) of the Center for Nuclear Medicine Research in Alzheimer`s Disease (CNMR) at the Health Sciences Center, at West Virginia University in Morgantown, West Virginia for the construction and operation was prepared by DOE. The EA documents analysis of the environmental and socioeconomic impacts that might occur as a result of these actions, and characterizes potential impacts on the environment. In the EA, DOE presents its evaluation of potential impacts of construction and operation of the CNMR on health and safety of both workers and the public, as well as on the external environment. Construction impacts include the effects of erosion, waste disposal, air emissions, noise, and construction traffic and parking. Operational impacts include the effects of waste generation (domestic, sanitary, hazardous, medical/biological, radioactive and mixed wastes), radiation exposures, air emissions (radioactive, criteria, and air toxics), noise, and new workers. No sensitive resources (wetlands, special sources of groundwater, protected species) exist in the area of project effect.

  5. Software development for ACR-approved phantom-based nuclear medicine tomographic image quality control with cross-platform compatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jungsu S.; Choi, Jae Min; Nam, Ki Pyo; Chae, Sun Young; Ryu, Jin-Sook; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Kim, Jae Seung

    2015-07-01

    Quality control and quality assurance (QC/QA) have been two of the most important issues in modern nuclear medicine (NM) imaging for both clinical practices and academic research. Whereas quantitative QC analysis software is common to modern positron emission tomography (PET) scanners, the QC of gamma cameras and/or single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) scanners has not been sufficiently addressed. Although a thorough standard operating process (SOP) for mechanical and software maintenance may help the QC/QA of a gamma camera and SPECT-computed tomography (CT), no previous study has addressed a unified platform or process to decipher or analyze SPECT phantom images acquired from various scanners thus far. In addition, a few approaches have established cross-platform software to enable the technologists and physicists to assess the variety of SPECT scanners from different manufacturers. To resolve these issues, we have developed Interactive Data Language (IDL)-based in-house software for crossplatform (in terms of not only operating systems (OS) but also manufacturers) analyses of the QC data on an ACR SPECT phantom, which is essential for assessing and assuring the tomographical image quality of SPECT. We applied our devised software to our routine quarterly QC of ACR SPECT phantom images acquired from a number of platforms (OS/manufacturers). Based on our experience, we suggest that our devised software can offer a unified platform that allows images acquired from various types of scanners to be analyzed with great precision and accuracy.

  6. Specificity and sensitivity of SPECT myocardial perfusion studies at the Nuclear Medicine Department of the Limassol General Hospital in Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koumna, S.; Yiannakkaras, Ch; Avraamides, P.; Demetriadou, O.

    2011-09-01

    The aim is to determine the sensitivity and specificity of Myocardial Perfusion Imaging (MPI) performed at the Nuclear Medicine Department of the Limassol General Hospital in Cyprus. Through a retrospective analysis, patient results obtained by MPI were compared to results obtained by Invasive Angiography. We analyzed data from 96 patients that underwent both MPI and Angiography during the years 2009-2010, with a maximum time interval of ± 9 months between the two types of medical exams. For 51 patients, the indication was the detection of CAD. For 45 patients, the indication was to assess viability and/or ischemia after MI, PCI or CABG. Out of 84 patients with CAD confirmed by angiography, 80 patients resulted in abnormal MPI (sensitivity of 95% and positive predictive value of 98%). Out of 12 patients with normal coronaries, 10 patients resulted in normal MPI (specificity of 83% and negative predictive value of 71%).In conclusion, for the patients with abnormal MPI and confirmed CAD, MPI was a useful aid for further therapy management.

  7. Effects of oral dosage form and storage period on the antioxidant properties of four species used in traditional herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barreira, João C M; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-04-01

    Herbal infusions and decoctions in water are some of the most commonly consumed beverages in the world. Although water is not a good solvent for many of the active components in herbs, liquid preparations are rich in several bioactive compounds. Most of them have powerful antioxidant activity and have been related to medicinal herbs' properties. Herein, decoctions and infusions in water of lemon-verbena (Aloysia citrodora) aerial parts and leaves, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium) and spearmint (Mentha spicata) aerial parts with different periods of storage (0, 30, 60 and 120 days), were prepared. The effects of the method of preparation and storage period on their antioxidant properties were analysed. For all the analysed species, infusions gave better results than the corresponding decoctions. Spearmint infusions showed the highest antioxidant properties, at all the storage periods, probably due to the highest levels and synergy between phenolics, flavonoids and ascorbic acid found in this sample. Linear discriminant analysis confirmed that the length of storage period has a significant influence on the antioxidant activity and antioxidant content. Flavonoids and reducing sugars proved to be the parameters that most highly contributed to cluster individual groups according to different periods of storage. PMID:20740475

  8. Availability of yttrium-90 from strontium-90: a nuclear medicine perspective.

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, Rubel; Dash, Ashutosh; Pillai, M R A

    2012-12-01

    Yttrium-90 (T(½) 64.1 hours, E(βmax)=2.28 MeV) is a pure β⁻ particle emitting radionuclide with well-established applications in targeted therapy. There are several advantages of ⁹⁰Y as a therapeutic radionuclide. It has a suitable physical half-life (∼64 hours) and decays to a stable daughter product ⁹⁰Zr by emission of high-energy β⁻ particles. Yttrium has a relatively simple chemistry and its suitability for forming complexes with a variety of chelating agents is well established. The ⁹⁰Sr/⁹⁰Y generator is an ideal source for the long-term continuous availability of no-carrier-added ⁹⁰Y suitable for the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals for radionuclide therapy. The parent radionuclide ⁹⁰Sr, which is a long-lived fission product, is available in large quantities from spent fuel. Several useful technologies have been developed for the preparation of ⁹⁰Sr/⁹⁰Y generators. There are several well-established radiopharmaceuticals based on monoclonal antibodies, peptides, and particulates labeled with ⁹⁰Y, that are in regular use for the treatment of some forms of primary cancers and arthritis. At present, there are no generators for the elution of ⁹⁰Y that can be set up in a hospital radiopharmacy. The radionuclide is procured from manufacturers and the radiopharmaceuticals are formulated on site. This article reviews the development of ⁹⁰Sr/⁹⁰Y generator and the development of ⁹⁰Y radiopharmaceuticals. PMID:23009585

  9. Radiation Exposure Levels in Diagnostic Patients Injected with 99mTc, 67Ga and 131I at the Mexican National Institute of Cancerology Nuclear Medicine Department

    SciTech Connect

    Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.; Gomez-Argumosa, E.; Estrada-Lobato, E.; Medina, L. A.

    2006-09-08

    According to the Mexican Radiation Safety regulations for patients treated in a nuclear medicine service, the exposure rate limit at 1 m from the patients is 5 mR/h before leaving the hospital. Three groups of patients have been monitored after: a) whole body bone studies with 740 MBq of 99mTc-MDP (207 patients); b) infection studies after i.v. administration of 185 MBq of 67Ga (207 patients); and c) thyroid studies with 185 MBq of 131I (142 patients). The results indicated that the average exposure rate levels in each group were: a) 0.57 {+-} 0.17 mR/h, b) 0.47 {+-} 0.20 mR/h, and c) 0.86 {+-} 0.14 mR/h. This study has shown that the Nuclear Medicine Department at INCAN complies with the NOM-013-NUCL-1995 Mexican regulation.

  10. Radiation Exposure Levels in Diagnostic Patients Injected with 99mTc, 67Ga and 131I at the Mexican National Institute of Cancerology Nuclear Medicine Department

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.; Gómez-Argumosa, E.; Estrada-Lobato, E.; Medina, L. A.

    2006-09-01

    According to the Mexican Radiation Safety regulations for patients treated in a nuclear medicine service, the exposure rate limit at 1 m from the patients is 5 mR/h before leaving the hospital. Three groups of patients have been monitored after: a) whole body bone studies with 740 MBq of 99mTc-MDP (207 patients); b) infection studies after i.v. administration of 185 MBq of 67Ga (207 patients); and c) thyroid studies with 185 MBq of 131I (142 patients). The results indicated that the average exposure rate levels in each group were: a) 0.57 ± 0.17 mR/h, b) 0.47 ± 0.20 mR/h, and c) 0.86 ± 0.14 mR/h. This study has shown that the Nuclear Medicine Department at INCAN complies with the NOM-013-NUCL-1995 Mexican regulation.

