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Sample records for formacao macae campo

  1. Maca

    MedlinePlus

    ... Peru in the high plateaus of the Andes Mountains. It has been cultivated as a vegetable crop in this area for at least 3000 years. Maca is a relative of the radish and has an odor similar to butterscotch. Its root is used to make medicine. People take maca ...

  2. Peruvian Maca (Lepidium peruvianum): (I) Phytochemical and Genetic Differences in Three Maca Phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Meissner, Henry O; Mscisz, Alina; Mrozikiewicz, Mieczyslaw; Baraniak, Marek; Mielcarek, Sebastian; Kedzia, Bogdan; Piatkowska, Ewa; Jólkowska, Justyna; Pisulewski, Pawel

    2015-09-01

    Glucosinolates were previously reported as physiologically-important constituents present in Peruvian Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon) and linked to various therapeutic functions of differently-colored Peruvian Maca hypocotyls. In two separate Trials, three colours of Maca hypocotyls "Black", "Red" and "Yellow" (termed "Maca phenotypes"), were selected from mixed crops of Peruvian Maca for laboratory studies as fresh and after being dried. Individual Maca phenotypes were cultivated in the highlands of the Peruvian Andes at 4,200m a.s.l. (Junin and Ninacaca). Glucosinolate levels, chromatographic HPLC profiles and DNA variability in the investigated Maca phenotypes are presented. Genotypic profiles were determined by the ISSR-PCR and RAPD techniques. Compared to the Black and Red phenotypes, the Yellow phenotype contained much lower Glucosinolate levels measured against Glucotropaeolin and m-methoxy-glucotropaeolin standards, and exhibited different RAPD and ISSR-PCR reactions. The Red Maca phenotype showed the highest concentrations of Glucosinolates as compared to the Black and Yellow Maca. It appears that the traditional system used by natives of the Peruvian Andean highlands in preparing Maca as a vegetable dish (boiling dried Maca after soaking in water), to supplement their daily meals, is as effective as laboratory methods - for extracting Glucosinolates, which are considered to be one of the key bioactive constituents responsible for therapeutic functions of Peruvian Maca phenotypes. It is reasonable to assume that the HPLC and DNA techniques combined, or separately, may assist in determining ID and "Fingerprints" identifying individual Peruvian Maca phenotypes, hence confirming the authenticity of marketable Maca products. The above assumptions warrant further laboratory testing. PMID:26508907

  3. Peruvian Maca (Lepidium peruvianum): (I) Phytochemical and Genetic Differences in Three Maca Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Meissner, Henry O.; Mscisz, Alina; Mrozikiewicz, Mieczyslaw; Baraniak, Marek; Mielcarek, Sebastian; Kedzia, Bogdan; Piatkowska, Ewa; Jólkowska, Justyna; Pisulewski, Pawel

    2015-01-01

    Glucosinolates were previously reported as physiologically-important constituents present in Peruvian Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon) and linked to various therapeutic functions of differently-colored Peruvian Maca hypocotyls. In two separate Trials, three colours of Maca hypocotyls “Black”, “Red” and “Yellow” (termed “Maca phenotypes”), were selected from mixed crops of Peruvian Maca for laboratory studies as fresh and after being dried. Individual Maca phenotypes were cultivated in the highlands of the Peruvian Andes at 4,200m a.s.l. (Junin and Ninacaca). Glucosinolate levels, chromatographic HPLC profiles and DNA variability in the investigated Maca phenotypes are presented. Genotypic profiles were determined by the ISSR-PCR and RAPD techniques. Compared to the Black and Red phenotypes, the Yellow phenotype contained much lower Glucosinolate levels measured against Glucotropaeolin and m-methoxy-glucotropaeolin standards, and exhibited different RAPD and ISSR-PCR reactions. The Red Maca phenotype showed the highest concentrations of Glucosinolates as compared to the Black and Yellow Maca. It appears that the traditional system used by natives of the Peruvian Andean highlands in preparing Maca as a vegetable dish (boiling dried Maca after soaking in water), to supplement their daily meals, is as effective as laboratory methods - for extracting Glucosinolates, which are considered to be one of the key bioactive constituents responsible for therapeutic functions of Peruvian Maca phenotypes. It is reasonable to assume that the HPLC and DNA techniques combined, or separately, may assist in determining ID and “Fingerprints” identifying individual Peruvian Maca phenotypes, hence confirming the authenticity of marketable Maca products. The above assumptions warrant further laboratory testing. PMID:26508907

  4. [Recent researching progress of Lepidium meyenii (Maca)].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan-yan; Zhao, Hai-yu; Si, Nan; Wang, Hong-jie; Gian, Bao-lin

    2015-12-01

    Maca as one of the star products in the international health care market in recent years, had a wide range of application value and promoted to all over the world. However, the basic research of Maca was not deep, lack of systematic and clear efficacy studies. Market products hype its aphrodisiac effect, which greatly impact more systematic in-depth research and exploration. Therefore, this paper briefly summarizes advance research in recent years including the status quo of the resources, growth cultivation, phytochemical, pharmacological effect and other aspects, which can provide reference for rational development and utilization of Maca. PMID:27141658

  5. Neuroprotective effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca).

    PubMed

    Pino-Figueroa, Alejandro; Nguyen, Diane; Maher, Timothy J

    2010-06-01

    The neuroprotective activity of the plant Lepidium meyenii (Maca) was studied in two experimental models: in vitro and in vivo. Crayfish neurons were pretreated with vehicle or the pentane extract from Maca, subjected to H(2)O(2), and their viability determined microscopically and chemically. A significant concentration-neuroprotective effect relationship was demonstrated. The pentane extract was then administered intravenously to rats prior to and following middle cerebral artery occlusion. While infarct volumes were decreased for the lower dose, higher doses increased infarct volumes compared to controls. These results suggest a potential application of Maca as a neuroprotectant. PMID:20633111

  6. Maca

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood" (anemia); chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS); and enhancing energy, stamina, athletic performance, and memory. People also take ... blood" (anemia). Leukemia. Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Improving energy and athletic performance. Improving memory. Depression. Female hormone ...

  7. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) does not exert direct androgenic activities.

    PubMed

    Bogani, P; Simonini, F; Iriti, M; Rossoni, M; Faoro, F; Poletti, A; Visioli, F

    2006-04-01

    Maca is the edible root of the Peruvian plant Lepidum meyenii, traditionally employed for its purported aphrodisiac and fertility-enhancing properties. This study aimed at testing the hypothesis that Maca contains testosterone-like compounds, able to bind the human androgen receptor and promote transcription pathways regulated by steroid hormone signaling. Maca extracts (obtained with different solvents: methanol, ethanol, hexane and chloroform) are not able to regulate GRE (glucocorticoid response element) activation. Further experiments are needed to assess which compound, of the several Maca's components, is responsible of the observed in vivo effects. PMID:16239088

  8. Peruvian Maca (Lepidium peruvianum): (II) Phytochemical Profiles of Four Prime Maca Phenotypes Grown in Two Geographically-Distant Locations

    PubMed Central

    O. Meissner, Henry; Mscisz, Alina; Piatkowska, Ewa; Baraniak, Marek; Mielcarek, Sebastian; Kedzia, Bogdan; Holderna-Kedzia, Elzbieta; Pisulewski, Pawel

    2016-01-01

    Peruvian Maca crops (Lepidium peruvianum), grown in two geographically-distant cultivation sites located at similar altitudes in the highlands of the Peruvian Andes (Junin at 4,200 m a.s.l. and Ancash 4,150 m a.s.l.), were used in the study. Four prime Maca phenotypes, distinguished by hypocotyl colours labelled as “Yellow”, “Purple”, “Red” and “Black” were selected to determine distribution in levels and corresponding ratios between individual Glucosinolates (Glucotropaeolin and m-methylglucotropaeolin) in an attempt to identify four Peruvian Maca phenotypes from analyses of powdered hypocotyls. There were highly significant differences (P<0.01) in hypocotyl weight/size of four Maca phenotypes harvested in two locations. The Junin crop represented a mostly “large” class (13.3 g) with “small” size hypocotyls (7.2 g), while a “small” class was predominant in Ancash (3.5 g). Powdered Yellow Maca showed significantly higher (P<0.001) microbial contamination than the other three, with Black Maca being the least infected. Only minor, statistically-confirmed differences were detected in nutritive characteristics between the four Maca phenotypes grown in Junin, however highly significant differences (P<0.01) in Glucosinolates existed between the Red and Black Maca grown in Junin and Ancash. Irrespective of the cultivation location, Red phenotypes showed the highest content of Total Glucosinolates, followed by Black and Purple, with the Yellow phenotype showing consistently lower levels. Highly significant P<0.01) differences determined in ratios of individual Glucosinolates between four Maca phenotypes grown in two locations, confirms an earlier assumption that sums of individual Glucosinolates, their ratios and profiles, may be feasible to explore in analytically identifying individual Maca phenotypes in pulverised marketed Maca products. PMID:27127450

  9. Peruvian Maca (Lepidium peruvianum): (II) Phytochemical Profiles of Four Prime Maca Phenotypes Grown in Two Geographically-Distant Locations.

    PubMed

    O Meissner, Henry; Mscisz, Alina; Piatkowska, Ewa; Baraniak, Marek; Mielcarek, Sebastian; Kedzia, Bogdan; Holderna-Kedzia, Elzbieta; Pisulewski, Pawel

    2016-03-01

    Peruvian Maca crops (Lepidium peruvianum), grown in two geographically-distant cultivation sites located at similar altitudes in the highlands of the Peruvian Andes (Junin at 4,200 m a.s.l. and Ancash 4,150 m a.s.l.), were used in the study. Four prime Maca phenotypes, distinguished by hypocotyl colours labelled as "Yellow", "Purple", "Red" and "Black" were selected to determine distribution in levels and corresponding ratios between individual Glucosinolates (Glucotropaeolin and m-methylglucotropaeolin) in an attempt to identify four Peruvian Maca phenotypes from analyses of powdered hypocotyls. There were highly significant differences (P<0.01) in hypocotyl weight/size of four Maca phenotypes harvested in two locations. The Junin crop represented a mostly "large" class (13.3 g) with "small" size hypocotyls (7.2 g), while a "small" class was predominant in Ancash (3.5 g). Powdered Yellow Maca showed significantly higher (P<0.001) microbial contamination than the other three, with Black Maca being the least infected. Only minor, statistically-confirmed differences were detected in nutritive characteristics between the four Maca phenotypes grown in Junin, however highly significant differences (P<0.01) in Glucosinolates existed between the Red and Black Maca grown in Junin and Ancash. Irrespective of the cultivation location, Red phenotypes showed the highest content of Total Glucosinolates, followed by Black and Purple, with the Yellow phenotype showing consistently lower levels. Highly significant P<0.01) differences determined in ratios of individual Glucosinolates between four Maca phenotypes grown in two locations, confirms an earlier assumption that sums of individual Glucosinolates, their ratios and profiles, may be feasible to explore in analytically identifying individual Maca phenotypes in pulverised marketed Maca products. PMID:27127450

  10. Effect of gamma irradiation on phenol content, antioxidant activity and biological activity of black maca and red maca extracts (Lepidium meyenii walp).

    PubMed

    Zevallos-Concha, A; Nuñez, D; Gasco, M; Vasquez, C; Quispe, M; Gonzales, G F

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of gamma irradiation on UV spectrum on maca, total content of polyphenols, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activities and in vivo biological activities of red and black maca extracts (Lepidium meyenii). Adult mice of the strain Swiss aged 3 months and weighing 30-35 g in average were used to determine biological activities. Daily sperm production, effect on testosterone-induced prostate hyperplasia and forced swimming test were used to determine the effect of irradiation on biological activities of maca extracts. Irradiation did not show differences in UV spectrum but improves the amount of total polyphenols in red maca as well as in black maca extracts. In both cases, black maca extract has more content of polyphenols than red maca extract (p < 0.01). Gamma irradiation significantly increased the antioxidant capacity (p < 0.05). No difference was observed in daily sperm production when irradiated and nonirradiated maca extract were administered to mice (p > 0.05). Black maca extract but not red maca extract has more swimming endurance capacity in the forced swimming test. Irradiation of black maca extract increased the swimming time to exhaustion (p < 0.05). This is not observed with red maca extract (p > 0.05). Testosterone enanthate (TE) increased significantly the ventral prostate weight. Administration of red maca extract in animals treated with TE prevented the increase in prostate weight. Irradiation did not modify effect of red maca extract on prostate weight (p > 0.05). In conclusion, irradiation does not alter the biological activities of both black maca and red maca extracts. It prevents the presence of microorganisms in the extracts of black or red maca, but the biological activities were maintained. PMID:26633045

  11. Maca (L. meyenii) for improving sexual function: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Maca (Lepidium meyenii) is an Andean plant of the brassica (mustard) family. Preparations from maca root have been reported to improve sexual function. The aim of this review was to assess the clinical evidence for or against the effectiveness of the maca plant as a treatment for sexual dysfunction. Methods We searched 17 databases from their inception to April 2010 and included all randomised clinical trials (RCTs) of any type of maca compared to a placebo for the treatment of healthy people or human patients with sexual dysfunction. The risk of bias for each study was assessed using Cochrane criteria, and statistical pooling of data was performed where possible. The selection of studies, data extraction, and validations were performed independently by two authors. Discrepancies were resolved through discussion by the two authors. Results Four RCTs met all the inclusion criteria. Two RCTs suggested a significant positive effect of maca on sexual dysfunction or sexual desire in healthy menopausal women or healthy adult men, respectively, while the other RCT failed to show any effects in healthy cyclists. The further RCT assessed the effects of maca in patients with erectile dysfunction using the International Index of Erectile Dysfunction-5 and showed significant effects. Conclusion The results of our systematic review provide limited evidence for the effectiveness of maca in improving sexual function. However, the total number of trials, the total sample size, and the average methodological quality of the primary studies were too limited to draw firm conclusions. More rigorous studies are warranted. PMID:20691074

  12. [Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp), a review of its biological properties].

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Villaorduña, Leonidas; Gasco, Manuel; Rubio, Julio; Gonzales, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Maca (Lepidium meyenii) is a plant that grows above 4000 altitude meters in Peru's Central Andes; it has different varieties according to the color of the hypocotyl. This review summarizes the results of studies about the effects of maca on sexual function, spermatogenesis, female reproductive function, memory, depression and anxiety, and energy as well as effects on benign prostatic hyperplasia, osteoporosis and metabolic syndrome. Its anti-aging effect is also discussed as well as safety in consumption. Differences have been shown between the effects of the black, yellow and red maca varieties. Black maca shows the best results on spermatogenesis, memory and fatigue, while red maca is the variety that reverses the benign prostatic hyperplasia and experimentally induced osteoporosis. In addition, maca reduces the glucose levels, and its consumption is related to the lowering of blood pressure and an improved health score. Experimental studies have proven that short and long term consumption don't show in vivo and in vitro toxicity. Although experimental studies have shown that maca has diverse beneficial effects, more clinical studies are needed to confirm these results. PMID:24718534

  13. New alkamides from maca (Lepidium meyenii).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianping; Muhammad, Ilias; Dunbar, D Chuck; Mustafa, Jamal; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2005-02-01

    Maca (Lepidium meyenii) has been used as a food in Peru for thousands of years. More recently a wide array of commercial maca products have gained popularity as dietary supplements, with claims of anabolic and aphrodisiac effects, although the biologically active principles are not fully known. In an earlier chemical investigation, two new alkamides and a novel fatty acid, as well as the N-hydroxypyridine derivative, macaridine, were isolated from L. meyenii. Further examination has led to the isolation of five additional new alkamides, namely, N-benzyl-9-oxo-12Z-octadecenamide (1), N-benzyl-9-oxo-12Z,15Z-octadecadienamide (2), N-benzyl-13-oxo-9E,11E-octadecadienamide (3), N-benzyl-15Z-tetracosenamide (4), and N-(m-methoxybenzyl)hexadecanamide (5). Their structures were established by spectrometric and spectroscopic methods including ESI-HRMS, EI-MS, (1)H, (13)C, and 2D NMR, as well as (1)H-(15)N 2D HMBC experiments. In addition, the identity of N-benzyl-15Z-tetracosenamide (4) was confirmed by synthesis. These compounds have been found from only L. meyenii and could be used as markers for authentication and standardization. PMID:15686421

  14. Investigation of the tuber constituents of maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.).

    PubMed

    Piacente, Sonia; Carbone, Virginia; Plaza, Alberto; Zampelli, Aurelia; Pizza, Cosimo

    2002-09-25

    Lepidium meyenii, known in South America as maca, has received attention worldwide as a powerful energizer that improves physical and mental conditions and increases fertility. Because of these reports, we investigated the secondary metabolites of the tuber of maca. The methanol extract of the tuber of maca contained, in addition to free sugars and amino acids, the following: uridine, malic acid and its benzoyl derivative, and the glucosinolates, glucotropaeolin and m-methoxyglucotropaeolin. Because glucosinolates and their derived products have received increasing attention due to their biological activities, the occurrence of glucosinolate degradation products in the hexane extract was also investigated, and benzylisothiocyanate and its m-methoxy derivative were isolated. The two glucosinolates were semiquantified by HPLC, and benzylisothiocyanate was semiquantified by GC/MS. The methanol extract of maca tuber also contained (1R,3S)-1-methyltetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid, a molecule which is reported to exert many activities on the central nervous system. PMID:12236688

  15. The Methyltetrahydro-β-Carbolines in Maca (Lepidium meyenii)

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales-Castañeda, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    Maca, a plant native to the Peruvian highlands, contains (1R,3S)-1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid (MTCA). The family of the tetrahydro-β-carbolines has been associated with both biologically helpful and harmful compounds. We present evidence that MTCA is a natural constituent of Maca, and on consumption no toxicity is found. This suggests that, when consumed as multi-component, MTCA may loose its adversity as drug action. PMID:18955346

  16. The Methyltetrahydro-{beta}-Carbolines in Maca (Lepidium meyenii).

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Gonzales-Castañeda, Cynthia

    2009-09-01

    Maca, a plant native to the Peruvian highlands, contains (1R,3S)-1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid (MTCA). The family of the tetrahydro-beta-carbolines has been associated with both biologically helpful and harmful compounds. We present evidence that MTCA is a natural constituent of Maca, and on consumption no toxicity is found. This suggests that, when consumed as multi-component, MTCA may loose its adversity as drug action. PMID:18955346

  17. [Quality control of Maca (Lepidium meyenii)].

    PubMed

    Shu, Ji-cheng; Cui, Hang-qing; Huang, Ying-zheng; Huang, Xiao-ying; Yang, Ming

    2015-12-01

    To control the quality of Maca, the quality standard was established in this study. According to the methods recorded in the Appendix of Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010 Edition), the water, extract, total ash, acid insoluble substance, and heavy metals inspections in Lepidium meyenii were carried out. N-benzyl-9Z, 12Z-octadecadienamide in L. meyenii was identified by TLC, and it was determined by HPLC. The results showed that the N-benzyl-9Z, 12Z-octadecadienamide identification of TLC was a strong mark and specificity. In content determination experiment, the linearity of N-benzyl-9Z, 12Z-octadecadienamide was in the range of 0.01-2 microg (r = 0.9998), and the average recovery (n=9) was 99.27% (RSD 2.0%). The methods were simple, accurate, with good reproducibility. It is suitable for quality control L. meyenii. PMID:27141660

  18. Lepidium meyenii (Maca): a plant from the highlands of Peru--from tradition to science.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Gonzales, Carla; Gonzales-Castañeda, Cynthia

    2009-12-01

    This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on Lepidium meyenii (maca), a cruciferous plant (Brassicaceae family) which is cultivated exclusively at an altitude of 4,000-4,500 m in the Peruvian Central Andes. Maca is traditionally used for its nutritional and presumed medicinal properties. Over the past 20 years, interest in maca has increased in many parts of the world, and since 2005 maca is considered one of the seven Peruvian flag products. Maca is exported as powder, capsules, pills, flour, liquor, and extracts. There are different types of maca with differ-ent colors ranging from white to black. We have studied the pharmacological effects of 3 types; yellow, black, and red maca. Evidence from experimental studies indicates effects of maca on nutrition, fertility, memory, and mood. Black maca has better effects on sperm production than yellow maca which has only moderate effects. Red maca, however, has no effect on sperm production. However, red maca has been shown to reduce prostate size in rats in which prostate hyperplasia had been induced with testosterone enanthate; yellow maca has shown moderate effects here, whereas black maca has not shown any effects. Randomized clinical trials have shown that maca has favorable effects on energy and mood, may decrease anxiety and improve sexual desire. Maca has also been shown to improve sperm production, sperm motility, and semen volume. Serum levels of testosterone, estradiol, LH, FSH, and prolactin were not affected. The exact mechanisms of action are still unclear, but so far research clearly indicates that various bioactive constituents contribute to the clinical effects reported. PMID:20090350

  19. Salient features of MACA and CMACA systems and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnam, C.; Goud, S. L.; Rao, V. Lakshmana

    2007-09-01

    The Fourier Analytical Investigation results of the Performance of the Multiple Annuli Coded Aperture (MACA) and Complementary Multiple Annuli Coded Aperture Systems (CMACA) are summarised and the probable application of these systems in Astronomy, High energy radiation Imaging, optical filters, and in the field of metallurgy, are suggested.

  20. Effect of three different cultivars of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on learning and depression in ovariectomized mice

    PubMed Central

    Rubio, Julio; Caldas, Maria; Dávila, Sonia; Gasco, Manuel; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2006-01-01

    Background Lepidium meyenii Walp. (Brassicaceae), known as Maca, is a Peruvian hypocotyl growing exclusively between 4000 and 4500 m altitude in the central Peruvian Andes, particularly in Junin plateau and is used traditionally to enhance fertility. Maca is a cultivated plant and different cultivars are described according to the color of the hypocotyls. Methods The study aimed to elucidate the effect of Yellow, Red and Black Maca on cognitive function and depression in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. In all experiments OVX mice were treated during 21 days and divided in four groups: control group, Yellow Maca, Red Maca and Black Maca. Latent learning was assessed using the water finding task and the antidepressant activity of the three varieties of Maca was evaluated using the forced swimming test. Animals were sacrificed at the end of each treatment and the uterus were excised and weighed. Results Black Maca was the variety that showed the best response in the water finding task, particularly in the trained mice. The three varieties were effective to reduce finding latency in non trained and trained mice (P < 0.05). In the force swimming test, all varieties assessed reduced the time of immobility and increased uterine weight in OVX mice. Conclusion Black Maca appeared to have more beneficial effects on latent learning in OVX mice; meanwhile, all varieties of Maca showed antidepressant activity. PMID:16796734

  1. Effect of Black maca (Lepidium meyenii) on one spermatogenic cycle in rats.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, G F; Nieto, J; Rubio, J; Gasco, M

    2006-10-01

    Lepidium meyenii (Maca) grows exclusively between 4000 and 4500 m above sea level in the Peruvian central Andes. The hypocotyls of this plant are traditionally used in the Andean region for their supposed fertility-enhancing properties. The hypocotyls have different colours. Of these, Black maca has better effects on spermatogenesis. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that Black maca has early effects during a spermatogenic cycle (12 days) of male rats. For this, testicular spermatid, epididymal sperm and vas deferens sperm counts were measured after 1, 3, 5, 7 and 12 days of treatment with Black maca. Aqueous extract of Black maca was given orally by daily gavage at a dose of 2 g kg(-1). In a spermatogenic cycle, compared with day 1, daily sperm production (DSP) was lower at day 7 (control), whereas with Black maca, the difference was observed at day 12. Epididymal sperm count was higher in rats treated with Black maca at days 1, 3 and 7, but similar to controls at days 5 and 12; similarly sperm counts in vas deferens was higher in rats treated with Black maca in days 3, 5 and 7, but similar to controls at days 1 and 12. From this, it is suggested that first action of Black maca was at epididymal level increasing sperm count after 1 day of treatment, whereas an increase in sperm count was observed in vas deferens at day 3 of treatment. Finally, an increase in DSP was observed after 7 days of treatment with Black maca. Testicular testosterone was not affected after 7 days treatment with Black maca. In conclusion, Black maca affects sperm count as early as 1 day after beginning of treatment. PMID:16961569

  2. Metabolomic differentiation of maca (Lepidium meyenii) accessions cultivated under different conditions using NMR and chemometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianping; Avula, Bharathi; Chan, Michael; Clément, Céline; Kreuzer, Michael; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2012-01-01

    To gain insights on the effects of color type, cultivation history, and growing site on the composition alterations of maca (Lepidium meyenii Walpers) hypocotyls, NMR profiling combined with chemometric analysis was applied to investigate the metabolite variability in different maca accessions. Maca hypocotyls with different colors (yellow, pink, violet, and lead-colored) cultivated at different geographic sites and different areas were examined for differences in metabolite expression. Differentiations of the maca accessions grown under the different cultivation conditions were determined by principle component analyses (PCAs) which were performed on the datasets derived from their ¹H NMR spectra. A total of 16 metabolites were identified by NMR analysis, and the changes in metabolite levels in relation to the color types and growing conditions of maca hypocotyls were evaluated using univariate statistical analysis. In addition, the changes of the correlation pattern among the metabolites identified in the maca accessions planted at the two different sites were examined. The results from both multivariate and univariate analysis indicated that the planting site was the major determining factor with regards to metabolite variations in maca hypocotyls, while the color of maca accession seems to be of minor importance in this respect. PMID:21858755

  3. Effect of maca supplementation on bovine sperm quantity and quality followed over two spermatogenic cycles.

    PubMed

    Clément, C; Kneubühler, J; Urwyler, A; Witschi, U; Kreuzer, M

    2010-07-15

    Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walpers), is an Andean crop that grows between 3,800 and 4,500 m a.s.l. The persistent interest in this plant is based on its assumed effects on fertility of male mammals due to the prevalence of certain, partially specific, secondary compounds. The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of maca supplementation on quality and quantity of semen, mating behavior, and clinical status of peripubertal breeding bulls. The experiment followed a cross-over design lasting for 23 wk with 3 wk of adaptation and baseline measurements, and 2 x 10 wk of treatment feeding thus covering two times the complete 8-wk spermatogenic cycle. Seventy-eight 55 wk to 84 wk old breeding bulls received either no maca (control) or maca (233 mg dried hypocotyls/kg body weight/day) for 10 wk followed by 10 wk without maca (maca early) or maca only in the last 10 wk (maca late). Measurements were always made in the last 2 wk of each period. Apart from standard analyses, ejaculates were analyzed by flow cytometry. Data was evaluated by analysis of variance considering the repeated measurement structure of the data. Significant treatment by measurement period indicated direct or carry-over effects of maca. Maca supplementation had no direct effect on body weight, testes circumference, rectal temperature, mating behavior, and ejaculate volume. However, supplementing maca in the first 10 wk period increased the number of sperms in the second 10 wk period, i.e., when the animals no longer received maca. The DNA fragmentation index and the visually assessed motility of the sperms of bulls, that initially showed a borderline sperm quality, were significantly improved with early maca supplementation, while no such effect was observed in the two other groups. No effects occurred in the proportion of intact sperm plasma membranes or acrosomes or both. In conclusion, maca supplementation seems to improve sperm quantity and quality of bulls to a certain degree, while mating

  4. Ethnobiology and Ethnopharmacology of Lepidium meyenii (Maca), a Plant from the Peruvian Highlands.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2012-01-01

    Lepidium meyenii (maca) is a Peruvian plant of the Brassicaceae family cultivated for more than 2000 years, which grows exclusively in the central Andes between 4000 and 4500 m altitude. Maca is used as a food supplement and also for its medicinal properties described traditionally. Since the 90s of the XX century, an increasing interest in products from maca has been observed in many parts of the world. In the last decade, exportation of maca from Peru has increased from 1,415,000 USD in 2001 to USD 6,170,000 USD in 2010. Experimental scientific evidence showed that maca has nutritional, energizer, and fertility-enhancer properties, and it acts on sexual dysfunctions, osteoporosis, benign prostatic hyperplasia, memory and learning, and protects skin against ultraviolet radiation. Clinical trials showed efficacy of maca on sexual dysfunctions as well as increasing sperm count and motility. Maca is a plant with great potential as an adaptogen and appears to be promising as a nutraceutical in the prevention of several diseases. PMID:21977053

  5. Maca (Lepidium meyenii) for treatment of menopausal symptoms: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myeong Soo; Shin, Byung-Cheul; Yang, Eun Jin; Lim, Hyun-Ja; Ernst, Edzard

    2011-11-01

    Maca (Lepidium meyenii), an Andean plant of the brassica (mustard) family has been used for centuries in the Andes as an adaptogenic plant to manage anemia, infertility and female hormone balance. The aim of this review was to assess the evidence for and against the effectiveness of the maca plant as a treatment for menopausal symptoms. We searched 17 databases from their inception up to June 2011 and included all randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that compared any type of maca-based intervention to a placebo for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. All studies were assessed for methodological quality using the Cochrane 'risk of bias' assessment tool. Four RCTs met all inclusion criteria. These RCTs tested the effects of maca on menopausal symptoms in healthy perimenopausal, early postmenopausal, and late postmenopausal women. Using the Kupperman Menopausal Index and the Greene Climacteric Score, all RCTs demonstrated favorable effects of maca. There have been very few rigorous trials of maca for menopausal symptoms. The results of our systematic review provide limited evidence for the effectiveness of maca as a treatment for menopausal symptoms. However, the total number of trials, the total sample size, and the average methodological quality of the primary studies, were too limited to draw firm conclusions. Furthermore, the safety has not been proved yet. Therefore, the efficacy and safety should be tested in larger studies. PMID:21840656

  6. Ethnobiology and Ethnopharmacology of Lepidium meyenii (Maca), a Plant from the Peruvian Highlands

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Gustavo F.

    2012-01-01

    Lepidium meyenii (maca) is a Peruvian plant of the Brassicaceae family cultivated for more than 2000 years, which grows exclusively in the central Andes between 4000 and 4500 m altitude. Maca is used as a food supplement and also for its medicinal properties described traditionally. Since the 90s of the XX century, an increasing interest in products from maca has been observed in many parts of the world. In the last decade, exportation of maca from Peru has increased from 1,415,000 USD in 2001 to USD 6,170,000 USD in 2010. Experimental scientific evidence showed that maca has nutritional, energizer, and fertility-enhancer properties, and it acts on sexual dysfunctions, osteoporosis, benign prostatic hyperplasia, memory and learning, and protects skin against ultraviolet radiation. Clinical trials showed efficacy of maca on sexual dysfunctions as well as increasing sperm count and motility. Maca is a plant with great potential as an adaptogen and appears to be promising as a nutraceutical in the prevention of several diseases. PMID:21977053

  7. Hormone-Balancing Effect of Pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon): (I) Biochemical and Pharmacodynamic Study on Maca using Clinical Laboratory Model on Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Meissner, H. O.; Mrozikiewicz, P.; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, T.; Mscisz, A.; Kedzia, B.; Lowicka, A.; Reich-Bilinska, H.; Kapczynski, W.; Barchia, I.

    2006-01-01

    Ovariectomized rats were used in a model laboratory study to examine biochemical and pharmacodynamic effects of pre-gelatinized organic preparation of Lepidium peruvianum Chacon (Maca-GO). Biochemical and Pharmacodynamic effects of Maca-GO (250 mg Maca-GO per kg body weight (bw) administered by intubation twice daily) were assessed in a 28 day model laboratory study on ovariectomized (by laparoscopy) Wistar rats with pharmacodynamic tests performed at the conclusion of the trial followed by blood collection for morphology and biochemical tests. Toxicity of Maca-GO used in the study was determined in bioassay on mice and rats. Anti-depressive function (Porsolt’s test) and anxiolytic sedative and cognitive effects (using elevated-plus maze, locomotor activity and passive avoidance tests) were assessed against control (laparotomized female rats with intact ovaries). In addition to blood morphology, the following blood serum constituents were analyzed: Estrogen (E2), Progesterone (PGS), Cortisol (CT), Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH), Thyroid Hormones (TSH, T3, and T4), Iron (Fe) and lipid profile (Triglycerides, Total Cholesterol, LDL, HDL). Analytically-determined non-toxic status of Maca-GO was confirmed in bioassays when applied to mice and rats at levels of 0.5 and up to 15mg/kg bw which shows it safe use in humans with the LD50>15 mg/kg bw. Maca-GO showed a distinctive, (P<0.05) antidepressant-like and sedative effect in ovariectomized rats only, while there was no anxiolytic activity nor disturbance of cognitive function observed in both, test and control animals. Observed in this study balancing effect of Maca-GO on sex hormone levels show its potential as a safe preparation for use in correcting physiological symptoms characteristic in postmenopausal stage with an indication of potentially even more value for its use in pre-menopausal women. PMID:23674989

  8. Hormone-Balancing Effect of Pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon): (I) Biochemical and Pharmacodynamic Study on Maca using Clinical Laboratory Model on Ovariectomized Rats.

    PubMed

    Meissner, H O; Mrozikiewicz, P; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, T; Mscisz, A; Kedzia, B; Lowicka, A; Reich-Bilinska, H; Kapczynski, W; Barchia, I

    2006-09-01

    Ovariectomized rats were used in a model laboratory study to examine biochemical and pharmacodynamic effects of pre-gelatinized organic preparation of Lepidium peruvianum Chacon (Maca-GO). Biochemical and Pharmacodynamic effects of Maca-GO (250 mg Maca-GO per kg body weight (bw) administered by intubation twice daily) were assessed in a 28 day model laboratory study on ovariectomized (by laparoscopy) Wistar rats with pharmacodynamic tests performed at the conclusion of the trial followed by blood collection for morphology and biochemical tests. Toxicity of Maca-GO used in the study was determined in bioassay on mice and rats. Anti-depressive function (Porsolt's test) and anxiolytic sedative and cognitive effects (using elevated-plus maze, locomotor activity and passive avoidance tests) were assessed against control (laparotomized female rats with intact ovaries). In addition to blood morphology, the following blood serum constituents were analyzed: Estrogen (E2), Progesterone (PGS), Cortisol (CT), Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH), Thyroid Hormones (TSH, T3, and T4), Iron (Fe) and lipid profile (Triglycerides, Total Cholesterol, LDL, HDL). Analytically-determined non-toxic status of Maca-GO was confirmed in bioassays when applied to mice and rats at levels of 0.5 and up to 15mg/kg bw which shows it safe use in humans with the LD50>15 mg/kg bw. Maca-GO showed a distinctive, (P<0.05) antidepressant-like and sedative effect in ovariectomized rats only, while there was no anxiolytic activity nor disturbance of cognitive function observed in both, test and control animals. Observed in this study balancing effect of Maca-GO on sex hormone levels show its potential as a safe preparation for use in correcting physiological symptoms characteristic in postmenopausal stage with an indication of potentially even more value for its use in pre-menopausal women. PMID:23674989

  9. The Research on the Impact of Maca Polypeptide on Sport Fatigue.

    PubMed

    Miao, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the effect of maca polypeptide on sport fatigue, this paper selected 40 male mice, and they were randomly divided into group A, B, C and D. group A, B and C were fed food with different concentrations of maca polypeptide, and group D was control group. After two weeks of feeding, measured physiological indexes of mice, including blood glucose, urea nitrogen and creatinine. At last gived the experimental results, as well as the analysis. Experimental results show that maca polypeptide can improve the ability of anti-fatigue mice, and in a certain concentration range, the higher the concentration, the better the resistance to fatigue. PMID:26998182

  10. The Research on the Impact of Maca Polypeptide on Sport Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the effect of maca polypeptide on sport fatigue, this paper selected 40 male mice, and they were randomly divided into group A, B, C and D. group A, B and C were fed food with different concentrations of maca polypeptide, and group D was control group. After two weeks of feeding, measured physiological indexes of mice, including blood glucose, urea nitrogen and creatinine. At last gived the experimental results, as well as the analysis. Experimental results show that maca polypeptide can improve the ability of anti-fatigue mice, and in a certain concentration range, the higher the concentration, the better the resistance to fatigue. PMID:26998182

  11. Extraction, purification and antioxidant activities of the polysaccharides from maca (Lepidium meyenii).

    PubMed

    Zha, Shenghua; Zhao, Qingsheng; Chen, Jinjin; Wang, Liwei; Zhang, Guifeng; Zhang, Hong; Zhao, Bing

    2014-10-13

    Water-soluble polysaccharides were separated from maca (Lepidium meyenii) aqueous extract (MAE). The crude polysaccharides were deproteinized by Sevag method. During the preparation process of maca polysaccharides, amylase and glucoamylase effectively removed starch in maca polysaccharides. Four Lepidium meyenii polysaccharides (LMPs) were obtained by changing the concentration of ethanol in the process of polysaccharide precipitation. All of the LMPs were composed of rhamnose, arabinose, glucose and galactose. Antioxidant activity tests revealed that LMP-60 showed good capability of scavenging hydroxyl free radical and superoxide radical at 2.0mg/mL, the scavenging rate was 52.9% and 85.8%, respectively. Therefore, the results showed that maca polysaccharides had a high antioxidant activity and could be explored as the source of bioactive compounds. PMID:25037390

  12. Aqueous Extract of Black Maca (Lepidium meyenii) on Memory Impairment Induced by Ovariectomy in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rubio, Julio; Qiong, Wang; Liu, Xinmin; Jiang, Zhen; Dang, Haixia; Chen, Shi-Lin; Gonzales, Gustavo F.

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to test two different doses of aqueous extract of black maca on learning and memory in ovariectomized (OVX) mice and their relation with malonalehyde (MDA), acetylcholinesterase (Ache) and monoamine oxidase (MAO) brain levels. Female mice were divided into five groups: (i) naive (control), (ii) sham, (iii) OVX mice and OVX mice treated with (iv) 0.50 g kg−1 and (v) 2.00 g kg−1 black maca. Mice were orally treated with distilled water or black maca during 35 days starting 7 days after surgery. Memory and learning were assessed using the water Morris maze (from day 23–27) and the step-down avoidance test (days 34 and 35). At the end of each treatment, mice were sacrificed by decapitation and brains were dissected out for MDA, Ache and MAO determinations. Black maca (0.5 and 2.0 g/kg) increased step-down latency when compared to OVX control mice. Black maca decreased MDA and Ache levels in OVX mice; whereas, no differences were observed in MAO levels. Finally, black maca improved experimental memory impairment induced by ovariectomy, due in part, by its antioxidant and Ache inhibitory activities. PMID:18955369

  13. Aqueous Extract of Black Maca (Lepidium meyenii) on Memory Impairment Induced by Ovariectomy in Mice.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Julio; Qiong, Wang; Liu, Xinmin; Jiang, Zhen; Dang, Haixia; Chen, Shi-Lin; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to test two different doses of aqueous extract of black maca on learning and memory in ovariectomized (OVX) mice and their relation with malonalehyde (MDA), acetylcholinesterase (Ache) and monoamine oxidase (MAO) brain levels. Female mice were divided into five groups: (i) naive (control), (ii) sham, (iii) OVX mice and OVX mice treated with (iv) 0.50 g kg(-1) and (v) 2.00 g kg(-1) black maca. Mice were orally treated with distilled water or black maca during 35 days starting 7 days after surgery. Memory and learning were assessed using the water Morris maze (from day 23-27) and the step-down avoidance test (days 34 and 35). At the end of each treatment, mice were sacrificed by decapitation and brains were dissected out for MDA, Ache and MAO determinations. Black maca (0.5 and 2.0 g/kg) increased step-down latency when compared to OVX control mice. Black maca decreased MDA and Ache levels in OVX mice; whereas, no differences were observed in MAO levels. Finally, black maca improved experimental memory impairment induced by ovariectomy, due in part, by its antioxidant and Ache inhibitory activities. PMID:18955369

  14. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) reversed the lead acetate induced -- damage on reproductive function in male rats.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Julio; Riqueros, Marissa I; Gasco, Manuel; Yucra, Sandra; Miranda, Sara; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2006-07-01

    Rats were treated with 0, 8, 16 and 24 mg/kg of lead acetate (LA) (i.p.) for 35 days with or without Maca. Maca was co-administrated orally from day 18 to day 35. The lengths of stages of the seminiferous epithelium were assessed by transillumination. Also, sex organ weights, testicular and epididymal sperm count, sperm motility, daily sperm production, sperm transit rate and serum testosterone levels were measured. Lead acetate treatment resulted in a dose-response reduction of lengths of stages VIII and IX-XI, and serum testosterone levels. However, rats treated with 8 and 16 mg/kg but not 24 mg/kg of lead acetate showed a low number of testicular spermatids, low daily sperm production (DSP) and low epididymal sperm count. Administration of Maca to rats treated with lead acetate resulted in higher lengths of stages VIII and IX-XI with respect to lead acetate-treated rats. Moreover, treatment with Maca to lead acetate-treated rats resulted in lengths of stages VIII and IX-XI similar to the control group. Maca administration also reduced the deleterious effect on DSP caused by lead acetate treatment. Maca prevented LA-induced spermatogenic disruption in rats and it may become in a potential treatment of male infertility associated with lead exposure. PMID:16510228

  15. Dose-response effect of Red Maca (Lepidium meyenii) on benign prostatic hyperplasia induced by testosterone enanthate.

    PubMed

    Gasco, M; Villegas, L; Yucra, S; Rubio, J; Gonzales, G F

    2007-08-01

    The main goal of this study was to determine the effect of a freeze-dried aqueous extract of the red variety of Lepidium meyenii (Red Maca) on testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in adult rats of the Holtzman strain. Rats were treated with freeze-dried aqueous extract of Red Maca at doses of 0, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 g/kg body wt. A positive control group received Finasteride (0.6 mg/kg body wt.). After treatment, the animals were sacrificed, and the ventral prostate was extracted, and weighed. HPLC was used to determine the presence of glucosinolates in Red Maca. The prostate weight diminished in a dose-dependent fashion in rats treated with Red Maca. The effect of Red Maca was better than that observed with Finasteride. Finasteride, but not Red Maca, reduced seminal vesicles weight. Analysis of the HPLC indicated the presence of benzyl glucosinolate (Glucotropaeolin) with a content of 0.639%. Serum testosterone levels were not affected by Red Maca. Moreover, serum testosterone levels were not related to prostate or seminal vesicles weight in rats treated with vehicle and Red Maca. In conclusion, Red Maca administered orally in rats seems to exert an inhibitory effect at a level post DHT conversion, on the BPH-induced experimentally, although a direct measure of reductase action would still be required. PMID:17289361

  16. Genome of Plant Maca (Lepidium meyenii) Illuminates Genomic Basis for High-Altitude Adaptation in the Central Andes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Tian, Yang; Yan, Liang; Zhang, Guanghui; Wang, Xiao; Zeng, Yan; Zhang, Jiajin; Ma, Xiao; Tan, Yuntao; Long, Ni; Wang, Yangzi; Ma, Yujin; He, Yuqi; Xue, Yu; Hao, Shumei; Yang, Shengchao; Wang, Wen; Zhang, Liangsheng; Dong, Yang; Chen, Wei; Sheng, Jun

    2016-07-01

    Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp, 2n = 8x = 64), belonging to the Brassicaceae family, is an economic plant cultivated in the central Andes sierra in Peru (4000-4500 m). Considering that the rapid uplift of the central Andes occurred 5-10 million years ago (Ma), an evolutionary question arises regarding how plants such as maca acquire high-altitude adaptation within a short geological period. Here, we report the high-quality genome assembly of maca, in which two closely spaced maca-specific whole-genome duplications (WGDs; ∼6.7 Ma) were identified. Comparative genomic analysis between maca and closely related Brassicaceae species revealed expansions of maca genes and gene families involved in abiotic stress response, hormone signaling pathway, and secondary metabolite biosynthesis via WGDs. The retention and subsequent functional divergence of many duplicated genes may account for the morphological and physiological changes (i.e., small leaf shape and self-fertility) in maca in a high-altitude environment. In addition, some duplicated maca genes were identified with functions in morphological adaptation (i.e., LEAF CURLING RESPONSIVENESS) and abiotic stress response (i.e., GLYCINE-RICH RNA-BINDING PROTEINS and DNA-DAMAGE-REPAIR/TOLERATION 2) under positive selection. Collectively, the maca genome provides useful information to understand the important roles of WGDs in the high-altitude adaptation of plants in the Andes. PMID:27174404

  17. The influence of maca (Lepidium meyenii) on antioxidant status, lipid and glucose metabolism in rat.

    PubMed

    Vecera, Rostislav; Orolin, Jan; Skottová, Nina; Kazdová, Ludmila; Oliyarnik, Olena; Ulrichová, Jitka; Simánek, Vilím

    2007-06-01

    This work focused on the effect of Maca on lipid, anti-oxidative, and glucose parameters in hereditary hypertriglyceridemic (HHTg) rat. Maca (1%) was administred to rats as a part of a high-sucrose diet (HSD) for 2 weeks. Rosiglitazone (0.02%) was used as a positive control. Maca significantly decreased the levels of VLDL (very low density lipoproteins), LDL (low density lipoproteins), and total cholesterol, and also the level of TAG (triacylglycerols) in the plasma, VLDL, and liver. Maca, as well as rosiglitazone, significantly improved glucose tolerance, as the decrease of AUC (area under the curve) of glucose showed, and lowered levels of glucose in blood. The activity of SOD (superoxide dismutase) in the liver, the GPX (glutathione peroxidase) in the blood, and the level of GSH (glutathione) in liver increased in all cases significantly. Results demonstrate that maca seems to be promising for a positive influence on chronic human diseases (characterized by atherogenous lipoprotein profile, aggravated antioxidative status, and impaired glucose tolerance), and their prevention. PMID:17333395

  18. Identification of maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) and its adulterants by a DNA-barcoding approach based on the ITS sequence.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin-Jin; Zhao, Qing-Sheng; Liu, Yi-Lan; Zha, Sheng-Hua; Zhao, Bing

    2015-09-01

    Maca (Lepidium meyenii) is an herbaceous plant that grows in high plateaus and has been used as both food and folk medicine for centuries because of its benefits to human health. In the present study, ITS (internal transcribed spacer) sequences of forty-three maca samples, collected from different regions or vendors, were amplified and analyzed. The ITS sequences of nineteen potential adulterants of maca were also collected and analyzed. The results indicated that the ITS sequence of maca was consistent in all samples and unique when compared with its adulterants. Therefore, this DNA-barcoding approach based on the ITS sequence can be used for the molecular identification of maca and its adulterants. PMID:26412424

  19. Effect of chronic treatment with three varieties of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on reproductive parameters and DNA quantification in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Gasco, M; Aguilar, J; Gonzales, G F

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the chronic effect of different varieties of Lepidium meyenii (Red Maca, Yellow Maca and Black Maca). Male rats were treated by gavage with aqueous extract of each variety of maca equivalent to 1 g hypocotyl kg(-1) body weight (BW) for 84 days. At the end of the treatment, daily sperm production (DSP), epididymal sperm count (ESC) and sperm count in vas deferens (SCVD) were assessed. In addition, testis DNA quantification was also determined. Any toxic effect was assessed in liver and spleen by histological studies. The results indicate that Yellow Maca and Black Maca improved ESC and that three varieties of maca increased the SCVD without affecting DSP. Moreover, testis DNA levels were not affected by treatment with any of the three varieties of maca. Histological picture of the liver in animals treated with the three varieties of maca was similar to that observed in controls. In conclusion, Yellow and Black Maca increased epididymal sperm count after 84 days of treatment without affecting DSP. Maca seems to act as a modulator of sperm count at the reproductive tract level. PMID:17683465

  20. Effect of short-term and long-term treatments with three ecotypes of Lepidium meyenii (MACA) on spermatogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Carla; Rubio, Julio; Gasco, Manuel; Nieto, Jessica; Yucra, Sandra; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2006-02-20

    Lepidium meyenii (Brassicaceae), known as Maca, is a Peruvian hypocotyl that grows exclusively between 4000 and 4500 m above sea level in the central Andes. Maca is traditionally employed in the Andean region for its supposed fertility-enhancing properties. The study aimed to test the hypothesis that different ecotypes of Maca (Red, Yellow and Black) after short-term (7 days) and long-term (42 days) treatment affects differentially spermatogenesis adult rats. After 7 days of treatment with Yellow and Red Maca, the length of stage VIII was increased (P<0.05), whereas with Black Maca stages II-VI and VIII were increased (P<0.05). Daily sperm production (DSP) was increased in the group treated with Black Maca compared with control values (P<0.05). Red or Yellow Maca did not alter DSP and epididymal sperm motility was not affected by treatment with any ecotype of Maca. After 42 days of treatment, Black Maca was the only ecotype that enhanced DSP (P<0.05). Moreover, Black Maca was the only that increased epididymal sperm motility (P<0.05). In relation to the control group, Red Maca did not affect testicular and epididymal weight nor epididymal sperm motility and sperm count; however, prostate weight was reduced (P<0.05). Black or Yellow Maca did not affect prostate weight. In conclusion, there were differences in the biological response of the three ecotypes of Maca (Yellow, Red and Black). Black Maca appeared to have more beneficial effect on sperm counts and epididymal sperm motility. PMID:16174556

  1. Aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of Black Maca (Lepidium meyenii) improve scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Julio; Dang, Haixia; Gong, Mengjuan; Liu, Xinmin; Chen, Shi-Lin; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2007-10-01

    Lepidium meyenii Walp. (Brassicaceae), known as Maca, is a Peruvian hypocotyl growing exclusively between 4,000 and 4,500 m altitude in the central Peruvian Andes, particularly in Junin plateau. Previously, Black variety of Maca showed to be more beneficial than other varieties of Maca on learning and memory in ovariectomized mice on the water finding test. The present study aimed to test two different doses of aqueous (0.50 and 2.00 g/kg) and hydroalcoholic (0.25 and 1.00 g/kg) extracts of Black Maca administered for 35 days on memory impairment induced by scopolamine (1mg/kg body weight i.p.) in male mice. Memory and learning were evaluated using the water Morris maze and the step-down avoidance test. Brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and monoamine oxidase (MAO) activities in brain were also determined. Both extracts of Black Maca significantly ameliorated the scopolamine-induced memory impairment as measured in both the water Morris maze and the step-down avoidance tests. Black Maca extracts inhibited AChE activity, whereas MAO activity was not affected. These results indicate that Black Maca improves scopolamine-induced memory deficits. PMID:17543435

  2. Effect of Lepidium meyenii (MACA) on sexual desire and its absent relationship with serum testosterone levels in adult healthy men.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, G F; Córdova, A; Vega, K; Chung, A; Villena, A; Góñez, C; Castillo, S

    2002-12-01

    This study was a 12-week double blind placebo-controlled, randomized, parallel trial in which active treatment with different doses of Maca Gelatinizada was compared with placebo. The study aimed to demonstrate if effect of Maca on subjective report of sexual desire was because of effect on mood or serum testosterone levels. Men aged 21-56 years received Maca in one of two doses: 1,500 mg or 3,000 mg or placebo. Self-perception on sexual desire, score for Hamilton test for depression, and Hamilton test for anxiety were measured at 4, 8 and 12 weeks of treatment. An improvement in sexual desire was observed with Maca since 8 weeks of treatment. Serum testosterone and oestradiol levels were not different in men treated with Maca and in those treated with placebo (P:NS). Logistic regression analysis showed that Maca has an independent effect on sexual desire at 8 and 12 weeks of treatment, and this effect is not because of changes in either Hamilton scores for depression or anxiety or serum testosterone and oestradiol levels. In conclusion, treatment with Maca improved sexual desire. PMID:12472620

  3. Effect of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on spermatogenesis in male rats acutely exposed to high altitude (4340 m).

    PubMed

    Gonzales, G F; Gasco, M; Córdova, A; Chung, A; Rubio, J; Villegas, L

    2004-01-01

    Lepidium meyenii (Maca) is a Peruvian hypocotyl that grows exclusively between 4000 and 4500 m in the central Andes. Maca is traditionally employed in the Andean region for its supposed fertility-enhancing properties. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that Maca can prevent high altitude-induced testicular disturbances. Adult male rats were exposed for 21 days to an altitude of 4340 m and treated with vehicle or aqueous extract of Maca (666.6 mg/day). The lengths of the stages of the seminiferous epithelium and epididymal sperm counts were obtained at 0, 7, 14 and 21 days of exposure. The stages of the seminiferous tubules were assessed by transillumination. A dose-response study was also performed at sea level to determine the effect of Maca given to male rats at doses of 0, 6.6, 66.6 and 666.6 mg/day for 7 days on body weight, seminiferous tubule stages and epididymal sperm count. The length of stage VIII and the epididymal sperm count were increased in a dose-dependent manner in Maca-treated rats but treatment reduced the length of stage I. At the highest dose, sperm count increased 1.58 times, the length of stage VIII increased 2.4 times and the length of stage I was reduced 0.48 times compared with the value at dose 0. Exposure to high altitude resulted in a reduction in epididymal sperm count after 7 days and lower values were maintained up to 21 days. Altitude reduced spermiation (stage VIII) to half and the onset of spermatogenesis (stages IX-XI) to a quarter on days 7 and 14 but treatment with Maca (666.6 mg/day) prevented these changes. Data on transillumination and epididymal sperm count in the Maca-treated group exposed to high altitude were similar to those obtained at sea level. Maca increased the sperm count on day 21 of exposure to high altitude to values similar (1095.25 +/- 20.41x10(6) sperm, means +/- S.E.M.) to those obtained in the Maca-treated group at sea level (1132.30 +/- 172.95x10(6) sperm). Furthermore, in the Maca

  4. Comparison of PSF maxima and minima of multiple annuli coded aperture (MACA) and complementary multiple annuli coded aperture (CMACA) systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnam, Challa; Lakshmana Rao, Vadlamudi; Lachaa Goud, Sivagouni

    2006-10-01

    In the present paper, and a series of papers to follow, the Fourier analytical properties of multiple annuli coded aperture (MACA) and complementary multiple annuli coded aperture (CMACA) systems are investigated. First, the transmission function for MACA and CMACA is derived using Fourier methods and, based on the Fresnel-Kirchoff diffraction theory, the formulae for the point spread function are formulated. The PSF maxima and minima are calculated for both the MACA and CMACA systems. The dependence of these properties on the number of zones is studied and reported in this paper.

  5. First case report of testosterone assay-interference in a female taking maca (Lepidium meyenii)

    PubMed Central

    Srikugan, L; Sankaralingam, A; McGowan, B

    2011-01-01

    A young female with prolonged intermenstrual bleeding was found to have raised total plasma testosterone of 25.8 nmol/l (NR<2.9 nmol/l) using the Roche Elecsys Testosterone I immunoassay without clinical features of virulisation. Few months ago investigations for lethargy and low libido had shown normal total testosterone of 0.8 nmol/l. Further history revealed that she was using maca extract to improve her lethargy and low libido. Maca is traditionally used for its aphrodisiac and fertility-enhancing properties. Maca use has not been shown to affect serum testosterone in mice and human studies. Immunoassay interference with maca was suspected. Testosterone immunoassays use monoclonal antibodies specifically directed against testosterone. They are prone to interference from androgenic compounds. Reanalysis of the original serum sample using Elecsys Testosterone II assay, a higher affinity assay, revealed a total testosterone level of 2.9 nmol/l. It is important to exclude assay interference when testosterone level is greater than 5 nmol/l without supportive clinical signs. PMID:22700073

  6. First case report of testosterone assay-interference in a female taking maca (Lepidium meyenii).

    PubMed

    Srikugan, L; Sankaralingam, A; McGowan, B

    2011-01-01

    A young female with prolonged intermenstrual bleeding was found to have raised total plasma testosterone of 25.8 nmol/l (NR<2.9 nmol/l) using the Roche Elecsys Testosterone I immunoassay without clinical features of virulisation. Few months ago investigations for lethargy and low libido had shown normal total testosterone of 0.8 nmol/l. Further history revealed that she was using maca extract to improve her lethargy and low libido. Maca is traditionally used for its aphrodisiac and fertility-enhancing properties. Maca use has not been shown to affect serum testosterone in mice and human studies. Immunoassay interference with maca was suspected. Testosterone immunoassays use monoclonal antibodies specifically directed against testosterone. They are prone to interference from androgenic compounds. Reanalysis of the original serum sample using Elecsys Testosterone II assay, a higher affinity assay, revealed a total testosterone level of 2.9 nmol/l. It is important to exclude assay interference when testosterone level is greater than 5 nmol/l without supportive clinical signs. PMID:22700073

  7. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of MacA from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans

    SciTech Connect

    Piao, Shunfu; Xu, Yongbin; Ha, Nam-Chul

    2008-05-01

    A periplasmic membrane-fusion protein MacA from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, an essential component of the multidrug efflux pump in Gram-negative bacteria, was crystallized. Periplasmic membrane-fusion proteins (MFPs) are an essential component of the multidrug efflux pump in Gram-negative bacteria. They play a crucial role in bridging the outer membrane porin TolC and two distinct types of inner membrane transporters. The MFP MacA bridges the inner membrane ABC-type multidrug transporter MacB and the outer membrane porin TolC. MacA from the pathogenic bacterium Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was expressed in Escherichia coli B834 (DE3) and the recombinant protein was purified using Ni–NTA affinity, Q anion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. The purified MacA protein was crystallized using the vapour-diffusion method. A MAD diffraction data set was collected to a resolution of 3.0 Å at 100 K. The crystal belongs to space group P622, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 109.2, c = 255.4 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°, and contains one molecule in the asymmetric unit.

  8. MacA is a Second Cytochrome c Peroxidase of Geobacter sulfurreducens

    PubMed Central

    Seidel, Julian; Hoffmann, Maren; Ellis, Katie E.; Seidel, Antonia; Spatzal, Thomas; Gerhardt, Stefan; Elliott, Sean J.

    2012-01-01

    The metal-reducing δ-proteobacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens produces a large number of c-type cytochromes, many of which have been implicated in the transfer of electrons to insoluble metal oxides. Among these, the dihemic MacA was assigned a central role. Here we have produced G. sulfurreducens MacA by recombinant expression in Escherichia coli and have solved its three-dimensional structure in three different oxidation states. Sequence comparisons group MacA into the family of diheme cytochrome c peroxidases, and the protein indeed showed hydrogen peroxide reductase activity with ABTS2– as an electron donor. The observed KM was 38.5 ± 3.7 μM H2O2 and vmax was 0.78 ± 0.03 μmol H2O2·min–1·mg–1, resulting in a turnover number kcat = 0.46 · s–1. In contrast, no Fe(III) reductase activity was observed. MacA was found to display similar electrochemical properties to other bacterial diheme peroxidases, in additional to the ability to electrochemically mediate electron transfer to the soluble cytochrome PpcA. Differences in activity between CcpA and MacA can be rationalized with structural variations in one of the three loop regions, loop 2, that undergo conformational changes during reductive activation of the enzyme. This loop is adjacent to the active site heme and forms an open loop structure rather than a more rigid helix as in CcpA. For the activation of the protein the loop has to displace the distal ligand to the active site heme, H93, in loop 1. A H93G variant showed an unexpected formation of a helix in loop 2 and disorder in loop 1, while a M297H variant that altered the properties of the electron transfer heme abolished reductive activation. PMID:22417533

  9. Maca (Lepidium meyenii) and yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) in combination with silymarin as food supplements: in vivo safety assessment.

    PubMed

    Valentová, Katerina; Stejskal, David; Bartek, Josef; Dvorácková, Svatava; Kren, Vladimír; Ulrichová, Jitka; Simánek, Vilím

    2008-03-01

    Yacon and maca are native Andean crops with growing popularity as food supplements often in combination with other components, e.g. silymarin. There are however no published data on their toxicity and safety in humans. The aim of our randomized placebo-controlled 90-day study was to evaluate the effects of yacon and maca in combination with silymarin on plasma and lipoprotein lipids, serum glucose and safety parameters in patients suffering from the metabolic syndrome. No adverse effects were found in volunteers using silymarin (0.8 g/day), silymarin+yacon (0.8+2.4 g/day) and silymarin+maca (0.6+0.2 g/day). A moderate AST level and diastolic blood pressure increase was found in volunteers using maca (0.6 g/day). In conclusion, the combination silymarin+yacon appears to be promising as a nutraceutical in the prevention of diseases with a proatherogenic lipoprotein profile and liver steatosis. The effect of maca on AST level and blood pressure must be considered when using high doses of maca powder. This effect could be reversed by supplementation with silymarin. PMID:18054420

  10. Effect of Lepidium meyenii (Maca), a root with aphrodisiac and fertility-enhancing properties, on serum reproductive hormone levels in adult healthy men.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, G F; Córdova, A; Vega, K; Chung, A; Villena, A; Góñez, C

    2003-01-01

    Lepidium meyenii (Maca) is a Peruvian hypocotyl that grows exclusively between 4000 and 4500 m in the central Andes. Maca is traditionally employed in the Andean region for its supposed aphrodisiac and/or fertility-enhancing properties. This study was a 12-week double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, parallel trial in which active treatment with different doses of Maca Gelatinizada was compared with a placebo. The study aimed to test the hypothesis that Maca has no effect on serum reproductive hormone levels in apparently healthy men when administered in doses used for aphrodisiac and/or fertility-enhancing properties. Men aged between 21 and 56 Years received 1500 mg or 3000 mg Maca. Serum levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, prolactin, 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone, testosterone and 17-beta estradiol were measured before and at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks of treatment with placebo or Maca (1.5 g or 3.0 g per day). Data showed that compared with placebo Maca had no effect on any of the hormones studied nor did the hormones show any changes over time. Multiple regression analysis showed that serum testosterone levels were not affected by treatment with Maca at any of the times studied (P, not significant). In conclusion, treatment with Maca does not affect serum reproductive hormone levels. PMID:12525260

  11. A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial of Maca Root as Treatment for Antidepressant-Induced Sexual Dysfunction in Women

    PubMed Central

    Dording, Christina M.; Schettler, Pamela J.; Dalton, Elizabeth D.; Parkin, Susannah R.; Walker, Rosemary S. W.; Fehling, Kara B.; Fava, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Objective. We sought to demonstrate that maca root may be an effective treatment for antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction (AISD) in women. Method. We conducted a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of maca root (3.0 g/day) in 45 female outpatients (mean age of 41.5 ± 12.5 years) with SSRI/SNRI-induced sexual dysfunction whose depression remitted. Endpoints were improvement in sexual functioning as per the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX) and the Massachusetts General Hospital Sexual Function Questionnaire (MGH-SFQ). Results. 45 of 57 consented females were randomized, and 42 (30 premenopausal and 12 postmenopausal women) were eligible for a modified intent-to-treat analysis based on having had at least one postmedication visit. Remission rates by the end of treatment were higher for the maca than the placebo group, based on attainment of an ASEX total score ≤ 10 (9.5% for maca versus 4.8% for placebo), attaining an MGH-SFQ score ≤ 12 (30.0% for maca versus 20.0% for placebo) and reaching an MGH-SFQ score ≤ 8 (9.5% for maca versus 5.0% for placebo). Higher remission rates for the maca versus placebo group were associated with postmenopausal status. Maca was well tolerated. Conclusion. Maca root may alleviate SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women. This trial is registered with NCT00568126. PMID:25954318

  12. A double-blind placebo-controlled trial of maca root as treatment for antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction in women.

    PubMed

    Dording, Christina M; Schettler, Pamela J; Dalton, Elizabeth D; Parkin, Susannah R; Walker, Rosemary S W; Fehling, Kara B; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David

    2015-01-01

    Objective. We sought to demonstrate that maca root may be an effective treatment for antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction (AISD) in women. Method. We conducted a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of maca root (3.0 g/day) in 45 female outpatients (mean age of 41.5 ± 12.5 years) with SSRI/SNRI-induced sexual dysfunction whose depression remitted. Endpoints were improvement in sexual functioning as per the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX) and the Massachusetts General Hospital Sexual Function Questionnaire (MGH-SFQ). Results. 45 of 57 consented females were randomized, and 42 (30 premenopausal and 12 postmenopausal women) were eligible for a modified intent-to-treat analysis based on having had at least one postmedication visit. Remission rates by the end of treatment were higher for the maca than the placebo group, based on attainment of an ASEX total score ≤ 10 (9.5% for maca versus 4.8% for placebo), attaining an MGH-SFQ score ≤ 12 (30.0% for maca versus 20.0% for placebo) and reaching an MGH-SFQ score ≤ 8 (9.5% for maca versus 5.0% for placebo). Higher remission rates for the maca versus placebo group were associated with postmenopausal status. Maca was well tolerated. Conclusion. Maca root may alleviate SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women. This trial is registered with NCT00568126. PMID:25954318

  13. Hormone-Balancing Effect of Pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon): (III) Clinical responses of early-postmenopausal women to Maca in double blind, randomized, Placebo-controlled, crossover configuration, outpatient study

    PubMed Central

    Meissner, H. O.; Mscisz, A.; Reich-Bilinska, H.; Mrozikiewicz, P.; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, T.; Kedzia, B.; Lowicka, A.; Barchia, I.

    2006-01-01

    This is the second, conclusive part of the clinical study on clinical responses of early-postmenopausal women to standardized doses of pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Maca-GO). Total of 34 Caucasian women volunteers participated in a double-blind, randomized, four months outpatient crossover configuration Trial. After fulfilling the criteria of being early-postmenopausal: blood Estrogen (E2<40 pg/ml) and Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH>30 IU/ml) at admission, they were randomly allocated to Placebo (P) and Maca-GO (M) treatments (2 groups of 11 participants each). Two 500 mg vegetable hard gel capsules with Maca-GO or Placebo powder were self-administered twice daily with meals (total 2 g/day). At admission and follow-up monthly intervals, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, levels of gonadal, pituitary, thyroid and adrenal hormones, lipids and key minerals were measured. Bone markers were determined after four months M and P use in 12 participants. Menopausal symptoms were assessed according to Greene’s Score (GMS) and Kupperman’s Index (KMI). Data were analyzed using multivariate technique on blocs of monthly. Results and canonical variate technique was applied to GMS and KMI matrices. Two months application of Maca-GO stimulated (P<0.05) production of E2, suppressed (P<0.05) blood FSH, Thyroid (T3) and Adrenocorticotropic hormones, Cortisol, and BMI, increased (P<0.05) low density lipoproteins, blood Iron and alleviated (P<0.001) menopausal symptoms. Maca-GO noticeably increased bone density markers. In conclusion, Maca-GO applied to early-postmenopausal women (i) acted as a toner of hormonal processes along the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Ovarian axis, (ii) balanced hormone levels and (iii) relieved symptoms of menopausal discomfort, (hot flushes and night sweating in particular), thus, (iv) exhibited a distinctive function peculiar to adaptogens, providing an alternative non-hormonal plant option to reduce dependence on hormone therapy programs (HRT). PMID

  14. Physicochemical and functional properties of dietary fiber from maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) liquor residue.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinjin; Zhao, Qingsheng; Wang, Liwei; Zha, Shenghua; Zhang, Lijun; Zhao, Bing

    2015-11-01

    Using maca (Lepidium meyenii) liquor residue as the raw material, dietary fiber (DF) was prepared by chemical (MCDF) and enzymatic (MEDF) methods, respectively, of which the physicochemical and functional properties were comparatively studied. High contents of DF were found in MCDF (55.63%) and MEDF (81.10%). Both fibers showed good functional properties, including swelling capacity, water holding capacity, oil holding capacity, glucose adsorption capacity and glucose retardation index. MEDF showed better functional properties, which could be attributed to its higher content of DF, more irregular surface and more abundant monosaccharide composition. The results herein suggest that maca DF prepared by enzymatic method from liquor residue is a good functional ingredient in food products. PMID:26256376

  15. [Determination of 27 elements in Maca nationality's medicine by microwave digestion ICP-MS].

    PubMed

    Yu, Gui-fang; Zhong, Hai-jie; Hu, Jun-hua; Wang, Jing; Huang, Wen-zhe; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Xiao, Wei

    2015-12-01

    An analysis method has been established to test 27 elements (Li, Be, B, Mg, Al, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba, La, Hg, Pb, Bi) in Maca nationality's medicine with microwave digestion-ICP-MS. Sample solutions were analyzed by ICP-MS after microwave digestion, and the contents of elements were calculated according to their calibration curves, and internal standard method was adopted to reduce matrix effect and other interference effects. The experimental results showed that the linear relations of all the elements were very good; the correlation coefficient (r) was 0.9994-1.0000 (Hg was 0.9982) ; the limits of detection were 0.003-2.662 microg x L(-1); the relative standard deviations for all elements of reproducibility were lower than 5% (except the individual elements); the recovery rate were 78.5%-123.7% with RSD lower than 5% ( except the individual elements). The analytical results of standard material showed acceptable agreement with the certified values. This method was applicable to determinate the contents of multi-elements in Maca which had a high sensitivity, good specificity and good repeatability, and provide basis for the quality control of Maca. PMID:27141662

  16. Subjective effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) extract on well-being and sexual performances in patients with mild erectile dysfunction: a randomised, double-blind clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Zenico, T; Cicero, A F G; Valmorri, L; Mercuriali, M; Bercovich, E

    2009-04-01

    Lepidium meyenii (Maca) is a cultivated root belonging to the brassica family used in the Andean region for its supposed aphrodisiac properties. We carried out a double-blind clinical trial on 50 Caucasian men affected by mild erectile dysfunction (ED), randomised to treatment with Maca dry extract, 2400 mg, or placebo. The treatment effect on ED and subjective well-being was tested administrating before and after 12 weeks the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) and the Satisfaction Profile (SAT-P). After 12 weeks of treatment, both Maca- and placebo-treated patients experienced a significant increase in IIEF-5 score (P < 0.05 for both). However, patients taking Maca experienced a more significant increase than those taking placebo (1.6 +/- 1.1 versus 0.5 +/- 0.6, P < 0.001). Both Maca- and placebo-treated subjects experienced a significant improvement in psychological performance-related SAT-P score, but the Maca group higher than that of placebo group (+9 +/- 6 versus +6 +/- 5, P < 0.05). However, only Maca-treated patients experienced a significant improvement in physical and social performance-related SAT-P score compared with the baseline (+7 +/- 6 and +7 +/- 6, both P < 0.05). In conclusion, our data support a small but significant effect of Maca supplementation on subjective perception of general and sexual well-being in adult patients with mild ED. PMID:19260845

  17. Antidepressant-like behavioral, anatomical, and biochemical effects of petroleum ether extract from maca (Lepidium meyenii) in mice exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress.

    PubMed

    Ai, Zhong; Cheng, Ai-Fang; Yu, Yuan-Tao; Yu, Long-Jiang; Jin, Wenwen

    2014-05-01

    Maca has been consumed as a medical food in Peru for thousands of years, and exerts anxiolytic and antidepressant effects. Our present study aimed to evaluate the behavior and anatomical and biochemical effects of petroleum ether extract from maca (ME) in the chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model of depression in mice. Three different doses of maca extract (125, 250, and 500 mg/kg) were orally administrated in the six-week CUMS procedure. Fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) was used as a positive control drug. Maca extract (250 and 500 mg/kg) significantly decreased the duration of immobility time in the tail suspension test. After treatment with maca extract (250 and 500 mg/kg), the granule cell layer in the dentate gyrus appeared thicker. Maca extract (250 and 500 mg/kg) also induced a significant reduction in corticosterone levels in mouse serum. In mouse brain tissue, after six weeks of treatment, noradrenaline and dopamine levels were increased by maca extract, and the activity of reactive oxygen species was significantly inhibited. Serotonin levels were not significantly altered. These results demonstrated that maca extract (250 and 500 mg/kg) showed antidepressant-like effects and was related to the activation of both noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems, as well as attenuation of oxidative stress in mouse brain. PMID:24730393

  18. Antidepressant-Like Behavioral, Anatomical, and Biochemical Effects of Petroleum Ether Extract from Maca (Lepidium meyenii) in Mice Exposed to Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Zhong; Cheng, Ai-Fang; Yu, Yuan-Tao; Yu, Long-Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Maca has been consumed as a medical food in Peru for thousands of years, and exerts anxiolytic and antidepressant effects. Our present study aimed to evaluate the behavior and anatomical and biochemical effects of petroleum ether extract from maca (ME) in the chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model of depression in mice. Three different doses of maca extract (125, 250, and 500 mg/kg) were orally administrated in the six-week CUMS procedure. Fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) was used as a positive control drug. Maca extract (250 and 500 mg/kg) significantly decreased the duration of immobility time in the tail suspension test. After treatment with maca extract (250 and 500 mg/kg), the granule cell layer in the dentate gyrus appeared thicker. Maca extract (250 and 500 mg/kg) also induced a significant reduction in corticosterone levels in mouse serum. In mouse brain tissue, after six weeks of treatment, noradrenaline and dopamine levels were increased by maca extract, and the activity of reactive oxygen species was significantly inhibited. Serotonin levels were not significantly altered. These results demonstrated that maca extract (250 and 500 mg/kg) showed antidepressant-like effects and was related to the activation of both noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems, as well as attenuation of oxidative stress in mouse brain. PMID:24730393

  19. Peruvian Maca: Two Scientific Names Lepidium Meyenii Walpers and Lepidium Peruvianum Chacon – Are They Phytochemically-Synonymous?

    PubMed Central

    Meissner, Henry O.; Mscisz, Alina; Kedzia, Bogdan; Pisulewski, Pawel; Piatkowska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LCMS) , profiles of the two isotypes labelled under the same common name Maca deposited in the Medicinal Plant Herbarium, in Australia and Poland, but identified under two different scientific names Lepidium meyenii Walpers (L. meyenii) and Lepidium peruvianum Chacon (L. peruvianum) are presented. The two isotypes correspond to two holotypes of Peruvian medicinal herb known under the same common name “Maca”, as originally deposited in the Herbarium of San Marcos University in Lima, Peru dated back to 1843 and 1990 respectively. The results demonstrate distinct differences in taxonomy, visual appearance, phytochemical profiles and DNA sequences of the two researched Maca isotypes, suggesting that the two Maca specimens are dissimilar and formal use of the term “synonymous” to L. meyenii and L. peruvianum may be misleading. On the basis of presented results the scientific name L. meyenii, used since 1843 up-today for cultivated Peruvian Maca by numerous reference sources worldwide, including Regulatory Bodies in the USA, EU, Australia and most lately in China, appears to be used in error and should be formally revised. It is concluded, that the isotype of cultivated Peruvian Maca labelled under its scientific name Lepidium peruvianum Chacon, provides all the characteristics peculiar to this historically-documented herb grown in Andean highlands, which may be linked to its traditional use and accepted functionality, confirmed in recent clinical study to be relevant to its present day use for expected dietary, therapeutic and health benefits.

