Formal descriptions for formulation.
This, Hervé
2007-11-01
Two formalisms used to describe the physical microstructure and the organization of formulated products are given. The first, called "complex disperse systems formalism" (CDS formalism) is useful for the description of the physical nature of disperse matter. The second, called "non periodical organizational space formalism" (NPOS formalism) has the same operators as the CDS formalism, but different elements; it is useful to describe the arrangement of any objects in space. Both formalisms can be viewed as the same, applied to different orders of magnitude for spatial size. PMID:17875375
Formal Method of Description Supporting Portfolio Assessment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Morimoto, Yasuhiko; Ueno, Maomi; Kikukawa, Isao; Yokoyama, Setsuo; Miyadera, Youzou
2006-01-01
Teachers need to assess learner portfolios in the field of education. However, they need support in the process of designing and practicing what kind of portfolios are to be assessed. To solve the problem, a formal method of describing the relations between the lesson forms and portfolios that need to be collected and the relations between…
Advanced Tools and Techniques for Formal Techniques in Aerospace Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Knight, John C.
2005-01-01
This is the final technical report for grant number NAG-1-02101. The title of this grant was "Advanced Tools and Techniques for Formal Techniques In Aerospace Systems". The principal investigator on this grant was Dr. John C. Knight of the Computer Science Department, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904-4740. This report summarizes activities under the grant during the period 7/01/2002 to 9/30/2004. This report is organized as follows. In section 2, the technical background of the grant is summarized. Section 3 lists accomplishments and section 4 lists students funded under the grant. In section 5, we present a list of presentations given at various academic and research institutions about the research conducted. Finally, a list of publications generated under this grant is included in section 6.
Pinch technique and the Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Binosi, Daniele; Papavassiliou, Joannis
2002-07-01
In this paper we take the first step towards a nondiagrammatic formulation of the pinch technique. In particular we proceed into a systematic identification of the parts of the one-loop and two-loop Feynman diagrams that are exchanged during the pinching process in terms of unphysical ghost Green's functions; the latter appear in the standard Slavnov-Taylor identity satisfied by the tree-level and one-loop three-gluon vertex. This identification allows for the consistent generalization of the intrinsic pinch technique to two loops, through the collective treatment of entire sets of diagrams, instead of the laborious algebraic manipulation of individual graphs, and sets up the stage for the generalization of the method to all orders. We show that the task of comparing the effective Green's functions obtained by the pinch technique with those computed in the background field method Feynman gauge is significantly facilitated when employing the powerful quantization framework of Batalin and Vilkovisky. This formalism allows for the derivation of a set of useful nonlinear identities, which express the background field method Green's functions in terms of the conventional (quantum) ones and auxiliary Green's functions involving the background source and the gluonic antifield; these latter Green's functions are subsequently related by means of a Schwinger-Dyson type of equation to the ghost Green's functions appearing in the aforementioned Slavnov-Taylor identity.
Formal Techniques for Synchronized Fault-Tolerant Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
DiVito, Ben L.; Butler, Ricky W.
1992-01-01
We present the formal verification of synchronizing aspects of the Reliable Computing Platform (RCP), a fault-tolerant computing system for digital flight control applications. The RCP uses NMR-style redundancy to mask faults and internal majority voting to purge the effects of transient faults. The system design has been formally specified and verified using the EHDM verification system. Our formalization is based on an extended state machine model incorporating snapshots of local processors clocks.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kelly, John C.; Covington, Rick
1993-01-01
Recent experience with Formal Methods (FM) in the Software Quality Assurance Section at the Jet Propulsion Lab is presented. An integrated Formal Method process is presented to show how related existing requirements analysis and FM techniques complement one another. Example application of FM techniques such as formal specifications and specification animators are presented. The authors suggest that the quality assurance organization is a natural home for the Formal Methods specialist, whose expertise can then be used to best advantage across a range of projects.
Research in advanced formal theorem-proving techniques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rulifson, J. F.
1971-01-01
The present status is summarized of a continuing research program aimed at the design and implementation of a language for expressing problem-solving procedures in several areas of artificial intelligence, including program synthesis, robot planning, and theorem proving. Notations, concepts, and procedures common to the representation and solution of many of these problems were abstracted and incorporated as features into the language. The areas of research covered are described, and abstracts of six papers that contain extensive description and technical detail of the work are presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brat, Guillaume P.; Martinie, Celia; Palanque, Philippe
2013-01-01
During early phases of the development of an interactive system, future system properties are identified (through interaction with end users in the brainstorming and prototyping phase of the application, or by other stakehold-ers) imposing requirements on the final system. They can be specific to the application under development or generic to all applications such as usability principles. Instances of specific properties include visibility of the aircraft altitude, speed… in the cockpit and the continuous possibility of disengaging the autopilot in whatever state the aircraft is. Instances of generic properties include availability of undo (for undoable functions) and availability of a progression bar for functions lasting more than four seconds. While behavioral models of interactive systems using formal description techniques provide complete and unambiguous descriptions of states and state changes, it does not provide explicit representation of the absence or presence of properties. Assessing that the system that has been built is the right system remains a challenge usually met through extensive use and acceptance tests. By the explicit representation of properties and the availability of tools to support checking these properties, it becomes possible to provide developers with means for systematic exploration of the behavioral models and assessment of the presence or absence of these properties. This paper proposes the synergistic use two tools for checking both generic and specific properties of interactive applications: Petshop and Java PathFinder. Petshop is dedicated to the description of interactive system behavior. Java PathFinder is dedicated to the runtime verification of Java applications and as an extension dedicated to User Interfaces. This approach is exemplified on a safety critical application in the area of interactive cockpits for large civil aircrafts.
New modes of particle accelerations techniques and sources. Formal report
Parsa, Z.
1996-12-31
This Report includes copies of transparencies and notes from the presentations made at the Symposium on New Modes of Particle Accelerations - Techniques and Sources, August 19-23, 1996 at the Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara California, that was made available by the authors. Editing, reduction and changes to the authors contributions were made only to fulfill the printing and publication requirements. We would like to take this opportunity and thank the speakers for their informative presentations and for providing copies of their transparencies and notes for inclusion in this Report.
A description of seismic amplitude techniques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shadlow, James
2014-02-01
The acquisition of seismic data is a non-invasive technique used for determining the sub surface geology. Changes in lithology and fluid fill affect the seismic wavelet. Analysing seismic data for direct hydrocarbon indicators (DHIs), such as full stack amplitude anomalies, or amplitude variation with offset (AVO), can help a seismic interpreter relate the geophysical response to real geology and, more importantly, to distinguish the presence of hydrocarbons. Inversion is another commonly used technique that attempts to tie the seismic data back to the geology. Much has been written about these techniques, and attempting to gain an understanding on the theory and application of them by reading through various journals can be quite daunting. The purpose of this paper is to briefly outline DHI analysis, including full stack amplitude anomalies, AVO and inversion and show the relationship between all three. The equations presented have been included for completeness, but the reader can pass over the mathematical detail.
Pauli theorem in the description of n-dimensional spinors in the Clifford algebra formalism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shirokov, D. S.
2013-04-01
We discuss a generalized Pauli theorem and its possible applications for describing n-dimensional (Dirac, Weyl, Majorana, and Majorana-Weyl) spinors in the Clifford algebra formalism. We give the explicit form of elements that realize generalizations of Dirac, charge, and Majorana conjugations in the case of arbitrary space dimensions and signatures, using the notion of the Clifford algebra additional signature to describe conjugations. We show that the additional signature can take only certain values despite its dependence on the matrix representation
Unified Description of Electron-Nucleus Scattering within the Spectral Function Formalism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rocco, Noemi; Lovato, Alessandro; Benhar, Omar
2016-05-01
The formalism based on factorization and nuclear spectral functions has been generalized to treat transition matrix elements involving two-nucleon currents, whose contribution to the nuclear electromagnetic response in the transverse channel is known to be significant. We report the results of calculations of the inclusive electron-carbon cross section, showing that the inclusion of processes involving two-nucleon currents appreciably improves the agreement between theory and data in the dip region, between the quasielastic and Δ -production peaks. The relation to approaches based on the independent particle of the nucleus and the implications for the analysis of flux-integrated neutrino-nucleus cross sections are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Ashok; Kalauni, Pushpa
2016-06-01
We develop an operator description, much like thermofield dynamics, for quantum field theories on a real time path with an arbitrary parameter σ (0 ≤σ ≤β ) . We point out new features which arise when σ ≠β/2 in that the Hilbert space develops a natural, modified inner product different from the standard Dirac inner product. We construct the Bogoliubov transformation which connects the doubled vacuum state at zero temperature to the thermal vacuum in this case. We obtain the thermal Green's function (propagator) for the real massive Klein-Gordon theory as an expectation value in this thermal vacuum (with a modified inner product). The factorization of the thermal Green's function follows from this analysis. We also discuss, in the main text as well as in two appendices, various other interesting features which arise in such a description.
Innovative techniques for the description of reservoir heterogeneity using tracers
Pope, G.; Sepehrnoori, K.
1991-09-01
The objective of this research is to develop an advanced, innovative technique for the description of reservoir heterogeneity. This proposed method consists of using tracers in single-well backflow tests. The general idea is to make use of fluid drift in the reservoir either due to naturally occurring pressure gradients in the reservoir, or by deliberately imposed pressure gradients using adjacent injection and production wells in the same reservoir. The analytical tool that will be used to design and interpret these tests is a compositional reservoir simulator with special features added and tested specifically for this purpose. 2 refs., 5 figs.
Two approaches to plasma polarimetry: Angular variables technique and Stokes vector formalism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bieg, Bohdan; Chrzanowski, Janusz; Kravtsov, Yury A.; Murari, Andrea; Orsitto, Francesco
2013-08-01
The modern plasma polarimetry is based on Stokes vector formalism (SVF) suggested and developed in depth by Segre (see Ref. [1] and cited there references). Segre's equations describe evolution of the Stokes vector along the ray in the weakly inhomogeneous and weakly anisotropic plasma. Alternative approach - angular variables technique (AVT) - suggested by Czyż et al. [2] in distinction to SVF deals with angular parameters of the polarization ellipse. Equations for angular parameters drastically differ from the SVF equations; however, AVT and SVF equations happen to be equivalent to each other. This paper proves equivalence of the SVF and AVT and in the sometime reveals some practical distinctions between two approaches. Although all the results of SVF can be obtained in frame of the AVT and vice versa, in specific problems one of the methods can be more convenient. Generally, AVT may serve as a valuable compliment to traditional SVF, providing sometimes more simple an less laborious solution of polarimetric problems.
Diez-Tejedor, Alberto; Sudarsky, Daniel E-mail: sudarsky@nucleares.unam.mx
2012-07-01
Inflation plays a central role in our current understanding of the universe. According to the standard viewpoint, the homogeneous and isotropic mode of the inflaton field drove an early phase of nearly exponential expansion of the universe, while the quantum fluctuations (uncertainties) of the other modes gave rise to the seeds of cosmic structure. However, if we accept that the accelerated expansion led the universe into an essentially homogeneous and isotropic space-time, with the state of all the matter fields in their vacuum (except for the zero mode of the inflaton field), we can not escape the conclusion that the state of the universe as a whole would remain always homogeneous and isotropic. It was recently proposed in [A. Perez, H. Sahlmann and D. Sudarsky, {sup O}n the quantum origin of the seeds of cosmic structure{sup ,} Class. Quant. Grav. 23 (2006) 2317–2354] that a collapse (representing physics beyond the established paradigm, and presumably associated with a quantum-gravity effect à la Penrose) of the state function of the inflaton field might be the missing element, and thus would be responsible for the emergence of the primordial inhomogeneities. Here we will discuss a formalism that relies strongly on quantum field theory on curved space-times, and within which we can implement a detailed description of such a process. The picture that emerges clarifies many aspects of the problem, and is conceptually quite transparent. Nonetheless, we will find that the results lead us to argue that the resulting picture is not fully compatible with a purely geometric description of space-time.
Bayesian Minimum Description Length Techniques for Multiple Changepoint Detection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anuradha Priyadarshani, Hewa Arachchige
This dissertation develops a minimum description length (MDL) multiple changepoint detection procedure that allows for prior distributions. MDL methods, which are penalized likelihood techniques with penalties based on data description-length information principles, have been successfully applied to many recent multiple changepoint problems. This work shows how to modify the MDL penalty to account for various prior knowledge. Our motivation lies in climatology. Here, a metadata record, which is a file listing times when a recording station physically moved, instrumentation was changed, etc., sometimes exists. While metadata records are notoriously incomplete, they permit the construct a prior distribution that helps detect changepoints. This allows both documented and undocumented changepoints to be analyzed in tandem. The method developed here takes into account 1) metadata, 2) reference series, 3) seasonal means, and 4) autocorrelations. Asymptotically, our estimated multiple changepoint configuration of monthly data is shown to be consistent. The methods are illustrated in the analysis of 114 years of monthly temperatures from Tuscaloosa, Alabama. The multivariate aspect of the methods allow maximum and minimum temperatures to be jointly studied. A method for homogenizing daily temperature series is also developed. While daily temperatures have a complex structure, statistical techniques have been accumulating that can now accommodate all of the salient characteristics of daily temperatures. The goal here is to combine these techniques in a reasonable manner for multiple changepoint identification in daily series; computational speed is key as a century of daily data has over 36,000 data points. Autocorrelation aspects are important since correlation can destroy changepoint techniques and sample correlations of day-to-day temperature anomalies are often as large as 0.7. While homogenized daily temperatures may not be as useful as homogenized monthly or yearly
Description and evaluation of an intraoral cervical plexus anesthetic technique.
Bitner, Daniel P; Uzbelger Feldman, Daniel; Axx, Kevin; Albandar, Jasim M
2015-07-01
Unsuccessful anesthesia of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) may be due to supplementary innervations of mandibular molars from other branches, namely the cervical plexus (CP). The purpose of this prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial was to determine the effectiveness of an intraoral cervical plexus anesthetic technique (ICPAT) in mandibular molars with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis (SIR) when the IAN and lingual nerve (LN) blocks failed, and to provide a description of the technique. Forty patients diagnosed with SIR received IAN and LN block anesthesia prior to treatment. After clinical signs of anesthesia, patients were subjected to an electrical pulp test (EPT) at 2-min cycles for 10 min post-injection. The anesthesia was considered unsuccessful if there was a positive EPT response ten minutes following profound lip numbness. The experimental group (n = 20) were administered 2% Lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine using the ICPAT. The control group (n = 20) were administered 0.9% sterile saline using the ICPAT. Success was defined as no response on two consecutive readings from an EPT. In the experimental group, 60% of subjects showed successful anesthesia, whereas none of the subjects in the control group had successful anesthesia. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the anesthesia success rate using the ICPAT method was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than in the control group, irrespective of molar tooth type. The ICPAT method may be useful as a supplementary anesthetic technique for mandibular molars with SIR in subjects whom the IAN and LN blocks do not provide adequate anesthesia. PMID:25864872
Vested Madsen, Matias; Macario, Alex; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Tanaka, Pedro
2016-06-01
In this study, we examined the regularly scheduled, formal teaching sessions in a single anesthesiology residency program to (1) map the most common primary instructional methods, (2) map the use of 10 known teaching techniques, and (3) assess if residents scored sessions that incorporated active learning as higher quality than sessions with little or no verbal interaction between teacher and learner. A modified Delphi process was used to identify useful teaching techniques. A representative sample of each of the formal teaching session types was mapped, and residents anonymously completed a 5-question written survey rating the session. The most common primary instructional methods were computer slides-based classroom lectures (66%), workshops (15%), simulations (5%), and journal club (5%). The number of teaching techniques used per formal teaching session averaged 5.31 (SD, 1.92; median, 5; range, 0-9). Clinical applicability (85%) and attention grabbers (85%) were the 2 most common teaching techniques. Thirty-eight percent of the sessions defined learning objectives, and one-third of sessions engaged in active learning. The overall survey response rate equaled 42%, and passive sessions had a mean score of 8.44 (range, 5-10; median, 9; SD, 1.2) compared with a mean score of 8.63 (range, 5-10; median, 9; SD, 1.1) for active sessions (P = 0.63). Slides-based classroom lectures were the most common instructional method, and faculty used an average of 5 known teaching techniques per formal teaching session. The overall education scores of the sessions as rated by the residents were high. PMID:27243580
Descriptive Feedback; Increasing Teacher Awareness, Adapting Research Techniques.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kepler, Karen B.
This study investigated the ability of middle school teachers to use descriptive feedback from their students in changing their teaching behavior. One homeroom group of twenty-five students was observed in interaction with nine teachers of math, English, social studies, and science over a one-year period to elicit both quantifiable and qualitative…
Friedman, Samuel R; Pouget, Enrique R; Sandoval, Milagros; Jones, Yolanda; Mateu-Gelabert, Pedro
2015-01-01
Little is known about group memberships of people who inject drugs (PWID). Three hundred PWID were interviewed about formal and informal group participation and risk behaviors. Many took part in groups related to problems and resources associated with injecting drugs, religion, sports or gender. Harm reduction group and support group participation was associated with less risk behavior; sports groups participation with more risk behavior. Group involvement by PWID may be important to their lives and/or affect prevention or infectious disease transmission. More research is needed about determinants and consequences of their and other drug users' group memberships. PMID:25774744
Chavez, C.; Edwards, R.M.; Goldberg, J.H.
1993-12-31
New CRT-based information displays which enhance the human machine interface are playing a very important role and are being increasingly used in control rooms since they present a higher degree of flexibility compared to conventional hardwired instrumentation. To prototype a new console configuration and information display system at the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II), an iterative process of console simulation and evaluation involving operations personnel is being pursued. Entire panels including selector switches and information displays are simulated and driven by plant dynamical simulations with realistic responses that reproduce the actual cognitive and physical environment. Careful analysis and formal evaluation of operator interaction while using the simulated console will be conducted to determine underlying principles for effective control console design for this particular group of operation personnel. Additional iterations of design, simulation, and evaluation will then be conducted as necessary.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stökl, A.