  11. RADIONUCLIDE IMMOBILIZATION IN THE PHASES FORMED BY CORROSION OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL: THE LONG-TERM ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The UO2 in spent nuclear fuel is not stable under oxidizing conditions. Under oxic conditions, the U(IV) has a strong tendency to exist as U(VI) in the uranyl molecule, UO22+. The uranyl ions react with a wide variety of inorganic and organic anions to form complexes which are of...

  12. Women and Diabetes -- Diabetes Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Women Women's Health Topics Women and Diabetes - Diabetes Medicines Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... 800-332-1088 to request a form. Diabetes Medicines The different kinds of diabetes medicines are listed ...

  13. The standardization methods of radioactive sources (125I, 131I, 99mTc, and 18F) for calibrating nuclear medicine equipment in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurdiyanto, G.; Candra, H.

    2016-03-01

    The standardization of radioactive sources (125I, 131I, 99mTc and 18F) to calibrate the nuclear medicine equipment had been carried out in PTKMR-BATAN. This is necessary because the radioactive sources used in the field of nuclear medicine has a very short half-life in other that to obtain a quality measurement results require special treatment. Besides that, the use of nuclear medicine techniques in Indonesia develop rapidly. All the radioactive sources were prepared by gravimetric methods. Standardization of 125I has been carried out by photon- photon coincidence methods, while the others have been carried out by gamma spectrometry methods. The standar sources are used to calibrate a Capintec CRC-7BT radionuclide calibrator. The results shows that calibration factor for Capintec CRC-7BT dose calibrator is 1,03; 1,02; 1,06; and 1,04 for 125I, 131I, 99mTc and 18F respectively, by about 5 to 6% of the expanded uncertainties.

  14. Nuclear medicine program. Progress report for quarter ending June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Beets, A.L.

    1995-09-01

    In this report we describe the first synthesis of the (-)(-) and (-)(+) isomers of 1-azabicyclo oct-3-yl {alpha}-(1-fluoropent-5-yl)-{alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenylacetate ({open_quotes}FQNPe{close_quotes}). Earlier studies with the racemic FQNPe mixture had demonstrated high in vitro binding affinity for the muscarinic-cholinergic receptor and showed that pre-treatment of rats with this new agent significantly blocked receptor localization of subsequently injected -Z-(-,-)-IQNP. Because of the potential important use of fluorine-18-labeled analogues for clinical evaluation of changes in muscarinic-cholinergic receptors by positron emission tomography (PET), we have now synthesized the diastereomeric isomers of FQNPe. Multi-gram quantities of ethyl-{alpha}- (1-chloropent-5-yl)-{alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenylacetate were prepared and then saponified into the racemic {alpha}-(1-chloropent-5-yl)-{alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenylacetic acid mixture. The racemic acid was resolved into (-)- and (+)-{alpha}-(1-chloropent-5-yl)-{alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenylacetic acid enantiomers by isolation of the (-) salt of (S-)-(-)-{alpha}-methylbenzylamine and the (+) salt of (R)-(+)-{alpha}-methylbenzylamine. The resolved (-)- ([{alpha}]{sub D} = -12.1{degrees}, c = 5.8, chloroform) and (+)-acetic acids ([{alpha}]{sub D} = + 11.6{degrees}, c = 6.0, chloroform) were fully characterized and then converted to the enantiomeric ethyl-{alpha}-(1-fluoropent-5-yl)-{alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenylacetates by a four-step reaction sequence. The (-)- and (+)-ethyl-{alpha}-(1-fluoropent-5-yl)-{alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenylacetates were then each transesterified with (-)-quinuclidinol to form the (-)(-) FQNPe and (-)(+) FQNPe diastereomers. These diastereomeric esters will now be evaluated in in vitro studies. The availability of the substrates for preparation of the fluorine-18-labeled enantiomers will now allow evaluation of the radiolabeled compounds in animals.

  15. First principles calculations of nucleon and pion form factors: understanding the building blocks of nuclear matter from lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Constantia Alexandrou; Bojan Bistrovic; Robert Edwards; P de Forcrand; George Fleming; Philipp Haegler; John Negele; Konstantinos Orginos; Andrew Pochinsky; Dru Renner; David Richards; Wolfram Schroers; Antonios Tsapalis

    2005-10-01

    Lattice QCD is an essential complement to the current and anticipated DOE-supported experimental program in hadronic physics. In this poster we address several key questions central to our understanding of the building blocks of nuclear matter, nucleons and pions. Firstly, we describe progress at computing the electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon, describing the distribution of charge and current, before considering the role played by the strange quarks. We then describe the study of transition form factors to the Delta resonance. Finally, we present recent work to determine the pion form factor, complementary to the current JLab experimental determination and providing insight into the approach to asymptotic freedom.

  16. Academic Medical Centers Forming Accountable Care Organizations and Partnering With Community Providers: The Experience of the Johns Hopkins Medicine Alliance for Patients.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, Scott A; Ishii, Lisa; Schulz, John; Poffenroth, Matt

    2016-03-01

    Academic medical centers (AMCs)--which include teaching hospital(s) and additional care delivery entities--that form accountable care organizations (ACOs) must decide whether to partner with other provider entities, such as community practices. Indeed, 67% (33/49) of AMC ACOs through the Medicare Shared Savings Program through 2014 are believed to include an outside community practice. There are opportunities for both the AMC and the community partners in pursuing such relationships, including possible alignment around shared goals and adding ACO beneficiaries. To create the Johns Hopkins Medicine Alliance for Patients (JMAP), in January 2014, Johns Hopkins Medicine chose to partner with two community primary care groups and one cardiology practice to support clinical integration while adding approximately 60 providers and 5,000 Medicare beneficiaries. The principal initial interventions within JMAP included care coordination for high-risk beneficiaries and later, in 2014, generating dashboards of ACO quality measures to facilitate quality improvement and early efforts at incorporating clinical pathways and Choosing Wisely recommendations. Additional interventions began in 2015.The principal initial challenges JMAP faced were data integration, generation of quality measure reports among disparate electronic medical records, receiving and then analyzing claims data, and seeking to achieve provider engagement; all these affected timely deployment of the early interventions. JMAP also created three regional advisory councils as a forum promoting engagement of local leadership. Network strategies among AMCs, including adding community practices in a nonemployment model, will continue to require thoughtful strategic planning and a keen understanding of local context. PMID:26535867

  17. In situ forming collagen-hyaluronic acid membrane structures: mechanism of self-assembly and applications in regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Chung, Eun Ji; Jakus, Adam E; Shah, Ramille N

    2013-02-01

    Bioactive, in situ forming materials have the potential to complement minimally invasive surgical procedures and enhance tissue healing. For such biomaterials to be adopted in the clinic, they must be cost-effective, easily handled by the surgeon and have a history of biocompatibility. To this end, we report a novel and facile self-assembling strategy to create membranes and encapsulating structures using collagen and hyaluronic acid (HA). Unlike membranes built by layer-by-layer deposition of oppositely charged biomolecules, the collagen-HA membranes described here form a diffusion barrier upon electrostatic interaction of the oppositely charged biomolecules, which is further driven by osmotic pressure imbalances. The resulting membranes have a nanofibrous architecture, a thicknesses of 130 μm and a tensile modulus (0.59±0.06 MPa) that can increase 7-fold using carbodiimide chemistry (4.42±1.46 MPa). Collagen-HA membranes support mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and have a slow and steady protein release profile (7% at day 28), offering opportunities for targeted tissue regeneration. We demonstrate the capacity to encapsulate cells by injecting HA into the collagen solution, and enhance allograft and implant biocompatibility through a coating technique. This study describes a novel mechanism of collagen-HA membrane formation and provides the groundwork to apply these membranes in a variety of tissue engineering applications. PMID:23022546

  18. Position paper of the Cardiovascular Committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) on PET imaging of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Bucerius, Jan; Hyafil, Fabien; Verberne, Hein J; Slart, Riemer H J A; Lindner, Oliver; Sciagra, Roberto; Agostini, Denis; Übleis, Christopher; Gimelli, Alessia; Hacker, Marcus