  20. Hormone-Balancing Effect of Pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon): (II) Physiological and Symptomatic Responses of Early-Postmenopausal Women to Standardized doses of Maca in Double Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Multi-Centre Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Meissner, H. O.; Mscisz, A.; Reich-Bilinska, H.; Kapczynski, W.; Mrozikiewicz, P.; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, T.; Kedzia, B.; Lowicka, A.; Barchia, I.

    2006-01-01

    This was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-corrected, outpatient, multi-centre (five sites) clinical study, in which a total of 168 Caucasian early-postmenopausal women volunteers (age>49 years) participated after fulfilling the criteria: follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) >30 IU/ml and estrogen (E2) <40 pg/ml levels at admission. They were randomly allocated to Placebo and Pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Maca-GO) treatment, according to different monthly treatment sequences scheduled for each site. Two 500 mg vegetable hard gel capsules with Maca-GO or Placebo powder were self-administered twice daily with meals (total 2 g/day) during three (Trial I; n=102) or four (Trial II; n=66) months study periods. At the baseline and follow- up monthly intervals, blood levels of FSH, E2, progesterone (PRG) and lutinizing hormone (LH), as well as serum cholesterol (CHOL), triglycerides (TRG), high- and low density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL) were measured. Menopausal symptoms were assessed according to Greene’s Score (GMS) and Kupperman’s Index (KMI). Data were analyzed using multivariate technique on blocs of monthly results in one model and Maca versus Placebo contrast in another model. A total of 124 women concluded the study. Maca-GO significantly stimulated production of E2 (P<0.001) with a simultaneous suppression (P<0.05) of blood FSH, increase (P<0.05) in HDL. Maca-GO significantly reduced both frequency and severity of individual menopausal symptoms (hot flushes and night sweating in particular) resulting in significant (P<0.001) alleviation of KMI (from 22 to 10), thus, offering an attractive non-hormonal addition to the choices available to early-postmenopausal women in the form of a natural plant alternative to Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) – hence, reducing dependence on hormone therapy programs. PMID:23675005

  1. Acceptability, Safety, and Efficacy of Oral Administration of Extracts of Black or Red Maca (Lepidium meyenii) in Adult Human Subjects: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Gonzales-Arimborgo, Carla; Yupanqui, Irma; Montero, Elsa; Alarcón-Yaquetto, Dulce E; Zevallos-Concha, Alisson; Caballero, Lidia; Gasco, Manuel; Zhao, Jianping; Khan, Ikhlas A; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2016-01-01

    The plant maca, grown at 4000 m altitude in the Peruvian Central Andes, contains hypocotyls that have been used as food and in traditional medicine for centuries. The aim of this research was to provide results on some health effects of oral administration of spray-dried extracts of black or red maca (Lepidium meyenii) in adult human subjects living at low (LA) and high altitude (HA). A total of 175 participants were given 3 g of either placebo, black, or red maca extract daily for 12 weeks. Primary outcomes were changes in sexual desire, mood, energy, health-related quality of life score (HRQL), and chronic mountain sickness (CMS) score, or in glycaemia, blood pressure, and hemoglobin levels. Secondary outcomes were acceptability and safety, assessed using the Likert test and side effect self-recording, respectively, and the effect of altitude. At low altitude, 32, 30, and 32 participants started the study receiving placebo, red maca, or black maca, respectively. At high altitudes, 33, 35, and 31 participants started the study receiving placebo, red maca, and black maca, respectively. Consumption of spray-dried extracts of red and black maca resulted in improvement in mood, energy, and health status, and reduced CMS score. Fatty acids and macamides were higher in spray-dried extracts of black maca than in red maca. GABA predominated in spray-dried extracts of red maca. Effects on mood, energy, and CMS score were better with red maca. Black maca and, in smaller proportions, red maca reduced hemoglobin levels only in highlanders with abnormally high hemoglobin levels; neither variety of maca reduced hemoglobin levels in lowlanders. Black maca reduced blood glucose levels. Both varieties produced similar responses in mood, and HRQL score. Maca extracts consumed at LA or HA had good acceptability and did not show serious adverse effects. In conclusion, maca extract consumption relative to the placebo improved quality of life parameters. Differences in the level of

  2. Effect of red maca (Lepidium meyenii) on prostate zinc levels in rats with testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, C; Leiva-Revilla, J; Rubio, J; Gasco, M; Gonzales, G F

    2012-05-01

    Lepidium meyenii (maca) is a plant that grows exclusively above 4000 m in the Peruvian central Andes. Red maca (RM) extract significantly reduced prostate size in rats with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) induced by testosterone enanthate (TE). Zinc is an important regulator of prostate function. This study aimed to determine the effect of RM on prostate zinc levels in rats with BPH induced by TE. Also, the study attempted to determine the best marker for the effect of RM on sex accessory glands. Rats treated with RM extract from day 1 to day 14 reversed the effect of TE administration on prostate weight and zinc levels. However, RM administered from day 7 to day 14 did not reduce the effect of TE on all studied variables. Finasteride (FN) reduced prostate, seminal vesicle and preputial gland weights in rats treated with TE. Although RM and FN reduced prostate zinc levels, the greatest effect was observed in TE-treated rats with RM from day 1 to day 14. In addition, prostate weight and zinc levels showed the higher diagnosis values than preputial and seminal vesicle weights. In conclusion, RM administered from day 1 to day 14 reduced prostate size and zinc levels in rats where prostatic hyperplasia was induced with TE. Also, this experimental model could be used as accurately assay to determine the effect of maca obtained under different conditions and/or the effect of different products based on maca. PMID:21762188

  3. Ethanol production from macaúba (Acrocomia aculeata) presscake hemicellulosic hydrolysate by Candida boidinii UFMG14.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, D B; Batista, A F; Rodrigues, M Q R B; Nogueira, K M V; Santos, V L

    2013-10-01

    Yeasts capable of growth on xylose were isolated from macaúba (Acrocomia aculeata) fruit, a Brazilian palm tree with great potential for use as biodiesel feedstock production. Candida boidinii UFMG14 strain achieved the highest ethanol production (5 g/L) and was chosen to ferment macaúba presscake hemicellulosic hydrolysate (MPHH). The MPHH was produced by the first time in this work and the resultant fivefold concentrate showed considerable sugar content (52.3 and 34.2 g/L xylose and glucose, respectively) and low furfural (0.01 g/L) and hydroxymethylfurfural (0.15 g/L) concentrations. C. boidinii UFMG14 fermentation was evaluated in supplemented and non-supplemented MPHH containing either 10 or 25 g/L of xylose. The maximum ethanol production (12 g/L) was observed after 48 h of fermentation. The ethanol yield was significantly affected by supplementation and concentration of MPHH while ethanol productivity was affected only by MPHH concentration. This is the first study demonstrating theC. boidinii potential for ethanol production from hemicellulose byproducts. PMID:23941709

  4. [Study on Application of NIR Spectral Information Screening in Identification of Maca Origin].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan-zhong; Zhao, Yan-li; Zhang, Ji; Jin, Hang

    2016-02-01

    Medicinal and edible plant Maca is rich in various nutrients and owns great medicinal value. Based on near infrared diffuse reflectance spectra, 139 Maca samples collected from Peru and Yunnan were used to identify their geographical origins. Multiplication signal correction (MSC) coupled with second derivative (SD) and Norris derivative filter (ND) was employed in spectral pretreatment. Spectrum range (7,500-4,061 cm⁻¹) was chosen by spectrum standard deviation. Combined with principal component analysis-mahalanobis distance (PCA-MD), the appropriate number of principal components was selected as 5. Based on the spectrum range and the number of principal components selected, two abnormal samples were eliminated by modular group iterative singular sample diagnosis method. Then, four methods were used to filter spectral variable information, competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS), monte carlo-uninformative variable elimination (MC-UVE), genetic algorithm (GA) and subwindow permutation analysis (SPA). The spectral variable information filtered was evaluated by model population analysis (MPA). The results showed that RMSECV(SPA) > RMSECV(CARS) > RMSECV(MC-UVE) > RMSECV(GA), were 2. 14, 2. 05, 2. 02, and 1. 98, and the spectral variables were 250, 240, 250 and 70, respectively. According to the spectral variable filtered, partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to build the model, with random selection of 97 samples as training set, and the other 40 samples as validation set. The results showed that, R²: GA > MC-UVE > CARS > SPA, RMSEC and RMSEP: GA < MC-UVE < CARS

  5. Toxicological aspects of the South American herbs cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa) and Maca (Lepidium meyenii) : a critical synopsis.

    PubMed

    Valerio, Luis G; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2005-01-01

    Recent exceptional growth in human exposure to natural products known to originate from traditional medicine has lead to a resurgence of scientific interest in their biological effects. As a strategy for improvement of the assessment of their pharmacological and toxicological profile, scientific evidence-based approaches are being employed to appropriately evaluate composition, quality, potential medicinal activity and safety of these natural products. Using this approach, we comprehensively reviewed existing scientific evidence for known composition, medicinal uses (past and present), and documented biological effects with emphasis on clinical pharmacology and toxicology of two commonly used medicinal plants from South America with substantial human exposure from historical and current global use: Uncaria tomentosa (common name: cat's claw, and Spanish: uña de gato), and Lepidium meyenii (common name: maca). Despite the geographic sourcing from remote regions of the tropical Amazon and high altitude Andean mountains, cat's claw and maca are widely available commercially in industrialised countries. Analytical characterisations of their active constituents have identified a variety of classes of compounds of toxicological, pharmacological and even nutritional interest including oxindole and indole alkaloids, flavonoids, glucosinolates, sterols, polyunsaturated fatty acids, carbolines and other compounds. The oxindole alkaloids from the root bark of cat's claw are thought to invoke its most widely sought-after medicinal effects as a herbal remedy against inflammation. We find the scientific evidence supporting this claim is not conclusive and although there exists a base of information addressing this medicinal use, it is limited in scope with some evidence accumulated from in vitro studies towards understanding possible mechanisms of action by specific oxindole alkaloids through inhibition of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation. Although controlled clinical

  6. Analysis of macamides in samples of Maca (Lepidium meyenii) by HPLC-UV-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    McCollom, Megan M; Villinski, Jacquelyn R; McPhail, Kerry L; Craker, Lyle E; Gafner, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    The macamides are a distinct class of secondary metabolites that have so far been found only in Lepidium meyenii Walp. (Maca). Using HPLC-UV-MS/MS, the main macamides have been identified as n-benzylhexadecanamide, n-benzyl-(9Z)-octadecenamide, n-benzyl-(9Z, 12Z)-octadecadienamide, n-benzyl-(9Z, 12Z, 15Z)-octadecatrienamide and n-benzyloctadecanamide. The identities of n-benzyl-(9Z)-octadecenamide and n-benzyl-(9Z, 12Z)-octadecadienamide were confirmed by comparison of chromatographic and spectral properties with synthetic analogues. Total macamides have been quantified by HPLC-UV in plant material from different vendors using n-benzylhexadecanamide as an external standard. The amount of macamides in the dried plant material ranged from 0.0016 to 0.0123%. PMID:16315492

  7. Inhibitory effect of a defensin gene from the Andean crop maca (Lepidium meyenii) against Phytophthora infestans.

    PubMed

    Solis, Julio; Medrano, Giuliana; Ghislain, Marc

    2007-08-01

    In this study, we report the isolation of a defensin gene, lm-def, isolated from the Andean crop 'maca' (Lepidium meyenii) with activity against the pathogen Phytophthora infestans responsible of late blight disease of the potato and tomato crops. The lm-def gene has been isolated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using degenerate primers corresponding to conserved regions of 13 plant defensin genes of the Brassicaceae family assuming that defensin genes are highly conserved among cruciferous species. The lm-def gene belongs to a small multigene family of at least 10 members possibly including pseudogenes as assessed by genomic hybridization and nucleotide sequence analyses. The deduced mature Lm-Def peptide is 51 amino acids in length and has 74-94% sequence identity with other plant defensins of the Brassicaceae family. The Lm-Def peptide was produced as a fusion protein using the pET-44a expression vector and purified using an immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography. The recombinant protein (NusA:Lm-Def) exhibited in vitro activity against P. infestans. The NusA:Lm-Def protein caused growth inhibition and hyphal damage at concentration not greater than 0.4 microM. In contrast, the NusA protein alone expressed and purified similarly did not show any activity against P. infestans. Therefore, these results indicate that the lm-def gene isolated from maca belong to the plant defensin family with activity against P. infestans. Its expression in potato, as a transgene, might help to control the late blight disease caused by P. infestans with the advantage of being of plant origin. PMID:16919367

  8. Antagonistic effect of Lepidium meyenii (red maca) on prostatic hyperplasia in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, G F; Gasco, M; Malheiros-Pereira, A; Gonzales-Castañeda, C

    2008-06-01

    The plants from the Lepidium gender have demonstrated to have effect on the size of the prostate. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) is a Peruvian plant that grows exclusively over 4000 m above sea level. The present study was designed to determine the effect of red maca (RM) in the prostate hyperplasia induced with testosterone enanthate (TE) in adult mice. Prostate hyperplasia was induced by administering TE, and then these animals (n = 6, each group) were treated with RM or Finasteride (positive control) for 21 days. There was an additional group without prostate hyperplasia (vehicle). Mice were killed on days 7, 14 and 21 after treatment with RM. Testosterone and oestradiol levels were measured on the last day of treatment. Prostatic stroma, epithelium and acini were measured histologically. RM reduced prostate weight at 21 days of treatment. Weights of seminal vesicles, testis and epididymis were not affected by RM treatment. The reduction in prostate size by RM was 1.59 times. Histological analysis showed that TE increased 2-fold the acinar area, effect prevented in the groups receiving TE + RM for 14 (P < 0.05) and 21 (P < 0.05) days and the group receiving TE + Finasteride for 21 days (P < 0.05). TE increased prostatic stroma area and this effect was prevented by treatment with RM since 7 days of treatment or Finasteride. The reduction in prostatic stroma area by RM was 1.42 times. RM has an anti-hyperplastic effect on the prostate of adult mice when hyperplasia was induced with TE acting first at prostatic stromal level. PMID:18477205

  9. Short and Long-Term Physiological Responses of Male and Female Rats to Two Dietary Levels of Pre-Gelatinized Maca (Lepidium Peruvianum Chacon)

    PubMed Central

    Meissner, H. O.; Kedzia, B.; Mrozikiewicz, P. M.; Mscisz, A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to identify physiological responses of male and female rats to either a short- or long-term administration of two doses of Maca (Lepidium peruvianum) and observe relationships which may exist between groups of hormones and effects mediated by them. Design: The effect of pre-gelatinized (extruded) organic Maca powder (Maca-GO) was studied on Sprague-Dowley male and female rats (1:1 ratio) receiving two dietary levels of Maca-GO (0.75 g/kg and 7.5 g/kg body weight) and assessed against control during 28 and 90 day laboratory trials on 30 and 60 rats respectively. Blood morphology, biochemistry (hormones, lipids and minerals) and histology of internal organs were determined. Homogenates of skeletal muscles and bones of rats were also analyzed. Results: Maca-GO has low toxicity (LD=7.5 g/kg) and appears to be safe for short-term and extended use as dietary supplement or as a component of functional dietary and therapeutic preparations. There were different responses of male and female rats to different levels of Maca-GO administered during a short- and a longer-term periodl. When administered at higher dose for extended period of time (90 days), Maca-GO acted as a toner of hormonal processes in adult female rats at increased progesterone and a steady estradiol level, without affecting levels of blood FSH, LH and TSH. Conclusions: Obtained results justify further clinical research on use of Maca-GO in sportsmen, physically-active people of both sexes and peri-menopausal women to clarify mechanisms underlaying physiological mode of action of Maca-GO validaet in clinical study on humans. Substantial decrease in blood cortisol levels in a short- and longer-term trial and simultaneous tendency to lower blood ACTH, may indicate antidepressive effect of Maca-GO, which together with reduction in body weight, lowering triglycerides in blood plasma and increasing calcium and phosphorus deposition in bone and muscle tissues is worthy

  10. A double-blind, randomized, pilot dose-finding study of maca root (L. meyenii) for the management of SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Dording, Christina M; Fisher, Lauren; Papakostas, George; Farabaugh, Amy; Sonawalla, Shamsah; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David

    2008-01-01

    We sought to determine whether maca, a Peruvian plant, is effective for selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)-induced sexual dysfunction. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, parallel group dose-finding pilot study comparing a low-dose (1.5 g/day) to a high-dose (3.0 g/day) maca regimen in 20 remitted depressed outpatients (mean age 36+/-13 years; 17 women) with SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction. The Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX) and the Massachusetts General Hospital Sexual Function Questionnaire (MGH-SFQ) were used to measure sexual dysfunction. Ten subjects completed the study, and 16 subjects (9 on 3.0 g/day; 7 on 1.5 g/day) were eligible for intent-to-treat (ITT) analyses on the basis of having had at least one postbaseline visit. ITT subjects on 3.0 g/day maca had a significant improvement in ASEX (from 22.8+/-3.8 to 16.9+/-6.2; z=-2.20, P=0.028) and in MGH-SFQ scores (from 24.1+/-1.9 to 17.0+/-5.7; z=-2.39, P=0.017), but subjects on 1.5 g/day maca did not. Libido improved significantly (P<0.05) for the ITT and completer groups based on ASEX item #1, but not by dosing groups. Maca was well tolerated. Maca root may alleviate SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction, and there may be a dose-related effect. Maca may also have a beneficial effect on libido. PMID:18801111

  11. Dose-response effects of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) aqueous extract on testicular function and weight of different organs in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Chung, Francisco; Rubio, Julio; Gonzales, Carla; Gasco, Manuel; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2005-04-01

    Lepidium meyenii (Brassicaceae) known as Maca grows exclusively between 4000 and 4500 m over the sea level in the Peruvian central Andes. The dried hypocotyls of Maca are traditionally used as food and for its supposed fertility-enhancing properties. A dose-response study was performed to determine the effect of 7 days oral administration of an aqueous lyophilized extract of Maca at 0.01-5 g/kg (corresponding to 0.022-11 g dry hypocotyls of Maca/kg) on body and different organ weights, stages of the seminiferous tubules, epididymal sperm count and motility, and serum testosterone and estradiol levels in rats. In doses up to 5 g extract/kg, no toxicity was observed. Almost all organ weights were similar in controls and in the Maca extract-treated groups. Seminal vesicles weight was significantly reduced at 0.01 and 0.10 g extract/kg. Maca increased in length of stages VII-VIII of the seminiferous tubules in a dose-response fashion, with highest response at 1.0 g/kg, while caput/corpus epididymal sperm count increased at the 1.0 g dose. Cauda epididymal sperm count, sperm motility, and serum estradiol level were not affected at any of the doses studied. Serum testosterone was lower at 0.10 g extract/kg. Low-seminal vesicle weights correlated with low-serum testosterone levels (R2=0.33; P<0.0001) and low-testosterone/estradiol ratio (R2=0.35; P<0.0001). Increase in epididymal sperm count was related to lengths of stages VII-VIII. Highest effect on stages VII-VIII of the seminiferous tubules was observed at 1.0 g Maca aqueous extract/kg. The present study demonstrated that Maca extract in doses up to 5 g/kg (equivalent to the intake of 770 g hypocotyls in a man of 70 kg) was safe and that higher effect on reproductive parameters was elicited with a dose of 1 g extract/kg corresponding to 2.2 g dry Maca hypocotyls/kg. PMID:15763375

  12. MacA, a periplasmic membrane fusion protein of the macrolide transporter MacAB-TolC, binds lipopolysaccharide core specifically and with high affinity.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shuo; Zgurskaya, Helen I

    2013-11-01

    The Escherichia coli MacAB-TolC transporter has been implicated in efflux of macrolide antibiotics and secretion of enterotoxin STII. In this study, we found that purified MacA, a periplasmic membrane fusion protein, contains one tightly bound rough core lipopolysaccharide (R-LPS) molecule per MacA molecule. R-LPS was bound specifically to MacA protein with affinity exceeding that of polymyxin B. Sequence analyses showed that MacA contains two high-density clusters of positively charged amino acid residues located in the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain and the periplasmic C-terminal domain. Substitutions in the C-terminal cluster reducing the positive-charge density completely abolished binding of R-LPS. At the same time, these substitutions significantly reduced the functionality of MacA in the protection of E. coli against macrolides in vivo and in the in vitro MacB ATPase stimulation assays. Taken together, our results suggest that R-LPS or a similar glycolipid is a physiological substrate of MacAB-TolC. PMID:23974027

  13. Feeding hydroalcoholic extract powder of Lepidium meyenii (maca) increases serum testosterone concentration and enhances steroidogenic ability of Leydig cells in male rats.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Y; Yoshida, K; Kamiya, S; Kawate, N; Takahashi, M; Inaba, T; Hatoya, S; Morii, H; Takahashi, K; Ito, M; Ogawa, H; Tamada, H

    2016-04-01

    Although Lepidium meyenii (maca), a plant growing in Peru's central Andes, has been traditionally used for enhancing fertility and reproductive performance in domestic animals and human beings, effects of maca on reproductive organs are still unclear. This study examined whether feeding the hydroalcoholic extract powder of maca for 6 weeks affects weight of the reproductive organs, serum concentrations of testosterone and luteinising hormone (LH), number and cytoplasmic area of immunohistochemically stained Leydig cells, and steroidogenesis of cultured Leydig cells in 8-week-old male rats. Feeding the extract powder increased weight of seminal vesicles, serum testosterone level and cytoplasmic area of Leydig cells when compared with controls. Weight of prostate gland, serum LH concentration and number of Leydig cells were not affected by the maca treatment. The testosterone production by Leydig cells significantly increased when cultured with 22R-hydroxycholesterol or pregnenolone and tended to increase when cultured with hCG by feeding the extract powder. The results show that feeding the hydroalcoholic extract powder of maca for 6 weeks increases serum testosterone concentration associated with seminal vesicle stimulation in male rats, and this increase in testosterone level may be related to the enhanced ability of testosterone production by Leydig cells especially in the metabolic process following cholesterol. PMID:26174043

  14. Reconstitution of the Escherichia coli macrolide transporter: the periplasmic membrane fusion protein MacA stimulates the ATPase activity of MacB.

    PubMed

    Tikhonova, Elena B; Devroy, Vishakha K; Lau, Sze Yi; Zgurskaya, Helen I

    2007-02-01

    Periplasmic membrane fusion proteins (MFPs) are essential components of the type I protein secretion systems and drug efflux pumps in Gram-negative bacteria. Previous studies suggested that MFPs connect the inner and outer membrane components of the transport systems and by this means co-ordinate the transfer of substrates across the two membranes. In this study, we purified and reconstituted the macrolide transporter MacAB from Escherichia coli. Here, MacA is a periplasmic MFP and MacB is an ABC-type transporter. Similar to other MFP-dependent transporters from E. coli, the in vivo function of MacAB requires the outer membrane channel TolC. The purified MacB displayed a basal ATPase activity in detergent micelles. This activity conformed to Michaelis-Menten kinetics but was unresponsive to substrates or accessory proteins. Upon reconstitution into proteoliposomes, the ATPase activity of MacB was strictly dependent on MacA. The catalytic efficiency of MacAB ATPase was more than 45-fold higher than the activity of MacB alone. Both the N- and C-terminal regions of MacA were essential for this activity. MacA stimulated MacB ATPase only in phospholipid bilayers and did not need the presence of macrolides. Our results suggest that MacA is a functional subunit of the MacB transporter. PMID:17214741

  15. Role of maca (Lepidium meyenii) consumption on serum interleukin-6 levels and health status in populations living in the Peruvian central Andes over 4000 m of altitude

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Gustavo F.; Gasco, Manuel; Lozada, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Lepidium meyenii (Maca) is a plant that grows at over 4000 meters above sea level in the central Peruvian Andes. The hypocotyls of this plant are traditionally consumed for their nutritional and medicinal properties. The aim of this study was to determine the health status based on a health related quality of life (HRQL) questionnaire (SF-20) and serum levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6) in subjects that are maca consumers. For this, a cross-sectional study was designed to be performed in 50 subjects from Junin (4100 m): 27 subjects were maca consumers and 23 were non-consumers. The SF-20 survey is used to obtain a summary measure of health status. The stand up from a chair and sit down (SUCSD) test (to assess lower-extremity function), hemoglobin measurement, blood pressure, sexual hormone levels, serum IL-6 levels and the score of chronic mountain sickness (CMS) were evaluated. Testosterone/estradiol ratio (P≪0.05), IL-6 (P<0.05) and CMS score were lower, whereas the health status score was higher, in maca consumers when compared to non-consumers (P<0.01). A greater proportion of maca consumers successfully completed the SUCSD test compared to non-consumers (P<0.01), showing a significant association with lower values of serum IL-6 (P<0.05). In conclusion, consumption of maca was associated with low serum IL-6 levels and in turn with better health status scores in the SF-20 survey and low chronic mountain sickness scores. PMID:23934543

  16. Role of maca (Lepidium meyenii) consumption on serum interleukin-6 levels and health status in populations living in the Peruvian Central Andes over 4000 m of altitude.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Gasco, Manuel; Lozada-Requena, Ivan

    2013-12-01

    Lepidium meyenii (Maca) is a plant that grows at over 4,000 m above sea level in the central Peruvian Andes. The hypocotyls of this plant are traditionally consumed for their nutritional and medicinal properties. The aim of this study was to determine the health status based on a health related quality of life (HRQL) questionnaire (SF-20) and serum levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6) in subjects that are maca consumers. For this, a cross-sectional study was designed to be performed in 50 subjects from Junin (4,100 m): 27 subjects were maca consumers and 23 were non-consumers. The SF-20 survey is used to obtain a summary measure of health status. The stand up from a chair and sit down (SUCSD) test (to assess lower-extremity function), hemoglobin measurement, blood pressure, sexual hormone levels, serum IL-6 levels and the score of chronic mountain sickness (CMS) were evaluated. Testosterone/estradiol ratio (P <0.05), IL-6 (P < 0.05) and CMS score were lower, whereas the health status score was higher, in maca consumers when compared to non-consumers (P < 0.01). A greater proportion of maca consumers successfully completed the SUCSD test compared to non-consumers (P < 0.01), showing a significant association with lower values of serum IL-6 (P < 0.05). In conclusion, consumption of maca was associated with low serum IL-6 levels and in turn with better health status scores in the SF-20 survey and low chronic mountain sickness scores. PMID:23934543

  17. Hydrocarbons and trace metals in mussels in the Macaé coast: Preliminary assessment for a coastal zone under influence of offshore oil field exploration in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Igor U; Molisani, Mauricio M; Nudi, Adriana H; Scofield, Artur L; Wagener, Angela de L R; Limaverde Filho, Aricelso M

    2016-02-15

    Concentrations of PAHs and metals were obtained from mussels collected in beaches, coastal island and estuary of the Macaé coast, the main operational basin for offshore oil exploration in Brazil. This survey provides reference levels for scenarios of increasing exploration, as well as for other areas of the coast undergoing urbanization to support exploration. As expected, urban areas such as the Macaé river estuary presented high concentrations of PAHs, although unsuspected sites such the island also presented signs of contamination. PAH in mussels originated from pyrolytic and petrogenic sources. Metals were typical of non-contaminated coastal environments, although Cr concentrations were above Brazilian Reference Levels. PMID:26763324

  18. Bioactive maca (Lepidium meyenii) alkamides are a result of traditional Andean postharvest drying practices.

    PubMed

    Esparza, Eliana; Hadzich, Antonella; Kofer, Waltraud; Mithöfer, Axel; Cosio, Eric G

    2015-08-01

    Maca, Lepidium meyenii Walpers (Brassicaceae), is an annual herbaceous plant native to the high plateaus of the Peruvian central Andes. Its underground storage hypocotyls have been a traditional medicinal agent and dietary staple since pre-Columbian times. Reported properties include energizing and fertility-enhancing effects. Published reports have focused on the benzylalkamides (macamides) present in dry hypocotyls as one of the main bioactive components. Macamides are secondary amides formed by benzylamine and a fatty acid moiety, with varying hydrocarbon chain lengths and degree of unsaturation. Although it has been assumed that they are usually present in fresh undamaged tissues, analyses show them to be essentially absent from them. However, hypocotyls dried by traditional Andean postharvest practices or industrial oven drying contain up to 800μgg(-1) dry wt (2.3μmolg(-1) dry wt) of macamides. In this study, the generation of macamides and their putative precursors were studied during nine-week traditional drying trials at 4200m altitude and in ovens under laboratory conditions. Freeze-thaw cycles in the open field during drying result in tissue maceration and release of free fatty acids from storage and membrane lipids up to levels of 1200μgg(-1) dry wt (4.3μmolg(-1) dry wt). Endogenous metabolism of the isothiocyanates generated from glucosinolate hydrolysis during drying results in maximal benzylamine values of 4300μgg(-1) dry wt (40.2μmolg(-1) dry wt). Pearson correlation coefficients of the accumulation profiles of benzylamine and free fatty acid to that of macamides showed good values of 0.898 and 0.934, respectively, suggesting that both provide sufficient substrate for amide synthesis during the drying process. PMID:25817836

  19. Dose-response effect of black maca (Lepidium meyenii) in mice with memory impairment induced by ethanol.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Julio; Yucra, Sandra; Gasco, Manuel; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2011-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that black variety of maca has beneficial effects on learning and memory in experimental animal models. The present study aimed to determine whether the hydroalcoholic extract of black maca (BM) showed a dose-response effect in mice treated with ethanol 20% (EtOH) as a model of memory impairment. Mice were divided in the following groups: control, EtOH, ascorbic acid (AA) and 0.125, 0.25, 0.50 and 1.00 g/kg of BM plus EtOH. All treatments were orally administered for 28 days. Open field test was performed to determine locomotor activity and water Morris maze was done to determine spatial memory. Also, total polyphenol content in the hydroalcoholic extract of BM was determined (0.65 g pyrogallol/100 g). Mice treated with EtOH took more time to find the hidden platform than control during escape acquisition trials; meanwhile, AA and BM reversed the effect of EtOH. In addition, AA and BM ameliorated the deleterious effect of EtOH during the probe trial. Correlation analyses showed that the effect of BM a dose-dependent behavior. Finally, BM improved experimental memory impairment induced by ethanol in a dose-response manner due, in part, to its content of polyphenolic compounds. PMID:21780878

  20. Comparison of Mineral Element Content in a Functional Food Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) from Asia and South America.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji; Wang, Han-Mo; Zhao, Yan-Li; Zuo, Zhi-Tian; Wang, Yuan-Zhong; Jin, Hang

    2015-01-01

    Contents of eight mineral elements in maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) from China and Peru were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Cu contents in maca samples from China (2.5-31 mg kg(-1) dry weight, dw) were higher than the samples from Peru (<2.1 mg kg(-1) dw). Na in two samples from China was found to be significantly of high content (2400 and 2600 mg kg(-1) dw). The contents (mg kg(-1) dw) of B, Co, Cr, Li, Ni, and Zn were, respectively, 8.1-21, <0.023, <1.1~3.5, 0.020-0.17, 0.085-4.5, and 10-39 for the samples from China, while being 6.6-12, <0.023, <1.1~2.3, 0.035-0.063, 0.68-1.7, and 27-39 for the samples from Peru. PMID:26236540

  1. Comparison of Mineral Element Content in a Functional Food Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) from Asia and South America

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ji; Wang, Han-Mo; Zhao, Yan-Li; Zuo, Zhi-Tian; Wang, Yuan-Zhong; Jin, Hang

    2015-01-01

    Contents of eight mineral elements in maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) from China and Peru were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Cu contents in maca samples from China (2.5–31 mg kg−1 dry weight, dw) were higher than the samples from Peru (<2.1 mg kg−1 dw). Na in two samples from China was found to be significantly of high content (2400 and 2600 mg kg−1 dw). The contents (mg kg−1 dw) of B, Co, Cr, Li, Ni, and Zn were, respectively, 8.1–21, <0.023, <1.1~3.5, 0.020–0.17, 0.085–4.5, and 10–39 for the samples from China, while being 6.6–12, <0.023, <1.1~2.3, 0.035–0.063, 0.68–1.7, and 27–39 for the samples from Peru. PMID:26236540

  2. A mixture of extracts from Peruvian plants (black maca and yacon) improves sperm count and reduced glycemia in mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Gonzales-Castañeda, Cynthia; Gasco, Manuel

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the effect of two extracts from Peruvian plants given alone or in a mixture on sperm count and glycemia in streptozotocin-diabetic mice. Normal or diabetic mice were divided in groups receiving vehicle, black maca (Lepidium meyenii), yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) or three mixtures of extracts black maca/yacon (90/10, 50/50 and 10/90%). Normal or diabetic mice were treated for 7 d with each extract, mixture or vehicle. Glycemia, daily sperm production (DSP), epididymal and vas deferens sperm counts in mice and polyphenol content, and antioxidant activity in each extract were assessed. Black maca (BM), yacon and the mixture of extracts reduced glucose levels in diabetic mice. Non-diabetic mice treated with BM and yacon showed higher DSP than those treated with vehicle (p < 0.05). Diabetic mice treated with BM, yacon and the mixture maca/yacon increased DSP, and sperm count in vas deferens and epididymis with respect to non-diabetic and diabetic mice treated with vehicle (p < 0.05). Yacon has 3.05 times higher polyphenol content than in maca, and this was associated with higher antioxidant activity. The combination of two extracts improved glycemic levels and male reproductive function in diabetic mice. Streptozotocin increased 1.43 times the liver weight that was reversed with the assessed plants extracts. In summary, streptozotocin-induced diabetes resulted in reduction in sperm counts and liver damage. These effects could be reduced with BM, yacon and the BM+yacon mixture. PMID:23489070

  3. MacB ABC transporter is a dimer whose ATPase activity and macrolide-binding capacity are regulated by the membrane fusion protein MacA.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hong Ting; Bavro, Vassiliy N; Barrera, Nelson P; Frankish, Helen M; Velamakanni, Saroj; van Veen, Hendrik W; Robinson, Carol V; Borges-Walmsley, M Inês; Walmsley, Adrian R

    2009-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria utilize specialized machinery to translocate drugs and protein toxins across the inner and outer membranes, consisting of a tripartite complex composed of an inner membrane secondary or primary active transporter (IMP), a periplasmic membrane fusion protein, and an outer membrane channel. We have investigated the assembly and function of the MacAB/TolC system that confers resistance to macrolides in Escherichia coli. The membrane fusion protein MacA not only stabilizes the tripartite assembly by interacting with both the inner membrane protein MacB and the outer membrane protein TolC, but also has a role in regulating the function of MacB, apparently increasing its affinity for both erythromycin and ATP. Analysis of the kinetic behavior of ATP hydrolysis indicated that MacA promotes and stabilizes the ATP-binding form of the MacB transporter. For the first time, we have established unambiguously the dimeric nature of a noncanonic ABC transporter, MacB that has an N-terminal nucleotide binding domain, by means of nondissociating mass spectrometry, analytical ultracentrifugation, and atomic force microscopy. Structural studies of ABC transporters indicate that ATP is bound between a pair of nucleotide binding domains to stabilize a conformation in which the substrate-binding site is outward-facing. Consequently, our data suggest that in the presence of ATP the same conformation of MacB is promoted and stabilized by MacA. Thus, MacA would facilitate the delivery of drugs by MacB to TolC by enhancing the binding of drugs to it and inducing a conformation of MacB that is primed and competent for binding TolC. Our structural studies are an important first step in understanding how the tripartite complex is assembled. PMID:18955484

  4. The transillumination technique as a method for the assessment of spermatogenesis using medicinal plants: the effect of extracts of black maca (Lepidium meyenii) and camu camu (Myrciaria dubia) on stages of the spermatogenic cycle in male rats.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Vasquez, Vanessa Bertha; Gasco, Manuel

    2013-10-01

    Transillumination technique for assessment of stages of spermatogenic cycle is a useful tool for toxicological studies. This study was designed to determine the effect of two medicinal plants on spermatogenesis in male rats using the transillumination technique. For this, the effect of the combination of a fruit with highest content of ascorbic acid (Myrciaria dubia, camu camu) and extract of black maca (Lepidium meyenii) on seminiferous tubule stages scored by transillumination on intact tubules in adult male rats was assessed. Animals were treated during seven days with vehicle, black maca, camu camu or a mixture of black maca + camu camu and assessed for daily sperm production (DSP), stages of spermatogenic cycle as well as antioxidant activity and levels of flavonoids and polyphenols. Black maca increased stages of spermiation (VII-VIII) and mitosis of germ cells (IX-XI), whereas camu camu increased stages of mitosis (IX-XI) and meiosis (XII). Mixture of maca + camu camu increased stages of spermiation, mitosis and meiosis. All treatments increased DSP (p<0.05) and epididymal sperm count (p<0.05). Total polyphenols, flavonoids levels and antioxidant activity were higher in camu camu (p<0.001) than in black maca. In conclusion, M. dubia (camu camu) has potential effects improving spermatogenesis and co-administered with maca increase stages of mitosis, meiosis and spermiation of the spermatogenic cycle as assessed by the transillumination technique. This technique is becoming increasingly a useful tool for assessment spermatogenesis. PMID:23650963

  5. IN-MACA-MCC: Integrated Multiple Attractor Cellular Automata with Modified Clonal Classifier for Human Protein Coding and Promoter Prediction.

    PubMed

    Pokkuluri, Kiran Sree; Inampudi, Ramesh Babu; Nedunuri, S S S N Usha Devi

    2014-01-01

    Protein coding and promoter region predictions are very important challenges of bioinformatics (Attwood and Teresa, 2000). The identification of these regions plays a crucial role in understanding the genes. Many novel computational and mathematical methods are introduced as well as existing methods that are getting refined for predicting both of the regions separately; still there is a scope for improvement. We propose a classifier that is built with MACA (multiple attractor cellular automata) and MCC (modified clonal classifier) to predict both regions with a single classifier. The proposed classifier is trained and tested with Fickett and Tung (1992) datasets for protein coding region prediction for DNA sequences of lengths 54, 108, and 162. This classifier is trained and tested with MMCRI datasets for protein coding region prediction for DNA sequences of lengths 252 and 354. The proposed classifier is trained and tested with promoter sequences from DBTSS (Yamashita et al., 2006) dataset and nonpromoters from EID (Saxonov et al., 2000) and UTRdb (Pesole et al., 2002) datasets. The proposed model can predict both regions with an average accuracy of 90.5% for promoter and 89.6% for protein coding region predictions. The specificity and sensitivity values of promoter and protein coding region predictions are 0.89 and 0.92, respectively. PMID:25132849

  6. The Quaternary calc-alkaline volcanism of the Patagonian Andes close to the Chile triple junction: geochemistry and petrogenesis of volcanic rocks from the Cay and Maca volcanoes (˜45°S, Chile)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Orazio, M.; Innocenti, F.; Manetti, P.; Tamponi, M.; Tonarini, S.; González-Ferrán, O.; Lahsen, A.; Omarini, R.

    2003-08-01

    Major- and trace-element, Sr-Nd isotopes, and mineral chemistry data were obtained for a collection of volcanic rock samples erupted by the Cay and Maca Quaternary volcanoes, Patagonian Andes (˜45°S, Chile). Cay and Maca are two large, adjacent stratovolcanoes that rise from the Chiloe block at the southern end of the southern volcanic zone (SVZ) of the Andes. Samples from the two volcanoes are typical medium-K, calc-alkaline rocks that form two roughly continuous, largely overlapping series from subalkaline basalt to dacite. The overall geochemistry of the samples studied is very similar to that observed for most volcanoes from the southern SVZ. The narrow range of Sr-Nd isotope compositions ( 87Sr/ 86Sr=0.70389-0.70431 and 143Nd/ 144Nd=0.51277-0.51284) and the major- and trace-element distributions indicate that the Cay and Maca magmas differentiated by crystal fractionation without significant contribution by crustal contamination. This is in accordance with the thin (<30 km), relatively young (Paleozoic or more recent) continental crust beneath the volcanoes. The nature of the subduction-derived materials involved in the genesis of the Cay and Maca magmas is investigated by means of the relative concentration of fluid mobile (e.g. Ba) and fluid immobile (e.g. Nb, Ta, Zr, Y) elements and other relevant trace-element ratios (e.g. Sr/Y). The results indicate that small amounts (<1 wt%) of both subducted sediments and slab-released fluids were added to the mantle sources of the Cay and Maca volcanoes and that, despite the very young age (<10 Ma) of the oceanic lithosphere subducted beneath the volcanoes, slab melts were not involved in the magma genesis. Notwithstanding the proximity of the Cay and Maca magma sources to the northern edge of the slab window generated by the subduction of the Chile ridge under the South American plate, we did not find any geochemical evidence for a contribution of a subslab asthenospheric mantle. However, this mantle has been used

  7. "Ask Argonne" - Edwin Campos, Research Meteorologist, Part 2

    ScienceCinema

    Edwin Campos

    2013-06-10

    Argonne's Edwin Campos has for the last two decades studied weather, and in particular, clouds. His research can help make solar power a more viable option for the U.S. and the world. In this video, Dr. Campos answers questions that were submitted by the public in response to his introductory video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pfdoHz.... We will be posting a new "Ask Argonne" video every other month, on various topics. Keep an eye out for your next opportunity to submit a question and see if it gets answered - and if you get a shout-out on camera.

  8. "Ask Argonne" - Edwin Campos, Research Meteorologist, Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin Campos

    2013-05-23

    Argonne's Edwin Campos has for the last two decades studied weather, and in particular, clouds. His research can help make solar power a more viable option for the U.S. and the world. In this video, Dr. Campos answers questions that were submitted by the public in response to his introductory video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pfdoHz.... We will be posting a new "Ask Argonne" video every other month, on various topics. Keep an eye out for your next opportunity to submit a question and see if it gets answered - and if you get a shout-out on camera.

  9. Colonial Memory and the Crime of Rhetoric: Pedro Albizu Campos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villanueva, Victor

    2009-01-01

    Dr. Albizu Campos was a Harvard-educated Puerto Rican politician who was sentenced to eighty years of imprisonment for what he said--sedition. He was called "el Maestro," a powerful speaker, with thousands gathering to listen to his deliberative rhetoric for freedom. He urged the people to reclaim their cultural history and national symbols, like…

  10. Cosmogenic Radionuclides in the Campo Del Cielo Iron Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liberman, R. G.; FernandezNiello, J. O.; Reedy, R. C.; Fifield, L. K.; diTada, M. L.

    2001-01-01

    Cosmogenic Be-10, Al-26, Cl-36, Ca-41, and Ni-59 were measured in the Campo del Cielo iron meteorite. Our results led us to conclude that the pre-atmospheric radius might have been approximately 2 m. Comparisons with other big bodies are also presented. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  11. Sexual Enhancement Products for Sale Online: Raising Awareness of the Psychoactive Effects of Yohimbine, Maca, Horny Goat Weed, and Ginkgo biloba

    PubMed Central

    Corazza, Ornella; Martinotti, Giovanni; Santacroce, Rita; Chillemi, Eleonora; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Schifano, Fabrizio; Cellek, Selim

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The use of unlicensed food and herbal supplements to enhance sexual functions is drastically increasing. This phenomenon, combined with the availability of these products over the Internet, represents a challenge from a clinical and a public health perspective. Methods. A comprehensive multilingual assessment of websites, drug fora, and other online resources was carried out between February and July 2013 with exploratory qualitative searches including 203 websites. Additional searches were conducted using the Global Public Health Intelligence Network (GPHIN). Once the active constitutes of the products were identified, a comprehensive literature search was carried out using PsycInfo and PubMed. Results. The most common sexual enhancement products available on the Internet were identified. Their active ingredients included yohimbine, maca, horny goat weed and Ginkgo biloba. These four substances were reported with the occurrence of adverse events and the induction of psychological symptoms, such as mood changes, anxiety, and hallucinations as well as addictive behaviours. Conclusions. Uncontrolled availability of sexual enhancement products that contain potentially harmful substances is a major public health concern. The possible impact on population health, particularly among subjects with psychiatric disorders, usually at risk for sexual dysfunction, may be significant. This new trend needs to be extensively studied and monitored. PMID:25025070

  12. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Potential of Palm Leaf Extracts from Babaçu (Attalea speciosa), Buriti (Mauritia flexuosa), and Macaúba (Acrocomia aculeata)

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Talal Suleiman; do Nascimento, Guilherme Nobre L.; da Silva, Juliana Fonseca Moreira

    2016-01-01

    Babaçu (A. speciosa), Buriti (M. flexuosa), and Macaúba (A. aculeata) are palm trees typical of the ecotone area between Cerrado and the Amazon rainforest. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of the extracts prepared from the leaves of those palms as well as determine their chemical compositions. The ethanol extracts were prepared in a Soxhlet apparatus and tested by disk diffusion and agar dilution technique against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and Candida parapsilosis. However, there was no significant activity at concentrations of 25, 50, and 100 mg·Ml−1. Moreover, the phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, catechins, steroids, triterpenes, and saponins. Gas chromatography (GC/MS) analysis also identified organic acids, such as capric (decanoic) acid, lauric (dodecanoic) acid, myristic (tetradecanoic) acid, phthalic (1,2-benzenedicarboxylic) acid, palmitic (hexadecanoic) acid, stearic (octadecanoic) acid, linoleic (9,12-octadecadienoic) acid (omega-6), linolenic (octadecatrienoic) acid (omega-3), and the terpenes citronellol and phytol. Based on the chemical composition in the palm leaf extracts, the palms have the potential to be useful in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:27529077

  13. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Potential of Palm Leaf Extracts from Babaçu (Attalea speciosa), Buriti (Mauritia flexuosa), and Macaúba (Acrocomia aculeata).

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Adriana Idalina Torcato; Mahmoud, Talal Suleiman; do Nascimento, Guilherme Nobre L; da Silva, Juliana Fonseca Moreira; Pimenta, Raphael Sanzio; de Morais, Paula Benevides

    2016-01-01

    Babaçu (A. speciosa), Buriti (M. flexuosa), and Macaúba (A. aculeata) are palm trees typical of the ecotone area between Cerrado and the Amazon rainforest. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of the extracts prepared from the leaves of those palms as well as determine their chemical compositions. The ethanol extracts were prepared in a Soxhlet apparatus and tested by disk diffusion and agar dilution technique against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and Candida parapsilosis. However, there was no significant activity at concentrations of 25, 50, and 100 mg·Ml(-1). Moreover, the phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, catechins, steroids, triterpenes, and saponins. Gas chromatography (GC/MS) analysis also identified organic acids, such as capric (decanoic) acid, lauric (dodecanoic) acid, myristic (tetradecanoic) acid, phthalic (1,2-benzenedicarboxylic) acid, palmitic (hexadecanoic) acid, stearic (octadecanoic) acid, linoleic (9,12-octadecadienoic) acid (omega-6), linolenic (octadecatrienoic) acid (omega-3), and the terpenes citronellol and phytol. Based on the chemical composition in the palm leaf extracts, the palms have the potential to be useful in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:27529077

  14. Structural, electronic, topological and vibrational properties of a series of N-benzylamides derived from Maca (Lepidium meyenii) combining spectroscopic studies with ONION calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chain, Fernando E.; Ladetto, María Florencia; Grau, Alfredo; Catalán, César A. N.; Brandán, Silvia Antonia

    2016-02-01

    In the present work, the structural, topological and vibrational properties of four members of the N-benzylamides series derived from Maca (Lepidium meyenii) whose names are, N-benzylpentadecanamide, N-benzylhexadecanamide, N-benzylheptadecanamide and N-benzyloctadecanamide, were studied combining the FTIR, FT-Raman and 1H and 13C-NMR spectroscopies with density functional theory (DFT) and ONION calculations. Furthermore, the N-benzylacetamide, N-benzylpropilamide and N-benzyl hexanamide derivatives were also studied in order to compare their properties with those computed for the four macamides. These seven N-benzylamides series have a common structure, C8H8NO-R, being R the side chain [-(CH2)n-CH3] with a variable n number of CH2 groups. Here, the atomic charges, molecular electrostatic potentials, stabilization energies, topological properties of those macamides were analyzed as a function of the number of C atoms of the side chain while the frontier orbitals were used to compute the gap energies and some descriptors in order to predict their reactivities and behaviors in function of the longitude of the side chain. Here, the force fields, the complete vibrational assignments and the corresponding force constants were only reported for N-benzylacetamide, N-benzyl hexanamide and N-benzylpentadecanamide due to the high number of vibration normal modes that present the remains macamides.

  15. Circumscribing campo rupestre - megadiverse Brazilian rocky montane savanas.

    PubMed

    Alves, R J V; Silva, N G; Oliveira, J A; Medeiros, D

    2014-05-01

    Currently campo rupestre (CR) is a name accepted and used internationally by botanists, zoologists, and other naturalists, usually applied to a very specific ecosystem, despite the lack of a consensual published circumscription. We present a tentative geographic circumscription of the term, combining data on climate, geology, geomorphology, soil, flora, fauna and vegetation. The circumscription of campo rupestre proposed herein is based on the following premises: (1) the classification of vegetation is not an exact science, and it is difficult to attain a high degree of consensus to the circumscription of vegetation names; (2) despite this, vegetation classification is useful for conservation and management. It is thus desirable to circumscribe vegetation types with the greatest attainable precision; (3) there is a need to preserve all montane and rocky vegetation types, regardless of classification, biome, etc; (4) the CRs are formed by a complex mosaic of vegetation types including rock-dwelling, psammophilous, aquatic, epiphytic, and penumbral plant communities. Campos rupestres stricto sensu are a Neotropical, azonal vegetation complex endemic to Brazil, forming a mosaic of rocky mountaintop "archipelagos" inserted within a matrix of zonal vegetation, mainly in the Cerrado and Caatinga provinces of the Brazilian Shield (southeastern, northeastern and central-western regions), occurring mainly above 900 m asl. up to altitudes exceeding 2000 m, having measured annual precipitation between 800 and 1500 mm, and an arid season of two to five months. PMID:25166320

  16. Helping enhances productivity in campo flicker (Colaptes campestris) cooperative groups.

    PubMed

    Dias, Raphael Igor; Webster, Michael S; Macedo, Regina H

    2015-06-01

    Reproductive adults in many bird species are assisted by non-breeding auxiliary helpers at the nest, yet the impact of auxiliaries on reproduction is variable and not always obvious. In this study, we tested Hamilton's rule and evaluated the effect of auxiliaries on productivity in the facultative cooperative breeder campo flicker (Colaptes campestris campestris). Campo flickers have a variable mating system, with some groups having auxiliaries and others lacking them (i.e., unassisted pairs). Most auxiliaries are closely related to the breeding pair (primary auxiliaries), but some auxiliaries (secondary auxiliaries) are unrelated females that joined established groups. We found no effect of breeder quality (body condition) or territory quality (food availability) on group productivity, but the presence of auxiliaries increased the number of fledglings produced relative to unassisted pairs. Nonetheless, the indirect benefit of helping was small and did not outweigh the costs of delayed breeding and so seemed insufficient to explain the evolution of cooperative breeding in campo flickers. We concluded that some ecological constraints must limit dispersal or independent breeding, making staying in the group a "best-of-a-bad-job" situation for auxiliaries. PMID:26004264

  17. Helping enhances productivity in campo flicker ( Colaptes campestris) cooperative groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Raphael Igor; Webster, Michael S.; Macedo, Regina H.

    2015-06-01

    Reproductive adults in many bird species are assisted by non-breeding auxiliary helpers at the nest, yet the impact of auxiliaries on reproduction is variable and not always obvious. In this study, we tested Hamilton's rule and evaluated the effect of auxiliaries on productivity in the facultative cooperative breeder campo flicker ( Colaptes campestris campestris). Campo flickers have a variable mating system, with some groups having auxiliaries and others lacking them (i.e., unassisted pairs). Most auxiliaries are closely related to the breeding pair (primary auxiliaries), but some auxiliaries (secondary auxiliaries) are unrelated females that joined established groups. We found no effect of breeder quality (body condition) or territory quality (food availability) on group productivity, but the presence of auxiliaries increased the number of fledglings produced relative to unassisted pairs. Nonetheless, the indirect benefit of helping was small and did not outweigh the costs of delayed breeding and so seemed insufficient to explain the evolution of cooperative breeding in campo flickers. We concluded that some ecological constraints must limit dispersal or independent breeding, making staying in the group a "best-of-a-bad-job" situation for auxiliaries.

  18. Sistemas Correctores de Campo Para EL Telescopio Cassegrain IAC80

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galan, M. J.; Cobos, F. J.

    1987-05-01

    El proyecto de instrumentación de mayor importancia que ha tenido el Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias en los últimos afios ha sido el diseflo y construcción del te1escopio IAC8O. Este requería del esfuerzo con junto en mec´nica, óptica y electrónica, lo que facilitó la estructuración y el crecimiento de los respectivos grupos de trabajo, que posteriormente se integraron en departamentos En su origen (1977), el telescopio IAC80 fue concebido como un sistema clásico tipo Cassegrain, con una razón focal F/i 1.3 para el sistema Casse grain y una razón focal F/20 para el sistema Coudé. Posteriormente, aunque se mantuvo la filosofia de que el sistema básico fuera el F/11.3, se consideró conveniente el diseño de secundarios para razones focales F/16 y F/32, y se eliminó el de F/20. Sin embargo, dada la importancia relativa que un foco estrictamente fotográfico tiene en un telescopio moderno, diseñado básicamente para fotometría fotoeléctrica y con un campo util mínimamente de 40 minutos de arco, se decídió Ilevar a cabo el diseño de un secundario F/8 con un sistema corrector de campo, pero que estuviera formado únicamente por lentes con superficies esféricas para que asl su construcción fuera posible en España ó en México. La creciente utilización de detectores bidimensionales para fines de investigación astron6mica y la viabilidad de que en un futuro cercano éstos tengan un área sensible cada vez mayor, hicieron atractiva la idea de tener diseñado un sistema corrector de campo para el foco primario (F/3), con un campo útil mínimo de un grado, y también con la limitante de que sus componentes tuvieron sólamente supérficies esféricas. Ambos diseños de los sis-temas correctores de campo se llevaron a cabo, en gran medida, como parte de un proyecto de colaboración e intercambio en el área de diseño y evaluación de sistemas ópticos.

  19. Situation of the supplementary diet of children between 6 and 24 months attended in the Primary Care Network of Macaé, RJ, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marinho, Leticia Maia Forte; Capelli, Jane de Carlos Santana; Rocha, Camilla Medeiros Macedo da; Bouskela, Alice; do Carmo, Cleber Nascimento; de Freitas, Silvia Eliza Almeida Pereira; Anastácio, Alexandra da Silva; de Almeida, Maria Fernanda Larcher; Pontes, Juliana da Silva

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to analyze the supplementary nutritional situation of children aged 6-24 months attended by the Primary Care unit of Macaé/RJ. It was conducted as a cross-sectional study, and data was obtained from the SISVAN Web website, including and analyzing all of the records (n=218) of children between 6-24 months in the year 2013. In infants between 6-12 months, the consumption of 72.3% of vegetables, 75.3% of fruits, and 63.4% of meats was detected, considered indicators of healthy supplementary nutrition. In contrast, 23.8% were already consuming sugar-based food sources (honey, molasses, simple sugar, and unrefined cane sugar), 34.7% industrialized juice, and 17.8% soft drinks. The consumption of industrialized juice was significantly greater in boys (p-value <0.001). In children between 12-18 months, 77.6% consumed vegetables, 77.4% fruits, and 86.3% meats. The consumption of sugar-based foods was 31%, 58.6% for industrialized juices, and 50% for soft drinks. Between 18-24 months, it was recorded that 89.9% of children consumed vegetables, 83.1% fruits, and 96.7% meat. The consumption of sugar-based foods was 33.9%, 69.5% for industrialized juices, and 55.5% for soft drinks. We conclude that the indicators of healthy complementary nutrition come close to the target set by the Ministry of Health (80%). PMID:26960109

  20. [Life and work at the petroleum industry in Campos Basin].

    PubMed

    Leite, Rose Mery dos Santos Costa

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we detach the subject of confinement as a central axle in the activity at maritime oil platforms of Campos Basin, in north region of the Rio de Janeiro state. This work reality that determines for offshore workers, as they are known, a rupture between two different moments in there lives: the period of fourteen days in the sea and the life in land per twenty one days. We adopt as material empiricist, the research carried out on this universe, detaching here the way as these professionals understand the conditions of confined work in which they are submitted. PMID:20069186

  1. The α-barrel tip region of Escherichia coli TolC homologs of Vibrio vulnificus interacts with the MacA protein to form the functional macrolide-specific efflux pump MacAB-TolC.

    PubMed

    Lee, Minho; Kim, Hyun-Lee; Song, Saemee; Joo, Minju; Lee, Seunghwa; Kim, Daeyoung; Hahn, Yoonsoo; Ha, Nam-Chul; Lee, Kangseok

    2013-04-01

    TolC and its homologous family of proteins are outer membrane factors that are essential for exporting small molecules and toxins across the outer membrane in Gram-negative bacteria. Two open reading frames in the Vibrio vulnificus genome that encode proteins homologous to Escherichia coli TolC, designated TolCV1 and TolCV2, have 51.3% and 29.6% amino acid identity to TolC, respectively. In this study, we show that TolCV1 and TolCV2 functionally and physically interacted with the membrane fusion protein, MacA, a component of the macrolide-specific MacAB-TolC pump of E. coli. We further show that the conserved residues located at the aperture tip region of the α-hairpin of TolCV1 and TolCV2 played an essential role in the formation of the functional MacAB-TolC pump using site-directed mutational analyses. Our findings suggest that these outer membrane factors have conserved tip-to-tip interaction with the MacA membrane fusion protein for action of the drug efflux pump in Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:23625214

  2. ``Campo del Cielo'' Meteorites: Astronomical Heritage and Cultural Colonialism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Alejandro Martín; Altman, Agustina

    2012-09-01

    In the province of Chaco, Argentina, there is a very unique dispersion of metallic meteorites called ``Campo del Cielo''. One of the meteoric fragments of this dispersion, the meteorite called ``El Chaco'', consisting of 37 tons, is the second heaviest in the world. These meteorites are of great importance to the worldview of the Moqoit, aboriginal people that inhabit this region. For the local Creole population the meteorites are also relevant, that's why they have being cited in numerous documents and reports since the colonial period. During the first months of 2012, two Argentine artists and the Artistic Director of the German contemporary art exhibition called dOCUMENTA (13) tried to move ``El Chaco'' meteorite to Germany in order to exhibit it as an artistic object. Due to the fact that moving the meteorite could have a negative impact according to the Moqoit cosmology and that they were not able to participate in the decision they begun a manifestation against the movement of El Chaco. The opposition made by aboriginal communities and experts in cultural astronomy was able to stop the transfer. The whole process and its impact on the local community have promoted a deep discussion about art, science and cultural colonialism. In this paper we aim to address this debate and its consequences. This will allow us to think about contemporary forms of colonialism that are hidden in many scientific and artistic projects. Furthermore, we aim to debate about the most effective ways of protecting astronomical heritage in the Third World.

  3. "Ask Argonne" - Edwin Campos, Research Meteorologist, Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin Campos

    2013-05-08

    Dr. Edwin Campos is a Research Meteorologist at Argonne National Laboratory. For the last two decades, he has studied weather, and in particular, clouds. Clouds are one of the most uncertain variables in climate predictions and are often related to transportation hazards. Clouds can also impact world-class sporting events like the Olympics. You may have questions about the role of clouds, or weather, on our daily lives. How is severe weather monitored for airports? What is the impact of clouds and wind on the generation of electricity? One of the projects Edwin is working on is short-term forecasting as it relates to solar electricity. For this, Edwin's team is partnering with industry and academia to study new ways of forecasting clouds, delivering technologies that will allow the incorporation of more solar power into the electric grid. Post a question for Edwin as a comment below, and it might get answered in the follow-up video we'll post in the next few weeks.

  4. "Ask Argonne" - Edwin Campos, Research Meteorologist, Part 1

    ScienceCinema

    Edwin Campos

    2013-06-10

    Dr. Edwin Campos is a Research Meteorologist at Argonne National Laboratory. For the last two decades, he has studied weather, and in particular, clouds. Clouds are one of the most uncertain variables in climate predictions and are often related to transportation hazards. Clouds can also impact world-class sporting events like the Olympics. You may have questions about the role of clouds, or weather, on our daily lives. How is severe weather monitored for airports? What is the impact of clouds and wind on the generation of electricity? One of the projects Edwin is working on is short-term forecasting as it relates to solar electricity. For this, Edwin's team is partnering with industry and academia to study new ways of forecasting clouds, delivering technologies that will allow the incorporation of more solar power into the electric grid. Post a question for Edwin as a comment below, and it might get answered in the follow-up video we'll post in the next few weeks.

  5. 76 FR 29261 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Campo Wind Energy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ... Campo Wind Energy Project, San Diego County, CA AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION... necessary for preparing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the proposed Campo Shu'luuk Wind Project... San Diego, California. Construction of the Shu'luuk Wind Project within the Campo Reservation...

  6. Energy and Mass Balance At Gran Campo Nevado, Patagonia, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, C.; Kilian, R.; Casassa, G.

    The Gran Campo Nevado (GCN) Ice Cap on Peninsula Muñoz Gamero, Chile, is lo- cated in the southernmost part of the Patagonian Andes at 53S. It comprises an ice cap and numerous outlet glaciers which mostly end in proglacial lakes at sea level. The total ice covered area sums up to approximately 250 km2. GCN forms the only major ice body between the Southern Patagonian Icefield and the Street of Magallan. Its almost unique location in the zone of the all-year westerlies makes it a region of key interest in terms of glacier and climate change studies of the westwind zone of the Southern Hemisphere. Mean annual temperature of approximately +5C at sea level and high precipitation of about 8.000 mm per year lead to an extreme turn-over of ice mass from the accumulation area of the GCN Ice Cap to the ablation areas of the outlet glaciers. Since October 1999 an automated weather station (AWS) is run continuously in the area at Bahia Bahamondes for monitoring climate parameters. From February to April 2000 an additional AWS was operated on Glaciar Lengua a small outlet glacier of GCN to the north-west. Ablation has been measured at stakes during the same pe- riod. The aim of this study, was to obtain point energy and mass balance on Glaciar Lengua. The work was conducted as part of the international and interdisciplinary working group SGran Campo NevadoT and supported by the German Research Foun- & cedil;dation (DFG). Energy balance was calculated using the bulk approach formulas and calibrated to the measured ablation. It turns out, that sensible heat transfer is the major contribution to the energy balance. Since high cloud cover rates prevail, air tempera- ture is the key factor for the energy balance of the glacier. Despite high rain fall rates, energy input from rain fall is of only minor importance to the overall energy balance. From the energy balance computed, it was possible to derive summer-time degree-day factors for Glaciar Lengua. With data from the nearby

  7. The Marlin and Albacora giant fields, Campos Basin, offshore Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    De Souza, J.M.; Scarton, J.C.; Candido, A.; Cora, C.A.G. )

    1990-09-01

    The Albacore and Marlim giant fields are located in the province of Campos basin, about 110 km (68 mi) offshore Cape Sao Tome, in water depths ranging from 200 m (656 ft) to 2,000 m (6562 ft). The Albacora field was discovered in September 1984 by the wildcat 1-RJS-297, drilled in 293 m (961 ft) of water. Subsequently, the wildcats 1-RJS-305 and 1-RJS-342 extended the field limits to deeper waters. The Albacora field is approximately 235 km{sup 2} (90 mi{sup 2}) in area, with an estimated volume of 4.5 billion bbl of oil in place. The Marlim field was discovered in February 1985 by the wildcat 1-RJS-219A, in a water depth of 853 m (2,800 ft). The Marlim field area is about 152 km{sup 2} (58 mi{sup 2}), and the latest estimate of oil in place is about 8.2 billion bbl. The Marlim complex encompasses Marlim field itself and the surrounding proved and potential areas known as East-of-, West-of-, and South-of-Marlim, respectively. The current estimated volume of oil in place in the Marlim complex is close to 13.9 billion bbl, with a total surface of about 350 km{sup 2} (135 mi{sup 2}). Oil production in the Albacora field comes from Lower Cretaceous (Albian) and Tertiary (Eocene, Oligocene, and Miocene) turbidite reservoirs. Oligocene turbidite sandstones are the potential reservoirs in the Marlim field. These deposits are genetically associated with sea level variations and are mainly composed of massive sandstones and, subordinately, of contourites. Both fields are structurally and stratigraphically controlled accumulations. Hydrocarbons are trapped in anticlines and/or faulted blocks associated with salt tectonics. Stratigraphic contributions result from sandstone bodies pinching out against shales and marls. The development of these fields has been supported by three-dimensional seismic data. The Albacora field is being gradually put on stream from shallower to deeper waters.

  8. Four new species of Polycirrus Grube, 1850 (Polychaeta: Terebellidae) from Campos Basin, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carrerette, Orlemir; Nogueira, João Miguel De Matos

    2013-01-01

    Four new species of Polycirrus were collected at the Campos Basin, state of Rio de Janeiro, during a survey coordinated by CENPES/PETROBRAS under the scope of the project, "Environmental Heterogeneity in the Campos Basin". These species are P. nonatoi sp. nov., P. papillosus sp. nov., P. breviuncinatus sp. nov., and P. habitats sp. nov. All these species are herein described and compared with the morphologically most similar congeners. In addition, a key is provided for the identification of the species of Polycirrus which have been originally described for the Brazilian coast. PMID:26176130

  9. 78 FR 34373 - Campo Verde Solar, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Campo Verde Solar, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Campo Verde Solar, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  10. 75 FR 8986 - Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Campo Regional Landfill...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... landfill. Supporting developments include the site entrance facilities, screening berms, utilities, surface... the project proposes to use alternative landfill design and cover, it requires a site-specific... Regional Landfill Project on the Campo Indian Reservation, San Diego County, CA AGENCY: Bureau of...

  11. Vascular plant community composition from the campos rupestres of the Itacolomi State Park, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Leyh, Werner; Miazaki, Angela S.; Meira-Neto, João A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Campos rupestres are rare and endangered ecosystems that accommodate a species-rich flora with a high degree of endemism. Here, we make available a dataset from phytosociological surveys carried out in the Itacolomi State Park, Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. All species in a total of 30 plots of 10 x 10 m from two study sites were sampled. Their cardinality, a combination of cover and abundance, was estimated. Altogether, we registered occurrences from 161 different taxa from 114 genera and 47 families. The families with the most species were Poaceae and Asteraceae, followed by Cyperaceae. Abiotic descriptions, including soil properties such as type, acidity, nutrient or aluminum availability, cation exchange capacity, and saturation of bases, as well as the percentage of rocky outcrops and the mean inclination for each plot, are given. This dataset provides unique insights into the campo rupestre vegetation, its specific environment and the distribution of its diversity. PMID:25829858

  12. Preliminary statistical studies concerning the Campos RJ sugar cane area, using LANDSAT imagery and aerial photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Costa, S. R. X.; Paiao, L. B. F.; Mendonca, F. J.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Duarte, V.

    1983-01-01

    The two phase sampling technique was applied to estimate the area cultivated with sugar cane in an approximately 984 sq km pilot region of Campos. Correlation between existing aerial photography and LANDSAT data was used. The two phase sampling technique corresponded to 99.6% of the results obtained by aerial photography, taken as ground truth. This estimate has a standard deviation of 225 ha, which constitutes a coefficient of variation of 0.6%.

  13. Mineral nutrition of campos rupestres plant species on contrasting nutrient-impoverished soil types.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Rafael S; Galvão, Hugo C; de Campos, Mariana C R; Eller, Cleiton B; Pearse, Stuart J; Lambers, Hans

    2015-02-01

    In Brazil, the campos rupestres occur over the Brazilian shield, and are characterized by acidic nutrient-impoverished soils, which are particularly low in phosphorus (P). Despite recognition of the campos rupestres as a global biodiversity hotspot, little is known about the diversity of P-acquisition strategies and other aspects of plant mineral nutrition in this region. To explore nutrient-acquisition strategies and assess aspects of plant P nutrition, we measured leaf P and nitrogen (N) concentrations, characterized root morphology and determined the percentage arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization of 50 dominant species in six communities, representing a gradient of soil P availability. Leaf manganese (Mn) concentration was measured as a proxy for carboxylate-releasing strategies. Communities on the most P-impoverished soils had the highest proportion of nonmycorrhizal (NM) species, the lowest percentage of mycorrhizal colonization, and the greatest diversity of root specializations. The large spectrum of leaf P concentration and variation in root morphologies show high functional diversity for nutritional strategies. Higher leaf Mn concentrations were observed in NM compared with AM species, indicating that carboxylate-releasing P-mobilizing strategies are likely to be present in NM species. The soils of the campos rupestres are similar to the most P-impoverished soils in the world. The prevalence of NM strategies indicates a strong global functional convergence in plant mineral nutrition strategies among severely P-impoverished ecosystems. PMID:25425486

  14. Infrared inspection applied to offshore platforms: Petrobras experience at Campos Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdini, Edson A.; Veratti, Attilio B.

    2002-03-01

    Bacia de Campos (Rio de Janeiro - Brazil) is one of the biggest offshore petroleum fields in the world today. In June 2001, Bacia de Campos, having more than 490 oil wells, 34 offshore platforms and 7 modified ships in operation, reached 1,3 million barrels/day. If compared to OPEP countries only nine of them got an average production higher than 1 million barrels/day in 2000, which means it can be placed on the 10th position in the rank of oil producers. In this context this work aims not only to show the results achieved within the introduction of thermographic inspections in offshore oil production (platforms and ships), but also the financial results (ROI - Return of Investment) considering the use of this particular technique. Bacia de Campos got a ROI around 7 million dollars in the last 4 years, which means a hundred times higher than the total cost of thermographic services in the same period. As far as we know this is one of the best results already reported in the world. We also present the methodology applied to analyze thermal anomalies in electrical components and data management software, including advanced Digital Reports sent via Internet.

  15. Bovine immunoprotection against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus with recombinant Bm86-Campo Grande antigen.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Rodrigo Casquero; Pérez de León, Adalberto Angel; Leite, Fábio Pereira Leivas; Pinto, Luciano da Silva; Dos Santos Júnior, Alceu Gonçalves; Andreotti, Renato

    2012-01-01

    The southern cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, is no doubt the most economically important ectoparasite of cattle globally. The inappropriate use of chemical acaricides has driven the evolution of resistance in populations of R. (B.) microplus. Anti-tick vaccines represent a technology that can be combined with acaricides in integrated control programs to mitigate the impact of R. (B.) microplus. The recombinant form of Bm86 antigen from the Campo Grande (rBm86-CG) strain of R. (B.) microplus was produced using the Pichiapastoris expression system to test its ability to immunoprotect cattle against tick infestation. Secretion of rBm86-CG by P. pastoris through the bioprocess reported here simplified purification of the antigen. A specific humoral immune response was detected by ELISA in vaccinated cattle. Immunoblot results revealed that polyclonal antibodies from vaccinated cattle recognized a protein in larval extracts with a molecular weight corresponding to Bm86. The rBm86-CG antigen showed 31% efficacy against the Campo Grande strain of R. (B.) microplus infesting vaccinated cattle. The rBm86-CG is an antigen that could be used in a polyvalent vaccine as part of an integrated program for the control of R. (B.) microplus in the region that includes Mato Grosso do Sul. PMID:23070436

  16. Sistemas Correctores de Campo Para EL Telescopio Ritchey-Chretien UNAM212

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobos, F. J.; Galan, M. J.

    1987-05-01

    El telescopio UNAM2l2 fue inaugurado hace siete años y concebido para trabajar en las razones focales: f/7.5, F/13.5, F/27 y F/98. El diseño Ritchey-Chretién corresponde a la razón focal F/7.5 y el foco primario (F/2.286) no se consideró como utilizable para fotografía directa. En el Instituto de Astronomía de la UNAM, se diseñó y construyó un sistema corrector de campo para la razón focal F/7.5, que actualmente está en funcionamiento. Dentro de un programa de colaboración en diseflo y evaluación de sistemas ópticos, entre el Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias y el Instituto de Astronomía de la UNAM, decidimos intentar el diseño de una correctora de campo para el foco primario del tȩlescopio UNAM212 bajo la consideración de que no son insalvables los problemas que implicaría su instalación y de que es muy posible que, en un futuro relativamente cercano, podamom tener un detector bidimenmional tipo Mepsicrón cuya área sensible haga tentadora la idea de construir la cámara directa para foco primario

  17. The aquatic and semiaquatic biota in Miocene amber from the Campo LA Granja mine (Chiapas, Mexico): Paleoenvironmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano-Sánchez, María de Lourdes; Hegna, Thomas A.; Schaaf, Peter; Pérez, Liseth; Centeno-García, Elena; Vega, Francisco J.

    2015-10-01

    Amber from the Campo La Granja mine in Chiapas, Mexico, is distinct from other sources of amber in Chiapas. Campo La Granja amber has distinct layers created by successive flows of resin with thin layers of sand on most surfaces. Aquatic and semi-aquatic arthropods are commonly found. Together these pieces of evidence suggest an estuarine environment similar to modern mangrove communities. The aquatic crustaceans are the most intriguing aspect of the biota. A large number of ostracods have been found in the amber-many with their carapaces open, suggesting that they were alive and submerged in water at the time of entombment. The only known examples of brachyuran crabs preserved in amber are found in the Campo La Granja amber. Amphipods, copepods, isopods, and tanaids are also members of the crustacean fauna preserved in amber.

  18. Discovering research value in the Campo del Cielo, Argentina, meteorite craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, William A.; Renard, Marc L.

    1996-07-01

    The Campo del Cielo meteorite crater field in Argentina contains at least 20 small meteorite craters, but a recent review of the field data and a remote sensing study suggest that there may be more. The fall occurred ˜4000 years ago into a uniform loessy soil, and the craters are well enough preserved so that some of their parameters of impact can be determined after excavation. The craters were formed by multi-ton fragments of a type IA meteoroid with abundant silicate inclusions. Relative to the horizontal, the angle of infall was ˜9°. Reflecting the low angle of infall, the crater field is elongated with apparent dimensions of 3 × 18.5 km. The largest craters are near the center of this ellipse. This suggests that when the parent meteoroid broke apart, the resulting fragments diverged from the original trajectory in inverse relation to their masses and did not undergo size sorting due to atmospheric deceleration. The major axis of the crater field as we know it extends along N63°E, but the azimuths of infall determined by excavation of Craters 9 and 10 are N83.5°E and N75.5°E, respectively. This suggests that the major axis of the crater field is not yet well determined. The three or four largest craters appear to have been formed by impacts that disrupted the projectiles, scattering fragments around the outsides of the craters and leaving no large masses within them; these are relatively symmetrical in shape. Other craters are elongated features with multi-ton masses preserved within them and no fragmentation products outside. There are two ways in which field research on the Campo del Cielo crater field is found to be useful. (1) Studies exist that have been used to interpret impact craters on planetary surfaces other than the Earth. This occurrence of a swarm of projectiles impacting at known angles and similar velocities into a uniform target material provides an excellent field site at which to test the applicability of those studies. (2) Individual

  19. Glacial changes and glacier mass balance at Gran Campo Nevado, Chile during recent decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, C.; Schnirch, M.; Kilian, R.; Acuña, C.; Casassa, G.