2008-11-01
Context: In spite of all the advances in multi-dimensional hydrodynamics, investigations of stellar evolution and stellar pulsations still depend on one-dimensional computations. This paper devises an alternative to the mixing-length theory or turbulence models usually adopted in modelling convective transport in such studies. Aims: The present work attempts to develop a time-dependent description of convection, which reflects the essential physics of convection and that is only moderately dependent on numerical parameters and far less time consuming than existing multi-dimensional hydrodynamics computations. Methods: Assuming that the most extensive convective patterns generate the majority of convective transport, the convective velocity field is described using two parallel, radial columns to represent up- and downstream flows. Horizontal exchange, in the form of fluid flow and radiation, over their connecting interface couples the two columns and allows a simple circulating motion. The main parameters of this convective description have straightforward geometrical meanings, namely the diameter of the columns (corresponding to the size of the convective cells) and the ratio of the cross-section between up- and downdrafts. For this geometrical setup, the time-dependent solution of the equations of radiation hydrodynamics is computed from an implicit scheme that has the advantage of being unaffected by the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy time-step limit. This implementation is part of the TAPIR-Code (short for The adaptive, implicit RHD-Code). Results: To demonstrate the approach, results for convection zones in Cepheids are presented. The convective energy transport and convective velocities agree with expectations for Cepheids and the scheme reproduces both the kinetic energy flux and convective overshoot. A study of the parameter influence shows that the type of solution derived for these stars is in fact fairly robust with respect to the constitutive numerical
TPS as an Effective Technique to Enhance the Students' Achievement on Writing Descriptive Text
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sumarsih, M. Pd.; Sanjaya, Dedi
2013-01-01
Students' achievement in writing descriptive text is very low, in this study Think Pair Share (TPS) is applied to solve the problem. Action research is conducted for the result. Additionally, qualitative and quantitative techniques are applied in this research. The subject of this research is grade VIII in Junior High School in Indonesia. From…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zainuddin
2015-01-01
This study was aimed at finding out the effectiveness of applying Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC) Technique on Students' Reading Descriptive Text Achievement. In other words, the objective of this study was to find out if there was a significant effect of applying Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC)…
Lopez-Benitez, Ruben Rusch, Oliver Heverhagen, Johannes Levent, Kara Hanno, Hoppe Geiser, Christa Kettenbach, Joachim
2013-10-15
We describe a new, useful embolization technique applied to occlude narrow vessel branches ({<=}1.5 mm (0.06 Double-Prime ) in diameter) by deployment of one hydrocoil, through a microcatheter, in a way similar to the way in which one might navigate through the vascular lumen with a guidewire.
Geometry and Formal Linguistics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Huff, George A.
This paper presents a method of encoding geometric line-drawings in a way which allows sets of such drawings to be interpreted as formal languages. A characterization of certain geometric predicates in terms of their properties as languages is obtained, and techniques usually associated with generative grammars and formal automata are then applied…
Recommended procedures and techniques for the petrographic description of bituminous coals
Chao, E.C.T.; Minkin, J.A.; Thompson, C.L.
1982-01-01
bed. The use of bulk-specific-gravity determinations is alo recommended for identification and characterization of the distinctive lithologic units. The availability of an AIAS also enhances the capability to acquire textural information. Ranges of size of maceral and mineral grains can be quickly and precisely determined by use of an AIAS. We assume that shape characteristics of coal particles can also be readily evaluated by automated image analysis, although this evaluation has not yet been attempted in our laboratory. Definitive data on the particulate mineral content of coal constitute another important segment of petrographic description. Characterization of mineral content may be accomplished by optical identification, electron microprobe analysis, X-ray diffraction, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Individual mineral grains in place in polished blocks or polished this sections, or separated from the coal matrix by sink-float methods are studied by analytical techniques appropriate to the conditions of sampling. Finally, whenever possible, identification of the probable genus or plant species from which a given coal component is derived will add valuable information and meaning to the petrographic description. ?? 1982.
Formalizing Space Shuttle Software Requirements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crow, Judith; DiVito, Ben L.
1996-01-01
This paper describes two case studies in which requirements for new flight-software subsystems on NASA's Space Shuttle were analyzed, one using standard formal specification techniques, the other using state exploration. These applications serve to illustrate three main theses: (1) formal methods can complement conventional requirements analysis processes effectively, (2) formal methods confer benefits regardless of how extensively they are adopted and applied, and (3) formal methods are most effective when they are judiciously tailored to the application.
Pope, G.A.; Sepehrnoori, K.; Delshad, M.; Ferreira, L.; Gupta, A.; Maroongroge, V.
1994-11-01
This is the final report of a three year research project on the use of tracers for reservoir characterization. The objective of this research was to develop advanced, innovative techniques for the description of reservoir characteristics using both single-well backflow and interwell tracer tests. (1) The authors implemented and validated tracer modeling features in a compositional simulator (UTCOMP). (2) They developed and applied a new single well tracer test for estimating reservoir heterogeneity. (3) They developed and applied a new single well tracer test for estimating reservoir wettability in-situ. (4) They developed a new, simple and efficient method to analyze two well tracer tests based upon type curve matching and illustrated its use with actual field tracer data. (5) They developed a new method for deriving an integrated reservoir description based upon combinatorial optimization schemes. (6) They developed a new, interwell tracer test for reservoir heterogeneity called vertical tracer profiling (VTP) and demonstrated its advantages over conventional interwell tracer testing. (7) They developed a simple and easy analytical method to estimate swept pore volume from interwell tracer data and showed both the theoretical basis for this method and its practical utility. (8) They made numerous enhancements to our compositional reservoir simulator such as including the full permeability tensor, adding faster solvers, improving its speed and robustness and making it easier to use (better I/0) for tracer simulation problems. (9) They applied the enhanced version of UTCOMP to the analysis of interwell tracer data using perfluorocarbons at Elks Hill Naval Petroleum Reserve. All of these accomplishments taken together have significantly improved the state of reservoir tracer technology and have demonstrated that it is a far more powerful and useful tool for quantitative reservoir characterization than previously realized or practiced by the industry.
Newton, M.D.
1980-01-01
Formalisms suitable for calculating the rate of electron exchange between transition metal complexes in aqueous solution are reviewed and implemented in conjunction with ab initio quantum chemical calculations which provide crucial off-diagonal Hamiltonian matrix elements as well as other relevant electronic structural data. Rate constants and activation parameters are calculated for the hex-aquo Fe^{2 +}-Fe^{3+} system, using a simple activated complex theory, a non-adiabatic semi-classical model which includes nuclear tunnelling, and a more detailed quantum mechanical method based on the Golden Rule. Comparisons are made between calculated results and those obtained by extrapolating experimental data to zero ionic strength. All methods yield similar values for the overall rate constant (∾ 0.1 L/(mol-sec)). The experimental activation parameters (δH^{‡} and δS^{‡}) are in somewhat better agreement with the semi classical and quantum mechanical results than with those from the simple activated complex theory, thereby providing some indication that non-adiabaticity and nuclear tunnelling may be important in the Fe^{2+/3+} exchange reaction. It is concluded that a model based on direct metal-metal overlap can account for the observed reaction kinetics provided the reactants are allowed to approach well within the traditional contact distance of 6.9 Å. 6 figures, 7 tables.
Formalizing Probabilistic Safety Claims
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Herencia-Zapana, Heber; Hagen, George E.; Narkawicz, Anthony J.
2011-01-01
A safety claim for a system is a statement that the system, which is subject to hazardous conditions, satisfies a given set of properties. Following work by John Rushby and Bev Littlewood, this paper presents a mathematical framework that can be used to state and formally prove probabilistic safety claims. It also enables hazardous conditions, their uncertainties, and their interactions to be integrated into the safety claim. This framework provides a formal description of the probabilistic composition of an arbitrary number of hazardous conditions and their effects on system behavior. An example is given of a probabilistic safety claim for a conflict detection algorithm for aircraft in a 2D airspace. The motivation for developing this mathematical framework is that it can be used in an automated theorem prover to formally verify safety claims.
Brunel, Marc; Shen, Huanhuan; Coetmellec, Sebastien; Lebrun, Denis
2012-03-10
We present a new model to predict diffraction patterns of femtosecond pulses through complex optical systems. The model is based on the extension of an ABCD matrix formalism combined with generalized Huygens-Fresnel transforms (already used in the CW regime) to the femtosecond regime. The model is tested to describe femtosecond digital in-line holography experiments realized in situ through a cylindrical Plexiglas pipe. The model allows us to establish analytical relations that link the holographic reconstruction process to the experimental parameters of the pipe and of the incident beam itself. Simulations and experimental results are in good concordance. Femtosecond digital in-line holography is shown to allow significant coherent noise reduction, and this model will be particularly efficient to describe a wide range of optical geometries. More generally, the model developed can be easily used in any experiment where the knowledge of the precise evolution of femtosecond transverse patterns is required. PMID:22410994
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baader, Franz
Description Logics (DLs) are a well-investigated family of logic-based knowledge representation formalisms, which can be used to represent the conceptual knowledge of an application domain in a structured and formally well-understood way. They are employed in various application domains, such as natural language processing, configuration, and databases, but their most notable success so far is the adoption of the DL-based language OWL as standard ontology language for the semantic web.
Rethinking Formalisms in Formal Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nathan, Mitchell J.
2012-01-01
I explore a belief about learning and teaching that is commonly held in education and society at large that nonetheless is deeply flawed. The belief asserts that mastery of "formalisms"--specialized representations such as symbolic equations and diagrams with no inherent meaning except that which is established by convention--is prerequisite to…
Yue, Qiaoyun; Wu, Keliang; Qiu, Deyi; Hu, Jia; Liu, Dexing; Wei, Xiaoya; Chen, Jian; Cook, Charles E.
2014-01-01
Background Hebardina concinna is a domestic pest and potential vector of pathogens throughout East and Southeast Asia, yet identification of this species has been difficult due to a lack of diagnostic morphological characters, and to uncertainty in the relationship between macroptyrous (long-winged) and brachypterous (small-winged) morphotypes. In insects male genital structures are typically species-specific and are frequently used to identify species. However, male genital structures in H. concinna had not previously been described, in part due to difficulty in identifying conspecifics. Methods/Principal Findings We collected 15 putative H. concinna individuals, from Chinese populations, of both wing morphotypes and both sexes and then generated mitochondrial COI (the standard barcode region) and COII sequences from five of these individuals. These confirmed that both morphotypes of both sexes are the same species. We then dissected male genitalia and compared genital structures from macropterous and brachypterous individuals, which we showed to be identical, and present here for the first time a detailed description of H. concinna male genital structures. We also present a complete re-description of the morphological characters of this species, including both wing morphs. Conclusions/Significance This work describes a practical application of DNA barcoding to confirm that putatively polymorphic insects are conspecific and then to identify species-specific characters that can be used in the field to identify individuals and to obviate the delay and cost of returning samples to a laboratory for DNA sequencing. PMID:25232993
Academic Staff's Apathy towards Formal Professional Development Programmes at North West University
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Makunye, M. M.; Pelser, T. G.
2012-01-01
The purpose of this study was to explore reasons for academics' apathy towards formal professional development programmes at North-West University. The research design was essentially descriptive, employing both qualitative and quantitative research techniques to gather and analyse data. Three techniques, namely, questionnaire surveys, analysis of…
Line group techniques in description of the structural phase transitions in some superconductors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Meszaros, CS.; Balint, A.; Bankuti, J.
1995-01-01
The main features of the theory of line groups, and their irreducible representations are briefly discussed, as well as the most important applications of them. A new approach in the general symmetry analysis of the modulated systems is presented. It is shown, that the line group formalism could be a very effective tool in the examination of the structural phase transitions in High Temperature SUperconductors. As an example, the material YBa2Cu3O(7-x) is discussed briefly.
Formal verification of AI software
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rushby, John; Whitehurst, R. Alan
1989-01-01
The application of formal verification techniques to Artificial Intelligence (AI) software, particularly expert systems, is investigated. Constraint satisfaction and model inversion are identified as two formal specification paradigms for different classes of expert systems. A formal definition of consistency is developed, and the notion of approximate semantics is introduced. Examples are given of how these ideas can be applied in both declarative and imperative forms.
Line group techniques in description of the structural phase transitions in some superconductors
Meszaros, C.; Bankuti, J.; Balint, A.
1994-12-31
The main features of the theory of line groups, and their irreducible representations are briefly discussed, as well as the most important applications of them. A new approach in the general symmetry analysis of the modulated systems is presented. It is shown, that the line group formalism could be a very effective tool in the examination of the structural phase transitions in High Temperature Superconductors. As an example, the material YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} is discussed briefly.
Grimes, Kevin L; Inoue, Haruhiro
2016-05-01
Historically, the most robust outcomes in treatment of achalasia were seen with surgical myotomy. Per oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) introduced an endoscopic method for creating a surgical myotomy. Thousands of cases of POEM have been performed; however, there is no standard technique, and the rates of clinical success and adverse events vary widely among centers. This article presents a detailed description of the POEM technique, including the rationale and potential pitfalls of the main variations, in the context of the international literature. PMID:27112254
Kamat, Nagesh
2008-11-01
Perineal urethrostomy stenosis can be a difficult problem to treat, especially in patients with balanitis xerotica obliterans. We have devised a technique of using the buccal mucosa, with the idea of forming a composite stoma comprising skin and buccal mucosa. We describe the technique and short-term results in 4 patients. PMID:18789512
Noorbhai, M Habib; Noakes, Timothy D
2016-10-01
One of the first principles of cricket batsmanship that is coached from a young age is to play with a straight bat. Limited studies to date have examined whether top international batsmen use this traditionally described technique. Accordingly, we performed a descriptive, observational study of the backlift technique adopted by 65 of the most successful batsmen of all time, based on their career averages, strike rate and runs scored. The batsmen were divided into two groups depending on whether they played the game before or after 1954. Surprisingly, more than 70% of these successful batsmen did not adopt the traditionally taught technique. Instead, they adopted a more looped action in which the initial movement of the bat was in the direction of the slips, and in extreme cases it was either towards the gully/point region or to have the face of the bat directed towards the off-side. This suggests that traditionally taught batting coaching techniques may hinder, rather than enhance future cricketing performance. Since the vast majority of cricketers are not coached in this technique, this finding probably indicates that this looped technique is likely a contributing factor to effective batsmanship. PMID:26956380
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Artese, G.; Fiaschi, S.; Di Martire, D.; Tessitore, S.; Fabris, M.; Achilli, V.; Ahmed, A.; Borgstrom, S.; Calcaterra, D.; Ramondini, M.; Artese, S.; Floris, M.; Menin, A.; Monego, M.; Siniscalchi, V.
2016-06-01
The Emilia Romagna Region (N-E Italy) and in particular the Adriatic Sea coastline of Ravenna, is affected by a noticeable subsidence that started in the 1950s, when the exploitation of on and off-shore methane reservoirs began, along with the pumping of groundwater for industrial uses. In such area the current subsidence rate, even if lower than in the past, reaches the -2 cm/y. Over the years, local Authorities have monitored this phenomenon with different techniques: spirit levelling, GPS surveys and, more recently, Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) techniques, confirming the critical situation of land subsidence risk. In this work, we present the comparison between the results obtained with DInSAR and GPS techniques applied to the study of the land subsidence in the Ravenna territory. With regard to the DInSAR, the Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) and the Coherent Pixel Technique (CPT) techniques have been used. Different SAR datasets have been exploited: ERS-1/2, ENVISAT, TerraSAR-X and Sentinel-1. Some GPS campaigns have been also carried out in a subsidence prone area. 3D vertices have been selected very close to existing persistent scatterers in order to link the GPS measurement results to the SAR ones. GPS data were processed into the International reference system and the comparisons between the coordinates, for the first 6 months of the monitoring, provided results with the same trend of the DInSAR data, even if inside the precision of the method.
CAD/CAM silicone simulator for teaching cheiloplasty: description of the technique.
Zheng, Y; Lu, B; Zhang, J; Wu, G
2015-02-01
Techniques of virtual simulation have been used to teach junior surgeons how to do a cheiloplasty, but still do not meet the trainees' demands. We describe a CAD/CAM silicone simulator, which we made using several maxillofacial prosthetic techniques. An optical scanning system was used to collect the data about the cleft lip. Reverse engineering software was then used to build the virtual model, and this was processed in wax by machine. The definitive simulator was made with prosthetic silicone and extrinsic colourants. The surgical trainees practised the basic skills of cheiloplasty on the simulator, and proved its worth. PMID:25476261
DESCRIPTION OF THE PROCESS MODEL PROJECTION TECHNIQUE (PROMPT). VERSION 3.0
The report describes the model logic and data sources for Version 3.0 of the Process Model Projection Technique (PROMPT), one of four stationary source emission and control cost forecasting models developed for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). PROMPT pr...
Smith, Zachary A.; Armin, Sean; Raphael, Dan; Khoo, Larry T.
2011-01-01
Background: We describe a new posterior dynamic stabilizing system that can be used to augment the mechanics of the degenerating lumbar segment. The mechanism of this system differs from other previously described surgical techniques that have been designed to augment lumbar biomechanics. The implant and technique we describe is an extension-limiting one, and it is designed to support and cushion the facet complex. Furthermore, it is inserted through an entirely percutaneous technique. The purpose of this technical note is to demonstrate a novel posterior surgical approach for the treatment of lumbar degenerative. Methods: This report describes a novel, percutaneously placed, posterior dynamic stabilization system as an alternative option to treat lumbar degenerative disk disease with and without lumbar spinal stenosis. The system does not require a midline soft-tissue dissection, nor subperiosteal dissection, and is a truly minimally invasive means for posterior augmentation of the functional facet complex. This system can be implanted as a stand-alone procedure or in conjunction with decompression procedures. Results: One-year clinical results in nine individual patients, all treated for degenerative disease of the lower lumbar spine, are presented. Conclusions: This novel technique allows for percutaneous posterior dynamic stabilization of the lumbar facet complex. The use of this procedure may allow a less invasive alternative to traditional approaches to the lumbar spine as well as an alternative to other newly developed posterior dynamic stabilization systems. PMID:22145084
Schach von Wittenau, A.E.; Cox, L.J.; Bergstrom, P.H., Jr.; Chandler, W.P.; Hartmann-Siantar, C.L.; Hornstein, S.M.