    2016-04-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death not only in Europe but also in the rest of the World. Preventive measures, however, often fail and cardiovascular disease may manifest as an acute coronary syndrome, stroke or even sudden death after years of silent progression. Thus, there is a considerable need for innovative diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to improve the quality of care and limit the burden of cardiovascular diseases. During the past 10 years, several retrospective and prospective clinical studies have been published using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) to quantify inflammation in atherosclerotic plaques. However, the current variety of imaging protocols used for vascular (arterial) imaging with FDG PET considerably limits the ability to compare results between studies and to build large multicentre imaging registries. Based on the existing literature and the experience of the Members of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) Cardiovascular Committee, the objective of this position paper was to propose optimized and standardized protocols for imaging and interpretation of PET scans in atherosclerosis. These recommendations do not, however, replace the individual responsibility of healthcare professionals to make appropriate decisions in the circumstances of the individual study protocols used and the individual patient, in consultation with the patient and, where appropriate and necessary, the patient's guardian or carer. These recommendations suffer from the absence of conclusive evidence on many of the recommendations. Therefore, they are not intended and should not be used as "strict guidelines" but should, as already mentioned, provide a basis for standardized clinical atherosclerosis PET imaging protocols, which are subject to further and continuing evaluation and improvement. However, this EANM position paper might indeed be a first step towards "official" guidelines on

  19. Radiation exposure to nuclear medicine staffs during 18F-FDG PET/CT procedures at Ramathibodi Hospital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donmoon, T.; Chamroonrat, W.; Tuntawiroon, M.

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate the whole body and finger radiation doses per study received by nuclear medicine staff involved in dispensing, administration of 18F-FDG and interacting with radioactive patients during PET/CT imaging procedures in a PET/CT facility. The whole-body doses received by radiopharmacists, technologists and nurses were measured by electronic dosimeter and the finger doses by ring dosimeter during a period of 4 months. In 70 PET/CT studies, the mean whole-body dose per study to radiopharmacist, technologist, and nurse were 1.07±0.09, 1.77±0.46, μSv, and not detectable respectively. The mean finger doses per study received by radiopharmacist, technologist, and nurse were 265.65±107.55, 4.84±1.08 and 19.22±2.59 μSv, respectively. The average time in contact with 18F-FDG was 5.88±0.03, 39.06±1.89 and 1.21±0.02 minutes per study for radiopharmacist, technologist and nurse respectively. Technologists received highest mean effective whole- body dose per study and radiopharmacist received the highest finger dose per study. When compared with the ICRP dose limit, each individual worker can work with many more 18F- FDG PET/CT studies for a whole year without exceeding the occupational dose limits. This study confirmed that low levels of radiation does are received by our medical personnel involved in 18F-FDG PET/CT procedures.

  20. Development of radiohalogenated muscarinic ligands for the in vivo imaging of m-AChR by nuclear medicine techniques

    SciTech Connect

    McPherson, D.W.; Luo, H.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1994-06-01

    Alterations in the density of acetylcholinergic muscarinic receptors (m-AChR) have been observed in various dementias. This has spurred interest in the development of radiohalogenated ligands which can be used for the non-invasive in vivo detection of m-AChR by nuclear medicine techniques. We have developed a new ligand 1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl ({alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-(1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl)-{alpha}-phenylacetate (IQNP,12) which demonstrates high affinity for the muscarinic receptor. When labeled with radioiodine it has been shown to be selective and specific for m-ACHR. Initial studies on the separation and in vivo evaluation of the various isomers of IQNP have shown that the stereochemistry of the chiral centers and the configuration around the double bond play an important role in m-AChR subtype specificity. In vivo evaluation of these stereoisomers demonstrate that E-(R,R)-IQNP has a high affinity for the M{sub 1} muscarinic subtype while Z-(R,R)-IQNP demonstrate a high affinity for M{sub 1} and M{sub 2} receptor subtypes. These data demonstrate IQNP (12) has potential for use in the non-evasive in vivo detection of m-AChR by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). A brominated analogue, ``BrQNP,`` in which the iodine has been replaced by a bromine atom, has also been prepared and was shown to block the in vivo uptake of IQNP in the brain and heart and therefore has potential for positron emission tomographic (PET) studies of m-AChR.

  1. Assessment of personal occupational radiation exposures received by nuclear medicine and oncology staff in Punjab (2003-2012).

    PubMed

    Zafar, T; Masood, K; Zafar, J

    2015-09-01

    The impact of occupational radiation exposures on oncology staff working in the disciplines of Nuclear Medicine (NM), Radiotherapy (RT), and Diagnostic Radiology (DR) is of significance to ensure a health risk free environment. In this study, occupationally received radiation doses amongst Pakistani oncology staff in NM, RT and DR during the period (2003-2012) were assessed. The Film Badge Dosimetry (FBD) technique has been utilized to process over 81,000 films (13,237 workers) concerning the occupationally exposed workers data (2003-2012) at a national scale. The annual effective doses were found to range between 0.30-0.97 mSv for NM, 0.44-1.02 mSv for RT and 0.31-1.09 mSv for DR. The annual effective doses averaged over a period of 10 years were assessed to be 0.63, 0.70 and 0.68 mSv for NM, RT and DR respectively. The exposure data were categorized into three exposure levels (≤0.99, 1-4.99 and 5-9.99 mSv) to establish the staff distribution in these categories. It was found that 89.8-96% in NM, 82-94.5% in RT and 76-96.8% staff workers in DR have received doses within the range from the Minimum Detectable Limit (MDL)--0.99 mSv. The annual effective doses, in all categories, were measured to be less than the recommended annual limit of 20 mSv. PMID:26260188

  2. Study of a new design of p-N semiconductor detector array for nuclear medicine imaging by monte carlo simulation codes.

    PubMed

    Hajizadeh-Safar, M; Ghorbani, M; Khoshkharam, S; Ashrafi, Z

    2014-07-01

    Gamma camera is an important apparatus in nuclear medicine imaging. Its detection part is consists of a scintillation detector with a heavy collimator. Substitution of semiconductor detectors instead of scintillator in these cameras has been effectively studied. In this study, it is aimed to introduce a new design of P-N semiconductor detector array for nuclear medicine imaging. A P-N semiconductor detector composed of N-SnO2 :F, and P-NiO:Li, has been introduced through simulating with MCNPX monte carlo codes. Its sensitivity with different factors such as thickness, dimension, and direction of emission photons were investigated. It is then used to configure a new design of an array in one-dimension and study its spatial resolution for nuclear medicine imaging. One-dimension array with 39 detectors was simulated to measure a predefined linear distribution of Tc(99_m) activity and its spatial resolution. The activity distribution was calculated from detector responses through mathematical linear optimization using LINPROG code on MATLAB software. Three different configurations of one-dimension detector array, horizontal, vertical one sided, and vertical double-sided were simulated. In all of these configurations, the energy windows of the photopeak were ± 1%. The results show that the detector response increases with an increase of dimension and thickness of the detector with the highest sensitivity for emission photons 15-30° above the surface. Horizontal configuration array of detectors is not suitable for imaging of line activity sources. The measured activity distribution with vertical configuration array, double-side detectors, has no similarity with emission sources and hence is not suitable for imaging purposes. Measured activity distribution using vertical configuration array, single side detectors has a good similarity with sources. Therefore, it could be introduced as a suitable configuration for nuclear medicine imaging. It has been shown that using

  3. Study of a New Design of P-N Semiconductor Detector Array for Nuclear Medicine Imaging by Monte Carlo Simulation Codes