    2003-04-01

    Within the framework of the program Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) a glacier inventory of the Peninsula Muñoz Gamero in the southernmost Andes of Chile (53°S) has been generated using aerial photopgrahy and Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery. The Peninsula is partly covered by the ice cap of the Gran Campo Nevado (GCN), including several outlet glaciers plus some minor glaciers and firn fields. All together the ice covered areas sum up to 260 km2. GCN forms the only major ice body between the Southern Patagonia Icefield and the Strait of Magallan. Its almost unique location in a zone affected year-round by the westerlies makes it a region of key interest in terms of glacier and climate change studies of the west-wind zone of the Southern Hemisphere. A digital elevation model (DEM) was created for the area, using aerial imagery from 1942, 1984, and 1998 and a Chilean topographic map (1: 100 000). All information was incorporated into a GIS together with satellite imagery from 1986 and 2001. Delineation of glacier inflow from the central plateau of Gran Campo Nevado was accomplished using an automatic module for watershed delineation within the GIS. The GIS served to outline the extent of the present glaciation of the peninsula, as well as to evaluate the derived historic information. The comparison of historic and recent imagery reveals a dramatic glacier retreat during the last 60 years. Some of the outlet glaciers lost more than 20% of their total area during this period. In February and March 2000 a automatic weather station (AWS) was run on a nameless outlet glacier, inofficially Glaciar Lengua, of the Gran Campo Nevado Ice Cap. From the computed energy balance, it was possible to derive degree-day factors for the Glaciar Lengua. With data from the nearby AWS at fjord coast (Bahia Bahamondes) we computed ablation for the summer seasons of 1999/2000, 2000/2001 and 2001/2002. Ablation at 450 m a.s.l. sums up to about 7 m in 1999/2000, 5.5 m in 2000

  20. Radiogenic Xenon-129 in Silicate Inclusions in the Campo Del Cielo Iron Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meshik, A.; Kurat, G.; Pravdivtseva, O.; Hohenberg, C. M.

    2004-01-01

    Iron meteorites present a challenge for the I-Xe dating technique because it is usually the inclusions, not metal, that contain radiogenic xenon and iodine. Silicate inclusions are frequent in only types IAB and IIE, and earlier studies of irons have demonstrated that I-Xe system can survive intact in these inclusions preserving valuable age information. Our previous studies of the I-Xe record in pyroxene grains from Toluca iron suggested an intriguing relationship between apparent I-Xe ages and (Mg+Fe)/Fe ratios. The I-Xe system in K-feldspar inclusions from Colomera (IIE) had the fingerprint of slow cooling, with an indicated cooling rate of 2-4 C/Ma. Here we present studies of the iodine-xenon system in a silicate-graphite-metal (SiGrMet) inclusion of the IA Campo del Cielo iron meteorite from the collection of the Museum of Natural History in Vienna.

  1. Mineralogy of Inclusions in the Campo Del Cielo and Mont Dieu Irons and Segregation of Partial Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, H.; Ishii, T.; Otsuki, M.

    2001-03-01

    To find partial melt segregation, we studied two new irons. Segregations of albite and chromite were found in Campo del Cielo and ameboidal FeS in Mont Dieu with the same shape as in IIE irons together with minor Cr diopside and Na,K-rich glass.

  2. Las fulguraciones como manifestación de reconexión en el campo magnético solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagalá, L. G.; Mandrini, M. C.; Rovira, M. G.; Démoulin, P.

    Las fulguraciones solares son fenómenos transitorios de liberación de energía que se desarrollan en las estructuras magnéticas de las regiones activas del Sol. Las fulguraciones pueden llegar a liberar hasta 1032 erg en 100 seg. en todo el rango electromagnético, y acelerar partículas. En este trabajo mostramos que la ubicación de los abrillantamientos en Hα de diversas fulguraciones está relacionado con las propiedades de las conexiones de las líneas del campo magnético de la región, como se espera por las teorías de reconexión en 3D recientemente desarrolladas (Démoulin et al, 1996a). El campo magnético coronal se extrapola del campo fotosférico observado suponiendo una configuración libre de fuerzas lineal. Por medio de un algoritmo se determinan las regiones donde existe un cambio drástico en la conectividad de las líneas de campo (límites ``cuasi-discontinuos'', o cuasi-separatrices CS). Las CS son bandas abiertas que identifican zonas donde el campo magnético se reconectará con más probabilidad y, siempre que las mismas sean lo suficientemente finas, se producirá allíla liberación de energía proveniente del campo magnético. Hemos encontrado que en todas las regiones fulgurantes estudiadas (Démoulin et al, 1996b) existen CS en los mismos lugares donde se observaron los abrillantamientos en Hα. Allídonde coinciden los abrillantamientos con las CS, éstas tienen un espesor menor que 1 Mm. Las líneas de campo coronales extrapoladas de nuestro modelo tienen sus orígenes fotosféricos a ambos lados de las CS, como se espera dados los recientes estudios de reconexión magnética en 3D. Estos resultados ponen a prueba los modelos presentes sobre fulguraciones solares.

  3. Influence of urban area on the water quality of the Campo River basin, Paraná State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, K Q; Lima, S B; Passig, F H; Gusmão, L K; Souza, D C; Kreutz, C; Belini, A D; Arantes, E J

    2015-12-01

    The Campo River basin is located on the third plateau of the Paraná State or trap plateau of Paraná, at the middle portion between the rivers Ivaí and Piquiri, southern Brazil, between the coordinates 23° 53 and 24° 10' South Latitude and 52° 15' and 52° 31' West Longitude. The basin has 384 Km² area, being 247 km² in the municipality of Campo Mourão and 137 km² in the municipality of Peabiru, in Paraná State. The Campo River is a left bank tributary of the Mourão River, which flows into the Ivaí River. The objective of this study was to monitor water quality in the Km 119 River and the Campo River, tributaries of the Mourão River, with monthly collection of water samples to determine pH, temperature, turbidity, biochemical oxygen demand, dissolved oxygen, fecal coliforms, total solids, total nitrogen, ammoniacal nitrogen, nitrite, nitrate and total phosphorus. The results obtained were compared with the indices established by the environmental legislation and applied in the determination of the Water Quality Index (WQI) used by the Water Institute of Paraná State, regulating environmental agency. Poor water quality in these rivers presents a worrying scenario for the region, since this river is the main source of water supply for the public system. Results of organic matter, fecal coliforms and total phosphorus were higher than the limits established by Resolution CONAMA 357/2005 to river class 2, specially at downstream of the Km 119 River and the Campo River, due to the significant influence of the urban anthropic activity by the lack of tertiary treatment and also rural by the lack of basic sanitation in this area. Results of WQI of Km 119 River and do Campo River indicated that water quality can be classified as average in 71% and good in 29% of the sites evaluated. PMID:26628235

  4. Pollination of Cambessedesia wurdackii in Brazilian campo rupestre vegetation, with special reference to crepuscular bees.

    PubMed

    Franco, Emanuella Lopes; Gimenes, Miriam

    2011-01-01

    Cambessedesia wurdackii Martins (Myrtales: Melastomataceae) is presumably endemic to the Chapada Diamantina, Bahia State, Brazil. A majority of the species of this family are pollinated by diurnal bees that buzz the floral anthers to collect pollen. The present work examined the interactions between C. wurdackii and visiting bees, focusing on temporal, morphological, and behavioral features, especially in regards to the crepuscular bees Megalopta sodalis (Vachal) (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) and Ptiloglossa off. dubia Moure (Hymenoptera: Colletidae). The study was undertaken in an area of campo rupestre montane savanna vegetation located in the Chapada Diamantina Mountains of Bahia State, Brazil, between August/2007 and July/2008. Flowering in C. wurdackii occurred from April through July, with a peak in May. A total of 592 visits by diurnal and crepuscular bees to the flowers of C. wurdackii were recorded, with a majority of the visits made by M. sodalis and P. dubia (92%) near sunrise and sunset. The anthers of C. wurdackii are arranged in two tiers, which favors cross pollination. The morphological, temporal and behavioral characteristics of M. sodalis and P. dubia indicated that they were potential pollinators of C. wurdackii, in spite of the fact that the colorful and showy flowers of this species are more typical of a diurnal melittophilous pollination syndrome. PMID:22208813

  5. Variation of surface ozone in Campo Grande, Brazil: meteorological effect analysis and prediction.

    PubMed

    Pires, J C M; Souza, A; Pavão, H G; Martins, F G

    2014-09-01

    The effect of meteorological variables on surface ozone (O3) concentrations was analysed based on temporal variation of linear correlation and artificial neural network (ANN) models defined by genetic algorithms (GAs). ANN models were also used to predict the daily average concentration of this air pollutant in Campo Grande, Brazil. Three methodologies were applied using GAs, two of them considering threshold models. In these models, the variables selected to define different regimes were daily average O3 concentration, relative humidity and solar radiation. The threshold model that considers two O3 regimes was the one that correctly describes the effect of important meteorological variables in O3 behaviour, presenting also a good predictive performance. Solar radiation, relative humidity and rainfall were considered significant for both O3 regimes; however, wind speed (dispersion effect) was only significant for high concentrations. According to this model, high O3 concentrations corresponded to high solar radiation, low relative humidity and wind speed. This model showed to be a powerful tool to interpret the O3 behaviour, being useful to define policy strategies for human health protection regarding air pollution. PMID:24854500

  6. Pollination of Cambessedesia wurdackii in Brazilian Campo Rupestre Vegetation, with Special Reference to Crepuscular Bees

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Emanuella Lopes; Gimenes, Miriam

    2011-01-01

    Cambessedesia wurdackii Martins (Myrtales: Melastomataceae) is presumably endemic to the Chapada Diamantina, Bahia State, Brazil. A majority of the species of this family are pollinated by diurnal bees that buzz the floral anthers to collect pollen. The present work examined the interactions between C. wurdackii and visiting bees, focusing on temporal, morphological, and behavioral features, especially in regards to the crepuscular bees Megalopta sodalis (Vachal) (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) and Ptiloglossa off. dubia Moure (Hymenoptera: Colletidae). The study was undertaken in an area of campo rupestre montane savanna vegetation located in the Chapada Diamantina Mountains of Bahia State, Brazil, between August/2007 and July/2008. Flowering in C. wurdackii occurred from April through July, with a peak in May. A total of 592 visits by diurnal and crepuscular bees to the flowers of C. wurdackii were recorded, with a majority of the visits made by M. sodalis and P. dubia (92%) near sunrise and sunset. The anthers of C. wurdackii are arranged in two tiers, which favors cross pollination. The morphological, temporal and behavioral characteristics of M. sodalis and P. dubia indicated that they were potential pollinators of C. wurdackii, in spite of the fact that the colorful and showy flowers of this species are more typical of a diurnal melittophilous pollination syndrome. PMID:22208813

  7. Nephtyidae (Annelida: Polychaeta) from the Campos Basin, including two new species and a new record.

    PubMed

    Franco, Natália Bizzo; Rizzo, Alexandra E

    2016-01-01

    Members of the marine polychaete family Nephtyidae are commonly found in soft substrates. Their most distinctive characteristic is the presence of interramal branchiae located between the notopodia and neuropodia. In the present study, five species of Nephtyidae: Aglaophamus fabrun sp. nov., Aglaophamus juvenalis (Kinberg, 1866), Inermonephtys inermis (Ehlers, 1887), Inermonephtys soldius sp. nov. and Nephtys squamosa Ehlers, 1887 were found in the Campos Basin, state of Rio de Janeiro, including two new species and a new record for the Brazilian coast. Aglaophamus fabrun sp. nov. has a proboscis with 10 pairs of distal papillae and approximately 20 subdistal papillae in rows, with 3-5 papillae in each row; and lacks an unpaired median papilla; the prostomium has a pair of eyes and a characteristic pigmentation pattern. Inermonephtys soldius sp. nov. has interramal branchiae starting from parapodium 5, and basal papillae starting on chaetiger 6. Inermonephtys inermis is a new record for the Brazilian coast. Descriptions, comments and a key to species of Nephtyidae recorded from Brazil are provided. PMID:27395131

  8. Relación entre la orientación de Nebulosas Planetarias y el campo magnético galáctico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidmann, W.; Díaz, R. J.; Carranza, G.

    Un estudio detallado de las orientaciones diferenciales de nebulosas planetarias en todo el cielo sugiere fuertemente una relación con la dirección de los campos magnéticos de origen galáctico, determinados en la polarización de estrellas de campo. Esto da consistencia a la hipótesis de que la orientación de las nebulosas planetarias ovaladas es inducida, al menos parcialmente, por el campo magnético general de la Vía Láctea.

  9. The family Caprellidae (Amphipoda: Caprelloidea: Caprellidae) from Campos Basin, Southwestern Atlantic, with a key of species occurring in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mauro, Fábio Da Motta; Serejo, Cristiana Silveira

    2015-01-01

    Caprellid material of the present study was collected between 25-3000 m depth from the Campos Basin area, Southwestern Atlantic. As a result, Deutella incerta was found as a new record to the Southwestern Atlantic and two new species are described: Liropus guerragarciai sp. nov. and Mayerella sittropiae sp. nov. Besides, Paracaprella pusilla is herein redescribed as a common component of the Campos Basin amphipod community. Caprellids are a diverse and abundant group that can be found among algae and general biological substrates of the continental shelf area. As more deep sea samples are coming into light, they are turning out to be also a common component in this habitat. Including the present data, there are 25 caprellid species recorded in Brazil, being four of them restricted to the slope areas and 14 endemic to the Brazilian coast. A key to the Caprellidae species from Brazil is provided. PMID:26623760

  10. Summary of water resources for the Campo, Cuyapaipe, La Posta, and Manzanita Indian Reservations and vicinity, San Diego County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moyle, W.R.; Downing, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    Since 1945, precipitation and runoff in California on the Campo, Cuyapaipe, La Posta, and Manzanita Indian Reservations and surrounding areas generally have been below normal, and ground-water levels are declining. Most of the water is of excellent quality. The analysis of water from one well on the Campo Reservation indicates a concentration of nitrate that exceeds the recommended limit established in 1972 by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Most wells and springs in the study area yield water for domestic purposes. The yields range from less than 1 gallon per minute to 210 gallons per minute. Most of the water is produced from shallow aluvial-filled channels or from consolidated rocks that are deeply weathered locally or highly fractured. The well data show that insufficient water is available on the four reservations for large-scale irrigation. (Woodard-USGS)

  11. José-Antonio Campos-Ortega (1940-2004) and his scientific work - a personal perspective.

    PubMed

    Knust, Elisabeth; Hertel, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    José Antonio Campos-Ortega (1940-2004), a Spanish scientist who became a leading figure in the developmental genetics of the nervous system, spent most of his scientific life in Germany. Nevertheless, he remained deeply rooted in his native country. His thinking, his ambition and his work were driven by scientific, philosophical and historical questions. He started as a neuroanatomist, working first in Valencia, then in Gottingen, Tubingen and Freiburg. He used primates, reptiles, then the house fly and finally Drosophila to address the question How is the brain or the eye structured in order to function?. While in Freiburg, the problem shifted to How does the nervous system come into being, into form? Campos-Ortega tried to understand early neurogenesis in Drosophila through formal genetics, by identifying relevant genes and studying their genetic interactions. Since he was convinced that not only a single experimental approach could solve a problem as complex as the development of the nervous system, he also included the molecular biological approach when he moved to Cologne, while maintaining a strong focus on anatomy, embryology and genetics. There, he also started to work on the neurogenesis of the zebrafish, using similar concepts and approaches. Throughout his scientific career, he thought, wrote and taught about the evolution of methods and ideas in his field of research. At Campos-Ortegas early death, an unfinished book manuscript was left, entitled Developmental Genetics. The Path to the Biological Synthesis. Some parts of his introductory overview are included here. PMID:19757396

  12. Estudio de la envoltura fría en presencia de un campo magnético en estrellas tempranas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montero, M. F.; Platzeck, A. M.

    En el estudio de la distribución espacial de la densidad en torno a estrellas tempranas, al menos en dos coordenadas, se consideran en general ``escenarios" cualitativos. Existen sólo dos modelos calculados a partir de la ecuación de conservación de momento: el de Poeckert y Marlborough (Astroph. Journal 220, 940, 1978) y el de Ringuelet e Iglesias (Astroph. Journal 369, 463, 1991). El primero es isotermo considerando campo gravitatorio y fuerza centrífuga. El segundo, resuelve un caso no isotermo en equilibrio hidrostático teniendo en cuenta los campos gravitatorios, de radiación y magnético. En esta comunicación presentamos el análisis, que se deriva de los resultados de Ringuelet e Iglesias para el caso hidrostático, de la estructura de líneas de campo magnético. A continuación estudiamos la forma en que se modifica la distribución espacial de la densidad en la envoltura fría, cuando se tiene en cuenta el movimiento del plasma.

  13. The Alegre Lineament and its role over the tectonic evolution of the Campos Basin and adjacent continental margin, Southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calegari, Salomão Silva; Neves, Mirna Aparecida; Guadagnin, Felipe; França, George Sand; Vincentelli, Maria Gabriela Castillo

    2016-08-01

    The structural framework and tectonic evolution of the sedimentary basins along the eastern margin of the South American continent are closely associated with the tectonic framework and crustal heterogeneities inherited from the Precambrian basement. However, the role of NW-SE and NNW-SSE structures observed at the outcropping basement in Southeastern Brazil and its impact over the development of those basins have not been closely investigated. In the continental region adjacent to the Campos Basin, we described a geological feature with NNW-SSE orientation, named in this paper as the Alegre Fracture Zone (AFZ), which is observed in the onshore basement and can be projected to the offshore basin. The main goal of this work was to study this structural lineament and its influence on the tectonic evolution of the central portion of the Campos Basin and adjacent mainland. The onshore area was investigated through remote sensing data joint with field observations, and the offshore area was studied through the interpretation of 2-D seismic data calibrated by geophysical well logs. We concluded that the AFZ occurs in both onshore and offshore as a brittle deformation zone formed by multiple sets of fractures that originated in the Cambrian and were reactivated mainly as normal faults during the rift phase and in the Cenozoic. In the Campos Basin, the AFZ delimitates the western side of the Corvina-Parati Low, composing a complex fault system with the NE-SW faults and the NW-SE transfer faults.

  14. Upwelling processes along a western boundary current in the Abrolhos-Campos region of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguiar, A. L.; Cirano, M.; Pereira, J.; Marta-Almeida, M.

    2014-08-01

    Upwelling events observed from the years 2003 to 2011 were analyzed. Our focus was on the Abrolhos-Campos region (ACR, 15°S-23°S), which is located along the Brazilian Margin and influenced by a western boundary current, the Brazil Current (BC). Satellite sea surface temperature, National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and Global Forecast System (GFS) wind data were used to complement the results of a high-resolution regional oceanic model to investigate the occurrence of and the mechanisms responsible for intense upwelling events in this region. These events were more frequent from 20°S to 23°S. Over 90% of the identified upwelling events were influenced by favorable wind stress. Surface Ekman transport was found to be more important for the region from Prado (17°S) to Marataízes (21°S), whereas upward Ekman pumping played a more important role from 22°S to 23°S. Current-driven upwelling processes associated with the location of the BC as well as its velocity and meso-scale activity were also analyzed. The results showed that these mechanisms are highly influenced by the local topography. Topographic effects exerted via the acceleration of the BC are more obvious in the southern ACR, while in the Prado region, BC cyclonic meanders tend to be more relevant. Moreover, eddy-driven upwelling increases in the southward direction after the passage of the Vitória-Trindade Ridge (20°S), an important submarine chain, which acts to constrain and modulate the southward flow of the BC.

  15. Phylogenetic analysis of the microbial community in hypersaline petroleum produced water from the Campos Basin.

    PubMed

    Piubeli, Francine; Grossman, Matthew J; Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabiana; Durrant, Lucia R

    2014-10-01

    In this work the archaea and eubacteria community of a hypersaline produced water from the Campos Basin that had been transported and discharged to an onshore storage facility was evaluated by 16S recombinant RNA (rRNA) gene sequence analysis. The produced water had a hypersaline salt content of 10 (w/v), had a carbon oxygen demand (COD) of 4,300 mg/l and contains phenol and other aromatic compounds. The high salt and COD content and the presence of toxic phenolic compounds present a problem for conventional discharge to open seawater. In previous studies, we demonstrated that the COD and phenolic content could be largely removed under aerobic conditions, without dilution, by either addition of phenol degrading Haloarchaea or the addition of nutrients alone. In this study our goal was to characterize the microbial community to gain further insight into the persistence of reservoir community members in the produced water and the potential for bioremediation of COD and toxic contaminants. Members of the archaea community were consistent with previously identified communities from mesothermic reservoirs. All identified archaea were located within the phylum Euryarchaeota, with 98 % being identified as methanogens while 2 % could not be affiliated with any known genus. Of the identified archaea, 37 % were identified as members of the strictly carbon-dioxide-reducing genus Methanoplanus and 59 % as members of the acetoclastic genus Methanosaeta. No Haloarchaea were detected, consistent with the need to add these organisms for COD and aromatic removal. Marinobacter and Halomonas dominated the eubacterial community. The presence of these genera is consistent with the ability to stimulate COD and aromatic removal with nutrient addition. In addition, anaerobic members of the phyla Thermotogae, Firmicutes, and unclassified eubacteria were identified and may represent reservoir organisms associated with the conversion hydrocarbons to methane. PMID:24920265

  16. Distribution, population density, and status of sympatric cercopithecids in the Campo-Ma'an area, Southwestern Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Adele; Matthews, Andreas

    2002-07-01

    A study on species composition, distribution, and population density of cercopithecids in the Campo-Ma'an area, Southwestern Cameroon, was undertaken from December 1997 until August 2000. A total of 665.5 km of line transects was used for the census. Thirteen diurnal primate species including five endangered species (Gorilla g. gorilla, Pan troglodytes, Mandrillus sphinx, Colobus satanas, Cercocebus torquatus) were recorded in the Campo Forest, the greatest part of which is a logging concession. Cercopithecus nictitans (1.43 groups/km2), C. cephus (1.13 groups/km2), C. pogonias (0.81 groups/km2), and C. torquatus (0.51 groups/km2) occurred at medium frequencies compared to figures from other Central African study sites. Mandrill densities estimated (0.27 groups/km2) show that the area is very important for the conservation of this rare species. Guenon densities found inside areas with a high level of human activities did not differ significantly from densities estimated in areas with a lower level of human activities. C. torquatus densities were significantly higher in the areas with a low level of human disturbance and encounter rates with Lophocebus albigena also indicate a preference of less disturbed areas. Mangabeys are thus likely to be adversely affected by human activities in the area. In the Ma'an Forest, which has not been logged yet, ten species were confirmed. The population densities of two guenons (C. nictitans and C. cephus) were estimated to be twice as high in the unlogged forest area as compared to the logged forest of Campo. Other species are rarer in the Ma'an Forest than in the Campo Forest. Although mangabeys are adversely affected by human activities, the results still indicate that selective logging may be compatible with the conservation of cercopithecids, if a reduced damage logging concept and antipoaching measures are implemented. Increased hunting activities following logging operations will definitely have a negative longterm impact on

  17. Application of MSS/LANDSAT images to the structural study of recent sedimentary areas: Campos Sedimentary Basin, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Barbosa, M. P.

    1983-01-01

    Visual and computer aided interpretation of MSS/LANDSAT data identified linear and circular features which represent the ""reflexes'' of the crystalline basement structures in the Cenozoic sediments of the emergent part of the Campos Sedimentary Basin.

  18. Ground-water in the Teresina-Campo Maior area, Piaui, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodis, Harry G.; Suszczynski, Edison F.

    1972-01-01

    The Teresina-Campo Maior area lies in a presently developing farming and grazing region near the margin of drought-prone northeast Brazil where irrigated farming offers the best potential for economic development. The area comprises 9,700 square kilometers largely of catinga-covered tabular uplands which are drained by the perennial Rio Parnatba. The climate is hot and humid most of the year but with distinct wet and dry seasons. Temperature extremes range from 20?C to 39?C and the annum rainfall averages 1,200 millimeters. The area's ground-water reservoir is contained chiefly in sandstone aquifers of six westward-dipping sedimentary rock formations, all part of the Maranhao sedimentary basin. The youngest of these formations, namely the Piaut (Pennsylvarian), Poti (Mississippian), Longa (Upper Devonian), and Cabecas (Middle Devoniar), contain the principal aquifers. Precipitation is the primary source of recharge to these aquifers and is more than sufficient to replenish current withdrawals from wells. Underlying the principal aquifers are the untapped Pimenteiras and Serra Grande Formations (both Lower Devonian) which in areas adjacent to the report area are moderately good to excellent water producers. These aquifers are recharged principally by lateral inflow from the east. Water also occurs in the alluvial deposits (Quaternary) underlying the flood plain of the Rio Parnatba but recurrent and uncontrolled flooding at present (1966) precludes their development. Of little economic importance, because they lie above the zone of saturation, are the thin erosional remnants of the Pastos Bons (Upper Triassic), Matuca, and Pedra de Fogo (both Permian) Formations. There are in the report area about 200 drilled wells most of which are pumped with power-driven engines. The wells range from 40 to 500 meters deep but most do not exceed 150 meters, and practically all are completed open hole. Yields range from 500 liters per day for 6-inch-diameter domestic wells to 240

  19. Microgloma Sanders & Allen, 1973 (Nuculanidae) and Pristigloma Dall, 1900 (Pristiglomidae) (Pelecypoda) in the Campos Basin off Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Benaim, Natalia Pereira; Absalão, Ricardo Silva

    2011-01-01

    Abstract As a secondary result of oil prospecting in Brazil, samples from the Campos Basin continental slope became available. In these samples, specimens of the genera Microgloma Sanders & Allen, 1973 and Pristigloma Dall, 1900 were found. This contribution provides the southernmost record of the genus Microgloma, the first record of Microgloma mirmidina (Dautzenberg & Fischer 1897) from the western Atlantic, the descriptions of Microgloma macaron sp. n. and Microgloma nhanduti sp. n.as new species, and the shallowest record of Pristigloma alba Sanders & Allen 1973. PMID:22287903

  20. The Sondalo gabbro contact aureole (Campo unit, Eastern Alps): implications for mid-crustal mafic magma emplacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petri, B.; Mohn, G.; Štípská, P.; Schulmann, K.; Manatschal, G.

    2016-05-01

    Contact aureoles rimming plutonic rocks are the locus of metamorphism and deformations witnessing magma emplacement mechanisms in the crust. In this study, structural and petrological observations are combined to mineral equilibria modelling to unravel the polyphase tectono-metamorphic history of the Permian Sondalo gabbro and its host rock, the Campo unit (Eastern Alps). The Campo unit consists of Grt-St-Ms-Bt-Pl-Qtz ± Sil ± And ± Crd mica schists attesting of a Carboniferous prograde P- T path, reaching 6 kbar/600 °C and subsequently 5.6 kbar/650 °C. This metamorphism is coeval with the formation of a sub-vertical NE-SW trending foliation (S1) and its overprint by a sub-vertical NW-SE trending foliation (S2). The heat brought by the Permian intrusives subsequently caused heating of the Campo unit at around 3-4 kbar/540 °C reflected by regional static crystallization of cordierite and andalusite porphyroblasts. During the intrusion of the Sondalo gabbro, thermal peak conditions are recorded by Grt-Sil-Spl-Crd-Ilm granulitic xenoliths at ~5.5 kbar/930 °C, subsequently exhumed at ~4 kbar during the development of a new foliation (S3). This foliation is localized around the pluton and moderately dips away from the centre of the pluton. In the migmatitic contact aureole, Grt-Sil-Bt-Pl-Qtz-Ilm and Grt-Sil-Crd-Spl-Bt-Kfs-Ilm residual rocks bear the new foliation (S3) and document a decompression from 6 kbar/750 °C to 5 kbar/725 °C and from 5.2 kbar/800 °C to reach 4.8 kbar/770 °C, respectively. The P- T- d paths recorded by the host rock and the xenoliths point to a two-step magma emplacement. First the Sondalo gabbro intruded the Campo unit causing heating of the host rock without deformation at 3-4 kbar. Second, the ductile flow along the pluton margins developed a new foliation (S3) during exhumation of the pluton and its immediate contact aureole from 6 to 4 kbar. Altogether, it indicates a progressive increase in mechanical coupling between the pluton

  1. Challenges towards the elimination of Human African Trypanosomiasis in the sleeping sickness focus of Campo in southern Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Simo, Gustave; Mbida Mbida, Jean Arthur; Ebo'o Eyenga, Vincent; Asonganyi, Tazoacha; Njiokou, Flobert; Grébaut, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    The sleeping sickness focus of Campo lies along the Atlantic coast and extends along the Ntem River, which constitutes the Cameroonian and Equatorial Guinean border. It is a hypo-endemic focus with the disease prevalence varying from 0.3 to 0.86% during the last few decades. Investigations on animal reservoirs revealed a prevalence of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense of 0.6% in wild animals and 4.83% in domestic animals of this focus. From 2001 to 2012, about 19 931 tsetse were collected in this focus and five tsetse species including Glossina palpalis palpalis, G. pallicera, G. nigrofusca, G. tabaniformis and G. caliginea were identified. The analysis of blood meals of these flies showed that they feed on human, pig, goat, sheep, and wild animals such as antelope, duiker, wild pig, turtle and snake. The percentage of blood meals taken on these hosts varies according to sampling periods. For instance, 6.8% of blood meals from pig were reported in 2004 and 22% in 2008. This variation is subjected to considerable evolutions because the Campo HAT focus is submitted to socio-economic mutations including the reopening of a new wood company, the construction of autonomous port at "Kribi" as well as the dam at "Memve ele". These activities will bring more that 3000 inhabitants around Campo and induce the deforestation for the implementation of farmlands as well as breeding of domestic animals. Such mutations have impacts on the transmission and the epidemiology of sleeping sickness due to the modification of the fauna composition, the nutritional behavior of tsetse, the zoophilic/anthropophilic index. To achieve the elimination goal in the sleeping sickness focus of Campo, we report in this paper the current epidemiological situation of the disease, the research findings of the last decades notably on the population genetics of trypanosomes, the modifications of nutritional behavior of tsetse, the prevalence of T. b. gambiense in humans, domestic and wild animals. An overview

  2. Mercury in sediments from shelf and continental slope at Campos Basin near Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo, Beatriz; Hintelmann, Holger; Dimock, Brian; Gomes de Almeida, Marcelo; Falcão, Ana Paula; de Rezende, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant due to its ability to undergo long-range transport from source regions to remote parts of the world, and its ubiquitous presence in aquatic ecosystems. The Hg isotope ratios could be an effective tool for tracing the sources and process of Hg in the environment. This study aimed to establish the distribution of mercury in surface sediments of three transects (25- 3000m water depth) in continental shelf and slope in Campos Basin-RJ-Brazil, using the Hg isotopes to understand the geochemical processes relating to Hg cycling that occur in a subtropical coastal environment. The study area was divided into three transects: A (located to the south and close to a upwelling area), D (located opposite the mouth of the Paraiba do Sul River) and I (located north near the top of Vitória-ES). Sampling isobaths were 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 400, 700, 1000, 1300, 1900, 2500 and 3000m. The Total Hg, MMHg and Hg stable isotopes were determined based on EPA Method 1631, EPA method 1630 and Foucher and Hintelmann (2006), respectively. The silt/clay ranged from 0.05 to 95%, and the organic carbon (OC) from 0.07 to 1.43 % for all transects. THg and MMHg concentrations in the shelf were 11.9 ± 7.2 (1.7- 22.2) ng.g‑1 and 0.15 ± 0.12 (0.02 - 0.40) ng.g‑1; in the slope 30.3 ± 9.2 (11.6 - 51.6) ng.g‑1 and 0.13 ± 0.06 (0.03 -0.29) ng.g‑1 , respectively. The δ202Hg and Δ199Hg varied from -0.32 to -1.85 ‰ (-0.79 ± 0.44‰) and -0.41 to 0.09 ‰ (-0.03 ± 0.12 ‰) for all transects, respectively. The delta values between both regions are significantly different, the shelf region showed δ202Hg from -0.59 to -2.19 ‰ (mean: -1.52 ±0.65) and Δ199Hg from - 0.53 to 0.08 ‰ (mean: -0.27 ±0.55) and the slope region were observed δ202Hg values from -0.32 to -1.82 ‰ (mean: -0.73 ±0.39 ‰ n=18) and gΔ199Hg from -0.23 to 0.09‰ (mean: -0.02 ±0.08‰ n=5). The slope appears to be enriched with heavier isotopes compared to the shelf, however

  3. Comparison of predicted binders in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus intestine protein variants Bm86 Campo Grande strain, Bm86 and Bm95.

    PubMed

    Andreotti, Renato; Pedroso, Marisela S; Caetano, Alexandre R; Martins, Natália F

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the sequence analysis of Bm86 Campo Grande strain comparing it with Bm86 and Bm95 antigens from the preparations TickGardPLUS and Gavac, respectively. The PCR product was cloned into pMOSBlue and sequenced. The secondary structure prediction tool PSIPRED was used to calculate alpha helices and beta strand contents of the predicted polypeptide. The hydrophobicity profile was calculated using the algorithms from the Hopp and Woods method, in addition to identification of potential MHC class-I binding regions in the antigens. Pair-wise alignment revealed that the similarity between Bm86 Campo Grande strain and Bm86 is 0.2% higher than that between Bm86 Campo Grande strain and Bm95 antigens. The identities were 96.5% and 96.3% respectively. Major suggestive differences in hydrophobicity were predicted among the sequences in two specific regions. PMID:18823577

  4. Continuous Mantle Exhumation at the Outer Continental Margin of the Santos, Campos and Espírito Santo Basins, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalan, P. V.; Severino, M. G.; Rigoti, C. A.; Magnavita, L. P.; Oliveira, J. B.; Viana, A. R.

    2011-12-01

    The interpretation of 12,000 km of very deep (PSTM to 16 sec., PSDM to 25 km) 2D seismic sections, coupled with gravimetric and magnetometric modeling line-by-line, and the integration of the results with the regional data bank of Petrobras, all together viewed in terms of the recent tectonic models developed for the rupturing and separation of mega-plates, led to a regional (500,000 km2), first-time ever, 3D-view of the deep structure underlying the prolific sedimentary basins of Santos, Campos and Espírito Santo in southeastern Brazil. The three basins are situated onto a continental margin that narrows gradually, from south to north, from a very wide (Santos), through an intermediate (Campos), and then to a narrow (Espírito Santo) passive margin. The seismic sections shows very well the dual rheological behavior of the continental crust, consisting of a deeper and plastic lower crust (with numerous short and strong reflections that display sub-horizontal ductile flow) and a shallower and brittle upper crust (represented by a mostly transparent and faulted seismic facies topped by the sedimentary sections of the rift and thermal subsidence phases). The crustal structure of the Santos Basin shows a zonation from west to east of alternating bands of NE-SW-trending thin (plastic basement terrains) and thick (resistant basement terrains) stretched continental crust. In vertical section this zonation is displayed as a series of necking zones, leading to a highly irregular, low to moderate crustal taper. Such zonation is less developed in the Campos Basin, where the crustal taper is moderate and regular, and practically non-existent in the Espírito Santo Basin, where the crustal taper is high. The most outstanding crustal feature shared in common by the three basins is the exhumation of mantle between the tip of the hyper-extended continental crust and the tabular-shaped oceanic crust. Although the crustal taper varies significantly from basin to basin their

  5. Time, Weather and Empires: The Campos Rodrigues Observatory in Lourenço Marques, Mozambique (1905-1930).

    PubMed

    Raposo, Pedro M P

    2015-07-01

    In 1905 the Campos Rodrigues Observatory (CRO) was founded in Lourenço Marques (nowadays Maputo), the capital of Mozambique, by then part of the Portuguese overseas empire. In this paper the inception and early history of the CRO are analysed in the broader context of the interwoven history of the Portuguese and British empires in Africa, and specifically with respect to the scientific relations between Mozambique and South Africa. The equipment, personnel, practices and networks involved in the inception and early development of the CRO are brought into focus in order to illustrate the problems and strategies that shaped the establishment and functioning of this observatory, which was conceived essentially as a symbol of imperial stamina and colonial prowess. It is suggested that by providing a focal point for the development of scientific relations between Mozambique and South Africa, the CRO served both Portuguese ambitions for recognition as an imperial power and the emergence of South African nationalism. PMID:26104301

  6. Spotted fever group Rickettsia in Amblyomma dubitatum tick from the urban area of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Matias, Jaqueline; Garcia, Marcos Valério; Cunha, Rodrigo Casquero; Aguirre, André de Abreu Rangel; Barros, Jacqueline Cavalvante; Csordas, Bárbara Guimarães; Andreotti, Renato

    2015-03-01

    Rickettsia infection of each tick was evaluated by the hemolymph test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting gltA and ompA genes. All hemolymph tests were negative and PCR of one A. dubitatum detected both Rickettsia genes. Sequence of ompA exhibited a 99% identity with Rickettsia parkeri and R. africae and a 98% identity with R. sibirica. Rickettsia of the spotted fever group in A. dubitatum is described for the first time in an urban area within the municipality of Campo Grande in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), Brazil. This finding reinforces the importance of more detailed studies to determine the role of A. dubitatum in the transmission of spotted fever agents. PMID:25454606

  7. Shelf-fed turbidite system model and its application to the Oligocene deposits of the Campos Basin, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Peres, W.E. )

    1993-01-01

    Despite the large number of models involving the genesis and sedimentary facies of deep-water sandstones, none of these models adequately explain the origin and evolution of the extremely clean, widespread (over 6000 km[sup 2]), predominantly massive, thick (over 150 m), blanket-like sandstones deposited in the deep-water environment of the Campos Basin during the Oligocene. Consequently, to explain this sandstone, the author proposes a shelf-fed turbidite system model, which is strongly based on the Campos Basin data set. The basic framework necessary for the development of a shelf-fed turbidite system includes (1) deposition of a large volume of clastics during the buildup of a shelf-sand-rich unit, which later constitutes the main source of sediment for the system, (2) localized tectonic pulses that modify the outer shelf declivity and trigger mass flows; and (3) a relative fall of sea level, which causes the subaqueous exposure of the shelf sediments to reworking in a shallow, high-energy marine environment. These three basic elements are equally important for shelf-fed turbidity system development, but relative sea level position controls the development of the progradational, aggradational, and retrogradational depositional phases within the system. Submarine canyons commonly are scoured during all three phases on the outer shelf and lower slope environments. The shelf-fed turbidite system model may apply to other sedimentary basins, principally to those of the Atlantic-continental margins that have a thick evaporite sublayer. Halokinesis can provide the necessary room for the shelf sedimentary-unit buildup, the tectonic pulses that trigger the flows, and even localized relative sea level oscillations that can accelerate or abort any one of the depositional phases of the system. 25 refs., 26 figs.

  8. Bacterial diversity associated with populations of Glossina spp. from Cameroon and distribution within the Campo sleeping sickness focus.

    PubMed

    Geiger, Anne; Fardeau, Marie-Laure; Njiokou, Flobert; Joseph, Manon; Asonganyi, Tazoacha; Ollivier, Bernard; Cuny, Gérard

    2011-10-01

    Tsetse flies were sampled in three villages of the Campo sleeping sickness focus in South Cameroon. The aim of this study was to investigate the flies' gut bacterial composition using culture-dependent techniques. Out of the 32 flies analyzed (27 Glossina palpalis palpalis, two Glossina pallicera, one Glossina nigrofusca, and two Glossina caliginea), 17 were shown to be inhabited by diverse bacteria belonging to the Proteobacteria, the Firmicutes, or the Bacteroidetes phyla. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated the presence of 16 bacteria belonging to the genera Acinetobacter (4), Enterobacter (4), Enterococcus (2), Providencia (1), Sphingobacterium (1), Chryseobacterium (1), Lactococcus (1), Staphylococcus (1), and Pseudomonas (1). Using identical bacterial isolation and identification processes, the diversity of the inhabiting bacteria analyzed in tsetse flies sampled in Cameroon was much higher than the diversity found previously in flies collected in Angola. Furthermore, bacterial infection rates differed greatly between the flies from the three sampling areas (Akak, Campo Beach/Ipono, and Mabiogo). Last, the geographic distribution of the different bacteria was highly uneven; two of them identified as Sphingobacterium spp. and Chryseobacterium spp. were only found in Mabiogo. Among the bacteria identified, several are known for their capability to affect the survival of their insect hosts and/or insect vector competence. In some cases, bacteria belonging to a given genus were shown to cluster separately in phylogenetic trees; they could be novel species within their corresponding genus. Therefore, such investigations deserve to be pursued in expanded sampling areas within and outside Cameroon to provide greater insight into the diverse bacteria able to infect tsetse flies given the severe human and animal sickness they transmit. PMID:21387098

  9. Exhumation, cooling and deformation history of the necking zone of the fossil Adriatic rifted margin: the Campo/Grosina section (S-Switzerland and N-Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petri, Benoît; Mohn, Geoffroy; Wijbrans, Jan R.; Manatschal, Gianreto; Beltrando, Marco

    2016-04-01

    The Austroalpine units in SE Switzerland and N-Italy preserve remnants of the fossil Adriatic rifted margin. Notably the Campo-Grosina units represent the necking zone where major crustal thinning was accommodated during the Jurassic rifting. This contribution aims to unravel the complex tectonic evolution recorded in these units from the late Carboniferous - early Permian to the Jurassic rifting. The cooling and exhumation of the Campo and overlying Grosina units, separated by the Eita shear zone are explored by the acquisition of 40Ar/39Ar on hornblende, muscovite and biotite. New geochronological data on the Grosina unit present 40Ar/39Ar ages between 273 and 261 Ma for muscovite and between 248 and 246 Ma for biotite. The Campo unit shows clearly younger ages between 210 and 177 Ma on hornblende, between 186 and 176 Ma on muscovite and between 174 and 171 Ma on biotite. Numerous data were discarded due to frequent excess 40Ar on amphiboles, probably associated to the emplacement of the Sondalo gabbro with a high 40Ar/36Ar ratio in Permian times. These new ages, together with a compilation of existing ages obtained with different chronometers (U-Pb, Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr, K-Ar, 40Ar/39Ar) and performed on different lithologies from both the Campo and the Grosina units allow an estimation of the cooling rates for these units to be done. The new results show that both the Campo and the Grosina units underwent a cooling rate around 10°C/Ma in Permian time. The Grosina unit, being in a shallower crustal level, did not record the Jurassic cooling, reaching up to 50°C/Ma in the Campo unit. The notable difference in cooling rates between the Permian and the Jurassic events attests of a cooling without being associated to an exhumation in Permian times, whereas the Campo unit cooled rapidly in Jurassic times, due to an exhumation and an emplacement in shallow crustal levels. The latter tectonic event was likely caused by shearing along the Eita or other greenschist facies

  10. Use and valuation of native and introduced medicinal plant species in Campo Hermoso and Zetaquira, Boyacá, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Medicinal plant species contribute significantly to folk medicine in Colombia. However, few local studies have investigated whether species used are introduced or native and whether there is a difference in importance of native and introduced medicinal plant species. The aim of the present study was to describe the use of medicinal plants within two municipalities, Campo Hermoso and Zetaquira, both in the department of Boyacá, Colombia and to assess the importance of native and introduced plants to healers, amateur healers and local people. As local healers including amateur healers have no history of introduced species our working hypotheses (H1-2) were that H1: native and introduced medicinal plant species are of equal importance and H2: healers and amateur healers do not differentiate in their preferences between native and introduced medicinal plant species. Methods Ten villages were included in the study. A combination of quantitative and qualitative methods was used including questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, in- depth interviews, and open talks. Voucher specimens were collected in home gardens and during field walks. For data analysis, we calculated use value indices and Jaccard index and tested for the above hypothesis using Spearman rank-correlation coefficients and Wilcoxon-Mann–Whitney tests. Results Eighty medicinal plant species were described by locals as the most frequently used. Of these, 78 species were taxonomically identified, distributed within 41 families and 74 genera, which included 35 native species and 43 introduced. The highest valued families were: Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Apiaceae, Rutaceae and Verbenaceae. The species ranked highest according to their Use Values, in both municipalities, were Mentha suaveolens Ehrh., Ambrosia cumanensis Kunth, and Verbena littoralis Kunth. Introduced species were more important than native ones in Zetaquira, while there was no difference in importance in Campo Hermoso. While healers

  11. Pinnotheres orcutti Rathbun, 1918, a new Eastern Tropical Pacific species of Tumidotheres Campos, 1989 (Crustacea: Brachyura: Pinnotheridae).

    PubMed

    Campos, Ernesto; Vargas-Castillo, Rita

    2013-01-01

    The lack of a protuberance in the basal antennal article in the holotype of Pinnotheres orcutti Rathbun, 1918, allows its removal from Pinnotheres Bosc, 1802 [type species, P. pisumn (Linnaeus, 1767)]. The species is instead included in Tumidotheres Campos, 1989, because of the presence of a thick, tumid and firm carapace, and its surface covered with a short, dense, and deciduous tomentum; the third maxilliped having a propodus larger than the carpus; and the presence of a subspatulate dactylus of the third maxilliped medially inserted into a notch on the ventral margin of the propodus. Tumidotheres orcutti new combination can be separated from its sole Pacific Ocean congener, T. margarita Smith, 1870, by its unique dentition on the inner margin of the cheliped pollex, which is armed with a blunt proximal lobe and a row of small teeth, the two distal teeth being conspicuously the largest. In contrast, the pollex dentition of T. margarita consists of very small teeth, all similar in size. PMID:26217839

  12. Monitoring the fall of large atmospheric ice conglomerations: a multianalytical approach to the study of the Mejorada del Campo megacryometeor.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Francisco Alamilla; Alegre, José Ma Ramiro; Cordero Pérez, José Carlos; Martín Redondo, Ma Paz; Delgado Huertas, Antonio; Fernández Sampedro, Ma Teresa; Menor-Salván, César; Ruiz-Bermejo, Marta; López-Vera, Fernando; Rodríguez-Losada, José A; Martinez-Frias, Jesus

    2008-04-01

    Certain local atmospheric anomalies, such as the formation of unusually large ice conglomerations (megacryometeors), have been proposed to be a potential natural hazard for people and aviation, as well as geoindicators for fingerprinting larger-scale atmospheric environmental changes. On March 13th 2007, at approximately 10:15 am, an ice chunk weighing about 10 kg fell from the clear-sky and crashed through the roof (around 15 m) of an industrial storage house in Mejorada del Campo, a town located 20 km east from Madrid. The megacryometeor monitoring follow-up and the original investigation presented here includes, for the first time, both logistic and scientific collaboration between the Laboratory of the Environment, Criminalistic Service (SECRIM, the Spanish "Guardia Civil") and academic and scientific institutions (universities and the Spanish National Research Council). We propose that the management procedure of the incident, along with the detailed scientific research and combination of analytical methodologies in different laboratories, can serve as a protocol model for other similar events. PMID:18385879

  13. Prediction models of CO, SPM and SO(2) concentrations in the Campo de Gibraltar Region, Spain: a multiple comparison strategy.

    PubMed

    Turias, Ignacio J; González, Francisco J; Martin, Ma Luz; Galindo, Pedro L

    2008-08-01

    The 'Campo de Gibraltar' region is a very industrialized area where very few air pollution studies have been carried out. Up to date, no model has been developed in order to predict air pollutant levels in the different towns spread in the region. Carbon monoxide (CO), Sulphur dioxide (SO(2)) and suspended particulate matter (SPM) series have been investigated (years 1999-2000-2001). Multilayer perceptron models (MLPs) with backpropagation learning rule have been used. A resampling strategy with two-fold crossvalidation allowed the statistical comparison of the different models considered in this study. Artificial neural networks (ANN) models were compared with Persistence and ARIMA models and also with models based on standard Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) over test sets with data that had not been used in the training stage. The models based on ANNs showed better capability of generalization than those based on MLR. The designed procedure of random resampling permits an adequate and robust multiple comparison of the tested models. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used to reduce the dimensionality of data and to transform exogenous variables into significant and independent components. Short-term predictions were better than medium-term predictions in the case of CO and SO(2) series. Conversely, medium-term predictions were better in the case of SPM concentrations. The predictions are significantly promising (e.g., d (SPM 24-ahead) = 0.906, d (CO 1-ahead) = 0.891, d (SO2 1-ahead) = 0.851). PMID:17929183

  14. Volcanism-sedimentation interaction in the Campo de Calatrava Volcanic Field (Spain): a magnetostratigraphic and geochronological study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero-Hernández, Antonio; López-Moro, Francisco Javier; Gallardo-Millán, José Luis; Martín-Serrano, Ángel; Gómez-Fernández, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    This work focuses on the influence of Cenozoic volcanism of the Campo de Calatrava volcanic field on the sedimentation of two small continental basins in Spain (Argamasilla and Calzada-Moral basins). The volcanism in this area was mainly monogenetic, according to the small-volume volcanic edifices of scoria cones that were generated and the occurrence of tuff rings and maars. A sedimentological analysis of the volcaniclastic deposits led to the identification of facies close to the vents, low-density (dilute) pyroclastic surges, secondary volcanic deposits and typical maar deposits. Whole-rock K/Ar dating, together with palaeomagnetic constraints, yielded an age of 3.11-3.22 Ma for the onset of maar formation, the deposition finished in the Late Gauss-Early Matuyana. Using both techniques and previous paleontological data allowed it to be inferred that the maar formation and the re-sedimentation stage that occurred in Argamasilla and Calzada-Moral basins were roughly coeval. The occurrence of syn-eruption volcaniclastic deposits with small thicknesses that were separated by longer inter-eruption periods, where fluvial and lacustrine sedimentation was prevalent, together with the presence of small-volume volcanic edifices indicated that there were short periods of volcanic activity in this area. The volcanic activity was strongly controlled by previous basement faults that favoured magma feeding, and the faults also controlled the location of volcanoes themselves. The occurrence of the volcanoes in the continental basins led to the creation of shallow lakes that were related to the maar formation and the modification of sedimentological intra-basinal features, specifically, valley slope and sediment load.

  15. Tick-borne agents in domesticated and stray cats from the city of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, midwestern Brazil.

    PubMed

    André, Marcos Rogério; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; Fernandes, Simone de Jesus; de Sousa, Keyla Cartens Marques; Gonçalves, Luiz Ricardo; Domingos, Iara Helena; de Macedo, Gabriel Carvalho; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

    2015-09-01

    Anaplasmataceae agents, piroplasmids and Hepatozoon spp. have emerged as important pathogens among domestic and wild felines. The present work aimed to detect the presence of species belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family, piroplasmas and Hepatozoon spp. DNA in blood samples of domesticated and stray cats in the city of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, midwestern Brazil. Between January and April 2013, whole blood samples were collected from 151 cats (54 males, 95 females and two without gender registration) in the city of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. DNA extracted from cat blood samples was submitted to conventional PCR assays for Theileria/Babesia/Cytauxzoon spp. (18S rRNA, ITS-1), Ehrlichia spp. (16S rRNA, dsb, groESL), Anaplasma spp. (16S rRNA, groESL) and Hepatozoon spp. (18S rRNA) followed by phylogenetic reconstructions. Out of 151 sampled cats, 13 (8.5%) were positive for Ehrlichia spp. closely related to Ehrlichia canis, 1 (0.66%) for Hepatozoon spp. closely related to Hepatozoon americanum and Hepatozoon spp. isolate from a wild felid, 1 (0.66%) for Cytauxzoon sp. closely related do Cytauxzoon felis, and 18 (11.9%) for Babesia/Theileria (one sequence was closely related to Babesia bigemina, eight for Babesia vogeli, five to Theileria spp. from ruminants [Theileria ovis, Theileria lestoquardi] and four to Theileria sp. recently detected in a cat). The present study showed that Ehrlichia spp., piroplasmids (B. vogeli, Theileria spp. and Cytauxzoon spp.) and, more rarely, Hepatozoon spp. circulate among stray and domesticated cats in the city of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, midwestern Brazil. PMID:26187416

  16. Well-log signatures of alluvial-lacustrine reservoirs and source rocks, Lagoa-Feia Formations, Lower Cretaceous, Campos Basin, offshore Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Abrahao, D.; Warme, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The Campos basin is situated in offshore southeastern Brazil. The Lagoa Feia is the basal formation in the stratigraphic sequence of the basin, and was deposited during rifting in an evolving complex of lakes of different sizes and chemical characteristics, overlying and closely associated with rift volcanism. The stratigraphic sequence is dominated by lacustrine limestones and shales (some of them organic-rich), and volcaniclastic conglomerates deposited on alluvial fans. The sequence is capped by marine evaporites. In the Lagoa Feia Formation, complex lithologies make reservoirs and source rocks unsuitable for conventional well-log interpretation. To solve this problem, cores were studied and the observed characteristics related to log responses. The results have been extended through the entire basin for other wells where those facies were not cored. The reservoir facies in the Lagoa Feia Formation are restricted to levels of pure pelecypod shells (''coquinas''). Resistivity, sonic, neutron, density, and gamma-ray logs were used in this work to show how petrophysical properties are derived for the unconventional reservoirs existing in this formation. The same suite of logs was used to develop methods to define geochemical characteristics where source rock data are sparse in the organic-rich lacustrine shales of the Lagoa Feia Formation. These shales are the main source rocks for all the oil discovered to date in the Campos basin.

  17. Levelling Profiles and a GPS Network to Monitor the Active Folding and Faulting Deformation in the Campo de Dalias (Betic Cordillera, Southeastern Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Marín-Lechado, Carlos; Galindo-Zaldívar, Jesús; Gil, Antonio José; Borque, María Jesús; de Lacy, María Clara; Pedrera, Antonio; López-Garrido, Angel Carlos; Alfaro, Pedro; García-Tortosa, Francisco; Ramos, Maria Isabel; Rodríguez-Caderot, Gracia; Rodríguez-Fernández, José; Ruiz-Constán, Ana; de Galdeano-Equiza, Carlos Sanz

    2010-01-01

    The Campo de Dalias is an area with relevant seismicity associated to the active tectonic deformations of the southern boundary of the Betic Cordillera. A non-permanent GPS network was installed to monitor, for the first time, the fault- and fold-related activity. In addition, two high precision levelling profiles were measured twice over a one-year period across the Balanegra Fault, one of the most active faults recognized in the area. The absence of significant movement of the main fault surface suggests seismogenic behaviour. The possible recurrence interval may be between 100 and 300 y. The repetitive GPS and high precision levelling monitoring of the fault surface during a long time period may help us to determine future fault behaviour with regard to the existence (or not) of a creep component, the accumulation of elastic deformation before faulting, and implications of the fold-fault relationship. PMID:22319309

  18. The advertisement and aggressive calls of Rhinella abei (Baldissera, Caramaschi, and Haddad, 2004) (Anura: Bufonidae) from Campo Largo, Paraná, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Batista, Vinicius Guerra; Ramalho, Werther Pereira; Amaral, Diogo Ferreira Do; Maciel, Natan Medeiros; Bastos, Rogério Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Rhinella abei is a medium-sized species (snout-to-vent length 57.0-76.4 mm in males; 60.4-83.9 mm in females-Baldissera et al. 2004) of the Rhinella crucifer species group, distributed in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest, from the State of Paraná to northern Rio Grande do Sul (Frost 2016). It is recorded in forested areas (Conte & Rossa-Feres 2007), or while breeding along forest edges and open habitats. Information on advertisement calls of species in the R. crucifer group is available for R. casconi, R. crucifer, R. inopina and R. ornata (Andrade et al. 2015; Heyer et al. 1990; Oliveira et al. 2014; Roberto et al. 2014). Here we describe the advertisement and aggressive calls of R. abei recorded in the municipality of Campo Largo (25.507472° S, 49.376632° W, datum "WGS84"), southeast State of Paraná, Brazil. PMID:27394842

  19. Major controlling factors on hydrocarbon generation and leakage in South Atlantic conjugate margins: A comparative study of Colorado, Orange, Campos and Lower Congo basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcano, Gabriela; Anka, Zahie; di Primio, Rolando

    2013-09-01

    We present a supra-regional comparative study of the major internal and external factors controlling source rock (SR) maturation and hydrocarbon (HC) generation and leakage in two pairs of conjugate margins across the South Atlantic: the Brazil (Campos Basin)-Angola (Lower Congo Basin) margins located in the "central segment", and the Argentina (Colorado Basin)-South Africa (Orange Basin) in the "southern segment". Our approach is based on the analysis and integration of borehole data, 1D numerical modeling, 2D seismic reflection data, and published reports. Coupling of modeling results, sedimentation rate calculation and seal-bypass system analysis reveal that: (1) oil window is reached by syn-rift SRs in the southern segment during the Early to Late Cretaceous when thermal subsidence is still active, while in the central segment they reach it in Late-Cretaceous-Neogene during a salt remobilization phase, and (2) early HC generation from post-rift SRs in the southern segment and from all SRs in the central segment appears to be controlled mainly by episodes of increased sedimentation rates. The latter seems to be associated with the Andes uplift history for the western South Atlantic basins (Campos and Colorado) and to a possibly climate-driven response for the eastern South Atlantic basins (Orange and Lower Congo). Additionally, we observe that the effect of volcanism on SR maturation in the southern segment is very local. The comparison of Cretaceous mass transport deposit (MTD) episodes with HC peak of generation and paleo-leakage indicators in the southern segment revealed the possible causal effect that HC generation and leakage have over MTD development. Interestingly, Paleogene leakage indicators, which were identified in the Argentina-South Africa conjugate margins, occur contemporaneously to low sedimentation rate periods. Nonetheless, present-day leakage indicators which were also identified in both pairs of conjugate margins might be related to seal

  20. The Permian post-orogenic collapse in the Alps: insights from the Campo unit (Austroalpine nappes, N-Italy, SE-Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petri, Benoît; Mohn, Geoffroy; Štípská, Pavla; Manatschal, Gianreto; Schulmann, Karel

    2014-05-01

    The final stage of the Variscan orogeny (310-270 Ma) is characterized by an intense tectonic, magmatic and metamorphic event. During the Permian, acid and mafic intrusions were emplaced at all crustal levels and are associated to high-temperature contact metamorphism. While most of the studies focus either on the formation of Permian basins or on the lower crustal magmatic and metamorphic evolution, the characterization of the middle crust is lacking. Therefore, this study aims to unravel the processes active at mid-crustal levels during the Permian. We investigate the contact aureole of the Sondalo gabbro emplaced in a mid-crustal position during the Permian, exposed in the Austroalpine Campo unit (N-Italy). This work is based on a multidisciplinary approach linking structural geology, metamorphic petrology and geochronology. The country rock of the gabbroic intrusion is composed of Grt-St micaschists and paragneisses indicating a prograde path in the amphibolite facies associated with the formation of a N-W steeply dipping S2 foliation. This foliation is pervasively reworked by a N-E trending sub-vertical S3 fabric made of Ms-Bt metasediments. This S3 fabric is also found in metapelitic septa in the core of the mafic intrusion, whereas in the narrow contact aureole a moderately dipping S4 fabric roughly parallel to the margins of the pluton is developed. From host-rock to the center of the intrusion, the metapelites show destabilization of muscovite, appearance of sillimanite, spinel, cordierite, crystallization of a large amount of garnet and finally disappearance of biotite and potassic feldspar. As a consequence, the kinzigitic restites of the contact aureole are replaced by Grt-Sil-Crd-Spl granulites in an intra-plutonic position. Qualitative P-T estimates indicate a barrovian prograde path during D2, similar to P-T evolutions found in other Austroalpine units (e.g. Ulten zone). Thermodynamic modelling of the high-grade granulites due to the thermal effect of

  1. The ethnocategory ''insect'' in the conception of the inhabitants of Tapera County, São Gonçalo dos Campos, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa-Neto, Eraldo M; Magalhães, Henrique F

    2007-06-01

    This article deals with the construction of the "insect" ethnozoological dominium by the inhabitants of Tapera County, which is located in the municipality of São Gonçalo dos Campos, Bahia State. Data were obtained from March to May 2005 through open-ended interviews carried out with 23 men and 8 women, whose ages ranged from 6 to 66 years old. Interviewees were asked about how they perceived and defined the animals considered as "insects", which types they knew, and if they used them as food resource. Most of the interviews were tape-recorded, and semi-literal transcriptions are kept at the Ethnobiology Laboratory of the Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana. Considering the ethnozoological classification system of the inhabitants of Tapera, the term "insect" is a broad semantic category that brings together animals of different and not systematically related taxonomic groups. Apparently, these animals are culturally perceived and categorized as "insects" because they are usually considered as noxious, disgusting, and disease carrier creatures. True insects can be excluded from this ethnocategory due to the perception people have that such animals do not cause "injuries" or because they are useful. Perceptions toward these animals imply ambiguous behavior and feelings, which range from more positive attitudes (conservative) to more negative (destructive). PMID:17625679

  2. Spatial distribution (vertical and horizontal) and partitioning of dissolved and particulate nutrients (C, N and P) in the Campos Basin, Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, M. S.; Rezende, C. E.; Paranhos, R.; Falcão, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical oceans are characterized by low amounts of dissolved nutrients and high amounts of particulates in the biogenic layer and by increased dissolved nutrients and reduced particulates in the water masses of the biolytic layer. In this study, the hydrochemistry of the area included in the Campos Basin was evaluated at 72 sampling sites and six depths (surface, a second depth and the cores of deep water masses - up to 2300 m) during the summer and winter seasons of 2009. The vertical distribution of dissolved and particulate nutrients had patterns typical of permanently stratified tropical waters, and greater values were found on the continental shelf than on the slope, as expected. These results confirm that the continent is an important source of the materials found in the studied water masses. Additionally, the spatial variations observed are likely related to the South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) intrusion into the continental shelf in the Cabo Frio region and to eddies formation in the Cabo de São Tomé region, where higher concentrations of dissolved and particulate nutrients were found. Despite the N:P ratio indicates limitation of primary producers by inorganic nitrogen, the particulated and dissolved organic N:P indicate a strong depletion of P relative to N, suggesting preferential degradation of that.

  3. The influence of health education on the prevalence of intestinal parasites in a low-income community of Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pereira, A P M F; Alencar, M F L; Cohen, S C; Souza-Júnior, P R B; Cecchetto, F; Mathias, L S; Santos, C P; Almeida, J C A; de Moraes Neto, A H A

    2012-05-01

    In a recent study by our group on the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and on the knowledge, attitudes and practices of local residents of Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, we observed that about 50% of the inhabitants were parasitized and had some knowledge of intestinal parasitic infections but did not apply this knowledge in daily practice. We were thus motivated to implement strategies in health education to promote preventive measures in the locality. The goal of the present work was to evaluate the influence of health education on the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in the region in an effort to strengthen public policies for controlling these diseases in Brazil. The methodology adopted was based on action-research and a theoretical framework of health promotion. Our results demonstrate that the study population exhibited an enhanced awareness of the importance of disease from intestinal parasitic infections. Attitudes and practices related to prevention were significantly improved after the shared health education. In conclusion, this study allowed the shared construction of knowledge that reflected the true needs of the residents. PMID:22313520

  4. Analysis of the Astronomical Concepts Presented by Teachers of Science, Physics, and Mathematics of São José dos Campos / SP Municipality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira Gonzaga, Edson; Voelzke, Marcos Rincon

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this work is to conduct a survey of alternative conceptions about the basic concepts of Astronomy from schoolteachers in the City of São José dos Campos. This study covers the the state-run education system and complies with legal documents related to the curriculum of educational systems, such as the Curriculum of São Paulo State and the Parameters of the National Curriculum (PCN). Alternative conceptions, mentioned in Langhi (2009) as very important, were used, because it is believed that if a student can learn these concepts before the methodological intervention, it is possible to prepare contextualized presentations for teachers, and consequently students, to compare what they already know with the new information they obtain in the sessions at the digital mobile planetarium (DMP) of the Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul. Afterwards, they may discuss in a forum, in the form of debate, seeking to draw conclusions relevant to the topic, and transmitting the same to students in Basic Education (EB). This is a case study with a quantitative survey and a qualitative analysis of data on astronomical concepts collected through two questionnaires, one before and one after the intervention, respecting the implementation period of the study,- here called methodological intervention of content presentations at the mobile planetarium - and on respective discussions.

  5. Effects of non-aqueous fluids-associated drill cuttings discharge on shelf break macrobenthic communities in the Campos Basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Maria Fernanda L; Silva, Janete; Fachel, Jandyra M G; Pulgati, Fernando H

    2010-08-01

    This paper assesses the effects of non-aqueous fluids (NAF)-associated drill cuttings discharge on shelf break macrobenthic communities in the Campos Basin, off the southeast Brazilian coast, Rio de Janeiro State. Samples were taken with a 0.25-m2 box corer from surrounding two oil and gas wells on three monitoring cruises: before drilling, three months after drilling, and 22 months after drilling. Statistical methodologies used Bayesian geostatistical and analysis of variance models to evaluate the effects of the NAF-associated drill cuttings discharge and to define the impact area. The results indicated that marked variations were not observed in the number of families between cruises, though there were changes in the fauna composition. The changes seen in biological descriptors in both control and background situation areas were not considered significant, showing a temporal homogeneity in means. The impact area presented changes in biological descriptors of communities and trophic structure during the three cruises and such changes were correlated to chemical and physical variables related to the drilling activities, as a result of the mix of drill cuttings and sediment and the anoxic conditions established in the substrate. In that area, three months after drilling, a decrease in diversity and an increase in density, motile deposit-feeders and Pol/Crp ratio, and dominance of opportunistic organisms, such as the capitellid Capitella sp., were observed and, 22 months after drilling, an increase of diversity, reduction of dominance of capitellid polychaete, changes in the fauna composition, and a dominance of opportunistic burrowing and tube-building organisms were observed, indicating an ecological succession process. PMID:20524059

  6. Prevalence of intestinal parasites versus knowledge, attitudes, and practices of inhabitants of low-income communities of Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Moraes Neto, Antonio Henrique A; Pereira, Adriana P M F; Alencar, Maria de Fátima L; Souza, Paulo R B; Dias, Rodrigo C; Fonseca, Juliana G; Santos, Clóvis P; Almeida, João C A

    2010-07-01

    Intestinal parasites are the causative agents of common infections responsible for significant public health problems in developing countries and generally linked to lack of sanitation, safe water, and improper hygiene. More than two billion people throughout the world live with unrelenting illness due to intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs). The purposes of this study are to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices on IPIs and investigate the relationship with prevalence of intestinal parasites among a low-income group of inhabitants from two communities of the Travessão District area, Campos dos Goytacazes, north of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The two communities are known as "Parque Santuário," which is an urban slum with miserable living conditions, and "Arraial," where the socioeconomic and educational levels are better, neither having a sanitary infrastructure with an excreta collection system. Questionnaires revealed that both communities had local and specific codification to denominate the intestinal parasites and present correct knowledge on the theme but ignored some aspects of IPI transmission, with the Arraial population being better informed (p < 0.05). The overall prevalence of IPIs in Parque Santuário (49.7%) was greater than in Arraial (27.2%) (p < 0.001; prevalence ratio/95% confidence interval 1.83/1.50-2.23). This study reports the real IPI situation in the Travessão District and also reinforces the need to continue the investigation on the impact of combined prophylactic methods, educational measures, and socioeconomic and sanitary improvements by governmental authorities and the local popular organization. PMID:20407910

  7. Pampo, Linguado, and Badejo Fields: Their discoveries, appraisals, and early production systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tigre, C.A.; Possato, S.

    1983-05-01

    The three oil fields Pampo, Linguado and Badejo are located in the southwesternmost known producing areas of the offshore Brazilian Campos Basin. They were discovered as a result of reflection seismic survey and produce from fractured lower Cretaceous (Neocomian) basalts, coquinas of the Aptian Lagoa Feia Formation, carbonates of the Albian Macae Formation and from Eocene sandstones of the Carapebus Member of the Campos Formation. This work describes the prospects, their results, the main reservoirs, correlations, continuity and diagenetic problems. Two early production systems are in operation engaged in gathering a better knowledge of the fields for the planning of a definitive production system.

  8. KAr and 40Ar/ 39Ar evidence for a Transamazonian age (2030-1970 Ma) for the granites and emerald-bearing K-metasomatites from Campo Formoso and Carnaíba (Bahia, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, G.; Zimmermann, J.-L.; Montigny, R.

    1994-04-01

    The Campo Formoso and Carnaíba granites belong to a suite of middle Proterozoic magmatic rocks located in the northern part of the São Francisco craton. They intrude the Archaen basement and Lower Proterozoic Jacobina volcanosedimentary series. Emerald-bearing K-metasomatites in the mining districts of Campo Formoso and Carnaíba are developed within serpentinites at the contact with granite-related pegmatitic veins. KAr and 40Ar/ 39Ar measurements were performed on biotites and deuteric muscovites from these two granites, and phlogopites from the K-metasomatites. For the Campo Formoso granite, the biotites yield ages between 1875 ± 45 Ma and 1908 ± 47 Ma (2 σ) and the muscovites yield ages of 1897 ± 34 Ma and 2040 ± 24 Ma (2 σ). For the Carnaíba granite, the biotites and muscovites fit isochrons with ages of 1888 ± 32 and 1979 ± 28 Ma (2 σ), respectively. In contrast, phlogopites from emerald-bearing metasomatites display KAr ages that spread between 1900 and 2000 Ma with an isochron of 1973 ± 20 Ma (2 σ) for Carnaíba. Generally, the youngest biotite and phlogopite ages occur for specimens where these minerals are chloritized. 40Ar/ 39Ar step heating release spectra are complex but give integrated ages in good agreement with the KAr ages. The least disturbed spectrum permits assignment of an age of 2032 ± 10 Ma (2 σ)for the first granitic pulse of the emplacement of the Campo Formoso composite pluton. Since in Carnaíba, deuteric muscovites and chlorite-free phlogopites give similar KAr ages, 1979 ± 28 and 1973 ± 20 Ma (2 σ) respectively, we conclude that emerald mineralization is contemporaneous with the pervasive muscovitization of the granite. The 1979 ± 28 Ma (2 σ) age obtained by KAr on muscovite represents the best estimate of the Carnaíba granite cooling age. A model invoking the pervasive alteration of the upper part of the granitic cupola along the pegmatite veins and serpentinites by the muscovitizing fluids is

  9. A Study of Near-Surface Seismic Methods on Terrain Susceptible to Landslides in the City of Campos do Jordão, State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shams, B. S.

    2015-12-01

    This study seeks to prove the usefulness of near-surface seismic methods as complementary data to conventional geotechnical and geological data in the characterization of areas of landslide risk. The setting is located in a low income housing neighborhood in the city of Campos do Jordão, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The area was devastated by numerous landslides between December 1999 to January 2000 after heavy rainfall in the area. Currently the area is being monitored by the National Center for Monitoring and Warning of Natural Disasters (CEMADEN). The landslides in this area are known to be shallow. The survey line passes within a couple feet of the CEMADEN monitoring station which measures soil temperature, soil moisture, rainfall intensity, and rainfall accumulation (Mendes et. al 2015). Refraction and Multi-channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) surveys were performed. In order to better identify the fundamental mode of the Rayleigh wave, separate surveys isolating the vertical and radial components of the Rayleigh wave were performed. By comparing the obtained Shear wave (Vs) and Compressional wave (Vp) profiles with the already known geotechnical data provided by CEMADEN and geological data from a previous study (Ahrendt 2005) of the site a better understanding of the geological interfaces that constitute the landslide prone area is obtained.

  10. Lactic acid microbiota identification in water, raw milk, endogenous starter culture, and fresh Minas artisanal cheese from the Campo das Vertentes region of Brazil during the dry and rainy seasons.

    PubMed

    Castro, R D; Oliveira, L G; Sant'Anna, F M; Luiz, L M P; Sandes, S H C; Silva, C I F; Silva, A M; Nunes, A C; Penna, C F A M; Souza, M R

    2016-08-01

    Minas artisanal cheese, produced in the Campo das Vertentes region of Brazil, is made from raw milk and endogenous starter cultures. Although this cheese is of great historical and socioeconomic importance, little information is available about its microbiological and physical-chemical qualities, or about its beneficial microbiota. This work was aimed at evaluating the qualities of the cheese and the components used for its production, comparing samples collected during the dry and rainy seasons. We also conducted molecular identification and isolated 50 samples of lactic acid bacteria from cheese (n=21), water (n=3), raw milk (n=9), and endogenous starter culture (n=17). The microbiological quality of the cheese, water, raw milk, and endogenous starter culture was lower during the rainy period, given the higher counts of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus and total and thermotolerant coliforms. Enterococcus faecalis was the lactic acid bacteria isolated most frequently (42.86%) in cheese samples, followed by Lactococcus lactis (28.57%) and Lactobacillus plantarum (14.29%). Lactobacillus brevis (5.88%), Enterococcus pseudoavium (5.88%), Enterococcus durans (5.88%), and Aerococcus viridans (5.88%) were isolated from endogenous starter cultures and are described for the first time in the literature. The lactic acid bacteria identified in the analyzed cheeses may inhibit undesirable microbiota and contribute to the safety and flavor of the cheese, but this needs to be evaluated in future research. PMID:27289151

  11. Ajuste de parámetros libres en teorías de campos camaleones a partir de espectros de nubes moleculares galácticas y experimentos terrestres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teppa Pannia, F. A.; Landau, S. J.