1997-10-31
We outline the techniques used within PEREGRINE, a 3D Monte Carlo code calculation system, to model the photon output from medical accelerators. We discuss the methods used to reduce the phase-space data to a form that is accurately and efficiently sampled.
Hernández-Velarde, R; Muñoz, O; Garduño-Rodríguez, G; Gonzáles-Arroyo, S; Gutiérrez, G
1979-01-01
In the serum of patients with typhoid fever counterimmunoelectrophoretic techniques were used for the detection of antibodies to Salmonella "O" antigen. Lipopolysacharides (LPS) obtained with phenol and water from Salmonella typhi (antigens 0, 9 and 12) were used. Positive results were obtained in those patients with typhoid fever (20). The lower and higher titration levels were 1:8 and 1:32 respectively; the geometric mean was 1:16. The variation coefficient during the intra assay tests was 0.19, and remained stable throughout the inter-assay tests. Reproducibility, as well as a rapid technique, make this test a valuable tool for the serologic diagnosis of typhoid fever. PMID:420534
Roberge, P.R.
1994-12-31
Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) has been proven to be a rapid and accurate technique for measuring corrosion rates in the most difficult situations and for yielding precious information concerning the occurrence of localized corrosion. But routine monitoring with EIS requires that certain assumptions be made and the data be processed automatically. To achieve these goals, a method was developed which consists in finding the geometric center of an arc formed by three successive data points on a complex impedance diagram. The three point analysis technique was further developed by permuting the data points involved in the projection of centers in order to obtain a population of projected centers. This last improvement permitted automation of the data analysis while providing some necessary statistical information concerning the adherence of the results with the resistive-capacitive (RC) behavior which is assumed for the evaluation of the parameters related to the general and localized corrosion rates. This paper illustrates the efficiency of EIS in a field situation with results obtained during the evaluation of organic corrosion inhibitors against sour media and reviews the mathematical principles of the projection/permutation (ProPer) technique for routine analysis of EIS data points.
Jeong, Chang Wook; Oh, Jong Jin; Jeong, Seong Jin; Hong, Sung Kyu; Byun, Seok-Soo; Choe, Gheeyoung; Lee, Sang Eun
2012-07-01
The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of a novel posterior reconstruction technique during robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy on continence recovery. A total of 116 consecutive patients who received the novel posterior reconstruction (case group) were retrospectively compared with a cohort of 126 patients who did not receive posterior reconstruction (control group). The primary end-point was the duration of continence recovery (no pad use) after robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy. The posterior reconstruction was obtained by opposing the median dorsal fibrous raphe to the posterior counterpart of the detrusor apron, rather than the Denonvilliers' fascia. The case group showed higher continence rates at all points of evaluation, which were 2 weeks (30.1% vs 19.8%), 1 month (58.4% vs 45.7%), 3 months (82.7% vs 70.5%) and 6 months postoperatively (95.3% vs 86.4%) (P = 0.007). Application of the novel posterior reconstruction technique, age and length of membranous urethra were significant variables for the complete recovery of continence on multivariable analysis. This study shows that the application of this novel PR technique significantly improves the recovery of continence in patients undergoing robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy. PMID:22404556
Harris, Mark; Bishop, Timothy; Bernard, Jason
2015-01-01
Introduction: A small proportion of simple elbow dislocations are grossly unstable and joint congruence is not maintained after reduction. In this rare situation operative treatment is indicated. We describe a new intra articular reconstruction that utilises a slip of triceps tendon to provide immediate stability to the elbow. Methods: We assessed 20 cadaveric elbows, measuring the length of triceps tendon available and required to complete the reconstruction. We then sequentially sectioned the ligamentous stabilisers of an elbow before performing the new technique. We measured the displacement and angulation possible at the elbow before and after the reconstruction. Results: All 20 elbows had sufficient triceps tendon length to complete the new technique. Prior to the reconstruction greater than 30 mm of joint distraction and 90 degrees varus or valgus angulation was possible. Following the reconstruction it was not possible to re-dislocate the elbow. Only 2 mm of joint distraction and 10 degrees of varus or valgus angulation were possible with the triceps graft fixed in position. Discussion: This novel technique elegantly avoids many of the problems associated with current methods. We have demonstrated that it is technically feasible and easy to perform with minimal equipment requirements or costs. PMID:27163079
Deng, Jie; Larson, Andrew C.
2010-01-01
Objectives To test the feasibility of combining inner-volume imaging (IVI) techniques with conventional multishot periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (PROPELLER) techniques for targeted-PROPELLER magnetic resonance imaging. Materials and Methods Perpendicular section-selective gradients for spatially selective excitation and refocusing RF pulses were applied to limit the refocused field-of-view (FOV) along the phase-encoding direction for each rectangular blade image. We performed comparison studies in phantoms and normal volunteers by using targeted-PROPELLER methods for a wide range of imaging applications that commonly use turbo-spin-echo (TSE) approaches (brain, abdominal, vessel wall, cardiac). Results In these initial studies, we demonstrated the feasibility of using targeted-PROPELLER approaches to limit the imaging FOV thereby reducing the number of blades or permitting increased spatial resolution without commensurate increases in scan time. Both phantom and in vivo motion studies demonstrated the potential for more robust regional self-navigated motion correction compared with conventional full FOV PROPELLER methods. Conclusion We demonstrated that the reduced FOV targeted-PROPELLER technique offers the potential for reducing imaging time, increasing spatial resolution, and targeting specific areas for robust regional motion correction. PMID:19465860
Formal Methods at Intel - An Overview
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harrison, John
2010-01-01
Since the 1990s, Intel has invested heavily in formal methods, which are now deployed in several domains: hardware, software, firmware, protocols etc. Many different formal methods tools and techniques are in active use, including symbolic trajectory evaluation, temporal logic model checking, SMT-style combined decision procedures, and interactive higher-order logic theorem proving. I will try to give a broad overview of some of the formal methods activities taking place at Intel, and describe the challenges of extending formal verification to new areas and of effectively using multiple formal techniques in combination
A Description of the Revised ATHEANA (A Technique for Human Event Analysis)
FORESTER,JOHN A.; BLEY,DENNIS C.; COOPER,SUSANE; KOLACZKOWSKI,ALAN M.; THOMPSON,CATHERINE; RAMEY-SMITH,ANN; WREATHALL,JOHN
2000-07-18
This paper describes the most recent version of a human reliability analysis (HRA) method called ``A Technique for Human Event Analysis'' (ATHEANA). The new version is documented in NUREG-1624, Rev. 1 [1] and reflects improvements to the method based on comments received from a peer review that was held in 1998 (see [2] for a detailed discussion of the peer review comments) and on the results of an initial trial application of the method conducted at a nuclear power plant in 1997 (see Appendix A in [3]). A summary of the more important recommendations resulting from the peer review and trial application is provided and critical and unique aspects of the revised method are discussed.
Gelbwachs, Jerry A; Farley, Robert W
2004-05-10
Knowledge of cloud-base heights is important for climate studies, weather, and military operations. Conventional lidar methods monitor cloud depths by direct transmission of the beam through the cloud and sensing the backscattered returns. These techniques are limited by severe optical scattering by cloud particles to thickness <0.5 km. We have conceived of a novel lidar method measurement for thick-cloud-base altimetry from above that is not restricted by cloud scattering. The new method, known as GLITTER (an acronym for glimpses of the lidar images through the empty regions), relies on cloud porosity and diffuse reflection from land features to sense cloud bottoms. An aircraft GLITTER lidar measured cloud bases at 3.7- and 4.5-km altitudes. These initial results represent a proof-of-principle demonstration of the new lidar method. PMID:15143824
Crane, David; West, Robert; Brown, Jamie; Michie, Susan
2015-01-01
Background Digital interventions to reduce excessive alcohol consumption have the potential to have a broader reach and be more cost-effective than traditional brief interventions. However, there is not yet strong evidence for their ability to engage users or their effectiveness. Objective This study aimed to identify the behavior change techniques (BCTs) and engagement strategies most worthy of further study by inclusion in a smartphone app to reduce alcohol consumption, using formal expert consensus methods. Methods The first phase of the study consisted of a Delphi exercise with three rounds. It was conducted with 7 international experts in the field of alcohol and/or behavior change. In the first round, experts identified BCTs most likely to be effective at reducing alcohol consumption and strategies most likely to engage users with an app; these were rated in the second round; and those rated as effective by at least four out of seven participants were ranked in the third round. The rankings were analyzed using Kendall’s W coefficient of concordance, which indicates consensus between participants. The second phase consisted of a new, independent group of experts (n=43) ranking the BCTs that were identified in the first phase. The correlation between the rankings of the two groups was assessed using Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. Results Twelve BCTs were identified as likely to be effective. There was moderate agreement among the experts over their ranking (W=.465, χ2 11=35.8, P<.001) and the BCTs receiving the highest mean rankings were self-monitoring, goal-setting, action planning, and feedback in relation to goals. There was a significant correlation between the ranking of the BCTs by the group of experts who identified them and a second independent group of experts (Spearman’s rho=.690, P=.01). Seventeen responses were generated for strategies likely to engage users. There was moderate agreement among experts on the ranking of these
Widgren, Stefan; Frössling, Jenny
2010-11-01
Understanding the intensity and spatial patterns of animal transfers is of prime importance as geographical moves play an important part in the spread and potential control of contagious animal diseases of veterinary importance. For the purpose of visualizing all registered between-herd animal movements in Sweden between 1 July 2005 and 31 December 2008 by map animation, a grid network technique based on the Bresenham line algorithm was developed. Potential spatio-temporal clustering of animals registered as sold or purchased based on location and month of trade was also detected and tested using a spatial scan statistic. Calculations were based on data from 31,375 holdings and 3,487,426 head of cattle. In total, 988,167 between-herd movements of individual bovines were displayed in a sequence of maps covering three and a half years by 2-week intervals. The maps showed that several cattle movements, both short- and long-distance, take place in Sweden each week of the year. However, most animals (75%) were only registered at one single holding during the study period and 23% were sold to a different holding once. Spatial scan statistics based on data from the year 2008 indicated uneven distributions of purchased or sold animals in space and time. During each autumn, there was an increase in cattle movements and October and November showed significantly more cases of sold or purchased animals (relative risk ~1.7, p = 0.001). Based on the results, we conclude that cattle trade is constantly active at a considerable level. This, in combination with possibly insufficient biosecurity routines applied on many farms, constitutes a risk that contagious diseases are spread in the population. The grid network maps were generated through the use of open-source tools and software in order to decrease software costs and facilitate sharing of programme code. In addition, the technique was based on scripts that allow for the inclusion of iterative processes and that comprise all
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Majewski, Steven R.; Ostheimer, James C.; Kunkel, William E.; Patterson, Richard J.
2000-11-01
We have begun a survey of the structure of the Milky Way halo, as well as the halos of other Local Group galaxies, as traced by their constituent giant stars. These giant stars are identified via large-area, CCD photometric campaigns. Here we present the basis for our photometric search method, which relies on the gravity sensitivity of the Mg I triplet+MgH features near 5150 Å in F-K stars, and which is sensed by the flux in the intermediate-band DDO51 filter. Our technique is a simplified variant of the combined Washington/DDO51 four-filter technique described by Geisler, which we modify for the specific purpose of efficiently identifying distant giant stars for follow-up spectroscopic study: We show here that for most stars the Washington T1-T2 color is correlated monotonically with the Washington M-T2 color with relatively low scatter; for the purposes of our survey, this correlation obviates the need to image in the T1 filter, as originally proposed by Geisler. To calibrate our (M-T2, M-DDO51) diagram as a means to discriminate field giant stars from nearby dwarfs, we utilize new photometry of the main sequences of the open clusters NGC 3680 and NGC 2477 and the red giant branches of the clusters NGC 3680, Melotte 66, and ω Centauri, supplemented with data on field stars, globular clusters and open clusters by Doug Geisler and collaborators. By combining the data on stars from different clusters, and by taking advantage of the wide abundance spread within ω Centauri, we verify the primary dependence of the M-DDO51 color on luminosity and demonstrate the secondary sensitivity to metallicity among giant stars. Our empirical results are found to be generally consistent with those from analysis of synthetic spectra by Paltoglou & Bell. Finally, we provide conversion formulae from the (M, M-T2) system to the (V, V-I) system, corresponding reddening laws, as well as empirical red giant branch curves from ω Centauri stars for use in deriving photometric
Jens, Sjoerd Marquering, Henk A.; Koelemay, Mark J. W.; Reekers, Jim A.
2015-02-15
ObjectiveTo study the feasibility of 2D perfusion imaging in critical limb ischemia (CLI).Methods/ResultsPerfusion angiography is a new technology which was tested in 18 patients with CLI of the foot. A standardized protocol was used with a catheter placed at the mid-part of the popliteal artery, and a total of 9 cc of non-ionic iodinated contrast material was injected at a rate of 3 cc/sec. The technology is based on early cardiology research where iodinated contrast agents were used for imaging of cardiac perfusion. During the first pass of the contrast, there is a significant diffusion of the contrast agents into the interstitial space, particularly for non-ionic and low-molecular-weight compounds.DiscussionThe original angiography data can be used to make a time–density curve, which represents the actual perfusion of the foot in time. Angiographic perfusion imaging is a post-processing modality for which no extra contrast or radiation is needed. With this technique, it is possible to get more information about the perfusion status and microcirculation of the foot. This is a step toward functional imaging in CLI patients.
Fluoroscopy-Guided Sacroiliac Joint Injection: Description of a Modified Technique.
Kasliwal, Prasad Jaychand; Kasliwal, Sapana
2016-02-01
Sacroiliac joint (SIJ) pathology is a common etiologic cause for 10 - 27% of cases of mechanical low back pain (LBP) below the L5 level. In the absence of definite clinical or radiologic diagnostic criteria, controlled blocks of the SIJ have become the choice assessment method for making the diagnosis of SIJ pain. The SI joint is most often characterized as a large, auricular-shaped, diarthrodial synovial joint. In reality, its synovial characteristic is limited only to the distal third and anterior third. In SIJ interventions, the lateral view has been underutilized. In our technique, we used the lateral view to create a three-dimensional view of the SIJ to aid in gauging the accurateness of the contrast spread and to obtain a precise block. After obtaining appropriate fluoroscopic images, a curved tip spinal needle was directed into the inferior aspect of the SIJ using a posterior approach. As the needle contacts firm tissues on the posterior aspect of the joint, position of the needle tip is checked using lateral fluoroscopy. In the lateral view, the needle tip position is manipulated to keep it in the anterior third of the SIJ and contrast is injected. Our criteria for accurate SIJ block, in posteroanterior (PA) view, is the injection of the contrast medium should outline the joint space and the contrast medium should be seen to travel cephalad along the joint line. In the lateral view, the contrast medium most densely outlines the parameter of the joint. We have utilized this method with good effect in approximately 30 cases over one year. Out of 30 cases, needle position and contrast spread was satisfactory in 28 and 27 cases, respectively. So satisfactory needle placement and contrast spread was in 93% and 87% cases. Pain relief of 80% or more after intra-articular injection of local anesthetic was seen in 50% (15 of 30) patients; pain relief of 50 - 79% was witnessed in 30% (9 of 30) patients. Thus, pain decreased 50% or more in 80% (24 of 30) of the joints
Safigholi, Habib; Faghihi, Reza; Jashni, Somaye Karimi; Meigooni, Ali S.
2012-04-15
Purpose: The goal of this study is to determine a method for Monte Carlo (MC) characterization of the miniature electronic brachytherapy x-ray sources (MEBXS) and to set dosimetric parameters according to TG-43U1 formalism. TG-43U1 parameters were used to get optimal designs of MEBXS. Parameters that affect the dose distribution such as anode shapes, target thickness, target angles, and electron beam source characteristics were evaluated. Optimized MEBXS designs were obtained and used to determine radial dose functions and 2D anisotropy functions in the electron energy range of 25-80 keV. Methods: Tungsten anode material was considered in two different geometries, hemispherical and conical-hemisphere. These configurations were analyzed by the 4C MC code with several different optimization techniques. The first optimization compared target thickness layers versus electron energy. These optimized thicknesses were compared with published results by Ihsan et al.[Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 264, 371-377 (2007)]. The second optimization evaluated electron source characteristics by changing the cathode shapes and electron energies. Electron sources studied included; (1) point sources, (2) uniform cylinders, and (3) nonuniform cylindrical shell geometries. The third optimization was used to assess the apex angle of the conical-hemisphere target. The goal of these optimizations was to produce 2D-dose anisotropy functions closer to unity. An overall optimized MEBXS was developed from this analysis. The results obtained from this model were compared to known characteristics of HDR {sup 125}I, LDR {sup 103}Pd, and Xoft Axxent electronic brachytherapy source (XAEBS) [Med. Phys. 33, 4020-4032 (2006)]. Results: The optimized anode thicknesses as a function of electron energy is fitted by the linear equation Y ({mu}m) = 0.0459X (keV)-0.7342. The optimized electron source geometry is obtained for a disk-shaped parallel beam (uniform cylinder) with 0.9 mm radius. The TG-43
The Archival Photograph and Its Meaning: Formalisms for Modeling Images
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Benson, Allen C.
2009-01-01
This article explores ontological principles and their potential applications in the formal description of archival photographs. Current archival descriptive practices are reviewed and the larger question is addressed: do archivists who are engaged in describing photographs need a more formalized system of representation, or do existing encoding…
Interdependence of Formal Reasoning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Berzonsky, Michael D.; And Others
1975-01-01
Investigated the intercorrelations among tasks that appear to require Piagetian formal reasoning to determine whether formal reasoning is used selectively or all-pervasively. Subjects were 60 undergraduate females. (SDH)
Formal development of a clock synchronization circuit
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miner, Paul S.