    PubMed Central

    Hajizadeh-Safar, M.; Ghorbani, M.; Khoshkharam, S.; Ashrafi, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Gamma camera is an important apparatus in nuclear medicine imaging. Its detection part is consists of a scintillation detector with a heavy collimator. Substitution of semiconductor detectors instead of scintillator in these cameras has been effectively studied. In this study, it is aimed to introduce a new design of P-N semiconductor detector array for nuclear medicine imaging. A P-N semiconductor detector composed of N-SnO2 :F, and P-NiO:Li, has been introduced through simulating with MCNPX monte carlo codes. Its sensitivity with different factors such as thickness, dimension, and direction of emission photons were investigated. It is then used to configure a new design of an array in one-dimension and study its spatial resolution for nuclear medicine imaging. One-dimension array with 39 detectors was simulated to measure a predefined linear distribution of Tc99_m activity and its spatial resolution. The activity distribution was calculated from detector responses through mathematical linear optimization using LINPROG code on MATLAB software. Three different configurations of one-dimension detector array, horizontal, vertical one sided, and vertical double-sided were simulated. In all of these configurations, the energy windows of the photopeak were ± 1%. The results show that the detector response increases with an increase of dimension and thickness of the detector with the highest sensitivity for emission photons 15-30° above the surface. Horizontal configuration array of detectors is not suitable for imaging of line activity sources. The measured activity distribution with vertical configuration array, double-side detectors, has no similarity with emission sources and hence is not suitable for imaging purposes. Measured activity distribution using vertical configuration array, single side detectors has a good similarity with sources. Therefore, it could be introduced as a suitable configuration for nuclear medicine imaging. It has been shown that using

  4. Population radiation dose from diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures in the Tehran population in 1999-2003: striking changes in only one decade.

    PubMed

    Tabeie, Faraj; Mohammadi, Hooshang; Asli, Isa Neshandar

    2013-02-01

    Use of unsealed radiopharmaceuticals in Iran's nuclear medicine centers has expanded rapidly in the last decade. As part of a nationwide survey, this study was undertaken to estimate the radiation risk due to the diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures performed in Tehran in 1999-2003. During the five years of the study, the data of 101,540 yearly examinations of diagnostic nuclear medicine were obtained for 34 (out of 40) active nuclear medicine centers in Tehran. The patients studied were aged 1 y, 5 y, 10 y, 15 y, and adults (>15 y). Compared to an earlier investigation in 1989 (which was published in 1995), striking changes were found to be occurring in the trends of nuclear medicine in Tehran in a matter of a decade. The frequency of cardiac examinations increased from less than 1% in 1989 to 43.2% (mean of 5 y) in 2003; thyroid examinations, with the relative frequency of higher than 80% in 1989, decreased to 26.7% in the current investigation (averaged for 2001); and the number of overall examinations per 1,000 population of Tehran increased from 1.9 in 1989 to 8.8 in this study (about fourfold). The decrease in relative frequency of thyroid examinations could be attributed to the lower referral policy (mainly by specialists), decreased incidence of goiter due to implementation of programs for iodine enrichment diets, introduction of fine needle aspiration (FNA), and sonography techniques for diagnosis of thyroid disease. The large increase in relative frequency of cardiac examinations could be due to the increase in the number of single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) systems in recent years as compared to 1989 in Tehran. The collective effective dose increased from 400 (person-Sv) in 1999 to 529 (person-Sv) in 2003, and the effective dose per capita increased from 34.80 μSv in 1999 to 44.06 μSv in 2003 (average, 35.60 μSv). PMID:23274814

  5. Method for forming nuclear fuel containers of a composite construction and the product thereof

    DOEpatents

    Cheng, Bo-Ching; Rosenbaum, Herman S.; Armijo, Joseph S.

    1984-01-01

    An improved method for producing nuclear fuel containers of a composite construction having components providing therein a barrier system for resisting destructive action by volatile fission products or impurities and also interdiffusion of metal constituents, and the product thereof. The composite nuclear fuel containers of the method comprise a casing of zirconium or alloy thereof with a layer of copper overlying an oxidized surface portion of the zirconium or alloy thereof.

  6. Evaluating the evidence for evidence-based medicine: are randomized clinical trials less flawed than other forms of peer-reviewed medical research?

    PubMed

    Steen, R Grant; Dager, Stephen R

    2013-09-01

    Evidence-based medicine considers randomized clinical trials (RCTs) to be the strongest form of evidence for clinical decision making. To test the hypothesis that RCTs have fewer methodological flaws than non-RCTs, limitations of 17,591 RCTs and 39,029 non-RCTs were characterized. Panels of experts assembled to write meta-analyses evaluated this literature to determine which articles should be included in 316 meta-analytic reviews. Overall, 38.7% of RCTs evaluated were excluded from review for an identified flaw. Commonly identified flaws in RCTs were as follows: insufficient data provided to evaluate the study (9.6% of 17,591 RCTs); inadequate randomization (9.0%); inadequate blinding (4.9%); and duplicative publication (4.4%). Overall, 20.2% of all published medical research has an identified methodological flaw, with RCTs having as many limitations as non-RCTs. PMID:23695156

  7. Indigenous cosmology, art forms and past medicinal practices: towards an interpretation of ancient Koma Land sites in northern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Kankpeyeng, Benjamin W.; Nkumbaan, Samuel N.; Insoll, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    The ancient cultural tradition in the middle belt region of northern Ghana, with its stone circle and house mounds, contains varied material culture. The unique contextual arrangements of the material culture within the stone circle mounds and the diverse ceramic art forms, as well as their ethnographic analogues in West Africa, indicate the mounds’ association with past shrines that have multiple functions, including curative purposes. The archaeology of the mounds and ethnographic associations related to past indigenous medical practices is reviewed and discussed. This paper will also consider how some of the figurines through which the Koma tradition has achieved ‘fame’ possibly functioned as physical representations of disease, perhaps underpinned by intentions of transference from afflicted to image. The notions of protection and healing are also examined with reference to the resorted and disarticulated human remains sometimes recovered from the sites. PMID:21810037

  8. A Science-Based Approach to Understanding Waste Form Durability in Open and Closed Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    M.T. Peters; R.C. Ewing

    2006-06-22

    There are two compelling reasons for understanding source term and near-field processes in a radioactive waste geologic repository. First, almost all of the radioactivity is initially in the waste form, mainly in the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or nuclear waste glass. Second, over long periods, after the engineered barriers are degraded, the waste form is a primary control on the release of radioactivity. Thus, it is essential to know the physical and chemical state of the waste form after hundreds of thousands of years. The United States Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Repository Program has initiated a long-term program to develop a basic understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of radionuclide release and a quantification of the release as repository conditions evolve over time. Specifically, the research program addresses four critical areas: (a) SNF dissolution mechanisms and rates; (b) formation and properties of U{sup 6+}-secondary phases; (c) waste form-waste package interactions in the near-field; and (d) integration of in-package chemical and physical processes. The ultimate goal is to integrate the scientific results into a larger scale model of source term and near-field processes. This integrated model will be used to provide a basis for understanding the behavior of the source term over long time periods (greater than 10{sup 5} years). Such a fundamental and integrated experimental and modeling approach to source term processes can also be readily applied to development of advanced waste forms as part of a closed nuclear fuel cycle. Specifically, a fundamental understanding of candidate waste form materials stability in high temperature/high radiation environments and near-field geochemical/hydrologic processes could enable development of advanced waste forms ''tailored'' to specific geologic settings.

  9. A science-based approach to understanding waste form durability in open and closed nuclear fuel cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, M. T.; Ewing, R. C.

    2007-05-01

    There are two compelling reasons for understanding source term and near-field processes in a radioactive waste geologic repository. First, almost all of the radioactivity is initially in the waste form, mainly in the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) or nuclear waste glass. Second, over long periods, after the engineered barriers are degraded, the waste form is a primary control on the release of radioactivity. Thus, it is essential to know the physical and chemical state of the waste form after hundreds of thousands of years. The United States Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Repository Program has initiated a long-term program to develop a basic understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of radionuclide release and a quantification of the release as repository conditions evolve over time. Specifically, the research program addresses four critical areas: (a) SNF dissolution mechanisms and rates; (b) formation and properties of U6+-secondary phases; (c) waste form-waste package interactions in the near-field; and (d) integration of in-package chemical and physical processes. The ultimate goal is to integrate the scientific results into a larger scale model of source term and near-field processes. This integrated model will be used to provide a basis for understanding the behaviour of the source term over long time periods (greater than 105 years). Such a fundamental and integrated experimental and modelling approach to source term processes can also be readily applied to development of advanced waste forms as part of a closed nuclear fuel cycle. Specifically, a fundamental understanding of candidate waste form materials stability in high temperature/high radiation environments and near-field geochemical/hydrologic processes could enable development of advanced waste forms 'tailored' to specific geologic settings.