    Resultados recientes, basados en el análisis de espectros moleculares de nubes galácticas a través del método del amoníaco, han arrojado nuevos límites sobre la variación del parámetro adimensional μ=m_e /m_p. Los resultados indican Δ μ/μ = (μ_{obs}-μ_{lab})/μ_{lab}= (2.2± 0.4_{est} ±0.3_{sist}) times 10 ^{-8}, en acuerdo con una variación no nula de dicha cantidad (Levshakov et al. 2010). En este trabajo, motivado por los datos astronómicos, estudiamos la solución lineal del modelo teórico fenomenológico de campo escalar camaleón, presentado por Mota y Shaw (2007), que predice variaciones en μ. Con el fin de cotejar estas predicciones con los resultados observacionales, utilizamos datos de experimentos terrestres que testean violaciones al Principio de Equivalencia para analizar el valor de los parámetros libres presentes en el modelo. El trabajo realizado muestra que la solución estudiada no se puede ajustar a los datos experimentales, sugiriendo que el modelo lineal debe ser descartado para explicar las observaciones astronómicas. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  12. The Santa Terezinha-Campos Verdes emerald district, central Brazil: structural and Sm-Nd data to constrain the tectonic evolution of the Neoproterozoic Brası´lia belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'el-Rey Silva, Luiz José Homem; Barros Neto, Leonel de Souza

    2002-12-01

    Structural analysis coupled with Sm-Nd isotope data and a detailed description of the geology of the Santa Terezinha-Campos Verdes emerald district (Goiás State, Central Brazil) constrain the evolution of the Neoproterozoic Brası´lia belt. The area is composed of tectonic slices of Archean-Paleoproterozoic gneiss, a Meso-Neoproterozoic metavolcanic sedimentary sequence called the Santa Terezinha sequence, and crustal-derived intrusive rocks such as mylonitic (ortho)gneiss and a syntectonic porphyry granite. It underwent a Neoproterozoic greenschist facies polyphase ductile deformation (D 1-D 3). Structures indicate an event of rotational deformation along a typical frontal ramp dipping gently to the west (i.e. an event of simple shear with top to ESE relative regional movement due to a subhorizontal WNW-ESE compression). A Sm-Nd whole-rock isochron age of 577±77 Ma for the intrusive rocks constrains the timing of at least part of the deformation/metamorphism in the area. Primary and metamorphic planar structures (mainly D 1-D 2) strike SW-NE and dip at low to moderate angles to the NW in the northern part of the area. However, they gradually rotate to SSE in the central SE part, where the Peixe River synclinorium is developed. This synclinorium is also the nest of the D 2 sheath folds that control emerald ore shoots. The Santa Cruz dome is a basement-cored, major elliptic structure in the SW of the area. The Santa Terezinha sequence represents a back-arc basin that received input from the Neoproterozoic Goiás magmatic arc to the west and the São Francisco ancient continental margin to the east. The basal and upper sections of this sequence correlate, respectively, with other passive margin and back-arc sequences of the Brası´lia belt.

  13. Nucleation, linkage and active propagation of a segmented Quaternary normal-dextral fault: the Loma del Viento fault (Campo de Dalías, Eastern Betic Cordillera, SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrera, Antonio; Marín-Lechado, Carlos; Stich, Daniel; Ruiz-Constán, Ana; Galindo-Zaldívar, Jesús; Rey-Moral, Carmen; de Lis Mancilla, Flor

    2012-02-01

    Active faults from the Campo de Dalías (SE Betic Cordillera) allow us to constrain the deformation styles involved in the development of segmented oblique-slip faults. This sector constitutes the widest outcrop of Plio-Quaternary sediments in the northern boundary of the Alboran Sea. It has emerged since the Late Pliocene, and therefore provides recent deformation markers that are not disturbed by erosive processes. The faults started to grow during the Pleistocene, reactivating previous hybrid joints, with a normal-dextral slip. We present a detailed map of the largest fault in the area, the Loma del Viento fault, comprising six onshore segments. Based on field work and aerial photography, the distributions of the contiguous joints have been mapped, and the joints reactivated as faults are identified. Some of these fault segments are hard-linked, and fault slip enhances toward the linkage sectors between them with associated sedimentary depocenters. An electrical tomography profile reveals the wedge geometry of a unit of Pleistocene conglomerates and red silts that were coevally deposited during the fault movement. Long-term slip rate in the central part of the fault is estimated at 0.07 ± 0.03 mm/y. In addition, a seismic crisis nucleated close to the Loma del Viento fault during November 2010 was recorded. Moment tensor analysis of the two mainshocks (Mw 3.5 and 4.2) provides a focal solution indicating a N120°E striking right-lateral strike-slip fault. The corrugated morphology of the Loma del Viento fault may have influenced its seismic behavior. Some of the fault segments are oblique to the general motion of the fault. These oblique segments would provide higher resistance against the general fault motion and could lock the fault, leading to accumulate elastic energy.

  14. Molecular Characterization of Human Pathogenic Bunyaviruses of the Nyando and Bwamba/Pongola Virus Groups Leads to the Genetic Identification of Mojuí dos Campos and Kaeng Khoi Virus

    PubMed Central

    Groseth, Allison; Mampilli, Veena; Weisend, Carla; Dahlstrom, Eric; Porcella, Stephen F.; Russell, Brandy J.; Tesh, Robert B.; Ebihara, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Background Human infection with Bwamba virus (BWAV) and the closely related Pongola virus (PGAV), as well as Nyando virus (NDV), are important causes of febrile illness in Africa. However, despite seroprevalence studies that indicate high rates of infection in many countries, these viruses remain relatively unknown and unstudied. In addition, a number of unclassified bunyaviruses have been isolated over the years often with uncertain relationships to human disease. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to better understand the genetic and evolutionary relationships among orthobunyaviruses associated with human disease, we have sequenced the complete genomes for all 3 segments of multiple strains of BWAV (n = 2), PGAV (n = 2) and NDV (n = 4), as well as the previously unclassified Mojuí dos Campos (MDCV) and Kaeng Khoi viruses (KKV). Based on phylogenetic analysis, we show that these viruses populate 2 distinct branches, one made up of BWAV and PGAV and the other composed of NDV, MDCV and KKV. Interestingly, the NDV strains analyzed form two distinct clades which differed by >10% on the amino acid level across all protein products. In addition, the assignment of two bat-associated bunyaviruses into the NDV group, which is clearly associated with mosquito-borne infection, led us to analyze the ability of these different viruses to grow in bat (RE05 and Tb 1 Lu) and mosquito (C6/36) cell lines, and indeed all the viruses tested were capable of efficient growth in these cell types. Conclusions/Significance On the basis of our analyses, it is proposed to reclassify the NDV strains ERET147 and YM176-66 as a new virus species. Further, our analysis definitively identifies the previously unclassified bunyaviruses MDCV and KKV as distinct species within the NDV group and suggests that these viruses may have a broader host range than is currently appreciated. PMID:25188437

  15. Stable Fly Project in Campo Grande, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Andrew Li, Jerry Hogsette, and Adalberto Pérez de León, all USDA-ARS, and Lane Foil, LSU, are collaborating as consultants on an Embrapa-funded research project for the control of large stable fly populations associated with sugar cane production in Brazil. Our Brazilian counterpart, Dr. Paulo Cança...

  16. Continuing Vocational Training in Local Government in Portugal, 2000-05--What Has Changed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabrito, Belmiro Gil; Simao, Ana Margarida Veiga; Alves, Mariana Gaio; Almeida, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Local government in Portugal had a good opportunity to modernise through the Programa de Formacao para as Autarquias Locais (Foral) [Training programme for local authorities], implemented between 2000 and 2005. Substantial financial resources were made available through the programme to retrain local government human resources in order to improve…

  17. DIFFERENTIAL ALLERGIC AND NEUROTROPHIN RESPONSES TO FUNGAL COMPONENT EXTRACTS IN BALB/C MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metarhizium anisopliae mycelium (MYC), conidia (CON) and inducible protease (IND) extracts were combined to produce the antigen MACA to screen for allergenic potential. Involuntary aspiration (IA) exposure to MACA in BALB/c mice has caused immune, inflammatory and physiological ...

  18. Effect of ethanolic extract of Lepidium meyenii Walp on serum hormone levels in ovariectomized rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yongzhong; Yu, Longjiang; Jin, Wenwen; Ao, Mingzhang

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of long-term ethanol extract of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on serum hormone levels in ovariectomized (OVX) rats and compare them with the effect of diethylstilbestrol. Materials and Methods: Fifty female Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomized or sham operated. Both sham and OVX control groups (n = 10, respectively) received the vehicle. The remaining OVX rats were oral administrated with ethanol extract of Maca (0.096, or 0.24g/kg; n = 10, respectively) and diethylstilbestrol (0.05 mg/kg; n = 10). The treatment continued for 28 weeks. At week 12 and week 28, the blood of rats was collected and serum hormone levels, including estradiol (E2), testosterone (T) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were measured by radioimmunoassay. Results: At week 12, the levels of serum E2 were slightly higher in Maca groups than that in OVX group; T levels were significantly decreased; and FSH levels were advanced slightly in Maca groups than that in sham group. After 28 weeks administration, serum E2 levels in Maca-treated animals did not differ significantly from sham control, the low dose of Maca increased serum E2 levels, and Maca prevented increase in serum FSH levels compared with OVX group. Conclusions: Long-term Maca supply modulates endocrine hormone balance in OVX rats, especially it decreases enhanced FSH levels. It is proposed that Maca may become a potential choice for postmenopausal women. PMID:25097281

  19. Prevention and control of sulfate scaling in the Namorado field, Campos Basin, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Bezerra, M.C.M.; Rosario, F.F. do; Khalil, C.N.; Milanez, P.V.A.; Souza, R.S. de

    1996-08-01

    Precipitation inhibitor squeeze treatments have been performed in the last 5 years in the Namorado field to avoid barium sulfate and strontium sulfate scaling in the producing tubing. This paper describes the laboratory tests conducted to select inhibitor and to simulate the squeeze operation in porous media. Based on these tests a polyacrylic acid product was used in the squeeze operations. The squeeze operation design is described as well as the strategy for analytical monitoring of the produced waters to select the wells with high precipitation potential for the prevention treatment. This paper describes the occurrence of spherical precipitated material (with morphology similar to ooids formed in natural environments) at the bottom of the well NA-C. The analysis of the ooids, associated with the production parameters, allowed the determination of the effectiveness of the squeeze treatment and the understanding of the precipitation mechanisms.

  20. 76 FR 6153 - Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Campo Regional Landfill Project on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... Federal Register on November 8, 2005 (70 FR 67738-67739). The Notice of Availability of the Draft SEIS was published in the Federal Register on February 26, 2010 (75 FR 8986- 8988). Public Comment Availability..., Interior. ACTION: Notice of cancellation. SUMMARY: This notice announces that the Bureau of Indian...

  1. Bovine immunoprotection against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus with recombinant Bm86-Campo Grande antigen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The southern cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, is arguably the most economically important external parasite of cattle globally. The inappropriate use of readily available chemical acaricides has driven the evolution of resistance in populations of R. microplus. Anti-tick vaccines represen...

  2. Navigating across Academic Contexts: Campo and Angolan Students in a Brazilian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castanheira, Maria Lucia; Street, Brian V.; Carvalho, Gilcinei Teodoro

    2015-01-01

    This paper draws on the Academic Literacies approach to examine tutor/student relations in the production of academic texts. We address issues associated with learning to write in such contexts, through exploring the perspectives of two groups of non-traditional students as they reflect on their experiences in navigating educational contexts in a…

  3. Pesticide Safety for Farmworkers = Uso Seguro de Pesticidas para los Trabajadores del Campo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poli, Bonnie; Fluker, Sam S.

    A booklet for farmworkers and employers uses illustrations and simple text in English and Spanish to inform about the dangers, precautions, and use of pesticides. Topics covered include methods of pesticide absorption; signs/symptoms of pesticide poisoning; first aid; residues; appropriate work clothes; safe and unsafe pesticide practices; how to…

  4. Modeling of stratigraphic columns using Markov Chains and Gibbs sampling algorithms, Campo Oritupano, Venezuela.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durán, E.

    2012-04-01

    The interbeded sandstones, siltstones and shale layers within the stratigraphic units of the Oficina Formation were stochastically characterized. The units within the Oritupano field are modeled using the information from 12 wells and a post-stack 3-D seismic cube. The Markov Chain algorithm was successful at maintaining the proportion of lithotypes of the columns in the study area. Different transition probability matrixes are evaluated by changing the length of the sequences represented in the transition matrix and how this choice of length affects ciclicity and the genetic relations between lithotypes. The Gibbs algorithm, using small sequences as building blocks for modeling, kept the main stratigraphic succession according to the geology. Although the modeled stratigraphy depends strongly on initial conditions, the use of longer sequences in the substitution helps not to overweight the transition counts from one lithotype to the same in the main diagonal of the probability matrix of the Markov Chain in the Gibbs algorithm. A methodology based on the phase spectrum of the seismic trace for tying the modeled sequences with the seismic data is evaluated and discussed. The results point to the phase spectrum as an alternate way to cross-correlate synthetic seismograms with the seismic trace in favor of the well known amplitude correlation. Finally, a map of net sand over the study area is generated from the modeled columns and compared with previous stratigraphic and facies analysis at the levels of interest.

  5. Velamo do campo: its volatile constituents, secretory elements, and biological activity.

    PubMed

    El Babili, Fatiha; Roques, Christine; Haddioui, Laila; Bellvert, Floriant; Bertrand, Cédric; Chatelain, Christian

    2012-07-01

    The volatile components from Croton campestris root bark were localized by an anatomical study and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the first time. The roots of this plant showed secretory cells. These volatile constituents, isolated from the dichloromethane extract by hydrodistillation, were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We found 69 components. They were characterized, and the major constituents of crude oil root barks were spathulenol (23.3%) and borneol (18.7%). Growth inhibitory activity of the active compounds in solution was evaluated by measuring minimal inhibitory concentrations using a broth micromethod. The minimal inhibitory concentration of root bark volatile constituents was 1.56 μg/mL for Staphylococcus aureus, 3.125 μg/mL for Candida albicans, and 6.25 μg/mL for Aspergillusniger. PMID:22612296

  6. Study of the structural phase transitions of (CH 3NH 3) 3Sb 2Cl 9 (MACA) and (CH 3NH 3) 3Bi 2Cl 9 (MACB) by infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bator, G.; Jakubas, R.; Malarski, Z.

    1991-06-01

    Infrared spectra of polycrystalline (CH 3NH 3) 3Sb 2Cl 9 and (CH 3NH 3) 3Bi 2Cl 9 have been studied in the temperature range 90-300 K. A systematic temperature dependence study of the internal modes has been carried out. We discuss the effects of the dynamic state of methylammonium (MA) cations on their vibrational spectra. The results show that the dynamics of MA cations in both compounds is similar in higher (about 300 K) and lower temperature (in the vicinity of 100 K) regions. Substantial differences are revealed in the intermediate temperature interval. The results are in good agreement with earlier dielectric, calorimetric and 1H NMR studies.

  7. CATALASE FROM A FUNGAL MICROBIAL PESTICIDE INDUCES A UNIQUE IGE RESPONSE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    BALB/c mice exposed by involuntary aspiration to Metarhizium anisopliae extract (MACA), a microbial pesticide, have shown responses characteristic of human allergic lung disease/asthma. IgE-binding proteins have been identified in MACA by Western blot analysis, 2-dimensio...

  8. Effect of ethanol extract of Lepidium meyenii Walp. on osteoporosis in ovariectomized rat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongzhong; Yu, Longjiang; Ao, Mingzhang; Jin, Wenwen

    2006-04-21

    Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) is a cruciferous plant from the Andes of Peru. The root of Maca is traditionally employed for its supposed properties in aphrodisiacs and improving fertility, it also has been widely used to help alleviate the symptoms of menopause. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of ethanol extract of Maca on postmenopausal osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: Sham-operated and ovariectomized groups were fed with equivolume of distilled water, and the remaining ovariectomized groups were orally administrated with ethanol extract of Maca at 0.096 and 0.24 g/kg for 28 weeks. The findings derived from the basis of bone mineral density, biomechanical, biochemical and histopathological parameters indicated that higher dose of ethanol extract of Maca was effective in the prevention of estrogen deficient bone loss. PMID:16466876

  9. Carbon Isotopic Heterogeneity of Graphite in the San Juan Mass of the Campo Del Cielo IAB Iron Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maruoka, T.; Kurat, G.; Zinner, E.; Varela, M. E.; Ametrano, S. J.

    2003-01-01

    The origin of IAB iron meteorites is still a matter of debate. It is generally believed that iron meteorites originated from molten cores in small planetesimals because the fractionation trend of trace elements (e.g., Ir, Ge, Ga, etc. vs. Ni) for most iron meteorites can be more or less explained by fractional crystallization from metal melts. However, this process cannot produce trace element characteristics of the IAB (and other) iron meteorites. To explain these trace element abundance patterns, several models have been proposed. Although most of these models require a high temperature, clear evidence has recently been obtained for a sub-solidus formation of IAB iron meteorites from noble gas analyses. Moreover, heterogeneous distributions of some trace elements in metal and other phases also suggest a low temperature origin of at least some IAB iron meteorites. Here we use the carbon isotopic compositions of graphite to constrain the origin of IAB iron meteorites. Our data confirm a possible low temperature origin of IAB iron meteorites.

  10. Estudio del campo ocupacional del traductor en Santiago de Chile (A Study of Opportunities for Professional Translators in Santiago, Chile).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabrera, Ileana; And Others

    A study of translation as a profession in Chile covered two areas: a diagnostic study of the real need for literary, scientific, and technical translations, and a followup study of graduates of the translation degree program at the Catholic Pontifical University of Chile (Santiago). The analysis considered the relationship between the need for…

  11. 78 FR 2423 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the Proposed Shu'luuk Wind Project on the Campo...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... temporary concrete batch plant. The wind power generation facility would operate year-round for a minimum of...-MW to 2.3-MW wind turbines. Each turbine would have a hub height of up to 308 feet, rotor diameter of... Bureau of Indian Affairs Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the Proposed Shu'luuk...

  12. Estudios interferométricos del campo magnético en regiones de formación estelar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández López, M.; Stephens, I.; Segura-Cox, D.; Crutcher, R.; Looney, L. W.; Kwon, W.

    2015-08-01

    Currently, the possible role of magnetic fields in star formation processes is not clear. Despite the efforts made through single-dish observations, a stronger observational effort is required in order to broaden the sample of detections and acquire more insight into the morphology of the magnetic field at high-angular resolution scales. Here we present some results obtained from CARMA 1.25 mm continuum and spectral line polarization observations. The target of these observations were two accretion disks around a Class 0 (L1527) and a T Tauri (HL Tau) protostar and the massive star-forming region W3OH. We resolved the morphology of the magnetic field in both disks and, in W3OH, we achieved the first Zeeman detection ever made with an interferometer.

  13. 78 FR 37789 - Juan Narcizo Oyervides-Campos, Inmate Number #86526-279, Correctional Institution Reeves I & II...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... Presidential Notices, the most recent being that of August 15, 2012 (77 FR 49699 (August 16, 2012)), has... attempting to cause to be exported from the United States to Mexico thirteen semiautomatic rifles, which...

  14. Genetic diversity in populations of Acrocomia aculeata (Arecaceae) in the northern region of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, D A; Melo Júnior, A F; Brandão, M M; Rodrigues, L A; Menezes, E V; Ferreira, P R B

    2012-01-01

    Macaúba (Acrocomia aculeata) is a palm of economic importance, widely distributed in natural forests from Mexico to Uruguay. We analyzed the genetic diversity of populations of macaúba (A. aculeata) in the northern region of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Young leaves from 10 macaúba individuals encompassing 49 genotypes of macaúba were collected from Montes Claros, Itacambira, Brasília de Minas, Mirabela, and Grão Mogol. After extraction and amplification of samples, the amplified fragments were separated by electrophoresis. We found high levels of genetic diversity within the populations. Genetic diversity indices were high, except in the Itacambira and Mirabela populations. Results show that Mirabela and Itacambira populations can require conservation strategies because they present lower values of genetic diversity. PMID:22535388

  15. Differential allergy responses to Metarhizium anisopliae fungal component extracts in BALB/c mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Intratracheal aspiration (IA) exposure to Metarhizium anisopliae crude antigen (MACA), which is composed of equal protein amounts of mycelium (MYC), conidia (CON) and inducible proteases/chitinases (IND) extracts/filtrates, has resulted in responses characteristic of human allerg...

  16. 32 CFR 185.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... defined in E.O. 12656, 53 FR 47491, 3 CFR 1988 Comp., p. 585. (d) States the policy and responsibilities... “Military Assistance to Civil Authorities (MACA),” applicable to disaster-related civil emergencies...

  17. Effect of Lepidium meyenii Walp. on Semen Parameters and Serum Hormone Levels in Healthy Adult Men: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Melnikovova, Ingrid; Fait, Tomas; Kolarova, Michaela; Fernandez, Eloy C; Milella, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims. Products of Lepidium meyenii Walp. (maca) are touted worldwide as an alimentary supplement to enhance fertility and restore hormonal balance. Enhancing properties of maca on semen parameters in animals were previously reported by various authors, but we present to the best of our knowledge the first double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot trial in men. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of maca on semen parameters and serum hormone levels in healthy adult men. Methods. A group of 20 volunteers aged 20-40 years was supplied by milled hypocotyl of maca or placebo (1.75 g/day) for 12 weeks. Negative controls of semen were compared to the samples after 6 and 12 weeks of maca administration; negative blood controls were compared to the samples after 12 weeks of treatment. Results. Sperm concentration and motility showed rising trends compared to placebo even though levels of hormones did not change significantly after 12 weeks of trial. Conclusion. Our results indicate that maca possesses fertility enhancing properties in men. As long as men prefer to use alimentary supplement to enhance fertility rather than prescribed medication or any medical intervention, it is worth continuing to assess its possible benefits. PMID:26421049

  18. Effect of Lepidium meyenii Walp. on Semen Parameters and Serum Hormone Levels in Healthy Adult Men: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Melnikovova, Ingrid; Fait, Tomas; Kolarova, Michaela; Fernandez, Eloy C.; Milella, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims. Products of Lepidium meyenii Walp. (maca) are touted worldwide as an alimentary supplement to enhance fertility and restore hormonal balance. Enhancing properties of maca on semen parameters in animals were previously reported by various authors, but we present to the best of our knowledge the first double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot trial in men. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of maca on semen parameters and serum hormone levels in healthy adult men. Methods. A group of 20 volunteers aged 20–40 years was supplied by milled hypocotyl of maca or placebo (1.75 g/day) for 12 weeks. Negative controls of semen were compared to the samples after 6 and 12 weeks of maca administration; negative blood controls were compared to the samples after 12 weeks of treatment. Results. Sperm concentration and motility showed rising trends compared to placebo even though levels of hormones did not change significantly after 12 weeks of trial. Conclusion. Our results indicate that maca possesses fertility enhancing properties in men. As long as men prefer to use alimentary supplement to enhance fertility rather than prescribed medication or any medical intervention, it is worth continuing to assess its possible benefits. PMID:26421049

  19. Allergen-triggered airway hyperresponsiveness and lung pathology in mice sensitized with the biopesticide Metarhizium anisopliae.

    PubMed

    Ward, M D; Madison, S L; Sailstad, D M; Gavett, S H; Selgrade, M K

    2000-02-21

    Metarhizium anisopliae is an entomopathogenic fungus recently licensed for indoor control of cockroaches, a major source of allergens. While M. anisopliae has been shown to be non-infectious and non-toxic to mammals there has been only limited research on potential allergenicity. Using a mouse model, we previously demonstrated allergic immune and inflammatory responses to this agent. The present study was designed to determine whether these responses were associated with changes in pulmonary responses, lung pathology, and the cytokine profile in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Soluble factors from fungal components were combined in equal protein amounts to form M. anisopliae crude antigen (MACA). BALB/C mice were intratracheally (i.t.) challenged with 10 microg MACA 14 days post intraperitoneal sensitization with 25 microg fungal antigen in aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. Physiological and cellular changes were examined. The mice were tested for airway hyperresponsiveness before (No Chal) and after (1, 3, and 8 days post challenge (DPIT)) MACA IT challenge. Subsequently, serum, BALF and the lungs were harvested. All treatment groups concurrently demonstrated significant non-specific pulmonary inflammation (neutrophil influx) and increased pulmonary sensitivity to methacholine (Mch) at 1 DPIT MACA challenge. Where as both adjuvant treated and naïve mice airway responses had returned to near normal levels by 3 DPIT, mice which were previously sensitized with MACA were still hyperresponsive to Mch challenge at 3 and 8 DPIT. This hyperresponsiveness correlates with eosinophil and lymphocyte influx, which is maximal at 3 DPIT and still elevated at 8 DPIT. Interleukin (IL) 5 was elevated for all treatment groups at 1 DPIT but only the MACA sensitized mice maintained elevated levels for both 3 and 8 DPIT. Furthermore, MACA sensitized mice had a more extensive inflammatory histopathology at all examined time points with peribronchial and perivascular infiltrates, like

  20. A non-inheritable maternal Cas9-based multiple-gene editing system in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Takayuki; Kamiyoshi, Akiko; Kawate, Hisaka; Mori, Chie; Watanabe, Satoshi; Tanaka, Megumu; Uetake, Ryuichi; Sato, Masahiro; Shindo, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is capable of editing multiple genes through one-step zygote injection. The preexisting method is largely based on the co-injection of Cas9 DNA (or mRNA) and guide RNAs (gRNAs); however, it is unclear how many genes can be simultaneously edited by this method, and a reliable means to generate transgenic (Tg) animals with multiple gene editing has yet to be developed. Here, we employed non-inheritable maternal Cas9 (maCas9) protein derived from Tg mice with systemic Cas9 overexpression (Cas9 mice). The maCas9 protein in zygotes derived from mating or in vitro fertilization of Tg/+ oocytes and +/+ sperm could successfully edit the target genome. The efficiency of such maCas9-based genome editing was comparable to that of zygote microinjection–based genome editing widely used at present. Furthermore, we demonstrated a novel approach to create “Cas9 transgene-free” gene-modified mice using non-Tg (+/+) zygotes carrying maCas9. The maCas9 protein in mouse zygotes edited nine target loci simultaneously after injection with nine different gRNAs alone. Cas9 mouse-derived zygotes have the potential to facilitate the creation of genetically modified animals carrying the Cas9 transgene, enabling repeatable genome engineering and the production of Cas9 transgene-free mice. PMID:26817415

  1. A non-inheritable maternal Cas9-based multiple-gene editing system in mice.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Takayuki; Kamiyoshi, Akiko; Kawate, Hisaka; Mori, Chie; Watanabe, Satoshi; Tanaka, Megumu; Uetake, Ryuichi; Sato, Masahiro; Shindo, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is capable of editing multiple genes through one-step zygote injection. The preexisting method is largely based on the co-injection of Cas9 DNA (or mRNA) and guide RNAs (gRNAs); however, it is unclear how many genes can be simultaneously edited by this method, and a reliable means to generate transgenic (Tg) animals with multiple gene editing has yet to be developed. Here, we employed non-inheritable maternal Cas9 (maCas9) protein derived from Tg mice with systemic Cas9 overexpression (Cas9 mice). The maCas9 protein in zygotes derived from mating or in vitro fertilization of Tg/+ oocytes and +/+ sperm could successfully edit the target genome. The efficiency of such maCas9-based genome editing was comparable to that of zygote microinjection-based genome editing widely used at present. Furthermore, we demonstrated a novel approach to create "Cas9 transgene-free" gene-modified mice using non-Tg (+/+) zygotes carrying maCas9. The maCas9 protein in mouse zygotes edited nine target loci simultaneously after injection with nine different gRNAs alone. Cas9 mouse-derived zygotes have the potential to facilitate the creation of genetically modified animals carrying the Cas9 transgene, enabling repeatable genome engineering and the production of Cas9 transgene-free mice. PMID:26817415

  2. Mechanical and interfacial properties of poly(vinyl chloride) based composites reinforced by cassava stillage residue with different surface treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanjuan; Gan, Tao; Li, Qian; Su, Jianmei; Lin, Ye; Wei, Yongzuo; Huang, Zuqiang; Yang, Mei

    2014-09-01

    Cassava stillage residue (CSR), a kind of agro-industrial plant fiber, was modified by coupling agent (CA), mechanical activation (MA), and MA-assisted CA (MACA) surface treatments, respectively. The untreated and different surface treated CSRs were used to prepare plant fibers/polymer composites (PFPC) with poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) as polymer matrix, and the properties of these CSR/PVC composites were compared. Surface treated CSR/PVC composites possessed better mechanical properties, water resistance and dimensional stability compared with the untreated CSR/PVC composite, attributing to the improvement of interfacial properties between CSR and PVC matrix. MACA-treated CSR was the best reinforcement among four types of CSRs (untreated, MA-treated, CA-treated, and MACA-treated CSRs) because MACA treatment led to the significant improvement of dispersion, interfacial adhesion and compatibility between CSR and PVC. MACA treatment could be considered as an effective and green method for enhancing reinforcement efficiency of plant fibers and the properties of PFPC.

  3. Efectos de Campos Magnéticos en las Tasas de Consumo de Madera por Coptotermes formosanus, la Termita Subterránea de Formosa.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixty groups of 500 workers and 50 soldiers of Coptotermes formosanus were maintained in costume designed containers and fed with a piece of red oak wood (Quercus rubra). Twenty of these groups were exposed to permanent magnets with a flux of 800 G. Another 20 groups were exposed to a permanent mag...

  4. Role of the Arg56 of the structural protein VP3 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) 01 campos in virus virulence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is an extremely infectious and antigenically diverse picornavirus that causes high incidences of morbidity within naive livestock populations. Several reports indicate that FMDV O1 subtype strains undergo antigenic variation under diverse growth conditions. Of par...

  5. Genetic Variability of the Narrow Endemic Tree Antirhea aromatica Castillo‐Campos & Lorence, (Rubiaceae, Guettardeae) in a Tropical Forest of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    GONZÁLEZ‐ASTORGA, JORGE; CASTILLO‐CAMPOS, GONZALO

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Genetic structure and variability were examined in the only three extant populations of the narrow‐endemic tree Antirhea aromatica (Rubiaceae, Guettardeae), an endangered species of the tropical forest of eastern Mexico. Patterns of genetic diversity within and among populations for adult plants and seedlings were obtained. • Methods Allozyme electrophoresis of 15 loci was conducted and the data analysed with statistical approximation for obtaining genetic diversity, structure and gene flow. • Key Results The mean expected heterozygosity (He) in the adult and seedling populations was 0·18 ± 0·08 and 0·20 ± 0·09, respectively. The genetic variation explained by differences among populations was 51 and 35 %, for adult and seedling populations, respectively. On average, gene flow between paired adult populations was low (Nm = 0·26 ± 0·09), compared with other trees from the tropical forest. • Conclusions The results indicated that the populations evaluated have high genetic variability, compared with other endemic and geographically narrowly distributed plant species, in areas with high levels of environmental heterogeneity (e.g. tropical forests). The conservation implications of the results are discussed, and in this regard it is proposed that A. aromatica should be considered as an indicator species with economic potential. It is suggested that sustainable management practices should be implemented and that the areas where the species is distributed should be declared a natural reserve to ensure the species conservation. PMID:15056561

  6. Astrometría de pequeño campo con CCD: Evaluación de la aplicabilidad del método de ajuste en bloque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustos Fierro, I. H.; Calderón, J. H.

    The measuring of astrometric positions from a mosaic of direct CCD images with partial overlap taken with the Telescope Jorge Sahade is proposed. The influence of the errors introduced by the method itself, the instrumental errors, the measuring errors and the errors in the reference positions is analyzed in numerical simulations. The achievable accuracy in a square field 25'sided mapped with sixteen frames 10' sided in a center-edge arrangement is determined. It is found that the errors of the method itself and the reference catalog lead to positions with the same order accuracy than the reference catalog. In a measurement of second epoch positions for the determination of proper motions from Carte du Ciel plates, such errors are not significant if the ACT Reference Catalog is the source of the reference positions. It is also found that the errors of the measured positions are dominated by the aberrations of the optical system and the centering error of the stellar images.

  7. Resource management and fertility in Mexico’s Sian Ka’an Biosphere Reserve: Campos, cash, and contraception in the lobster-fishing village of Punta Allen

    PubMed Central

    Carr, David L.

    2009-01-01

    This case study examines the link between marine resource management, and the universal contraceptive use among married couples in the lobster- fishing village of Punta Allen, located in the Sian Ka’an Biosphere Reserve, Quintana Roo, Mexico. Several reasons appear to contribute to small desired and actual family sizes. Some of these include a medical clinic staff effective in promoting family planning, cooperative and private resource ownership, changing cultural attitudes, geographical limitations to population and economic growth, and a desire to conserve the environment for aesthetic and economic motives. Lastly, families desired to preserve a sustained balance between benefiting from lobster harvests today and safeguarding this marine resource for their children in the future. PMID:19672473

  8. Energy balance in the ablation zone during the summer season at the Gran Campo Nevado Ice Cap in the Southern Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Christoph; Kilian, Rolf; Glaser, Michael

    2007-10-01

    The energy balance and ablation of Glaciar Lengua were investigated during the austral summer of 1999/2000. Glaciar Lengua is located in Patagonia, in the southernmost Andes of Chile (53°S), within an extremely maritime climate. The aim of this study was to gain insight into current energy fluxes at this location and to evaluate how the energy fluxes depend on meteorological variables. From February to April 2000 an automated weather station was operated on Glaciar Lengua. Ablation was measured repeatedly at stakes during the same period. The point energy balance was calculated using the bulk approach formulation. The effective roughness length was adjusted in order to calibrate the model to the measured ablation. It was revealed that sensible heat transfer is the major contribution to the energy balance adding 54% of the energy available for melt. Net radiation contributes only 35% to the overall energy balance. Minor contributors are the latent heat flux (7%) and the heat flux by precipitation (4%). The net radiation shows little variance from day to day. Cross-correlations of the daily mean values of the energy fluxes derived from the energy balance model and meteorological variables reveal that air temperature and wind speed are the key factors controlling the summer energy balance in the ablation area. Melt derived from a multiple regression model based on these two variables correlates with computed melt with a correlation coefficient of 0.92. From the measured ablation, a summer-time degree-day factor of 7.6 mm·°C - 1 was derived for the ablation area.

  9. Internal Rb-Sr Age and Initial Sr-87/Sr-86 of a Silicate Inclusion from the Campo Del Cielo Iron Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Y.; Nyquist, L.; Wiesmann, H.; Shih, C.; Schwandt, C.; Takeda, H.

    2003-01-01

    The largest group of iron meteorites, IAB, is distinguished by the presence of diverse silicate inclusions. In principle, Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd radiometric dating of these silicate inclusions by internal isochron techniques can determine both the times of melting and parent/daughter ratios in the precursor materials via initial Sr-87/Sr-86 and Nd-143/Nd-144 ratios. The Sr-87/Sr-86 and Nd-143/Nd-144 ratios could distinguish chondritic precursors from already differentiated silicates. We reported Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd internal ischron ages of 4.52+/-0.03 Ga and 4.50+/-0.04 Ga, respectively, for plagioclase-diopside-rich material in the Caddo County IAB iron meteorite. These results are essentially identical to literature values of its Ar-Ar age of 4.520+/-0.005 Ga and its Sm-Nd age of 4.53+/-0.02 Ga. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the formation and evolution of silicate inclusions in IAB iron meteorites by determination of their initial Sr-87/Sr-86 ratios combined with higher-resolution chronology and mineralogical and geochemical studies.

  10. Multiple ant colony algorithm method for selecting tag SNPs.

    PubMed

    Liao, Bo; Li, Xiong; Zhu, Wen; Li, Renfa; Wang, Shulin

    2012-10-01

    The search for the association between complex disease and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or haplotypes has recently received great attention. Finding a set of tag SNPs for haplotyping in a great number of samples is an important step to reduce cost for association study. Therefore, it is essential to select tag SNPs with more efficient algorithms. In this paper, we model problem of selection tag SNPs by MINIMUM TEST SET and use multiple ant colony algorithm (MACA) to search a smaller set of tag SNPs for haplotyping. The various experimental results on various datasets show that the running time of our method is less than GTagger and MLR. And MACA can find the most representative SNPs for haplotyping, so that MACA is more stable and the number of tag SNPs is also smaller than other evolutionary methods (like GTagger and NSGA-II). Our software is available upon request to the corresponding author. PMID:22480582

  11. Chemical characterization and biological activity of Macfadyena unguis-cati (Bignoniaceae).

    PubMed

    Duarte, D S; Dolabela, M F; Salas, C E; Raslan, D S; Oliveiras, A B; Nenninger, A; Wiedemann, B; Wagner, H; Lombardi, J; Lopes, M T

    2000-03-01

    Macfadyena unguis-cati (L.) has been widely used in folk medicine as an anti-inflammatory, antimalarial and antivenereal. The purpose of this study was to chemically characterize the main plant components, and to evaluate the biological properties of some of the fractions derived from leaves (MACb) and liana (MACa) of this plant. Chemical characterization allowed the identification of the compounds corymboside, vicenin-2, quercitrin, chlorogenic acid, isochlorogenic acid, lupeol, beta-sitosterol, beta-sitosterylglucoside, allantoin and lapachol. The biological screening of fractions and/or purified substances derived from fractions revealed antitumoral and antitrypanosomal activities in fractions MACa/lapachol and MACb/MACb21, respectively. The anti-lipoxygenase and anti-cyclooxygenase effect seen in fractions MACa and MACb showed a partial correlation with the anti-inflammatory property attributed to this plant. PMID:10757425

  12. Modulation of lymphopoiesis

    SciTech Connect

    Rosse, C.

    1990-01-01

    Ongoing experiments contribute to the four specific aims in our current 3-year project period studying lymphopoiesis using CE mammary adenocarcinoma (CE maca) mice. Specific Aim 1: Function of Bone Marrow Stroma in CE Maca Bearing Mice. We have concluded that bone marrow stromal cells from tumor bearing animals are as effective as bone marrow stromal cells from normal animals at supporting B lymphopoiesis in culture. If stromal cell disfunction occurs in tumor bearing animals, the effect is not long lasting. Specific Aim 2: Factors Elaborated by CE Maca. Conditioned medium from CE maca cultures induces bone resorbing activity in bone organ cultures. We have identified a 32 kDa protein that meets the criteria for an osteoclast specific growth factor in this medium. However, we have also found that even though an osteoclast specific growth factor exists, a growth factor whose primary targets are granulocyte precursors will also stimulate osteoclast activity. Specific Aim 3: In Vitro Systems for Investigating Modulation of NK Lymphopoiesis by CE Maca. CE maca is shown to inhibit NK all production as well as B all production. In the course of the these experiments, we have established conditions for enriching NK precursors and have established a prototype long term bone marrow culture system which shows NK cell production. Specific Aim 4: Relationship Between Myclogenic and Intrathymic T Cell Precursors. There is evidence for a stream of T all maturation in both host (or intrathymic) cells and non-host (both hematogenous and intrathymic) cells. If thymic atrophy is induced by cortisone (a depopulation equivalent to that caused by 1000 rad) our data conclusively show thymic recovery is effected almost exclusively by intrathymic cells. This assigns a much greater importance to intrathymic T all progenitors in the maintenance of T cell production in the thymus than has been hitherto recognized. (MHB)

  13. Maternal respiratory sensitization and gestational allergen exposure does not affect subsequent pup responses to homologous or heterologous allergen.

    PubMed

    Pucheu-Haston, Cherie M; Copeland, Lisa B; Haykal-Coates, Najwa; Ward, Marsha D W

    2010-03-01

    Evidence suggests that the predisposition towards atopy begins early in life. Maternal allergy has been associated with an increased risk of the development of allergic disease in offspring. Some studies suggest that the development of childhood atopy may also be influenced by prenatal allergen exposure. In this study, a respiratory allergen exposure model was used to determine the impact of maternal sensitization (with or without additional exposures during pregnancy) on subsequent pup responses to homologous or heterologous allergen. Female BALB/c mice received two intratracheal aspiration (IA) exposures to Metarhizium anisopliae crude antigen (MACA) or Hank's buffered salt solution (HBSS) prior to breeding. Some mice also received three additional exposures during pregnancy. Control mothers did not receive treatment. Young adult offspring received three IA exposures to MACA, house dust mite extract (HDM) or HBSS. Offspring sensitized as young adults to either HDM or MACA developed an airway inflammatory response, including increased bronchoalveolar lavage fluid lactate dehydrogenase activity, total protein and total and differential cell counts compared to offspring exposed to HBSS. Increased airway responsiveness to methacholine was observed in pups treated with HDM but not with MACA. Maternal sensitization status (with or without gestational allergen exposure) had no effect on offspring response to either MACA or HDM. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that IA administration of MACA or HDM extract to young adult BALB/c mice induces the development of an inflammatory airway response. In contrast to previous reports, neither maternal sensitization nor gestational allergen exposure could be demonstrated to have a clear effect on offspring sensitization. This discrepancy may be a function of the respiratory sensitization and exposure protocol used in this study, which mimics natural sensitization more closely than do parenteral routes of exposure. PMID

  14. Allergic responses to the biopesticide Metarhizium anisopliae in Balb/c mice.

    PubMed

    Ward, M D; Sailstad, D M; Selgrade, M K

    1998-10-01

    Metarhizium anisopliae is used as a microbial pesticide to control cockroaches and other insects. M. anisopliae has demonstrated neither infectivity nor toxicity in mammals. However, allergenicity has not been assessed. M. anisopliae is a prototype for other organisms released into the environment for pesticide or other beneficial applications. Hence this study is part of an effort to develop methods for screening such organisms for allergenic potential. Soluble factors from fungal components were combined in equal protein amounts to form a crude fungal antigen (MACA). Balb/c mice were intratracheally (IT) challenged with 25 micrograms fungal antigen 13 days post intraperitoneal sensitization with the fungal antigen in alhydrogel adjuvant. Additionally, mice were sensitized with adjuvant alone or chitin media in adjuvant as experimental controls. Serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were harvested prior to challenge and at 1 and 7 days post IT challenge (DPIT). These mice exhibited immune and pulmonary inflammatory responses to MACA characteristic of allergy. Total serum IgE for antigen-sensitized animals increased 7.6- and 14.7-fold over that for chitin media and adjuvant controls, respectively, at 7 DPIT. Less striking increases were seen at 24 DPIT and prior to challenge. BALF IL-4 was dramatically elevated only in MACA-sensitized and challenged mice and only at 1 DPIT. Additionally, there was a dose-dependent increase in BALF eosinophils from MACA-sensitized mice at both 1 and 7 DPIT. While lymphocyte counts were increased for all treatment groups at 1 DPIT, by 7 DPIT lymphocyte counts for MACA-sensitized mice only were significantly elevated compared to controls. Pulmonary inflammation, edema, and cell damage were apparent at 1 DPIT (25 micrograms MACA), as indicated by a neutrophilic influx and elevated levels of total protein and LDH, in both sensitized and control groups. These effects were significantly decreased, but not eliminated by reduction

  15. RELATIVE POTENCY OF FUNGAL EXTRACTS IN INDUCING ALLERGIC ASTHMA-LIKE RESPONSES IN BALB/C MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Indoor mold has been associated with the development of allergic asthma. However, relative potency of molds in the induction of allergic asthma is not clear. In this study, we tested the relative potency of fungal extracts (Metarizium anisophilae [MACA], Stachybotrys ...

  16. Allergic Responses Induced by a Fungal Biopesticide Metarhizium anisopliae and House Dust Mite Are Compared in a Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Ward, Marsha D W; Chung, Yong Joo; Copeland, Lisa B; Doerfler, Donald L

    2011-01-01

    Biopesticides can be effective in controlling their target pest. However, research regarding allergenicity and asthma development is limited. We compared the ability of fungal biopesticide Metarhizium anisopliae (MACA) and house dust mite (HDM) extracts to induce allergic responses in BALB/c mice. The extracts were administered by intratracheal aspiration at doubling doses (2.5-80 μg protein) 4X over a four-week period. Three days after the last exposure, serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected. The extracts' relative allergenicity was evaluated based on response robustness (lowest significant dose response compared to control (0 μg)). MACA induced a more robust serum total IgE response than HDM. However, in the antigen-specific IgE assay, a similar dose of both MACA and HDM was required to achieve the same response level. Our data suggest a threshold dose of MACA for allergy induction and that M. anisopliae may be similar to HDM in allergy induction potential. PMID:21785589

  17. The in vitro biological activity of Lepidium meyenii extracts.

    PubMed

    Valentová, K; Buckiová, D; Kren, V; Peknicová, J; Ulrichová, J; Simánek, V

    2006-03-01

    The biological activity of methanolic and aqueous extracts from dehydrated hypocotyls of Lepidium meyenii (Brassicaceae, vernacular name "maca"), was studied on rat hepatocytes and human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. The extracts did not exhibit cytotoxicity in hepatocyte primary cultures up to 10 mg/ml as measured by the MTT viability test, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) leakage. Moreover, after 72 h, extracts inhibited LDH and AST leakage from the hepatocytes. When hepatocytes were intoxicated by t-butyl hydroperoxide, neither extract prevented oxidative damage. Both extracts showed weak antioxidant activity in the DPPH radical scavenging test with IC(50) values of 3.46 +/- 0.16 and 0.71 +/- 0.10 mg/ml, for aqueous and methanolic extracts, respectively. Thus, the observed effect on spontaneous enzyme leakage is probably mediated through mechanisms other than antioxidant activity. Both methanolic and aqueous extracts have shown estrogenic activity comparable with that of silymarin in MCF-7 cell line. Maca estrogenicity was exhibited in the range from 100 to 200 mug of extract per ml. The findings in the present study show that maca does not display in vitro hepatotoxicity. In contrast, a slight cytoprotective effect, probably not mediated by antioxidant capacity, was noted. Maca extracts exhibited estrogenic activity comparably to the effect of silymarin in MCF-7 cells. PMID:16528448

  18. ASSESSMENT OF ALLERGIC IMMUNE RESPONSES TO INDOOR AIR FUNGAL CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are using a mouse model to assess immune and inflammatory responses as well as changes in respiratory function and pathology characteristic of allergic asthma to fungal extracts M. anisopliae (MACA), S. chartarum (SCE), and P. chrysogenum (PCE). This model will be useful to a...

  19. Allergic Responses Induced by a Fungal Biopesticide Metarhizium anisopliae and House Dust Mite Are Compared in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Marsha D. W.; Chung, Yong Joo; Copeland, Lisa B.; Doerfler, Donald L.

    2011-01-01

    Biopesticides can be effective in controlling their target pest. However, research regarding allergenicity and asthma development is limited. We compared the ability of fungal biopesticide Metarhizium anisopliae (MACA) and house dust mite (HDM) extracts to induce allergic responses in BALB/c mice. The extracts were administered by intratracheal aspiration at doubling doses (2.5–80 μg protein) 4X over a four-week period. Three days after the last exposure, serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected. The extracts' relative allergenicity was evaluated based on response robustness (lowest significant dose response compared to control (0 μg)). MACA induced a more robust serum total IgE response than HDM. However, in the antigen-specific IgE assay, a similar dose of both MACA and HDM was required to achieve the same response level. Our data suggest a threshold dose of MACA for allergy induction and that M. anisopliae may be similar to HDM in allergy induction potential. PMID:21785589

  20. Regional downscaling of temporal resolution in near-surface wind from statistically downscaled Global Climate Models (GCMs) for use in San Francisco Bay coastal flood modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, A.; Erikson, L. H.; Barnard, P.

    2013-12-01

    While Global Climate Models (GCMs) provide useful projections of near-surface wind vectors into the 21st century, resolution is not sufficient enough for use in regional wave modeling. Statistically downscaled GCM projections from Multivariate Adaptive Constructed Analogues (MACA) provide daily near-surface winds at an appropriate spatial resolution for wave modeling within San Francisco Bay. Using 30 years (1975-2004) of climatological data from four representative stations around San Francisco Bay, a library of example daily wind conditions for four corresponding over-water sub-regions is constructed. Empirical cumulative distribution functions (ECDFs) of station conditions are compared to MACA GFDL hindcasts to create correction factors, which are then applied to 21st century MACA wind projections. For each projection day, a best match example is identified via least squares error among all stations from the library. The best match's daily variation in velocity components (u/v) is used as an analogue of representative wind variation and is applied at 3-hour increments about the corresponding sub-region's projected u/v values. High temporal resolution reconstructions using this methodology on hindcast MACA fields from 1975-2004 accurately recreate extreme wind values within the San Francisco Bay, and because these extremes in wind forcing are of key importance in wave and subsequent coastal flood modeling, this represents a valuable method of generating near-surface wind vectors for use in coastal flood modeling.

  1. The effects of pregnancy on the exacerbation and development of maternal allergic respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Pucheu-Haston, Cherie M; Copeland, Lisa B; Haykal-Coates, Najwa; Ward, Marsha D W

    2009-12-01

    The T-helper 2 (T(H)2) bias associated with pregnancy may predispose the pregnant mother to the development or exacerbation of allergic disease. To determine the effects of pregnancy on pre-existing maternal sensitization, we sensitized BALB/c mice before breeding by two intratracheal aspiration (IA) exposures to the fungal allergen, Metarhizium anisopliae crude antigen (MACA). Some mice also received three IA exposures to MACA on gestational days 11, 15, and 19. After weaning, all mice were challenged IA with MACA before killing. To determine the effects of pregnancy on susceptibility to future sensitization, naïve parous and nulliparous BALB/c mice were sensitized by three IA exposures to MACA or to Hank's buffered salt solution vehicle control. Pregnancy did not have a significant effect on individual inflammatory parameters (airway responsiveness to methacholine, total serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) IgE, BALF total protein, lactate dehydrogenase activity, and total and differential cell counts) following allergen challenge in sensitized mice, regardless of post-breeding allergen exposure. In conclusion there was a weak inhibition of the overall response in mice exposed to allergen during pregnancy compared to identically treated nulliparous mice. In contrast, parous mice that did not encounter allergen post-breeding tended to have exacerbated responses. Parity had no significant impact on future susceptibility to sensitization. PMID:19845451

  2. Fields without Borders: An Anthology of Documentary Writing and Photography by Student Action with Farmworkers' Interns = Campos sin Fronteras: Una Antologia de Obras Escritas y Fotografia por Estudiantes Internos de Accion Estudiantil con Trabajadores Agricolas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manly, Libby, Ed.; Okie, Alejandra, Ed.; Wiggins, Melinda, Ed.

    In this booklet, essays and poems, presented both in English and in Spanish, portray the feelings, conditions, and economic plight of migrant and seasonal farmworkers in North and South Carolina, often in their own words. A preface describes Student Action with Farmworkers summer internships in which college students spend 10 weeks working with…

  3. Results of investigation at the Miravalles geothermal field, Costa Rica. Resultados de las investigaciones en el campo geotermico de Miravalles, Costa Rica; Parte 2, Muestreo de fluidos pozo abajo

    SciTech Connect

    Grigsby, C.O.; Goff, F.; Trujillo, P.E. Jr.; Counce, D.A.; Dennis, B.; Kolar, J.; Corrales, R.; Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad, San Jose )

    1989-10-01

    Samples of the geothermal fluids in the Miravalles, Costa Rica, geothermal system were collected from production wellbores using downhole fluid samplers, from flowing wellheads using miniseparators, and from hot springs that discharge in the area. The reservoir fluid at Miravalles is a neutral-chloride-type water, but fumaroles and acid-sulfate springs are present within the main thermal area, and there are bicarbonate-rich hot springs that are clearly related to the neutral-chloride reservoir fluids. Dissolved gases are primarily a mixture of CO{sub 2} with air, but samples collected in the fumarolic areas also contain H{sub 2}S. Water-stable isotope analyses suggest local meteoric recharge, and the reservoir fluid shows oxygen isotopic shifts of about 2.5% due to high-temperature oxygen exchange between water and rock. Chemical geothermometer temperatures are consistent with the measured downhole temperature of 220{degrees} to 255{degrees}C. This pattern of neutral-chloride reservoir fluids with acid-sulfate springs near the source region and bicarbonate-rich chloride hot springs at the periphery of the system suggests a lateral outflow type of hydrothermal system. In addition to the geochemical evidence, temperature profiles from several of the wells show temperature reversals that are characteristic of lateral outflow plumes. We find no evidence for the underlying, higher temperature (300{degrees}C) system, which has been suggested by other investigators. 24 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Results of investigation at the Miravalles Geothermal Field, Costa Rica: Part 1, Well logging. Resultados de las investigaciones en el campo geotermico de Miravalles, Costa Rica: Parte 1, Registros de pozos

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, B.R.; Lawton, R.G.; Kolar, J.D.; Alvarado, A.

    1989-03-01

    The well-logging operations performed in the Miravalles Geothermal Field in Costa Rica were conducted during two separate field trips. The Phase I program provided the deployment of a suite of high-temperature borehole instruments, including the temperature/rabbit, fluid sampler, and three-arm caliper in Well PGM-3. These same tools were deployed in Well PGM-10 along with an additional survey run with a combination fluid velocity/temperature/pressure instrument used to measure thermodynamic properties under flowing well conditions. The Phase II program complemented Phase I with the suite of tools deployed in Wells PGM-5, PGM-11, and PGM-12. 4 refs., 25 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Comparison of respiratory responses to Metarhizium anisopliae extract using two different sensitization protocols.

    PubMed

    Ward, M D; Madison, S L; Andrews, D L; Sailstad, D M; Gavett, S H; Selgrade, M J

    2000-06-01

    Metarhizium anisopliae, an entomopathogenic fungus, is a prototypic microbial pesticide licensed for indoor control of cockroaches, a major source of allergens. We have previously demonstrated allergy and asthma-like responses in BALB/c mice intraperitoneally (IP) sensitized in the presence of adjuvant and intratracheally (IT) challenged with the soluble factors from M. anisopliae crude antigen (MACA) (Ward et al., 1998, 2000). This protocol has been used frequently to establish animal models of allergenicity. However, the sensitization protocol is artificial and not representative of an environmental exposure. Concern has been raised that this protocol might produce allergic responses that would not occur under normal environmental exposure conditions. The objective of this study was to compare responses in mice to MACA by two exposure protocols: (1) exclusive respiratory exposures without adjuvant (representative of environmental exposures) and (2) intraperitoneal sensitization in the presence of adjuvant followed by IT challenge (the traditional approach). The intratracheal protocol consisted of four IT exposures of 10 microg MACA in 50 microl HBSS each over a 4-week period. A vehicle control group of mice was exposed IT to HBSS. The intraperitoneal protocol consisted of IP sensitization with 25 microg MACA in 0.2 ml of 1.3% alhydrogel (aluminum hydroxide) followed 14 days later with an IT challenge (10 microg MACA/50 microl HBSS). Airway reactivity responsiveness to methacholine was assessed, serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples were obtained, and the lungs were fixed for histopathology at 1, 3, and 8 days following the last MACA IT challenge. Both groups exhibited immune and pulmonary responses typical of allergic asthma. In general, local responses in the lung, including inflammatory responses (eosinophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages), BALF IgE, and functional responses to methacholine were greater in the IT sensitized group compared to the

  6. Drilling the Messinian Salinity Crisis as a Model Analogue for Dolomite Deposition at the End of Massive Salt Deposition Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, Judith A.; Aloisi, Giovanni; Anjos, Sylvia; Latgé, Ricardo; Matsuda, Nilo; Bontognali, Tomaso; Vasconcelos, Crisogono

    2015-04-01

    Sedimentologic and stratigraphic studies of the Lower Cretaceous sequence, deposited in the economically important Campos Basin, southeast Brazil, document the occurrence of ~20-m-thick dolomite intervals overlying the "massive salt" megasequences of the Lagoa Feia Formation. This stratigaphic succession marks the Aptian/Albian transition from extreme evaporitic conditions of the Lagoa Feia Formation to shallow marine conditions of the Macaé Formation, related to the early opening of the South Atlantic. The facies change from evaporites to dolomite is interpreted as a product of dolomitization resulting from the refuxing of hypersaline fluids from shallow embayments with intense evaporation (Latgé, 2001). Although the reflux model provides a mechanism to produce fluids with geochemical composition favorable for dolomite precipitation, it cannot account for all of the factors required to promote dolomite precipitation. In this study, we propose a different model to explain the post-evaporite deposition of massive dolomite based on the study of sequences deposited at the end Messinian Salinity Crisis, which were recovered from the deep basins of the Mediterranean Sea during DSDP/ODP drilling campaigns. At most of these deep-water sites, the cored interval contained unusual dolomite deposits overlying the uppermost evaporite sections. For example, the upper Messinian sedimentary sequence at DSDP Site 374 comprises non-fossiliferous dolomitic mudstone overlying dolomitic mudstone/gypsum cycles, which in turn overlie anhydrite and halite (Hsü, Montadert et al., 1978). We postulate that the end Messinian dolomite is a product of microbial activity under extreme hypersaline conditions. In the last 20 years, research into the factors controlling dolomite precipitation under Earth surface conditions has led to the development of new models involving the metabolism of microorganisms and associated biofilms to overcome the kinetic inhibitions associated with primary

  7. Research on a Queue Scheduling Algorithm in Wireless Communications Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wenchuan; Hu, Yuanmei; Zhou, Qiancai

    This paper proposes a protocol QS-CT, Queue Scheduling Mechanism based on Multiple Access in Ad hoc net work, which adds queue scheduling mechanism to RTS-CTS-DATA using multiple access protocol. By endowing different queues different scheduling mechanisms, it makes networks access to the channel much more fairly and effectively, and greatly enhances the performance. In order to observe the final performance of the network with QS-CT protocol, we simulate it and compare it with MACA/C-T without QS-CT protocol. Contrast to MACA/C-T, the simulation result shows that QS-CT has greatly improved the throughput, delay, rate of packets' loss and other key indicators.

  8. Appendiceal mucinous neoplasms: a clinicopathologic analysis of 107 cases.

    PubMed

    Misdraji, Joseph; Yantiss, Rhonda K; Graeme-Cook, Fiona M; Balis, Ulysses J; Young, Robert H

    2003-08-01

    The classification of appendiceal mucinous tumors is controversial and terminology used for them inconsistent, particularly when they lack overtly malignant features but are associated with extra-appendiceal spread. We reviewed 107 appendiceal mucinous neoplasms and classified them as low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm (LAMN) (n = 88), mucinous adenocarcinomas (MACAs) (n = 16), or discordant (n = 3) based on architectural and cytologic features. LAMNs were characterized by a villous or flat proliferation of mucinous epithelium with low-grade atypia. Thirty-nine tumors were confined to the appendix, but 49 had extra-appendiceal tumor spread, including 39 with peritoneal tumor characterized by mucin pools harboring low-grade mucinous epithelium, usually dissecting in a hyalinized stroma. Eight of the 16 MACAs lacked destructive invasion of the appendiceal wall and eight showed an infiltrative pattern of invasion. Extra-appendiceal tumor spread was present in 12 MACAs (four peritoneum, seven peritoneum and ovaries; one ovaries only). In MACAs with an infiltrative pattern, peritoneal tumor consisted of glands and single cells in a desmoplastic stroma. The peritoneal tumor in the remaining cases consisted of mucin pools that contained mucinous epithelium with high-grade atypia and, in some cases, increased cellularity compared with that seen in peritoneal spread in cases of LAMN. Three cases were classified as discordant because the appendiceal tumors were LAMNs but the peritoneal tumors were high-grade. Follow-up was available for 49 LAMNs, 15 MACAs, and 2 discordant cases. None of the patients with LAMNs confined to the appendix experienced recurrence (median follow-up 6 years). LAMNs with extra-appendiceal spread were associated with 3-, 5-, and 10-year survival rates of 100%, 86%, and 45%, respectively. Patients with MACA had 3- and 5-year survival rates of 90% and 44%, respectively (p = 0.04). The bulk of peritoneal disease correlated with prognosis among

  9. A new species of Epicriopsis Berlese (Acari: Mesostigmata: Ameroseiidae) from Brazil, with a key to the world species of the genus.

    PubMed

    Narita, João Paulo Z; Moraes, Gilberto J De

    2016-01-01

    Epicriopsis atuberculatus n. sp. is described, based on the morphology of adult females and males collected from macaúba palms (Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd. ex Mart.; Arecaceae) in Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil. This is the first species of the genus described from the American continent, from where it has been rarely reported. A key to the world species of Epicriopsis is provided. PMID:27395142

  10. Imidazole alkaloids from Lepidium meyenii.

    PubMed

    Cui, Baoliang; Zheng, Bo Lin; He, Kan; Zheng, Qun Yi

    2003-08-01

    Two new imidazole alkaloids (lepidiline A and lepidiline B) have been isolated from a root extract of Lepidium meyenii with the common name Maca and identified as 1,3-dibenzyl-4,5-dimethylimidazolium chloride (1) and 1,3-dibenzyl-2,4,5-trimethylimidazolium chloride (2), respectively. The structures of these two new compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods, as well as single-crystal X-ray diffraction performed on compound 1. PMID:12932133

  11. Concurrent activation of granulocytes and osteoclasts in busulfan-suppressed bone marrow in response to transplantation of a mammary carcinoma in mice.

    PubMed

    McCracken, C H; Lottsfeldt, J L; Lee, M Y

    1988-05-01

    Transplantation of CE mammary adenocarcinoma (CE maca) into normal mice produces both neutrophilia and hypercalcemia due to osteoclastic bone resorption. In order to explore the physiology of osteoclast formation in vivo, the time course of neutrophilia and osteoclast development was examined in mice that had been pretreated with busulfan prior to the CE maca implantation. Busulfan-treated tumor-bearing mice (BUTUM), busulfan-treated control mice (BUCON), tumor-bearing mice with no busulfan (TUM), and normal controls (CON) were sacrificed on days 4, 7, 11, 14, and 17 after tumor implantation. Leukocyte counts, serum calcium levels, marrow cellularity, and marrow colony-forming units (CFU) were determined. Osteoclasts were quantified histologically by the osteoclast: endosteum ratio (OER). BUCON bone marrow was hypoplastic with CFU remaining significantly lower than that of controls over the course of the experiment. In contrast, BUTUM marrow CFU increased dramatically with the growth of the tumor. The most predominant increase was observed in neutrophilic CFU. Development of hypercalcemia closely paralleled neutrophilia in both TUM and BUTUM mice, although these changes were significantly delayed in the BUTUM group. The neutrophil count and serum calcium levels remained within normal control levels for BUCON mice. The OER correlated with serum calcium, and it closely paralleled the neutrophil count in TUM and BUTUM mice. These results clearly indicated the stimulation of bone marrow neutrophilic granulocyte progenitors and osteoclasts by the CE maca, indicating that the bone marrow is the primary target of this tumor. There may be a closely related mechanism in osteoclast and granulocyte stimulation by one or more CE maca factors. PMID:3360066

  12. MacB ABC Transporter Is a Dimer Whose ATPase Activity and Macrolide-binding Capacity Are Regulated by the Membrane Fusion Protein MacA*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hong Ting; Bavro, Vassiliy N.; Barrera, Nelson P.; Frankish, Helen M.; Velamakanni, Saroj; van Veen, Hendrik W.; Robinson, Carol V.; Borges-Walmsley, M. Inês; Walmsley, Adrian R.

    2009-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria utilize specialized machinery to translocate drugs and protein toxins across the inner and outer membranes, consisting of a tripartite complex composed of an inner membrane secondary or primary active transporter (IMP), a periplasmic membrane fusion protein, and an outer membrane channel. We have investigated the assembly and function of the MacAB/TolC system that confers resistance to macrolides in Escherichia coli. The membrane fusion protein MacA not only stabilizes the tripartite assembly by interacting with both the inner membrane protein MacB and the outer membrane protein TolC, but also has a role in regulating the function of MacB, apparently increasing its affinity for both erythromycin and ATP. Analysis of the kinetic behavior of ATP hydrolysis indicated that MacA promotes and stabilizes the ATP-binding form of the MacB transporter. For the first time, we have established unambiguously the dimeric nature of a noncanonic ABC transporter, MacB that has an N-terminal nucleotide binding domain, by means of nondissociating mass spectrometry, analytical ultracentrifugation, and atomic force microscopy. Structural studies of ABC transporters indicate that ATP is bound between a pair of nucleotide binding domains to stabilize a conformation in which the substrate-binding site is outward-facing. Consequently, our data suggest that in the presence of ATP the same conformation of MacB is promoted and stabilized by MacA. Thus, MacA would facilitate the delivery of drugs by MacB to TolC by enhancing the binding of drugs to it and inducing a conformation of MacB that is primed and competent for binding TolC. Our structural studies are an important first step in understanding how the tripartite complex is assembled. PMID:18955484

  13. Smallanthus sonchifolius and Lepidium meyenii - prospective Andean crops for the prevention of chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Valentová, Katerina; Ulrichová, Jitka

    2003-12-01

    Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon) and Lepidium meyenii (maca) were the traditional crops of the original population of Peru where they are also still used in folk medicine. These plants are little known in Europe and Northern America although at least yacon can be cultivated in the climatic conditions of these regions. This article deals with the botany and the composition, the structure of main constituents, biological activity of these plants and the cultivation of yacon in the Czech Republic. The potential of yacon tubers to treat hyperglycemia, kidney problems and for skin rejuvenation and the antihyperglycemic and cytoprotective activity of its leaves seems to be related mostly to its oligofructan and phenolic content, respectively. Maca alkaloids, steroids, glucosinolates, isothicyanates and macamides are probably responsible for its aptitude to act as a fertility enhancer, aphrodisiac, adaptogen, immunostimulant, anabolic and to influence hormonal balance. Yacon and maca are already on the European market as prospective functional foods and dietary supplements, mainly for use in certain risk groups of the population, e.g. seniors, diabetics, postmenopausal women etc. PMID:15037892

  14. Effect of irradiation on anti-nutrients (total phenolics, tannins and phytate) in Brazilian beans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C. H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Delincée, Henry; Greiner, Ralf

    2000-03-01

    The Brazilian bean varieties Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Carioca and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp var. Macaçar were irradiated with doses of 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy and subsequently stored at ambient temperature for 6 months. The anti-nutrients phenolic compounds, tannins and phytate were determined to be 0.48 mg g -1 dry basis, 1.8 mg g -1 dry basis and 13.5 μmol g -1 dry basis in the raw non-irradiated Carioca beans and 0.30 mg g -1 dry basis, 0.42 mg g -1 dry basis and 7.5 μmol g -1 dry basis in the raw non-irradiated Macaçar beans. After soaking and cooking a higher content of phenolic compounds and a lower phytate content was observed in both bean varieties. Tannin content was not affected by soaking and cooking of Carioca beans, but higher after soaking and cooking of Macaçar beans. Using radiation doses relevant for food did not effect the content of the anti-nutrients under investigation in both bean varieties.

  15. Triatominae Survey (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) in the South-Central Region of the State of Bahia, Brazil between 2008 and 2013

    PubMed Central

    Mendonça, Vagner José; de Oliveira, Jader; Rimoldi, Aline; Filho, Júlio C. R. Ferreira; de Araújo, Renato Freitas; da Rosa, JoãoAristeu

    2015-01-01

    Triatomine surveillance in rural areas, artificial ecotypes, and natural ecotopes of the cities of Caturama, Ibipitanga, Macaúbas, and Seabra in the south-central region of the Brazilian state of Bahia was carried out between 2008 and 2013. Natural infection by Trypanosoma cruzi was evaluated in the specimens collected to monitor vectors of Chagas disease. A total of 1,357 specimens were collected, and four species were identified: Triatoma sordida (83%), Triatoma lenti (16.4%), Triatoma pseudomaculata (0.5%), and Panstrongylus geniculatus (0.1%). Triatoma sordida was found in four cities, only 0.7% in intradomiciliary environments. Triatoma lenti was found only in Macaúbas; 8.5% were found in intradomiciliary environments, 88.3% in peridomiciliary environments, and 3.1% in sylvatic environments. Natural infection by T. cruzi was 0.5% for T. sordida and 3.1% T. lenti. All of these cases were found in peridomiciliary environments of Macaúbas. As the results show, triatomines were found in intradomiciliary environments in three cities that were surveyed in the south-central region of the state of Bahia. Thus, an epidemiologic survey should be performed to avoid the risk of transmission to the population. PMID:25802433

  16. Role of ATP binding and hydrolysis in assembly of MacAB-TolC macrolide transporter.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shuo; Zgurskaya, Helen I

    2012-12-01

    MacB is a founding member of the Macrolide Exporter family of transporters belonging to the ATP-Binding Cassette superfamily. These proteins are broadly represented in genomes of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and are implicated in virulence and protection against antibiotics and peptide toxins. MacB transporter functions together with MacA, a periplasmic membrane fusion protein, which stimulates MacB ATPase. In Gram-negative bacteria, MacA is believed to couple ATP hydrolysis to transport of substrates across the outer membrane through a TolC-like channel. In this study, we report a real-time analysis of concurrent ATP hydrolysis and assembly of MacAB-TolC complex. MacB binds nucleotides with a low millimolar affinity and fast on- and off-rates. In contrast, MacA-MacB complex is formed with a nanomolar affinity, which further increases in the presence of ATP. Our results strongly suggest that association between MacA and MacB is stimulated by ATP binding to MacB but remains unchanged during ATP hydrolysis cycle. We also found that the large periplasmic loop of MacB plays the major role in coupling reactions separated in two different membranes. This loop is required for MacA-dependent stimulation of MacB ATPase and at the same time, contributes to recruitment of TolC into a trans-envelope complex. PMID:23057817

  17. Cascading multi-hop reservation and transmission in underwater acoustic sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Won; Cho, Ho-Shin

    2014-01-01

    The long propagation delay in an underwater acoustic channel makes designing an underwater media access control (MAC) protocol more challenging. In particular, handshaking-based MAC protocols widely used in terrestrial radio channels have been known to be inappropriate in underwater acoustic channels, because of the inordinately large latency involved in exchanging control packets. Furthermore, in the case of multi-hop relaying in a hop-by-hop handshaking manner, the end-to-end delay significantly increases. In this paper, we propose a new MAC protocol named cascading multi-hop reservation and transmission (CMRT). In CMRT, intermediate nodes between a source and a destination may start handshaking in advance for the next-hop relaying before handshaking for the previous node is completed. By this concurrent relaying, control packet exchange and data delivery cascade down to the destination. In addition, to improve channel utilization, CMRT adopts a packet-train method where multiple data packets are sent together by handshaking once. Thus, CMRT reduces the time taken for control packet exchange and accordingly increases the throughput. The performance of CMRT is evaluated and compared with that of two conventional MAC protocols (multiple-access collision avoidance for underwater (MACA-U) and MACA-U with packet trains (MACA-UPT)). The results show that CMRT outperforms other MAC protocols in terms of both throughput and end-to-end delay. PMID:25275349

  18. The macamide N-3-methoxybenzyl-linoleamide is a time-dependent fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Almukadi, Haifa; Wu, Hui; Böhlke, Mark; Kelley, Charles J; Maher, Timothy J; Pino-Figueroa, Alejandro

    2013-10-01

    The Peruvian plant Lepidium meyenii (Maca) has been shown to possess neuroprotective activity both in vitro and in vivo. Previous studies have also demonstrated the activity of the pentane extract and its macamides, the most representative lipophilic constituents of Maca, in the endocannabinoid system as fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors. One of the most active macamides, N-3-methoxybenzyl-linoleamide, was studied to determine its mechanism of interaction with FAAH and whether it has inhibitory activity on mono-acyl glycerol lipase (MAGL), the second enzyme responsible for endocannabinoid degradation. Macamide concentrations from 1 to 100 μM were tested using FAAH and MAGL inhibitor assay methods and showed no effect on MAGL. Tests with other conditions were performed in order to characterize the inhibitory mechanism of FAAH inhibition. N-3-methoxybenzyl-linoleamide displayed significant time-dependent and dose-dependent FAAH inhibitory activity. The mechanism of inhibition was most likely irreversible or slowly reversible. These results suggest the potential application of macamides isolated from Maca as FAAH inhibitors, as they might act on the central nervous system to provide analgesic, anti-inflammatory, or neuroprotective effects, by modulating the release of neurotransmitters. PMID:23853040

  19. Tumour effect on arginine/ornithine metabolic relationship in hypertrophic mouse kidney.

    PubMed

    Manteuffel-Cymborowska, M; Chmurzyńska, W; Peska, M; Grzelakowska-Sztabert, B

    1997-03-01

    The presence of a tumour significantly changes nitrogen metabolism, including that of amino acids and polyamines, in host animals. In this study, we examine whether developing tumours affect the metabolic relationship of arginine and ornithine, precursors of polyamines, in the testosterone-induced hypertrophic mouse kidney model. Androgen-induced changes in the activity of enzymes involved with ornithine biosynthesis (arginase), its consumption (ornithine aminotransferase, OAT and ornithine decarboxylase, ODC) and the hypertrophy of host mouse kidney were not affected by the presence of an ascitic tumour (EAC) and only slightly by a mammary carcinoma (MaCa). The HPLC determined renal level of arginine and ornithine showed a striking homeostasis and was disturbed neither by testosterone nor EAC. The effect of MaCa and testosterone on the levels of both amino acids, although significant, was not very pronounced. Developing tumours, especially ascitic, altered the renal activity of OAT and ODC, but not of arginase, in testosterone-untreated mice. All examined tumours, EAC, L 1210 and MaCa actively metabolized arginine and ornithine. the tumour content of arginine which coincided with the activity of arginase, resulted in a marked increase of the ornithine/arginine ratio in tumours, when compared with kidneys. These results indicate that the androgen-induced anabolic response in mouse kidney is preserved, in spite of tumour requirements for essential metabolites. PMID:9062893

  20. Metal (Fe, Co, Ni) supported on different aluminas as Fischer-Tropsch catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlan; Marsih, I. Nyoman Ismunandar; Makertihartha, I. G. B. N.; Praserthdam, Piyasan; Panpranot, Joongjai

    2015-09-30

    This research aimed to compare the physico-chemical properties of the same metal M (M = iron, cobalt, nickel) supported on aluminas with different morphology and pore size as Fischer-Tropsch catalyst. The aluminas applied as support were alumina synthesized through hydrothermal process, alumina formed by pretreatment of catapal and commercial alumina which named as Ahy, Aca, and Aco respectively. Ahy has uniform morphology of nanotubes while Aca and Aco showed non-uniform morphology of particle lumps. The particle lumps of Aca were larger than those of Aco. Ahy, Aca, and Aco respectively has average pore diameter of 2.75, 2.86 and 2.9 nm. Metals were deposited on the supports by incipient-wetness impregnation method. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, H{sub 2}-TPR, and H{sub 2} chemisorption. Catalyst acitivity test for Fischer-Tropsch reaction was carried out in a micro reactor at 200 °C and 1 atm, and molar ratio of H{sub 2}/CO = 2:1. The metal oxide particle size increased in the order M/Aco < M/Aca < M/Ahy. The catalysts reducibility also increased according to the order M/Aco < M/Aca < M/Ahy suggesting that the larger metal oxide particles are more reducible. The number of active site was not proportional to the reducibility because during the reduction, larger metal oxide particles were converted into larger metal particles. On the other hand, the number of active sites was inversely proportional to the particle sizes. The number of active site increased in the order M/Ahy < M/Aco < M/Aca. The catalytic activity also increased in the following order M/Ahy < M/Aco < M/Aca. The activity per active site increased according to the order M/Aca < M/Aco < M/Ahy meaning that for M/Ahy, a little increase in active site will lead to a significance increase in catalytic activity. It showed that Ahy has potential for the better support.