1995-01-01
This talk presents the latest stage in formal development of a fault-tolerant clock synchronization circuit. The development spans from a high level specification of the required properties to a circuit realizing the core function of the system. An abstract description of an algorithm has been verified to satisfy the high-level properties using the mechanical verification system EHDM. This abstract description is recast as a behavioral specification input to the Digital Design Derivation system (DDD) developed at Indiana University. DDD provides a formal design algebra for developing correct digital hardware. Using DDD as the principle design environment, a core circuit implementing the clock synchronization algorithm was developed. The design process consisted of standard DDD transformations augmented with an ad hoc refinement justified using the Prototype Verification System (PVS) from SRI International. Subsequent to the above development, Wilfredo Torres-Pomales discovered an area-efficient realization of the same function. Establishing correctness of this optimization requires reasoning in arithmetic, so a general verification is outside the domain of both DDD transformations and model-checking techniques. DDD represents digital hardware by systems of mutually recursive stream equations. A collection of PVS theories was developed to aid in reasoning about DDD-style streams. These theories include a combinator for defining streams that satisfy stream equations, and a means for proving stream equivalence by exhibiting a stream bisimulation. DDD was used to isolate the sub-system involved in Torres-Pomales' optimization. The equivalence between the original design and the optimized verified was verified in PVS by exhibiting a suitable bisimulation. The verification depended upon type constraints on the input streams and made extensive use of the PVS type system. The dependent types in PVS provided a useful mechanism for defining an appropriate bisimulation.
Formal Methods for Life-Critical Software
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Butler, Ricky W.; Johnson, Sally C.
1993-01-01
The use of computer software in life-critical applications, such as for civil air transports, demands the use of rigorous formal mathematical verification procedures. This paper demonstrates how to apply formal methods to the development and verification of software by leading the reader step-by-step through requirements analysis, design, implementation, and verification of an electronic phone book application. The current maturity and limitations of formal methods tools and techniques are then discussed, and a number of examples of the successful use of formal methods by industry are cited.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hanna, Gila
1989-01-01
The origins of the emphasis on formal proof are discussed as well as more recent views. Factors in acceptance of a proof and the social process of acceptance by mathematicians are included. The impact of formal proof on the curriculum and implications for teaching are given. (DC)
Software Formal Inspections Guidebook
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1993-01-01
The Software Formal Inspections Guidebook is designed to support the inspection process of software developed by and for NASA. This document provides information on how to implement a recommended and proven method for conducting formal inspections of NASA software. This Guidebook is a companion document to NASA Standard 2202-93, Software Formal Inspections Standard, approved April 1993, which provides the rules, procedures, and specific requirements for conducting software formal inspections. Application of the Formal Inspections Standard is optional to NASA program or project management. In cases where program or project management decide to use the formal inspections method, this Guidebook provides additional information on how to establish and implement the process. The goal of the formal inspections process as documented in the above-mentioned Standard and this Guidebook is to provide a framework and model for an inspection process that will enable the detection and elimination of defects as early as possible in the software life cycle. An ancillary aspect of the formal inspection process incorporates the collection and analysis of inspection data to effect continual improvement in the inspection process and the quality of the software subjected to the process.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
PETERSON, CLARENCE E.
THIS IS THE FIRST OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO PROVIDE AID TO STATES IN ORGANIZING AND OPERATING PROGRAMS UNDER TITLE VIII OF THE NATIONAL DEFENSE EDUCATION ACT, PUBLIC LAW 85-864. IT FURNISHES--(1) GENERAL INFORMATION ABOUT A TECHNOLOGY OR BROAD FIELD OF WORK, (2) COMPOSITE JOB DESCRIPTIONS OF REPRESENTATIVE OCCUPATIONS IN THAT FIELD OF WORK, (3) A…
Acquisition of teleological descriptions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Franke, David W.
1992-03-01
Teleology descriptions capture the purpose of an entity, mechanism, or activity with which they are associated. These descriptions can be used in explanation, diagnosis, and design reuse. We describe a technique for acquiring teleological descriptions expressed in the teleology language TeD. Acquisition occurs during design by observing design modifications and design verification. We demonstrate the acquisition technique in an electronic circuit design.
Krill, Michael; Peck, Evan
2014-12-01
An anterior cruciate ligament ganglion cyst is an infrequent but potentially clinically significant cause of knee pain. Although the cyst may be removed surgically, percutaneous ultrasound-guided anterior cruciate ligament ganglion cyst aspiration and injection is feasible. To our knowledge, we present the first reported case description of the utilization of ultrasound guidance to perform this procedure with a successful clinical outcome. PMID:25088315
Formal Analysis of Message Passing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siegel, Stephen F.; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh
The message passing paradigm underlies many important families of programs - for instance programs in the area of high performance computing that support science and engineering research. Unfortunately, very few formal methods researchers are involved in developing formal analysis tools and techniques for message passing programs. This paper summarizes research being done in our groups in support of this area, specifically with respect to the Message Passing Interface. We emphasize the need for specialized varieties of many familiar notions such as deadlock detection, race analysis, symmetry analysis, partial order reduction, static analysis and symbolic reasoning support. Since these issues are harbingers of those being faced in multicore programming, the time is ripe to build a critical mass of researchers working in this area.
CSR-induced emittance growth in achromats: Linear formalism revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Venturini, M.
2015-09-01
We review the R-matrix formalism used to describe Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR)-induced projected emittance growth in electron beam transport lines and establish the connection with a description in terms of the dispersion-invariant function.
Pedagogical Basis of DAS Formalism in Engineering Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hiltunen, J.; Heikkinen, E.-P.; Jaako, J.; Ahola, J.
2011-01-01
The paper presents a new approach for a bachelor-level curriculum structure in engineering. The approach is called DAS formalism according to its three phases: description, analysis and synthesis. Although developed specifically for process and environmental engineering, DAS formalism has a generic nature and it could also be used in other…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dieudonne, J. E.
1978-01-01
A numerical technique was developed which generates linear perturbation models from nonlinear aircraft vehicle simulations. The technique is very general and can be applied to simulations of any system that is described by nonlinear differential equations. The computer program used to generate these models is discussed, with emphasis placed on generation of the Jacobian matrices, calculation of the coefficients needed for solving the perturbation model, and generation of the solution of the linear differential equations. An example application of the technique to a nonlinear model of the NASA terminal configured vehicle is included.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kliman, Gilbert
The Cornerstone Project is an application of child psychoanalytic techniques in synergy with therapeutic nursery education. The Cornerstone School and the method associated with it provide treatment for children ages three to six years within a nursery classroom group setting. A therapist works six or more hours per week in the classroom, during…
Software Formal Inspections Standard
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1993-01-01
This Software Formal Inspections Standard (hereinafter referred to as Standard) is applicable to NASA software. This Standard defines the requirements that shall be fulfilled by the software formal inspections process whenever this process is specified for NASA software. The objective of this Standard is to define the requirements for a process that inspects software products to detect and eliminate defects as early as possible in the software life cycle. The process also provides for the collection and analysis of inspection data to improve the inspection process as well as the quality of the software.
Vargas-Schaffer, Grisell; Nowakowsky, Michal; Eghtesadi, Marzieh; Cogan, Jennifer
2015-09-15
Chronic chest pain is a challenge, and serratus anterior muscle pain syndrome (SAMPS) is often overlooked. We have developed an ultrasound-guided technique for infiltrating local anesthetics and steroids in patients with SAMPS. In 8 patients, the duration of chronic pain was approximately 19 months. Three months after treatment, all patients had experienced a significant reduction in pain. Infiltration for SAMPS confirms the diagnosis and provides adequate pain relief. PMID:26361386
Adolescence and Formal Operations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Blasi, A.; Hoeffel, E. C.
1974-01-01
Analyzes the relationship between the development of formal operations and the development of the adolescent personality, as hypothesized by Inhelder and Piaget. It is suggested that the concepts of possibility and reflectivity have a variety of meanings, and that once these meanings are examined, the logical foundation for the…
Correlates of Formal Reasoning.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Linn, Marcia C.; Pulos, Steven
This study of Piagetian formal reasoning in seventh grade students reports the relationships between four aspects of the ability to control variables in an experiment and the relationships between those four aspects and other constructs. The four aspects of the ability to control variables identified are: (1) set up a controlled experiment, (2)…
Kleynen, Melanie; Braun, Susy M.; Bleijlevens, Michel H.; Lexis, Monique A.; Rasquin, Sascha M.; Halfens, Jos; Wilson, Mark R.; Beurskens, Anna J.; Masters, Rich S. W.
2014-01-01
Background Motor learning is central to domains such as sports and rehabilitation; however, often terminologies are insufficiently uniform to allow effective sharing of experience or translation of knowledge. A study using a Delphi technique was conducted to ascertain level of agreement between experts from different motor learning domains (i.e., therapists, coaches, researchers) with respect to definitions and descriptions of a fundamental conceptual distinction within motor learning, namely implicit and explicit motor learning. Methods A Delphi technique was embedded in multiple rounds of a survey designed to collect and aggregate informed opinions of 49 international respondents with expertise related to motor learning. The survey was administered via an online survey program and accompanied by feedback after each round. Consensus was considered to be reached if ≥70% of the experts agreed on a topic. Results Consensus was reached with respect to definitions of implicit and explicit motor learning, and seven common primary intervention strategies were identified in the context of implicit and explicit motor learning. Consensus was not reached with respect to whether the strategies promote implicit or explicit forms of learning. Discussion The definitions and descriptions agreed upon may aid translation and transfer of knowledge between domains in the field of motor learning. Empirical and clinical research is required to confirm the accuracy of the definitions and to explore the feasibility of the strategies that were identified in research, everyday practice and education. PMID:24968228
A non-commuting stabilizer formalism
Ni, Xiaotong; Van den Nest, Maarten; Buerschaper, Oliver
2015-05-15
We propose a non-commutative extension of the Pauli stabilizer formalism. The aim is to describe a class of many-body quantum states which is richer than the standard Pauli stabilizer states. In our framework, stabilizer operators are tensor products of single-qubit operators drawn from the group 〈αI, X, S〉, where α = e{sup iπ/4} and S = diag(1, i). We provide techniques to efficiently compute various properties related to bipartite entanglement, expectation values of local observables, preparation by means of quantum circuits, parent Hamiltonians, etc. We also highlight significant differences compared to the Pauli stabilizer formalism. In particular, we give examples of states in our formalism which cannot arise in the Pauli stabilizer formalism, such as topological models that support non-Abelian anyons.
Pope, G.A.; Sepehrnoori, K.
1992-12-31
This second annual report on innovative uses of tracers for reservoir characterization contains four sections each describing a novel use of oilfield tracers. The first section describes and illustrates the use of a new single-well tracer test to estimate wettability. This test consists of the injection of brine containing tracers followed by oil containing tracers, a shut-in period to allow some of the tracers to react, and then production of the tracers. The inclusion of the oil injection slug with tracers is unique to this test, and this is what makes the test work. We adapted our chemical simulator, UTCHEM, to enable us to study this tracer method and made an extensive simulation study to evaluate the effects of wettability based upon characteristic curves for relative permeability and capillary pressure for differing wetting states typical of oil reservoirs. The second section of this report describes a new method for analyzing interwell tracer data based upon a type-curve approach. Theoretical frequency response functions were used to build type curves of ``transfer function`` and ``phase spectrum`` that have dimensionless heterogeneity index as a parameter to characterize a stochastic permeability field. We illustrate this method by analyzing field tracer data. The third section of this report describes a new theory for interpreting interwell tracer data in terms of channeling and dispersive behavior for reservoirs. Once again, a stochastic approach to reservoir description is taken. The fourth section of this report describes our simulation of perfluorocarbon gas tracers. This new tracer technology developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory is being tested at the Elk Hills Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 in California. We report preliminary simulations made of these tracers in one of the oil reservoirs under evaluation with these tracers in this field. Our compostional simulator (UTCOMP) was used for this simulation study.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edwards, S. F.; Kantsios, A. G.; Voros, J. P.; Stewart, W. F.
1975-01-01
The development of a radiometric technique for determining the spectral and total normal emittance of materials heated to temperatures of 800, 1100, and 1300 K by direct comparison with National Bureau of Standards (NBS) reference specimens is discussed. Emittances are measured over the spectral range of 1 to 15 microns and are statistically compared with NBS reference specimens. Results are included for NBS reference specimens, Rene 41, alundum, zirconia, AISI type 321 stainless steel, nickel 201, and a space-shuttle reusable surface insulation.
Chabot, David Leonard; Polimenakos, Anastasios C.
2011-01-01
Abstract: Since the introduction of the Norwood procedure for surgical palliation of hypoplastic left heart syndrome in 1983, refinements have been made to the original procedure to improve patient outcomes while still accomplishing the original goals of the procedure. One of these refinements has been the introduction of regional selective perfusion to limit the duration of circulatory arrest times and optimize the regional flow distribution. In this paper we describe our technique for performing selective cerebral and lower body perfusion during the Norwood procedure. PMID:22416608
Aguiar Leonardi, Adriano Barros de; Severino, Nilson Roberto; Junior, Aires Duarte
2015-01-01
To assess the presence of tibial bone tunnel enlargement after surgery to reconstruct the anterior cruciate ligament using quadruple flexor tendon grafts, and to propose a new technique for its measurement. Methods: The study involved 25 patients aged 18-43 years over a six-month period. The assessment was based on radiographs taken immediately postoperatively and in the third and sixth months of evolution after operations to reconstruct the anterior cruciate ligament using grafts from the tendons of the semitendinosus and gracilis muscles, fixed in the femur with a transverse metal screw and in the tibia with an interference screw. The radiographs were evaluated in terms of the relative value between the diameter of the tunnel and the bone, both at 2 cm below the medial tibial condyle. Results: There were significant increases in tunnel diameters: 20.56% for radiographs in anteroposterior view and 26.48% in lateral view. Enlargement was present in 48% of anteroposterior and lateral radiographs, but was present in both views in only 16% of the cases. Conclusions: Bone tunnel enlargement is a phenomenon found in the first months after surgery to reconstruct the anterior cruciate ligament. The measurement technique proposed in this study was sufficient to detect it. PMID:27027030
Koudoumnakis, Emmanouel; Vlastos, Ioannis M; Parpounas, Kostas; Houlakis, Michael
2012-03-01
Two-flap palatoplasty is commonly used to treat cleft palate defects, but only a few reports on outcomes have been published in the literature. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 257 cases of cleft palate treated with two-flap palatoplasty at a single center in Greece over a 13-year period. Our outcomes data included surgical complication rates, the results of speech assessments, midface development, and other parameters. We found a low rate of short- and long-term complications that required revision surgery, such as symptomatic fistula (5.4%) and velopharyngeal insufficiency (5.3%). Speech outcomes in relation to intelligibility, hypernasality, and nasal emissions were satisfactory in 70 to 86% of patients. Dental arch relationships, as estimated by the 5-Year-Olds Index, were judged to be either good or excellent in 62% of those evaluated. A considerable proportion of patients (45%) who had otitis media with effusion experienced a spontaneous resolution without the use of tympanostomy tubes 2 to 8 months after their operation. We conclude that two-flap palatoplasty is an effective procedure that warrants further attention. We describe the surgical technique in detail. Our technique includes a modified intravelar veloplasty that incorporates near-total muscle retropositioning. PMID:22430346
Cokkinos, D; Antypa, E; Stefanidis, K; Tserotas, P; Kostaras, V; Parlamenti, A; Tavernaraki, K; Piperopoulos, P N
2012-02-01
Patients with blunt abdominal trauma are initially imaged with ultrasound (US) for the evaluation of free abdominal fluid. However, lacerations of solid organs can be overlooked. Although computed tomography (CT) is the gold standard technique for abdominal trauma imaging, overutilization, ionizing radiation, need to transport the patient and potential artifacts are well known disadvantages. Contrast-enhanced US (CEUS) can be used as an imaging tool between the two methods. It can easily and reliably reveal solid abdominal organ injuries in patients with low-energy localized trauma and decrease the number of CT scans performed. It can be rapidly performed at the patient's bedside with no need for transportation. There are only very few contraindications and anaphylactoid reactions are extremely rare. Altogether, CEUS has proved to be very helpful for the initial imaging of traumatic lesions of the liver, kidney and spleen, as well as for patient follow-up. PMID:22274907
Semisymmetric systems: Hermitian formalism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buchdahl, H. A.
1995-04-01
The power series representing the characteristic function of a regular semisymmetric system involves four linearly independent rotational invariants XA (A=1,.. .,4) that jointly satisfy a quadratic identity. When the X A are appropriately chosen, this takes the form -(X1)2-(X2 )2-(X3)2+( X4)2=0 . The XA are thus the components of a null vector in a four-dimensional Euclidean space whose metric is gAB: =diag(-1,-1 ,-1,1) . Such a vector is equivalent to a simple 2-spinor xi alpha . The intrinsic presence of a spin vector in the formalism used hitherto suggests that it might be of advantage to replace the latter with an explicit 2-spinor formalism. A way of doing this is examined.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fraga, Ignacio; Cea, Luis; Puertas, Jerónimo; Salsón, Santiago; Petazzi, Alberto
2016-04-01
In this paper we present a new methodology to compute rainfall fields including the quantification of predictions uncertainties using raingauge network data. The proposed methodology comprises two steps. Firstly, the ordinary krigging technique is used to determine the estimated rainfall depth in every point of the study area. Then multiple equi-probable errors fields, which comprise both interpolation and measuring uncertainties, are added to the krigged field resulting in multiple rainfall predictions. To compute these error fields first the standard deviation of the krigging estimation is determined following the cross-validation based procedure described in Delrieu et al. (2014). Then, the standard deviation field is sampled using non-conditioned Gaussian random fields. The proposed methodology was applied to study 7 rain events in a 60x60 km area of the west coast of Galicia, in the Northwest of Spain. Due to its location at the junction between tropical and polar regions, the study area suffers from frequent intense rainfalls characterized by a great variability in terms of both space and time. Rainfall data from the tipping bucket raingauge network operated by MeteoGalicia were used to estimate the rainfall fields using the proposed methodology. The obtained predictions were then validated using rainfall data from 3 additional rain gauges installed within the CAPRI project (Probabilistic flood prediction with high resolution hydrologic models from radar rainfall estimates, funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness. Reference CGL2013-46245-R.). Results show that both the mean hyetographs and the peak intensities are correctly predicted. The computed hyetographs present a good fit to the experimental data and most of the measured values fall within the 95% confidence intervals. Also, most of the experimental values outside the confidence bounds correspond to time periods of low rainfall depths, where the inaccuracy of the measuring devices
2012-01-01
Background Wire closure still remains the preferred technique despite reasonable disadvantages. Associated complications, such as infection and sternal instability, cause time- and cost-consuming therapies. We present a new tool for sternal closure with its first clinical experience and results. Methods The sternal ZipFixTM System is based on the cable-tie principle. It primarily consists of biocompatible Poly-Ether-Ether-Ketone implants and is predominantly used peristernally through the intercostal space. The system provides a large implant-to-bone contact for better force distribution and for avoiding bone cut through. Results 50 patients were closed with the ZipFixTM system. No sternal instability was observed at 30 days. Two patients developed a mediastinitis that necessitated the removal of the device; however, the ZipFixTM were intact and the sternum remained stable. Conclusions In our initial evaluation, the short-term results have shown that the sternal ZipFixTM can be used safely and effectively. It is fast, easy to use and serves as a potential alternative for traditional wire closure. PMID:22731778
Formality of the Chinese collective leadership.