  10. General Nuclear Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... the examination table which slides in between the parallel gamma camera heads which are suspended over the ... energy from the radiotracer in your body. A computer aids in creating the images from the data ...

  11. Cardiac nuclear medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Gerson, M.C.

    1987-01-01

    The book begins with a review of the radionuclide methods available for evaluating cardiac perfusion and function. The authors discuss planar and tomographic thallium myocardial imaging, first-pass and equilibrium radionuclide angiography, and imaging with infarct-avid tracers. Several common but more specialized procedures are then reviewed: nonogemetric measurement of left ventricular volume, phase (Fourier) analysis, stroke volume ratio, right ventricular function, and diastolic function. A separate chapter is devoted to drug interventions and in particular the use of radionuclide ventriculography to monitor doxorubicin toxicity and therapy of congestive heart failure. The subsequent chapters provide a comprehensive guide to test selection, accuracy, and results in acute myocardial infarction, in postmyocardial infarction, in chronic coronary artery disease, before and after medical or surgical revascularization, in valvular heart disease, in cardiomyopathies, and in cardiac trauma.

  12. Alkali-Activated Fly ash-slag Cement based nuclear waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, W.; Wu, X.; Roy, D.M.

    1993-12-31

    This paper is based on the results of an in-progress research project on Alkali-Activated Cement System at MRL. The objective of this research is to establish the potential for large volume use of fly ash and slag as main components of the cement system. Alkali-activated Fly ash-slag Cement (AFC) was studied as a matrix for immobilization of nuclear waste. AFC is characterized by high early strength, high ultimate strength, low porosity, lower solubilities of the hydrates, and high resistance to chemical corrosion as well as to freezing and thawing. All these advanced properties are particularly favorable to the immobilization the nuclear wastes.

  13. Heavy flavours production in quark-gluon plasma formed in high energy nuclear reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kloskinski, J.

    1985-01-01

    Results on compression and temperatures of nuclear fireballs and on relative yield of strange and charmed hadrons are given . The results show that temperatures above 300 MeV and large compressions are unlikely achieved in average heavy ion collision. In consequence, thermal production of charm is low. Strange particle production is, however, substantial and indicates clear temperature - threshold behavior.

  14. Dual adaptive statistical approach for quantitative noise reduction in photon-counting medical imaging: application to nuclear medicine images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannequin, Pascal Paul

    2015-06-01

    Noise reduction in photon-counting images remains challenging, especially at low count levels. We have developed an original procedure which associates two complementary filters using a Wiener-derived approach. This approach combines two statistically adaptive filters into a dual-weighted (DW) filter. The first one, a statistically weighted adaptive (SWA) filter, replaces the central pixel of a sliding window with a statistically weighted sum of its neighbors. The second one, a statistical and heuristic noise extraction (extended) (SHINE-Ext) filter, performs a discrete cosine transformation (DCT) using sliding blocks. Each block is reconstructed using its significant components which are selected using tests derived from multiple linear regression (MLR). The two filters are weighted according to Wiener theory. This approach has been validated using a numerical phantom and a real planar Jaszczak phantom. It has also been illustrated using planar bone scintigraphy and myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) data. Performances of filters have been tested using mean normalized absolute error (MNAE) between the filtered images and the reference noiseless or high-count images. Results show that the proposed filters quantitatively decrease the MNAE in the images and then increase the signal-to-noise Ratio (SNR). This allows one to work with lower count images. The SHINE-Ext filter is well suited to high-size images and low-variance areas. DW filtering is efficient for low-size images and in high-variance areas. The relative proportion of eliminated noise generally decreases when count level increases. In practice, SHINE filtering alone is recommended when pixel spacing is less than one-quarter of the effective resolution of the system and/or the size of the objects of interest. It can also be used when the practical interest of high frequencies is low. In any case, DW filtering will be preferable. The proposed filters have been applied to nuclear

  15. Dual adaptive statistical approach for quantitative noise reduction in photon-counting medical imaging: application to nuclear medicine images.

    PubMed

    Hannequin, Pascal Paul

    2015-06-01

    Noise reduction in photon-counting images remains challenging, especially at low count levels. We have developed an original procedure which associates two complementary filters using a Wiener-derived approach. This approach combines two statistically adaptive filters into a dual-weighted (DW) filter. The first one, a statistically weighted adaptive (SWA) filter, replaces the central pixel of a sliding window with a statistically weighted sum of its neighbors. The second one, a statistical and heuristic noise extraction (extended) (SHINE-Ext) filter, performs a discrete cosine transformation (DCT) using sliding blocks. Each block is reconstructed using its significant components which are selected using tests derived from multiple linear regression (MLR). The two filters are weighted according to Wiener theory. This approach has been validated using a numerical phantom and a real planar Jaszczak phantom. It has also been illustrated using planar bone scintigraphy and myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) data. Performances of filters have been tested using mean normalized absolute error (MNAE) between the filtered images and the reference noiseless or high-count images.Results show that the proposed filters quantitatively decrease the MNAE in the images and then increase the signal-to-noise Ratio (SNR). This allows one to work with lower count images. The SHINE-Ext filter is well suited to high-size images and low-variance areas. DW filtering is efficient for low-size images and in high-variance areas. The relative proportion of eliminated noise generally decreases when count level increases. In practice, SHINE filtering alone is recommended when pixel spacing is less than one-quarter of the effective resolution of the system and/or the size of the objects of interest. It can also be used when the practical interest of high frequencies is low. In any case, DW filtering will be preferable.The proposed filters have been applied to nuclear

  16. Comparison of Different Upscaling Methods for Predicting Thermal Conductivity of Complex Heterogeneous Materials System: Application on Nuclear Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Dongsheng; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2012-06-16

    To develop a strategy in thermal conductivity prediction of a complex heterogeneous materials system, loaded nuclear waste forms, the computational efficiency and accuracy of different upscaling methods have been evaluated. The effective thermal conductivity, obtained from microstructure information and local thermal conductivity of different components, is critical in predicting the life and performance of waste form during storage. Several methods, including the Taylor model, Sachs model, self-consistent model, and statistical upscaling method, were developed and implemented. Microstructure based finite element method (FEM) prediction results were used to as benchmark to determine the accuracy of the different upscaling methods. Micrographs from waste forms with varying waste loadings were used in the prediction of thermal conductivity in FEM and homogenization methods. Prediction results demonstrated that in term of efficiency, boundary models (e.g., Taylor model and Sachs model) are stronger than the self-consistent model, statistical upscaling method, and finite element method. However, when balancing computational efficiency and accuracy, statistical upscaling is a useful method in predicting effective thermal conductivity for nuclear waste forms.

  17. Use of Rhenium-188 Liquid-Filled Balloons for Inhibition of Coronary Restenosis After PTCA - A New Opportunity for Nuclear Medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, F.F., Jr.; Spencer, R.H.; Stabin, M.

    1999-05-13

    Although the use of ionizing radiation for the treatment of benign lesions such as keloids has been available for nearly one hundred years, only recently have the cost effective benefits of such technology for the inhibition of arterial restenosis following controlled vessel damage from balloon angioplasty been fully realized. In particular, the use of balloons filled with solutions of beta-emitting radioisotopes for vessel irradiation provide the benefit of uniform vessel irradiation. Use of such contained ("unsealed") sources is expected to represent a new opportunity for nuclear medicine physicians working in conjunction with interventional cardiologists to provide this new approach for restenosis therapy.

  18. Textbook of respiratory medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, J.F.; Nadel, J.

    1987-01-01

    This book presents a clinical reference of respiratory medicine. It also details basic science aspects of pulmonary physiology and describes recently developed, sophisticated diagnostic tools and therapeutic methods. It also covers anatomy, physiology, pharmacology, and pathology; microbiologic, radiologic, nuclear medicine, and biopsy methods for diagnosis.