  1. Metal (Fe, Co, Ni) supported on different aluminas as Fischer-Tropsch catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlan, Marsih, I. Nyoman; Makertihartha, I. G. B. N.; Praserthdam, Piyasan; Panpranot, Joongjai; Ismunandar

    2015-09-01

    This research aimed to compare the physico-chemical properties of the same metal M (M = iron, cobalt, nickel) supported on aluminas with different morphology and pore size as Fischer-Tropsch catalyst. The aluminas applied as support were alumina synthesized through hydrothermal process, alumina formed by pretreatment of catapal and commercial alumina which named as Ahy, Aca, and Aco respectively. Ahy has uniform morphology of nanotubes while Aca and Aco showed non-uniform morphology of particle lumps. The particle lumps of Aca were larger than those of Aco. Ahy, Aca, and Aco respectively has average pore diameter of 2.75, 2.86 and 2.9 nm. Metals were deposited on the supports by incipient-wetness impregnation method. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, H2-TPR, and H2 chemisorption. Catalyst acitivity test for Fischer-Tropsch reaction was carried out in a micro reactor at 200 °C and 1 atm, and molar ratio of H2/CO = 2:1. The metal oxide particle size increased in the order M/Aco < M/Aca < M/Ahy. The catalysts reducibility also increased according to the order M/Aco < M/Aca < M/Ahy suggesting that the larger metal oxide particles are more reducible. The number of active site was not proportional to the reducibility because during the reduction, larger metal oxide particles were converted into larger metal particles. On the other hand, the number of active sites was inversely proportional to the particle sizes. The number of active site increased in the order M/Ahy < M/Aco < M/Aca. The catalytic activity also increased in the following order M/Ahy < M/Aco < M/Aca. The activity per active site increased according to the order M/Aca < M/Aco < M/Ahy meaning that for M/Ahy, a little increase in active site will lead to a significance increase in catalytic activity. It showed that Ahy has potential for the better support.

  2. Eventos de Desconexao na Cauda de Plasma do Cometa P/Halley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, M. R.; Fahr, H. J.

    2001-08-01

    Observacoes cometárias e de vento solar sao comparadas com o propósito de determinar-se as condicoes do vento solar associadas aos eventos de desconexao (DEs) observados em caudas de plasma cometárias. Os dados cometários sao provenientes do The International Halley Watch Atlas of Large-Scale Phenomena. A análise visual sistemática das imagens do atlas revelou, entre outras estruturas morfológicas, 47 DEs ao longo da cauda de plasma do P/Halley. Estes 47 DEs registrados em 47 imagens distintas permitiram a descoberta de 19 origens de DEs, ou seja, o tempo em que as desconexoes iniciaram foi calculado. Os dados do vento solar sao provenientes de medidas feitas in situ pela sonda espacial IMP-8, as quais foram usadas para elaborar a variacao da velocidade do vento solar, densidade e pressao dinâmica durante o intervalo analisado. O presente trabalho compara as atuais teorias conflitantes, baseadas nos mecanismos de formacao, com o intuito de explicar o fenômeno cíclico dos DEs, ou seja, os efeitos de producao iônica, os efeitos de pressao e os efeitos de reconexao magnética sao analisados. Para cada uma das 19 origens de DEs comparou-se a densidade com a respectiva velocidade do vento solar com o intuito de determinar-se uma possível correlacao entre estas origens e os efeitos de pressao dinâmica. Quando da ocorrência de 6 origens de DEs o IMP-8 nao realizou medidas, nos outros 13 casos 10 origens (77%) mostraram uma anticorrelacao entre velocidade e densidade e apenas 3 (23%) revelaram uma tendência similar entre velocidade e densidade. Portanto, a análise inicial demonstra uma fraca correlacao entre as origens dos DEs e os efeitos de pressao.

  3. Biomarkers of acute respiratory allergen exposure: Screening for sensitization potential

    SciTech Connect

    Pucheu-Haston, Cherie M.; Copeland, Lisa B.; Vallanat, Beena; Boykin, Elizabeth; Ward, Marsha D.W.

    2010-04-15

    Effective hazard screening will require the development of high-throughput or in vitro assays for the identification of potential sensitizers. The goal of this preliminary study was to identify potential biomarkers that differentiate the response to allergens vs non-allergens following an acute exposure in naive individuals. Female BALB/c mice received a single intratracheal aspiration exposure to Metarhizium anisopliae crude antigen (MACA) or bovine serum albumin (BSA) in Hank's Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS) or HBSS alone. Mice were terminated after 1, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was evaluated to determine total and differential cellularity, total protein concentration and LDH activity. RNA was isolated from lung tissue for microarray analysis and qRT-PCR. MACA administration induced a rapid increase in BALF neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils and total protein compared to BSA or HBSS. Microarray analysis demonstrated differential expression of genes involved in cytokine production, signaling, inflammatory cell recruitment, adhesion and activation in 3 and 12 h MACA-treated samples compared to BSA or HBSS. Further analyses allowed identification of approx 100 candidate biomarker genes. Eleven genes were selected for further assessment by qRT-PCR. Of these, 6 demonstrated persistently increased expression (Ccl17, Ccl22, Ccl7, Cxcl10, Cxcl2, Saa1), while C3ar1 increased from 6-24 h. In conclusion, a single respiratory exposure of mice to an allergenic mold extract induces an inflammatory response which is distinct in phenotype and gene transcription from the response to a control protein. Further validation of these biomarkers with additional allergens and irritants is needed. These biomarkers may facilitate improvements in screening methods.

  4. Characterization of the pulp and kernel oils from Syagrus oleracea, Syagrus romanzoffiana, and Acrocomia aculeata.

    PubMed

    Coimbra, Michelle Cardoso; Jorge, Neuza

    2011-10-01

    Vegetable oils are important sources of essential fatty acids. It is, therefore, important to characterize plant species that can be used as new oil sources. This study aimed to characterize the oils from guariroba (Syagrus oleracea), jerivá (Syagrus romanzoffiana), and macaúba (Acrocomia aculeata). The physicochemical characterization was performed using official analytical methods for oils and fats, free fatty acids, peroxide value, refractive index, iodine value, saponification number, and unsaponifiable matter. The oxidative stability was determined using the Rancimat at 110 °C. The fatty acid composition was performed by gas chromatography. The results were submitted to Tukey's test for the medium to 5% using the ESTAT program. The pulp oils were more unsaturated than kernel oils, as evidenced by the higher refractive index and iodine value, especially the macaúba pulp oil which gave 1.4556 and 80 g I(2) /100 g, respectively, for these indices. The kernel oils were less altered by oxidative process and had high induction period, free fatty acids below 0.5%, and peroxide value around 0.19 meq/kg. The guariroba kernel oil showed the largest induction period, 91.82 h. Practical Application:  The vegetable oils, besides being consumed directly as food, are important raw material for the chemical, pharmaceutical, and food industries. In recent years, the world market of vegetable oils has been characterized by stronger growth of demand over supply. Several species of palm trees are shown to be promising sources of oils. The characterization of oils extracted from some species, such as guariroba, jerivá, and macaúba, has not yet been fully elucidated. For this reason, it becomes important to investigate the physicochemical characterization of these oils, aiming at a possible use in food or in the industry. PMID:22417579

  5. Effects of Climate Change on Flood Frequency in the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gergel, D. R.; Stumbaugh, M. R.; Lee, S. Y.; Nijssen, B.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    A key concern about climate change as related to water resources is the potential for changes in hydrologic extremes, including flooding. We explore changes in flood frequency in the Pacific Northwest using downscaled output from ten Global Climate Models (GCMs) from the Coupled Model Inter-Comparison Project 5 (CMIP5) for historical forcings (1950-2005) and future Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5 (2006-2100). We use archived output from the Integrated Scenarios Project (ISP) (http://maca.northwestknowledge.net/), which uses the Multivariate Adaptive Constructed Analogs (MACA) method for statistical downscaling. The MACA-downscaled GCM output was then used to force the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrology model with a 1/16th degree spatial resolution and a daily time step. For each of the 238 HUC-08 areas within the Pacific Northwest (USGS Hydrologic Region 15), we computed, from the ISP archive, the series of maximum daily runoff values (surrogate for the annual maximum flood), and then the mean annual flood. Finally, we computed the ratios of the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 mean annual floods to their corresponding values for the historical period. We evaluate spatial patterns in the results. For snow-dominated watersheds, the changes are dominated by reductions in flood frequency in basins that currently have spring-dominant floods, and increases in snow affected basins with fall-dominant floods. In low elevation basins west of the Cascades, changes in flooding are more directly related to changes in precipitation extremes. We further explore the nature of these effects by evaluating the mean Julian day of the annual maximum flood for each HUC-08 and how this changes between the historical and RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios.

  6. Reactive nitrogen oxides in the southeast United States national parks: source identification, origin, and process budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Daniel Quansong; Kang, Daiwen; Aneja, Viney P.; Ray, John D.

    2005-01-01

    We present in this study both measurement-based and modeling analyses for elucidation of source attribution, influence areas, and process budget of reactive nitrogen oxides at two rural southeast United States sites (Great Smoky Mountains national park (GRSM) and Mammoth Cave national park (MACA)). Availability of nitrogen oxides is considered as the limiting factor to ozone production in these areas and the relative source contribution of reactive nitrogen oxides from point or mobile sources is important in understanding why these areas have high ozone. Using two independent observation-based techniques, multiple linear regression analysis and emission inventory analysis, we demonstrate that point sources contribute a minimum of 23% of total NOy at GRSM and 27% at MACA. The influence areas for these two sites, or origins of nitrogen oxides, are investigated using trajectory-cluster analysis. The result shows that air masses from the West and Southwest sweep over GRSM most frequently, while pollutants transported from the eastern half (i.e., East, Northeast, and Southeast) have limited influence (<10% out of all air masses) on air quality at GRSM. The processes responsible for formation and removal of reactive nitrogen oxides are investigated using a comprehensive 3-D air quality model (Multiscale Air Quality SImulation Platform (MAQSIP)). The NOy contribution associated with chemical transformations to NOz and O3, based on process budget analysis, is as follows: 32% and 84% for NOz, and 26% and 80% for O3 at GRSM and MACA, respectively. The similarity between NOz and O3 process budgets suggests a close association between nitrogen oxides and effective O3 production at these rural locations.

  7. Biomarkers of acute respiratory allergen exposure: screening for sensitization potential.

    PubMed

    Pucheu-Haston, Cherie M; Copeland, Lisa B; Vallanat, Beena; Boykin, Elizabeth; Ward, Marsha D W

    2010-04-15

    Effective hazard screening will require the development of high-throughput or in vitro assays for the identification of potential sensitizers. The goal of this preliminary study was to identify potential biomarkers that differentiate the response to allergens vs non-allergens following an acute exposure in naïve individuals. Female BALB/c mice received a single intratracheal aspiration exposure to Metarhizium anisopliae crude antigen (MACA) or bovine serum albumin (BSA) in Hank's Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS) or HBSS alone. Mice were terminated after 1, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was evaluated to determine total and differential cellularity, total protein concentration and LDH activity. RNA was isolated from lung tissue for microarray analysis and qRT-PCR. MACA administration induced a rapid increase in BALF neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils and total protein compared to BSA or HBSS. Microarray analysis demonstrated differential expression of genes involved in cytokine production, signaling, inflammatory cell recruitment, adhesion and activation in 3 and 12 h MACA-treated samples compared to BSA or HBSS. Further analyses allowed identification of approximately 100 candidate biomarker genes. Eleven genes were selected for further assessment by qRT-PCR. Of these, 6 demonstrated persistently increased expression (Ccl17, Ccl22, Ccl7, Cxcl10, Cxcl2, Saa1), while C3ar1 increased from 6-24 h. In conclusion, a single respiratory exposure of mice to an allergenic mold extract induces an inflammatory response which is distinct in phenotype and gene transcription from the response to a control protein. Further validation of these biomarkers with additional allergens and irritants is needed. These biomarkers may facilitate improvements in screening methods. PMID:20045013

  8. Mars Atmospheric Chemistry and Astrobiology Workshop Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, M.; Wennberg, P.

    2002-09-01

    The Mars Atmospheric Chemistry and Astrobiology (MACA) Workshop was held on the California Institute of Technology campus December 17-18, 2001. The prime objective of the workshop was to consider whether extant life beneath the surface, if it exists, would be in contact with the atmosphere and introduce a detectable signature in the atmosphere. To answer this question, the workshop also explored how well we understood the abiotic chemistry of the current atmosphere and other drivers of atmospheric composition (volcanoes, surface-atmosphere interactions, escape). The conclusions from this workshop will be presented.

  9. Thermoplastic Starch Films with Vegetable Oils of Brazilian Cerrado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlemmer, D.; Sales, M. J. A.

    2008-08-01

    Biodegradable polymers are one of the most promising ways to replace non-degradable polymers. TPS films were prepared by casting from cassava starch and three different vegetable oils of Brazilian Cerrado as plasticizer: buriti, macaúba and pequi. In this preliminary work it was investigated materials thermal characteristics by TG and TMA. Thermal properties of oils depends on their chemical structures. Starch and vegetable oils are natural resources that can be used how alternative to producing materials that cause minor environmental impact.

  10. Differential allergy responses to Metarhizium anisopliae fungal component extracts in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Ward, Marsha D W; Chung, Yong Joo; Haykal-Coates, Najwa; Copeland, Lisa B

    2009-03-01

    Intratracheal aspiration (IA) exposure to Metarhizium anisopliae crude antigen (MACA), which is composed of equal protein amounts of mycelium (MYC), conidia (CON) and inducible proteases/chitinases (IND) extracts/filtrates, has resulted in responses characteristic of human allergic asthma in mice. The study objective was to evaluate the potential of each component extract to induce allergic/asthma-like responses observed in this mouse model. BALB/c mice received 4 IA exposures to MACA, CON, MYC, IND, or bovine serum albumin (BSA; negative control) or appropriate vehicle control or inflammatory control over a 4-wk period. Mice were assessed by whole-body plethysmography for immediate airway responses and airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine (Mch) challenge (PenH). Serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected 3 d after the final exposure. Additionally, BALF neurotrophin levels and extract protease and chitinase activity levels were evaluated. Western blot analysis showed that each component contained different IgE-reactive proteins. All fungal extract exposures resulted in elevated BALF total and differential cell counts, IgE and IgA and total serum IgE compared to HBSS and BSA controls. MYC-exposed mice had the highest responses except for neutrophil influx, which was highest in MACA and IND exposures. However, the MYC-exposed mice had significantly lower PenH values compared to other treatments. By comparison IND and MACA induced significantly higher PenH values. Additionally, IND had substantially higher protease activity levels but induced the lowest neurotrophin levels compared to the other fungal exposures. In this allergic asthma model extract chitinase activity was not associated with allergic responses. In summary, multiple exposures to any of the M. anisopliae component extracts induced allergic/asthma-like responses in BALB/c mice but the response magnitude was different for each component and each appears to contain unique Ig

  11. Minerals, phytic acid and tannin contents of 18 fruits from the Brazilian savanna.

    PubMed

    Marin, Alinne M F; Siqueira, Egle M A; Arruda, Sandra F

    2009-01-01

    The present study evaluated the nutritious potential of 18 fruits, all native of the Brazilian Cerrado biome. Mineral contents were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission; phytic acid and tannin contents by a colorimetric and titrimetric method, respectively; and the potential mineral bioavailability by the molar ratio of phytic acid/mineral. Baru nut showed the highest zinc, copper, iron, phosphorus and magnesium content, and, together with macaúba, showed also the highest calcium content and caloric value. Macaúba, pitomba, ingá and murici fruits were classified as a source of iron. The jatoba and baru nut had the highest concentration of phytic acid and tannins. The [phytic acid]/[iron] and [phytic acid]/[zinc] molar ratios were higher than the critical values (14 and 10, respectively) only in the baru nuts, which suggests that iron and zinc bioavailability is low in this nut. The [phytic acid]/[calcium] molar ratios were lower than the critical value (1.56) in all analyzed fruits, which suggests that calcium is bioavailable in the fruits. PMID:19353365

  12. Investigation of the structural invariance of the Ethnic Identity Scale with Native American youth.

    PubMed

    Yetter, Georgette; Foutch, Victoria

    2013-10-01

    This study examined the structural invariance of the 17-item Ethnic Identity Scale (EIS; Umaña-Taylor, Yazedjian, & Bámaca-Gomez, 2004) with a Native American sample. Participants were 144 students (55% female) enrolled in a Native American boarding school in the south-central U.S. Participants ranged in age from 13 to 19 years (M = 15.9, SD = 1.49). Confirmatory factor analysis was performed using maximum likelihood estimation. The original model was a poor fit for the data set. Removal of Items 1 and 2 and modeling the covariation between Items 6 and 11 resulted in an overall chi square value of Χ²(86, N = 144) = 152.21, p < .0001 (CFI = .936; RMSEA = .073; 90% CI on RMSEA = .054, .092), suggesting an acceptable fit. Substantial factor loadings were evident for the remaining 15 items. Analyses for the most part replicated Umaña-Taylor, Yazedjian, and Bámaca-Gomez's (2004) original 3-factor structure. We hypothesize that the minor differences between the present structure and that of Umaña-Taylor et al. (2004) may be an artifact of this particular sample. PMID:23731231

  13. [Beriberi, recurrent nutritional disease in a detention house in Côte-d'Ivoire].

    PubMed

    Aké-Tano, O; Konan, E Y; Tetchi, E O; Ekou, F K; Ekra, D; Coulibaly, A; Dagnan, N S

    2011-12-01

    As a re-emerging disease, beriberi caused by a lack of thiamine in food threatens more and more prisons in developing countries. Indeed in 2008, a beriberi epidemic occurred in a detention house of Côte-d'Ivoire called Maca. The goal of our retrospective investigation was to describe this epidemic in order to improve prisoners' health. The study related to 131 subjects, 64% of cases affected (N = 205). The total rate of beriberi attack was estimated at 38.6‰. The mean age was 33; all patients were male and they were detained in "Batiment C" (70.2%), synonymous with heavy punishment. They spent about 28.1 month in Maca. The clinical symptoms were neurological signs (swarming: 41%) and cardiovascular signs (dyspnoea: 42%, thoracic pain: 35%). Half of the patients (51%) presented oedemas of the lower limbs. The rate of healing was about 97% when patients followed treatment. Providing good nutrition to the prisoners and the distribution of vitamin complements will avoid other epidemics. PMID:21336653

  14. Effect of gamma irradiation on the thiamine, riboflavin and vitamin B 6 content in two varieties of Brazilian beans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villavicencio, A. L. C. H. A. L. C. H.; Mancini-Filho, J. J.; Delincée, H. H.; Bognár, A. A.

    2000-03-01

    The effect of 60Co gamma rays on the content of several B-vitamins in two varieties of Brazilian beans has been studied. Carioca ( Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Carioca) and Macaçar beans ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp, var. Macaçar) were irradiated at doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy, and subsequently stored at ambient temperature for 6 months. The content of vitamin B 1, B 2 and B 6 was analysed by HPLC. In addition, the optimum cooking time was established for each dose and bean variety. A taste panel evaluated sensory properties. Only slight changes were measured for thiamine and riboflavin, whereas a dose-dependent decrease was noted for pyridoxine, which, however, was significant only at the highest doses of 5 and 10 kGy. Cooking time was considerably reduced with increasing radiation dose, but accompanied by a loss of the sensory quality. However, at the disinfestation dose up to 1 kGy, acceptable ratings were obtained for the sensory evaluation. In conclusion, for insect disinfestation of Brazilian beans radiation processing is a promising technology.

  15. Population biology of the commercially exploited shrimp Artemesia longinaris (Decapoda: Penaeidae) in an upwelling region in the Western Atlantic: comparisons at different latitudes.

    PubMed

    Sancinetti, G S; Azevedo, A; Castilho, A L; Fransozo, A; Costa, R C

    2015-05-01

    This study characterized the population biology of the dendrobranchiate penaeid shrimp Artemesia longinaris Spence Bate, 1888, focusing on population structure, sexual maturity, reproductive period and recruitment, and comparing reproductive parameters of a different populations along western South Atlantic. Samples were collected monthly from March, 2008 to February, 2010 in Macaé, northern coast of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, a region influenced by the Cabo Frio upwelling. There was a significantly higher percentage of females and with larger sizes than males. Both carapace length and sexual maturity in Macaé were similar to the dimensions found in populations in the South of the continent (Argentina). Reproductive females were present in all months, with main peaks during winter and summer. Recruitment was also continuous, with peaks, usually one to two months after the appearance of reproductive females, after the reduction of the bottom temperature values of water. These data suggest that November to January would be the appropriate months for legal off-season, due to the higher intensity of spawning females and juveniles during this period. The results of this study contribute to the understanding of the biology of A. longinaris, and could also be a reference to monitor this important fishery resource and consequent legal off-season. Furthermore, this population located at the northern limit of the species distribution is a source of highly relevant comparison for population studies in other areas. PMID:26132012

  16. Neoproterozoic oceanic remnants in eastern Brazil: Further evidence and refutation of an exclusively ensialic evolution for the Araçuaí West Congo orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrosa-Soares, Antônio Carlos; Vidal, Philippe; Leonardos, Othon Henry; Bley de Brito Neves, Benjamin

    1998-06-01

    The Araçuaí (eastern Brazil) and West Congo (southwestern Africa) belts are counterparts of the same Neoproterozoic orogen located between the São Francisco and Congo cratons. The Macaúbas Group represents a major passive margin sequence and is a key unit for interpreting the evolution of that orogen. The Salinas Formation is the distal rock assemblage of the Macaúbas Group and consists of a deep-sea sand-mud sequence, and a volcanic-sedimentary unit called the Ribeirão da Folha facies. The latter includes metamorphosed volcanic-exhalative sediments associated with ocean-floor basalts (amphibolites). The magmatic protoliths of these amphibolites crystallized at about 816 ± 72 Ma (Sm-Nd whole-rock isochron, ɛNd(t) =+3.8 ± 0.2). Regional metamorphism reached the amphibolite facies at about 630 Ma (Rb-Sr whole-rock isochron), when slabs of ultramafic rocks were tectonically emplaced over the Ribeirão da Folha facies. We consider this volcanic-sedimentary facies and the coeval slabs of ultramafic rocks to be remnants of a branch of the Adamastor-Brazilide ocean. The extensive occurrence of syntectonic to late tectonic calc-alkalic granitoids along the internal domain of the Araçuaí belt implies that a reasonably large amount of ocean crust was consumed, via an east-dipping subduction zone, during formation of the Araçuaí West Congo orogen.

  17. Forest-stressing climate factors on the US West Coast as simulated by CMIP5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupp, D. E.; Buotte, P.; Hicke, J. A.; Law, B. E.; Mote, P.; Sharp, D.; Zhenlin, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The rate of forest mortality has increased significantly in western North America since the 1970s. Causes include insect attacks, fire, and soil water deficit, all of which are interdependent. We first identify climate factors that stress forests by reducing photosynthesis and hydraulic conductance, and by promoting bark beetle infestation and wildfire. Examples of such factors may be two consecutive years of extreme summer precipitation deficit, or prolonged vapor pressure deficit exceeding some threshold. Second, we quantify the frequency and magnitude of these climate factors in 20th and 21st century climates, as simulated by global climate models (GCMs) in Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5), of Washington, Oregon, and California in the western US. Both ';raw' (i.e., original spatial resolution) and statistically downscaled simulations are considered, the latter generated using the Multivariate Adaptive Constructed Analogs (MACA) method. CMIP5 models that most faithfully reproduce the observed historical statistics of these climate factors are identified. Furthermore, significant changes in the statistics between the 20th and 21st centuries are reported. A subsequent task will be to use a selected subset of MACA-downscaled CMIP5 simulations to force the Community Land Model, version 4.5 (CLM 4.5). CLM 4.5 will be modified to better simulate forest mortality and to couple CLM with an economic model. The ultimate goal of this study is to understand the interactions and the feedbacks by which the market and the forest ecosystem influence each other.

  18. Effects on starch and amylolytic enzymes during Lepidium meyenii Walpers root storage.

    PubMed

    Rondán-Sanabria, Gerby Giovanna; Valcarcel-Yamani, Beatriz; Finardi-Filho, Flavio

    2012-10-01

    The high water content in maca (Lepidium meyenii W.) roots combined with the damage produced during or after harvest makes them vulnerable to attack by enzymes and microorganisms. Although starch degradation has been extensively studied, in maca roots there is a paucity of research regarding the starch reserves. In this paper, parameters of starch degradation are shown to be related to the action of amylolytic enzymes during storage at room temperature. Over the course of three weeks, the starch and protein content, soluble sugar, total amylolytic activity, and α- and β-amylase activity were measured. In addition, the integrity of starch granules was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Despite the evidence of dehydration, there were no significant differences (p ≤ 0.5) in the total starch content or in the activities of α- and β-amylase. After the third week the roots remained suitable for consumption. The results indicate a postharvest latency that can lead to sprout or to senescence, depending on the environmental conditions. PMID:25005967

  19. Nonmethane hydrocarbons and ozone in three rural southeast United States national parks: A model sensitivity analysis and comparison to measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Daiwen; Aneja, Viney P.; Mathur, Rohit; Ray, John D.

    2003-10-01

    A detailed modeling analysis is conducted focusing on nonmethane hydrocarbons and ozone in three southeast United States national parks for a 15-day time period (14-29 July 1995) characterized by high O3 surface concentrations. The three national parks are Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM), Mammoth Cave National Park (MACA), and Shenandoah National Park (SHEN), Big Meadows. A base emission scenario and eight variant predictions are analyzed, and predictions are compared with data observed at the three locations for the same time period. Model-predicted concentrations are higher than observed values for O3 (with a cutoff of 40 ppbv) by 3.0% at GRSM, 19.1% at MACA, and 9.0% at SHEN (mean normalized bias error). They are very similar to observations for overall mean ozone concentrations at GRSM and SHEN. They generally agree (the same order of magnitude) with observed values for lumped paraffin compounds but are an order of magnitude lower for other species (isoprene, ethene, surrogate olefin, surrogate toluene, and surrogate xylene). Model sensitivity analyses here indicate that each location differs in terms of volatile organic compound (VOC) capacity to produce O3, but a maximum VOC capacity point (MVCP) exists at all locations that changes the influence of VOCs on O3 from net production to production suppression. Analysis of individual model processes shows that more than 50% of daytime O3 concentrations at the high-elevation rural locations (GRSM and SHEN) are transported from other areas; local chemistry is the second largest O3 contributor. At the low-elevation location (MACA), about 80% of daytime O3 is produced by local chemistry and 20% is transported from other areas. Local emissions (67-95%) are predominantly responsible for VOCs at all locations, the rest coming from transport. Chemistry processes are responsible for about 50% removal of VOCs for all locations; less than 10% are lost to surface deposition and the rest are exported to other areas

  20. Increased efficacy of an adenovirus-vectored foot-and-mouth disease capsid subunit vaccine expressing nonstructural protein 2B is associated with a specific T cell response

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously demonstrated that an adenovirus-based FMDV serotype A24 subunit vaccine, Ad5-A24, expressed under the control of a cytomegalovirus promoter (CMV) can protect swine and bovines against homologous challenge, but swine vaccinated with an Ad5-vectored FMDV O1 Campos vaccine, Ad5-O1Campos (...

  1. Mismatch between sediment metal distribution and pollution source gradient: a case study of a small-size drainage basin (Southeastern Brazil).

    PubMed

    Molisani, Mauricio Mussi; Noronha, Frederico Ricardo C; Schultz, Mario Sergio; de Rezende, Carlos Eduardo; de Almeida, Marcelo Gomes; Silveira, Carla Semiramis

    2015-06-01

    Metal contamination in aquatic environments may occur when the anthropogenic emission exceeds the natural contribution although other factors might influence the metal distribution. In the small-size Macaé river basin, most of the metal emission was originated from anthropogenic sources suggesting a contamination status. Total and exchangeable metal concentrations were determined in sediments from the pristine upstream to the urban estuary and compared to the metal content in rocks to establish contamination and background concentrations. The enrichment of Pb in sediments compared to the regional background and high exchangeable concentrations suggest the influence of anthropogenic sources on Pb distribution. Al, Fe Mn, Zn, Ba, Cu, Cr, Ni concentrations in sediments were similar to the rock content and the values were considered regional background. Spatial distribution did not follow the whole-basin emission source gradient suggesting that despite actual anthropogenic sources, the sediment mineralogy and basin geomorphology might influence the sediment metal distribution. PMID:25792107

  2. Preliminary Results of Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of X24C-4B Turbojet Engine. IV - Performance of Modified Compressor. Part 4; Performance of Modified Compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorman, H. Carl; Dupree, David T.

    1947-01-01

    The performance of the 11-stage axial-flow compressor, modified to improve the compressor-outlet velocity, in a revised X24C-4B turbojet engine is presented and compared with the performance of the compressor in the original engine. Performance data were obtained from an investigation of the revised engine in the MACA Cleveland altitude wind tunnel. Compressor performance data were obtained for engine operation with four exhaust nozzles of different outlet area at simulated altitudes from 15,OOO to 45,000 feet, simulated flight Mach numbers from 0.24 to 1.07, and engine speeds from 4000 to 12,500 rpm. The data cover a range of corrected engine speeds from 4100 to 13,500 rpm, which correspond to compressor Mach numbers from 0.30 to 1.00.

  3. Automated sinkhole detection using a DEM subsetting technique and fill tools at Mammoth Cave National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, J.; Bohnenstiehl, D. R.; Levine, N. S.

    2013-12-01

    An automated workflow for sinkhole detection is developed using Light Detection and Ranging (Lidar) data from Mammoth Cave National Park (MACA). While the park is known to sit within a karst formation, the generally dense canopy cover and the size of the park (~53,000 acres) creates issues for sinkhole inventorying. Lidar provides a useful remote sensing technology for peering beneath the canopy in hard to reach areas of the park. In order to detect sinkholes, a subsetting technique is used to interpolate a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) thereby reducing edge effects. For each subset, standard GIS fill tools are used to fill depressions within the DEM. The initial DEM is then subtracted from the filled DEM resulting in detected depressions or sinkholes. Resulting depressions are then described in terms of size and geospatial trend.

  4. Macamides and their synthetic analogs: evaluation of in vitro FAAH inhibition.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hui; Kelley, Charles J; Pino-Figueroa, Alejandro; Vu, Huyen D; Maher, Timothy J

    2013-09-01

    Maca (Lepidium meyenii), a traditional food crop of the Peruvian Andes is now widely touted as a dietary supplement. Among the various chemical constituents isolated from the plant are a unique series of non-polar, long-chain fatty acid N-benzylamides known as macamides. We have synthesized 11 of the 19 reported macamides and have tested each as potential inhibitors of the human enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). The five most potent macamides were FAAH inhibitors (IC50=10-17μM). These amides were derivatives of oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids and benzylamine or 3-methoxybenzylamine. Of the three compounds evaluated in a pre-incubation time study, two macamides were not irreversible inhibitors of FAAH. The third, a carbamate structurally related to macamides, was shown to be an irreversible inhibitor of FAAH (IC50=0.153μM). PMID:23891163

  5. Orbital engineering near La2 NiO 4- La2 CuO 4 superlattice interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smadici, S.; Lee, J. C. T.; Morales, J.; Abbamonte, P.; Logvenov, G.; Gozar, A.; Bozovic, I.

    2011-03-01

    Orbital states of transition metal oxides present the opportunity of adjusting material properties to a specific purpose (orbital engineering). A comparison of the resonant soft x-ray reflectivity of La 2 Ni O4 - La 2 Cu O4 superlattices at Ni L and Cu L edges shows different spatial distributions of the occupation of Ni d x 2 -y 2 and d 3z 2 -r 2 orbitals in the LNO layers. This modulation of the Ni valence is possible through a pronounced modulation of the density of oxygen interstitial dopants within the structure which does not follow exactly the structure itself. This is the first observation of orbital engineering in a 214 oxide. This work was supported by Grants DE-FG02-06ER46285, DE-AC02-98CH10886, MA-509-MACA, DE-FG02-07ER46453 and DE-FG02-07ER46471.

  6. Coseismic and postseismic motion of a landslide: Observations, modeling, and analogy with tectonic faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacroix, P.; Perfettini, H.; Taipe, E.; Guillier, B.

    2014-10-01

    We document the first time series of a landslide reactivation by an earthquake using continuous GPS measurements over the Maca landslide (Peru). Our survey shows a coseismic response of the landslide of about 2 cm, followed by a relaxation period of 5 weeks during which postseismic slip is 3 times greater than the coseismic displacement itself. Our results confirm the coseismic activation of landslides and provide the first observation of a postseismic displacement. These observations are consistent with a mechanical model where slip on the landslide basal interface is governed by rate and state friction, analogous to the mechanics of creeping tectonic faults, opening new perspectives to study the mechanics of landslides and active faults.

  7. Herbal preparations for the menopause: beyond isoflavones and black cohosh.

    PubMed

    Depypere, Herman T; Comhaire, Frank H

    2014-02-01

    Complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) such as isoflavones and black cohosh are commonly used to deal with menopausal symptoms, but benefit a limited proportion of women. The aim of this minireview is to summarize the evidence of the efficacy and safety of other herbal preparations. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) find that the extracts of Mediterranean pine bark (Pycnogenol(®)), linseed, and Lepididium meyenii (Maca) reduce vasomotor symptoms. The results of RCTs of the hop flavonoid 8-prenylnaringenin are conflicting. Animal and human studies suggest that Dioscorea villosa (Wild yam),and Broccoli may protect against osteoporosis and breast and gynecological cancers but further evidence is required. Linseed may protect against breast cancer but the results are conflicting. PMID:24314619

  8. Bioactive Compounds from Plants Used in Peruvian Traditional Medicine.

    PubMed

    Lock, Olga; Perez, Eleucy; Villar, Martha; Flores, Diana; Rojas, Rosario

    2016-03-01

    It is estimated that there are as many as 1400 plant species currently used in traditional Peruvian medicine; however, only a few have undergone scientific investigation. In this paper, we make a review of the botanical, chemical, pharmacological and clinical propierties of the most investigated Peruvian medicinal plants. The plant species selected for this review are: Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon), Croton lechleri (sangre de grado), Uncaria tomentosa/U. guianensis (uña de gato), Lepidium meyenii (maca), Physalis peruviana (aguaymanto), Minthostachys mollis (muña), Notholaena nivea (cuti-cuti), Maytenus macrocarpa (chuchuhuasi), Dracontium loretense (jergon sacha), Gentianella nitida (hercampuri), Plukenetia volubilis (sacha inchi) and Zea mays (maiz morado). For each of these plants, information about their traditional uses and current commercialization is also included. PMID:27169179

  9. Spatial, temporal and frequency based climate change assessment in Columbia River Basin using multi downscaled-scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Arun; Moradkhani, Hamid

    2016-07-01

    Uncertainties in climate modelling are well documented in literature. Global Climate Models (GCMs) are often used to downscale the climatic parameters on a regional scale. In the present work, we have analyzed the changes in precipitation and temperature for future scenario period of 2070-2099 with respect to historical period of 1970-2000 from statistically downscaled GCM projections in Columbia River Basin (CRB). Analysis is performed using two different statistically downscaled climate projections (with ten GCMs downscaled products each, for RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, from CMIP5 dataset) namely, those from the Bias Correction and Spatial Downscaling (BCSD) technique generated at Portland State University and from the Multivariate Adaptive Constructed Analogs (MACA) technique, generated at University of Idaho, totaling to 40 different scenarios. The two datasets for BCSD and MACA are downscaled from observed data for both scenarios projections i.e. RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. Analysis is performed using spatial change (yearly scale), temporal change (monthly scale), percentile change (seasonal scale), quantile change (yearly scale), and wavelet analysis (yearly scale) in the future period from the historical period, respectively, at a scale of 1/16th of degree for entire CRB region. Results have indicated in varied degree of spatial change pattern for the entire Columbia River Basin, especially western part of the basin. At temporal scales, winter precipitation has higher variability than summer and vice versa for temperature. Most of the models have indicated considerate positive change in quantiles and percentiles for both precipitation and temperature. Wavelet analysis provided insights into possible explanation to changes in precipitation.

  10. TdeA, a TolC-like protein required for toxin and drug export in Aggregatibacter (Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans

    PubMed Central

    Crosby, Juan A.; Kachlany, Scott C.

    2007-01-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitansW is an oral bacterium that causes localized aggressive periodontitis (LAP) and extra-oral infections such as sub-acute infective endocarditis. As part of its array of virulence factors, A. actinomycetemcomitans produces leukotoxin (LtxA), a member of the RTX family of toxins. LtxA kills human leukocytes and we have recently shown that the toxin is required for β -hemolysis by A. actinomycetemcomitans on solid medium. In other RTX toxin-producing bacteria, an outer membrane channel-forming protein, TolC, is required for toxin secretion and drug export. We have identified an ORF in A. actinomycetemcomitans that encodes a putative protein having predicted structural properties similar to TolC. Inactivation of this ORF resulted in a mutant that was no longer β -hemolytic and did not secrete LtxA. This mutant was significantly more sensitive to antimicrobial agents compared to the wild type strain and was unable to export the antimicrobial agent berberine. Thus, this ORF was named tdeA for “toxin and drug export”. Examination of the DNA sequence surrounding tdeA revealed two upstream ORFs that encode proteins similar to the drug efflux proteins, MacA and MacB. Inactivation of macB in A. actinomycetemcomitans did not alter the drug sensitivity profile or the hemolytic activity of the mutant. The genes macA, macB and tdeA are organized as an operon and are constitutively expressed as a single transcript. These results show that A. actinomycetemcomitans indeed requires a TolC-like protein for LtxA secretion and that this protein, TdeA, also functions as part of a drug efflux system. PMID:17116373

  11. Spatial, temporal and frequency based climate change assessment in Columbia River Basin using multi downscaled-scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Arun; Moradkhani, Hamid

    2015-10-01

    Uncertainties in climate modelling are well documented in literature. Global Climate Models (GCMs) are often used to downscale the climatic parameters on a regional scale. In the present work, we have analyzed the changes in precipitation and temperature for future scenario period of 2070-2099 with respect to historical period of 1970-2000 from statistically downscaled GCM projections in Columbia River Basin (CRB). Analysis is performed using two different statistically downscaled climate projections (with ten GCMs downscaled products each, for RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, from CMIP5 dataset) namely, those from the Bias Correction and Spatial Downscaling (BCSD) technique generated at Portland State University and from the Multivariate Adaptive Constructed Analogs (MACA) technique, generated at University of Idaho, totaling to 40 different scenarios. The two datasets for BCSD and MACA are downscaled from observed data for both scenarios projections i.e. RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. Analysis is performed using spatial change (yearly scale), temporal change (monthly scale), percentile change (seasonal scale), quantile change (yearly scale), and wavelet analysis (yearly scale) in the future period from the historical period, respectively, at a scale of 1/16th of degree for entire CRB region. Results have indicated in varied degree of spatial change pattern for the entire Columbia River Basin, especially western part of the basin. At temporal scales, winter precipitation has higher variability than summer and vice versa for temperature. Most of the models have indicated considerate positive change in quantiles and percentiles for both precipitation and temperature. Wavelet analysis provided insights into possible explanation to changes in precipitation.

  12. Identification of robust statistical downscaling methods based on a comprehensive suite of performance metrics for South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eum, H. I.; Cannon, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Climate models are a key provider to investigate impacts of projected future climate conditions on regional hydrologic systems. However, there is a considerable mismatch of spatial resolution between GCMs and regional applications, in particular a region characterized by complex terrain such as Korean peninsula. Therefore, a downscaling procedure is an essential to assess regional impacts of climate change. Numerous statistical downscaling methods have been used mainly due to the computational efficiency and simplicity. In this study, four statistical downscaling methods [Bias-Correction/Spatial Disaggregation (BCSD), Bias-Correction/Constructed Analogue (BCCA), Multivariate Adaptive Constructed Analogs (MACA), and Bias-Correction/Climate Imprint (BCCI)] are applied to downscale the latest Climate Forecast System Reanalysis data to stations for precipitation, maximum temperature, and minimum temperature over South Korea. By split sampling scheme, all methods are calibrated with observational station data for 19 years from 1973 to 1991 are and tested for the recent 19 years from 1992 to 2010. To assess skill of the downscaling methods, we construct a comprehensive suite of performance metrics that measure an ability of reproducing temporal correlation, distribution, spatial correlation, and extreme events. In addition, we employ Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) to identify robust statistical downscaling methods based on the performance metrics for each season. The results show that downscaling skill is considerably affected by the skill of CFSR and all methods lead to large improvements in representing all performance metrics. According to seasonal performance metrics evaluated, when TOPSIS is applied, MACA is identified as the most reliable and robust method for all variables and seasons. Note that such result is derived from CFSR output which is recognized as near perfect climate data in climate studies. Therefore, the

  13. Ultraviolet radiation downregulates allergy in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Ward, Marsha D W; Sailstad, Denise M; Andrews, Debora L; Boykin, Elizabeth H; Selgrade, MaryJane K

    2004-01-01

    The immunosuppressive effects of exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) are well known and the underlying mechanisms extensively studied. The suppression of Th1 appears to account for UVR suppression of contact hypersensitivity and delayed-type hypersensitivity responses and increased susceptibility to certain infections and tumor development. The underlying mechanisms suggest Th2-mediated responses associated with immediate-type hypersensitivity and allergic lung disease should be unchanged or possibly enhanced by UVR. The hypothesis that UVR exposure enhances allergic lung disease in BALB/c mice was tested. Effects of UVR on sensitization and elicitation of respiratory hypersensitivity were assessed using a fungal extract, Metarhizium anisopliae (MACA), as the allergen. BALB/c mice were sham or UVR (8 KJ/m(2)) exposed 3d before involuntary aspiration (IA) of MACA or vehicle. The mice received UVR exposures before the first and second of three IAs in the sensitization protocol and 3 d before the fourth IA in the elicitation protocol. Serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were harvested before (d 21, sensitization/d 24, elicitation) and at 1 (d 22/d 28), 3 (d 24/d 29), and 7 (d 28/d 35) d following the last IA. UVR exposure prior to sensitization suppressed two hallmarks of allergic disease, immune-mediated inflammation (eosinophil influx) and total immunoglobulin (Ig)E compared to the sham-UVR controls. There were no differences attributable to UVR exposure in previously sensitized mice. These data suggest that UVR exposure prior to sensitization suppresses allergic responses but has no effect on the elicitation of allergic responses in previously sensitized individuals. Consequently, there is no evidence that exposure to UVR enhances the induction or expression of allergic lung disease. PMID:14668112

  14. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey F. D. Nichols, Photographer August ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey F. D. Nichols, Photographer August 1936 VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST SHOWING CAMPO SANTO WALL (RESTORED) - Chapel of Padre Antonio Jose Martinez, Garden of Irving Couse, Taos, Taos County, NM

  15. 77 FR 16155 - Airworthiness Directives; Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica S.A. (EMBRAER) Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska; and... Faria Lima, 2170- Putim-12227-901 S o Jose dos Campos--SP--BRASIL; telephone +55 12 3927-5852 or +55...

  16. Short philtrum

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jones KL, Jones MC, Del Campo M, eds. Smith's Recognizable Patterns of Human Malformation . 7th ed. Philadelphia, ... commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact ...

  17. Low nasal bridge

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jones KL, Jones MC, Del Campo M, eds. Smith's Recognizable Patterns of Human Malformation. 7th ed. Philadelphia, ... commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact ...

  18. Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jones KL, Jones M, Del Campo M, eds. Smith's Recognizable Patterns of Human Malformation . 7th ed. Elsevier ... commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact ...

  19. Aarskog syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Jones KL, Jones MC, Del Campo M, eds. Smith's Recognizable Patterns of Human Malformation . 7th ed. Philadelphia, ... commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact ...

  20. MEMIN Project: The Search for Suitable Projectile Material in Meso-Scale Hypervelocity Cratering Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domke, I.; Deutsch, A.; Hecht, L.; Kenkmann, T.

    2010-03-01

    We report textural and geochemical data (EMP, LA-ICP-MS) for different types of steel and the iron meteorites Arispe (IC) and Campo del Cielo (IAB) that are evaluated as projectile materials in hypervelocity cratering experiments .

  1. Webbing of the fingers or toes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Carpenter syndrome Cornelia de Lange syndrome Pfeiffer syndrome Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome Use of the medicine hydantoin ... Jones KL, Jones MC, Del Campo M, eds. Smith's Recognizable Patterns of Human Malformation . 7th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  2. Aase syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Aase-Smith syndrome; Hypoplastic anemia - triphalangeal thumbs, Aase-Smith type ... Jones KL, Jones MC, Del Campo M, eds. Smith's Recognizable Patterns of Human Malformation . 7th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  3. The Author and His Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spain Today, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Critical evaluation and biographical comments on contemporary Spanish authors Arcadio de Larrea Palacin, Leopoldo de Luis, Andres Bosch, Condesa de Campo Alange, Gonzalo Torrente Ballester, and Juan Rof Carballo. (DS)

  4. Evaluation of canine and feline leishmaniasis by the association of blood culture, immunofluorescent antibody test and polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of Leishmania spp. in dogs and cats from Botucatu, São Paulo state, and Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil, by the association of three diagnostic tests: blood culture in liver infusion tryptose medium, immunofluorescent antibody test and polymerase chain reaction. Fifty blood samples of dogs and cats from the Center for Zoonosis Control in Campo Grande, an area endemic for canine visceral leishmaniasis, were collected randomly, as well as canine and feline blood samples from the Municipal Kennel and Animal Protection Association in Botucatu, currently considered a transmission-free, non-endemic area. Results Of the 50 dog blood cultures from Botucatu, three (6%) were positive and of the 50 cats, two (4%) were positive. In Campo Grande, 29 dog blood cultures (58%) were positive and all (100%) cats negative by this test. Polymerase chain reaction detected Leishmania spp. in 100% of dog and cat samples from Botucatu but found all the cats from Campo Grande to be negative. On the other hand, 36 dogs from Campo Grande were positive (72%) by the same technique. Immunofluorescent antibody test in Botucatu found 100% of dogs and cats non-reactive, while in Campo Grande, it detected positivity in 32 dogs (64%) and 15 cats (30%). Conclusions The results show the importance of not only continuous epidemiological surveillance in areas not endemic for leishmaniasis, but also research for accurate diagnosis of this zoonosis. PMID:24565284

  5. A Comparative experimental study of media access protocols for wireless radio networks

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, C. L.; Drozda, M.; Marathe, M. V.

    2001-05-24

    We conduct a comparative experimental analysis of three well known media access protocols: 802.11, CSMA, and MACA for wireless radio networks. Both fixed and ad-hoc networks are considered. The experimental analysis was carried out using GloMoSim: a tool for simulating wireless networks. The main focus of experiments was to study how (i) the size of the network, (ii) number of open connections, (iii) the spatial location of individual connections, (iv) speed with which individual nodes move and (v) protocols higher up in the protocol stack (e,g. routing layer) affect the performance of the media access sublayer protocols. The performance of the protocols was measured w.r.t. three important parameters: (1) number of received packets, (2) average latency of each packet, and (3) throughput. The following general qualitative conclusions were obtained; some of the conclusions reinforce the earlier claims by other researchers. (1) Although 802.11 performs better than the other two protocols with respect to fairness of transmission, packets dropped, and latency, its performance is found to (i) show a lot of variance with changing input parameters and (ii) the overall performance still leaves a lot of room for improvement. (2) CSMA does not perform too well under the fairness criteria, however, was the best in terms of the latency criteria. (3) MACA also shows fairness problems and has poor performance at high packet injection rates. (4) Protocols in the higher level of the protocol stack affect the MAC layer performance. The main general implications of our work is two folds: (1) No single protocol dominated the other protocols across various measures of efficiency. This motivates the design of a new class of parameterized protocols that adapt to changes in the network connectivity and loads. We refer to these class of protocols as parameterized dynamically adaptive efficient protocols and as a first step suggest key design requirements for such a class of protocols. (2

  6. Identification of endocannabinoid system-modulating N-alkylamides from Heliopsis helianthoides var. scabra and Lepidium meyenii.

    PubMed

    Hajdu, Zsanett; Nicolussi, Simon; Rau, Mark; Lorántfy, László; Forgo, Peter; Hohmann, Judit; Csupor, Dezső; Gertsch, Jürg

    2014-07-25

    The discovery of the interaction of plant-derived N-alkylamides (NAAs) and the mammalian endocannabinoid system (ECS) and the existence of a plant endogenous N-acylethanolamine signaling system have led to the re-evaluation of this group of compounds. Herein, the isolation of seven NAAs and the assessment of their effects on major protein targets in the ECS network are reported. Four NAAs, octadeca-2E,4E,8E,10Z,14Z-pentaene-12-ynoic acid isobutylamide (1), octadeca-2E,4E,8E,10Z,14Z-pentaene-12-ynoic acid 2'-methylbutylamide (2), hexadeca-2E,4E,9Z-triene-12,14-diynoic acid isobutylamide (3), and hexadeca-2E,4E,9,12-tetraenoic acid 2'-methylbutylamide (4), were identified from Heliopsis helianthoides var. scabra. Compounds 2-4 are new natural products, while 1 was isolated for the first time from this species. The previously described macamides, N-(3-methoxybenzyl)-(9Z,12Z,15Z)-octadecatrienamide (5), N-benzyl-(9Z,12Z,15Z)-octadecatrienamide (6), and N-benzyl-(9Z,12Z)-octadecadienamide (7), were isolated from Lepidium meyenii (Maca). N-Methylbutylamide 4 and N-benzylamide 7 showed submicromolar and selective binding affinities for the cannabinoid CB1 receptor (Ki values of 0.31 and 0.48 μM, respectively). Notably, compound 7 also exhibited weak fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibition (IC50 = 4 μM) and a potent inhibition of anandamide cellular uptake (IC50 = 0.67 μM) that was stronger than the inhibition obtained with the controls OMDM-2 and UCM707. The pronounced ECS polypharmacology of compound 7 highlights the potential involvement of the arachidonoyl-mimicking 9Z,12Z double-bond system in the linoleoyl group for the overall cannabimimetic action of NAAs. This study provides additional strong evidence of the endocannabinoid substrate mimicking of plant-derived NAAs and uncovers a direct and indirect cannabimimetic action of the Peruvian Maca root. PMID:24972328

  7. Nonmethane Hydrocarbons and Ozone in the Rural Southeast United States National Parks: A Model Sensitivity Analysis and Its Comparison with Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, D.; Aneja, V. P.; Mathur, R.; Ray, J. D.

    2001-12-01

    A comprehensive modeling analysis is conducted using the Multiscale Air Quality SImulation Platform (MAQSIP) focusing on nonmethane hydrocarbons and ozone in three southeast United States national parks for a 15-day time period (July 14th to July 29th, 1995) characterized by high O3 surface concentrations. Nine emission scenarios including the base scenario are analyzed. Model predictions are compared with and contrasted against observed data at the three locations for the same time period. Model predictions (base scenario) tend to give lower daily maximum O3 concentrations than observation by 10.8% at Cove Mountain, Great Smoke Mountains National Park (GRSM), 26.8% at Mammoth Cave National Park (MACA), and 17.6% at Big Meadows, Shenandoah National Park (SHEN). Overall mean ozone concentrations are very similar at GRSM and SHEN (observed data at MACA are not available). Model predicted concentrations of lumped paraffin compounds match the observed values on the same order, while the observed concentrations for other species (isoprene, ethene, surrogate olefin, surrogate toluene, and surrogate xylene) are usually an order of magnitude higher than the predictions. Sensitivity analyses indicate each location has its own characteristics in terms of the capacity of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to produce O3, but a maximum VOC capacity point (MVCP) exists at all locations that changes the influence of VOCs on O3 from production to destruction. Analysis of individual model process budgets shows that more than 50% of daytime O3 concentrations at these rural locations are transported from other areas, local chemistry is the second largest contributor (13% to 42%), all other processes combined contribute less than 10% of the daytime O3 concentrations. Local emissions (>99%) are predominantly responsible for VOCs at all locations, while vertical diffusion (>70%) is the predominant process to move VOCs away from the modeling grid. Dry deposition ( ~ 10%) and chemistry (2

  8. Pseudomyxoma peritonei of 92 Chinese patients: Clinical characteristics, pathological classification and prognostic factors

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Ai-Tao; Li, Yan-Mi; Wei, Li-Xin

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To assess the clinicopathologic features and its relationship with prognosis of pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) in Chinese patients. METHODS: The clinicopathologic features and follow-up data of 92 patients with PMP were reviewed and retrospectively analyzed. The cases were categorized into three groups: disseminated peritoneal adenomucinosis (DPAM), peritoneal mucinous carcinomatosis (PMCA), and peritoneal mucinous carcinomatosis with intermediate or discordant features (PMCA-I/D). The log-rank test was used to analyze survival for each group and various clinicopathological parameters. Multivariate Cox proportional-hazard models were constructed to determine the important factors associated with survival. RESULTS: The median age at diagnosis was 51.9 years (range: 22-76 years). The median follow up was 124 mo. The 3-, 5- and 10-year survival rates were 74.0%, 67.4% and 49.1%, respectively. There were 49 (53.2%) patients with DPAM, 26 (28.3%) with PMCA-I and 17 (18.5%) with PMCA. Patients with DPAM, PMCA-I/D and PMCA exhibited statistically significant difference in survival (P = 0.001). The 3 year survival for DPAM, PMCAI/D and PMCA was 97.0%, 80.0% and 67.0%, respectively; the 5 year survival was 80.0%, 67.0% and 50.0%, respectively; and the 10 year survival was 65.0%, 28.0% and 14.0%, respectively. Survival rate was significantly lowest in patients < 40 age years of age (P = 0.011). Appendiceal tumor and extra-ovarian parenchymal organ involvement were significantly related to overall survival. Patients with appendiceal mucinous adenocarcinoma (MACA) showed the significantly poorer prognosis (P = 0.011). Multivariate analysis showed that pathological classification, age, appendiceal tumor were significant related to overall survival. CONCLUSION: The clinical process “PMP” should be pathologically classified into DPAM, PMCA and PMCA-I/D. Pathological classification, age, appendiceal MACA are survival independent predictors in Chinese patients with PMP. PMID

  9. Antimycobacterial and Nitric Oxide Production Inhibitory Activities of Ocotea notata from Brazilian Restinga

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Isabela Francisca Borges; Calixto, Sanderson Dias; Heggdorne de Araujo, Marlon; Konno, Tatiana Ungaretti Paleo; Tinoco, Luzineide Wanderley; Guimarães, Denise Oliveira; Lasunskaia, Elena B.; Leal, Ivana Ramos Correa; Muzitano, Michelle Frazão

    2015-01-01

    The genus Ocotea (Lauraceae) is distributed mainly in tropical and subtropical regions. Some species of this genus as O. puberula and O. quixos have been described in the literature, showing antibacterial activity. And Ocotea macrophylla showed anti-inflammatory activity with inhibition of COX-1, COX-2, and LOX-5. The purpose of this study was the phytochemical investigation of the plant species Ocotea notata from Restinga Jurubatiba National Park, Macaé, RJ, Brazil, and the search for antimycobacterial fractions and compounds. The crude extract was evaluated for antimycobacterial activity and presented 95.75 ± 2.53% of growth inhibition at 100 µg/mL. Then, it was subjected to a liquid-liquid partition and subsequently was chemically investigated by HPLC, revealing the major presence of flavonoids. In this process the partition fractions hexane, ethyl acetate, and butanol are shown to be promising in the antimycobacterial assay. In addition, ethyl acetate fraction was chromatographed and afforded two flavonoids identified by MS and NMR as afzelin and isoquercitrin. The isolated flavonoids afzelin and isoquercitrin were evaluated for their antimycobacterial activity and for their ability to inhibit NO production by macrophages stimulated by LPS; both flavonoids isoquercitrin (Acet22) and afzelin (Acet32) were able to inhibit the production of NO by macrophages. The calculated IC50 of Acet22 and Acet32 was 1.03 and 0.85 µg/mL, respectively. PMID:25789338

  10. Analyzing the effect of routing protocols on media access control protocols in radio networks

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, C. L.; Drozda, M.; Marathe, A.; Marathe, M. V.

    2002-01-01

    We study the effect of routing protocols on the performance of media access control (MAC) protocols in wireless radio networks. Three well known MAC protocols: 802.11, CSMA, and MACA are considered. Similarly three recently proposed routing protocols: AODV, DSR and LAR scheme 1 are considered. The experimental analysis was carried out using GloMoSim: a tool for simulating wireless networks. The main focus of our experiments was to study how the routing protocols affect the performance of the MAC protocols when the underlying network and traffic parameters are varied. The performance of the protocols was measured w.r.t. five important parameters: (i) number of received packets, (ii) average latency of each packet, (iii) throughput (iv) long term fairness and (v) number of control packets at the MAC layer level. Our results show that combinations of routing and MAC protocols yield varying performance under varying network topology and traffic situations. The result has an important implication; no combination of routing protocol and MAC protocol is the best over all situations. Also, the performance analysis of protocols at a given level in the protocol stack needs to be studied not locally in isolation but as a part of the complete protocol stack. A novel aspect of our work is the use of statistical technique, ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) to characterize the effect of routing protocols on MAC protocols. This technique is of independent interest and can be utilized in several other simulation and empirical studies.

  11. Oviposition and predation by Speciomerus revoili (Coleoptera, Bruchidae) on seeds of Acrocomia aculeata (Arecaceae) in Brasília, DF, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ramos, F A; Martins, I; Farias, J M; Silva, I C; Costa, D C; Miranda, A P

    2001-08-01

    Oviposition and predation levels by Speciomerus revoili bruchid beetles were quantified on fruits and seeds of the macaúba palm, Acrocomia aculeata, collected from below mother-trees within the Sarah Kubitschek Park of Brasília, DF, Brazil. A maximum of 12 eggs per fruit were found, with high variations observed between samples. No clear pattern was found for the distribution of the number of eggs per fruit, perhaps due to the artificial conditions of the study area, the absence of dispersers and/or the plasticity in the oviposition behavior of the insect. The number of eggs per fruit was not related to fruit size, but was associated with their availability under the tree-mother. This suggests that the density of eggs per fruit is a balance between the availability of this resource and the number of females in the beetle population. The observed mortality rate, from the egg phase to the final larval stages, was over 75%. About 40% of the seeds of Acrocomia aculeata were predated by Speciomerus revoili. PMID:11706572

  12. Ecological aspects of Rhodnius nasutus Stål, 1859 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) in palms of the Chapada do Araripe in Ceará, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dias, Fernando Braga Stehling; Bezerra, Cláudia Mendonça; Machado, Evandro Marques de Menezes; Casanova, Cláudio; Diotaiuti, Liléia

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this work is to present aspects related to the ecology of Rhodnius nasutus Stål, 1859 in palms from Chapada do Araripe in Ceará, Brazil. The following five species of palms were investigated: babaçu (Attalea speciosa), buriti (Mauritia flexuosa), carnaúba (Copernicia prunifera), catolé (Syagrus oleracea) and macaúba-barriguda (Acrocomia intumescens). Fifth palms were dissected (10 specimens for each species). The overall infestation index was 86%, with a total of 521 triatomines collected. The Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas, 1909 Index was 16.8% and two insects presented mixed infection with Trypanosoma rangeli Tejera, 1920. A precipitin test showed that R. nasutus from palms of Chapada do Araripe are associated with opossum and bird although other possible bloodmeals were observed. Our results showing a high index of infestation of the palms as well as T. cruzi infection, the association of R. nasutus with the most diverse species of palms and proximity of these palms to houses demonstrate the importance of this area for sylvatic T. cruzi transmission and suggest the need for epidemiological surveillance in the region of the Chapada do Araripe. PMID:19148424

  13. Phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and in vitro inhibitory potential against key enzymes relevant for hyperglycemia and hypertension of commonly used medicinal plants, herbs and spices in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Ranilla, Lena Galvez; Kwon, Young-In; Apostolidis, Emmanouil; Shetty, Kalidas

    2010-06-01

    Traditionally used medicinal plants, herbs and spices in Latin America were investigated to determine their phenolic profiles, antioxidant activity and in vitro inhibitory potential against key enzymes relevant for hyperglycemia and hypertension. High phenolic and antioxidant activity-containing medicinal plants and spices such as Chancapiedra (Phyllantus niruri L.), Zarzaparrilla (Smilax officinalis), Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguayensis St-Hil), and Huacatay (Tagetes minuta) had the highest anti-hyperglycemia relevant in vitro alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities with no effect on alpha-amylase. Molle (Schinus molle), Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp), Caigua (Cyclanthera pedata) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) inhibited significantly the hypertension relevant angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE). All evaluated pepper (Capsicum) genus exhibited both anti-hyperglycemia and anti-hypertension potential. Major phenolic compounds in Matico (Piper angustifolium R.), Guascas (Galinsoga parviflora) and Huacatay were chlorogenic acid and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. Therefore, specific medicinal plants, herbs and spices from Latin America have potential for hyperglycemia and hypertension prevention associated with Type 2 diabetes. PMID:20185303

  14. Abundance and spatial-temporal distribution of the shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Decapoda: Penaeidae): an exploited species in southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, E R; Sancinetti, G S; Fransozo, A; Azevedo, A; Costa, R C

    2016-04-19

    This study evaluated the abundance and spatial-temporal distribution of the shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri in the coastal region of Macaé, state of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. Monthly samples were obtained from March 2008 to February 2010 in six stations located in Inner (5, 10 and 15m depth) and Outer (25, 35 and 45m depth) areas. It was used a commercial fishery boat equipped with an otter-trawl net (3.5 m mouth width, mesh size 20mm and 15mm in the cod end). Water samples were taken for determination of temperature and salinity, and sediment samples for determination of texture and organic matter content. A total of 7146 shrimps were sampled. About 95% of all shrimps were caught in the shallow area, i.e., depths <20m. Greatest abundances were recorded in winter and spring. No significant correlation was observed between sediment (phi) and abundance. The distribution of X. kroyeri in the studied area was closely related to seasonal cold waterfront of the South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) and temperature was the main factor affecting the species abundance. PMID:27097079

  15. Multi objective climate change impact assessment using multi downscaled climate scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Arun; Moradkhani, Hamid

    2016-04-01

    Global Climate Models (GCMs) are often used to downscale the climatic parameters on a regional and global scale. In the present study, we have analyzed the changes in precipitation and temperature for future scenario period of 2070-2099 with respect to historical period of 1970-2000 from a set of statistically downscaled GCM projections for Columbia River Basin (CRB). Analysis is performed using 2 different statistically downscaled climate projections namely the Bias Correction and Spatial Downscaling (BCSD) technique generated at Portland State University and the Multivariate Adaptive Constructed Analogs (MACA) technique, generated at University of Idaho, totaling to 40 different scenarios. Analysis is performed on spatial, temporal and frequency based parameters in the future period at a scale of 1/16th of degree for entire CRB region. Results have indicated in varied degree of spatial change pattern for the entire Columbia River Basin, especially western part of the basin. At temporal scales, winter precipitation has higher variability than summer and vice-versa for temperature. Frequency analysis provided insights into possible explanation to changes in precipitation.

  16. Medicinal plants from Peru: a review of plants as potential agents against cancer.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Valerio, Luis G

    2006-09-01

    Natural products have played a significant role in drug discovery and development especially for agents against cancer and infectious disease. An analysis of new and approved drugs for cancer by the United States Food and Drug Administration over the period of 1981-2002 showed that 62% of these cancer drugs were of natural origin. Natural compounds possess highly diverse and complex molecular structures compared to small molecule synthetic drugs and often provide highly specific biological activities likely derived from the rigidity and high number of chiral centers. Ethnotraditional use of plant-derived natural products has been a major source for discovery of potential medicinal agents. A number of native Andean and Amazonian medicines of plant origin are used as traditional medicine in Peru to treat different diseases. Of particular interest in this mini-review are three plant materials endemic to Peru with the common names of Cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa), Maca (Lepidium meyenii), and Dragon's blood (Croton lechleri) each having been scientifically investigated for a wide range of therapeutic uses including as specific anti-cancer agents as originally discovered from the long history of traditional usage and anecdotal information by local population groups in South America. Against this background, we present an evidence-based analysis of the chemistry, biological properties, and anti-tumor activities for these three plant materials. In addition, this review will discuss areas requiring future study and the inherent limitations in their experimental use as anti-cancer agents. PMID:17017852

  17. The assemblage composition and structure of swimming crabs (Portunoidea) in continental shelf waters of southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, L. S.; Frameschi, I. F.; Costa, R. C.; Castilho, A. L.; Fransozo, A.

    2015-02-01

    Three regions along the Brazilian coast characterized by the occurrence of contrasting natural phenomena, such as upwellings and continental input, were surveyed to determine the composition and structure of the assemblage of swimming crabs. Twelve monthly collections were undertaken (July 2010 to June 2011) in Macaé, Rio de Janeiro (MAC); Ubatuba, São Paulo (UBA); and São Francisco do Sul, Santa Catarina (SFS). The lowest values ​​of the phi sediment grain size measure, bottom temperature and the highest values of organic matter and salinity were measured in MAC. In all, 10,686 individuals were collected, belonging to six species of Portunoidea: Arenaeus cribrarius, Callinectes danae, Callinectes ornatus, Callinectes sapidus, Achelous spinicarpus and Achelous spinimanus. A Multiple Response Permutation Procedure (MRPP) test indicated that the species composition differed significantly among the sampling sites, showing substantial heterogeneity in the composition and abundance of species among regions. The results suggest that C. danae was more abundant in waters with lower salinity and lower organic matter content. In contrast, A. spinimanus is positively correlated with these factors, showing a greater abundance under the opposite conditions. Callinectes ornatus appeared not to show strong selectivity for particular habitat characteristics. We conclude from these findings that areas affected by different phenomena produce changes in the composition and abundance of the assemblage of Portunoidea. Although the strength of eutrophication differs between UBA and MAC, the substantial continental inflow affecting SFS favors the development of species that complete their life cycle in the estuary.

  18. Antimycobacterial and nitric oxide production inhibitory activities of Ocotea notata from Brazilian restinga.

    PubMed

    Costa, Isabela Francisca Borges; Calixto, Sanderson Dias; Heggdorne de Araujo, Marlon; Konno, Tatiana Ungaretti Paleo; Tinoco, Luzineide Wanderley; Guimarães, Denise Oliveira; Lasunskaia, Elena B; Leal, Ivana Ramos Correa; Muzitano, Michelle Frazão

    2015-01-01

    The genus Ocotea (Lauraceae) is distributed mainly in tropical and subtropical regions. Some species of this genus as O. puberula and O. quixos have been described in the literature, showing antibacterial activity. And Ocotea macrophylla showed anti-inflammatory activity with inhibition of COX-1, COX-2, and LOX-5. The purpose of this study was the phytochemical investigation of the plant species Ocotea notata from Restinga Jurubatiba National Park, Macaé, RJ, Brazil, and the search for antimycobacterial fractions and compounds. The crude extract was evaluated for antimycobacterial activity and presented 95.75 ± 2.53% of growth inhibition at 100 µg/mL. Then, it was subjected to a liquid-liquid partition and subsequently was chemically investigated by HPLC, revealing the major presence of flavonoids. In this process the partition fractions hexane, ethyl acetate, and butanol are shown to be promising in the antimycobacterial assay. In addition, ethyl acetate fraction was chromatographed and afforded two flavonoids identified by MS and NMR as afzelin and isoquercitrin. The isolated flavonoids afzelin and isoquercitrin were evaluated for their antimycobacterial activity and for their ability to inhibit NO production by macrophages stimulated by LPS; both flavonoids isoquercitrin (Acet22) and afzelin (Acet32) were able to inhibit the production of NO by macrophages. The calculated IC50 of Acet22 and Acet32 was 1.03 and 0.85 µg/mL, respectively. PMID:25789338

  19. Application of different techniques to identify the effects of irradiation on Brazilian beans after six months storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.; Mancini-Filho, J.; Delincée, H.

    1998-06-01

    Four different techniques to detect the effect of irradiation in beans were investigated. Two types of Brazilian beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macaçar, were irradiated using a 60Co source with doses ranging from 10.0 kGy. After 6 months storage at ambient temperature the detection tests were carried out. Firstly, germination tests showed markedly reduced root growth and almost totally retarded shoot elongation of irradiated beans as compared to non-irradiated beans. Secondly, DNA fragmentation was studied using a microgel electrophoresis. Irradiated cells produced typical comets with DNA fragments migrating towards the anode. DNA of non-irradiated cells exhibited a limited migration. Thirdly, electron spin resonance for detection of cellulose radicals was tested, since it was expected that these free radicals are quite stable in solid and dry foods. However, only in beans irradiated with 10 kGy a small signal could be detected. Fourtly, thermoluminescence, a method to analyze mineral debris adhering to food, turned out to be a good choice to detect irradiation effects in beans, even after 6 months of storage. The results indicate that three of these four techniques proposed, can be used to detect the effect of irradiation in these two varieties of Brazilian beans at a dose level useful for insect disinfestation (1 kGy).

  20. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna-Lucia C. H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    1998-06-01

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macaçar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein (˜10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfection process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein.

  1. The Role of the Two-Component System BaeSR in Disposing Chemicals through Regulating Transporter Systems in Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ming-Feng; Lin, Yun-You; Lan, Chung-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial two-component regulatory systems (TCSs) facilitate changes in gene expression in response to environmental stimuli. TCS BaeR regulons influence tigecycline susceptibility in Acinetobacter baumannii through positively regulating the pump genes adeA and adeB. In this study, we demonstrate that an additional two transport systems, AdeIJK and MacAB-TolC, are also regulated by BaeSR. In the wild type and clinical tigecycline-resistant A. baumannii strains, gene expression of AdeIJK and MacAB-TolC increased after tigecycline induction, implicating their importance to tigecycline resistance in addition to AdeABC. Phenotypic microarray results showed that A. baumannii is vulnerable to certain chemicals, especially tannic acid, after deleting baeR, which was confirmed using the spot assay. The wild-type strain of A. baumannii also exhibited 1.6-fold and 4.4-fold increase in gene expression of adeJ and macB in the medium with 100 μg/mL tannic acid, but the increase was fully inhibited by baeR deletion. An electrophoretic motility shift assay based on an interaction between His-BaeR and the adeA, adeI and macA promoter regions did not demonstrate direct binding. In conclusion, A. baumannii can use the TCS BaeSR in disposing chemicals, such as tannic acid and tigecycline, through regulating the efflux pumps. PMID:26161744

  2. Modeling Pacific Northwest carbon and water cycling using CARAIB Dynamic Vegetation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dury, M.; Kim, J. B.; Still, C. J.; Francois, L. M.; Jiang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    While uncertainties remain regarding projected temperature and precipitation changes, climate warming is already affecting ecosystems in the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Decrease in ecosystem productivity as well as increase in mortality of some plant species induced by drought and disturbance have been reported. Here, we applied the process-based dynamic vegetation model CARAIB to PNW to simulate the response of water and carbon cycling to current and future climate change projections. The vegetation model has already been successfully applied to Europe to simulate plant physiological response to climate change. We calibrated CARAIB to PNW using global Plant Functional Types. For calibration, the model is driven with the gridded surface meteorological dataset UIdaho MACA METDATA with 1/24-degree (~4-km) resolution at a daily time step for the period 1979-2014. The model ability to reproduce the current spatial and temporal variations of carbon stocks and fluxes was evaluated using a variety of available datasets, including eddy covariance and satellite observations. We focused particularly on past severe drought and fire episodes. Then, we simulated future conditions using the UIdaho MACAv2-METDATA dataset, which includes downscaled CMIP5 projections from 28 GCMs for RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. We evaluated the future ecosystem carbon balance resulting from changes in drought frequency as well as in fire risk. We also simulated future productivity and drought-induced mortality of several key PNW tree species.

  3. Hormones, herbal preparations and nutriceuticals for a better life after the menopause: part II.

    PubMed

    Comhaire, F H; Depypere, H T

    2015-06-01

    Long-term estrogen replacement therapy with estrogen has benefits for many postmenopausal women. However, some women prefer non-steroidal substitution with herbal preparations. The effectivity against vasomotor symptoms has been evidenced for the extracts of pine bark, of linseed and of Lepidium meyenii (Maca), whereas there is controversy about the effectiveness of genistein-rich soy extract. The extracts of cruciferous vegetables such as Broccoli and of linseed induce changes in the metabolism of estrogens, and antioxidants may reverse altered epigenetic DNA methylation, possibly reducing the risk of breast cancer or its recurrence. Indirect evidence from the literature and from clinical trials supports that a nutriceutical composed of plant extracts, low-dose vitamins and minerals may improve the quality of life by delaying certain age-related diseases. On the basis of epidemiologic studies, physiopathological considerations and controlled prospectieve trials, it is suggested that transdermal substitution therapy with estradiol together with nutriceutical food supplementation may increase the number of quality-adjusted life years of postmenopausal women, but complementary, large-scale, prospective trials are still needed. PMID:25668332

  4. NASA Research Bearing on Jet Engine Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, S. S.; Ault, G. M.; Pinkel, B.

    1959-01-01

    Turbojet engine reliability has long been an intense interest to the military users of this type of aircraft propulsion. With the recent inauguration of commercial jet transport this subject has assumed a new dimension of importance. In January l96 the Lewis Research Center of the NASA (then the MACA) published the results of an extensive study on the factors that affect the opera- center dot tional reliability of turbojet engines (ref. 1). At that time the report was classified Confidential. In July l98 this report was declassified. It is thus appropriate at this time to present some of the highlights of the studies described in the NASA report. In no way is it intended to outline the complete contents of the report; rather it is hoped to direct attention to it among those who are center dot directly concerned with this problem. Since the publication of our study over three years ago, the NASA has completed a number of additional investigations that bear significantly on this center dot subject. A second object of this paper, therefore, is to summarize the results of these recent studies and to interpret their significance in relation to turbojet operational reliability.

  5. Interfaces in La2NiO4- La2CuO4 superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smadici, S.; Lee, J. C. T.; Wang, S.; Abbamonte, P.; Logvenov, G.; Gozar, A.; Bozovic, I.