Li, Haiying; Graesser, Arthur C
2016-09-01
We investigated the linguistic patterns in the discourse of four generations of the collective leadership of the Communist Party of China (CPC) from 1921 to 2012. The texts of Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaoping, Jiang Zemin, and Hu Jintao were analyzed using computational linguistic techniques (a Chinese formality score) to explore the persuasive linguistic features of the leaders in the contexts of power phase, the nation's education level, power duration, and age. The study was guided by the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion, which includes a central route (represented by formal discourse) versus a peripheral route (represented by informal discourse) to persuasion. The results revealed that these leaders adopted the formal, central route more when they were in power than before they came into power. The nation's education level was a significant factor in the leaders' adoption of the persuasion strategy. The leaders' formality also decreased with their increasing age and in-power times. However, the predictability of these factors for formality had subtle differences among the different types of leaders. These results enhance our understanding of the Chinese collective leadership and the role of formality in politically persuasive messages. PMID:27406253
Formal verification of an avionics microprocessor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Srivas, Mandayam, K.; Miller, Steven P.
1995-01-01
Formal specification combined with mechanical verification is a promising approach for achieving the extremely high levels of assurance required of safety-critical digital systems. However, many questions remain regarding their use in practice: Can these techniques scale up to industrial systems, where are they likely to be useful, and how should industry go about incorporating them into practice? This report discusses a project undertaken to answer some of these questions, the formal verification of the AAMPS microprocessor. This project consisted of formally specifying in the PVS language a rockwell proprietary microprocessor at both the instruction-set and register-transfer levels and using the PVS theorem prover to show that the microcode correctly implemented the instruction-level specification for a representative subset of instructions. Notable aspects of this project include the use of a formal specification language by practicing hardware and software engineers, the integration of traditional inspections with formal specifications, and the use of a mechanical theorem prover to verify a portion of a commercial, pipelined microprocessor that was not explicitly designed for formal verification.
(abstract) Formal Inspection Technology Transfer Program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Welz, Linda A.; Kelly, John C.
1993-01-01
A Formal Inspection Technology Transfer Program, based on the inspection process developed by Michael Fagan at IBM, has been developed at JPL. The goal of this program is to support organizations wishing to use Formal Inspections to improve the quality of software and system level engineering products. The Technology Transfer Program provides start-up materials and assistance to help organizations establish their own Formal Inspection program. The course materials and certified instructors associated with the Technology Transfer Program have proven to be effective in classes taught at other NASA centers as well as at JPL. Formal Inspections (NASA tailored Fagan Inspections) are a set of technical reviews whose objective is to increase quality and reduce the cost of software development by detecting and correcting errors early. A primary feature of inspections is the removal of engineering errors before they amplify into larger and more costly problems downstream in the development process. Note that the word 'inspection' is used differently in software than in a manufacturing context. A Formal Inspection is a front-end quality enhancement technique, rather than a task conducted just prior to product shipment for the purpose of sorting defective systems (manufacturing usage). Formal Inspections are supporting and in agreement with the 'total quality' approach being adopted by many NASA centers.
Formal concept analysis and linguistic hedges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belohlavek, Radim; Vychodil, Vilem
2012-07-01
This paper presents an application of linguistic hedges to formal concept analysis of data with fuzzy attributes. Formal concept analysis aims at extraction of particular (bi-)clusters, called formal concepts, from data. The clusters link collections of objects (extents) and attributes (intents), and have a clear interpretation due to a simple verbal description of the concept-forming operators. We insert linguistic hedges such as 'very' or 'extremely' in the description of the operators. In this way, linguistic hedges become parameters for formal concept analysis that control the number of clusters extracted from data. Namely, as we show theoretically as well as experimentally, stronger hedges result in a smaller number of clusters. The new concept-forming operators form Galois-like connections. We study their properties and axiomatize them. Then, we show that a concept lattice with hedges, i.e. the set of all formal concepts of the new operators is indeed a complete lattice which is isomorphic to a particular ordinary concept lattice. We describe the isomorphism and its inverse. These mappings serve as translation procedures. As a consequence, we obtain a theorem characterizing the structure of concept lattices with hedges which generalizes the well-known main theorem of ordinary concept lattices. The isomorphism and its inverse enable us to compute a concept lattice with hedges using algorithms for ordinary concept lattices. We demonstrate by experiments that when selecting various hedges from the strongest to weaker hedges, the reduction in size of the corresponding concept lattices is smooth. From a broader perspective, we argue that linguistic hedges represent mathematically and computationally a feasible way to parameterize methods for knowledge extraction from data that enable one to emphasize or to suppress extracted patterns while keeping their interpretation.
Identifying Concrete and Formal Operational Children.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Docherty, Edward M.
This paper presents a study designed to determine if groups of concrete and formal operational children can be identified through the technique of cluster analysis, using a battery of Piagetian tasks. A Total of 64 subjects, 8 boys and 8 girls from each of the second, fourth, sixth, and eighth grade levels, were selected from a public elementary…
Formal caregivers of older adults: reflection about their practice
Batista, Marina Picazzio Perez; Barros, Juliana de Oliveira; de Almeida, Maria Helena Morgani; Mângia, Elisabete Ferreira; Lancman, Selma
2014-01-01
OBJECTIVE To understand the job function of caregivers of older adults and contribute to the debate on the consolidation of this professional practice. METHODOLOGICAL PROCEDURES This is a descriptive, qualitative, and exploratory study. Four focal group sessions were performed in 2011 with 11 elderly companions, formal caregivers of older adults in the Programa Acompanhante de Idosos (Program for Caregivers of Older Adults), Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil. These sessions, guided by a semi-structured script, were audio-recorded and fully transcribed. Data were analyzed using the Content Analysis technique, Thematic Modality. RESULTS In view of considering the caregivers of older adults as a new category of workers, it was difficult to define their duties. The elderly companions themselves as well as the care receivers, their families, and the professionals that comprised the team were unclear about their duties. The professional practice of these formal caregivers has been built on the basis of constant discussions and negotiations among them and other team members in Programa Acompanhante de Idosos during daily work. This was achieved via a recognition process of their job functions and by setting apart other workers’ exclusive responsibilities. CONCLUSIONS The delimitation of specific job functions for elderly companions is currently one of the greatest challenges faced by these workers to develop and consolidate their professional role as well as improve Programa Acompanhante de Idosos. PMID:25372163
Formalizing the concept of sound.
Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.
1999-08-03
The notion of formalized music implies that a musical composition can be described in mathematical terms. In this article we explore some formal aspects of music and propose a framework for an abstract approach.
Strategic Defense Initiative Architecture Dataflow Modeling Technique, Version 1. 5. Final report
Linn, J.L.; Ardoin, C.D.; Linn, C.J.; Edwards, S.E.; Kappel, M.R.
1988-04-22
This report presents the SDI Architecture Dataflow Modeling Technique (SADMT), a uniform formal notation for the description of SDI system architectures and Battle Management and Command, Control, and Communications (BM/C3) architectures. SADMT is a technique for thinking about and describing architectural processes and structures that use the typing and functional facilities of the Ada programming language. This document defines SADMT and the programming interface to the SADMT Simulation Facility (SADMT/SF). The issues addressed here are those relevant to providing formal descriptions of system structure and behavior for interface consistency checking, system simulation, and system evaluation.
Keldysh formalism for multiple parallel worlds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ansari, M.; Nazarov, Y. V.
2016-03-01
We present a compact and self-contained review of the recently developed Keldysh formalism for multiple parallel worlds. The formalism has been applied to consistent quantum evaluation of the flows of informational quantities, in particular, to the evaluation of Renyi and Shannon entropy flows. We start with the formulation of the standard and extended Keldysh techniques in a single world in a form convenient for our presentation. We explain the use of Keldysh contours encompassing multiple parallel worlds. In the end, we briefly summarize the concrete results obtained with the method.
Conservation-dissipation formalism of irreversible thermodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Yi; Hong, Liu; Yang, Zaibao; Yong, Wen-An
2015-06-01
We propose a conservation-dissipation formalism (CDF) for coarse-grained descriptions of irreversible processes. This formalism is based on a stability criterion for non-equilibrium thermodynamics. The criterion ensures that non-equilibrium states tend to equilibrium in long time. As a systematic methodology, CDF provides a feasible procedure in choosing non-equilibrium state variables and determining their evolution equations. The equations derived in CDF have a unified elegant form. They are globally hyperbolic, allow a convenient definition of weak solutions, and are amenable to existing numerics. More importantly, CDF is a genuinely nonlinear formalism and works for systems far away from equilibrium. With this formalism, we formulate novel thermodynamics theories for heat conduction in rigid bodies and non-isothermal compressible Maxwell fluid flows as two typical examples. In these examples, the non-equilibrium variables are exactly the conjugate variables of the heat fluxes or stress tensors. The new theory generalizes Cattaneo's law or Maxwell's law in a regularized and nonlinear fashion.
A Formal Basis for Safety Case Patterns
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Denney, Ewen; Pai, Ganesh
2013-01-01
By capturing common structures of successful arguments, safety case patterns provide an approach for reusing strategies for reasoning about safety. In the current state of the practice, patterns exist as descriptive specifications with informal semantics, which not only offer little opportunity for more sophisticated usage such as automated instantiation, composition and manipulation, but also impede standardization efforts and tool interoperability. To address these concerns, this paper gives (i) a formal definition for safety case patterns, clarifying both restrictions on the usage of multiplicity and well-founded recursion in structural abstraction, (ii) formal semantics to patterns, and (iii) a generic data model and algorithm for pattern instantiation. We illustrate our contributions by application to a new pattern, the requirements breakdown pattern, which builds upon our previous work
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Menzel, Christopher; Mayer, Richard J.; Edwards, Douglas D.
1991-01-01
The Process Description Capture Method (IDEF3) is one of several Integrated Computer-Aided Manufacturing (ICAM) DEFinition methods developed by the Air Force to support systems engineering activities, and in particular, to support information systems development. These methods have evolved as a distillation of 'good practice' experience by information system developers and are designed to raise the performance level of the novice practitioner to one comparable with that of an expert. IDEF3 is meant to serve as a knowledge acquisition and requirements definition tool that structures the user's understanding of how a given process, event, or system works around process descriptions. A special purpose graphical language accompanying the method serves to highlight temporal precedence and causality relationships relative to the process or event being described.
Formal methods for Hopfield-like networks.
Ben Amor, Hedi; Corblin, Fabien; Fanchon, Eric; Elena, Adrien; Trilling, Laurent; Demongeot, Jacques; Glade, Nicolas
2013-03-01
Building a meaningful model of biological regulatory network is usually done by specifying the components (e.g. the genes) and their interactions, by guessing the values of parameters, by comparing the predicted behaviors to the observed ones, and by modifying in a trial-error process both architecture and parameters in order to reach an optimal fitness. We propose here a different approach to construct and analyze biological models avoiding the trial-error part, where structure and dynamics are represented as formal constraints. We apply the method to Hopfield-like networks, a formalism often used in both neural and regulatory networks modeling. The aim is to characterize automatically the set of all models consistent with all the available knowledge (about structure and behavior). The available knowledge is formalized into formal constraints. The latter are compiled into Boolean formula in conjunctive normal form and then submitted to a Boolean satisfiability solver. This approach allows to formulate a wide range of queries, expressed in a high level language, and possibly integrating formalized intuitions. In order to explore its potential, we use it to find cycles for 3-nodes networks and to determine the flower morphogenesis regulatory network of Arabidopsis thaliana. Applications of this technique are numerous and concern the building of models from data as well as the design of biological networks possessing specified behaviors. PMID:23381497
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zamora, Julieta Lopez; Reynaga, Francisco Javier Arriaga
2010-01-01
This paper presents results of two research works, the first approaches non-formal education and the second addresses formal education. In both studies in-depth interview techniques were used. There were some points of convergence between them on aspects such as the implementation of learning environments and the integration of ICT. The interview…
Multifractal formalisms of human behavior.
Ihlen, Espen A F; Vereijken, Beatrix
2013-08-01
With the mounting realization that variability is an inevitable part of human behavior comes the need to integrate this phenomenon in concomitant models and theories of motor control. Among other things, this has resulted in a debate throughout the last decades about the origin of variability in behavior, the outcome of which has important implications for motor control theories. To date, a monofractal formalism of variability has been used as the basis for arguing for component- versus interaction-oriented theories of motor control. However, monofractal formalism alone cannot decide between the opposing sides of the debate. The present theoretical overview introduces multifractal formalisms as a necessary extension of the conventional monofractal formalism. In multifractal formalisms, the scale invariance of behavior is numerically defined as a spectrum of scaling exponents, rather than a single average exponent as in the monofractal formalism. Several methods to estimate the multifractal spectrum of scaling exponents - all within two multifractal formalisms called large deviation and Legendre formalism - are introduced and briefly discussed. Furthermore, the multifractal analyses within these two formalisms are applied to several performance tasks to illustrate how explanations of motor control vary with the methods used. The main section of the theoretical overview discusses the implications of multifractal extensions of the component- and interaction-oriented models for existing theories of motor control. PMID:24054900
Formal, Non-Formal and Informal Learning in the Sciences
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ainsworth, Heather L.; Eaton, Sarah Elaine
2010-01-01
This research report investigates the links between formal, non-formal and informal learning and the differences between them. In particular, the report aims to link these notions of learning to the field of sciences and engineering in Canada and the United States, including professional development of adults working in these fields. It offers…
Matalas, N.C.
1991-01-01
What constitutes a comprehensive description of drought, a description forming a basis for answering why a drought occurred is outlined. The description entails two aspects that are "naturally" coupled, named physical and economic, and treats the set of hydrologic measures of droughts in terms of their multivariate distribution, rather than in terms of a collection of the marginal distributions. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag.
Toward a Formal Evaluation of Refactorings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Paul, John; Kuzmina, Nadya; Gamboa, Ruben; Caldwell, James
2008-01-01
Refactoring is a software development strategy that characteristically alters the syntactic structure of a program without changing its external behavior [2]. In this talk we present a methodology for extracting formal models from programs in order to evaluate how incremental refactorings affect the verifiability of their structural specifications. We envision that this same technique may be applicable to other types of properties such as those that concern the design and maintenance of safety-critical systems.
Extension of Liouville Formalism to Postinstability Dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zak, Michail
2003-01-01
A mathematical formalism has been developed for predicting the postinstability motions of a dynamic system governed by a system of nonlinear equations and subject to initial conditions. Previously, there was no general method for prediction and mathematical modeling of postinstability behaviors (e.g., chaos and turbulence) in such a system. The formalism of nonlinear dynamics does not afford means to discriminate between stable and unstable motions: an additional stability analysis is necessary for such discrimination. However, an additional stability analysis does not suggest any modifications of a mathematical model that would enable the model to describe postinstability motions efficiently. The most important type of instability that necessitates a postinstability description is associated with positive Lyapunov exponents. Such an instability leads to exponential growth of small errors in initial conditions or, equivalently, exponential divergence of neighboring trajectories. The development of the present formalism was undertaken in an effort to remove positive Lyapunov exponents. The means chosen to accomplish this is coupling of the governing dynamical equations with the corresponding Liouville equation that describes the evolution of the flow of error probability. The underlying idea is to suppress the divergences of different trajectories that correspond to different initial conditions, without affecting a target trajectory, which is one that starts with prescribed initial conditions.
Recognising Women's Skill. EAE647 Non-Formal Learning.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cox, Eva; Leonard, Helen
The material in this monograph is part of the study materials for the one-semester distance education unit, Non-Formal Learning, in the Open Campus Program at Deakin University (Australia). It is designed to raise issues relating to skill definition. "Choosing a Worker or How Good Are Your Job Descriptions?" explores why interpersonal or…
Formal Foundations for Hierarchical Safety Cases
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Denney, Ewen; Pai, Ganesh; Whiteside, Iain
2015-01-01
Safety cases are increasingly being required in many safety-critical domains to assure, using structured argumentation and evidence, that a system is acceptably safe. However, comprehensive system-wide safety arguments present appreciable challenges to develop, understand, evaluate, and manage, partly due to the volume of information that they aggregate, such as the results of hazard analysis, requirements analysis, testing, formal verification, and other engineering activities. Previously, we have proposed hierarchical safety cases, hicases, to aid the comprehension of safety case argument structures. In this paper, we build on a formal notion of safety case to formalise the use of hierarchy as a structuring technique, and show that hicases satisfy several desirable properties. Our aim is to provide a formal, theoretical foundation for safety cases. In particular, we believe that tools for high assurance systems should be granted similar assurance to the systems to which they are applied. To this end, we formally specify and prove the correctness of key operations for constructing and managing hicases, which gives the specification for implementing hicases in AdvoCATE, our toolset for safety case automation. We motivate and explain the theory with the help of a simple running example, extracted from a real safety case and developed using AdvoCATE.