  19. Development and testing of matrices for the encapsulation of glass and ceramic nuclear waste forms.

    SciTech Connect

    Wald, J.W.; Brite, D.W.; Gurwell, W.E.; Buckwalter, C.Q.; Bunnell, L.R.; Gray, W.J.; Blair, H.T.; Rusin, J.M.

    1982-02-01

    This report details the results of research on the matrix encapsulation of high level wastes at PML over the past few years. The demonstrations and tests described were designed to illustrate how the waste materials are effected when encapsulated in an inert matrix. Candidate materials evaluated for potential use as matrices for encapslation of pelletized ceramics or glass marbles were categorized into four groups: metals, glasses, ceramics, and graphite. Two processing techniques, casting and hot pressing, were investigated as the most promising methods of formation or densification of the matrices. The major results reported deal with the development aspects. However, chemical durability tests (leach tests) of the matrix materials themselves and matrix-waste form composites are also reported. Matrix waste forms can provide a low porosity, waste-free barrier resulting in increased leach protection, higher impact strength and improved thermal conductivity compared to unencapsulated glass or ceramic waste materials. Glass marbles encapsulated in a lead matrix offer the most significant improvement in waste form stability of all combinations evaluated. This form represents a readily demonstrable process that provides high thermal conductivity, mechanical shock resistance, radiation shielding and increased chemical durability through both a chemical passivation mechanism and as a physical barrier. Other durable matrix waste forms evaluated, applicable primarily to ceramic pellets, involved hot-pressed titanium or TiO/sub 2/ materials. In the processing of these forms, near 100% dense matrices were obtained. The matrix materials had excellent compatibility with the waste materials and superior potential chemical durability. Cracking of the hot-pressed ceramic matrix forms, in general, prevented the realization of their optimum properties.

  20. Trapping radiodine, in the form of methyl iodide, on nuclear carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Nacapricha, D.; Taylor, C.

    1996-12-31

    Studies have been performed on potassium-iodide-impregnated charcoals of the type used in the nuclear industry for trapping radioiodine released during nuclear fission. The effects of various parameters on the trapping efficiency of methyl iodide have been investigated. A variation in particle size within a bulk charcoal caused poor precision in K value measurements because of differences in surface area, pore volume, and bed density, leading to differences in the deposition of the impregnant. Precision is improved by sieving the charcoal to a narrower size because smaller particles have a higher porosity. This finding is supported by surface area and pore measurements. Two methods of impregnation are compared by measuring K values and the deposition of potassium iodide. Charcoal impregnated by rotary evaporation exhibits both higher K values and higher potassium iodide contents than sprayed charcoal. Two designs of spraying drum are compared: a drum with helical vanes allows more efficient deposition and more uniform distribution of impregnant than a drum with axial vanes. A decrease in the K value with increasing humidity correlates with the available surface area. A similar correlation exists between water content and available pore volume. Aging of potassium-iodide-impregnated charcoal, caused by the formation of oxygen complexes on the surface, is associated with significant falls in K value. K values of charcoals also can be restored to at least their original values by heat treatment in the absence of air. 12 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  1. The high-risk HPV E6 oncoprotein preferentially targets phosphorylated nuclear forms of hDlg

    SciTech Connect

    Narayan, Nisha; Subbaiah, Vanitha Krishna; Banks, Lawrence

    2009-04-25

    High-risk mucosal HPV E6 oncoproteins target a number of PDZ domain-containing substrates for proteasome mediated degradation. One of these, Discs Large (Dlg), is involved in the regulation of cell polarity and proliferation control. Previous studies had suggested that Dlg when hyperphosphorylated by osmotic shock, or when present in the nucleus could be preferentially targeted by E6. In this study we use phospho-specific antibodies directed against Dlg phosphorylated at residues S158 and S442 to show that these two observations are, in fact, linked. Dlg, when phosphorylated on S158 and S442 by CDK1 or CDK2, shows a preferential nuclear accumulation. However, these forms of Dlg are absent in cells derived from HPV-induced cervical cancers. Upon either proteasome inhibition or siRNA ablation of E6 expression, we see specific rescue of these phosphorylated forms of Dlg. These results demonstrate that nuclear forms of Dlg phosphorylated on its CDK phospho-acceptor sites has enhanced susceptibility to E6-induced degradation and place previous studies on the stress-induced phosphorylation of Dlg into a relevant biological context.

  2. Nuclear physics in soft-wall AdS/QCD: Deuteron electromagnetic form factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutsche, Thomas; Lyubovitskij, Valery E.; Schmidt, Ivan; Vega, Alfredo

    2015-06-01

    We present a high-quality description of the deuteron electromagnetic form factors in a soft-wall anti-de Sitter/quantum chromodynamics approach. We first propose an effective action describing the dynamics of the deuteron in the presence of an external vector field. Based on this action the deuteron electromagnetic form factors are calculated, displaying the correct 1 /Q10 power scaling for large Q2 values. This finding is consistent with quark counting rules and the earlier observation that this result holds in confining gauge/gravity duals. The Q2 dependence of the deuteron form factors is defined by a single and universal scale parameter κ , which is fixed from data.

  3. Diabetes Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Financial Help for Diabetes Care Diabetes Statistics Diabetes Medicines What do diabetes medicines do? Over time, high levels of blood glucose, ... your diabetes medicines, food choices, and physical activity. Medicines for My Diabetes Ask your doctor what type ...

  4. NNWSI [Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations] waste form testing at Argonne National Laboratory; Semiannual report, January--June 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, J.K.; Gerding, T.J.; Ebert, W.L.; Mazer, J.J.; Biwer, B.M.

    1990-04-01

    The Chemical Technology Division of Argonne National Laboratory is performing experiments in support of the waste package development of the Yucca Mountain Project (formerly the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project). Experiments in progress include (1) the development and performance of a durability test in unsaturated conditions, (2) studies of waste form behavior in an irradiated atmosphere, (3) studies of behavior in water vapor, and (4) studies of naturally occurring glasses to be used as analogues for waste glass behavior. This report documents progress made during the period of January--June 1988. 21 refs., 37 figs., 12 tabs.

  5. Nuclear matrix protein Matrin3 regulates alternative splicing and forms overlapping regulatory networks with PTB

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Miguel B; Attig, Jan; Bellora, Nicolás; König, Julian; Hallegger, Martina; Kayikci, Melis; Eyras, Eduardo; Ule, Jernej; Smith, Christopher WJ

    2015-01-01

    Matrin3 is an RNA- and DNA-binding nuclear matrix protein found to be associated with neural and muscular degenerative diseases. A number of possible functions of Matrin3 have been suggested, but no widespread role in RNA metabolism has yet been clearly demonstrated. We identified Matrin3 by its interaction with the second RRM domain of the splicing regulator PTB. Using a combination of RNAi knockdown, transcriptome profiling and iCLIP, we find that Matrin3 is a regulator of hundreds of alternative splicing events, principally acting as a splicing repressor with only a small proportion of targeted events being co-regulated by PTB. In contrast to other splicing regulators, Matrin3 binds to an extended region within repressed exons and flanking introns with no sharply defined peaks. The identification of this clear molecular function of Matrin3 should help to clarify the molecular pathology of ALS and other diseases caused by mutations of Matrin3. PMID:25599992

  6. TH-E-9A-01: Medical Physics 1.0 to 2.0, Session 4: Computed Tomography, Ultrasound and Nuclear Medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Samei, E; Nelson, J; Hangiandreou, N

    2014-06-15

    communication, use optimization (dose and technique factors), automated analysis and data management (automated QC methods, protocol tracking, dose monitoring, issue tracking), and meaningful QC considerations. US 2.0: Ultrasound imaging is evolving at a rapid pace, adding new imaging functions and modes that continue to enhance its clinical utility and benefits to patients. The ultrasound talk will look ahead 10–15 years and consider how medical physicists can bring maximal value to the clinical ultrasound practices of the future. The roles of physics in accreditation and regulatory compliance, image quality and exam optimization, clinical innovation, and education of staff and trainees will all be considered. A detailed examination of expected technology evolution and impact on image quality metrics will be presented. Clinical implementation of comprehensive physics services will also be discussed. Nuclear Medicine 2.0: Although the basic science of nuclear imaging has remained relatively unchanged since its inception, advances in instrumentation continue to advance the field into new territories. With a great number of these advances occurring over the past decade, the role and testing strategies of clinical nuclear medicine physicists must evolve in parallel. The Nuclear Medicine 2.0 presentation is designed to highlight some of the recent advances from a clinical medical physicist perspective and provide ideas and motivation for designing better evaluation strategies. Topics include improvement of traditional physics metrics and analytics, testing implications of hybrid imaging and advanced detector technologies, and strategies for effective implementation into the clinic. Learning Objectives: Become familiar with new physics metrics and analytics in nuclear medicine, CT, and ultrasound. To become familiar with the major new developments of clinical physics support. To understand the physics testing implications of new technologies, hardware, software, and applications

  7. Spent nuclear fuel as a waste form for geologic disposal: Assessment and recommendations on data and modeling needs

    SciTech Connect

    Van Luik, A.E.; Apted, M.J.; Bailey, W.J.; Haberman, J.H.; Shade, J.S.; Guenther, R.E.; Serne, R.J.; Gilbert, E.R.; Peters, R.; Williford, R.E.