    2009-03-01

    Ni substitution on Cu sites in underdoped La2-xSrxCuO4 quickly restores Neel order. This was attributed to strong interaction between the Ni and doped holes. An open question was whether the additional Ni empty orbital or the different spin on Ni sites was at the origin of this strong interaction. We have addressed this problem with resonant soft x-ray scattering on a La2NiO4- La2CuO4 heterostructure. La2NiO4 and La2CuO4 have close lattice structures and electronic configurations. However, the x-ray scattering contrast between superlattice layers is greatly enhanced at soft x-ray resonant energies. Based on our measurements at the O K, La M, Cu L and Ni L edges a model of the charge, orbital and spin structures in these superlattices will be presented with a special emphasis on the interface region. This work was supported by Grants. DE-FG02- 06ER46285, DE-AC02-98CH10886, MA-509-MACA, DE-FG02-07ER46453 and DE-FG02-07ER46471.

  6. Utilizing Multi-Ensemble of Downscaled CMIP5 GCMs to Investigate Trends and Spatial and Temporal Extent of Drought in Willamette Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadalipour, A.; Beal, B.; Moradkhani, H.

    2015-12-01

    Changing climate and potential future increases in global temperature are likely to have impacts on drought characteristics and hydrologic cylce. In this study, we analyze changes in temporal and spatial extent of meteorological and hydrological droughts in future, and their trends. Three statistically downscaled datasets from NASA Earth Exchange Global Daily Downscaled Projections (NEX-GDDP), Multivariate Adaptive Constructed Analogs (MACA), and Bias Correction and Spatial Disagregation (BCSD-PSU) each consisting of 10 CMIP5 Global Climate Models (GCM) are utilized for RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. Further, Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) hydrologic model is used to simulate streamflow from GCM inputs and assess the hydrological drought characteristics. Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) and Streamflow Drought Index (SDI) are the two indexes used to investigate meteorological and hydrological drought, respectively. Study is done for Willamette Basin with a drainage area of 29,700 km2 accommodating more than 3 million inhabitants and 25 dams. We analyze our study for annual time scale as well as three future periods of near future (2010-2039), intermediate future (2040-2069), and far future (2070-2099). Large uncertainty is found from GCM predictions. Results reveal that meteorological drought events are expected to increase in near future. Severe to extreme drought with large areal coverage and several years of occurance is predicted around year 2030 with the likelihood of exceptional drought for both drought types. SPI is usually showing positive trends, while SDI indicates negative trends in most cases.

  7. A Multivariate and Probabilistic Assessment of Drought in the Pacific Northwest under Observed and Future Climate.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortuza, M. R.; Demissie, Y. K.

    2015-12-01

    In lieu with the recent and anticipated more server and frequently droughts incidences in Yakima River Basin (YRB), a reliable and comprehensive drought assessment is deemed necessary to avoid major crop production loss and better manage the water right issues in the region during low precipitation and/or snow accumulation years. In this study, we have conducted frequency analysis of hydrological droughts and quantified associated uncertainty in the YRB under both historical and changing climate. Streamflow drought index (SDI) was employed to identify mutually correlated drought characteristics (e.g., severity, duration and peak). The historical and future characteristics of drought were estimated by applying tri-variate copulas probability distribution, which effectively describe the joint distribution and dependence of drought severity, duration, and peak. The associated prediction uncertainty, related to parameters of the joint probability and climate projections, were evaluated using the Bayesian approach with bootstrap resampling. For the climate change scenarios, two future representative pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) from University of Idaho's Multivariate Adaptive Constructed Analogs (MACA) database were considered. The results from the study are expected to provide useful information towards drought risk management in YRB under anticipated climate changes.

  8. Improving heterologous polyketide production in Escherichia coli by transporter engineering.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jingya; Xiong, Zhi-Qiang; Song, Shu-Jie; Wang, Jian-Feng; Lv, Hua-Jun; Wang, Yong

    2015-10-01

    Expelling heterologous compounds out of hosts by transporters is a potential strategy to enhance product titers in microbial cell factories. In this work, to increase heterologous polyketide 6-deoxyerythronolide B (6dEB, erythromycin precursor) production, tripartite multidrug efflux pumps MacAB-TolC, AcrAB-TolC, MdtEF-TolC, and MexAB-OprM were modulated in a 6dEB production strain. Compared with the control, overexpression of a single component of efflux pumps (except oprM) repressed 6dEB production, but modulation of two components MacA and MacB or the complete pumps MacAB-TolC and MdtEF-TolC significantly improved 6dEB titer by 100 ± 11, 118 ± 54, and 98 ± 12 %, respectively. In addition, to avoid the challenging fine-tuning components of pumps, the transcriptional regulators of efflux pumps were modulated to improve the 6dEB production. Overexpression of RpoH (activator of MdtEF-TolC) and EvgA (activator of EmrKY-TolC and AcrAD-TolC) strongly increased 6dEB titer by 152 ± 54 and 142 ± 85 %, respectively. This is the first report of transporter engineering for improving heterologous polyketide production in Escherichia coli. Our results provide an effective strategy for improving the yield of the heterologous products in chassis cell. PMID:26062534

  9. Research on a Banknote Printing Wastewater Monitoring System based on Wireless Sensor Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, B. B.; Yuan, Z. F.

    2006-10-01

    In this paper, a banknote printing wastewater monitoring system based on WSN is presented in line with the system demands and actual condition of the worksite for a banknote printing factory. In Physical Layer, the network node is a nRF9e5-centric embedded instrument, which can realize the multi-function such as data collecting, status monitoring, wireless data transmission and so on. Limited by the computing capability, memory capability, communicating energy and others factors, it is impossible for the node to get every detail information of the network, so the communication protocol on WSN couldn't be very complicated. The competitive-based MACA (Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance) Protocol is introduced in MAC, which can decide the communication process and working mode of the nodes, avoid the collision of data transmission, hidden and exposed station problem of nodes. On networks layer, the routing protocol in charge of the transmitting path of the data, the networks topology structure is arranged based on address assignation. Accompanied with some redundant nodes, the network performances stabile and expandable. The wastewater monitoring system is a tentative practice of WSN theory in engineering. Now, the system has passed test and proved efficiently.

  10. Post-processing of multi-hydrologic model simulations for improved streamflow projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    khajehei, sepideh; Ahmadalipour, Ali; Moradkhani, Hamid

    2016-04-01

    Hydrologic model outputs are prone to bias and uncertainty due to knowledge deficiency in model and data. Uncertainty in hydroclimatic projections arises due to uncertainty in hydrologic model as well as the epistemic or aleatory uncertainties in GCM parameterization and development. This study is conducted to: 1) evaluate the recently developed multi-variate post-processing method for historical simulations and 2) assess the effect of post-processing on uncertainty and reliability of future streamflow projections in both high-flow and low-flow conditions. The first objective is performed for historical period of 1970-1999. Future streamflow projections are generated for 10 statistically downscaled GCMs from two widely used downscaling methods: Bias Corrected Statistically Downscaled (BCSD) and Multivariate Adaptive Constructed Analogs (MACA), over the period of 2010-2099 for two representative concentration pathways of RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. Three semi-distributed hydrologic models were employed and calibrated at 1/16 degree latitude-longitude resolution for over 100 points across the Columbia River Basin (CRB) in the pacific northwest USA. Streamflow outputs are post-processed through a Bayesian framework based on copula functions. The post-processing approach is relying on a transfer function developed based on bivariate joint distribution between the observation and simulation in historical period. Results show that application of post-processing technique leads to considerably higher accuracy in historical simulations and also reducing model uncertainty in future streamflow projections.

  11. Laser velocimetry applied to transonic and supersonic aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. A.; Bachalo, W. D.; Moddaress, D.

    1976-01-01

    As a further demonstration of the capabilities of laser velocity in compressible aerodynamics, measurements obtained in a Mach 2.9 separated turbulent boundary layer and in the transonic flow past a two-dimensional airfoil section are presented and compared to data realized by conventional techniques. In the separated-flow study, the comparisons were made against pitot-static pressure data. Agreement in mean velocities was realized where the pressure measurements could be considered reliable; however, in regions of instantaneous reverse velocities, the laser results were found to be consistent with the physics of the flow whereas the pressure data were not. The laser data obtained in regions of extremely high turbulence suggest that velocity biasing does not occur if the particle occurrence rate is low relative to the turbulent fluctuation rate. Streamwise turbulence intensities are also presented. In the transonic airfoil study, velocity measurements obtained immediately outside the upper surface boundary layer of a 6-inch chord MACA 64A010 airfoil are compared to edge velocities inferred from surface pressure measurements. For free-stream Mach numbers of 0.6 and 0.8, the agreement in results was very good. Dual scatter optical arrangements in conjunction with a single particle, counter-type signal processor were employed in these investigations. Half-micron-diameter polystyrene spheres and naturally occurring condensed oil vapor acted as light scatterers in the two respective flows. Bragg-cell frequency shifting was utilized in the separated flow study.

  12. On the Value of Climate Elasticity Indices to Assess the Impact of Climate Change on Streamflow Projection using an ensemble of bias corrected CMIP5 dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirel, Mehmet; Moradkhani, Hamid

    2015-04-01

    Changes in two climate elasticity indices, i.e. temperature and precipitation elasticity of streamflow, were investigated using an ensemble of bias corrected CMIP5 dataset as forcing to two hydrologic models. The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) and the Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting (SAC-SMA) hydrologic models, were calibrated at 1/16 degree resolution and the simulated streamflow was routed to the basin outlet of interest. We estimated precipitation and temperature elasticity of streamflow from: (1) observed streamflow; (2) simulated streamflow by VIC and SAC-SMA models using observed climate for the current climate (1963-2003); (3) simulated streamflow using simulated climate from 10 GCM - CMIP5 dataset for the future climate (2010-2099) including two concentration pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) and two downscaled climate products (BCSD and MACA). The streamflow sensitivity to long-term (e.g., 30-year) average annual changes in temperature and precipitation is estimated for three periods i.e. 2010-40, 2040-70 and 2070-99. We compared the results of the three cases to reflect on the value of precipitation and temperature indices to assess the climate change impacts on Columbia River streamflow. Moreover, these three cases for two models are used to assess the effects of different uncertainty sources (model forcing, model structure and different pathways) on the two climate elasticity indices.

  13. Reactivation of slow-moving landslides by earthquakes, kinematics measurements and mechanical implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacroix, Pascal; Perfettini, Hugo; Berthier, Etienne; Taipe, Edu; Guillier, Bertrand

    2015-04-01

    Major earthquakes in mountainous areas often trigger landslides. The impact of earthquakes on slow-moving landslides is however not well constrained due to few co-seismic measurements of landslide motion. We document the first time-series of a landslide reactivation by an earthquake (Mw6.0, distance 20 km), using continuous GPS measurements over the Maca landslide (Peru). Our survey shows a coseismic response of the landslide of about 2 cm, followed by a relaxation period of 5 weeks during which postseismic slip is three times greater than the coseismic displacement itself. Our results confirm the coseismic activation of landslides and provide the first observation of a post seismic displacement. Finally, a multi-temporal survey using images from the very high resolution Pléiades optical satellite, allowed us to detect 9 active slow-moving landslides over the whole valley. Their pattern of motion show they have been reactivated by the same earthquake. We analyze this small but comprehensive database of landslides reactivated by the earthquake. We find that the landslide motion due to the earthquake is function of the shaking intensity, suggesting a friction at the basal interface dependent on the earthquake solicitation. These various observations are consistent with a mechanical model where slip on the landslide basal interface is governed by rate and state friction, analogous to the mechanics of creeping tectonic faults.

  14. Genetic and functional characterization of the gene cluster directing the biosynthesis of putisolvin I and II in Pseudomonas putida strain PCL1445.

    PubMed

    Dubern, Jean-Frédéric; Coppoolse, Eric R; Stiekema, Willem J; Bloemberg, Guido V

    2008-07-01

    Pseudomonas putida PCL1445 secretes two cyclic lipopeptides, putisolvin I and putisolvin II, which possess a surface-tension-reducing ability, and are able to inhibit biofilm formation and to break down biofilms of Pseudomonas species including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The putisolvin synthetase gene cluster (pso) and its surrounding region were isolated, sequenced and characterized. Three genes, termed psoA, psoB and psoC, were identified and shown to be involved in putisolvin biosynthesis. The gene products encode the 12 modules responsible for the binding of the 12 amino acids of the putisolvin peptide moiety. Sequence data indicate that the adenylation domain of the 11th module prioritizes the recognition of Val instead of Leu or Ile and consequently favours putisolvin I production over putisolvin II. Detailed analysis of the thiolation domains suggests that the first nine modules recognize the d form of the amino acid residues while the two following modules recognize the l form and the last module the l or d form, indifferently. The psoR gene, which is located upstream of psoA, shows high similarity to luxR-type regulatory genes and is required for the expression of the pso cluster. In addition, two genes, macA and macB, located downstream of psoC were identified and shown to be involved in putisolvin production or export. PMID:18599835

  15. Strategies of Functional Foods Promote Sleep in Human Being

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yawen; Yang, Jiazhen; Du, Juan; Pu, Xiaoying; Yang, Xiaomen; Yang, Shuming; Yang, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Sleep is a vital segment of life, however, the mechanisms of diet promoting sleep are unclear and are the focus of research. Insomnia is a general sleep disorder and functional foods are known to play a key role in the prevention of insomnia. A number of studies have demonstrated that major insomnia risk factors in human being are less functional foods in dietary. There are higher functional components in functional foods promoting sleep, including tryptophan, GABA, calcium, potassium, melatonin, pyridoxine, L-ornithine and hexadecanoic acid; but wake-promoting neurochemical factors include serotonin, noradrenalin, acetylcholine, histamine, orexin and so on. The factors promoting sleep in human being are the functional foods include barley grass powder, whole grains, maca, panax, Lingzhi, asparagus powder, lettuce, cherry, kiwifruits, walnut, schisandra wine, and milk; Barley grass powder with higher GABA and calcium, as well as potassium is the most ideal functional food promoting sleep, however, the sleep duration for modern humans is associated with food structure of ancient humans. In this review, we put forward possible mechanisms of functional components in foods promoting sleep. Although there is clear relevance between sleep and diet, their molecular mechanisms need to be studied further. PMID:26005400

  16. Structure and Immunogenicity of Alternative Forms of the Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Gag Protein Expressed Using Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Replicon Particles

    PubMed Central

    Cecil, Chad; West, Ande; Collier, Martha; Jurgens, Christy; Madden, Victoria; Whitmore, Alan; Johnston, Robert; Moore, Dominic T.; Swanstrom, Ronald; Davis, Nancy L.

    2007-01-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particles (VRP) were engineered to express different forms of SIV Gag to compare expression in vitro, formation of intra- and extracellular structures and induction of humoral and cellular immunity in mice. The three forms examined were full-length myristylated SIV Gag (Gagmyr+), full-length Gag lacking the myristylation signal (Gagmyr-), or a truncated form of Gagmyr- comprising only the matrix and capsid domains (MA/CA). Comparison of VRP-infected primary mouse embryo fibroblasts, mouse L929 cells and primate Vero cells showed comparable expression levels for each protein, as well as extracellular virus-like particles (VRP-Gagmyr+), and distinctive cytoplasmic aggregates (VRP-Gagmyr-) with each cell type. VPR were used to immunize BALB/c mice, and immune responses were compared using an interferon (IFN)-γ ELISPOT assay and a serum antibody ELISA. Although all three VRP generated similar levels of IFN-γ-producing cells at 1 week post-boost, at 10 weeks post-boost the MA/CA-VRP-induced response was maintained at a significantly higher level relative to that induced by Gagmyr+-VRP. Antibody responses to MA/CA-VRP and Gagmyr+-VRP were not significantly different. PMID:17275057

  17. Influence of liposomes rich in unsaturated or saturated fatty acids on the growth of human xenotransplanted mammary carcinomas and on the levels of heart type fatty acid binding protein.

    PubMed

    Naundorf, H; Zschiesche, W; Reszka, R; Fichtner, I

    1995-01-01

    A panel of 4 human mammary carcinomas passaged in nude mice were subjected to intraperitoneal application of cholesterol-free liposomes enriched with linoleic (unsaturated fatty acid) or stearic acid (saturated fatty acid). The liposomes were examined with regard to their influence on the tumor growth and level of heart type fatty acid binding protein (FABP). Liposomes with different fatty acid composition influenced the growth of mammary carcinomas 3366, BO, 4000 and 4151 in distinct ways. Liposomes with a high content of stearic acid significantly inhibited the growth of mammary carcinomas 3366 and BO, whereas mammary carcinomas 4000 and 4151 were not affected. The growth of mammary carcinoma 3366 was moderately increased after supplementation of liposomes rich in linoleic acid, the tumor BO was significantly inhibited and the growth of MaCa 4000 and 4151 was unchanged. Liposome treatment led to a significant increase in heart type FABP in mammary carcinomas 3366 and BO regardless of whether the animals were treated with liposomes rich in stearic or linoleic acid. Such significant changes of FABP level could not be observed in mammary carcinomas 4000 or 4151. We suggest that the lipid-mediated growth modulation seems to be dependent on an increase of heart type FABPs in these tumor models. PMID:8562891

  18. Diving into the redox properties of Geobacter sulfurreducens cytochromes: a model for extracellular electron transfer.

    PubMed

    Santos, Telma C; Silva, Marta A; Morgado, Leonor; Dantas, Joana M; Salgueiro, Carlos A

    2015-05-28

    Geobacter bacteria have a remarkable respiratory versatility that includes the dissimilatory reduction of insoluble metal oxides in natural habitats and electron transfer to electrode surfaces from which electricity can be harvested. In both cases, electrons need to be exported from the cell interior to the exterior via a mechanism designated as extracellular electron transfer (EET). Several c-type cytochromes from G. sulfurreducens (Gs) were identified as key players in this process. Biochemical and biophysical data have been obtained for ten Gs cytochromes, including inner-membrane associated (MacA), periplasmic (PpcA, PpcB, PpcC, PpcD, PpcE and GSU1996) and outer membrane-associated (OmcF, OmcS and OmcZ). The redox properties of these cytochromes have been determined, except for PpcC and GSU1996. In this perspective, the reduction potentials of these two cytochromes were determined by potentiometric redox titrations followed by visible spectroscopy. The data obtained are taken together with those available for other key cytochromes to present a thorough overview of the current knowledge of Gs EET mechanisms and provide a possible rationalization for the existence of several multiheme cytochromes involved in the same respiratory pathways. PMID:25906375

  19. The Role of the Two-Component System BaeSR in Disposing Chemicals through Regulating Transporter Systems in Acinetobacter baumannii

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ming-Feng; Lin, Yun-You; Lan, Chung-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial two-component regulatory systems (TCSs) facilitate changes in gene expression in response to environmental stimuli. TCS BaeR regulons influence tigecycline susceptibility in Acinetobacter baumannii through positively regulating the pump genes adeA and adeB. In this study, we demonstrate that an additional two transport systems, AdeIJK and MacAB-TolC, are also regulated by BaeSR. In the wild type and clinical tigecycline-resistant A. baumannii strains, gene expression of AdeIJK and MacAB-TolC increased after tigecycline induction, implicating their importance to tigecycline resistance in addition to AdeABC. Phenotypic microarray results showed that A. baumannii is vulnerable to certain chemicals, especially tannic acid, after deleting baeR, which was confirmed using the spot assay. The wild-type strain of A. baumannii also exhibited 1.6-fold and 4.4-fold increase in gene expression of adeJ and macB in the medium with 100 μg/mL tannic acid, but the increase was fully inhibited by baeR deletion. An electrophoretic motility shift assay based on an interaction between His-BaeR and the adeA, adeI and macA promoter regions did not demonstrate direct binding. In conclusion, A. baumannii can use the TCS BaeSR in disposing chemicals, such as tannic acid and tigecycline, through regulating the efflux pumps. PMID:26161744

  20. Cytisus scoparius (Fam. Fabaceae) in southern Brazil - first step of an invasion process?

    PubMed

    Cordero, Rodrigo León; Torchelsen, Fábio P; Overbeck, Gerhard E; Anand, Madhur

    2016-03-01

    The occurrence of Scotch broom Cytisus scoparius (L.) Link (Fabaceae), is reported for the first time in Brazil. The species has been registered in the species-rich Campos Sulinos grasslands, in the Campos de Cima da Serra, and in the Serra do Sudeste. Naturalizing populations were frequently formed in natural habitats near to human settlements, where prevailing land uses and disturbances facilitate dispersal and establishment. The plant is an invasive species that has globally caused significant damage to biodiversity and economic losses. In Brazil, the species has a strong potential for spreading into a wide range of ecosystems. The Atlantic Forest biome and part of the Pampa biome, together known as the Campos Sulinos, represent optimal areas for the species. Features of the observed populations and recommendations for management are presented. PMID:26871495

  1. Polarimetría multicolor en dirección a un glóbulo de Bok

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, J. R.; Morras, R.; Arnal, E. M.

    Presentamos resultados de observaciones polarimétricas UBVRI en 65 estrellas muy débiles localizadas en el campo de un Glóbulo de Bok carente de anterior análisis observacional. Los resultados muestran un alto y uniforme grado de polarización --sobre todo en las bandas V, R e I-- en casi todas las estrellas de la muestra, así como una alineación del campo magnético proyectado en torno a la nube similar al del campo magnético general. Adicionalmente, estudiamos la posible conexión con la emisión en el infrarrojo a través de las observaciones del satélite IRAS.

  2. Reproductive biology and species geographical distribution in the Melastomataceae: a survey based on New World taxa

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Ana Paula Milla; Fracasso, Carla Magioni; Luciene dos Santos, Mirley; Romero, Rosana; Sazima, Marlies; Oliveira, Paulo Eugênio

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Apomictic plants are less dependent on pollinator services and able to occupy more diverse habitats than sexual species. However, such assumptions are based on temperate species, and comparable evaluation for species-rich Neotropical taxa is lacking. In this context, the Melastomataceae is a predominantly Neotropical angiosperm family with many apomictic species, which is common in the Campos Rupestres, endemism-rich vegetation on rocky outcrops in central Brazil. In this study, the breeding system of some Campo Rupestre Melastomataceae was evaluated, and breeding system studies for New World species were surveyed to test the hypothesis that apomixis is associated with wide distributions, whilst sexual species have more restricted areas. Methods The breeding systems of 20 Campo Rupestre Melastomataceae were studied using hand pollinations and pollen-tube growth analysis. In addition, breeding system information was compiled for 124 New World species of Melastomataceae with either wide (>1000 km) or restricted distributions. Key Results Most (80 %) of the Campo Rupestre species studied were self-compatible. Self-incompatibility in Microlicia viminalis was associated with pollen-tube arrest in the style, as described for other Melastomataceae, but most self-incompatible species analysed showed pollen-tube growth to the ovary irrespective of pollination treatment. Apomictic species showed lower pollen viability and were less frequent among the Campo Rupestre plants. Among the New World species compiled, 43 were apomictic and 77 sexual (24 self-incompatible and 53 self-compatible). Most apomictic (86 %) and self-incompatible species (71 %) presented wide distributions, whilst restricted distributions predominate only among the self-compatible ones (53 %). Conclusions Self-compatibility and dependence on biotic pollination were characteristic of Campo Rupestre and narrowly distributed New World Melastomataceae species, whilst apomictics are widely

  3. Nematocarcinus Milne Edwards, 1881 (Crustacea, Decapoda) from Southwestern Atlantic, including the Southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge area.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Irene A; Burukovsky, Rudolf N

    2014-01-01

    The deep sea shrimp genus Nematocarcinus Milne Edwards, 1881 includes 47 species, ten of them have been recorded from the Atlantic Ocean. Herein, material sampled during three scientific projects (REVIZEE Central Fishery project; Campos Basin Deep Sea Environmental Project; Evaluation of Environmental Heterogeneity in the Campos Basin) made in the Southwestern Atlantic, off Brazil, is examined. In addition, material sampled from the South Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR-ECO Project) was also examined. Four species are recorded for the first time to the southwestern Atlantic Ocean including Mid Atlantic Ridge area: Nematocarcinus faxoni Burukovsky, 2001; N. gracilipes Filhol, 1884; N. rotundus Crosnier & Forest, 1973 and N. tenuipes Spence-Bate, 1888. PMID:25543942

  4. Socialist Consciousness Raising and Cuba's School to the Countryside Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Denise

    2008-01-01

    As a participant-observer, the author relates observations, interviews, and surveys from her experience in a Cuban Escuela al Campo ("School to the Countryside," or EAC) camp located on a collective farm outside of the city of Havana. The Pioneers, the youth section of the official Cuban Communist Party, organize the EAC program nationwide. The…

  5. Vegetation structure in cerrado physiognomies in south-eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Batalha, M A; Mantovani, W; de Mesquita Júnior, H N

    2001-08-01

    We studied three cerrado physiognomies (campo cerrado, a savanna woodland; cerrado sensu stricto, a woodland; and cerradão, a tall woodland) in a reserve with 1,225 ha, in Santa Rita do Passa-Quatro (21 degrees 36-38'S and 47 degrees 36-39'W), São Paulo State, South-eastern Brazil, to compare plant communities structure. As descriptors of the vegetation structure, we used richness, density, basal area, cylindrical volume, and diversity. Ten 40 m2 quadrats were placed randomly in each physiognomy, in which we sampled the woody plants with stem diameter equal or larger than 1 cm (woody component), and ten 2.5 m2 quadrats, in which we sampled the woody plants with stem diameter smaller than 1 cm and all the non-woody individuals (herbaceous component). In the woody component, we found significant differences among the physiognomies for richness, density and cylindrical volume. Cylindrical volume increased from campo cerrado to cerradão, but richness and density were higher in cerrado sensu stricto. In the herbaceous component, we detected differences for all variables, which were higher in the savanna physiognomies, campo cerrado and cerrado sensu stricto, than in the forest physiognomy, cerradão. Cylindrical volume was the best variable to distinguish the physiognomies. Floristic similarity followed the campo cerrado-cerrado sensu stricto-cerradão gradient, and beta diversity was higher in the herbaceous component. PMID:11706576

  6. Violent activity of quasar 3C 454.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larionov, V. M.; Kopatskaya, E. N.; Arkharov, A. A.; Klimanov, S. A.

    2016-06-01

    We perform optical and NIR monitoring of a sample of gamma-bright blazars using 0.7-m AZT-8 telescope (Crimean Astrophysical Observatory) and 1.1-m AZT-24 telescope (Campo Imperatore, Italy), as a part of WEBT/GASP project.

  7. Pollen collection and honey bee forager distribution in cantaloupe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera, L.) pollen collection and forager distribution were examined during the summer of 2002 in a cantaloupe (Cucumis melo, L., Cruiser cv.) field provided with plastic mulch and drip irrigation. The experimental site was located near the INIFAP Campo Experimental La Laguna, Ma...

  8. Eventos de Septiembre (September Events).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor, Ed.

    Written in Spanish, this booklet contains brief information on 10 September events celebrated by Puerto Ricans: Arturo Somohano, the beginning of the academic year, Dia del Trabajo (Labor Day), Pedro Albizu Campos, Lola Rodriguez de Tio, William Howard Taft, El Grito de Lares, Dia del Indio Americano (American Indian Day), las retretas, and…

  9. Instrumental Relationships and High Expectations: Exploring Critical Care in Two Latino Community-Based Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Jesus, Anthony; Antrop-Gonzalez, Rene

    2006-01-01

    Using in-depth interviewing, participant observations, and the review of historical and curricular documents, this paper describes and analyzes two Latino community-based small high schools--the Dr Pedro Albizu Campos High School (PACHS) and El Puente Academy for Peace and Justice (El Puente). The findings suggest that these schools are successful…

  10. Toward a Theory Of Critical Care in Urban Small School Reform: Examining Structures and Pedagogies of Caring in Two Latino Community-Based Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antrop-Gonzalez, Rene; De Jesus, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    Using in-depth interviewing, participant observations, and the collection of historical and curricular documents, this article describes two Latino community-based small high schools-the Dr Pedro Albizu Campos High School (PACHS) and El Puente Academy for Peace and Justice (El Puente). The authors focus on ways in which these two schools create a…

  11. Dual Coding Theory, Word Abstractness, and Emotion: A Critical Review of Kousta et al. (2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paivio, Allan

    2013-01-01

    Kousta, Vigliocco, Del Campo, Vinson, and Andrews (2011) questioned the adequacy of dual coding theory and the context availability model as explanations of representational and processing differences between concrete and abstract words. They proposed an alternative approach that focuses on the role of emotional content in the processing of…

  12. Growing Up Dogmatic: Conversations in a Cuban Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozol, Jonathan

    1978-01-01

    The author, a Boston-based writer who focuses on the problems of education, visited Cuba to study its school system firsthand. This article is about his stay at the Martyrs of Kent Junior High School, en campo--out in farm country. (Editor/RK)

  13. Estimation of recharge from irrigation flows; Analysis of field and laboratory data and modeling.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This work is aimed at quantifying aquifer recharge due to irrigation in the Campo de Cartagena (SE Spain). A study of recharge was conducted on an experiment plot cropped in lettuce and irrigated with a drip system. The physico-chemical and hydraulic properties of the vadose zone were characterized ...

  14. Tratamiento del cáncer sin daño al corazón

    Cancer.gov

    Investigadores de los campos de oncología y de cardiología están trabajando para encontrar formas de impedir, manejar y posiblemente aun revertir los efectos secundarios cardiovasculares de ciertas terapias del cáncer.

  15. Rapid variability of the EXor star NY Ori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzetti, D.; Arkharov, A. A.; Efimova, N.; Giannini, T.; Antoniucci, S.; Di Paola, A.; Larionov, V. M.

    2016-03-01

    We report on a rapid brightness variability of the classical EXor star NY Ori observed with the AZT24 1m IR telescope (Campo Imperatore, Italy), as a part of our program EXORCISM (EXOR OptiCal and Infrared Systematic Monitoring - Antoniucci et al. 2013 PPVI; Lorenzetti et al. 2009 ApJ 693, 1056).

  16. Incorporating the Hybrid Learning Model into Minority Education at a Historically Black University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzzetto-More, Nicole A.; Sweat-Guy, Retta

    2006-01-01

    Proponents of hybrid learning proclaim it to be an effective and efficient way of expanding course content that supports in-depth delivery and analysis of knowledge (Young, 2002) and increases students satisfaction (Campos & Harasim, 1999; Dziuban & Moskal, 2001; Rivera, McAlister, & Rice, 2002; Wu & Hiltz, 2004). In the years to come, hybrid…

  17. Instantánea de nanotecnología

    Cancer.gov

    Resumen básico de la nanotecnología, la cual consiste en el diseño y la creación de dispositivos tan pequeños que solo pueden medirse a escala molecular. También se incluye información sobre las investigaciones que realiza el NCI en este campo.

  18. Blazars S5 0716+71 and B3 1633+38 in unprecedented outbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkharov, A. A.; Borman, G. A.; Di Paola, A.; Larionov, V. M.; Morozova, D. A.

    2015-01-01

    We perform optical and near-infrared monitoring of selected gamma-bright blazars using 40-cm LX-200 (optical, St.Petersburg, Russia), 70-cm AZT-8 (optical, Crimea) and 1.1-m AZT-24 (near-infrared, Campo Imperatore, Italy), as a part of WEBT/GASP project.

  19. 78 FR 76146 - Granting of Request for Early Termination of the Waiting Period Under the Premerger Notification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ... Altisource Portfolio Solutions, S.A., Equator LLC; Altisource Portfolio Solutions, S.A. 20140081 G FR XII Charlie AIV, L.P.; Forest Oil Corporation; FR XII Charlie AIV, L.P. 20140094 G Joselito D. Campos, Jr... V LP. 20140112 G Heartland Dental Holdings, Inc.; My Dentist Holdings, LLC; Heartland...

  20. Research and Clinical Center for Child Development Annual Report, 1982-1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyake, Kazuo, Ed.

    Most of the seven articles in this collection present research on the social development of young children. Specifically, "Issues in Socio-Emotional Development " (Kazuo Mikyake, Joseph Campos, and Jerome Kagan) and "Japanese vs. United States Comparison of Mother-Infant Interaction and Infant Development: A Review" (Shing-jen Chen and Kazuo…

  1. Deformation and Melting of Iron-Rich Projectiles in Hypervelocity MEMIN Cratering Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenkmann, T.; Ebert, M.; Trullenque, G.; Deutsch, A.; Hecht, L.; Salge, T.; Schäfer, F.; Thoma, K.

    2013-09-01

    We conducted 23-54 kJ impact experiments using projectiles composed of steel and iron meteorite Campo del Cielo to study the structural changes that occur upon impact in these projectiles. Extensive melting is largely the result of plastic deformation.

  2. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium andersoni in Brazilian cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feces were collected from 68 cattle, 1 to 12 mo of age, on 12 farms in the municipality of Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium sp. All samples were subjected to molecular analysis by polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) of the 18S rRNA. F...

  3. A ROOT ZONE MODELLING APPROACH TO ESTIMATING GROUNDWATER RECHARGE FROM IRRIGATED AREAS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In irrigated semi-arid and arid regions, accurate knowledge of groundwater recharge is important for the sustainable management of scarce water resources. The Campo de Cartagena area of southeast Spain is a semi-arid region where irrigation return flow accounts for a substantial portion of recharge....

  4. The Representation of Abstract Words: What Matters? Reply to Paivio's (2013) Comment on Kousta et al. (2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigliocco, Gabriella; Kousta, Stavroula; Vinson, David; Andrews, Mark; Del Campo, Elena

    2013-01-01

    In Kousta, Vigliocco, Vinson, Andrews, and Del Campo (2011), we presented an embodied theory of semantic representation, which crucially included abstract concepts as internally embodied via affective states. Paivio (2013) took issue with our treatment of dual coding theory, our reliance on data from lexical decision, and our theoretical proposal.…

  5. The Organization of Wariness of Heights in Experienced Crawlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueno, Mika; Uchiyama, Ichiro; Campos, Joseph J.; Dahl, Audun; Anderson, David I.

    2012-01-01

    Most infants with more than 6 weeks of crawling experience completely avoid the deep side of a visual cliff (Campos, Bertenthal, & Kermoian, 1992; Gibson & Walk, 1960). However, some experienced crawlers do move onto the transparent surface suspended several feet above the ground. An important question is whether these "nonavoiders" lack wariness…

  6. Multi-locus DNA sequencing of Toxoplasma gondii isolated from Brazilian pigs identifies genetically divergent strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five Toxoplasma gondii isolates (TgPgBr1-5) were isolated from hearts and brains of pigs freshly purchased at the market of Campos dos Goytacazes, Northern Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Four of the five isolates were highly pathogenic in mice. Four genotypes were identified. Multi-locus DNA sequenci...

  7. La ingeniería de la Estación Espacial Internacional

    NASA Video Gallery

    La Estación Espacial Internacional es del tamaño de un campo de fútbol americano y pesa 827.794 libras. Entonces, ¿cómo hicimos para colocar algo tan grande en el espacio? Pieza por pieza. Quince p...

  8. Groundwater recharge in different physiognomies of the Brazilian Cerrado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, P. T. S.; Leite, M.; Mattos, T.; Wendland, E.; Nearing, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2014, several cities of southeastern Brazil have grappled with their worst drought in nearly 80 years. To improve water availability in this region, the Brazilian government has studied the possibility of increasing groundwater use, mainly in the Guarani Aquifer System (GAS), the largest (~1.2 million km2) transnational boundary groundwater reservoir in South America. Approximately one half of the outcrop areas of the GAS are located in the Cerrado biome, the main agricultural expansion region in Brazil. Large areas of Cerrado vegetation have been converted into farmland in recent years; however, little attention has been paid to the consequences of this land cover and land use change on groundwater recharge. In this study we assessed groundwater recharge in different physiognomies of the Cerrado located in an outcrop area of the GAS. Water table fluctuations were measured from October 2011 through August 2013, by 64 monitoring wells distributed on five physiognomies of the undisturbed Cerrado. We used 20 (2.2±0.3 m), 20 (4.3±1.4 m), 14 (4.7±1.9 m), 9 (6.2±0.7 m), and 1 (42 m) monitoring wells (and average depth of wells) for "campo limpo" (cerrado grassland), "campo sujo" (shrub cerrado), "campo cerrado" (shrub cerrado), "cerrado sensu stricto" (wooded cerrado), and "cerrado sensu stricto denso" (cerrado woodland), respectively. Recharge was computed for each well using the Water Table Fluctuation method. The measured precipitation for hydrological years 2011-12 and 2012-13 were 1247 mm and 1194 mm, respectively. We found values of average annual recharge of 363 mm, 354 mm, 324 mm, and 315 mm for "campo limpo", "campo sujo","campo cerrado", and "cerrado sensu stricto", respectively. We did not find changes in the water table level in the one well located in the "cerrado sensu stricto denso". The water table in this well was 35 m deep; therefore, the amount of water that eventually reached the saturated zone was not enough to cause a rapid change in the

  9. Projecting the Dependence of Sage-steppe Vegetation on Redistributed Snow in a Warming Climate.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soderquist, B.; Kavanagh, K.; Link, T. E.; Seyfried, M. S.; Strand, E. K.

    2015-12-01

    In mountainous regions, the redistribution of snow by wind can increase the effective precipitation available to vegetation. Moisture subsidies caused by drifting snow may be critical to plant productivity in semi-arid ecosystems. However, with increasing temperatures, the distribution of precipitation is becoming more uniform as rain replaces drifting snow. Understanding the ecohydrological interactions between sagebrush steppe vegetation communities and the heterogeneous distribution of soil moisture is essential for predicting and mitigating future losses in ecosystem diversity and productivity in regions characterized by snow dominated precipitation regimes. To address the dependence of vegetation productivity on redistributed snow, we simulated the net primary production (NPP) of aspen, sagebrush, and C3 grass plant functional types spanning a precipitation phase (rain:snow) gradient in the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed and Critical Zone Observatory (RCEW-CZO). The biogeochemical process model Biome-BGC was used to simulate NPP at three sites located directly below snowdrifts that provide melt water late into the spring. To assess climate change impacts on future plant productivity, mid-century (2046-2065) NPP was simulated using the average temperature increase from the Multivariate Adaptive Constructed Analogs (MACA) data set under the RCP 8.5 emission scenario. At the driest site, mid-century projections of decreased snow cover and increased growing season evaporative demand resulted in limiting soil moisture up to 30 and 40 days earlier for aspen and sage respectively. While spring green up for aspen occurred an average of 13 days earlier under climate change scenarios, NPP remained negative up to 40 days longer during the growing season. These results indicate that the loss of the soil moisture subsidy stemming from prolonged redistributed snow water resources can directly influence ecosystem productivity in the rain:snow transition zone.

  10. Animal models for protein respiratory sensitizers.

    PubMed

    Ward, Marsha D W; Selgrade, Maryjane K

    2007-01-01

    Protein induced respiratory hypersensitivity, particularly atopic disease in general, and allergic asthma in particular, has increased dramatically over the last several decades in the US and other industrialized nations as a result of ill-defined changes in living conditions in modern western society. In addition, work-related asthma has become the most frequently diagnosed occupational respiratory illness. Animal models have demonstrated great utility in developing an understanding of the etiology and mechanisms of many diseases. A few models been developed as predictive models to identify a protein as an allergen or to characterize its potency. Here we describe animal models that have been used to investigate and identify protein respiratory sensitizers. In addition to prototypical experimental design, methods for exposure route, sample collection, and endpoint assessment are described. Some of the most relevant endpoints in assessing the potential for a given protein to induce atopic or allergic asthma respiratory hypersensitivity are the development of cytotropic antibodies (IgE, IgG1), eosinophil influx into the lung, and airway hyperresponsiveness to the sensitizing protein and/or to non-antigenic stimuli (Mch). The utility of technologies such as PCR and multiplexing assay systems is also described. These models and methods have been used to elucidate the potential for protein sources to induce allergy, identify environmental conditions (pollutants) to impact allergy responsiveness, and establish safe exposure limits. As an example, data are presented from an experiment designed to compare the allergenicity of a fungal biopesticide Metarhizium anisopliae (MACA) crude extract with the one of its components, conidia (CON) extract. PMID:17161304

  11. Various treatment options for benign prostatic hyperplasia: A current update

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Alankar; Gupta, Vipin B.

    2012-01-01

    In benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) there will be a sudden impact on overall quality of life of patient. This disease occurs normally at the age of 40 or above and also is associated with sexual dysfunction. Thus, there is a need of update on current medications of this disease. The presented review provides information on medications available for BPH. Phytotherapies with some improvements in BPH are also included. Relevant articles were identified through a search of the English-language literature indexed on MEDLINE, PUBMED, Sciencedirect and the proceedings of scientific meetings. The search terms were BPH, medications for BPH, drugs for BPH, combination therapies for BPH, Phytotherapies for BPH, Ayurveda and BPH, BPH treatments in Ayurveda. Medications including watchful waitings, Alpha one adrenoreceptor blockers, 5-alpha reductase inhibitors, combination therapies including tamsulosin-dutasteride, doxazosin-finasteride, terazosin-finasteride, tolterodine-tamsulosin and rofecoxib-finasteride were found. Herbal remedies such as Cernilton, Saxifraga stolonifera, Zi-Shen Pill (ZSP), Orbignya speciosa, Phellodendron amurense, Ganoderma lucidum, Serenoa Repens, pumpkin extract and Lepidium meyenii (Red Maca) have some improvements on BPH are included. Other than these discussions on Ayurvedic medications, TURP and minimally invasive therapies (MITs) are also included. Recent advancements in terms of newly synthesized molecules are also discussed. Specific alpha one adrenoreceptor blockers such as tamsulosin and alfuzosin will remain preferred choice of urologists for symptom relief. Medications with combination therapies are still needs more investigation to establish as preference in initial stage for fast symptom relief reduced prostate growth and obviously reduce need for BPH-related surgery. Due to lack of proper evidence Phytotherapies are not gaining much advantage. MITs and TURP are expensive and are rarely supported by healthcare systems. PMID:22923974

  12. The potential influence of plant-based feed supplements on sperm quantity and quality in livestock: a review.

    PubMed

    Clément, C; Witschi, U; Kreuzer, M

    2012-05-01

    The reproductive performance of male livestock is of economic importance, and improving semen quantity and quality, especially for artificial insemination, additionally helps to avoid the loss of valuable genotypes. The review focuses on the impact of oxidative stress on sperm production and quality in livestock, and the potential role of plant based anti-oxidants to control this impact. From scientific reports dealing with livestock, the paper compiles evidence on effective dietary measures affecting sperm production and quality. Where little or no data are available on livestock, it refers to sources regarding other mammals, including man. The review concentrates on the use of distinct plants as feed supplements rather than on ways to treat deficiencies and imbalances in energy or macro- and micronutrients. Feeding of maca (Lepidium meyenii) and khat (Catha edulis) has been shown to positively affect sperm production and quality in animals. Some evidence points to favourable effects of leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala and Leucaena pallida), sesbania (Sesbania sesban), pomegranate (Punica granatum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) as well, but studies are either superficial or results are partially contradictory. Finally, the review considers the potential usefulness of medicinal herbs. The list of such plants includes Chinese herbs such as Lycium barbarum, Astralagus membranaceus, Acanthopanacis senticosi, Magnolia officinalis, Cornus officinalis and Psoralea corylifolia and the Indonesian plant Eurycoma longifolia. European candidate plants are Tribulus terrestris and Pendulum murex. Future research should include the screening of other plants, concentrating on the large number of plants rich in metabolites because of their presumed effectiveness. The modes of action often require clarification for the plants with demonstrated effects. PMID:22575847

  13. Food Web Architecture and Basal Resources Interact to Determine Biomass and Stoichiometric Cascades along a Benthic Food Web

    PubMed Central

    Guariento, Rafael D.; Carneiro, Luciana S.; Caliman, Adriano; Leal, João J. F.; Bozelli, Reinaldo L.; Esteves, Francisco A.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the effects of predators and resources on primary producers has been a major focus of interest in ecology. Within this context, the trophic cascade concept especially concerning the pelagic zone of lakes has been the focus of the majority of these studies. However, littoral food webs could be especially interesting because base trophic levels may be strongly regulated by consumers and prone to be light limited. In this study, the availability of nutrients and light and the presence of an omnivorous fish (Hyphessobrycon bifasciatus) were manipulated in enclosures placed in a humic coastal lagoon (Cabiúnas Lagoon, Macaé – RJ) to evaluate the individual and interactive effects of resource availability (nutrients and light) and food web configuration on the biomass and stoichiometry of periphyton and benthic grazers. Our findings suggest that light and nutrients interact to determine periphyton biomass and stoichiometry, which propagates to the consumer level. We observed a positive effect of the availability of nutrients on periphytic biomass and grazers' biomass, as well as a reduction of periphytic C∶N∶P ratios and an increase of grazers' N and P content. Low light availability constrained the propagation of nutrient effects on periphyton biomass and induced higher periphytic C∶N∶P ratios. The effects of fish presence strongly interacted with resource availability. In general, a positive effect of fish presence was observed for the total biomass of periphyton and grazer's biomass, especially with high resource availability, but the opposite was found for periphytic autotrophic biomass. Fish also had a significant effect on periphyton stoichiometry, but no effect was observed on grazers' stoichiometric ratios. In summary, we observed that the indirect effect of fish predation on periphyton biomass might be dependent on multiple resources and periphyton nutrient stoichiometric variation can affect consumers' stoichiometry. PMID:21789234

  14. Functional cooperation between the hippocampal subregions and the medial septum in unreinforced and reinforced spatial memory tasks.

    PubMed

    Okada, Kana; Okaichi, Hiroshige

    2010-06-19

    Anatomical connections between the medial septum (MS) and hippocampus (Hipp) via the fimbria-fornix suggest that functional cooperation between these structures may be important for the acquisition and use of spatial reference memories. The present study examined the extent to which this was true for both an unreinforced learning task (object exploration task) and a reinforced learning task (Morris water maze task). In Experiment 1, we compared the performance of MS/Hipp contralateral- and MS/Hipp ipsilateral-lesioned rats. MS/Hipp contralateral-lesioned rats exhibited deficient performance in both the object exploration and Morris water maze tasks. In Experiment 2, we examined the task performance of MS/CA1 contralateral-, MS/CA1 ipsilateral-, MS/CA3 contralateral- and MS/CA3 ipsilateral-lesioned rats. Contralateral MS/CA3 and MS/CA1 lesions were respectively associated with deficient performance at the spatial recognition test and object recognition test in the object exploration task. None of the lesioned rats performed deficiently in the Morris water maze task. These results indicate the importance of spatial reference memory of a functional cooperation between the MS and Hipp as a whole, irrespective of reward contingency. In contrast, functional cooperation between the MS and each of CA1 and CA3 played an important role in the performance of the unreinforced voluntary task, but not in the reinforced task. Further, the functional cooperation of both MS/CA3 and MA/CA1 were important in the spatial reference memory with the unreinforced task. PMID:20144657

  15. U-Pb geochronology of the Lagoa Real uranium district, Brazil: Implications for the age of the uranium mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobato, Lydia Maria; Pimentel, Márcio Martins; Cruz, Simone C. P.; Machado, Nuno; Noce, Carlos Maurício; Alkmim, Fernando Flecha

    2015-03-01

    The Lagoa Real uranium district in Bahia, northeastern Brazil, is the most important uranium province in the country and presently produces this metal in an open-pit mine operated by Indústrias Nucleares do Brasil. Uranium-rich zones are associated with plagioclase (dominantly albite ± oligoclase) -rich rocks, albitites and metasomatized granitic-gneisses, distributed along NNW/SSE striking shear zones. We have used the ID-TIMS U-Pb method to date zircon and titanite grains from the São Timóteo granitoid, and albite-rich rocks from the Lagoa Real district in order to assess the age of granite emplacement, deformation/metamorphism and uranium mineralization. The isotopic data support the following sequence of events (i) 1746 ± 5 Ma - emplacement of the São Timóteo granitoid (U-Pb zircon age) in an extensional setting, coeval with the beginning of the sedimentation of the Espinhaço Supergroup; (ii) 956 ± 59 Ma hydrothermal alteration of the São Timóteo granitoid and emplacement of the uranium mineralization (U-Pb titanite age on an albite-rich sample); (iii) 480 Ma metamorphism, remobilization and Pb loss (U-Pb titanite age for the gneiss sample), during the nucleation of shear zones related to the collision between the São Francisco-Congo and Amazonia paleoplates. The 956 ± 59-Ma mineralization age is apparently associated with the evolution of the Macaúbas-Santo Onofre rift. This age bracket may bear an important exploration implication, and should be included in the diverse age scenario of uranium deposits worldwide.

  16. Various treatment options for benign prostatic hyperplasia: A current update.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Alankar; Gupta, Vipin B

    2012-01-01

    In benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) there will be a sudden impact on overall quality of life of patient. This disease occurs normally at the age of 40 or above and also is associated with sexual dysfunction. Thus, there is a need of update on current medications of this disease. The presented review provides information on medications available for BPH. Phytotherapies with some improvements in BPH are also included. Relevant articles were identified through a search of the English-language literature indexed on MEDLINE, PUBMED, Sciencedirect and the proceedings of scientific meetings. The search terms were BPH, medications for BPH, drugs for BPH, combination therapies for BPH, Phytotherapies for BPH, Ayurveda and BPH, BPH treatments in Ayurveda. Medications including watchful waitings, Alpha one adrenoreceptor blockers, 5-alpha reductase inhibitors, combination therapies including tamsulosin-dutasteride, doxazosin-finasteride, terazosin-finasteride, tolterodine-tamsulosin and rofecoxib-finasteride were found. Herbal remedies such as Cernilton, Saxifraga stolonifera, Zi-Shen Pill (ZSP), Orbignya speciosa, Phellodendron amurense, Ganoderma lucidum, Serenoa Repens, pumpkin extract and Lepidium meyenii (Red Maca) have some improvements on BPH are included. Other than these discussions on Ayurvedic medications, TURP and minimally invasive therapies (MITs) are also included. Recent advancements in terms of newly synthesized molecules are also discussed. Specific alpha one adrenoreceptor blockers such as tamsulosin and alfuzosin will remain preferred choice of urologists for symptom relief. Medications with combination therapies are still needs more investigation to establish as preference in initial stage for fast symptom relief reduced prostate growth and obviously reduce need for BPH-related surgery. Due to lack of proper evidence Phytotherapies are not gaining much advantage. MITs and TURP are expensive and are rarely supported by healthcare systems. PMID:22923974

  17. Implications for Viral Capsid Assembly from Crystal Structures of HIV-1 Gag1-278 and CAN133-278

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly,B.; Howard, B.; Wang, H.; Robinson, H.; Sundquist, W.; Hill, C.

    2006-01-01

    Gag, the major structural protein of retroviruses such as HIV-1, comprises a series of domains connected by flexible linkers. These domains drive viral assembly by mediating multiple interactions between adjacent Gag molecules and by binding to viral genomic RNA and host cell membranes. Upon viral budding, Gag is processed by the viral protease to liberate distinct domains as separate proteins. The first two regions of Gag are MA, a membrane-binding module, and CA, which is a two-domain protein that makes important Gag-Gag interactions, forms the cone-shaped outer shell of the core (the capsid) in the mature HIV-1 particle, and makes an important interaction with the cellular protein cyclophilin A (CypA). Here, we report crystal structures of the mature CA N-terminal domain (CA{sup N}{sub 133-278}) and a MA-CA{sup N} fusion (Gag{sub 1-278}) at resolutions/R{sub free} values of 1.9 Angstroms/25.7% and 2.2 Angstroms/25.8%, respectively. Consistent with earlier studies, a comparison of these structures indicates that processing at the MA-CA junction causes CA to adopt an N-terminal {beta}-hairpin conformation that seems to be required for capsid morphology and viral infectivity. In contrast with an NMR study, structural overlap reveals only small relative displacements for helix 6, which is located between the {beta}-hairpin and the CypA-binding loop. These observations argue against the proposal that CypA binding is coupled with {beta}-hairpin formation and support an earlier surface plasmon resonance study, which concluded that {beta}-hairpin formation and CypA-binding are energetically independent events.

  18. Modelling uncertainties and possible future trends of precipitation and temperature for 10 sub-basins in Columbia River Basin (CRB)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadalipour, A.; Rana, A.; Qin, Y.; Moradkhani, H.

    2014-12-01

    Trends and changes in future climatic parameters, such as, precipitation and temperature have been a central part of climate change studies. In the present work, we have analyzed the seasonal and yearly trends and uncertainties of prediction in all the 10 sub-basins of Columbia River Basin (CRB) for future time period of 2010-2099. The work is carried out using 2 different sets of statistically downscaled Global Climate Model (GCMs) projection datasets i.e. Bias correction and statistical downscaling (BCSD) generated at Portland State University and The Multivariate Adaptive Constructed Analogs (MACA) generated at University of Idaho. The analysis is done for with 10 GCM downscaled products each from CMIP5 daily dataset totaling to 40 different downscaled products for robust analysis. Summer, winter and yearly trend analysis is performed for all the 10 sub-basins using linear regression (significance tested by student t test) and Mann Kendall test (0.05 percent significance level), for precipitation (P), temperature maximum (Tmax) and temperature minimum (Tmin). Thereafter, all the parameters are modelled for uncertainty, across all models, in all the 10 sub-basins and across the CRB for future scenario periods. Results have indicated in varied degree of trends for all the sub-basins, mostly pointing towards a significant increase in all three climatic parameters, for all the seasons and yearly considerations. Uncertainty analysis have reveled very high change in all the parameters across models and sub-basins under consideration. Basin wide uncertainty analysis is performed to corroborate results from smaller, sub-basin scale. Similar trends and uncertainties are reported on the larger scale as well. Interestingly, both trends and uncertainties are higher during winter period than during summer, contributing to large part of the yearly change.

  19. Climate change and wetland loss impacts on a Western river's water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Records, R. M.; Arabi, M.; Fassnacht, S. R.; Duffy, W. G.; Ahmadi, M.; Hegewisch, K. C.

    2014-05-01

    An understanding of potential stream water quality conditions under future climate is critical for the sustainability of ecosystems and protection of human health. Changes in wetland water balance under projected climate could alter wetland extent or cause wetland loss. This study assessed the potential climate-induced changes to in-stream sediment and nutrients loads in the historically snow melt-dominated Sprague River, Oregon, Western United States. Additionally, potential water quality impacts of combined changes in wetland water balance and wetland area under future climatic conditions were evaluated. The study utilized the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) forced with statistical downscaling of general circulation model (GCM) data from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) using the Multivariate Adaptive Constructed Analogs (MACA) method. Our findings suggest that in the Sprague River (1) mid-21st century nutrient and sediment loads could increase significantly during the high flow season under warmer-wetter climate projections, or could change only nominally in a warmer and somewhat drier future; (2) although water quality conditions under some future climate scenarios and no wetland loss may be similar to the past, the combined impact of climate change and wetland losses on nutrient loads could be large; (3) increases in stream total phosphorus (TP) concentration with wetland loss under future climate scenarios would be greatest at high-magnitude, low-probability flows; and (4) loss of riparian wetlands in both headwaters and lowlands could increase outlet TP loads to a similar degree, but this could be due to distinctly different mechanisms in different parts of the watershed.

  20. Mycobacterium tuberculosis population structure and molecular epidemiological analysis in Sucre municipality, Miranda state, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Patiño, Margareth A; Abadía, Edgar; Solalba Gómez; Maes, Mailis; Muñoz, Mariana; Gómez, Daniela; Guzmán, Patricia; Méndez, María Victoria; Ramirez, Carmen; Mercedes, España; de Waard, Jacobus; Takiff, Howard

    2014-12-01

    Sucre municipality is a large, densely populated marginal area in the eastern part of Caracas, Venezuela that consistently has more cases of tuberculosis than other municipalities in the country. To identify the neighborhoods in the municipality with the highest prevalence of tuberculosis, and determine whether the Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain distribution in this municipality is different from that previously found in the western part of Caracas and the rest of Venezuela, we collected data on all tuberculosis cases in the municipality diagnosed in 2005-6. We performed two separate molecular epidemiological studies, spoligotyping 44 strains in a first study, and spoligotyping 131 strains, followed by MIRU-VNTR 15 on 21 clustered isolates in the second. With spoligotyping, the most common patterns were Shared International Type SIT17 (21%); SIT42 (15%); SIT93 (11%); SIT20 (7%); SIT53 (6%), a distribution similar to other parts of Venezuela, except that SIT42 and SIT20 were more common. MIRU-VNTR 15 showed that six of seven SIT17 strains examined belonged to a large cluster previously found circulating in Venezuela, but all of the SIT42 strains were related to a cluster centered in the neighborhoods of Unión and Maca, with a MIRU-VNTR pattern not previously seen in Venezuela. It appears that a large percentage of the tuberculosis in the Sucre municipality is caused by the active transmission of two strain families centered within distinct neighborhoods, one reflecting communication with the rest of the country, and the other suggesting the insular, isolated nature of some sectors. PMID:25558753

  1. Production of xylanases by mangrove fungi from the Philippines and their application in enzymatic pretreatment of recycled paper pulps.

    PubMed

    Torres, Jeremy Martin O; Dela Cruz, Thomas Edison E

    2013-04-01

    Mangrove fungi are vastly unexplored for enzymes with industrial application. This study aimed to assess the biocatalytic activity of mangrove fungal xylanases on recycled paper pulp. Forty-four mangrove fungal (MF) isolates were initially screened for xylanolytic activity in minimal medium with corn cob xylan as the sole carbon source. Eight MF were further cultivated under submerged fermentation for the production of crude xylanases. These crude enzymes were then characterized and tested for the pretreatment of recycled paper pulps. Results showed that 93 % of the tested MF isolates exhibited xylanolytic activity in solid medium. In submerged fermentation, salinity improved the growth of the fungal isolates but did not influence xylanase production. The crude xylanases were mostly optimally active at 50 °C and pH 7. Changes in pH had a greater effect on xylanase stability than temperature. More than half of the activity was lost at pH 9 for majority of the crude enzymes. However, two thermophilic xylanases from Fusarium sp. KAWIT-A and Aureobasidium sp. 2LIPA-M and one alkaliphilic xylanase from Phomopsis sp. MACA-J were also produced. All crude enzymes exhibited cellulase activities ranging from 4 to 21 U/ml. Enzymatic pretreatment of recycled paper pulps with 5 % consistency produced 70-650 mg of reducing sugars per gram of pulp at 50 °C after 60 min. The release of high amounts of reducing sugars showed the potential of mangrove fungal crude xylanases in the local paper and pulp industry. The diverse properties shown by the tested crude enzymes also indicate its potential applications to other enzyme-requiring industries. PMID:23208600

  2. Climate Change Impact Assessment in Pacific North West Using Copula based Coupling of Temperature and Precipitation variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Y.; Rana, A.; Moradkhani, H.

    2014-12-01

    The multi downscaled-scenario products allow us to better assess the uncertainty of the changes/variations of precipitation and temperature in the current and future periods. Joint Probability distribution functions (PDFs), of both the climatic variables, might help better understand the interdependence of the two, and thus in-turn help in accessing the future with confidence. Using the joint distribution of temperature and precipitation is also of significant importance in hydrological applications and climate change studies. In the present study, we have used multi-modelled statistically downscaled-scenario ensemble of precipitation and temperature variables using 2 different statistically downscaled climate dataset. The datasets used are, 10 Global Climate Models (GCMs) downscaled products from CMIP5 daily dataset, namely, those from the Bias Correction and Spatial Downscaling (BCSD) technique generated at Portland State University and from the Multivariate Adaptive Constructed Analogs (MACA) technique, generated at University of Idaho, leading to 2 ensemble time series from 20 GCM products. Thereafter the ensemble PDFs of both precipitation and temperature is evaluated for summer, winter, and yearly periods for all the 10 sub-basins across Columbia River Basin (CRB). Eventually, Copula is applied to establish the joint distribution of two variables enabling users to model the joint behavior of the variables with any level of correlation and dependency. Moreover, the probabilistic distribution helps remove the limitations on marginal distributions of variables in question. The joint distribution is then used to estimate the change trends of the joint precipitation and temperature in the current and future, along with estimation of the probabilities of the given change. Results have indicated towards varied change trends of the joint distribution of, summer, winter, and yearly time scale, respectively in all 10 sub-basins. Probabilities of changes, as estimated

  3. Modeling Climate Change Impacts on Landscape Evolution, Fire, and Hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, B. S.; O Connor, C.; Falk, D. A.; Garfin, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    Landscape disturbances such as wildfire interact with climate variability to influence hydrologic regimes. We coupled landscape, fire, and hydrologic models and forced them using projected climate to demonstrate climate change impacts anticipated at Fort Huachuca in southeastern Arizona, USA. The US Department of Defense (DoD) recognizes climate change as a trend that has implications for military installations, national security and global instability. The goal of this DoD Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) project (RC-2232) is to provide decision making tools for military installations in the southwestern US to help them adapt to the operational realities associated with climate change. For this study we coupled the spatially explicit fire and vegetation dynamics model FireBGCv2 with the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment tool (AGWA) to evaluate landscape vegetation change, fire disturbance, and surface runoff in response to projected climate forcing. A projected climate stream for the years 2005-2055 was developed from the Multivariate Adaptive Constructed Analogs (MACA) 4 km statistical downscaling of the CanESM2 GCM using Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5. AGWA, an ArcGIS add-in tool, was used to automate the parameterization and execution of the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the KINematic runoff and EROSion2 (KINEROS2) models based on GIS layers. Landscape raster data generated by FireBGCv2 project an increase in fire and drought associated tree mortality and a decrease in vegetative basal area over the years of simulation. Preliminary results from SWAT modeling efforts show an increase to surface runoff during years following a fire, and for future winter rainy seasons. Initial results from KINEROS2 model runs show that peak runoff rates are expected to increase 10-100 fold as a result of intense rainfall falling on burned areas.

  4. Climate change and wetland loss impacts on a western river's water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Records, R. M.; Arabi, M.; Fassnacht, S. R.; Duffy, W. G.; Ahmadi, M.; Hegewisch, K. C.

    2014-11-01

    An understanding of potential stream water quality conditions under future climate is critical for the sustainability of ecosystems and the protection of human health. Changes in wetland water balance under projected climate could alter wetland extent or cause wetland loss (e.g., via increased evapotranspiration and lower growing season flows leading to reduced riparian wetland inundation) or altered land use patterns. This study assessed the potential climate-induced changes to in-stream sediment and nutrient loads in the snowmelt-dominated Sprague River, Oregon, western US. Additionally, potential water quality impacts of combined changes in wetland water balance and wetland area under future climatic conditions were evaluated. The study utilized the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) forced with statistical downscaling of general circulation model (GCM) data from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) using the Multivariate Adaptive Constructed Analogs (MACA) method. Our findings suggest that, in the Sprague River, (1) mid-21st century nutrient and sediment loads could increase significantly during the high-flow season under warmer, wetter climate projections or could change only nominally in a warmer and somewhat drier future; (2) although water quality conditions under some future climate scenarios and no wetland loss may be similar to the past, the combined impact of climate change and wetland losses on nutrient loads could be large; (3) increases in stream total phosphorus (TP) concentration with wetland loss under future climate scenarios would be greatest at high-magnitude, low-probability flows; and (4) loss of riparian wetlands in both headwaters and lowlands could increase outlet TP loads to a similar degree, but this could be due to distinctly different mechanisms in different parts of the watershed.

  5. Optical non-invasive 3D characterization of pottery of pre-colonial Paranaiba valley tribes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magalhães, Wagner; Alves, Márcia Angelina; Costa, Manuel F.

    2014-08-01

    Optical non-invasive inspection tools and methods had expensively proven, for several decades now, their invaluable importance in the preservation of cultural heritage and artwork. In this paper we will report on an optical non-invasive microtopographic characterization work on pre-historical and pre-colonial ceramics and pottery of tribes in the Paranaiba valley in Minas Gerais, Brazil. The samples object of this work were collected at the Inhazinha archeological site (19º 10'00" S / 47° 11'00" W) in the vicinity of Perdizes municipality in transition between the West mining area and the "triangle" area in the center of Brazil. It is a hilly region (850m high) traversed by a number of rivers and streams tributary of Araguari river like Quebra Anzol river and Macaúba and Olegário streams. The Inhazinha site' excavations are part of the Project Jigsaw Hook which since 1980 aimed the establishment of a chrono-cultural framework associated with the study of the socio-cultural dynamics corresponding to successive occupations of hunter-recollector-farmer' tribes in prehistoric and pre-colonial times in the Paranaíba valley in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Two groups of indigenous Indian occupations were found. Both of the pre-colonial period dated at 1,095 ± 186 years ago (TL-FATEC/SP for Zone 1) and of the early nineteenth century dated at 212 ± 19 years ago (EMS-CENA-USP/SP) and 190 ± 30 years ago (C14- BETA/USA) in Zone 2 seemingly occupied by southern Kayapós tribes. The pottery found is decorated with incisions with different geometric distributions and levels of complexity.

  6. Botanical extracts as anti-aging preparations for the skin: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Katherine J; Hung, Shao Kang; Ernst, Edzard

    2010-12-01

    Although topical creams and other anti-aging products purport to reduce the appearance of aging and skin wrinkling, there has been no critical analysis in the scientific literature of their effectiveness. This systematic review critically evaluates the evidence for the effectiveness or efficacy of botanical treatments in reducing skin aging and wrinkling. MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL®, CENTRAL and AMED databases were searched from their inception until October 2009. Reference lists of retrieved articles were hand-searched. Manufacturers and professional associations were contacted in order to identify further non-published studies. No language restrictions were applied. Only randomized clinical trials or controlled clinical trials assessing the effectiveness of botanical extracts in reducing wrinkling and aging of the skin were included. Data were extracted by two independent reviewers and methodological quality was assessed using the Jadad score and key aspects of the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Of 36 potentially relevant studies, 11 trials of botanical extracts for reducing skin wrinkling and the appearance of aging met all the inclusion criteria. No trials were identified following contact with anti-aging and cosmetic organizations, companies and professional bodies. A significant reduction in skin wrinkling was noted for date kernel extract, cork extract, soy extract, Rosaceae and peony extract. No significant reduction was noted for green tea, Vitaphenol® (a combination of green and white teas, mangosteen and pomegranate extract) or maca root. All trials were of poor methodological quality. Adverse effects were frequently not reported. In summary, there is some weak evidence to suggest that several botanical extracts may be effective in reducing the appearance of skin aging but no evidence that this effect is enduring. Independent replications with larger, more diverse samples, longer treatment durations and more rigorous study designs are required to validate

  7. Development and characterization of a tamoxifen-resistant breast carcinoma xenograft.

    PubMed

    Naundorf, H; Becker, M; Lykkesfeldt, A E; Elbe, B; Neumann, C; Büttner, B; Fichtner, I

    2000-06-01

    A human tamoxifen-resistant mammary carcinoma, MaCa 3366/TAM, originating from a sensitive parental xenograft 3366 was successfully established by treatment of tumour-bearing nude mice with 1-50 mg kg(-1) tamoxifen for 3 years during routine passaging. Both tumours did not differ significantly in OR- and PR-positivity, however, when compared with the sensitive tumour line, the mean OR content of the TAM-resistant subline is slightly lower. An OR-upregulation following withdrawal of oestradiol treatment was observed in the parental tumours but not in the resistant xenografts. Following long-term treatment with tamoxifen, the histological pattern of the breast carcinoma changed. The more differentiated structures being apparent after treatment with 17beta-oestradiol in the original 3366 tumour were not induced in the resistant line. Tamoxifen failed to induce a tumour growth inhibition in comparison to the tamoxifen-sensitive line. The pure anti-oestrogen, ICI 182 780, revealed cross-resistance. Sequence analysis of the hormone-binding domain of the OR of both lines showed no differences, suggesting that either mutations in other regions of the OR are involved in the TAM-resistance phenotype or that mechanisms outside of this protein induced this phenotype. Oestrogen and anti-oestrogen regulate pS2 and cathepsin D expression in 3366 tumours as in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. The resistant 3366/TAM tumours have lost this regulation. The established breast cancer xenografts 3366 and 3366/TAM offer the possibility of investigating mechanisms of anti-oestrogen resistance in an in vivo situation. They can be used to test novel approaches to prevent, or to overcome, this resistance in a clinically related manner. PMID:10839300

  8. Network as transconcept: elements for a conceptual demarcation in the field of public health.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Carlos Eduardo Menezes; Bosi, Maria Lúcia Magalhães

    2016-06-10

    The main proposal to set up an articulated mode of operation of health services has been the concept of network, which has been appropriated in different ways in the field of public health, as it is used in other disciplinary fields or even taking it from common sense. Amid the diversity of uses and concepts, we recognize the need for rigorous conceptual demarcation about networks in the field of health. Such concern aims to preserve the strategic potential of this concept in the research and planning in the field, overcoming uncertainties and distortions still observed in its discourse-analytic circulation in public health. To this end, we will introduce the current uses of network in different disciplinary fields, emphasizing dialogues with the field of public health. With this, we intend to stimulate discussions about the development of empirical dimensions and analytical models that may allow us to understand the processes produced within and around health networks. RESUMO A principal proposta para configurar um modo articulado de funcionamento dos serviços de saúde tem sido o conceito de rede, que vem sendo apropriado de diferentes formas no campo da saúde coletiva, conforme seu emprego em outros campos disciplinares ou mesmo tomando-o do senso comum. Em meio à pluralidade de usos e concepções, reconhecemos a necessidade de rigorosa demarcação conceitual acerca de redes no campo da saúde. Tal preocupação visa a preservar o potencial estratégico desse conceito na investigação e planificação no campo, superando precariedades e distorções ainda observadas em sua circulação discursivo-analítica na saúde coletiva. Para tanto, apresentaremos os usos correntes de rede em diferentes campos disciplinares, destacando interlocuções com o campo da saúde coletiva. Com isso, pretendemos estimular o debate acerca do desenvolvimento de dimensões empíricas e modelos de análise que permitam compreender os processos produzidos no interior e ao redor

  9. Estudo de não gaussianidade nas anisotropias da RCF medidas Wmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, A. P. A.; Wuensche, C. A.; Ribeiro, A. L. B.

    2003-08-01

    A investigação do campo de flutuações da Radiação Cósmica de Fundo (RCF) pode oferecer um importante teste para os modelos cosmológicos que descrevem a origem e a evolução das flutuações primordiais. De um lado, apresenta-se o modelo inflacionário que prevê um espectro de flutuações adiabáticas distribuídas segundo uma gaussiana e, de outro, os modelos de defeitos topológicos (dentre outros) que descrevem um mecanismo para a geração de flutuações de isocurvatura que obedecem a uma distribuição não gaussiana. Este trabalho tem como objetivo caracterizar traços do modelo não gaussiano de campo misto (entre flutuações adiabáticas e de isocurvatura) nos mapas do Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP). Simulações das anisotropias da RCF no contexto de mistura indicam traços marcantes na distribuição das flutuações de temperatura, mesmo quando consideradas pequenas contribuições do campo de isocurvatura (da ordem de 0.001). O efeito da mistura entre os campos resulta na transferência de potência de flutuações em escalas angulares intermediárias para flutuações em pequenas escalas angulares. Este efeito pode ser caracterizado pela relação entre as amplitudes dos primeiros picos acústicos no espectro de potência da RCF. Neste trabalho, investigamos a contribuição do campo de isocurvatura, no contexto de mistura, sobre as observações recentes da RCF realizadas pelo WMAP. As previsões do modelo de campo misto, uma vez confrontadas com as observações em pequenas escalas angulares, podem ajudar a revelar a natureza das flutuações primordiais.

  10. Una propuesta para el desarrollo de un arreglo de síntesis de apertura

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, E. M.

    Los estudios llevados a cabo en la transición del hidrógeno neutro a λ~21-cm han contribuído a incrementar nuestro conocimiento acerca de las propiedades globales del medio interestelar, sea este galáctico o extragaláctico. Avances en este campo han sido provocados, a menudo, por la puesta en servicio de radiotelescopios que poseen una mayor resolución angular. Aquí se presenta una propuesta para desarrollar un nuevo instrumento, un interferómetro, que permitirá abrir nuevas líneas de investigación. Este instrumento combinará la técnica de síntesis de apertura con la de espectroscopía de correlación digital, para alcanzar una resolución angular de 1' y un campo de visión de ~1o.7.

  11. Kinematic Dynamo Action in the Presence of a Large Scale Velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, J. C.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Se investiga la influencia de Un campo de velocidades de ran escala sobre la acci6n del tur bulento. Usando Un proceso de expansi6n, las soluciones se encuentran en el del movimiento lobal y de cizalla pequeflo y para randes de Reynolds. Se calcula la re jeneraci6n tica hasta un orden en el de expansi6n usando convectivas ciclotr6nicas para el campo turbulento de velocidad. ABSTRACT. The influence a scale velocity field upon the kinernatic turbulent dynamo action is . Usinj an expansion process, the solutions are found in the limit of small bulk motion and shear, and for Reynolds number. The majnetic is calculated up to second order in the expansion parameter usin cyclonic convective cells for the turbulent velocity field. Key o'td : HYDROMAGNETICS

  12. Expression of insecticide resistance in immature life stages of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

    PubMed

    Roca-Acevedo, Gonzalo; Picollo, María Inés; Santo-Orihuela, Pablo

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the susceptibility to the insecticide deltamethrin and the expression of resistance to this insecticide in developing eggs and neonate nymphs of Triatoma infestans from two areas of Argentina (Campo Largo) and Bolivia (Entre Ríos), where resistance to this pyrethroid is suspected. Both nymphal populations showed resistance to deltamethrin, with lower resistance ratio for Entre Ríos (173X) than Campo Largo (1108X). Efficacy of deltamethrin on 4-, 7-, and 12-d-old eggs for both field populations were significantly lower than efficacy on eggs of the susceptible strain. This is the first documented evidence of the expression of pyrethroid resistance during the embryonic development of Chagas Disease vectors. PMID:23926779

  13. (210)Pb content in natural gas pipeline residues ("black-powder") and its correlation with the chemical composition.