Mending the Gap, An Effort to Aid the Transfer of Formal Methods Technology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hayhurst, Kelly
2009-01-01
Formal methods can be applied to many of the development and verification activities required for civil avionics software. RTCA/DO-178B, Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification, gives a brief description of using formal methods as an alternate method of compliance with the objectives of that standard. Despite this, the avionics industry at large has been hesitant to adopt formal methods, with few developers have actually used formal methods for certification credit. Why is this so, given the volume of evidence of the benefits of formal methods? This presentation will explore some of the challenges to using formal methods in a certification context and describe the effort by the Formal Methods Subgroup of RTCA SC-205/EUROCAE WG-71 to develop guidance to make the use of formal methods a recognized approach.
Formal methods demonstration project for space applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Divito, Ben L.
1995-01-01
The Space Shuttle program is cooperating in a pilot project to apply formal methods to live requirements analysis activities. As one of the larger ongoing shuttle Change Requests (CR's), the Global Positioning System (GPS) CR involves a significant upgrade to the Shuttle's navigation capability. Shuttles are to be outfitted with GPS receivers and the primary avionics software will be enhanced to accept GPS-provided positions and integrate them into navigation calculations. Prior to implementing the CR, requirements analysts at Loral Space Information Systems, the Shuttle software contractor, must scrutinize the CR to identify and resolve any requirements issues. We describe an ongoing task of the Formal Methods Demonstration Project for Space Applications whose goal is to find an effective way to use formal methods in the GPS CR requirements analysis phase. This phase is currently under way and a small team from NASA Langley, ViGYAN Inc. and Loral is now engaged in this task. Background on the GPS CR is provided and an overview of the hardware/software architecture is presented. We outline the approach being taken to formalize the requirements, only a subset of which is being attempted. The approach features the use of the PVS specification language to model 'principal functions', which are major units of Shuttle software. Conventional state machine techniques form the basis of our approach. Given this background, we present interim results based on a snapshot of work in progress. Samples of requirements specifications rendered in PVS are offered to illustration. We walk through a specification sketch for the principal function known as GPS Receiver State processing. Results to date are summarized and feedback from Loral requirements analysts is highlighted. Preliminary data is shown comparing issues detected by the formal methods team versus those detected using existing requirements analysis methods. We conclude by discussing our plan to complete the remaining
Unambiguous formalism for higher order Lagrangian field theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campos, Cédric M.; de León, Manuel; Martín de Diego, David; Vankerschaver, Joris
2009-11-01
The aim of this paper is to propose an unambiguous intrinsic formalism for higher order field theories which avoids the arbitrariness in the generalization of the conventional description of field theories, and implies the existence of different Cartan forms and Legendre transformations. We propose a differential-geometric setting for the dynamics of a higher order field theory, based on the Skinner and Rusk formalism for mechanics. This approach incorporates aspects of both the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian description, since the field equations are formulated using the Lagrangian on a higher order jet bundle and the canonical multisymplectic form on its affine dual. As both of these objects are uniquely defined, the Skinner-Rusk approach has the advantage that it does not suffer from the arbitrariness in conventional descriptions. The result is that we obtain a unique and global intrinsic version of the Euler-Lagrange equations for higher order field theories. Several examples illustrate our construction.
Analyzing phonetic confusions using formal concept analysis.
Peláez-Moreno, C; García-Moral, A I; Valverde-Albacete, F J
2010-09-01
Confusion matrices have been used as a tool for the analysis of speech perception or human speech recognition (HSR) for decades. However, they are rarely employed in automatic speech recognition (ASR) mainly due to the lack of a systematic procedure for their exploration. The generalization of formal concept analysis employed in this paper provides a conceptual interpretation of confusion matrices that enables the analysis of the structure of confusions for both human and machine performances. Generalized formal concept analysis transforms confusion matrices into ordered lattices of confusion events, supporting classic results in HSR that identify a hierarchy of virtual articulatory-acoustic channels. Translating this technique into ASR, a detailed map of the relationships among the speech units employed in the system can be traced to make different sources of confusions apparent: the influence of the lexicon, segmentation errors, dialectal variations or limitations of the feature extraction procedures, among others. PMID:20815472
Hardware description languages
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tucker, Jerry H.
1994-01-01
Hardware description languages are special purpose programming languages. They are primarily used to specify the behavior of digital systems and are rapidly replacing traditional digital system design techniques. This is because they allow the designer to concentrate on how the system should operate rather than on implementation details. Hardware description languages allow a digital system to be described with a wide range of abstraction, and they support top down design techniques. A key feature of any hardware description language environment is its ability to simulate the modeled system. The two most important hardware description languages are Verilog and VHDL. Verilog has been the dominant language for the design of application specific integrated circuits (ASIC's). However, VHDL is rapidly gaining in popularity.
NASA Formal Methods Workshop, 1990
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Butler, Ricky W. (Compiler)
1990-01-01
The workshop brought together researchers involved in the NASA formal methods research effort for detailed technical interchange and provided a mechanism for interaction with representatives from the FAA and the aerospace industry. The workshop also included speakers from industry to debrief the formal methods researchers on the current state of practice in flight critical system design, verification, and certification. The goals were: define and characterize the verification problem for ultra-reliable life critical flight control systems and the current state of practice in industry today; determine the proper role of formal methods in addressing these problems, and assess the state of the art and recent progress toward applying formal methods to this area.
Formalism and functionalism in linguistics.
Newmeyer, Frederick J
2010-05-01
Formalism and functionalism in linguistics are often taken to be diametrically opposed approaches. However, close examination of the relevant phenomena reveals that the two are complementary, rather than being irrevocably in opposition to each other. One can be a formal linguist and a functional linguist at the same time, without there being any contradiction. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26271372
Complex cobordism and formal groups
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buchstaber, Viktor M.
2012-10-01
This paper surveys the current state of the theory of cobordism, focusing on geometric and universal properties of complex cobordism, the Landweber-Novikov algebra, and the formal group law of geometric cobordisms. The relationships with K-theory, algebraic cycles, formal group laws, compact Lie group actions on manifolds, toric topology, infinite-dimensional Lie algebras, and nilmanifolds are described. The survey contains key results and open problems. Bibliography: 124 titles.
Formal Specification of the OpenMP Memory Model
Bronevetsky, G; de Supinski, B
2006-12-19
OpenMP [2] is an important API for shared memory programming, combining shared memory's potential for performance with a simple programming interface. Unfortunately, OpenMP lacks a critical tool for demonstrating whether programs are correct: a formal memory model. Instead, the current official definition of the OpenMP memory model (the OpenMP 2.5 specification [2]) is in terms of informal prose. As a result, it is impossible to verify OpenMP applications formally since the prose does not provide a formal consistency model that precisely describes how reads and writes on different threads interact. We expand on our previous work that focused on the formal verification of OpenMP programs through a formal memory model [?]. As in that work, our formalization, which is derived from the existing prose model [2], provides a two-step process to verify whether an observed OpenMP execution is conformant. This paper extends the model to cover the entire specification. In addition to this formalization, our contributions include a discussion of ambiguities in the current prose-based memory model description. Although our formal model may not capture the current informal memory model perfectly, in part due to these ambiguities, our model reflects our understanding of the informal model's intent. We conclude with several examples that may indicate areas of the OpenMP memory model that need further refinement, however it is specified. Our goal is to motivate the OpenMP community to adopt those refinements eventually, ideally through a formal model, in later OpenMP specifications.
Formal verification of digital circuits described in VHDL
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salem, Ashraf Mohammed El-Farghly
1992-01-01
The formal verification of digital circuits described in VHSIC (very high speed integrated circuit) hardware description language (VHDL) is presented. VHDL is made processable by proof tools. A subset, called P-VHDL, dedicated to the description of combinatorial and synchronous sequential circuits is defined. The semantics of this subset is much simpler than the complete VHDL. The delta delay is replaced by a serialization function, and the time scale is chosen equal to the clock period. The use of the finite state machine as a formal model for the subset became possible. The finite state machine semantics is shown to represent the P-VHDL semantics. Based on this formal model, a proof oriented compiler for P-VHDL is written. A complete denotational semantic for P-VHDL is defined. Three different domains for the three values holders in the language are proposed: the variables, the signals, and the registers. Formal semantics for the VHDL timing constructs are given. The equivalence between these semantics and the VHDL informal operational semantics is proven. It is shown that semantics can form a basis for building a formal timing verifier.
Statistical foundation of the fluid analogue of the soliton formalism
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tchen, C. M.
1986-01-01
A fully nonlinear analysis is used to develop a general soliton formalism for the description of the nonlinear evolution of soliton fluctuations in both plasmas and classical fluids. From the Navier-Stokes equations for plasmas and compressible fluids of two scales, two equations for the propagation of density waves are derived. A fast soliton field is spontaneously created by rarefaction, and a slow density wave modulates the field intensity as a ponderomotive force. Constitutive properties are demonstrated using a Lagrangian-kinetic formalism of the fluctuation-dissipation theory.
Shi, Runhua; McLarty, Jerry W
2009-10-01
In this article, we introduced basic concepts of statistics, type of distributions, and descriptive statistics. A few examples were also provided. The basic concepts presented herein are only a fraction of the concepts related to descriptive statistics. Also, there are many commonly used distributions not presented herein, such as Poisson distributions for rare events and exponential distributions, F distributions, and logistic distributions. More information can be found in many statistics books and publications. PMID:19891281
Results of a Formal Methods Demonstration Project
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kelly, J.; Covington, R.; Hamilton, D.
1994-01-01
This paper describes the results of a cooperative study conducted by a team of researchers in formal methods at three NASA Centers to demonstrate FM techniques and to tailor them to critical NASA software systems. This pilot project applied FM to an existing critical software subsystem, the Shuttle's Jet Select subsystem (Phase I of an ongoing study). The present study shows that FM can be used successfully to uncover hidden issues in a highly critical and mature Functional Subsystem Software Requirements (FSSR) specification which are very difficult to discover by traditional means.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Owre, Sam; Shankar, Natarajan
1999-01-01
A specification language is a medium for expressing what is computed rather than how it is computed. Specification languages share some features with programming languages but are also different in several important ways. For our purpose, a specification language is a logic within which the behavior of computational systems can be formalized. Although a specification can be used to simulate the behavior of such systems, we mainly use specifications to state and prove system properties with mechanical assistance. We present the formal semantics of the specification language of SRI's Prototype Verification System (PVS). This specification language is based on the simply typed lambda calculus. The novelty in PVS is that it contains very expressive language features whose static analysis (e.g., typechecking) requires the assistance of a theorem prover. The formal semantics illuminates several of the design considerations underlying PVS, the interaction between theorem proving and typechecking.
Formal verification of mathematical software
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sutherland, D.
1984-01-01
Methods are investigated for formally specifying and verifying the correctness of mathematical software (software which uses floating point numbers and arithmetic). Previous work in the field was reviewed. A new model of floating point arithmetic called the asymptotic paradigm was developed and formalized. Two different conceptual approaches to program verification, the classical Verification Condition approach and the more recently developed Programming Logic approach, were adapted to use the asymptotic paradigm. These approaches were then used to verify several programs; the programs chosen were simplified versions of actual mathematical software.
Pedagogical basis of DAS formalism in engineering education
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hiltunen, J.; Heikkinen, E.-P.; Jaako, J.; Ahola, J.
2011-03-01
The paper presents a new approach for a bachelor-level curriculum structure in engineering. The approach is called DAS formalism according to its three phases: description, analysis and synthesis. Although developed specifically for process and environmental engineering, DAS formalism has a generic nature and it could also be used in other engineering fields. The motivation for this new curriculum structure originates from the urge to solve the problems that engineering education has faced during the past decades, e.g. student recruitment problems and dissatisfactory learning outcomes. The focus of this paper is on the structure of the curriculum but the content is also discussed when it has an effect on the structure and its implementation. The presented structure, i.e. DAS formalism, builds upon the ideas of some classical pedagogical theories, which have regularly been applied at course level but seldom used to solve curriculum-level issues.
A Formalization of Student Modeling.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Danna, Frederic; Sebillot, Pascale
1997-01-01
Focuses on student modeling within an Intelligent Tutoring System. Describes three domain-independent properties that the formalism representing student knowledge and the processes synthesizing this knowledge must possess to build accurate student models for second-language learning. Notes when, how, and where hypothetical reasoning mechanisms…
Chao Formalism & Kondratenko Crossing Tests
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raymond, R. S.; Chao, A. W.; Krisch, A. D.; Leonova, M. A.; Morozov, V. S.; Sivers, D. W.; Wong, V. K.; Gebel, R.; Lehrach, A.; Lorentz, B.; Maier, R.; Prasuhn, D.; Schnase, A.; Stockhorst, H.; Hinterberger, F.; Ulbrich, K.; Kondratenko, A. M.
2007-06-01
We recently started testing Chao's proposed new matrix formalism for describing the spin dynamics due to a single spin resonance; this seems to be the first generalization of the Froissart-Stora equation since it was published in 1960. The Chao matrix formalism allows one to calculate analytically the polarization's behavior inside a resonance, which is not possible using the Froissart-Stora equation. We recently tested some Chao formalism predictions using a 1.85 GeV/c polarized deuteron beam stored in COSY. We swept an rf dipole's frequency through 200 Hz while varying the distance from the sweep's end frequency to an rf-induced spin resonance's central frequency. While the Froissart-Stora formula can make no prediction in this case, the data seem to support the Chao formalism. We also started investigating the new Kondratenko method to preserve beam polarization during a spin resonance crossing; the method uses 3 rapid changes of the crossing rate near the resonance. With a proper choice of crossing parameters, Kondratenko Crossing may better preserve the polarization than simple fast crossing. We tested Kondratenko's idea using 2.1 GeV/c polarized protons stored in COSY; the frequency of a ferrite rf dipole was swept though an rf-induced spin resonance using Kondratenko's crossing shape. We have not yet observed a significant advantage of Kondratenko Crossing over simple fast crossing. We plan to study it further by choosing better crossing parameters and a smaller momentum spread.
Management control system description
Bence, P. J.
1990-10-01
This Management Control System (MCS) description describes the processes used to manage the cost and schedule of work performed by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), Richland, Washington. Westinghouse Hanford will maintain and use formal cost and schedule management control systems, as presented in this document, in performing work for the DOE-RL. This MCS description is a controlled document and will be modified or updated as required. This document must be approved by the DOE-RL; thereafter, any significant change will require DOE-RL concurrence. Westinghouse Hanford is the DOE-RL operations and engineering contractor at the Hanford Site. Activities associated with this contract (DE-AC06-87RL10930) include operating existing plant facilities, managing defined projects and programs, and planning future enhancements. This document is designed to comply with Section I-13 of the contract by providing a description of Westinghouse Hanford's cost and schedule control systems used in managing the above activities. 5 refs., 22 figs., 1 tab.
Ambitwistor string theory in the operator formalism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reid-Edwards, R. A.
2016-06-01
After a brief overview of the operator formalism for conventional string theory, an operator formalism for ambitwistor string theory is presented. It is shown how tree level supergravity scattering amplitudes are recovered in this formalism. More general applications of this formalism to loop amplitudes and the construction of an ambitwistor string field theory are briefly discussed.
Integrating Formal Methods and Testing 2002
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cukic, Bojan
2002-01-01
Traditionally, qualitative program verification methodologies and program testing are studied in separate research communities. None of them alone is powerful and practical enough to provide sufficient confidence in ultra-high reliability assessment when used exclusively. Significant advances can be made by accounting not only tho formal verification and program testing. but also the impact of many other standard V&V techniques, in a unified software reliability assessment framework. The first year of this research resulted in the statistical framework that, given the assumptions on the success of the qualitative V&V and QA procedures, significantly reduces the amount of testing needed to confidently assess reliability at so-called high and ultra-high levels (10-4 or higher). The coming years shall address the methodologies to realistically estimate the impacts of various V&V techniques to system reliability and include the impact of operational risk to reliability assessment. Combine formal correctness verification, process and product metrics, and other standard qualitative software assurance methods with statistical testing with the aim of gaining higher confidence in software reliability assessment for high-assurance applications. B) Quantify the impact of these methods on software reliability. C) Demonstrate that accounting for the effectiveness of these methods reduces the number of tests needed to attain certain confidence level. D) Quantify and justify the reliability estimate for systems developed using various methods.
Thermodynamics in f(R) gravity in the Palatini formalism
Bamba, Kazuharu; Geng, Chao-Qiang E-mail: geng@phys.nthu.edu.tw
2010-06-01
We investigate thermodynamics of the apparent horizon in f(R) gravity in the Palatini formalism with non-equilibrium and equilibrium descriptions. We demonstrate that it is more transparent to understand the horizon entropy in the equilibrium framework than that in the non-equilibrium one. Furthermore, we show that the second law of thermodynamics can be explicitly verified in both phantom and non-phantom phases for the same temperature of the universe outside and inside the apparent horizon.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beller, Charley
2013-01-01
The study of definite descriptions has been a central part of research in linguistics and philosophy of language since Russell's seminal work "On Denoting" (Russell 1905). In that work Russell quickly dispatches analyses of denoting expressions with forms like "no man," "some man," "a man," and "every…
Formalization of treatment guidelines using Fuzzy Cognitive Maps and semantic web tools.
Papageorgiou, Elpiniki I; Roo, Jos De; Huszka, Csaba; Colaert, Dirk
2012-02-01
Therapy decision making and support in medicine deals with uncertainty and needs to take into account the patient's clinical parameters, the context of illness and the medical knowledge of the physician and guidelines to recommend a treatment therapy. This research study is focused on the formalization of medical knowledge using a cognitive process, called Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs) and semantic web approach. The FCM technique is capable of dealing with situations including uncertain descriptions using similar procedure such as human reasoning does. Thus, it was selected for the case of modeling and knowledge integration of clinical practice guidelines. The semantic web tools were established to implement the FCM approach. The knowledge base was constructed from the clinical guidelines as the form of if-then fuzzy rules. These fuzzy rules were transferred to FCM modeling technique and, through the semantic web tools, the whole formalization was accomplished. The problem of urinary tract infection (UTI) in adult community was examined for the proposed approach. Forty-seven clinical concepts and eight therapy concepts were identified for the antibiotic treatment therapy problem of UTIs. A preliminary pilot-evaluation study with 55 patient cases showed interesting findings; 91% of the antibiotic treatments proposed by the implemented approach were in fully agreement with the guidelines and physicians' opinions. The results have shown that the suggested approach formalizes medical knowledge efficiently and gives a front-end decision on antibiotics' suggestion for cystitis. Concluding, modeling medical knowledge/therapeutic guidelines using cognitive methods and web semantic tools is both reliable and useful. PMID:21911082
Formal methods in the development of safety critical software systems
Williams, L.G.