    1987-09-01

    This study assesses the status of knowledge pertinent to evaluating the behavior of spent nuclear fuel as a waste form in geologic disposal systems and provides background information that can be used by the DOE to address the information needs that pertain to compliance with applicable standards and regulations. To achieve this objective, applicable federal regulations were reviewed, expected disposal environments were described, the status of spent-fuel modeling was summarized, and information regarding the characteristics and behavior of spent fuel was compiled. This compiled information was then evaluated from a performance modeling perspective to identify further information needs. A number of recommendations were made concerning information still needed to enhance understanding of spent-fuel behavior as a waste form in geologic repositories. 335 refs., 22 figs., 44 tabs.

  8. Forming Limit Diagrams of Zircaloy-4 and Zirlo Sheets for Stamping Process of Spacer Grids of Nuclear Fuel Rod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Yunmi; Hyun, Hong Chul; Lee, Hyungyil; Kim, Naksoo

    2011-08-01

    We investigated the theoretical forming limit models for Zircaloy-4 and Zirlo used for spacer grid of nuclear fuel rods. Tensile tests were performed to obtain stress-strain curves and anisotropic coefficients, such as r-values. The experimental forming limit diagrams (FLD) for two materials were obtained by dome stretching tests following the specification of NUMISHEET 96. Theoretical FLD depends on forming limit model and yield criterion. To obtain the right hand side of FLD, we applied the forming limit models (Swift's diffuse necking, Marciniak-Kuczynski damage defect, Storen-Rice's vertex theory) to Zircaloy-4 and Zirlo sheets. Hill's local necking theory was adopted for the left side of FLD. To consider the anisotropy of sheets, the yield criteria of Hill (1948) and Hosford (1979) were applied. Comparing the predicted curves with the experimental data, we found that the FLD for Zircaloy-4 can be described by the Swift model with the Hill 48 yield criterion, while the FLD for Zirlo can be explained by the Storen-Rice model and the Hosford yield criterion (a = 8).

  9. Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy for In Situ Monitoring of Ceramic Nuclear Waste Forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Braeden M.; Sundaram, S. K.

    2016-06-01

    The use of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) is presented as a non-contact method for in situ monitoring of ceramic waste forms. Single-phase materials of zirconolite (CaZrTi2O7), pyrochlore (Nd2Ti2O7), and hollandite (BaCs0.3Cr2.3Ti5.7O16 and BaCs0.3CrFeAl0.3Ti5.7O16) were characterized. The refractive index and dielectric properties in THz frequencies demonstrate the ability to distinguish between these materials. Differences in processing methods show distinct changes in both the THz-TDS spectra and optical and dielectric properties of these ceramic phases. The temperature dependence of the refractive index and relative permittivity of pyrochlore and zirconolite materials in the range of 25-200 °C is found to follow an exponential increasing trend. This can also be used to monitor the temperature of the ceramic waste forms on storage over extended geological time scales.

  10. [Medicinal roles tea--a non-essential beverage--played in forming the Japanese culture during the Japanese middle ages (12th-16th AD)].

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Shigeru

    2009-01-01

    The term "culture" generally refers to practices and customs including clothes, food and housing as well as various arts, ethics, religions, politics and economies that support them, with the more refined formats such as tea ceremony or flower arrangement being more dependent on the maturity of the society at the time. Among these, tea may be especially noteworthy as it has been widely used as a favored beverage in various scenes in daily life, playing an important role in the development of Japanese society. As a medicinal agent, tea has psychotropic functions that activate senses, thoughts or association of ideas, and remove or alleviate drowsiness and fatigue. While alcohol, coffee or narcotics also have mind-altering effects, tea has been more widely accepted, possibly because of its milder effect and its adaptability to cultivation in different climate zones, leaving broad and deep impressions in the forming of the culture. In the fifth century, the rulers in Japan started opening state-run ranches throughout the country to raise horses and cattle, which drove population growth, spurred a commodity economy and gave rise to an associated birth of logistics providers. The ranch administrators, however, gradually built up political and economic power over the years to become samurai, who would eventually come to rule the country. In the Japanese Middle Ages, many merchants who had accumulated wealth in trades, finance, sake breweries or leather industries enjoyed gatherings with tea, which became the very popular tea ceremony. From these occasions, many of the now so-called classic arts with top-class artists were born. The popularity of the tea ceremony eventually produced SADO, the way of tea. Tea thus provided a cradle for many cultural elements as social barriers were often disregarded at such gatherings so that many artists and men of stature were able to emerge regardless of their backgrounds. PMID:20527289

  11. The strategy of the Belgian nuclear research centre in the area of high-level waste form compatibility research

    SciTech Connect

    Lemmens, Karel; Cachoir, Christelle; Valcke, Elie; Ferrand, Karine; Aertsens, Marc; Mennecart, Thierry

    2007-07-01

    The Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK.CEN) has a long-standing expertise in research concerning the compatibility of waste forms with the final disposal environment. For high level waste, most attention goes to two waste forms that are relevant for Belgium, namely (1) vitrified waste from the reprocessing of spent fuel, and (2) spent fuel as such, referring to the direct disposal scenario. The expertise lies especially in the study of the chemical interactions between the waste forms and the disposal environment. This is done by laboratory experiments, supported by modeling. The experiments vary from traditional leach tests, to more specific tests for the determination of particular parameters, and highly realistic experiments. This results in a description of the phenomena that are expected upon disposal of the waste forms, and in quantitative data that allow a conservative long-term prediction of the in situ life time of the waste form. The predictions are validated by in situ experiments in the underground research laboratory HADES. The final objective of these studies, is to estimate the contribution of the waste form to the overall safety of the disposal system, as part of the Safety and Feasibility Case, planned by the national agency ONDRAF/NIRAS. The recent change of the Belgian disposal concept from an engineered barrier system based on the use of bentonite clay to a system based on a concrete buffer has caused a reorientation of the research programme. The expertise in the area of clay-waste interaction will however be maintained, to develop experimental methodologies in collaboration with other countries, and as a potential support to the decision making in those countries where a clay based near field is still the reference. The paper explains the current R and D approach, and highlights some recent experimental set-ups available at SCK.CEN for this purpose, with some illustrating results. (authors)

  12. Nuclear localization of the caspase-3-cleaved form of p73 in anoikis

    PubMed Central

    Alsafadi, Samar; Tourpin, Sophie; Bessoltane, Nadia; Salomé-Desnoulez, Sophie; Vassal, Gilles; André, Fabrice; Ahomadegbe, Jean-Charles

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor p73 is a homologue of p53 that can be expressed as pro- or anti-apoptotic isoforms. Unlike p53, p73 is rarely mutated or lost in cancers and it is found to replace defective p53 inducing apoptosis. Here, we investigated the p73 involvement in anoikis, a type of apoptosis caused by inadequate cell-matrix interactions. Breast cancer cell lines with different p53 status were treated with doxorubicin (DOX) or docetaxel (DOC) and cells detached from the extracellular matrix were analyzed. We demonstrate for the first time that DOX-induced cell detachment is associated with p73 cleavage and caspase activation, independently of the p53 status. However, we did not detect p73 cleavage or caspase activation in detached cells under DOC treatment. Overexpressing the apoptotic isoform of p73 led to cell detachment associated with p73 cleavage and caspase activation. Interestingly, p73 cleaved forms localize to the nucleus during the late phase of cell death indicating an increase in the transcriptional activity. Our study suggests that the cleavage of p73 on specific sites may release its pro-apoptotic function and contribute to cell death. PMID:26575022

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF A CERIUM-RICH PYROCHLORE-BASED CERAMIC NUCLEAR WASTE FORM

    SciTech Connect

    Giere, Reto; Segvich, Susan; Buck, Edgar C.