    PubMed

    Godoy, José Marcus; Carvalho, Franciane; Cordilha, Aloisio; Matta, Luiz Ernesto; Godoy, Maria Luiza

    2005-01-01

    The present work was carried out to assess the (210)Pb content in "black-powder" found in pigging operations on gas pipelines in Brazil, in particular, on the Campos Basin gas pipeline. Additionally, the chemical composition of such deposits was determined and an eventual correlation with (210)Pb concentration evaluated. Typical "black-powder" generated in the natural gas pipeline from Campos Basin oilfield contains mainly iron oxide ( approximately 81%) and residual organic matter ( approximately 9%). The (210)Pb content ranges from 4.9 to 0.04k Bqkg(-1) and seems to be inversely correlated with the distance to the platforms. On the other hand, (226)Ra concentration is higher on the pipeline branch between the platform and the onshore installations. (228)Ra was only observed in few samples, in particular, in the samples with the highest (226)Ra content. PMID:15885858

  14. Pseudocromata, a new genus of Ochlerini based on a new species from Ecuador (Pentatomidae: Discocephalinae).

    PubMed

    Ortega-León, Guillermina; Thomas, Donald B

    2016-01-01

    The tribe Ochlerini was defined by Rolston (1981) based on the position of abdominal trichobothria (lateral to the spiracles), insertion of the labium well behind the apex of the head (usually in line with the eyes), and the superior surface of the distal metatarsomere in females excavate or flattened. Rolston's (1992) revision of the tribe included 28 genera. With subsequent additions there are now either 33 or 35 genera depending on the inclusion or exclusion of Melambyrsus Breddin (listed as nomen dubium by Rolston 1992) and Candeocoris Roell & Campos (2015) which has character-states intermediate between Ochlerini and Discocephalini. With few exceptions the members of the tribe are inornately colored, typically shades of black, brown or tan Campos & Grazia (2006). Exceptions are species in the genera Cromata Rolston and the aforementioned Candeocoris which have colorful blotches on the scutellum and corium. PMID:27470723

  15. Nucleotide sequence of the P1 region of foot-and-mouth disease virus strain O1 Caseros.

    PubMed

    Tami, C; Kaplan, G; Piccone, M E; Palma, E L

    1997-01-01

    It has been shown that variation of antigenic site I in VP1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) plays an important role in the antigenic diversification of this virus. However, the O1 Campos strain is able to efficiently cross-protect cattle against the O1 Caseros strain, despite having a different sequence in the site I. In this paper we report and compare the P1 coding region for the capsid proteins of FMDV O1 Caseros and O1 Campos. The deduced amino acid sequence showed a total of 31 amino acid differences. Eight of them are located in surface-exposed loops that have been implicated in antigenic sites. This study should help to identify additional sites to be considered in the development of a new generation of FMDV vaccines. PMID:9311571

  16. Observación solar desde el espacio, resultados recientes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, M. E.

    Presentaremos un resumen de los resultados más recientes sobre la física del sol, obtenidos por medio del análisis de datos de satélites artificiales como el Yohkoh, SOHO y COMPTON/GRO. En particular, nos referiremos a la acción y dinámica de los campos magnéticos en la generación de fenómenos activos y el calentamiento coronal.

  17. Dramatic increase of the near-IR flux of the young source V2492 Cyg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkharov, A. A.; Lorenzetti, D.; Giannini, T.; Antoniucci, S.; Di Paola, A.; Vitali, F.; Larionov, V. M.

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of our EXor monitoring program dubbed EXORCISM (EXOR OptiCal and Infrared Systematic Monitoring - Antoniucci et al. 2013 PPVI, Lorenzetti et al. 2007 ApJ 665, 1182; Lorenzetti et al. 2009 ApJ 693, 1056), we are now observing a new increase of the near-IR brightness of the protostar V2492 Cyg, based on data taken at the AZT24 1m IR telescope (Campo Imperatore, Italy).

  18. Survey of gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in Southwestern Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Adele; Matthews, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    A study on the distribution and population density of the western lowland gorilla (Gorilla g. gorilla) and the central chimpanzee (Pan t. troglodytes) was undertaken between December 1997 and August 2000 in the Campo and Ma'an Forests in southwestern Cameroon. The aim of this survey was to estimate the densities of the apes in different parts of the area, to assess the importance of the region for the conservation of these endangered species and to determine the influence of human activities such as logging and hunting. The survey was based on night nest counts on a total of 665.5 km of line transects. The overall density in the Campo Forest was estimated at 0.2 gorillas/km(2) and at 0.63-0.78 chimpanzees/km(2). The overall density of chimpanzees in the Ma'an Forest was estimated at 0.8-1 individuals/km(2). Gorilla density in this area was too low to allow an estimation. The highest gorilla nest density was found in secondary forest. The gorilla density in unlogged forest was significantly lower. Chimpanzees showed a clear preference for less disturbed areas. In unlogged forest, old secondary forests (logging more than 23 years ago) and areas of recent logging with large remaining patches of primary forest, significantly higher densities were calculated than inside the more heavily exploited logging concession. In areas with both logging and high hunting pressure both species were rare or even absent. The Campo Ma'an area is considered a very important area for the conservation of gorillas and chimpanzees. Conservation measures are urgently required to reduce the impact of logging and hunting. The creation of the Campo Ma'an National Park in January 2000 is an important measure to preserve the unique biodiversity in this so far hardly protected area. PMID:14586801

  19. A note on the correct spelling of the name of the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium olfersii (Wiegmann, 1836) (Decapoda, Palaemonidae).

    PubMed

    Rossi, Natália; Grave, Sammy De; Mantelatto, Fernando L

    2016-01-01

    Macrobrachium olfersii (Wiegmann, 1836), popularly known as Pitu, Bristled River Shrimp and Buchura River Prawn, is a freshwater shrimp species widespread along the eastern coasts of the Americas. The species can be found from the southeastern United States, where the prawns were introduced (Holthuis & Provenzano, 1970), southwards to Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil), including numerous records in Mexico, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana and Suriname (Holthuis, 1952; Williams, 1984; Melo, 2003; Valencia & Campos, 2007). PMID:27395150

  20. Divergent/passive margin basins

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, J.D. ); Santogrossi, P.A. )

    1989-01-01

    This book discusses the detailed geology of the four divergent margin basins and establishes a set of analog scenarios which can be used for future petroleum exploration. The divergent margin basins are the Campos basin of Brazil, the Gabon basin, the Niger delta, and the basins of the northwest shelf of Australia. These four petroleum basins present a wide range of stratigraphic sequences and structural styles that represent the diverse evolution of this large and important class of world petroleum basins.

  1. Quasar S5 0836+710 active in near-infrared and optical bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larionov, V. M.; Arkharov, A. A.; Efimova, N. V.; Klimanov, S. A.; Di Paola, A.

    2015-11-01

    As reported in ATels #8223, #8266, #8271, quasar S5 0836+710 (4C 71.07) is in enhanced state of activity. We perform optical and near-infrared monitoring of this object using 40-cm LX-200 (optical, St.Petersburg, Russia), 70-cm AZT-8 (optical, Crimea) and 1.1-m AZT-24 (near-infrared, Campo Imperatore, Italy), as a part of WEBT/GASP project.

  2. Los cambios en la velocidad de rotación terrestre y los fenómenos geomagnéticos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianibelli, J. C.

    Uno de los aspectos importantes relativos a la geodinámica del interior terrestre es la correlación entre los eventos de cambio en la velocidad de rotación terrestre y los determinados en los elementos del campo geomagnético por ejemplo, la Declinación Magnética, o los coeficientes de los modelos matemáticos de representación global de dicho campo. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de las características espectrales de los cambios observados en la longitud del día (ldd), y su relación con la estructura espectral de las coeficientes de los modelos matemáticos de campo denominados Campo Internacional Geomagnético de Referencia (CIGR). El intervalo estudiado comprende los últimos 100 años. Los resultados muestran una correlación en las bandas de 60 y 30 años, con posibles períodos mucho mayores que no son posibles determinar a partir de los modelos de CIRG. Se efectúa una simulación a partir de los resultados obtenidos por la aplicación del método de máxima entropía con longitudes del filtro predictor de error comprendida entre el 10% y el 95% de la longitud de la serie analizada. Se observan procesos sicrónicos y asincrónicos que, en muy largos intervalos de tiempos, podrían suponerse como caóticos.

  3. NAWIG News: The Quarterly Newsletter of the Native American Wind Interest Group, Fall 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-09-01

    As part of its Native American outreach, DOE's Wind Powering America program has initiated a NAWIG newsletter to present Native American wind information, including projects, interviews with pioneers, issues, WPA activities, and related events. It is our hope that this newsletter will both inform and elicit comments and input on wind development in Indian Country. This issue profiles the Campo Band Wind Project in California and a feature on the Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe's plans for a 100- to 125-MW project.

  4. Proposal for a probabilistic 'dial-up' generator of Fock states in a traveling-wave optical field

    SciTech Connect

    Gerry, Christopher C.; Benmoussa, Adil

    2006-06-15

    We discuss a method for generating Fock (number) states in a single-mode traveling-wave optical field, based on a method we recently proposed for performing a quantum nondemolition measurement of parity and for the generation of parity eigenstates [C. C. Gerry, A. Benmoussa, and R. A. Campos, Phys. Rev. A 72, 053818 (2005)]. The approach is a kind of 'dial-up' scheme that is probabilistic but also depends partially on directed state reductive measurements.

  5. Multiple long-streamer technology speeds seismic survey off Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Seeley, C.R.

    1995-09-18

    Now that 3D seismic is the survey of choice for most developing areas, the latest trend in conventional marine seismic acquisition has been pulling more streamers (sensor cables) behind each vessel. The goal behind the multi-streamer movement is obtaining the best data set as inexpensively as possible. PGS Exploration Inc. used its R/V Atlantic Explorer, pulling four seismic streamers measuring 4,000 m each with 160 recording channels/streamer, to complete a survey in 77 days--13 to 18 days earlier than planned--for Petroleo Brasileiro SA (Petrobras) in the Cabo Frio area of the Campos basin in Brazilian territorial waters. The survey was conducted from Jan. 19 to Apr. 4 in an area southeast of the existing Campos development, site of at least nine world records for deepwater production. It was performed in water depths ranging from 130 m to 2,000 m. Petrobras desired the 3D survey, the first int hat part of the Campos basin and the first turnkey 3D seismic contract signed by Petrobras, after its discovery of Guarajuba field last year in that region. The paper describes data acquisition and processing.

  6. Magnetic conjugate point observations of kilometer and hundred-meter scale irregularities and zonal drifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Paula, E. R.; Muella, M. T. A. H.; Sobral, J. H. A.; Abdu, M. A.; Batista, I. S.; Beach, T. L.; Groves, K. M.

    2010-08-01

    The Conjugate Point Equatorial Experiment (COPEX) campaign was carried out in Brazil, between October and December 2002, to study the conjugate nature of plasma bubble irregularities and to investigate their generation mechanisms, development characteristics, spatial-temporal distribution, and dynamics. In this work we will focus mainly on the zonal spaced GPS (1.575 GHz) and VHF (250 MHz) receivers' data collected simultaneously at two magnetic conjugate sites of the COPEX geometry: Boa Vista and Campo Grande. These GPS/VHF receivers were set up to detect the equatorial scintillations and to measure ionospheric scintillation pattern velocities. Then, the zonal irregularity drift velocities were estimated by applying a methodology that corrects the effects caused by vertical drifts and geometrical factors. The results reveal the coexistence of kilometer- (VHF) and hundred-meter-scale (GPS L-band) irregularities into the underlying depletion structure. Over the conjugate site of Campo Grande, the average zonal velocity at VHF seems to be consistently larger than the estimated GPS velocities until ˜0200 UT, whereas over Boa Vista the irregularities detected from both techniques are drifting with comparable velocities. The hundred-meter-scale structures causing L-band scintillations appear to be drifting with comparable velocities over both the conjugate sites, whereas the kilometer-scale structures are drifting over Campo Grande with larger average velocities (before 0300 UT). Complementary data of ionospheric parameters scaled from collocated digital ionosondes are used in the analysis to explain differences/similarities on the scintillation/zonal drift results.

  7. Expanded Yegua

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, R.E.; Grayson, S.; Benes, J.

    1988-01-01

    The upper Eocene Yegua Formation expands dramatically across a regional flexure generally 12-15 km wide. During each of several postulated Yegua sea level drops, this flexure became a focal point for deltaic deposition of good to excellent reservoir-quality sands. From the western edge of the Houston salt dome basin to the San Marcos arch, this trend has yielded, since 1982, at least seven noteworthy discoveries: Toro Grande and Lost Bridge fields in Jackson County, and Black Owl, Shanghai, Shanghai East, El Campo, and Phase Four fields in Wharton County, Texas. El Campo field in Wharton County, Texas, was discovered in December 1985 by Ladd Petroleum Corporation with the drilling of the Ladd Petroleum 1 Popp well. Mud logs acquired while drilling indicated that a very sandy reservoir, with encouraging quantities of natural gas and condensate had been encountered. Subsequent open-hold logging generated more questions than answers about the prospective sand section. Additional open hole logs (EPT/ML,SHDT) were run to identify what turned out to be an extremely laminated sand-shale sequence over 400 ft thick. Subsequent development drilling and the acquisition of a 120 ft whole core provided valuable data in analyzing this prolific, geopressured natural gas and condensate Yegua reservoir. Whole-core data, open-hole logs, and computer logs were integrated to develop petro-physical evaluation procedures and to determine the environment of deposition. El Campo field is believed to represent an extremely thick, delta front slope to distal delta front facies.

  8. New deep ocean Iravadiidae of the genus Ceratia (Caenogastropoda: Truncatelloidea) from an underwater canyon and adjacent regions of
    the southwestern Atlantic (northeastern Brazil).

    PubMed

    Lima, Silvio Felipe B; Júnior, Ivan Cardoso L; Guimarães, Carmen Regina P; Dominguez, José Maria L

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies on the mollusks from Brazilian underwater canyons have addressed the record and description of new species of aplacophorans, bivalves, scaphopods and/or gastropods (Leal & Simone 2000; Absalão 2010; Corrêa et al. 2014). Leal & Simone (2000) described a new bathyal gastropod of the family Pseudococculinidae collected from the continental slope and Doce River Canyon (960 m) off the state of Espírito Santo (southeastern Brazil). Absalão (2010) reported a number of species of gastropods, bivalves and scaphopods from Campos Basin off the state of Rio de Janeiro (southeastern Brazil). It is likely that some of these species reported by Absalão (2010) were collected from underwater canyons in the northern portion of the Campos Basin. Corrêa et al. (2014) recorded two species of aplacophorans of the genus Falcidens Salvini-Plawen, 1968 obtained from the continental slope and underwater canyons of Campos Basin. Certainly more species of mollusks were studied from Brazilian underwater canyons, but not duly mentioned in publications (i.e., the region of canyons may have been referred to as the continental slope or deep sea). PMID:27395545

  9. Glandular trichome density and essential oil composition in leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth (Verbenaceae) in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    PubMed

    Tozin, Luiz R S; Marques, Marcia O M; Rodrigues, Tatiane M

    2015-01-01

    The essential oils from leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth present aromatic and medicinal potential and have been used to treat several diseases, including melanoma. In Brazil, L. origanoides is commonly found in campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu, physiognomies featured mainly by the differential light conditions to which short and medium-sized plants are subjected. Our aim was to investigate the glandular trichome density and the yield and chemical composition of the essential oils in leaves and inflorescences of L. origanoides from campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu. For glandular density analysis, leaves and inflorescences were processed according to conventional techniques for scanning electron microscopy. The essential oils of leaves and inflorescences were obtained by hydrodistillation and identified with gas chromatography. Bracts and sepals showed the highest glandular density, followed by petals and leaves. The glandular density in the abaxial leaf surface was higher in individuals from the campo cerrado. In both populations the essential oil yield was higher in inflorescences than in leaves. The chemical composition of the essential oils varied among individuals from different areas and inside a same population. Our results demonstrated the chemical plasticity of L. origanoides suggesting the importance of monitoring its popular use. PMID:26131639

  10. Synergistic effect of the hydroalcoholic extract from Lepidium meyenii (Brassicaceae) and Fagara tessmannii (Rutaceae) on male sexual organs and hormone level in rats

    PubMed Central

    Lembè, Dieudonné Massoma; Gasco, Manuel; Gonzales, G. F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lepidium meyenii is a plant, which has been used in folk medicine to treat infertility and to increase sexual desire. However, few reports have investigated the administration of this plant with other plants having the same properties. Objective: The present investigation was designed to evaluate whether the combination of Lepidium meyenii and Fagara tessmannii can improve spermatogenesis and testosterone level in rats. Materials and Method: Twenty male rats were treated daily for 2 weeks with the hydroalcoholic extract of Fagara tessmannii and Lepidium meyenii (Fag + MN) as follow: (vehicle), (0.01 g + 0.5 mg), (0.1 g + 5 mg) and (1 g+ 50 mg)/kg BW. Results: At doses Fag 0.01 g/MN 0.5 mg and Fag 0.1 g/MN 5 mg, the weight of seminal vesicle, prostate, and testis significantly decreased (P < 0.05) while at dose Fag 1 g/MN 50 mg, the weight of epididymis and testis significantly increased (P < 0.05) when compared to the control. We noticed a significant increase of the number of spermatids/test (P < 0.05), epididymis sperm count (P < 0.05), and DSP/test of the rats at dose Fag 1 g/MN 50 mg while at dose Fag 0.01 g/MN 0.5 mg and Fag 0.1 g/MN 5 mg, sperm count was reduced in male organs, particularly in vas deferens (P < 0.05) and epididymis (P < 0.001). The serum testosterone concentration significantly decreased (P < 0.05) at lowest dose Fag 0.01 g/MN 0.5 mg. However, at highest dose Fag 1 g/MN 50 mg, the serum testosterone concentration increased significantly (P < 0.05). The length of stage VII-VIII and IX-I of the seminiferous tubule significantly (P < 0.05) increased while the length of stage II-VI significantly (P < 0.05) decreased. Conclusion: The results indicated that the combination of Lepidium meyenii (Black Maca) with Fagara tessmannii can improve male reproductive organs activities. PMID:24497748

  11. Characterizing the Interaction Between Routing and MAC Protocols in Ad-Hoc Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, C. L.; Drozda, M.; Marathe, A.; Marathe, M. V.

    2002-01-01

    We empirically study the effect of mobility on the performance of protocols designed for wireless ad-hoc networks. An important objective is to study the interaction of the Routing and MAC layer protocols under different mobility parameters. We use three basic mobility models: grid mobility model, random waypoint model, and exponential correlated random model. The performance of protocols is measured in terms of (i) latency, (ii) throughput, (iii) number of packets received, (iv) long term fairness and (v) number of control packets at the MAC and routing layer level. Three different commonly studied routing protocols are used: AODV, DSR and LAR1. Similarly three well known MAC protocols are used: MACA, 802.1 1 and CSMA. Our main contribution is simulation based experiments coupled with rigorous statistical analysis to characterize the interaction of MAC layer protocols with routing layer protocols in ad-hoc networks. From the results, we can conclude the following: e No single MAC or Routing protocol dominated the other protocols in their class. Probably more interestingly, no MAURouting protocol combination was better than other combinations over all scenarios and response variables. 0 In general, it is not meaningful to speak about a MAC or a routing protocol in isolation. Presence of interaction leads to trade-offs between the amount of control packets generated by each layer. The results raise the possibility of improving the performance of a particular MAC layer protocol by using a cleverly designed routing protocol or vice-versa. Thus in order to improve the performanceof a communication network, it is important to study the entire protocol stack as a single algorithmic construct; optimizing individual layers in the seven layer OS1 stack will not yield performance improvements beyond a point. A methodological contribution of this paper is the use of statistical methods such as analysis of variance (ANOVA), to characterize the interaction between the protocols

  12. LC-MS/MS multi-analyte method for mycotoxin determination in food supplements.

    PubMed

    Diana Di Mavungu, Jose; Monbaliu, Sofie; Scippo, Marie-Louise; Maghuin-Rogister, Guy; Schneider, Yves-Jacques; Larondelle, Yvan; Callebaut, Alfons; Robbens, Johan; Van Peteghem, Carlos; De Saeger, Sarah

    2009-06-01

    A multi-analyte method for the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric determination of mycotoxins in food supplements is presented. The analytes included A and B trichothecenes (nivalenol, deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, neosolaniol, fusarenon-X, diacetoxyscirpenol, HT-2 toxin and T-2 toxin), aflatoxins (aflatoxin-B(1), aflatoxin-B(2), aflatoxin-G(1) and aflatoxin-G(2)), Alternaria toxins (alternariol, alternariol methyl ether and altenuene), fumonisins (fumonisin-B(1), fumonisin-B(2) and fumonisin-B(3)), ochratoxin A, zearalenone, beauvericin and sterigmatocystin. Optimization of the simultaneous extraction of these toxins and the sample pretreatment procedure, as well as method validation were performed on maca (Lepidium meyenii) food supplements. The results indicated that the solvent mixture ethyl acetate/formic acid (95:5, v/v) was the best compromise for the extraction of the analytes from food supplements. Liquid-liquid partition with n-hexane was applied as partial clean-up step to remove excess of co-extracted non-polar components. Further clean-up was performed on Oasis HLB cartridges. Samples were analysed using an Acquity UPLC system coupled to a Micromass Quattro Micro triple quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray interface operated in the positive-ion mode. Limits of detection and quantification were in the range of 0.3-30 ng g(-1) and 1-100 ng g(-1), respectively. Recovery yields were above 60% for most of the analytes, except for nivalenol, sterigmatocystine and the fumonisins. The method showed good precision and trueness. Analysis of different food supplements such as soy (Glycine max) isoflavones, St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum), garlic (Allium sativum), Ginkgo biloba, and black radish (Raphanus niger) demonstrated the general applicability of the method. Due to different matrix effects observed in different food supplement samples, the standard addition approach was applied to

  13. Identification of a Sturtian cap carbonate in the Neoproterozoic Sete Lagoas carbonate platform, Bambuí Group, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, Lucieth Cruz; Trindade, Ricardo I. F.; Nogueira, Afonso C. R.; Ader, Magali

    2007-03-01

    A sedimentological and C-O isotopic study has been carried out in nine sections of the Sete Lagoas Formation at its classical outcropping area, in the southern tip of the São Francisco craton (central Brazil), with the objective of refining its stratigraphic position within the Neoproterozoic. At the study area, the Neoproterozoic Sete Lagoas Formation comprises two shallowing-upward megacycles, corresponding to more than 200 m in thickness. Each cycle is limited by a flooding surface amalgamated with a third-order sequence boundary. The first megacycle presents deep-platform deposits with abundance of crystal fans (aragonite pseudomorphs). These deposits are characterized by negative C-isotope values (-4.5‰). They grade upward to storm-wave and tide-influenced layers with δ13C values around 0‰. In the second megacycle, a new transgression drowned the platform, depositing a thick, mixed sub-storm wave-base succession. This megacycle comprises deposits of lime mudstone-pelite rhythmite, which grade to crystalline limestone rich in organic matter, both with unusually positive δ13C values (up to + 14‰). Regional correlation of Sete Lagoas deposits indicate that they rest atop glaciomarine rocks of the Macaúbas Group and basal strata show seafloor precipitates with negative δ13C values. Therefore, it is possible to characterize the Sete Lagoas carbonate as a cap carbonate sequence. The very high δ13C in the second megacycle together with geochronologic data suggest that this unit correlates better with post-Sturtian sequences. Some differences in the depositional record are observed between Sete Lagoas and the other post-Sturtian units previously described in North America, Australia, and Namibia. Those differences may in part be due to deposition in shallower settings of the Sete Lagoas carbonates, thus preserving a thick record of storm- and wave-influenced sedimentation not found elsewhere. Alternatively, they may also be attributed to diachronic

  14. High Spatial Resolution Forecasting of Long-Term Monthly Precipitation and Mean Temperature Trends in Data Scarce Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosier, T. M.; Hill, D. F.; Sharp, K. V.

    2013-12-01

    High spatial resolution time-series data are critical for many hydrological and earth science studies. Multiple groups have developed historical and forecast datasets of high-resolution monthly time-series for regions of the world such as the United States (e.g. PRISM for hindcast data and MACA for long-term forecasts); however, analogous datasets have not been available for most data scarce regions. The current work fills this data need by producing and freely distributing hindcast and forecast time-series datasets of monthly precipitation and mean temperature for all global land surfaces, gridded at a 30 arc-second resolution. The hindcast data are constructed through a Delta downscaling method, using as inputs 0.5 degree monthly time-series and 30 arc-second climatology global weather datasets developed by Willmott & Matsuura and WorldClim, respectively. The forecast data are formulated using a similar downscaling method, but with an additional step to remove bias from the climate variable's probability distribution over each region of interest. The downscaling package is designed to be compatible with a number of general circulation models (GCM) (e.g. with GCMs developed for the IPCC AR4 report and CMIP5), and is presently implemented using time-series data from the NCAR CESM1 model in conjunction with 30 arc-second future decadal climatologies distributed by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research. The resulting downscaled datasets are 30 arc-second time-series forecasts of monthly precipitation and mean temperature available for all global land areas. As an example of these data, historical and forecast 30 arc-second monthly time-series from 1950 through 2070 are created and analyzed for the region encompassing Pakistan. For this case study, forecast datasets corresponding to the future representative concentration pathways 45 and 85 scenarios developed by the IPCC are presented and compared. This exercise highlights a range of potential

  15. The Aysen (Southern Chile) 2007 Seismic Swarm: Volcanic or Tectonic Origin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comte, D.; Gallego, A.; Russo, R.; Mocanu, V.; Murdie, R.; Vandecar, J.

    2007-05-01

    Volcan Hudson (last erupted 1991) and Volcan Maca. Given uncertainties in the event locations, the 2007 seismic swarm could also result from a combination of tectonic motions on the Liquiñe-Ofqui fault system and magmatic arc activity. The two earthquakes with magnitudes over 5 and the numerous felt earthquake of the swarm clearly indicate that seismic hazard estimations in this previously quiescent region must be re-estimated.

  16. Measurement, modeling, and analysis of nonmethane hydrocarbons and ozone in the southeast United States national parks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Daiwen

    In this research, the sources, distributions, transport, ozone formation potential, and biogenic emissions of VOCs are investigated focusing on three Southeast United States National Parks: Shenandoah National Park, Big Meadows site (SHEN), Great Smoky Mountains National Park at Cove Mountain (GRSM) and Mammoth Cave National Park (MACA). A detailed modeling analysis is conducted using the Multiscale Air Quality SImulation Platform (MAQSIP) focusing on nonmethane hydrocarbons and ozone characterized by high O3 surface concentrations. Nine emissions perturbation using the Multiscale Air Quality SImulation Platform (MAQSIP) focusing on nonmethane hydrocarbons and ozone characterized by high O 3 surface concentrations. In the observation-based analysis, source classification techniques based on correlation coefficient, chemical reactivity, and certain ratios were developed and applied to the data set. Anthropogenic VOCs from automobile exhaust dominate at Mammoth Cave National Park, and at Cove Mountain, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, while at Big Meadows, Shenandoah National Park, the source composition is complex and changed from 1995 to 1996. The dependence of isoprene concentrations on ambient temperatures is investigated, and similar regressional relationships are obtained for all three monitoring locations. Propylene-equivalent concentrations are calculated to account for differences in reaction rates between the OH and individual hydrocarbons, and to thereby estimate their relative contributions to ozone formation. Isoprene fluxes were also estimated for all these rural areas. Model predictions (base scenario) tend to give lower daily maximum O 3 concentrations than observations by 10 to 30%. Model predicted concentrations of lumped paraffin compounds are of the same order of magnitude as the observed values, while the observed concentrations for other species (isoprene, ethene, surrogate olefin, surrogate toluene, and surrogate xylene) are usually an

  17. Proteins involved in electron transfer to Fe(III) and Mn(IV) oxides by Geobacter sulfurreducens and Geobacter uraniireducens.

    PubMed

    Aklujkar, M; Coppi, M V; Leang, C; Kim, B C; Chavan, M A; Perpetua, L A; Giloteaux, L; Liu, A; Holmes, D E

    2013-03-01

    Whole-genome microarray analysis of Geobacter sulfurreducens grown on insoluble Fe(III) oxide or Mn(IV) oxide versus soluble Fe(III) citrate revealed significantly different expression patterns. The most upregulated genes, omcS and omcT, encode cell-surface c-type cytochromes, OmcS being required for Fe(III) and Mn(IV) oxide reduction. Other electron transport genes upregulated on both metal oxides included genes encoding putative menaquinol : ferricytochrome c oxidoreductase complexes Cbc4 and Cbc5, periplasmic c-type cytochromes Dhc2 and PccF, outer membrane c-type cytochromes OmcC, OmcG and OmcV, multicopper oxidase OmpB, the structural components of electrically conductive pili, PilA-N and PilA-C, and enzymes that detoxify reactive oxygen/nitrogen species. Genes upregulated on Fe(III) oxide encode putative menaquinol : ferricytochrome c oxidoreductase complexes Cbc3 and Cbc6, periplasmic c-type cytochromes, including PccG and PccJ, and outer membrane c-type cytochromes, including OmcA, OmcE, OmcH, OmcL, OmcN, OmcO and OmcP. Electron transport genes upregulated on Mn(IV) oxide encode periplasmic c-type cytochromes PccR, PgcA, PpcA and PpcD, outer membrane c-type cytochromes OmaB/OmaC, OmcB and OmcZ, multicopper oxidase OmpC and menaquinone-reducing enzymes. Genetic studies indicated that MacA, OmcB, OmcF, OmcG, OmcH, OmcI, OmcJ, OmcM, OmcV and PccH, the putative Cbc5 complex subunit CbcC and the putative Cbc3 complex subunit CbcV are important for reduction of Fe(III) oxide but not essential for Mn(IV) oxide reduction. Gene expression patterns for Geobacter uraniireducens were similar. These results demonstrate that the physiology of Fe(III)-reducing bacteria differs significantly during growth on different insoluble and soluble electron acceptors and emphasize the importance of c-type cytochromes for extracellular electron transfer in G. sulfurreducens. PMID:23306674

  18. Importance of c-Type cytochromes for U(VI) reduction by Geobacter sulfurreducens

    PubMed Central

    Shelobolina, Evgenya S; Coppi, Maddalena V; Korenevsky, Anton A; DiDonato, Laurie N; Sullivan, Sara A; Konishi, Hiromi; Xu, Huifang; Leang, Ching; Butler, Jessica E; Kim, Byoung-Chan; Lovley, Derek R

    2007-01-01

    Background In order to study the mechanism of U(VI) reduction, the effect of deleting c-type cytochrome genes on the capacity of Geobacter sulfurreducens to reduce U(VI) with acetate serving as the electron donor was investigated. Results The ability of several c-type cytochrome deficient mutants to reduce U(VI) was lower than that of the wild type strain. Elimination of two confirmed outer membrane cytochromes and two putative outer membrane cytochromes significantly decreased (ca. 50–60%) the ability of G. sulfurreducens to reduce U(VI). Involvement in U(VI) reduction did not appear to be a general property of outer membrane cytochromes, as elimination of two other confirmed outer membrane cytochromes, OmcB and OmcC, had very little impact on U(VI) reduction. Among the periplasmic cytochromes, only MacA, proposed to transfer electrons from the inner membrane to the periplasm, appeared to play a significant role in U(VI) reduction. A subpopulation of both wild type and U(VI) reduction-impaired cells, 24–30%, accumulated amorphous uranium in the periplasm. Comparison of uranium-accumulating cells demonstrated a similar amount of periplasmic uranium accumulation in U(VI) reduction-impaired and wild type G. sulfurreducens. Assessment of the ability of the various suspensions to reduce Fe(III) revealed no correlation between the impact of cytochrome deletion on U(VI) reduction and reduction of Fe(III) hydroxide and chelated Fe(III). Conclusion This study indicates that c-type cytochromes are involved in U(VI) reduction by Geobacter sulfurreducens. The data provide new evidence for extracellular uranium reduction by G. sulfurreducens but do not rule out the possibility of periplasmic uranium reduction. Occurrence of U(VI) reduction at the cell surface is supported by the significant impact of elimination of outer membrane cytochromes on U(VI) reduction and the lack of correlation between periplasmic uranium accumulation and the capacity for uranium reduction

  19. New records of Primnoidae (Cnidaria: Octocorallia) in Brazilian deep waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arantes, Renata C. M.; Loiola, Livia L.

    2014-01-01

    The knowledge of octocorals occurring in Brazilian deep waters is still lacking, with only a few studies conducted so far, most of which focused on large-scale marine habitats characterization. Primnoidae are common and characteristic of seamounts and deepwater coral banks, often providing habitat for other marine species. Although primnoids occur in all ocean basins, only Primnoella and Plumarella species were recorded along the Brazilian coast before this study. Primnoid specimens were obtained through dredging and remotely operated vehicles (ROV) sampling, collected by research projects conducted off the Brazilian coast, between 15 and 34°S. Taxonomic assessment resulted in 5 new records of Primnoidae genera in Brazil: Calyptrophora, Candidella, Dasystenella, Narella and Thouarella. The occurrences of Narella-off Salvador and Vitória, and in Campos Basin (935-1700 m), and Calyptrophora-in Campos Basin (1059-1152 m), are herein reported for the first time in the South Atlantic. Calyptrophora microdentata was previously known in Lesser Antilles, New England and Corner Rise Seamounts, between 686 and 2310 m. Candidella imbricata geographical distribution includes Western and Eastern Atlantic (514-2063 m and 815-2139 m, respectively), being registered herein in Campos Basin, between 1059 and 1605 m. Dasystenella acanthina collected off Rio Grande do Sul state (810 m) and occurs also off Argentina and Southern Ocean, between 150 and 5087 m. Plumarella diadema, which type locality is off São Sebastião, Brazil, has its geographical range extended northwards, occurring in Campos Basin (650 m). Thouarella koellikeri previously known for Patagonia and Antartic Peninsula, is registered for the off Brazil for the first time, in Campos Basin and off São Sebastião (609-659 m). There is a lot of work yet to be done in terms of taxonomic knowledge of Brazilian deep-sea octocorals. Research projects focusing on the investigations, including ROV sampling, of other

  20. Formation of cataclasites in shallow-subsurface settings - meteoric diagenetic processes control fault rock formation at seismogenic faults in the Abruzzi Apennines, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortner, Hugo; Pomella, Hannah; Sanders, Diethard

    2014-05-01

    To understand the interaction of surface and tectonic processes during the formation of fault rocks, we studied two faults located in the Abruzzi Appenines NE of L'Aquila, that have been active in historical time. The south-dipping Assergi fault is at least 17 km long, with an offset of 2.5 km in its central part. Over most of its extent, the fault is evident by a scarp. Present day morphology is related to selective erosion, as the fault scarp is covered in some areas by lithified talus deposits. The talus is, however, in many places involved in the faulting. The Campo Imperatore fault is about 30 km long, with an offset of 2 km. The fault is located a few km north of the Assergi fault and has approximately the same orientation. It seems to be complimentary to the Assergi fault: where the offset across the Assergi fault diminishes, throw of the Campo Imperatore fault increases. The fault scarp of the Campo Imperatore fault is partly covered by active alluvial fans, but older lithified fans are offset by related antithetic faults. Both faults have several meters of fault rocks; The fault rocks of the Campo Imperatore fault are kakirites. Cataclasites of the Assergi fault vary in thickness between 15 and 3 meters, which is related to the presence of Riedel shears that offset the boundary between the host rock and the fault rock. Within the cataclasites diffuse Riedel planes crosscut the fault rocks and offset diffuse or sharp planes parallel to the main fault that can be closely spaced. Diffuse zones parallel to the main fault show karstic vugs produced by meteoric dissolution. The vugs may be lined or filled by calcite cement, and/or with internal sediments (e. g., lime mud, vadose silt, dissolution clasts of cataclasite). Meteoric dissolution guided by the main faults also resulted in large karstic pores filled with collapse breccias and flowstones; clasts of flowstones and flowstone-cemented breccias, in turn, locally became reworked into cataclasites. Presence

  1. Extensión del Formalismo de Orbitales de Defecto Cuántico al tratamiento del efecto Stark (SQDO).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menéndez, J. M.; Martín, I.; Velasco, A. M.

    El estudio experimental de las interacciones de átomos Rydberg altamente excitados con campos eléctricos ha experimentado un creciente interés durante las dos últimas décadas debido, en gran medida, al desarrollo de nuevas técnicas para crear y estudiar átomos Rydberg en el laboratorio. Acompañando a estas nuevas técnicas experimentales, es necesario el desarrollo de modelos teóricos que nos permitan contrastar sus medidas y conocer mejor los fundamentos de los mismos. Desde el punto de vista teórico el conocimiento del desdoblamiento de los niveles energéticos de un átomo en función de la magnitud del campo eléctrico aplicado (lo que se conoce como mapa Stark) es el mejor punto de partida para la descripción del sistema y un prerrequisito fundamental para el cálculo de distintas propiedades atómicas en presencia del campo eléctrico tales como intensidades de transición, umbrales de ionización de campo eléctrico, tiempos de vida, posición y anchura de cruces evitados, etc. En este trabajo presentamos la adaptación del método de orbitales de defecto cuántico [1,2,3] al tratamiento del efecto Stark (SQDO) [4] y su aplicación al cálculo de los desdoblamientos energéticos y fuerzas de oscilador de estados Rydberg en los átomos de Li, Na y K. El propósito de este estudio es, por un lado, desarrollar métodos fiables para la determinación de propiedades atómicas en presencia de campos eléctricos y, por otro, mostrar la fiabilidad de las funciones de onda QDO en la descripción del efecto Stark en sistemas atómicos.

  2. Flowers visited by hummingbirds in the open habitats of the southeastern Brazilian mountaintops: species composition and seasonality.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, L C; Rodrigues, M

    2014-08-01

    The hummingbird-visited plant community located on the open-habitat mountaintop of the Espinhaço Range was studied for two years (from August 2007 to July 2009) in Serra do Cipó National Park, Southeastern Brazil (19° 15' S and 43° 31' W). The floral characteristics and flowering period of the hummingbird-visited plants was monthly recorded along trails located in three vegetation types: (1) typical campos rupestres (TCR), (2) open fields (OPF), and (3) capões de mata (CAM). Hummingbird visitation was observed in 51 plant species, 22 ornithophilous and 29 non-ornithophilous species. The TCR showed the greatest number of species visited (N = 38), followed by the OPF (N = 18) and CAM (N = 17). Six species of hummingbirds were recorded visiting flowers: Augastes scutatus, Campylopterus largipennis, Colibri serrirostris, Chlorostilbon lucidus, Eupetomena macroura and Phaethornis pretrei. This study demonstrates that the species richness and the number of ornithophilous species visited by the hummingbirds at the study site are more similar to hummingbird-plant communities of the Atlantic Forest than to those of the Cerrado communities and other Brazilian highland open-habitat communities. The plant families most visited by hummingbirds were Bromeliaceae and Asteraceae. Although the Asteraceae family is rarely used as a food resource for hummingbirds in other high and lowland communities, in the study site this family is used mainly by the endemic hummingbird Augastes scutatus. We found a large overlap of flowering throughout the year among the species visited by the hummingbirds. Thus, the nectar availability supports these resident hummingbirds. The present study also showed that the studied hummingbird-plant community is composed of many species endemic to the campos rupestres of the Espinhaço Range, some of which are considered to be in danger of extinction, thus constituting a unique and threatened community. Thus, understanding hummingbird-plant pollination

  3. La formación de la Nube de Oort y el entorno galáctico primitivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, J. A.

    Se analizan las condiciones de formación de la nube de Oort en el medio galáctico primitivo, bajo la suposición de que los objetos que alcanzaron la nube fueron planetesimales residuales eyectados por los planetas gigantes durante las etapas finales de su acreción. Los objetos que adquieren órbitas cuasiparabólicas están sujetos a las perturbaciones de estrellas vecinas y al potencial del disco galáctico, las que desacoplan sus perihelios de la región planetaria, dando a los objetos una larga estabilidad dinámica. Se demuestra que un entorno galáctico como el presente pudo, sin embargo, no ser suficiente para formar un reservorio cometario con una vida dinámica comparable a la vida del sistema solar. La existencia de la nube de Oort después de 4600 millones de años es, pues, una fuerte indicación de que el sistema solar se formó en un entorno galáctico mucho mas denso que el presente, tal vez en una nube molecular y/o un cúmulo abierto, que es el modo de producción de la mayoría de las estrellas. Se encuentra que un campo perturbador externo mas intenso, producto de un entorno galáctico mas denso, sería capaz de formar una nube de Oort mas compacta, con un radio del orden de 103- 104 UA. El campo externo mas intenso cesó de actuar una vez que la nube molecular y/o el cúmulo abierto se disiparon, previniendo entonces que ese mismo campo externo disolviera el reservorio cometario.

  4. Educación no formal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tignanelli, H.

    Se comentan en esta comunicación, las principales contribuciones realizadas en el campo de la educación en astronomía en los niveles primario, secundario y terciario, como punto de partida para la discusión de la actual inserción de los contenidos astronómicos en los nuevos contenidos curriculares de la EGB - Educación General Básica- y Polimodal, de la Reforma Educativa. En particular, se discuten los alcances de la educación formal y no formal, su importancia para la capacitación de profesores y maestros, y perspectivas a futuro.

  5. Effect of acclimation to outdoor condition on the sexual performance of mass-produced Medflies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, R.; Silva, N.; Quintal, C.; Abreu, R.; Andrade, J.; Dantas, L.

    2007-03-15

    Application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) as part of integrated area-wide programs to control the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) require that the released males attract wild females and transfer sterile sperm. However, knowledge about male sexual performance after they are released is scarce. We conducted a study to evaluate male sexual performance in field cage tests, according to standard quality control procedures. Mass-reared 5-d-old sterile males from the genetic sexing strain VIENNA 7mix2000 were acclimated for 0, 1, and 3 d to outdoor conditions before competing with wild males for wild females. Although the proportion of mating (PM) in the test was satisfactory, the resulting relative sterility index (RSI) data showed no significant differences among the treatments. The data indicate that pre-conditioning males to outdoor conditions in Madeira did not confer an advantage in field cage sexual performance. (author) [Spanish] La aplicacion de la tecnica del insecto esteril (TIE) como parte de un programa integrado de amplio efecto para el control de la mosca mediterranea de la fruta Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) requiere que los machos liberados atraigan las hembras naturales y transfieran su esperma. Sin embargo, el conocimiento del desempeno sexual de los machos despues de ser liberados es muy escaso. Nosotros realizamos un estudio para evaluar el desempeno sexual de los machos en pruebas usando jaulas del campo, segun los procedimientos estandardizados de calidad. Machos esteriles de 5 dias de edad de la raza que separa los sexos geneticamente VIENNA 7mix2000 criados en masa fueron aclimatados por 0, 1 y 3 dias en condiciones de campo antes de competir con machos naturales para las hembras naturales. Aunque la proporcion del apareamiento en la prueba fue satisfactorio, el indice relativo de esterilidad (IRS) resultante no mostro ninguna diferencia significativa entre los tratamientos. Los datos indicaron que al

  6. Observation of harmonically related solar radio zebra patterns in the 1-4 GHz frequency range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawant, H. S.; Karlický, M.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Cecatto, J. R.

    2002-12-01

    A unique case of two zebra patterns related harmonically with ratio of ~ 1:2 was observed by distant radio telescopes at São José dos Campos and Ondřejov Observatories. Accompanied zebras show that the ratio of frequencies of the neighboring zebra lines is in the range of 1.009-1.037. There is a tendency of a decrease of this ratio with decreasing frequency within the specific zebra pattern. Both facts speak in favour of plasma emission models for the zebra pattern fine structure in radio burst continua.

  7. Embryotoxicity and biotransformation responses in zebrafish exposed to water-soluble fraction of crude oil.

    PubMed

    Pauka, Luciana M; Maceno, Marcell; Rossi, Stefani C; Silva de Assis, Helena C

    2011-04-01

    The toxic effects of water-soluble fraction (WSF) of crude oil (API27, Petrobras Campos Basin, Brazil) were evaluated during the early life stages of zebrafish, as well as its biotransformation in juvenile fish. Embryonic development was studied during 96 h. Reduced heartbeat rate, weak pigmentation, tail defects, and embryo mortality were observed for all of the tested concentrations of the WSF. Activities of the biotransformation enzymes were induced at the highest concentrations, showing that these enzymes played a role in its elimination. As shown in this study the crude oil WSF altered the normal embryonic development of fish. PMID:21404046

  8. [PROFAE teaching proposal in the perspective of tutor nurses].

    PubMed

    da Silva, Vilma Ribeiro; da Silva, Maria da Graça; dos Santos, Lidiane Batista Oliveira

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents results of a research proceeded with the first group of nurses from the Pedagogical Training Course in Health Professional Education: Nursing, in Campo Grande-MS. It was intended to verify obtained knowledge expressed by the participants before and after course. Data were collected using structured forms with open questions, that were approached under metodological qualitative reference. It was observed that this course development as a movement, is considered an evolution and transforming moment in all levels of Nursing teaching. It is believed that the course's pedagogical training essence was assimilated by the students. PMID:16335179

  9. LANDSAT and radar mapping of intrusive rocks in SE-Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Dossantos, A. R.; Dosanjos, C. E.; Moreira, J. C.; Barbosa, M. P.; Veneziani, P.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of intrusive rock mapping was investigated and criteria for regional geological mapping established at the scale of 1:500,00 in polycyclic and polymetamorphic areas using the logic method of photointerpretation of LANDSAT imagery and radar from the RADAMBRASIL project. The spectral behavior of intrusive rocks, was evaluated using the interactive multispectral image analysis system (Image-100). The region of Campos (city) in northern Rio de Janeiro State was selected as the study area and digital imagery processing and pattern recognition techniques were applied. Various maps at the 2:250,000 scale were obtained to evaluate the results of automatic data processing.

  10. Editorial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucera, Paul A.; Levizzani, Vincenzo

    2015-09-01

    The 6th Workshop of the International Precipitation Working Group (IPWG6) was held in São José dos Campos, Brazil, from 15 to 19 October 2012, at the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos (CPTEC). It was sponsored and organized by CPTEC with the co-sponsoring of the Coordination Group for Meteorological Satellites (CGMS), the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT).

  11. Maser radiometer for cosmic background radiation anisotropy measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fixsen, D. J.; Wilkinson, D. T.

    1982-06-01

    A maser amplifier was incorporated into a low noise radiometer designed to measure large-scale anisotropy in the 3 deg K microwave background radiation. To minimize emission by atmospheric water vapor and oxygen, the radiometer is flown in a small balloon to an altitude to 25 km. Three successful flights were made - two from Palestine, Texas and one from Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil. Good sky coverage is important to the experiment. Data from the northern hemisphere flights has been edited and calibrated.

  12. Myth and catastrophic reality: using cosmogonic mythology to identify cosmic impacts and massive plinian eruptions in holocene South America.

    SciTech Connect

    Masse, W. B.

    2004-01-01

    Major natural catastrophes (e.g., 'universal' floods, fire, darkness, and sky falling down) are prominently reflected in traditional South American creation myths, cosmology, religion, and worldview. We are now beginning to recognize that cosmogonic myths represent a rich and largely untapped data set concerning the most dramatic natural events and processes experienced by each cultural group during the past several thousand years. Observational details regarding specific catastrophes are encoded in myth storylines, typically cast in terms of supernatural characters and actions. Not only are the myths amenable to scientific analysis, but also some sets of myths encode multiple catastrophes in meaningful relative chronological order. The present study considers more than 4200 myths, including more than 260 'universal' catastrophe myths from cultural groups throughout South America. These myths are examined in light of available geological, paleoenvironmental, archeological, and documentary evidence. Our analysis reveals three possible ultra-plinian volcanic eruptions, two in Columbia and the other in the Gran Chaco, the latter likely associated with a poorly dated late Holocene eruption of Nuevo Mundo in central Bolivia. Our analysis also identifies a set of traditions likely linked with the well-known Campo del Cielo iron meteorite impact in northern Argentina originally hypothesized to have occurred around 4000 years ago. Intriguingly, these traditions strongly suggest that the Campo del Cielo impact triggered widespread mass fires in the Gran Chaco region and possibly in the Brazilian Highlands. Several other potential cosmic impacts, distinct from Campo del Cielo, are hinted at in the mythology of other locations in South America. The numerous catastrophe myths in the Gran Chaco region exhibit the most coherent chronological sequence of any South American region. The sequence begins with a 'Great Flood,' by far the most widespread catastrophe myth in South

  13. Foreword--as per verse: the queer in the clinic in the poem.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Sarah

    2013-06-01

    This essay introduces a series of poems by six authors: Rafael Campo, Susan Holbrook, Katie Price, Trish Salah, Qwo-Li Driskill, and Brian Teare. I argue that the poems demonstrate that a queer bioethics, whether literary or medical, must dispense with commonplace assumptions about the ways in which selves, especially queer selves, are represented in language. Instead, poetry's sound-sense and avoidance of language-as-usual can serve as an analogy for modes of approach, analysis, and even recognition that do not receive official sanction; the non-linear modes of reading required by contemporary poetry can serve as methodological models for a queer bioethics. PMID:23456747

  14. Near-IR spectroscopy of the eruptive variable source V2493 Cyg (HBC 722)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzetti, D.; Efimova, N.; Larionov, V.; Arkharov, A.; Gorshanov, D.; Giannini, T.; Antoniucci, S.; Di Paola, A.

    2012-05-01

    As part of our near-IR spectroscopic monitoring program of EXor pre-Main sequence variables (Lorenzetti et al. 2009 ApJ 693, 1056) on-going at the AZT24 1m IR telescope (Campo Imperatore, Italy), we have recently (2012 May 11) obtained a low resolution (R~250) near-IR spectrum (0.8 - 2.5 μm) of the outbursting source V2493 Cyg (otherwise called HBC 722). Since its outburst in August 2009 (Miller et al.

  15. Continuous brightening of the eruptive variable V2493 Cyg (HBC 722)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniucci, S.; Arkharov, A.; Klimanov, S.; Lorenzetti, D.; Giannini, T.; Di Paola, A.; Larionov, V.

    2013-04-01

    As anticipated (Lorenzetti et al. 2009 ApJ 693, 1056), we are constantly monitoring the eruptive variable V2493 Cyg (otherwise called HBC 722) in the near-IR with the AZT24 1m-telescope (Campo Imperatore, Italy). Since its outburst in Aug. 2009 (Miller et al. 2011 ApJ 730, 80; ATel #2801, ATel #2854) this source has been widely monitored (Kospal et al. 2011 A&A 527, A133, Lorenzetti et al. 2012 ApJ 749, 188; Semkov et al.

  16. Valve, compressor contracts awarded for Western Hemisphere projects

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-19

    Major valve and compressor contracts have been let for projects in the Western Hemisphere. Petrobras has awarded Nuovo Pignone, Florence, a $10.5 million contract to supply 400 valves for the 1,975-mile natural-gas pipeline being constructed from Bolivia into Brazil. Additionally, Brazilian company Maritima Petroleo and TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, have awarded Nuovo Pignone separate contracts to supply turbocompressor packages. The Brazilian contract is for offshore Campos Basin; the Canadian, for a major expansion of TCPL`s system delivering natural gas out of Alberta. The paper discusses the Bolivia-Brazil pipeline, compressor orders, and the companies.

  17. Effective gamma-ray doses due to natural radiation from soils of southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silveira, M. A. G.; Medina, N. H.; Moreira, R. H.; Bellini, B. S.; Aguiar, V. A. P.

    2010-08-01

    We have used gamma-ray spectrometry to study the distribution of natural radiation from soils of southeastern Brazil: Billings reservoir, Sa~o Bernardo do Campo Parks, Diadema Parks, Interlagos region, Sa~o Paulo, and soil from Sa~o Paulo and Rio de Janeiro beaches. In most of the regions studied we have found that the dose due the external exposure to gamma-rays, proceeding from natural terrestrial elements, are between the values 0.3 and 0.6 mSv/year, established by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation.

  18. Crystal structure of benzene-1,3,5-tri-carb-oxy-lic acid-4-pyridone (1/3).

    PubMed

    Staun, Selena L; Oliver, Allen G

    2015-11-01

    Slow co-crystallization of a solution of benzene-1,3,5-tri-carb-oxy-lic acid with a large excess of 4-hy-droxy-pyridine produces an inter-penetrating, three-dimensional, hydrogen-bonded framework consisting of three 4-pyridone and one benzene-1,3,5-tri-carb-oxy-lic acid mol-ecules, C9H6O6·3C5H5NO. This structure represents an ortho-rhom-bic polymorph of the previously reported C-centered, monoclinic structure [Campos-Gaxiola et al. (2014 ▸). Acta Cryst. E70, o453-o454]. PMID:26594492

  19. Digitizing of Plate Archives of the Italian Observatories and Specola Vaticana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbieri, C.; Blanco, C.; Bucciarelli, B.; Coluzzi, R.; Di Paola, A.; Lanteri, L.; Li Causi, G.; Marilli, E.; Massimino, P.; Mottola, S.; Nesci, R.; Omizzolo, A.; Pedichini, F.; Rampazzi, F.; Rossi, C.; Sclavi, S.; Stagni, R.; Tsvetkov, M.; Viotti, R.

    A large-scale national project to digitize the archive of plates of the Italian observatories and Specola Vaticana has started in 2002 following a pilot program funded by the University of Padova in 2001. Identical systems, composed of commercial scanners plus dedicated personal computers and acquisition software have been installed in all participating institutions. High quality photometric sequences are provided by the Campo Imperatore telescopes. The digitized information is distributed to all interested researchers via the international web. This paper presents some of the activities carried out and the results obtained.

  20. Digitization of the Archives of Plates of the Italian Astronomical Observatories and of the Specola Vaticana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbieri, C.; Blanco, C.; Bucciarelli, B.; Coluzzi, R.; Di Paola, A.; Lanteri, L.; Li Causi, G. L.; Marilli, E.; Magrin, S.; Nesci, R.; Omizzolo, A.; Rampazzi, F.; Rossi, C.; Stagni, R.; Viotti, R.

    A two-year project to digitize the archive of plates of the Italian Astronomical Observatories and of the Specola Vaticana has started in 2002 with funds from the Ministry of the University and Research. Identical systems, composed by a commercial scanner plus dedicated PCs and acquisition software have been installed in all participating Institutes. The project means to provide high quality photometric sequences with the Campo Imperatore telescopes and to distribute the digitized information via the international Web. This paper concisely presents some of the activities carried out and results obtained so far.

  1. Coincident observation of air [hacek C]erenkov light by a surface array and muon bundles by a deep underground detector

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrosio, M.; Antolini, R.; Auriemma, G.; Baker, R.; Baldini, A.; Bam, B.; Barbarino, G.C.; Barish, B.C.; Battistoni, G.; Bellotti, R.; Bemporad, C.; Bernardini, P.; Bilokon, H.; Bisi, V.; Bloise, C.; Bower, C.; Bussino, S.; Cafagna, F.; Calicchio, M.; Campana, D.; Carboni, M.; Corona, A.; Cecchini, S.; Cei, F.; Chiarella, V.; Cormack, R.; Coutu, S.; DeCataldo, G.; Dekhissi, H.; DeMarzo, C.; De Vincenzi, M.; Di Credico, A.; Diehl, E.; Erriquez, O.; Favuzzi, C.; Forti, C.; Fusco, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giannini, G.; Giglietto, N.; Grassi, M.; Green, P.; Grillo, A.; Guarino, F.; Guarnaccia, P.; Gustavino, C.; Habig, A.; Heinz, R.; Hong, J.T.; Iarocci, E.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kearns, E.; Kertzman, M.; Kyriazopoulou, S.; Lamanna, E.; Lane, C.; Lee, C.; Levin, D.S.; Lipari, P.; Liu, G.; Liu, R.; Longo, M.J.; Lu, Y.; Ludlam, G.; Mancarella, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Margiotta-Neri, A.; Marin, A.; Marini, A.; Martello, D.; Marzari Chiesa, A.; Michael, D.G.; Mikheyev, S.; Miller, L.; Mittlebrunn, M.; Mon

    1994-09-01

    We report on the simultaneous observation of atmospheric [hacek C]erenkov light by a prototype five telescope array, GRACE, (Gran Sasso Air [hacek C]erenkov Experiment) with deep underground muons in the MACRO (Monopole Astrophysics and Cosmic Ray Observatory). The telescope array was deployed at Campo Imperatore above the Gran Sasso Laboratory for a run completed in the fall of 1992. The total live time for the combined surface-underground operation was [similar to]100 h during which more than 300 events were seen in coincidence. The efficacy of this technique to monitor the electromagnetic and penetrating muon components of a cosmic-ray-induced cascade is discussed.

  2. Blazars 3C 454.3 and B3 1633+38 bright in near-infrared.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larionov, V. M.; Efimova, N. V.

    2013-09-01

    We perform near-infrared monitoring of selected gamma-bright blazars using 1.1-m AZT-24 telescope (Campo Imperatore, Italy), as a part of WEBT/GASP project. We report that blazars 3C454.3 and B3 1633+38 (=4C 38.41) demonstrate violent activity during last nights. 3C 454.3 brightened in J band from 13.31 to 12.10 mag from 2013 September 20 to September 23. B3 1633+38 reached a value of J=14.14, as compared to J=15.05 at 2013 August 15.

  3. [The Brazilguayans, Brazilian migrants in Paraguay].

    PubMed

    Pebayle, R

    1994-01-01

    "Since the 1950s, the population of Eastern regions of Paraguay has grown with the steady influx of Brazilian immigrants. Planters from Parana and Sao Paulo, mechanized wheat and soy farmers from the southern campos and cattle farmers from the Matto Grosso do Sul have joined mixed farmers, descendants of European settlers from the south of Brazil. Despite some local conflicts, the Brazilguayans...[in] Oriente [province] seem to be on the road to integration in Paraguay." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA AND POR) PMID:12288169

  4. Maser radiometer for cosmic background radiation anisotropy measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fixsen, D. J.; Wilkinson, D. T.

    1982-01-01

    A maser amplifier was incorporated into a low noise radiometer designed to measure large-scale anisotropy in the 3 deg K microwave background radiation. To minimize emission by atmospheric water vapor and oxygen, the radiometer is flown in a small balloon to an altitude to 25 km. Three successful flights were made - two from Palestine, Texas and one from Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil. Good sky coverage is important to the experiment. Data from the northern hemisphere flights has been edited and calibrated.

  5. Fluctuaciones cuánticas y cosmología

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzetta, E.

    El objetivo de la charla es repasar 1) los motivos para creer que el Universo pasó por una etapa inflacionaria antes del período dominado por la radiación, durante la cual se habrían formado las fluctuaciones primordiales en la densidad de energía que luego colapsaron para formar estructuras cosmológicas 2) los mecanismos que crearon dichas fluctuaciones a partir de fluctuaciones cuánticas del campo del ``inflaton" durante dicho período y 3) los problemas abiertos en el estudio de modelos inflacionarios, especialmente respecto al inicio y final del mismo.

  6. Effective gamma-ray doses due to natural radiation from soils of southeastern Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Silveira, M. A. G.; Moreira, R. H.; Bellini, B. S.; Medina, N. H.; Aguiar, V. A. P.

    2010-08-04

    We have used gamma-ray spectrometry to study the distribution of natural radiation from soils of southeastern Brazil: Billings reservoir, Sao Bernardo do Campo Parks, Diadema Parks, Interlagos region, Sao Paulo, and soil from Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro beaches. In most of the regions studied we have found that the dose due the external exposure to gamma-rays, proceeding from natural terrestrial elements, are between the values 0.3 and 0.6 mSv/year, established by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation.

  7. Código árbol paralelizado para simulaciones astrofísicas. Experimentos de encuentros de galaxias compuestas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viturro, H. R.; Carpintero, D. D.

    Se describe la implementación de un código árbol octal paralelizado desarrollado por los autores. Este código permite la integración del problema de N--cuerpos simultáneamente en varias computadoras (``cluster''), lo que permite desarrollar altas velocidades de cálculo. Se muestran los resultados de algunas integraciones de encuentros entre galaxias de disco con bulbo y halo, generadas mediante algoritmos no utilizados hasta el momento en este campo.

  8. Changes in the circumscription of Deprea (Physalideae, Solanaceae): thirty two new combinations

    PubMed Central

    Deanna, Rocío; González, Segundo Leiva; Barboza, Gloria Estela

    2015-01-01

    Abstract According to the latest phylogenetic and cytogenetic results, Larnax and Deprea should be merged in order to form a natural group. Consequently, we propose 32 combinations of Larnax species names under Deprea: Deprea abra-patriciae (S.Leiva & Barboza) S.Leiva & Deanna, comb. nov., Deprea altomayoensis (S.Leiva & Quip.) Barboza & Deanna, comb. nov., Deprea andersonii (N.W.Sawyer) Deanna & S.Leiva, comb. nov., Deprea bongaraensis (S.Leiva) Deanna & Barboza, comb. nov., Deprea chotanae (S.Leiva, Pereyra & Barboza) S.Leiva, comb. nov., Deprea darcyana (N.W.Sawyer) Barboza & S.Leiva, comb. nov., Deprea dilloniana (S.Leiva, Quip. & N.W.Sawyer) Barboza, comb. nov., Deprea grandiflora (N.W.Sawyer & S.Leiva) Deanna & Barboza, comb. nov., Deprea harlingiana (Hunz. & Barboza) S.Leiva & Deanna, comb nov., Deprea hawkesii (Hunz.) Deanna, comb. nov., Deprea kann-rasmussenii (S.Leiva & Quip.) S.Leiva & Barboza, comb. nov., Deprea longipedunculata (S.Leiva, E.Rodr. & J.Campos) Barboza, comb. nov., Deprea lutea (S.Leiva) Deanna, comb. nov., Deprea macasiana (Deanna, S.Leiva & Barboza) Barboza, comb. nov., Deprea maculatifolia (E.Rodr. & S.Leiva) S. Leiva, comb. nov., Deprea nieva (S.Leiva & N.W.Sawyer) Barboza & Deanna, comb. nov., Deprea parviflora (N.W.Sawyer & S.Leiva) S.Leiva, comb. nov., Deprea pedrazae (S.Leiva & Barboza) Deanna & S.Leiva, comb. nov., Deprea peruviana (Zahlbr.) S.Leiva & Barboza, comb. nov., Deprea pilosa (S.Leiva, E.Rodr. & J.Campos) Deanna, comb. nov., Deprea pomacochaensis (S.Leiva) Barboza, comb. nov., Deprea psilophyta (N.W.Sawyer) S.Leiva & Deanna, comb. nov., Deprea pumila (S.Leiva, Barboza & Deanna) S.Leiva, comb. nov., Deprea purpurea (S.Leiva) Barboza & S.Leiva, comb. nov., Deprea purpureocarpa (S.Leiva, Deanna & Barboza) Deanna, comb. nov., Deprea sachapapa (Hunz.) S.Leiva & Deanna, comb. nov., Deprea sagasteguii (S.Leiva, Quip. & N. W.Sawyer) Barboza, comb. nov., Deprea sawyeriana (S.Leiva, E.Rodr. & J.Campos) S.Leiva, comb. nov., Deprea

  9. Foam pigs solve pipe cleaning problems offshore Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, P.C.R.; Neto, S.J.A.

    1995-10-02

    Pipeline systems in which conventional pigs cannot be run are common in such complex offshore installations as are found in Brazil`s Campos basin. These systems may contain changing pipe diameters or wet christmas trees and manifolds. A new concept for using low cost, low-density foam pigs for both liquid removal in wet-gas pipelines and paraffin removal in oil and multiphase pipelines has been successfully tested offshore Brazil. Although the present discussion focuses on condensate and paraffin removal in pipelines, the principles can be applied to several kinds of operations including general pipeline cleaning, product removal or separation in pipeline, corrosion evaluation, and chemical product application.

  10. Reconexión magnética en una región activa en decaimiento

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandrini, C. H.; Démoulin, P.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.; Schmieder, B.; Bagalá, L. G.; Rovira, M. G.

    Se han obtenido observaciones desde Tierra (Hα y magnetogramas) coordinadas con el Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT), a bordo del satélite japonés Yohkoh, de una región activa bipolar en decaimiento. Estos datos constituyen la base para el estudio de un punto brillante en rayos X (PBX) y de la actividad relacionada con el mismo en distintas capas de la atmósfera solar. Las observaciones muestran que el PBX está relacionado con la aparición de un bipolo menor (~ 1020 Mx) y que su abrillantamiento continuo, así como sus aumentos de brillo esporádicos (``fulguraciones"), son el resultado de la reconexión entre el pequeño arco emergente (visto en Hα como un sistema de filamentos arqueados, SFA) y arcos mayores asociados al campo facular preexistente. Se ha extrapolado el campo magnético observado en la aproximación libre de fuerzas lineal y se ha seguido su evolución a lo largo de la vida del PBX. Se ha calculado la posición de las cuasiseparatrices (CSs) a partir del campo modelado. Las líneas de campo extrapoladas, cuyas bases fotosféricas se encuentran a ambos lados de las CSs, están de acuerdo con las estructuras cromosféricas y coronales observadas. Se ha calculado el espesor de la CD ubicada a lo largo de la polaridad negativa emergente, encontrándose que su variación está de acuerdo con la evolución de la intensidad del PBX; la CS es muy delgada durante la vida del PBX (~ 100 m), mientras que su espesor aumenta considerablemente (>= 10^4 m) cuando el PBX desaparece de las imágenes del SXT. Estos resultados señalan que el abrillantamiento y las ``fulguraciones" de este PBX se deben al proceso de reconexión en 3D que tiene lugar en las CSs.

  11. PAH assessment in the main Brazilian offshore oil and gas production area using semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMD) and transplanted bivalves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André Lourenço, Rafael; Francisco de Oliveira, Fábio; Haddad Nudi, Adriana; Rebello Wagener, Ângela de Luca; Guadalupe Meniconi, Maria de Fátima; Francioni, Eleine

    2015-06-01

    The Campos Basin is Brazil's main oil and gas production area. In 2013, more than 50 million cubic meters of produced water (PW) was discharged into these offshore waters. Despite the large volumes of PW that are discharged in the Campos Basin each day, the ecological concern of the chemicals in the PW are not completely understood. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are the most important contributors to the ecological hazards that are posed by discharged PW. This study aimed to evaluate the potential bioaccumulation of PAH using transplanted bivalves (Nodipecten nodosus) and semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMD). The study was conducted in two platforms that discharge PW (P19 and P40). Another platform that does not discharge PW (P25) was investigated for comparison with the obtained results. Time-integrated hydrocarbon concentrations using SPMD and transplanted bivalves were estimated from the seawater near the three platforms. The bioaccumulation of the PAH in the transplanted bivalves at platforms P19 and P40 were up to fivefold greater than the bioaccumulation of the PAH at platform P25. The lowest PAH concentrations were estimated for platform P25 (4.3-6.2 ng L-1), and the highest PAH concentrations were estimated for platform P19 (9.2-37.3 ng L-1). Both techniques were effective for determining the bioavailability of the PAH and for providing time-integrated hydrocarbon concentrations regarding oil and gas production activities.

  12. Comparison of simplified models in the prediction of two phase flow in pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerez-Carrizales, M.; Jaramillo, J. E.; Fuentes, D.

    2014-06-01

    Prediction of two phase flow in pipelines is a common task in engineering. It is a complex phenomenon and many models have been developed to find an approximate solution to the problem. Some old models, such as the Hagedorn & Brown (HB) model, have been highlighted by many authors to give very good performance. Furthermore, many modifications have been applied to this method to improve its predictions. In this work two simplified models which are based on empiricism (HB and Mukherjee and Brill, MB) are considered. One mechanistic model which is based on the physics of the phenomenon (AN) and it still needs some correlations called closure relations is also used. Moreover, a drift flux model defined in steady state that is flow pattern dependent (HK model) is implemented. The implementation of these methods was tested using published data in the scientific literature for vertical upward flows. Furthermore, a comparison of the predictive performance of the four models is done against a well from Campo Escuela Colorado. Difference among four models is smaller than difference with experimental data from the well in Campo Escuela Colorado.

  13. Synthesis of the quaternary in the almeria littoral neotectonic activity and its morphologic features, western betics, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goy, J. L.; Zazo, C.

    1986-11-01

    A sequence of marine and continental Quaternary episodes is established, as are their interrelationships. The zone's tectonics have, in most cases, remained active to the present and control the factors All the Tyrrhenian levels containing Strombus bubonius are affected by the many faults that cross the lateral fringe and continue onto the shelf. Among these are: the Loma del Viento Fault, (N120°E. a normal fault with certain leftward characteristics): the El Alquian faults (N140°, 160°E, which coincide, according to several authors (Bousquet, 1979), with the surface feature of a great dextral deep accident); and the Carboneras Fault, or the Serrata Fault, (N40°, 45°E, left strike-slip fault). Given the varying behaviour of the shoreline, we have chosen to divide it into four sectors: Campo de Dalias, El-Alquian-Cabo de Gata, Mojacar—Garrucha. and Campo de Nijar-Serrata. Due to its geographical location, no marine-continental relationships exist in the latter. A chart has been made in an attempt to synthesize the most significant stratigraphic, genetic and tectonic characteristics of each sector. Lastly, the influence of tectonics on the distribution and heights of the Quaternary shorelines is clearly shown in a chart of the transgressive maxima of the Tyrrhenian episodes.

  14. Soil-vegetation relationships on a banded ironstone 'island', Carajás Plateau, Brazilian Eastern Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Jaquelina A; Schaefer, Carlos E G R; Ferreira Júnior, Walnir G; Neri, Andreza V; Correa, Guilherme R; Enright, Neal J

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation and soil properties of an iron-rich canga (laterite) island on the largest outcrop of banded-iron formation in Serra de Carajás (eastern Amazonia, Brazil) were studied along a topographic gradient (738-762 m asl), and analyzed to test the hypothesis that soil chemical and physical attributes play a key role in the structure and floristic composition of these plant communities. Soil and vegetation were sampled in eight replicate plots within each of the four vegetation types. Surface (0-10 cm) soil samples from each plot were analyzed for basic cations, N, P and plant species density for all species was recorded. CCA ordination analysis showed a strong separation between forest and non-forest sites on the first axis, and between herbaceous and shrubby campo rupestre on the second axis. The four vegetation types shared few plant species, which was attributed to their distinctive soil environments and filtering of their constituent species by chemical, physical and hydrological constraints. Thus, we can infer that Edaphic (pedological) factors are crucial in explaining the types and distributions of campo rupestre vegetation associated with ferruginous ironstone uplands (Canga) in Carajás, eastern Amazonia, therefore the soil properties are the main drivers of vegetation composition and structure on these ironstone islands. PMID:26648541

  15. REFORZANDO LAS CAPACIDADES EN INVESTIGACIÓN EN INFORMÁTICA PARA LA SALUD GLOBAL EN LA REGIÓN ANDINA A TRAVÉS DE LA COLABORACIÓN INTERNACIONAL

    PubMed Central

    Curioso, Walter H.; García, Patricia J.; Castillo, Greta M.; Blas, Magaly M.; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Zimic, Mirko

    2011-01-01

    RESUMEN Para mejorar la salud global y bienestar de una población se requiere de recursos humanos capacitados, no solo en el campo de la medicina y salud, sino también en el campo de la informática. Desafortunadamente, los programas de entrenamiento e investigación en informática biomédica en países en desarrollo son escasos y poco documentados. El objetivo del presente trabajo es reportar los resultados del primer Taller Internacional de Expertos en Informática para la región andina que se llevó a cabo en marzo de 2010 en Lima y que incluye la descripción de nueve casos de estudio procedentes de instituciones de América Latina. En el taller participaron 23 expertos latinoamericanos, quienes discutieron la necesidad de entrenamiento e investigación multidisciplinaria en informática biomédica en áreas prioritarias para América Latina. Además, se estableció la Red QUIPU debido a la necesidad de ampliar y consolidar una red de investigación y entrenamiento a nivel regional y global. PMID:21152740

  16. Molecular and serological detection of tick-borne pathogens in dogs from an area endemic for Leishmania infantum in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Keyla Carstens Marques; André, Marcos Rogério; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; de Andrade, Gisele Braziliano; Jusi, Marcia Mariza Gomes; dos Santos, Luciana Ladislau; Barreto, Wanessa Teixeira Gomes; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; de Oliveira, Gilson Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Tick-borne pathogens affect a wide range of vertebrate hosts. To identify tick-borne pathogens among dogs from Campo Grande, MS, Brazil testing seropositive for Leishmania infantum (syn. L. chagasi), a serological and molecular study was conducted to detect Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma platys and Babesia vogeli in 60 serum and spleen samples. A confirmatory diagnosis of L. infantum based on serological and molecular assays was also performed, as was sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis to assess the identity of the parasite species infecting these animals. IgG antibodies to Ehrlichia spp., B. vogeli and L. infantum were found, respectively, in 39 (65%), 49 (81.6%) and 60 (100%) of the sampled dogs. Twenty-seven (45%), fifty-four (90%), fifty-three (88.3%), two (3.3%) and one (1.6%) dog were positive, respectively, for E. canis, Leishmania spp., Leishmania donovani complex, Babesia sp. and Anaplasma sp. in PCR assays. After sequencing, the amplicons showed 99% of identity with E. canis, B. vogeli, A. platys and Leishmania chagasi isolates. The findings of this study indicate that L. infantum-seropositive dogs from Campo Grande are exposed to multiple tick-borne pathogens, which should therefore be included in the differential diagnosis of dogs with clinical suspicion of leishmaniasis. PMID:24473877

  17. Isolation and characterization of recombinants between attenuated and virulent aphthovirus strains.

    PubMed Central

    Giraudo, A T; Sagedahl, A; Bergmann, I E; La Torre, J L; Scodeller, E A

    1987-01-01

    A guanidine-resistant mutant of the attenuated strain of aphthovirus type 01 strain Campos and the original wild-type strain were crossed to generate recombinant viruses. Two independently derived recombinant viruses were isolated. One isolate (RI) contained the P1 (structural proteins) gene region of attenuated strain and P3 (polymerase precursor) gene region of the wild-type strain. The other isolate (RII) had a genomic structure complementary to that of RI, this is, P1 of the wild-type strain and P3 of the attenuated virus. Recombinant RII inherited some in vitro phenotypic markers that were characteristic of the attenuated strain, whereas the RI recombinant had in vitro behavior that was similar to that of the wild-type strain. The data obtained suggest that the polymerase precursor (P3) of the attenuated strain (01 Campos) could be involved in the determination of the attenuated phenotype for fetal bovine kidney cells and, eventually, for cattle. Images PMID:3027372

  18. Shanghai Delta Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, R.E.; Hoffman, P.F.; Parker, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    The upper Eocene Yegua Formation expands dramatically across a regional system of growth faults into an area generally 12-15 km wide, extending at least from the western edge of the Houston sale dome basin to the San Marcos arch. Within this area, the expanded Yegua trend has yielded, since 1982, at least seven noteworthy discoveries: Toro Grande and Lost Bridge fields in Jackson County, and Black Owl, Shanghai, Shanghai East, El Campo, and Phase Four fields in Wharton County. During each of several postulated Yegua sea level drops, this flexure became a focal point for deltaic deposition of excellent reservoir-quality sands. Shanghai, Shanghai East, and El Campo fields are located within what the writers have labeled the ''Shanghai delta complex.'' Integration of seismic and well data in this vicinity shows a marked increase in the expansion indices of growth faults, and moderately thick progradational sand sequences have accumulated immediately downthrow. This structural-stratigraphic pattern, as well as internal bedding characteristics and other lithologic data observed, is believed typical of deltas deposited along the Yegua shelf margin.