1991-11-15
As the use of computers in critical control systems such as aircraft controls, medical instruments, defense systems, missile controls, and nuclear power plants has increased, concern for the safety of those systems has also grown. Much of this concern has focused on the software component of those computer-based systems. This is primarily due to historical experience with software systems that often exhibit larger numbers of errors than their hardware counterparts and the fact that the consequences of a software error may endanger human life, property, or the environment. A number of different techniques have been used to address the issue of software safety. Some are standard software engineering techniques aimed at reducing the number of faults in a software protect, such as reviews and walkthroughs. Others, including fault tree analysis, are based on identifying and reducing hazards. This report examines the role of one such technique, formal methods, in the development of software for safety critical systems. The use of formal methods to increase the safety of software systems is based on their role in reducing the possibility of software errors that could lead to hazards. The use of formal methods in the development of software systems is controversial. Proponents claim that the use of formal methods can eliminate errors from the software development process, and produce programs that are probably correct. Opponents claim that they are difficult to learn and that their use increases development costs unacceptably. This report discusses the potential of formal methods for reducing failures in safety critical software systems.
Notoph gauge theory: Superfield formalism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malik, R. P.
2011-05-01
We derive absolutely anticommuting Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) and anti-BRST symmetry transformations for the 4D free Abelian 2-form gauge theory by exploiting the superfield approach to BRST formalism. The antisymmetric tensor gauge field of the above theory was christened as the "notoph" (i.e. the opposite of "photon") gauge field by Ogievetsky and Palubarinov way back in 1966-67. We briefly outline the problems involved in obtaining the absolute anticonimutativity of the (anti-) BRST transformations and their resolution within the framework of geometrical superfield approach to BRST formalism. One of the highlights of our results is the emergence of a Curci-Ferrari type of restriction in the context of 4D Abelian 2-form (notoph) gauge theory which renders the nilpotent (anti-) BRST symmetries of the theory to be absolutely anticommutative in nature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weidner, Anja; Biermann, Horst
2015-08-01
The class of low-carbon, high-alloy CrMnNi steels exhibits outstanding mechanical properties with respect to high strength and ductility due to either transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) or twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) effect depending on chemical composition and deformation temperature. However, the ongoing deformation mechanisms like the formation of stacking faults, martensitic phase transformation or deformation-induced twinning are overlapping and the kinetics of the microstructure evolution are quite complex. Therefore, in addition to macroscopic deformation tests and microstructural investigations by scanning electron microscopy, a combination of several in situ characterization techniques with either high lateral and/or temporal resolution as well as providing integral volume information were chosen in order to give a thoroughly and comprehensive description of the deformation behavior of CrMnNi TRIP/TWIP steels. In addition, the complementary in situ techniques like in situ nanoindentation, micro-digital image correlation, and acoustic emission measurements provide excellent possibility for description of materials behavior on a multiscale level from the submicrometer scale up to the macroscopic range. The results obtained by the complementary techniques can support the future modeling of the deformation behavior of TRIP/TWIP steels dependent on chemical composition, temperature, grain size and grain orientation.
Ritchie, L.T.; Alpert, D.J.; Burke, R.P.; Johnson, J.D.; Ostmeyer, R.M.; Aldrich, D.C.; Blond, R.M.
1984-03-01
The CRAC2 computer code is a revised version of CRAC (Calculation of Reactor Accident Consequences) which was developed for the Reactor Safety Study. This document provides an overview of the CRAC2 code and a description of each of the models used. Significant improvements incorporated into CRAC2 include an improved weather sequence sampling technique, a new evacuation model, and new output capabilities. In addition, refinements have been made to the atmospheric transport and deposition model. Details of the modeling differences between CRAC2 and CRAC are emphasized in the model descriptions.
Formal total synthesis of platencin.
Varseev, Georgy N; Maier, Martin E
2009-01-01
The right bicycle: A concise formal synthesis of platencin was based on an efficient oxygen-mediated palladium-catalyzed cycloalkenylation of 1 to form a bicyclo[3.2.1]octane, and a deoxygenative rearrangement of tosylhydrazone 2 to construct the bicyclo[2.2.2]octane 3. The total yield of the core structure 4 of platencin was 17.5% for 13 steps from a commercially available compound. Ts = p-toluenesulfonyl, TBS = tert-butyldimethylsilyl, Piv = pivaloyl. PMID:19353600
Formal Validation of Aerospace Software
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lesens, David; Moy, Yannick; Kanig, Johannes
2013-08-01
Any single error in critical software can have catastrophic consequences. Even though failures are usually not advertised, some software bugs have become famous, such as the error in the MIM-104 Patriot. For space systems, experience shows that software errors are a serious concern: more than half of all satellite failures from 2000 to 2003 involved software. To address this concern, this paper addresses the use of formal verification of software developed in Ada.
Formalizing narratives using nested circumscription
Baral, C.; Gabaldon, A.; Provetti, A.
1996-12-31
The representation of narratives of actions and observations is a current issue in Knowledge Representation, where traditional plan-oriented treatments of action seem to fall short. To address narratives, Pinto and Reiter have extended Situation Calculus axioms, Kowalski and Sergot have introduced the Event Calculus in Logic Programming, and Baral et al. have defined the specification language L which allows to express actual and hypothetical situations in a uniform setting. The L entailment relation can formalize several forms of reasoning about actions and change. In this paper we illustrate a translation of L theories into Nested Abnormality Theories, a novel form of circumscription. The proof of soundness and completeness of the translation is the main technical result of the paper, but attention is also devoted to the features of Nested Abnormality Theories to capture commonsense reasoning in general and to clarify which assumptions a logical formalization forces upon a domain. These results also help clarifying the relationship between L and other recent circumscriptive formalization for narratives, such as Miller and Shanahan`s.
Proceedings of the First NASA Formal Methods Symposium
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Denney, Ewen (Editor); Giannakopoulou, Dimitra (Editor); Pasareanu, Corina S. (Editor)
2009-01-01
Topics covered include: Model Checking - My 27-Year Quest to Overcome the State Explosion Problem; Applying Formal Methods to NASA Projects: Transition from Research to Practice; TLA+: Whence, Wherefore, and Whither; Formal Methods Applications in Air Transportation; Theorem Proving in Intel Hardware Design; Building a Formal Model of a Human-Interactive System: Insights into the Integration of Formal Methods and Human Factors Engineering; Model Checking for Autonomic Systems Specified with ASSL; A Game-Theoretic Approach to Branching Time Abstract-Check-Refine Process; Software Model Checking Without Source Code; Generalized Abstract Symbolic Summaries; A Comparative Study of Randomized Constraint Solvers for Random-Symbolic Testing; Component-Oriented Behavior Extraction for Autonomic System Design; Automated Verification of Design Patterns with LePUS3; A Module Language for Typing by Contracts; From Goal-Oriented Requirements to Event-B Specifications; Introduction of Virtualization Technology to Multi-Process Model Checking; Comparing Techniques for Certified Static Analysis; Towards a Framework for Generating Tests to Satisfy Complex Code Coverage in Java Pathfinder; jFuzz: A Concolic Whitebox Fuzzer for Java; Machine-Checkable Timed CSP; Stochastic Formal Correctness of Numerical Algorithms; Deductive Verification of Cryptographic Software; Coloured Petri Net Refinement Specification and Correctness Proof with Coq; Modeling Guidelines for Code Generation in the Railway Signaling Context; Tactical Synthesis Of Efficient Global Search Algorithms; Towards Co-Engineering Communicating Autonomous Cyber-Physical Systems; and Formal Methods for Automated Diagnosis of Autosub 6000.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Charconnet, Marie-George
This study describes various patterns of peer tutoring and is based on the use of cultural traditions and endogenous methods, on techniques and equipment acquired from other cultures, on problems presented by the adoption of educational technologies, and on methods needing little sophisticated equipment. A dozen peer tutoring systems are…
Peer Review of a Formal Verification/Design Proof Methodology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1983-01-01
The role of formal verification techniques in system validation was examined. The value and the state of the art of performance proving for fault-tolerant compuers were assessed. The investigation, development, and evaluation of performance proving tools were reviewed. The technical issues related to proof methodologies are examined. The technical issues discussed are summarized.
Proceedings of the Sixth NASA Langley Formal Methods (LFM) Workshop
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rozier, Kristin Yvonne (Editor)
2008-01-01
Today's verification techniques are hard-pressed to scale with the ever-increasing complexity of safety critical systems. Within the field of aeronautics alone, we find the need for verification of algorithms for separation assurance, air traffic control, auto-pilot, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), adaptive avionics, automated decision authority, and much more. Recent advances in formal methods have made verifying more of these problems realistic. Thus we need to continually re-assess what we can solve now and identify the next barriers to overcome. Only through an exchange of ideas between theoreticians and practitioners from academia to industry can we extend formal methods for the verification of ever more challenging problem domains. This volume contains the extended abstracts of the talks presented at LFM 2008: The Sixth NASA Langley Formal Methods Workshop held on April 30 - May 2, 2008 in Newport News, Virginia, USA. The topics of interest that were listed in the call for abstracts were: advances in formal verification techniques; formal models of distributed computing; planning and scheduling; automated air traffic management; fault tolerance; hybrid systems/hybrid automata; embedded systems; safety critical applications; safety cases; accident/safety analysis.
Knowledge formalization of intelligent building
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Žáček, Martin
2016-06-01
This article aim is understanding the basic knowledge about an intelligent building. The notion of the intelligent building can be called any building equipped with computer and communication technology, which can automatically respond to internal or external stimuli. The result of the intelligent building is an automated and foreseeing of activities that enable to reduce operating costs and increase comfort. The best way to use the intelligent building is for a low-energy building, a passive building, or for building with high savings. The output of this article is the formalization of basic knowledge of the intelligent building by RDF graph.
On Vasyliunas's equivalent conductivity formalism
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pontius, D. H., Jr.
1992-01-01
The Vasyliunas's (1972) equivalent conductivity formalism (ECF) for representing the coupling of the ionosphere and the magnetosphere is discussed, and a new, simpler, derivation is presented of the ECF, in which certain of the underlying assumptions and their implications are made transparent. The derivation presented indicates that the only role of the ions in the ECF is to insure quasi-neutrality. It is shown that the ECF is not as robust as usually assumed and that caution must be used to insure that reasonable results are obtained.
47 CFR 8.12 - Formal complaints.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Formal complaints. 8.12 Section 8.12 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.12 Formal complaints. Any person may file a formal complaint alleging a violation of the rules in this part....
47 CFR 8.12 - Formal complaints.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Formal complaints. 8.12 Section 8.12 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.12 Formal complaints. Any person may file a formal complaint alleging a violation of the rules in this part....
47 CFR 8.12 - Formal complaints.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Formal complaints. 8.12 Section 8.12 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.12 Formal complaints. Any person may file a formal complaint alleging a violation of the rules in this part....
47 CFR 8.12 - Formal Complaints.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Formal Complaints. 8.12 Section 8.12 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRESERVING THE OPEN INTERNET § 8.12 Formal Complaints. Any person may file a formal complaint alleging a violation of the rules in this part....
Rochereau, P; Bernardé, A
2012-01-01
This retrospective study documents deep gluteal tenodesis (DGT) used to stabilize coxo- femoral luxation (CFL) in dogs and cats, and to report reluxation rate and clinical outcome after DGT. Medical records (1995-2008) of 65 dogs and cats with traumatic CFL treated by capsulorrhaphy and DGT were reviewed. Animals with radiographic evidence of pre-existing hip dysplasia or articular fractures had been excluded. Reluxation rate and outcome were assessed by clinical examination, performed two and ten weeks postoperatively. Surgical treatment was performed between one and 20 days after the initiating event. No perioperative complications occurred. All hip joints were correctly reduced and stabilized immediately after DGT completion. Except for five patients, placement of the screw was considered correct. In two of these patients, the screws were too long and were protruding into the pelvic canal. In two dogs, the screws were not tightened adequately, and in one dog the screw was too short. Twenty-six dogs and eight cats were re-examined between eight and 13 weeks postoperatively. Re- luxation did not occur in any of them. Outcomes were good in two cases and excellent in 32 cases; all but two had a normal range-of-motion of the reconstructed hip, and were free of lameness and did not show any signs of pain. Traumatic CFL can be stabilized safely and effectively by DGT in dogs and cats. This technique should be considered among other capsular reinforcement techniques in the presence of an intact deep gluteal muscle. PMID:22028015
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McDermott, C. I.; Wenqing, W.; Kolditz, O.
2009-04-01
Exploiting and geo-engineering of fractured rocks in the context of reservoir storage and utilisation is important to applications such as hydrogeology, petroleum geology, geothermal energy, nuclear waste storage and CO2-sequestration. Understanding fluid, mass and energy transport in the three dimensional fracture network is critical to the evaluation planned operating efficiency. Hydraulic, thermal, mechanical and chemical coupled processes under the typical reservoir conditions operate at different scales. Depending on whether the process is continuum dominated (e.g. transfer of stress in the rock body) or discontinuity dominated (e.g. hydraulic transport processes) different methods of numerically investigating and quantifying the system can be applied. A geomechanical facies approach provides the basis for large scale numerical analysis of the coupled processes and prediction of system response. It also provides the basis for a three dimensional holistic understanding of the reservoir systems and the appropriate investigation techniques which could be used to evaluate the capacities of the reservoirs to be investigated as well as appropriate development techniques. Concentrating on the numerical modelling there is often a difficult balance between the numerical stability criteria of the different equation systems which need to be solved to describe the interaction of the dominant processes. The introduction of analytical solutions where possible, functional dependencies and multiple meshes provides on the framework of the geo-mechanical facies concept provides an efficient and stable method for the prediction of the effect of the in situ coupling.
Formal policies for flexible EHR security.
Blobel, Bernd; Pharow, Peter
2006-01-01
State of the Art methodologies for establishing requirements and solutions to securing applications are based on narrative descriptions about the use of available system, sometimes also dedicated to system components. Even nowadays new developments to ruling application security services by the use of predicate logic suffer from being administered manually. Therefore, security and privacy requirements cannot be properly met resulting in restrictions and fears for allowing the use of sensitive data and functions. Because of the sensitivity of personal health information and especially of genetic data with its wider implications beyond the original subject of care, weaknesses in guaranteeing fine-grained security and privacy rules lead to less acceptance or even the avoidance of essential information transfer and use. To overcome the problem, security and privacy have to become properties of the architectural components of the respective health information system. Embedding security into the systems architecture allows for negotiating and enforcing any security and privacy services related to principals, their roles, their relationships, further contextual information as well as other regulations summarized in formally modeled policies. The paper introduces the evolving paradigm of the model-driven architecture, first time also comprehensively deployed for security and privacy services in bio-genetic and health information systems. PMID:17095829
Formal Computer Validation of the Quantum Phase Estimation Algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Witzel, Wayne; Rudinger, Kenneth; Sarovar, Mohan; Carr, Robert
While peer review and scientific consensus provide some assurance to the validity of ideas, people do make mistakes that can slip through the cracks. A plethora of formal methods tools exist and are in use in a variety of settings where high assurance is demanded. Existing tools, however, require a great deal of expertise and lack versatility, demanding a non-trivial translation between a high-level description of a problem and the formal system. Our software, called Prove-It, allows a nearly direct translation between human-recognizable formulations and the underlying formal system. While Prove-It is not designed for particularly efficient automation, a primary goal of other formal methods tools, it is extremely flexible in following a desired line of reasoning (proof structure). This approach is particularly valuable for validating proofs that are already known. We will demonstrate a validation of the Quantum Phase Estimation Algorithm using Prove-It. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. This work was supported by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program at Sandia National Laboratories.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dunn, M. G.; George, W. K.; Rae, W. J.; Woodward, S. H.; Moller, J. C.
1986-01-01
An analytical technique for obtaining the time-resolved heat flux of a turbine blade is applied to the case of a TFE 731-2 hp full-stage rotating turbine. In order to obtain the heat flux values from the thin film gage temperature histories, a finite difference procedure is used to solve the heat equation with variable thermal properties. After setting out the data acquisition and analysis procedures, their application is illustrated for three midspan locations on the blade and operation at the design flow function. Results demonstrate that the magnitude of the heat flux fluctuation due to vane-balde interaction is large by comparison to the time-averaged heat flux at all investigated locations; FFT of a portion of the heat flux record illustrates that the dominant frequencies occur at the wake-cutting frequency and its harmonics.
Hühn, Jonas; Fedeli, Chiara; Zhang, Qian; Masood, Atif; Del Pino, Pablo; Khashab, Niveen M; Papini, Emanuele; Parak, Wolfgang J
2016-06-01
Protein adsorption to nanoparticles is described as a chemical reaction in which proteins attach to binding sites on the nanoparticle surface. This process is defined by a dissociation coefficient, which tells how many proteins are adsorbed per nanoparticle in dependence of the protein concentration. Different techniques to experimentally determine dissociation coefficients of protein adsorption to nanoparticles are reviewed. Results of more than 130 experiments in which dissociation coefficients have been determined are compared. Data show that different methods, nanoparticle systems, and proteins can lead to significantly different dissociation coefficients. However, we observed a clear tendency of smaller dissociation coefficients upon less negative towards more positive zeta potentials of the nanoparticles. The zeta potential thus is a key parameter influencing protein adsorption to the surface of nanoparticles. Our analysis highlights the importance of the characterization of the parameters governing protein-nanoparticle interaction for quantitative evaluation and objective literature comparison. PMID:26748245
A Formal Approach to Requirements-Based Programming
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hinchey, Michael G.; Rash, James L.; Rouff, Christopher A.