    2003-02-11

    Titanate ceramics have been proposed as candidate materials for immobilizing excess weapons plutonium. This study focuses on the characterization of a titanate-based ceramic through X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron probe microanalysis and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). Three distinct phases have been identified, and their volume fraction was determined from element distribution maps using Scionimage-NIH Analysis software. This analysis revealed that the pyrochlore-group phase betafite (A2Ti2O7) forms the matrix of the ceramic and occupies 90.4% of the volume. Uniformly distributed in this matrix are perovskite (A2Ti2O6) and Hf-enriched rutile (TiO2), which account for 6.4 vol% and 3.1 vol%, respectively. The studied ceramic exhibits an extremely low porosity (0.3 vol%), which is characterized by small (< 6 m), rounded and isolated pores. In the studied ceramic, A-site cations are represented by Ca, rare earth elements, and Hf. The powder XRD pattern of the ceramic allowed refining the unit cell parameters for the cubic betafite, which is characterized by a cell edge of 10.132±0.003Å. The EELS data indicate that Ce is present as both Ce3+ and Ce4+ in betafite, whereas in perovskite, all Ce is trivalent.

  14. Cement As a Waste Form for Nuclear Fission Products: The Case of (90)Sr and Its Daughters.

    PubMed

    Dezerald, Lucile; Kohanoff, Jorge J; Correa, Alfredo A; Caro, Alfredo; Pellenq, Roland J-M; Ulm, Franz J; Saúl, Andrés

    2015-11-17

    One of the main challenges faced by the nuclear industry is the long-term confinement of nuclear waste. Because it is inexpensive and easy to manufacture, cement is the material of choice to store large volumes of radioactive materials, in particular the low-level medium-lived fission products. It is therefore of utmost importance to assess the chemical and structural stability of cement containing radioactive species. Here, we use ab initio calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) to study the effects of (90)Sr insertion and decay in C-S-H (calcium-silicate-hydrate) in order to test the ability of cement to trap and hold this radioactive fission product and to investigate the consequences of its β-decay on the cement paste structure. We show that (90)Sr is stable when it substitutes the Ca(2+) ions in C-S-H, and so is its daughter nucleus (90)Y after β-decay. Interestingly, (90)Zr, daughter of (90)Y and final product in the decay sequence, is found to be unstable compared to the bulk phase of the element at zero K but stable when compared to the solvated ion in water. Therefore, cement appears as a suitable waste form for (90)Sr storage. PMID:26513644

  15. Materials Characterization Center workshop on leaching mechanisms of nuclear waste forms, May 19-21, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Mendel, J.E.

    1982-08-01

    This is a report of the second workshop on the leaching mechanism of nuclear waste forms, which was held at Geithersburg, Maryland, May 19-21, 1982. The first session of the workshop was devoted to progress reports by participants in the leaching mechanisms program. These progress reports, as prepared by the participants, are given in Section 3.0. The goal of the remainder of the workshop was to exchange information on the development of repository-relevant leach testing techniques, often called interactions testing. To this end, a wide spectrum of investigators, many of whose work is sponsored by DOE's Nuclear Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) project, made presentations at the workshop. These presentations were a significant and beneficial part of the workshop and are summarized in Sections 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0 according to the workshop agenda topics. In many cases, the presenters provided a written version of their presentation which has been included verbatim; in the other cases, the workshop chairman has supplied a brief synopsis. Twenty-one papers have been abstracted and indexed for inclusion in the data base.

  16. Haptic medicine.

    PubMed

    Mason, Cindy; Mason, Earl

    2009-01-01

    The paper introduces haptic medicine--healthcare based on loving touch for healing and preventing disease. We describe the effects of loving touch (a square inch of our skin has over 1000 nerves) on the body, brain and mind. We describe two web-based health education and media projects. The first, HYPERLINK "http://www.21stcenturymed.org" www.21stcenturymed.org is a place for health practitioners to start learning about touch and resources. The second project, Humans Without Borders, is a multi-lingual self help education website for everyday people. Teaching materials for these projects are based on our previous work with a form of haptic medicine known as psychophysiophilosophy with patients at Stanford Hospital, Kaiser Permanente and Lucille Packard Children's Hospital. We describe psychophysiophilosophy, relate motherly love to recent discoveries in neurosciences and give hints on ways to increase motherly love in each of us. We present a plan for moving into the future by re-introducing haptic medicine into our daily lives through self-help and as an adjunct for current physician practice. There is an exercise in self-help for the reader and an appendix of recent clinical research with profound benefits on the use of human touch for over 40 conditions. PMID:19745495

  17. Proficiency tests in the determination of activity of radionuclides in radiopharmaceutical products measured by nuclear medicine services in 8 years of comparison programmes in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tauhata, Luiz; Iwahara, Akira; de Oliveira, Antonio E; Rezende, Eduarda Alexandre; Delgado, José Ubiratan; da Silva, Carlos José; Dos Santos, Joyra A; Nícoli, Ieda G; Alabarse, Frederico G; Xavier, Ana Maria

    2008-01-01

    Proficiency tests were applied to assess the performance of 74 nuclear medicine services in activity measurements of (131)I, (123)I, (99)Tc(m), (67)Ga and (201)Tl. These tests produced 913 data sets from comparison programmes promoted by the National Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation Metrology (LNMRI) from 1999 to 2006. The data were evaluated against acceptance criteria for accuracy and precision and assigned as Acceptable or Not acceptable accordingly. In addition, three other statistical parameters were used as complementary information for performance evaluation which related to normative requirements and to radionuclide calibrators. The results have shown a necessity to improve quality control procedures and unsatisfactory performances of radionuclide calibrators, which incorporate Geiger-Müller detectors. PMID:18346902

  18. Diabetes Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... choices and physical activity, you may need diabetes medicines. The kind of medicine you take depends on your type of diabetes, ... pills. Combination pills contain two kinds of diabetes medicine in one tablet. Some people take pills and ...

  19. Aerospace Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaud, Vince

    2015-01-01

    NASA Aerospace Medicine overview - Aerospace Medicine is that specialty area of medicine concerned with the determination and maintenance of the health, safety, and performance of those who fly in the air or in space.

  20. Electrolytic Reduction of Spent Nuclear Oxide Fuel -- Effects of Fuel Form and Cathode Containment Materials on Bench-Scale Operations

    SciTech Connect

    S. D. Herrmann

    2007-09-01

    A collaborative effort between the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is underway per an International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative to advance the development of a pyrochemical process for the treatment of spent nuclear oxide fuel. To assess the effects of specific process parameters that differ between oxide reduction operations at INL and KAERI, a series of 4 electrolytic reduction runs will be performed with a single salt loading of LiCl-Li2O at 650 °C using a test apparatus located inside of a hot cell at INL. The spent oxide fuel for the tests will be irradiated UO2 that has been subjected to a voloxidation process to form U3O8. The primary variables in the 4 electrolytic reduction runs will be fuel basket containment material and Li2O concentration in the LiCl salt. All 4 runs will be performed with comparable fuel loadings (approximately 50 g) and fuel compositions and will utilize a platinum anode and a Ni/NiO reference electrode. The first 2 runs will elucidate the effect of fuel form on the electrolytic reduction process by comparison of the above test results with U3O8 versus results from previous tests with UO2. The first 3 runs will investigate the impact that the cathode containment material has on the electrolytic reduction of spent oxide fuel. The 3rd and 4th runs will investigate the effect of Li2O concentration on the reduction process with a porous MgO cathode containment.