  19. Beam Propagator for Weather Radars, Modules 1 and 2

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-10-08

    This program simulates the beam propagation of weather radar pulses under particular and realistic atmospheric conditions (without using the assumption of standard refraction conditions). It consists of two modules: radiosondings_refract_index_many.pro (MAIN MODULE) beam_propagation_function.pro(EXTERNAL FUNCTION) FOR THE MAIN MODULE, THE CODE DOES OUTPUT--INTO A FILE--THE BEAM HEIGHT AS A FUNCTION OF RANGE. THE RADIOSONDE INPUT FILES SHOULD BE ALREADY AVAILABLE BY THE USER. FOR EXAMPLE, RADIOSONDE OBSERVATION FILES CAN BE OBTAINED AT: RADIOSONDE OBSERVATIONS DOWNLOADED ATmore » "http://weather.uwyo.edu/upperair/soounding.html" OR "http://jervis.pyr.ec.gc.ca" THE EXTERNAL FUNCTION DOES THE ACTUAL COMPUTATION OF BEAM PROPAGATION. IT INCLUDES CONDITIONS OF ANOMALOUS PROPAGATION AND NEGATIVE ELEVATION ANGLES. THE EQUATIONS USED HERE WERE DERIVED BY EDWIN CAMPOS, BASED ON THE SNELL-DESCARTES LAW OF REFRACTION, CONSIDERING THE EARTH CURVATURE. THE PROGRAM REQUIRES A COMPILER FOR THE INTERACTIVE DATA LANGUAGE (IDL). DESCRIPTION AND VALIDATION DETAILS HAVE BEEN PUBLISHED IN THE PEER-REVIEWED SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE, AS FOLLOWS: Campos E. 2012. Estimating weather radar coverage over complex terrain, pp.26-32, peer reviewed, in Weather Radar and Hydrology, edited by Moore RJ, Cole SJ and Illingworth AJ. International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) Press, IAHS Publ. 351. ISBN 978-1-907161-26-1.« less

  20. Beam Propagator for Weather Radars, Modules 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega, Edwin Campos

    2013-10-08

    This program simulates the beam propagation of weather radar pulses under particular and realistic atmospheric conditions (without using the assumption of standard refraction conditions). It consists of two modules: radiosondings_refract_index_many.pro (MAIN MODULE) beam_propagation_function.pro(EXTERNAL FUNCTION) FOR THE MAIN MODULE, THE CODE DOES OUTPUT--INTO A FILE--THE BEAM HEIGHT AS A FUNCTION OF RANGE. THE RADIOSONDE INPUT FILES SHOULD BE ALREADY AVAILABLE BY THE USER. FOR EXAMPLE, RADIOSONDE OBSERVATION FILES CAN BE OBTAINED AT: RADIOSONDE OBSERVATIONS DOWNLOADED AT "http://weather.uwyo.edu/upperair/soounding.html" OR "http://jervis.pyr.ec.gc.ca" THE EXTERNAL FUNCTION DOES THE ACTUAL COMPUTATION OF BEAM PROPAGATION. IT INCLUDES CONDITIONS OF ANOMALOUS PROPAGATION AND NEGATIVE ELEVATION ANGLES. THE EQUATIONS USED HERE WERE DERIVED BY EDWIN CAMPOS, BASED ON THE SNELL-DESCARTES LAW OF REFRACTION, CONSIDERING THE EARTH CURVATURE. THE PROGRAM REQUIRES A COMPILER FOR THE INTERACTIVE DATA LANGUAGE (IDL). DESCRIPTION AND VALIDATION DETAILS HAVE BEEN PUBLISHED IN THE PEER-REVIEWED SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE, AS FOLLOWS: Campos E. 2012. Estimating weather radar coverage over complex terrain, pp.26-32, peer reviewed, in Weather Radar and Hydrology, edited by Moore RJ, Cole SJ and Illingworth AJ. International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) Press, IAHS Publ. 351. ISBN 978-1-907161-26-1.

  1. Observaciones de la corona solar interior con un coronógrafo de espejo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenborg, G.; Schwenn, R.; Francile, C.; Rovira, M.

    El plasma de la corona solar es un buen indicador de las líneas de fuerza del campo magnético. Por lo tanto, el análisis de estructuras coronales cuasiestacionarias en la corona da importante información sobre el campo magnético y la actividad asociada. Se trata de poner límites a los modelos teóricos existentes mediante el estudio de distintas estructuras en la corona interior. En agosto de 1997 comenzó a operar el coronógrafo solar (MICA) en El Leoncito como parte del Observatorio Solar Alemán-Argentino. Desde su instalación obtiene imágenes de la corona solar (1.05 a 2.0 radios solares) en 2 líneas espectrales correspondientes a la emisión de Fe XIV y Fe X. El instrumento puede obtener imágenes cada minuto por lo que es ideal para estudiar procesos rápidos. Presentamos observaciones recientes que muestran la capacidad del coronógrafo así como la evolución de algunos eventos dinámicos observados por MICA.

  2. Evaluation of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of water samples from the Sinos River Basin, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, E; Goldoni, A; Trintinaglia, L; Lessing, G; Silva, C E M; Nascimento, C A; Ziulkoski, A L; Spilki, F R; Silva, L B

    2015-05-01

    Some water bodies in the Sinos River Basin (SRB) have been suffering the effects of pollution by residential, industrial and agroindustrial wastewater. The presence of cytotoxic and genotoxic compounds could compromise the water quality and the balance of these ecosystems. In this context, the research aimed to evaluate the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of the water at four sites along the SRB (in the cities of Santo Antônio da Patrulha, Parobé, Campo Bom and Esteio), using bioassays in fish and cell culture. Samples of surface water were collected and evaluated in vitro using the Astyanax jacuhiensis fish species (micronucleus test and comet assay) and the Vero lineage of cells (comet assay and cytotoxicity tests, neutral red - NR and tetrazolium MTT). The micronucleus test in fish showed no significant differences between the sampling sites, and neither did the comet assay and the MTT and NR tests in Vero cells. The comet assay showed an increase in genetic damage in the fish exposed to water samples collected in the middle and lower sections of the basin (Parobé, Campo Bom and Esteio) when compared to the upper section of the basin (Santo Antônio da Patrulha). The results indicate contamination by genotoxic substances starting in the middle section of the SRB. PMID:26270216

  3. Calyptraeotheres sp. nov. (Crustacea: Decapoda: Pinnotheridae), symbiont of the slipper shell Crepidula striolata Menke, 1851 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Calyptraeidae) from the Gulf of California, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ayón-Parente, Manuel; Hendrickx, Michel E

    2014-01-01

    Calyptraeotheres camposi sp. nov. is described from the Gulf of California, Mexico. The new species is close to C. granti (Glassell, 1933) and C. pepeluisi Campos & Hernández-Ávila, 2010 from the Mexican Pacific and to C. hernandezi Hernández-Ávila & Campos 2006 from the Western Atlantic. These four species feature a third maxilliped with a 2-segmented endopod palp and the exopod with unsegmented flagellum. Calyptraeotheres camposi sp. nov. differs from C. granti and C. hernandezi by having the eyes visible in dorsal view, the carapace with arcuate anterolateral margins, the dorsal, longitudinal depressions connected with the transversal depression, and the propodus of pereiopod 2 equal or slightly longer than the carpus. From C. pepeluisi it is distinguished by the absence of a transversal depression on the carapace and the longitudinal depressions not connecting, the carpus and propodus of the third maxilliped being sub-trapezoidal and sub-conical, respectively, in lieu of subrectangular, and the inner surface of the fixed finger nude instead of bearing short setae near the cutting edge and ventral margin. PMID:25544074

  4. Modelo semi-empírico de protuberancia solar a partir del diagnóstico de densidades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirigliano, D.; Vial, J. C.; Rovira, M.

    A partir de la observación del espectro del quintuplete de C III alrededor de 1175 Å, se ha realizado el diagnóstico de la densidad y presión electrónica, basado en el cálculo del cociente de las intensidades observadas. Una vez establecida la densidad electrónica, y con el cálculo de las velocidades Doppler, hemos investigado el flujo de masa en la protuberancia en función de la temperatura. Estableciendo como hipótesis la conservación del número de partículas que ingresan y salen del cuerpo de la protuberancia, se investiga la variación del área de un tubo de flujo semi-empírico en función de la temperatura. A partir de dicho diagnóstico, se examina el comportamiento del radio del tubo magnético en función de la temperatura, los que dan cuenta de la abertura de las líneas de campo magnético que confinan el plasma y de la divergencia del campo magnético en diferentes alturas de la atmósfera solar.

  5. Petrobras pushing edge of deepwater frontier

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-22

    This paper reports on Brazil's Petroleos Brasileiro SA which continues to extend subsea technology, especially in the deepwater Campos basin. Recent technological advancements described are: an extensive deepwater production technology capability program covering more than 100 research projects in collaboration with dozens of domestic and international entities; the first guidelineless deepwater wet christmas trees in the Campos basin, part of Marlim's early production system; a special purpose deepwater template manifold; a multiplexed subsea control and monitoring system for working in more than 1,000 m of water; a joint venture of Fluor Ocean Services International and Sweden's GVA to develop basic design for a tension leg platform capable of working in 1,000 m of water and producing 100,000 b/d of oil and about 70 MMcfd of gas; a hyperbaric pressure simulation chamber capable of simulating pressure equal to that in 1,000 m of water; and advances in tools and basic equipment for remote operated vehicles (ROVs).

  6. Effect of metal cation replacement on the electronic structure of metalorganic halide perovskites: Replacement of lead with alkaline-earth metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazoki, Meysam; Jacobsson, T. Jesper; Hagfeldt, Anders; Boschloo, Gerrit; Edvinsson, Tomas

    2016-04-01

    Organic and inorganic lead halogen perovskites, and in particular, C H3N H3Pb I3 , have during the last years emerged as a class of highly efficient solar cell materials. Herein we introduce metalorganic halogen perovskite materials for energy-relevant applications based on alkaline-earth metals. Based on the classical notion of Goldschmidt's rules and quantum mechanical considerations, the three alkaline-earth metals, Ca, Sr, and Ba, are shown to be able to exchange lead in the perovskite structure. The three alkaline-earth perovskites, C H3N H3Ca I3,C H3N H3Sr I3 , and C H3N H3Ba I3 , as well as the reference compound, C H3N H3Pb I3 , are in this paper investigated with density functional theory (DFT) calculations, which predict these compounds to exist as stable perovskite materials, and their electronic properties are explored. A detailed analysis of the projected molecular orbital density of states and electronic band structure from DFT calculations were used for interpretation of the band-gap variations in these materials and for estimation of the effective masses of the electrons and holes. Neglecting spin-orbit effects, the band gap of MACa I3,MASr I3 , and MABa I3 were estimated to be 2.95, 3.6, and 3.3 eV, respectively, showing the relative change expected for metal cation exchange. The shifts in the conduction band (CB) edges for the alkaline-earth perovskites were quantified using scalar relativistic DFT calculations and tight-binding analysis, and were compared to the situation in the more extensively studied lead halide perovskite, C H3N H3Pb I3 , where the change in the work function of the metal is the single most important factor in tuning the CB edge and band gap. The results show that alkaline-earth-based organometallic perovskites will not work as an efficient light absorber in photovoltaic applications but instead could be applicable as charge-selective contact materials. The rather high CB edge and the wide band gap together with the large

  7. EFFECT OF MOBILITY ON PERFORMANCE OF WIRELESS AD-HOC NETWORK PROTOCOLS.

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, C. L.; Drozda, M.; Marathe, M. V.; Marathe, A.

    2001-01-01

    We empirically study the effect of mobility on the performance of protocols designed for wireless adhoc networks. An important ohjective is to study the interaction of the Routing and MAC layer protocols under different mobility parameters. We use three basic mobility models: grid mobility model, random waypoint model, and exponential correlated random model. The performance of protocols was measured in terms of (i) latency, (ii) throughput, (iii) number of packels received, (iv) long term fairness and (v) number of control packets at the MAC layer level. Three different commonly studied routing protocols were used: AODV, DSR and LAR1. Similarly three well known MAC protocols were used: MACA, 802.1 1 and CSMA. The inair1 conclusion of our study include the following: 1. 'I'he performance of the: network varies widely with varying mobility models, packet injection rates and speeds; and can ba in fact characterized as fair to poor depending on the specific situation. Nevertheless, in general, it appears that the combination of AODV and 802.1 I is far better than other combination of routing and MAC protocols. 2. MAC layer protocols interact with routing layer protocols. This concept which is formalized using statistics implies that in general it is not meaningful to speak about a MAC or a routing protocol in isolation. Such an interaction leads to trade-offs between the amount of control packets generated by each layer. More interestingly, the results wise the possibility of improving the performance of a particular MAC layer protocol by using a cleverly designed routing protocol or vice-versa. 3. Routing prolocols with distributed knowledge about routes are more suitable for networks with mobility. This is seen by comparing the performance of AODV with DSR or LAR scheme 1. In DSli and IAR scheme 1, information about a computed path is being stored in the route query control packct. 4. MAC layer protocols have varying performance with varying mobility models. It is

  8. Toward a new tectonic model for the Late Proterozoic Araçuaí (SE Brazil)-West Congolian (SW Africa) Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrosa-Soares, A. C.; Noce, C. M.; Vidal, Ph; Monteiro, R. L. B. P.; Leonardos, O. H.

    1992-08-01

    The Araçuaí Belt is a Late Proterozoic (Brasiliano Cycle) geotectonic unit which was developed along the southeastern margin of the São Francisco Craton (SE Brazil) and was formerly considered as being an ensialic orogen. It is correlated with the Pan-African West Congolian Belt (SW Africa) in many reports. In the western domain of the belt, the Macaúbas Group—the most important supracrustal sequence related to the evolution of the Araçuaí Belt —comprises the Terra Branca and Carbonita Formations, which consist of littoral glacial sediments to shelf turbidites. These formations grade upward and eastward to the Salinas Formation, consisting of distal turbidites related to submarine fans, pelagic sediments, and a rock association (the Ribeirão da Folha Facies) typical of an ocean-floor environment. Banded iron formations, metacherts, diopsidites, massive sulfides, graphite schists, hyperaluminous schists, and ortho-amphibolites, intercalated with quartz-mica schists and impure quartzites, characterize the most distinctive and restricted volcano-sedimentary facies yet found within the Salinas Formation. Ultramafic slabs were tectonically emplaced within the Ribeirão da Folha Facies. Eight whole rock samples of meta-ultramafic rocks and ortho-amphibolites yielded a SmNd isochronic age of 793 ± 90 Ma ( ɛNd(T) = +4.1 ± 0.6. MSWD = 1.76 ). The structures of the northern Araçuaí Belt are marked by a doen-dip stretching lineation (western domain) related to frontal thrusts which controlled tectonic transport from east to west; stretching lineation rakes decrease in the eastern tectonic domain, indicating dominant oblique to transcurrent motion; the northern arch of the belt is characterized by major high-dip transcurrent shear zones. Our tectonic model starts with marked fracturing, followed by rifting that took place in the São Francisco-Congo Craton around 1000 ± 100 Ma (ages of basic intrusions and alkaline anorogenic granites). A sinistral transfer

  9. Ionospheric Slab Thickness at the Equatorial Anomaly Region after the Deep Solar Minimum of Cycle 23/24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte Silva, M. H.; Muella, M.; Silva, L. C. C.; de Abreu, A. J.; Fagundes, P. R.

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports the first results of equivalent ionospheric slab thickness estimated in the Brazilian longitudinal sector. The ionospheric slab thickness is a measure of the shape of the ionospheric profile and can be obtained from the ratio of total electron content (TEC) to the F-region peak electron density (NmF2). In this study the ionospheric slab thickness was obtained during one year of extremely low solar activity (March 2009 to February 2010). The period analyzed were separated in three seasonal groups: equinoxes, June solstice (winter) and December solstice (summer) months. The ionospheric slab thickness was studied at two stations located around the southern crest of the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA). One station located in the inner edge of the anomaly region, named Palmas (10.12º S, 48.21º O, 7.73º S dip lat), and another station located under the crest of the anomaly, situated at São José dos Campos (23.07º S, 45.52º O, 19.61º S dip lat). The TEC data have been obtained from dual-frequency GPS receivers and the NmF2 data were calculated from the f0F2 parameter scaled from ionograms recorded by simultaneous measurements of digital ionosondes. The diurnal, seasonal and latitudinal variations of the ionospheric slab thickness were then analyzed. The minimum values of TEC and NmF2 were observed in both stations during the early morning, and the maximum values during afternoon hours. During the summer and equinoctial periods the slab thickness reached the higher values compared to those observed during the winter solstice months. The nearly equatorial site of Palmas showed values of daytime slab thickness larger than those observed at the low latitude station of São José dos Campos, except during the June solstice months. At São José dos Campos, a pronounced pre-dusk increase in the equivalent slab thickness was observed during the winter solstice months. From the calculated slab thickness we also inferred the atmospheric neutral

  10. Ionospheric slab thickness at the equatorial anomaly region after the deep solar minimum of cycle 23/24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte-Silva, Marcelo H.; Muella, Marcio T. A. H.; Silva, Lidianne C. C.; de Abreu, Alessandro J.; Fagundes, Paulo R.

    2015-11-01

    The ionospheric slab thickness is a measure of the shape of the ionospheric profile and can be obtained from the ratio of total electron content (TEC) to the F-region peak electron density (NmF2). In this study the ionospheric slab thickness was obtained during one year of extremely low solar activity (from March 2009 to February 2010). The period analyzed were separated in three seasonal groups: equinoxes, June solstice (winter) and December solstice (summer) months. The ionospheric slab thickness was studied at two stations located around the southern crest of the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA). One station located in the inner edge of the anomaly region, named Palmas (10.12° S, 48.21° O, 7.73° S dip lat), and another station located under the southern crest of the anomaly, situated at São José dos Campos (23.07° S, 45.52° O, 19.61° S dip lat). The TEC data have been obtained from dual-frequency Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers and the NmF2 data were calculated from the foF2 parameter scaled from ionograms recorded by simultaneous measurements of digital ionosondes. The diurnal and seasonal variations of the ionospheric slab thickness at the EIA region were then analyzed. The minimum values of TEC and NmF2 were observed in both stations during the early morning, and the maximum values during afternoon hours. During the summer and equinoctial periods the slab thickness reached their highest values. The nearly equatorial site of Palmas showed values of daytime slab thickness larger than those observed at the low latitude station of São José dos Campos, except during the June solstice months. At São José dos Campos, a pronounced pre-dusk increase in the equivalent slab thickness was observed during the winter solstice months. The atmospheric neutral temperature (Tn) was also estimated from the correlation analysis between the MSIS modeled Tn and the calculated ionospheric slab thickness over the two observations sites. Other

  11. Ionospheric Slab Thickness in the East Sector of South-America During One year of Low Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Marcelo Henrique Duarte; Muella, Marcio; Silva, Lidianne C. C.; De Abreu, Alessandro

    This paper reports the first results of equivalent ionospheric slab thickness estimated in the Brazilian longitudinal sector. The ionospheric slab thickness is a measure of the shape of the ionospheric profile and can be obtained from the ratio of the total electron content (TEC) to the F-region peak electron density (NmF2). The ionospheric slab thickness was studied during one year of low solar activity (from March 2009 to February 2010). The period analyzed were separated in three seasonal groups; Equinoxes, June solstice (winter) and December solstice (summer) months. The ionospheric slab thickness was studied at the equatorial station of Palmas (10.12 S, 48.21 W, 7.73 S dip lat) and in the low latitude station of Sao Jose dos Campos (23.07 S, 45.52 W, 19.61 S dip lat). The TEC data have been obtained from dual-frequency GPS receivers and the NmF2 data were calculated from the foF2 parameter scaled from ionograms recorded by simultaneous measurements of digital ionosondes. The minimum values of TEC and NmF2 were observed in both stations during the early morning and the maximum values during afternoon hours. The diurnal, seasonal and latitudinal variations of the ionopheric slab thickness were then analyzed. The thickness of the ionosphere increased during daytime if compared to the nighttime values. During the summer and the equinoctial periods the slab thickness reached the higher values if compared to those observed during the winter solstice months. The equatorial site of Palmas showed values of daytime slab thickness larger than those observed at the low-latitude station of Sao Jose dos Campos, except during the June solstice months. At Sao Jose dos Campos, a pronounced pre-dusk increase in the equivalent slab thickness is observed during the winter solstice months. From the calculated slab thickness we also estimated the atmospheric neutral temperature (Tn) over both stations. Other relevant aspects of the ionospheric slab thickness’ behavior will be

  12. Brazilian environmental legislation and scenarios for carbon balance in Areas of Permanent Preservation (APP) in dairy livestock regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hott, M. C.; Fonseca, L. D.; Andrade, R. G.

    2011-12-01

    The present study aimed at mapping some categories of Areas of Permanent Preservation (APP) for natural regeneration of semideciduous forests in the regions of Zona da Mata and Campo das Vertentes, Minas Gerais State (Figure 1), and from this to establish what impact the deployment of APP over area of pastures and subsequently milk production and carbon sequestration, considering areas of pasture as one of major factors for the dairy farming in the regions concerned. From the altimetric information from MDE, it was possible to extract morphological and morphometrical data to estimate the areas of APP. We used imagery of MODIS/Terra for extraction of the pastures areas from the vegetation index data NDVI to intersect with the estimated area of APP. In a linear or deterministic scenario of deployment of APPs over in the pasture areas considering that wich are proportionately responsible for sizing the herd, and thus for the milk production in extensive livestock, despite the existence of numerous other factors, there would be an impact 12% in the production of Campo das Vertentes region and 21.5% for the Zona da Mata. In this scenario, according to the carbon balance of forests and livestock, there would be a positive balance with the deployment of areas of permanent preservation and, subsequent promotion of natural regeneration. Considering the current grazing area of the Zona da Mata and Campo das Vertentes, 1.6 million hectares, with the carbon balance estimated at 1 ton/hectare/year, 300,000 hectares would have a balance of 5 ton/hectare/year in whole cycle of 40 years, totaling 200 tons carbon by hectare, or additional 48 million tons fixed, considering 4 tons more than pastures in the case of semideciduous forest. At the end of the cycle or forest climax, there would still be positive carbon balance, estimated as a balance of 2 ton/hectare/year. However, despite the higher carbon balance for the semideciduous forest, compared to livestock, it is important to

  13. On ambiente de binárias de pequena massa em formação: o caso do glóbulo cometário CG30 e IRAS08076-3556

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickel, G. R.; Vilas-Boas, J. W. S.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho, combinamos observações de polarização linear no óptico (banda R), dados no infravermelho distante (IRAS) e observações de transições moleculares em radiofreqüências (CO e espécies isotópicas, HCN e HCO+) para analisar o glóbulo cometário (GC) CG30 (na região da IRAS Vela Shell), que apresenta objetos Herbig-Haro e ejeções de matéria, além de uma fonte pontual IRAS em seu interior. Os objetivos deste estudo são: determinar a eficiência de formação estelar nos glóbulos cometários, através da relação entre a massa total do GC e da massa das estrelas em formação; determinar como o campo magnético influencia na formação de estrelas no interior destes objetos; e analisar as modificações que ejeções de matéria de estrelas em formação causam no gás e no campo magnético dos GCs. Combinando nossos dados com trabalhos já publicados, mostramos que CG30 tem uma eficiência de formação estelar em torno de 3%; que o campo magnético é importante na manutenção da estrutura global do GC e demonstra sinais de torção e compressão; e que a ejeção bipolar de matéria das estrelas do par formam uma ejeção quadripolar, a qual influencia na densidade e temperatura do gás e no grau de polarização dos grãos de poeira associados ao gás do GC.

  14. An outbreak of Oropouche virus diease in the vicinity of santarem, para, barzil.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, F P; Travassos da Rosa, A P; Travassos da Rosa, J F; Bensabath, G

    1976-06-01

    An epidemic of human febrile illness caused by Oropouche virus was studied in the village of Mojui dos Campos, Pará State, in February 1975. The major clinical symptoms, fever, chills, headache, myalgia, arthralgia and dizziness persisted for 2 to 7 days. Leukopenia was commonly observed. Some patients were severely ill but no deaths were attributed to the disease. Recurrence of symptoms was reported in several people. 55 cases of recent infection were diagnosed in Mojuí dos Campos between February and April. In the same period 26 cases were recorded from the Palhal area, near to Mojuí. Two additional cases were observed, one in the small settlement of Terra Preta and the other in the town of Santarém, which are 12 and 20 km from Mojuí, respectively. Of the 83 infections, 65 were proven by virus isolation from the blood of patients and 18 by the demonstration of an increasing antibody level to the agent. Both sexes of the population were infected in equal proportions. Most patients were below 20 years of age. In the village of Mojuí dos Campos with a population of about 2,900, 45 (40,1%) out of 112 students aged 4 to 18, had HI antibodies to the virus when examined late in February. The epidemic, however, only declined after the middle of March. Two isolations of Oropouche virus were obtained from some 15,000 Culicoides inoculated into mice. About 4,000 Culicoides and all the 9,420 mosquitoes captured during the outbreak remain to be inoculated. Over 95% of the Culicoides were C. paraensis. Only 1 rodent of the genus Proechimys had HI antibodies to Oropouche virus out of the 602 wild and domestic mammals captured in the area. All 5 reptiles examined were negative. 34 (4.9%) out of the 681 wild birds and 12 (5.8%) out of the 206 domestic birds examined were positive for the presence of HI antibodies to the agent. PMID:941251

  15. Open-field host specificity test of Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent of tropical soda apple (Solanaceae) in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Gandolfo, D.; McKay, F.; Medal, J.C.; Cuda, J.P.

    2007-03-15

    An open-field experiment was conducted to assess the suitability of the South American leaf feeding beetle Gratiana boliviana Spaeth for biological control of Solanum viarum Dunal in the USA. An open-field test with eggplant, Solanum melongena L., was conducted on the campus of the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina, and a S. viarum control plot was established 40 km from the campus. One hundred adult beetles were released in each plot at the beginning of the experiment during the vegetative stage of the plants, and forty additional beetles were released in the S. melongena plot at the flowering stage. All the plants in each plot were checked twice a week and the number of adults, immatures, and eggs recorded. Results showed almost a complete rejection of eggplant by G. boliviana. No noticeable feeding damage was ever recorded on eggplant. The experiment was ended when the eggplants started to senesce or were severely damaged by whiteflies and spider mites. The results of this open-field experiment corroborate previous quarantine/laboratory host-specificity tests indicating that a host range expansion of G. boliviana to include eggplant is highly unlikely. Gratiana boliviana was approved for field release in May 2003 in the USA. To date, no non-target effects have been observed either on eggplant or native species of Solanum. (author) [Spanish] Una prueba de campo fue conducida para evaluar la especificidad del escarabajo suramericano defoliador Gratiana boliviana Spaeth para control biologico de Solanum viarum Dunal en los Estados Unidos. La prueba con berenjena se realizo en el campo experimental de la Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina, y una parcela control con S. viarum fue establecida a 40 km. Cien escarabajos adultos fueron liberados en cada parcela al inicio del experimento durante la fase vegetativa, y cuarenta escarabajos adicionales fueron liberados en la parcela de berenjena durante la floracion. Todas las plantas en cada parcela fueron

  16. UV-B optical thickness observations of the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.; Silva, A. A.; Costa, C. A.; Leme, N. Paes; PavãO, H. G.; Zaratti, F.

    2001-02-01

    The optical thickness of the atmosphere, τ, was deduced from measurements of narrowband direct solar UV-B radiation. A measurement campaign was organized to obtain the radiation at three different sites, during the month of August 1999, using the same methods and instruments, in order to deduce the atmospheric optical thickness in the spectral UV-B range (280-320 nm). The three observation sites were chosen to cover a wide range of measurement conditions; located near the tropical Atlantic Ocean (Natal, 5.8°S, 35.2°W), on the Andes mountains (La Paz, 16.5°S, 68.1°W), and in the biomass burning area of central Brazil (Campo Grande, 19.2°S, 54.3°W). The UV-B measurements were made with a Brewer spectrophotometer at each site. Since the instrument measures atmospheric ozone and SO2 simultaneously, it is possible, from the total atmospheric optical thickness τ, to deduce the aerosol optical thickness τaerosol. The results have been combined in different ways to compare with satellite data, showing good performance. Time variations as short as about 10 min can be seen. On clear days the time variations are relatively small, as expected. On the other hand, for the biomass burning site, for conditions of mixed air masses (the instrument is not looking directly at plumes) one can see very large variations in τ in relatively short time intervals, for example, for one case, from 3.5 to 7.0 in about 30 min. Absolute values for τ at Natal and La Paz were near 2.0 and at Campo Grande, between 2.5 and 3.0, but with occasional highs of about 4.5. For τaerosol, Natal and La Paz had values between 0.0 and 0.4, whereas Campo Grande had most values near 0.4, with occasional highs near 1.0, 1.2, and 2.2.

  17. Monitoring of perfluoroalkyl substances in the Ebro and Guadalquivir River basins (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzo, Maria; Campo, Julian; Andreu, Vicente; Pico, Yolanda; Farre, Marinella; Barcelo, Damia

    2015-04-01

    Relevant concentrations of a broad range of pollutants have been found in Spanish Mediterranean River basins, as consequence of anthropogenic pressures and overexploitation (Campo et al., 2014). In this study, the occurrence and sources of 21 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were determined in water and sediment of the Ebro and Guadalquivir River basins (Spain). PFASs are persistent, bio-accumulative and toxic, which make them a hazard to human health and wildlife. The Ebro and Guadalquivir Rivers are the two most important rivers of Spain. They are representative examples of Mediterranean rivers heavily managed, and previous researches have reported their high pesticide contamination (Masiá et al., 2013). Analytes were extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE) and determined by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS). In water samples, from 21 analytes screened, 11 were found in Ebro samples and 9 in Guadalquivir ones. In both basins, the most frequents were PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxS and PFOS. Maximum concentration was detected for PFBA, with 251.3 ng L-1 in Ebro and 742.9 ng L-1 in Guadalquivir. Regarding the sediment samples, 8 PFASs were detected in those coming from Ebro basin and 9 in those from Guadalquivir. The PFASs most frequently detected were PFBA, PFPeA, PFOS and PFBS. Maximum concentration in Ebro samples was detected for PFOA, with 32.4 ng g-1 dw, and in Guadalquivir samples for PFBA with 63.8 ng g-1 dw. Ubiquity of these compounds in the environment was proved with high PFAS concentration values detected in upper parts of the rivers. Results confirm that most of the PFASs are only partially eliminated during the secondary treatment suggesting that they can be a focal point of contamination to the rivers where they can bio-accumulate and produce adverse effects on wildlife and humans. Acknowledgment The Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness has supported this work through the projects SCARCE-CSD2009-00065, CGL2011

  18. Industry decries sharp decline in U. S. offshore activity

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-11

    Roadblocks to offshore activity in the U.S. drew much of the spotlight at the 24th Offshore Technology Conference last week in Houston. Among OTC highlights included in this paper are: Two panels reviewed how federal leasing moratoriums and regulatory restrictions are reining U.S. offshore development. Conoco Inc.'s manager of exploration and development in Russia detailed the allure of giant and supergiant fields in the Commonwealth of Independent States and reviewed the status of the company's efforts to negotiate E and D deals with Russian partners. Minerals Management Service officials reviewed environmental challenges facing operators on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf and new MMS inspection strategies in the Gulf of Mexico. The 1992 OTC Distinguished Achievement Award for companies went to Brazil's Petroleo Brasileiro SA for deepwater development records set with the 3 Marlim well in the Campos basin off Brazil.

  19. Petrobras experience on early production systems

    SciTech Connect

    Aramando, S.

    1983-05-01

    Beginning in 1974, PETROBRAS oil production was declining in spite of the significant growth of reserves due to the discovery of oil offshore in the Campos Basin. A project using platforms will require from four to eight years and require a large capital investment. The Early Production Systems were utilized to reduce the time for initial production from the Basin, better define the conditions of the reservoir, improve the cash flow, and acquire a more complete knowledge of maritime operations. The first system was installed in 1977 and today there are ten operating, two others are being installed and eight more are in the planning stage. This paper includes PETROBRAS' accomplishments and presents its plans for the future.

  20. Evaluation of modeling as a tool to determine the potential impacts related to drilling wastes in the Brazilian offshore.

    PubMed

    Pivel, María Alejandra Gómez; Dal Sasso Freitas, Carla Maria

    2010-08-01

    Numerical models that predict the fate of drilling discharges at sea constitute a valuable tool for both the oil industry and regulatory agencies. In order to provide reliable estimates, models must be validated through the comparison of predictions with field or laboratory observations. In this paper, we used the Offshore Operators Committee Model to simulate the discharges from two wells drilled at Campos Basin, offshore SE Brazil, and compared the results with field observations obtained 3 months after drilling. The comparison showed that the model provided reasonable predictions, considering that data about currents were reconstructed and theoretical data were used to characterize the classes of solids. The model proved to be a valuable tool to determine the degree of potential impact associated to drilling activities. However, since the accuracy of the model is directly dependent on the quality of input data, different possible scenarios should be considered when used for forecast modeling. PMID:20532618

  1. Quality control method to measure predator evasion in wild and mass-reared Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrichs, M.; Wornoayporn, V.; Hendrichs, J.

    2007-03-15

    Sterile male insects, mass-reared and released as part of sterile insect technique (SIT) programs, must survive long enough in the field to mature sexually and compete effectively with wild males for wild females. An often reported problem in Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) SIT programs is that numbers of released sterile males decrease rapidly in the field for various reasons, including losses to different types of predators. This is a serious issue in view that most operational programs release sterile flies at an age when they are still immature. Previous field and field-cage tests have confirmed that flies of laboratory strains are less able to evade predators than wild flies. Such tests involve, however, considerable manipulation and observation of predators and are therefore not suitable for routine measurements of predator evasion. Here we describe a simple quality control method with aspirators to measure agility in medflies and show that this parameter is related to the capacity of flies to evade predators. Although further standardization of the test is necessary to allow more accurate inter-strain comparisons, results confirm the relevance of measuring predator evasion in mass-reared medfly strains. Besides being a measure of this sterile male quality parameter, the described method could be used for the systematic selection of strains with a higher capacity for predator evasion. (author) [Spanish] Insectos machos esteriles criados en forma masiva para ser liberados en programas que utilizan la tecnica del insecto esteril (TIE), tienen que tener la capacidad de sobrevivir en el campo el tiempo necesario para poder madurar sexualmente y competir efectivamente con los machos silvestres por hembras silvestres. Un problema frecuentemente reportado por dichos programas de la mosca del Mediterraneo, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), es que el numero de machos esteriles de laboratorio liberados en el campo, decrecen rapidamente por

  2. [Social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) diversity in a cerrado vegetation in Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    de M Santos, Gilberto M; da Cruz, Jucelho D; Marques, Oton M; Gobbi, Nivar

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the social wasps species diversity in a cerrado vegetation at the west region of the State of Bahia. Nineteen species of social wasps were found, with Chartergus globiventris de Saussure, Chartergellus communis Richards and Metapolybia cingulata (Fabricius) being recorded for the first time for the State of Bahia. The arboreous cerrado showed a higher species richness (S=19) and diversity (H'=2.33) than the agroecossistems (farms) (S=8; H'=1,84). However, nest abundance was higher at the agroecossystems (N=107 nests) than at the arboreous cerrado (N=87 nests). The physiognomy of 'cerrado campo sujo' showed the lowest abundance of social wasps colonies (N=61 nests) and intermediate values of species richness (S=13) and diversity (H'=2.20). PMID:19618045

  3. Coptotermes gestroi (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in Brazil: possible origins inferred by mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Martins, C; Fontes, L R; Bueno, O C; Martins, V G

    2010-09-01

    The Asian subterranean termite, Coptotermes gestroi, originally from northeast India through Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, and the Indonesian archipelago, is a major termite pest introduced in several countries around the world, including Brazil. We sequenced the mitochondrial COII gene from individuals representing 23 populations. Phylogenetic analysis of COII gene sequences from this and other studies resulted in two main groups: (1) populations of Cleveland (USA) and four populations of Malaysia and (2) populations of Brazil, four populations of Malaysia, and one population from each of Thailand, Puerto Rico, and Key West (USA). Three new localities are reported here, considerably enlarging the distribution of C. gestroi in Brazil: Campo Grande (state of Mato Grosso do Sul), Itajaí (state of Santa Catarina), and Porto Alegre (state of Rio Grande do Sul). PMID:20924414

  4. Potential assessed in Argentina's association contract areas

    SciTech Connect

    Pucci, J.C. , Buenos Aires )

    1994-06-20

    The majority of the Austral basin fields discovered are mainly associated with structural and combination traps. Except for El Condor, La Sara, and San Sebastian fields, most of the oil reserves of limited size. This is due to several factors: small areal extent (5--50 sq km), variability of the Springhill thickness which frequently wedges out over the top of structures, facies changes and related complex reservoir distributions, and lack of hydrocarbons. Until 1985, all the commercial discoveries have been made in the area of the platform mostly in the Springhill reservoir and to a lesser extent on top of the volcanic Bahia Laura group (equivalent Lemaire or Tobifera formations). However, the Tertiary discoveries in Campo Boleadoras and Puesto Peter fields opened a zone, named Intermediate'' by YPF's geologists, located to the west of the known producing areas. In this zone, the lower member of the Magallanes group has yielded production. Reservoir characteristics are discussed.

  5. Intelligent system for start-up of a petroleum offshore platform.

    PubMed

    Campos, M C; Satuf, E; de Mesquita, M

    2001-01-01

    It is difficult to control and to manage the start-up of a petroleum offshore platform. In order to solve this problem an intelligent system can play an important role, since available qualitative operator and design knowledge can be easily implemented to assist the operator during start-up. This paper describes the integration of an expert system with a fuzzy controller applied to such a process. The intelligent system has many heuristic rules to implement the automation of the start-up procedures, like the opening of many on-off valves while simultaneously monitoring process variables. It also has a fuzzy controller to optimize the opening of the oil wells, in order to minimize the start-up time. This intelligent system is being implemented in the platform P-19 of Petrobras, the Brazilian oil company, in Campos Basin, Brazil. The prototype has been operating since October 1998. PMID:11515945

  6. "Meetings on the work": an analysis device for understanding the articulation between outsourcing and other organizational innovations.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Denise; Figueiredo, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss professional education and training programs offered to teams of operators by the main company in the area of Bacia de Campos (Petrobras), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It also discusses the necessary skills to the new functions derived from the implementation of an organizational innovation, the polyvalence, and how such innovation has impacted operators' activity. By using elements of WEA and the device "Meetings on the Work" it was possible to gain a better understanding of both the distance between the dimensions of prescribed work and real work, and the articulation between outsourcing and the proposition of polyvalence, which have stimulated the creation of new functions, namely, the polyvalent operator and the operator-maintainer, this latter being in fact an evolvement of the first. PMID:22317427

  7. A new species of Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) from the Quiriri mountain range of southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Luiz F.

    2015-01-01

    A new miniaturized toadled of the genus Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) is described from Serra do Quiriri in the municipality of Campo Alegre, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Specimens were collected from the leaf litter between from 1,263 and 1,318 m above sea level. The new species is distinguished from all its congeners by the combination of the following characters: snout–vent length 9.9–13.1 mm; skin on head and dorsum without dermal co-ossification; snout mucronate in dorsal view; dorsum rugose; general color brown, with a narrow orange vertebral stripe. The region where the new species is located is also shared with other endemic anuran species and has experienced strong anthropogenic impacts,suggesting that immediate actions should be taken to ensure their long-term preservation. PMID:26339556

  8. First installation of an electrical submersible pump in a subsea well

    SciTech Connect

    Mendonca, J.E.; Hodge, R.C.; Izetti, R.; Nicholson, A.; Dwiggins, J.L.; Morrison, D.; Cia, M.; Alfano, P.P.

    1995-12-31

    As offshore oil fields are being developed towards deeper and deeper waters, new technologies are required to curb capital expenditures. In Brazil, where oil consumption is increasing and huge oil fields lie in high water depths, the issue is particularly pressing. Earlier and higher oil production from those oil fields could be attained by the use of Electrical Submersible Pumps (ESP), so far restricted to dry completions. Also longer distances from well to platform would be made practical. For the initial phase of this development, Petrobras worked together with Tronic, Reda, Pirelli, Lasalle, Sade-Vigesa and Cooper. As a result, first-in-the-world ESP installation in a subsea well has been successfully achieved on October/1994 in RJS-221, located at Carapeba Field, Campos Basin, Brazil.

  9. Effect of Diethylaminoethyl Dextran on the Growth of Mycoplasma in Agar

    PubMed Central

    Tauraso, Nicola M.

    1967-01-01

    The growth of certain strains of Mycoplasma is inhibited by substances present in commercial agar preparations. The addition of diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) dextran (10 mg per 100 ml) to agar media appears to enhance the growth of some strains. Of eight strains initially tested, the presence of DEAE dextran grossly enhanced the growth of three strains. One strain appeared not to be affected, and a clearly enhancing effect was not evident with four strains. Quantitative studies revealed that growth enhancement varied from 10 colony-forming units (CFU) for M. hominis type II (strain Campo) to 103.3 CFU for M. pulmonis (strain 880). The growth-enhancing effect is probably due to the ability of DEAE dextran to bind the sulfated polysaccharide moieties in agar and not to the DEAE dextran, per se. Images PMID:6025444

  10. Pulkovo cooperation of optical observers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molotov, I.; Abalakin, V. K.; Titenko, V.; , Pozanenko A.; Dorokhova, T. N.; Guseva, I.; Ibragimov, M.; Sukhov, P. P.; Rozales, R.; Mukhamednazarov, S.; Gulyamov, M.; Lupishko, D.; Kiladze, R.; Sochilina, A.; Marshalkina, A.; Khutorovskiy, Z.; Arkharov, A. A.; Korniyenko, G.; Yerofeyeva, A.

    2005-01-01

    Under the new organization is the cooperation of optical observatory space debris, asteroids and gamma-ray bursts. Currently, with the cooperation of the Pulkovo optical observers (PulKON) collaborate 14 points in Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Italy, Spain and Bolivia. Regular observations are in Pulkovo, Ussuriisk, Nauchnom, Mayaki and Chuguev. Test observations commenced or will commence in 2005 in Campo Imperatore, Tarija, Maidanak Abastumani Dushak, Kislovodsk and Hissar. For two grants (Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation and INTAS) in step 8 is planned to purchase modern CCDs for re telescopes operating at target indications PulKON and the Centre for collecting and processing information on Space Debris at IPM of Keldysh RAS.

  11. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Molina Villaverde, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    El cáncer es un problema sanitario de primera magnitud a escala mundial. Su tratamiento es uno de los mayores campos de innovación y desarrollo en medicina. La visión del cáncer como una enfermedad sistémica, heterogénea y de una elevada complejidad hace que los enfermos deban recibir una atención oncológica de calidad, proporcionada por equipos multidisciplinares altamente cualificados. Además de la gran incidencia de malnutrición en estos pacientes, la intervención nutricional precoz puede mejorar su pronóstico, aumentar la calidad de vida y disminuir la tasa de complicaciones de la enfermedad. Por ello, es necesaria una estrecha colaboración entre el oncólogo y el experto en nutrición. PMID:27269214

  12. PubMed

    Litewka, Sergio G

    2010-11-01

    Argentina ha sido un campo fértil para los intentos de reforma del sector salud, en la búsqueda por mejorar la calidad de sus servicios y, consecuentemente, la accesibilidad y la equidad del mismo. Los resultados obtenidos no han sido proporcionales a los esfuerzos desarrollados. Aunque la bioética debería, como forma de reflexión interdisciplinaria, participar en la fundamentación de nuevas políticas sanitarias y sus efectos sobre los usuarios, parece haber permanecido ajena, en general, a los graves problemas derivados de la corrupción, prefiriendo enfocarse en cuestiones vinculadas a planteos abstractos de justicia y solidaridad, atribuyendo los fracasos a la imposición de modelos económicos foráneos. PMID:21660255

  13. Multi-locus DNA sequencing of Toxoplasma gondii isolated from Brazilian pigs identifies genetically divergent strains

    PubMed Central

    Frazão-Teixeira, E.; Sundar, N.; Dubey, J. P.; Grigg, M. E.; de Oliveira, F. C. R.

    2010-01-01

    Five Toxoplasma gondii isolates (TgPgBr1–5) were isolated from hearts and brains of pigs freshly purchased at the market of Campos dos Goytacazes, Northern Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Four of the five isolates were highly pathogenic in mice. Four genotypes were identified. Multi-locus PCR-DNA sequencing showed that each strain possessed a unique combination of archetypal and novel alleles not previously described in South America. The data suggest that different strains circulate in pigs destined for human consumption from those previously isolated from cats and chickens in Brazil. Further, multi-locus PCR-RFLP analyses failed to accurately genotype the Brazilian isolates due to the high presence of atypical alleles. This is the first report of multi-locus DNA sequencing of T. gondii isolates in pigs from Brazil. PMID:21051148

  14. Use of LANDSAT images to study cerrado vegetation. [Mato Grosso Sul, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Filho, P. H.

    1982-01-01

    Channel 5 and 7 LANDSAT imagery at the scale of 1:250,000 made during passes in the dry and rainy seasons were used to select the optimal season for cerrado characterization in Mato Grosso do Sul State. The study area is located around the cities of Campo Grande and Tres Lagoas, a region being used for reforestation and rangeland activities. Imagery acquired during the dry season permitted a good discrimination between "cerrado" (woodsy pasture) vegetation and reforestation. In relation to the altered areas, only the recently modified area presented good discrimination of cerrado vegetation. Imagery of the rainy season did not provide a reasonable separation between cerrado and reforestation areas but the altered area could be easily discriminated.

  15. Major new foreign exploration plays during 1983-1987

    SciTech Connect

    Emmet, P.A.; Hedberg, J.D.; McIver, N.U.; Tyrrell, W.W. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    About 30 billion bbl of recoverable oil have been found in new foreign plays during the last 5 years; significant gas reserves also were found. Most of the foreign oil discoveries are in Mesozoic sandstone reservoirs onshore, but Marlim, the largest single field with estimated reserves of 2.5 billion bbl, is located offshore in the deep-water part of the Campos basin, Brazil. Approximately 8-10 billion bbl of oil were found in South America, 6 billion in the Near East, 5 billion in western Europe, 5 billion in Africa, 2 billion in Asia (outside the USSR), and 0.5-0.7 billion in Australasia. Some of the giant discoveries include: Cano Limo, Colombia (1983); Alif, North Yemen, and Draugen, Norway (1984); Marlim, Brazil, and Heidrun, Norway (1985); El Furrial, Venezuela (1986); and Musipan-1, Venezuela (1987). Most of these and several smaller discoveries are in new plays or trends.

  16. [The archeology of slavery on Jesuit fazendas: first research notes].

    PubMed

    Symanski, Luís Cláudio P; Gomes, Flávio

    2012-12-01

    These preliminary research notes present theoretical and methodological questions regarding a recently inaugurated investigation in historical archeology that intends to analyze daily life under slavery, demographic regimes, cultural practices, and so on. A survey of archeological sites on former 'senzalas' (slave quarters) and slave-owning fazendas in the Paraíba Valley and northern part of the state of Rio de Janeiro is currently in progress. With the cooperation of historians, archeologists, and anthropologists, records of the material culture of slave populations, which originally comprised indigenes and later Africans, are being located at excavations underway on the fazenda that is part of the Jesuit school in Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro, first run by the clergy and later by members of the laity in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. PMID:23370111

  17. Hyperdeformed states in 36Ar and 48Cr in the cranked cluster model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rae, W. D. M.; Merchant, A. C.

    1992-04-01

    The pure harmonic oscillator model predicts a family of axially symmetric hyperdeformed states with 3:1 major to minor axis ratios. Two members of this family have previously been identified in 12C and 24Mg within the Bloch-Brink alpha-cluster model. Here we present cranked cluster model calculations for similar hyperdeformed states in 36Ar and 48Cr. We suggest that the configuration in 48Cr is associated with resonances observed in 24Mg+24Mg scattering, while that in 36Ar may be involved in the excitation of the 12C+12C barrier resonances reported recently in the 12C(24Mg, 12C, 12C)12C reaction and also in the excitation of those resonances previously observed in the 20Ne+16O reaction. Permanent address: Instituto de Estudos Avançados, Centro Técnico Aeroespacial, 12225 Sa~o José dos Campos, Sa~o Paulo, Brazil.

  18. Analysis of tert-butyldimethylsilyl derivatives in heavy gas oil from Brazilian naphthenic acids by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with electron impact ionization.

    PubMed

    Vaz de Campos, Maria Cecília; Oliveira, Eniz Conceição; Filho, Pedro José Sanches; Piatnicki, Clarisse Maria Sartori; Caramão, Elina Bastos

    2006-02-10

    Naphthenic acids, C(n)H(2n+Z)O(2), are a complex mixture of alkyl-substituted acyclic and cycle-aliphatic carboxylic acids. The content of naphthenic acids and their derivatives in crude oils is very small, which hinders their extraction from matrixes of wide and varied composition. In this work, liquid-liquid extraction, followed by solid phase extraction with an ion exchange resin (Amberlyst A-27) and ultrasound desorption were used to isolate the acid fraction from heavy gas oil of Marlim petroleum (Campos, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). The analysis was accomplished through gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with electron impact ionization, after derivatization with N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)trifluoracetamide (MTBDMSTFA). The results indicate the presence of carboxylic acids belonging to families of alicyclic and naphthenic compounds which contain up to four rings in the molecule. PMID:16439253

  19. Searching for monooxygenases and hydrolases in bacteria from an extreme environment.

    PubMed

    da Cruz, Georgiana F; Angolini, Célio F F; de Oliveira, Luciana G; Lopes, Patrícia F; de Vasconcellos, Suzan P; Crespim, Elaine; de Oliveira, Valéria M; dos Santos Neto, Eugênio V; Marsaioli, Anita J

    2010-06-01

    Microbial oxidation potentials of extremophiles recovered from Pampo Sul oil field, Campos Basin, Brazil, in pure culture or in consortia, were investigated using high-throughput screening (HTS) and multibioreactions. Camphor (1), cis-jasmone (2), 2-methyl-cyclohexanone (3), 1,2-epoxyoctane (4), phenylethyl acetate (5), phenylethyl propionate (6), and phenylethyl octanoate (7) were used to perform multibioreaction assays. Eighty-two bacterial isolates were recovered from oil and formation water samples and those presenting outstanding activities in HTS assays were identified by sequencing their 16S rRNA genes. These results revealed that most microorganisms belonged to the genus Bacillus and presented alcohol dehydrogenase, monooxygenase, epoxide hydrolase, esterase, and lipase activities. PMID:20204614

  20. The Italian and Vatican Experience to Digitize the Astronomical Photographic Archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbieri, C.; Blanco, C.; Bucciarelli, B.; di Paola, A.; Lanteri, L.; Li Causi, G.; Marilli, E.; Massimino, P.; Mottola, S.; Nesci, R.; Omizzolo, A.; Laudi, L. M.; Rampazzi, F.; Rossi, C.; Stagni, R.; Tsvetkov, M. K.; Viotti, R.

    2006-04-01

    A great amount of highly valuable information is stored in the photographic archives of many Italian Observatories and in the Specola Vaticana, with approximately 70.000 plates dating from the end of the XIX Century until 1998. This paper presents a large-scale project to digitize these archives of plates. Identical systems, composed by a commercial flat-bed retro-illuminated scanner plus a dedicated personal computer and acquisition software, have been installed in all participating Institutes, namely Padova-Asiago, Rome University, Rome Monte Porzio, Torino, Catania. In addition to the process of digitization, the overall project aims to a precise inventory of the still useable material and its storage in appropriate conditioned rooms, to the digitization of all the logbooks, to the provision of high quality BVRI CCD sequences in selected fields with the Campo Imperatore telescopes, and finally to the distribution of the digitized information to all interested researchers via the international Web.

  1. A molecular phylogeny recovers Strabomantis aramunha Cassimiro, Verdade and Rodrigues, 2008 and Haddadus binotatus (Spix, 1824) (Anura: Terrarana) as sister taxa.

    PubMed

    Amaro, Renata C; Nunes, Ivan; Canedo, Clarissa; Napoli, Marcelo F; Juncá, Flora A; Verdade, Vanessa K; Haddad, Célio F B; Rodrigues, Miguel T

    2013-01-01

    The taxonomic and biogeographic affinities of Strabomantis aramunha from the Campos Rupestres of Brazil are intriguing. A unique skull morphology of females suggest affinities with the broad-headed eleutherodactylines of Northwestern South America in the genus Strabomantis. Male and juvenile morphology nonetheless suggest S. aramunha could be related to members of the recently described genus Haddadus from eastern Brazil. We assess the affinities of S. aramunha using molecular phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial (12S, tRNAval, 16S, cyt b) and nuclear sequences (RAG-1and rhodopsin). Bayesian inference, likelihood, and parsimony analysis recover a highly supported clade with S. aramunha and H. binotatus as sister taxa. Accordingly, we transfer S. aramunha to Haddadus, and provide a new generic definition of the later. The distribution of species in Haddadus (highlands of the Espinhaço mountain Range and coastal eastern Brazil) is now concordant with the general pattern observed for other species in the area. PMID:25113007

  2. A new species of Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) from the Quiriri mountain range of southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pie, Marcio R; Ribeiro, Luiz F

    2015-01-01

    A new miniaturized toadled of the genus Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) is described from Serra do Quiriri in the municipality of Campo Alegre, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Specimens were collected from the leaf litter between from 1,263 and 1,318 m above sea level. The new species is distinguished from all its congeners by the combination of the following characters: snout-vent length 9.9-13.1 mm; skin on head and dorsum without dermal co-ossification; snout mucronate in dorsal view; dorsum rugose; general color brown, with a narrow orange vertebral stripe. The region where the new species is located is also shared with other endemic anuran species and has experienced strong anthropogenic impacts,suggesting that immediate actions should be taken to ensure their long-term preservation. PMID:26339556

  3. Dinámica global en galaxias elípticas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, M. J.; Cincotta, P. M.; Giordano, C. M.

    Con el propósito de determinar propiedades dinámicas globales en sistemas triaxiales no integrables, utilizamos una nueva herramienta conocida como ``Mean Exponential Growth factor of Nearby Orbits'' (MEGNO), introducida por Cincotta y Simó (2000). Esta técnica no sólo resulta eficiente para investigar ambas componentes del espacio fase, regular y caótica, sino que también, provee una medida de la hiperbolicidad en el dominio caótico que coincide con la dada por el Lyapunov Characteristic Number (LCN). Previamente este método ha sido aplicado al estudio de modelos simples, y últimamente en el campo de la Mecánica Celeste, al estudio de sistemas planetarios extrasolares. En esta presentación, ilustraremos algunas de las propiedades más importantes del MEGNO, aplic& acute;andolo al potencial tridimensional de Stäckel perturbado.

  4. Protection induced by a commercial bivalent vaccine against Foot-and-Mouth Disease 2010 field virus from Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Duque, Hernando; Naranjo, Jose; Carrillo, Consuelo; Burbano, Alexandra; Vargas, Javier; Pauszek, Lisa; Olesen, Ian; Sanchez-Vazquez, Manuel J; Cosivi, Ottorino; Allende, Rossana M

    2016-07-29

    Foot-and-Mouth Disease serotype O circulated endemically in Ecuador for many years, with an upsurge occurring in 2009. This manuscript describes retrospectively in vitro and in vivo laboratory studies to predict the field effectiveness of a commercial FMD vaccine to protect against the field strain, and explains the key actions and epidemiological strategies followed by the country to control the disease. The results established that the use of a good quality oil vaccine, manufactured with strains that were isolated long ago: O1 Campos Br/58 and A24 Cruzeiro Br/55; combined with the correct epidemiological strategies, are useful to control field strains when used in periodic biannual vaccination campaigns. PMID:27395565

  5. QUALITY, HEALTH SYSTEM AND GOVERNANCE. THE ARGENTINEAN CASE

    PubMed Central

    Litewka, Sergio G.

    2011-01-01

    Argentina ha sido un campo fértil para los intentos de reforma del sector salud, en la búsqueda por mejorar la calidad de sus servicios y, consecuentemente, la accesibilidad y la equidad del mismo. Los resultados obtenidos no han sido proporcionales a los esfuerzos desarrollados. Aunque la bioética debería, como forma de reflexión interdisciplinaria, participar en la fundamentación de nuevas políticas sanitarias y sus efectos sobre los usuarios, parece haber permanecido ajena, en general, a los graves problemas derivados de la corrupción, prefiriendo enfocarse en cuestiones vinculadas a planteos abstractos de justicia y solidaridad, atribuyendo los fracasos a la imposición de modelos económicos foráneos. PMID:21660255

  6. /bar p/p collider physics

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.

    1989-03-01

    This note encompasses a set of six lectures given at the summer school held at Campos Do Jordao in January of 1989 near Sao Paulo, Brazil. The intent of the lectures was to describe the physics of /bar p/p at CERN and Fermilab. Particular attention has been paid to making a self contained presentation to a prospective audience of graduate students. Since large Monte Carlo codes might not be available to all members of this audience, great reliance was placed on ''back of the envelope estimates.'' Emphasis was also placed on experimental data rather than theoretical speculation, since predictions for, for example, supersymmetric particle production are easily obtained by transcription of formulae already obtained. 9 refs., 67 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Field technique of permeability tests in highly fissured limestone strata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Salihi, Adnan; Asaad, Abdulah

    2002-05-01

    Résumé.L'étude de dispositifs de dénoyage est nécessaire pour l'amélioration de sites avant la construction de certaines structures. L'étude de dispositifs de dénoyage efficaces exige d'estimer la valeur du coefficient de perméabilité in situ. Les relations disponibles pour estimer le coefficient de perméabilité ont été développées sur la base de mesures et de conditions de terrain limitées, et les prédictions varient de plusieurs ordres de grandeur. C'est pourquoi il est nécessaire de réaliser des mesures de perméabilité sur le terrain et de déterminer la relation qui permet le meilleur ajustement de ces mesures avant l'étude du dispositif de dénoyage pour des conditions locales et géologiques spécifiques. Ce papier présente des mesures de perméabilité sur le terrain dans des niveaux calcaires complexes chaotiques et diagénétisés. Il propose également une analyse comparative de plusieurs relations disponibles dans la littérature destinées à prédire le coefficient de perméabilité in situ. L'analyse est faite en conditions permanentes et non permanentes. Les résultats montrent que la valeur du coefficient de perméabilité dépend du niveau de la nappe, qui est affecté par le régime de marées. On montre que l'équation de l'US Navy donne la meilleure corrélation avec les mesures de terrain. Resumen.El diseño de sistemas de desecado es necesario para mejorar las condiciones de un emplazamiento antes de la construcción de determinadas estructuras. El diseño de un sistema eficiente de desecado requiere de la estimación del valor de la permeabilidad in-situ. Las relaciones disponibles para tal fin han sido desarrolladas bajo condiciones y medidas de campo limitadas; sus predicciones varían en algunos órdenes de magnitud. Por tanto, es necesario tomar medidas de permeabilidad en campo y determinar la relación que reproduce mejor dichas medidas como paso previo al diseño de un sistema de desecado en condiciones geol

  8. Zoobotryon verticillatum Della Chiaje, 1822 (Bryozoa), a new occurrence in the archipelago of the Azores (North-Eastern Atlantic).

    PubMed

    Amat, Jaen Nieto; Tempera, Fernando

    2009-05-01

    The new occurrence of the bryozoan Zoobotryon verticillatum Della Chiaje, 1822 is herein recorded in multiple places throughout Azores archipelago. Where introduced, this species has caused important ecological and economical damage and therefore is regarded as invasive. In the Azores, no detrimental effects have yet been noted. The species is so far restricted to marinas (Horta, Faial Island; Vila Franca do Campo, São Miguel Island) and a natural coastal pool located near a secondary harbour (Lajes do Pico, Pico Island). A total of 29 colonies were counted during a specific survey conducted in August 2008 in the marina of Horta. The distribution of the species throughout the eastern and central island groups denotes a wide dispersion area and offers control or eradication measures a low probability of success together with the lack of harbour management practices that could effectively prevent the arrival, settlement and dispersal of non-native species transported by human-assisted means. PMID:19303606

  9. Calibração do sistema imageador do telescópio MASCO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejía, J.; D'Amico, F.; Villela, T.; Braga, J.

    2003-08-01

    O MASCO (MÁScara COdificada) é um telescópio imageador de raios-X e gama atualmente configurado para operar na faixa de 50 a 600 keV com uma resolução angular de 14 minutos de arco num campo de visada total circular de 23,5° de diâmetro. O MASCO está totalmente operacional e deverá ser lançado em um balão estratosférico no segundo semestre de 2003 para realizar observações durante ~20 horas a ~40 km de altitude. O telescópio utiliza uma máscara codificada de padrão uniformemente redundante modificado (MURA) de dimensões 19 ´ 19. Esse padrão pertence a uma subclasse de MURAs que apresenta anti-simetria de 90° e conseqüentemente permite a utilização da técnica de subtração de variações sistemáticas de ruído de fundo através de utilização da configuração anti-máscara, obtida com uma simples rotação da máscara. Neste trabalho apresentamos resultados de calibrações em laboratório que tiveram como objetivo testar o sistema imageador. Imagens de fontes radioativas foram obtidas com o telescópio em configuração de vôo, com a máscara girando. Serão discutidos os resultados desses testes e as técnicas desenvolvidas para eliminar ambigüidades de posição de fontes, otimização da relação sinal-ruído e observação de fontes fora do campo totalmente codificado. O sistema de máscara/antimáscara mostrou-se capaz de aumentar a relação sinal-ruído de ~60% para fontes intensas (100 s). Com a máscara girando, a técnica de reconstrução de imagens desenvolvida identificou a posição exata da fonte e não introduziu perda de sensibilidade. Imagens de uma fonte colocada a 8,3° - fora do campo totalmente codificado do telescópio -, mostraram uma diminuição de ~40% na relação sinal/ruído em relação ao centro do campo de visada, o que se deve à codificação incompleta pela máscara e à absorção parcial do fluxo pelos detectores de blindagem.

  10. The TAOS Project: Upper Bounds on the Population of Small Kuiper Belt Objects and Tests of Models of Formation and Evolution of the Outer Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, F. B.; Zhang, Z.-W.; Lehner, M. J.; Mondal, S.; King, S.-K.; Giammarco, J.; Holman, M. J.; Coehlo, N. K.; Wang, J.-H.; Alcock, C.; Axelrod, T.; Byun, Y.-I.; Chen, W. P.; Cook, K. H.; Dave, R.; de Pater, I.; Kim, D.-W.; Lee, T.; Lin, H.-C.; Lissauer, J. J.; Marshall, S. L.; Protopapas, P.; Rice, J. A.; Schwamb, M. E.; Wang, S.-Y.; Wen, C.-Y.

    2010-04-01

    We have analyzed the first 3.75 years of data from the Taiwanese American Occultation Survey (TAOS). TAOS monitors bright stars to search for occultations by Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs). This data set comprises 5 × 105 star hours of multi-telescope photometric data taken at 4 or 5 Hz. No events consistent with KBO occultations were found in this data set. We compute the number of events expected for the Kuiper Belt formation and evolution models of Pan & Sari, Kenyon & Bromley, Benavidez & Campo Bagatin, and Fraser. A comparison with the upper limits we derive from our data constrains the parameter space of these models. This is the first detailed comparison of models of the KBO size distribution with data from an occultation survey. Our results suggest that the KBO population is composed of objects with low internal strength and that planetary migration played a role in the shaping of the size distribution.

  11. THE TAOS PROJECT: UPPER BOUNDS ON THE POPULATION OF SMALL KUIPER BELT OBJECTS AND TESTS OF MODELS OF FORMATION AND EVOLUTION OF THE OUTER SOLAR SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Bianco, F. B.; Zhang, Z.-W.; King, S.-K.; Wang, J.-H.; Lee, T.; Lin, H.-C.; Lehner, M. J.; Mondal, S.; Giammarco, J.; Holman, M. J.; Alcock, C.; Coehlo, N. K.; Axelrod, T.; Byun, Y.-I.; Kim, D.-W.; Chen, W. P.; Cook, K. H.; Dave, R.; De Pater, I.; Lissauer, J. J.

    2010-04-15

    We have analyzed the first 3.75 years of data from the Taiwanese American Occultation Survey (TAOS). TAOS monitors bright stars to search for occultations by Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs). This data set comprises 5 x 10{sup 5} star hours of multi-telescope photometric data taken at 4 or 5 Hz. No events consistent with KBO occultations were found in this data set. We compute the number of events expected for the Kuiper Belt formation and evolution models of Pan and Sari, Kenyon and Bromley, Benavidez and Campo Bagatin, and Fraser. A comparison with the upper limits we derive from our data constrains the parameter space of these models. This is the first detailed comparison of models of the KBO size distribution with data from an occultation survey. Our results suggest that the KBO population is composed of objects with low internal strength and that planetary migration played a role in the shaping of the size distribution.

  12. Captura de galaxias enanas en cúmulos de galaxias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassino, L. P.; Muzzio, J. C.; Pérez, J.

    Se investiga el proceso de captura de galaxias enanas por parte de galaxias gigantes, en presencia de un campo externo causado por materia distribuída y otras galaxias pertenecientes al cúmulo en que se produce el fenómeno. Se trabaja mediante simulaciones numéricas, generando condiciones iniciales típicas de cúmulos de galaxias y representando, con un espectro de masas, a las galaxias más masivas y, como partículas de prueba, a las enanas. Se sigue la evolución del sistema empleando un código de integración de N-cuerpos y se analizan los resultados para determinar las capturas de galaxias enanas.

  13. Astronomía Mocoví

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, A.; Giménez Benitez, S.; Fernández, L.

    El presente trabajo, es una revisión crítica de la astronomía en la cultura Mocoví, aportando a lo realizado previamente por Lehmann Nistche (Lehmann Nistche, 1924 y 1927) el resultado de nuestro trabajo de campo. Un mayor conocimiento de las cosmovisiones de las etnias de esta área es fundamental para una mejor comprensión de la dispersión de las ideas cosmológicas entre los pueblos aborígenes americanos, dada la importancia del corredor chaqueño como conexión entre las altas culturas andinas, la mesopotamia y la región pampeana (Susnik, 1972). Para ello se realiza una comparación con otras cosmovisiones del área americana. Nuestro aporte se enmarca dentro de las actuales líneas de trabajo mundialmente en desarrollo en Astronomía en la Cultura.

  14. Evaluation of the genotoxicity/mutagenicity and antigenotoxicity/antimutagenicity induced by propolis and Baccharis dracunculifolia, by in vitro study with HTC cells.

    PubMed

    Roberto, Matheus Mantuanelli; Matsumoto, Sílvia Tamie; Jamal, Cláudia Masrouah; Malaspina, Osmar; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2016-06-01

    The ethanolic extract of propolis, especially the Brazilian green type, is widely and mainly used for therapeutic purposes despite the lack of knowledge about its effects and its cellular mode of action. This type of propolis, derived from Baccharis dracunculifolia (alecrim-do-campo), has been extensively commercialized and the consumers use it to enhance health. This work aimed to assess the genotoxic/mutagenic and antigenotoxic/antimutagenic potentials of the ethanolic extracts of Brazilian green propolis and of B. dracunculifolia, on mammalian cells. It was not observed genotoxic and mutagenic effects by both extracts. After evaluate the exposure of the cells to each extract with a recognized mutagen, simultaneously, the results showed a significant reduction on DNA damage. The experiment carried out with a pre-incubation period was more effective than without incubation test, showing that the tested extracts were able to inactivate the mutagen before it could react with the DNA. PMID:26891814

  15. Antiulcerogenic Activity of the Hydroalcoholic Extract of Leaves of Croton campestris A. St.-Hill in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Júnior, Francisco E. B.; de Oliveira, Dayanne R.; Bento, Elizângela B.; Leite, Laura H. I.; Souza, Daniele O.; Siebra, Ana Luiza A.; Sampaio, Renata S.; Martins, Anita O. P. B.; Ramos, Andreza G. B.; Tintino, Saulo R.; Lacerda-Neto, Luiz J.; Figueiredo, Patricia R. L.; Oliveira, Larissa R.; Rodrigues, Cristina K. S.; Sales, Valterlúcio S.; Figueiredo, Francisco R. S. D. N.; Nascimento, Emmily P.; Monteiro, Alefe B.; Amaro, Érika N.; Costa, José G. M.; Douglas Melo Coutinho, Henrique; de Menezes, Irwin R. A.; Kerntopf, Marta R.

    2013-01-01

    Croton campestris A. St.-Hill., popularly known as “velame do campo,” is a species native to the savannah area of Northeast Brazil, which is used by traditional communities in folk medicine for variety of health problems, especially detoxification, inflammation, and gastritis. The hydroalcoholic extract of C. campestris leaves (HELCC) was assessed for its antiulcerogenic effect in gastric lesion models and effect on intestinal motility in mice, and possible mechanisms of action were examined. HELCC showed significant gastroprotective action in all models of gastric ulcer evaluated; the results suggest that this action probably involves the nitric oxide pathway. HELCC did not show alteration of intestinal motility in mice. It was also found that C. campestris represents a promising natural source with important biological potential, justifying some of its uses in folk medicine. PMID:23864894

  16. A competitive neural network approach for meteorological situation clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turias, Ignacio J.; González, Francisco J.; Martín, M. a. Luz; Galindo, Pedro L.

    A complete competitive scheme is proposed in this work in order to perform a classification analysis of meteorological data in the 'Campo de Gibraltar' region (in the South of Spain) from 1999 to 2002. The main objectives of the study presented here have been the characterization of the meteorological conditions in the area, using a competitive neural network based on Kohonen learning rule. Standard Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and VARIMAX rotation have allowed interpreting the physical meaning of the classes obtained from the competitive scheme. Quantitative (using three quality indices) and qualitative (from the analysis of the data projection) criteria based on Fisher Discriminant Analysis were introduced to verify the results of the clustering. A randomized procedure is developed to assure the best performance of the models and to select the best model in the experiments. The different experiments developed extracted five classes, which were related to typical meteorological conditions in the area.

  17. "The physician as poet" review of: Pereira, Peter Saying the World

    PubMed Central

    Weishaus, Joel

    2006-01-01

    Peter Pereira is a family physician and a poet. I weave excerpts from Dr. Pereira's poems into a brief history of medicine's mythological and historical roots, beginning with the Egyptian god Thoth, and the Greek physician Hippocrates. Along the way, I touch on the European Middle Ages and the Islamic World. Finally, I quote poet-critic T.S. Eliot, who was an early influence on Dr. Pereira's decision to become a poet, and contemporary physician-poets Rafael Campo and William Carlos Williams. I end by placing Dr. Pereira, whose practice is oriented toward immigrant families, in his indigenous Pacific Northwest, arguing that being both physician and poet helps Pereira to live in a world that is both intimately human and naturally impersonal.

  18. Memories of Astronomy Education in Brazil: Clippings from the Discourses of Interviewed Researchers on the Subject. (Spanish Title: Memorias de la Educación en Astronomía en Brasil: Recortes de los Discursos de Investigadores Entrevistados Acerca del Tema ) Memórias da Educação em Astronomia no Brasil: Recortes a Partir das Falas de Pesquisadores Entrevistados sobre o Tema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iachel, Gustavo; Nardi, Roberto

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a historical retrospective concerning data from a research in Astronomy Education in Brazil, after 1973. It was organized on the basis of the speech analysis of national researchers considered references in this field by their peers. Furthermore, it was elaborated on the basis of other studies from the areas of Science Education, Physics and Astronomy. This historical overview was developed in order to facilitate understanding of the contexts in which the interviewed researchers have developed professionally. Moreover, we attempted to recover the memory of the growing field of research in Astronomy Education in the country. We believe that the history presented can help those trying to understand the past in an attempt to resolve current and future demands. Se presenta en este artículo una retrospectiva histórica referente a datos provenientes de la investigación en enseñanza de la astronomía en el Brasil, después de 1973, organizada sobre la base del análisis de los discursos de los investigadores nacionales considerados referencias en este campo, y también en la lectura de las publicaciones en las áreas de Enseñanza de las Ciencias, Física y Astronomía. Este repaso histórico se desarrolló con el fin de facilitar la comprensión de los contextos en los que los investigadores entrevistados se han desarrollado profesionalmente. Por otra parte, se intentó recuperar la memoria del creciente campo de la investigación en Educación en Astronomía en el país. Creemos que el relato presentado puede contribuir a quien trata de comprender el pasado, en un intento de resolver las demandas actuales y futuras. Relata-se neste artigo uma retrospectiva histórica referente a dados provenientes de pesquisa em Educação em Astronomia no país, pós 1973, organizada com base na análise das falas de pesquisadores considerados referências nacionais nesse campo, como também na leitura de publicações das áreas de ensino de Ciências, F

  19. The utilization of orbital images as an adequate form of control of preserved areas. [Araguaia National Park, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Dossantos, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    The synoptic view and the repetitive acquisition of LANDSAT imagery provide precise information, in real-time, for monitoring preserved areas based on spectral, temporal and spatial properties. The purpose of this study was to monitor, with the use of multispectral imagery, the systematic annual burning, which causes the degradation of ecosystems in the National Park of Araguaia. LANDSAT imagery of channel 5 (0.6 a 0.7 microns) and 7 (0.8 a 1.1 microns), at the scale of 1:250.000, were used to identify and delimit vegetation units and burned area, based on photointerpretation parameter of tonality. The results show that the gallery forest can be discriminated from the seasonally flooded 'campo cerrado', and that 4,14% of the study area was burned. Conclusions point out that the LANDSAT images can be used for the implementation of environmental protection in national parks.

  20. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Wiman, W.D.

    1987-10-01

    Exploration activity in South America, Central America, the Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1986 was considerably reduced compared to 1985. Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, and Venezuela had increased oil production, with Colombia showing a dramatic 71% increase attributed mainly to bringing on-stream the pipeline connecting Occidental-Shell-Ecopetrol's Cano Limon complex to the port of Covenas. Significant discoveries were reported from Argentina in the Olmedo, Oran, and San Jorge basins; Brazil in the offshore Campos and Amazon basins; Colombia in the Llanos basin; Ecuador in the Oriente basin; Mexico in the Bay of Campeche; Peru in the Ucayali basin; and Venezuela in the Eastern Venezuela basin. Eastern Venezuela's Furrial discovery is reported to have recoverable reserves of more than 1 million bbl of oil, and Shell's Ucayali basin discovery is reported to hold more than 7 tcf of gas. 7 figures, 10 tables.