2005-01-01
No significant general-purpose method is currently available to mechanically transform system requirements into a provably equivalent model. The widespread use of such a method represents a necessary step toward high-dependability system engineering for numerous application domains. Current tools and methods that start with a formal model of a system and mechanically produce a provably equivalent implementation are valuable but not sufficient. The "gap" unfilled by such tools and methods is that the formal models cannot be proven to be equivalent to the requirements. We offer a method for mechanically transforming requirements into a provably equivalent formal model that can be used as the basis for code generation and other transformations. This method is unique in offering full mathematical tractability while using notations and techniques that are well known and well trusted. Finally, we describe further application areas we are investigating for use of the approach.
Weaving a Formal Methods Education with Problem-Based Learning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gibson, J. Paul
The idea of weaving formal methods through computing (or software engineering) degrees is not a new one. However, there has been little success in developing and implementing such a curriculum. Formal methods continue to be taught as stand-alone modules and students, in general, fail to see how fundamental these methods are to the engineering of software. A major problem is one of motivation — how can the students be expected to enthusiastically embrace a challenging subject when the learning benefits, beyond passing an exam and achieving curriculum credits, are not clear? Problem-based learning has gradually moved from being an innovative pedagogique technique, commonly used to better-motivate students, to being widely adopted in the teaching of many different disciplines, including computer science and software engineering. Our experience shows that a good problem can be re-used throughout a student's academic life. In fact, the best computing problems can be used with children (young and old), undergraduates and postgraduates. In this paper we present a process for weaving formal methods through a University curriculum that is founded on the application of problem-based learning and a library of good software engineering problems, where students learn about formal methods without sitting a traditional formal methods module. The process of constructing good problems and integrating them into the curriculum is shown to be analagous to the process of engineering software. This approach is not intended to replace more traditional formal methods modules: it will better prepare students for such specialised modules and ensure that all students have an understanding and appreciation for formal methods even if they do not go on to specialise in them.
Formal methods technology transfer: Some lessons learned
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hamilton, David
1992-01-01
IBM has a long history in the application of formal methods to software development and verification. There have been many successes in the development of methods, tools and training to support formal methods. And formal methods have been very successful on several projects. However, the use of formal methods has not been as widespread as hoped. This presentation summarizes several approaches that have been taken to encourage more widespread use of formal methods, and discusses the results so far. The basic problem is one of technology transfer, which is a very difficult problem. It is even more difficult for formal methods. General problems of technology transfer, especially the transfer of formal methods technology, are also discussed. Finally, some prospects for the future are mentioned.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schwier, Richard A.; Seaton, J. X.
2013-01-01
Does learner participation vary depending on the learning context? Are there characteristic features of participation evident in formal, non-formal, and informal online learning environments? Six online learning environments were chosen as epitomes of formal, non-formal, and informal learning contexts and compared. Transcripts of online…
Formal modeling of virtual machines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cremers, A. B.; Hibbard, T. N.
1978-01-01
Systematic software design can be based on the development of a 'hierarchy of virtual machines', each representing a 'level of abstraction' of the design process. The reported investigation presents the concept of 'data space' as a formal model for virtual machines. The presented model of a data space combines the notions of data type and mathematical machine to express the close interaction between data and control structures which takes place in a virtual machine. One of the main objectives of the investigation is to show that control-independent data type implementation is only of limited usefulness as an isolated tool of program development, and that the representation of data is generally dictated by the control context of a virtual machine. As a second objective, a better understanding is to be developed of virtual machine state structures than was heretofore provided by the view of the state space as a Cartesian product.
Formalizing an electronic institution for the distribution of human tissues.
Vázquez-Salceda, J; Padget, J A; Cortés, U; López-Navidad, A; Caballero, F
2003-03-01
The use of multi-agent systems (MAS) in health-care domains is increasing. Such agent-mediated medical systems can manage complex tasks and have the potential to adapt gracefully to unexpected events. However, in these kinds of systems the issues of privacy, security and trust are particularly sensitive in relation to matters such as agents' access to patient records, what is acceptable behaviour for an agent in a particular role and the development of trust both between (heterogeneous) agents and between users and agents. To address these issues we propose a formal normative framework, deriving from and developing the notion of an electronic institution. Such institutions provide a framework to define and police norms that guide, control and regulate the behaviour of the heterogeneous agents that participate in the institution. These norms define the acceptable actions that each agent may perform depending on the role or roles it is playing, and clearly specifies the data it may access and/or modify in playing those roles. In this paper, we present the formalization of Carrel, a virtual organization for the procurement of organs and tissues for transplantation purposes, as an electronic institution using the ISLANDER institution specification language as formalizing languages. We demonstrate aspects of the formalization of such an institution, example fragments in the language used for the textual specification, and how such formalization can be used as a blueprint in the implementation of the final agent architecture, through techniques such as skeleton generation. PMID:12667738
Mertziotis, Nikos; Kozyrakis, Diomidis; Bogris, Elias
2013-11-01
Our objective is to describe a novel ligamentolysis approach using a subcoronal incision technique and to determine its safety and efficacy. During the last 7 years, 82 consecutive patients had penile augmentation surgery. Ligamentolysis, through a lower abdominal incision (V-Y plasty) in the first 35 males, was performed (Group A), followed by circumcision ligamentolysis in the next 47 males (Group B). The operation time, complications, and the preoperative and postoperative values of penile length and girth along with the self-esteem and relations questionnaire score as well as satisfaction score was calculated before and after the surgery, and a comparison was conducted between the groups. The mean age at presentation was 32 years (range: 18-56 years). Seventy-nine patients suffered from penile dysmorphophobia, and three patients had micropenises (length <7.5 cm). The mean surgical times were 150.7 and 125.2 min for Groups A and B, respectively (P=0.005). Postoperatively, four Group A patients and three Group B patients (11% versus 6%, respectively) experienced penile retraction (P=0.453). Hypertrophic scars were observed in 18 men (51%) in the former [corrected] group. In the circumcision group, no major wound complications were recorded. The length and girth improvements between the groups were similar. In terms of satisfaction and SEAR improvement, the resulting difference for both variables favored the circumcision group (P=0.007 and <0.001, respectively). With strict selection criteria, the circumcision ligamentolysis procedure compared to the V-Y plasty demonstrated improved results in terms of safety, operation time, retraction rate and cosmetic appearance without any compromise in the gained penile size. PMID:23792340
Applying Formal Verification Techniques to Ambient Assisted Living Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benghazi, Kawtar; Visitación Hurtado, María; Rodríguez, María Luisa; Noguera, Manuel
This paper presents a verification approach based on timed traces semantics and MEDISTAM-RT [1] to check the fulfillment of non-functional requirements, such as timeliness and safety, and assure the correct functioning of the Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) systems. We validate this approach by its application to an Emergency Assistance System for monitoring people suffering from cardiac alteration with syncope.
Computational techniques for the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner formalism
Siegel, H.P.
1981-06-15
In order to apply the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner canonical formulation of general relativity to the study of systems involving material sources, a particular set of coordinate conditions and a stipulated initial absence of gravitational radiation are applied to the reduction on the initial hypersurface of the constraint equations, determining equations for the lapse and shift functions, and evolution equations to forms that are sufficiently tractable for practical computations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ford, David; Huntsman, Steven
2006-06-01
Thermodynamics (in concert with its sister discipline, statistical physics) can be regarded as a data reduction scheme based on partitioning a total system into a subsystem and a bath that weakly interact with each other. Whereas conventionally, the systems investigated require this form of data reduction in order to facilitate prediction, a different problem also occurs, in the context of communication networks, markets, etc. Such “empirically accessible” systems typically overwhelm observers with the sort of information that in the case of (say) a gas is effectively unobtainable. What is required for such complex interacting systems is not prediction (this may be impossible when humans besides the observer are responsible for the interactions) but rather, description as a route to understanding. Still, the need for a thermodynamical data reduction scheme remains. In this paper, we show how an empirical temperature can be computed for finite, empirically accessible systems, and further outline how this construction allows the age-old science of thermodynamics to be fruitfully applied to them.
Formalism for multiphoton plasmon excitation in jellium clusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Connerade, Jean-Patrick; Solov'yov, Andrey V.
2002-07-01
We present a formalism for the description of multiphoton plasmon excitation processes in jellium clusters. By using our method, we demonstrate that, in addition to dipole plasmon excitations, the multipole plasmons (quadrupole, octupole, etc.) can be excited in a cluster by multiphoton absorption processes, which results in a significant difference between plasmon resonance profiles in the cross sections for multiphoton as compared to single-photon absorption. We calculate the cross sections for multiphoton absorption and analyze the balance between the surface and volume plasmon contributions to multipole plasmons.
Measurement-feedback formalism meets information reservoirs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shiraishi, Naoto; Matsumoto, Takumi; Sagawa, Takahiro
2016-01-01
There have been two distinct formalisms of thermodynamics of information: one is the measurement-feedback formalism, which concerns bipartite systems with measurement and feedback processes, and the other is the information reservoir formalism, which considers bit sequences as a thermodynamic fuel. In this paper, we derive a second-law-like inequality by applying the measurement-feedback formalism to information reservoirs, which provides a stronger bound of extractable work than any other known inequality in the same setup. In addition, we demonstrate that the Mandal-Jarzynski model, which is a prominent model of the information reservoir formalism, is equivalent to a model obtained by the contraction of a bipartite system with autonomous measurement and feedback. Our results provide a unified view on the measurement-feedback and the information-reservoir formalisms.
Survey of Existing Tools for Formal Verification.
Punnoose, Ratish J.; Armstrong, Robert C.; Wong, Matthew H.; Jackson, Mayo
2014-12-01
Formal methods have come into wide use because of their effectiveness in verifying "safety and security" requirements of digital systems; a set of requirements for which testing is mostly ineffective. Formal methods are routinely used in the design and verification of high-consequence digital systems in industry. This report outlines our work in assessing the capabilities of commercial and open source formal tools and the ways in which they can be leveraged in digital design workflows.
Anyons in the operational formalism
Neori, Klil H.; Goyal, Philip
2015-01-13
The operational formalism to quantum mechanics seeks to base the theory on a firm foundation of physically well-motivated axioms [1]. It has succeeded in deriving the Feynman rules [2] for general quantum systems. Additional elaborations have applied the same logic to the question of identical particles, confirming the so-called Symmetrization Postulate [3]: that the only two options available are fermions and bosons [4, 5]. However, this seems to run counter to results in two-dimensional systems, which allow for anyons, particles with statistics which interpolate between Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein (see [6] for a review). In this talk we will show that the results in two dimensions can be made compatible with the operational results. That is, we will show that anyonic behavior is a result of the topology of the space in two dimensions [7], and does not depend on the particles being identical; but that nevertheless, if the particles are identical, the resulting system is still anyonic.
Anyons in the operational formalism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neori, Klil H.; Goyal, Philip
2015-01-01
The operational formalism to quantum mechanics seeks to base the theory on a firm foundation of physically well-motivated axioms [1]. It has succeeded in deriving the Feynman rules [2] for general quantum systems. Additional elaborations have applied the same logic to the question of identical particles, confirming the so-called Symmetrization Postulate [3]: that the only two options available are fermions and bosons [4, 5]. However, this seems to run counter to results in two-dimensional systems, which allow for anyons, particles with statistics which interpolate between Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein (see [6] for a review). In this talk we will show that the results in two dimensions can be made compatible with the operational results. That is, we will show that anyonic behavior is a result of the topology of the space in two dimensions [7], and does not depend on the particles being identical; but that nevertheless, if the particles are identical, the resulting system is still anyonic.
Universal formalism of Fano resonance
Huang, Liang; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Luo, Hong-Gang; Grebogi, Celso
2015-01-15
The phenomenon of Fano resonance is ubiquitous in a large variety of wave scattering systems, where the resonance profile is typically asymmetric. Whether the parameter characterizing the asymmetry should be complex or real is an issue of great experimental interest. Using coherent quantum transport as a paradigm and taking into account of the collective contribution from all available scattering channels, we derive a universal formula for the Fano-resonance profile. We show that our formula bridges naturally the traditional Fano formulas with complex and real asymmetry parameters, indicating that the two types of formulas are fundamentally equivalent (except for an offset). The connection also reveals a clear footprint for the conductance resonance during a dephasing process. Therefore, the emergence of complex asymmetric parameter when fitting with experimental data needs to be properly interpreted. Furthermore, we have provided a theory for the width of the resonance, which relates explicitly the width to the degree of localization of the close-by eigenstates and the corresponding coupling matrices or the self-energies caused by the leads. Our work not only resolves the issue about the nature of the asymmetry parameter, but also provides deeper physical insights into the origin of Fano resonance. Since the only assumption in our treatment is that the transport can be described by the Green’s function formalism, our results are also valid for broad disciplines including scattering problems of electromagnetic waves, acoustics, and seismology.
Third NASA Langley Formal Methods Workshop
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holloway, C. Michael (Compiler)
1995-01-01
This publication constitutes the proceedings of NASA Langley Research Center's third workshop on the application of formal methods to the design and verification of life-critical systems. This workshop brought together formal methods researchers, industry engineers, and academicians to discuss the potential of NASA-sponsored formal methods and to investigate new opportunities for applying these methods to industry problems. contained herein are copies of the material presented at the workshop, summaries of many of the presentations, a complete list of attendees, and a detailed summary of the Langley formal methods program. Much of this material is available electronically through the World-Wide Web via the following URL.
The Second NASA Formal Methods Workshop 1992
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, Sally C. (Compiler); Holloway, C. Michael (Compiler); Butler, Ricky W. (Compiler)
1992-01-01
The primary goal of the workshop was to bring together formal methods researchers and aerospace industry engineers to investigate new opportunities for applying formal methods to aerospace problems. The first part of the workshop was tutorial in nature. The second part of the workshop explored the potential of formal methods to address current aerospace design and verification problems. The third part of the workshop involved on-line demonstrations of state-of-the-art formal verification tools. Also, a detailed survey was filled in by the attendees; the results of the survey are compiled.
Towards a formal semantics for Ada 9X
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guaspari, David; Mchugh, John; Wolfgang, Polak; Saaltink, Mark
1995-01-01
The Ada 9X language precision team was formed during the revisions of Ada 83, with the goal of analyzing the proposed design, identifying problems, and suggesting improvements, through the use of mathematical models. This report defines a framework for formally describing Ada 9X, based on Kahn's 'natural semantics', and applies the framework to portions of the language. The proposals for exceptions and optimization freedoms are also analyzed, using a different technique.
Multifractal formalism and anisotropic selfsimilar functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ben Slimane, Mourad
1998-09-01
In this paper we prove that the conjectures of Frisch and Parisi and Arneodo et al. (called the multifractal formalism for functions) may fail for some non-homogeneous selfsimilar functions on [open face R]2. In these cases, we compute the correct spectrum of singularities and we show how the multifractal formalism must be modified.
39 CFR 3001.20 - Formal intervention.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Formal intervention. 3001.20 Section 3001.20... Applicability § 3001.20 Formal intervention. (a) Who may intervene. A notice of intervention will be entertained... interest of such nature that intervention is allowed by the Act, or appropriate to its administration....
39 CFR 3001.20 - Formal intervention.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formal intervention. 3001.20 Section 3001.20... Applicability § 3001.20 Formal intervention. (a) Who may intervene. A notice of intervention will be entertained... interest of such nature that intervention is allowed by the Act, or appropriate to its administration....
39 CFR 3001.20 - Formal intervention.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Formal intervention. 3001.20 Section 3001.20... Applicability § 3001.20 Formal intervention. (a) Who may intervene. A notice of intervention will be entertained... interest of such nature that intervention is allowed by the Act, or appropriate to its administration....
39 CFR 3001.20 - Formal intervention.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Formal intervention. 3001.20 Section 3001.20... Applicability § 3001.20 Formal intervention. Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 33407, June 10, 2014. (a) Who may intervene. A notice of intervention will be entertained in those cases that are noticed for...
39 CFR 3001.20 - Formal intervention.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Formal intervention. 3001.20 Section 3001.20... Applicability § 3001.20 Formal intervention. (a) Who may intervene. A notice of intervention will be entertained... interest of such nature that intervention is allowed by the Act, or appropriate to its administration....
18 CFR 1b.5 - Formal investigations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formal investigations. 1b.5 Section 1b.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.5 Formal investigations....
Do Formal Supports Replace Informal Supports?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barer, Barbara M.; And Others
Health policy researchers have long been interested in the extent to which the provision of formal supports replaces or undermines the informal support system. This study examined the linkages between the formal and informal support system as they are mediated by a health care setting which readily provides patients with access to social services.…
Restorative Practices as Formal and Informal Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carter, Candice C.
2013-01-01
This article reviews restorative practices (RP) as education in formal and informal contexts of learning that are fertile sites for cultivating peace. Formal practices involve instruction about response to conflict, while informal learning occurs beyond academic lessons. The research incorporated content analysis and a critical examination of the…
Formal Moral Education and Individual Moral Development.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Friend, Gary Gene
This report provides a summarization of a study designed to determine if there is a significant relationship between formal religious education and the moral judgment development of college students, and after controlling for formal religious education, to see if there was also a significant relationship between the educational environment or…
Male-Female Differences in Formal Thought.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Linn, Marcia C.
Two studies were conducted to clarify the influence of experiences and aptitudes on male-female differences in formal thought. Participants were 788 seventh-, ninth-, and eleventh-graders in three school districts differing in location, socioeconomic composition, and course offerings. Formal thought was measured with tasks involving proportional…
Does (In)Formal Learning Enhance Employability?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van der Heijden, Beatrice I.J.M.; Boon, Jo; van der Klink, Marcel R.; Meys, Ely
2008-01-01
Not much is known about the actual contribution of informal learning to employability over and above formal learning activities. This paper presents findings of a research project among university staff members and is aimed to determine the contribution of formal and informal learning activities in the light of future career potential. Findings…
Methodological imperfection and formalizations in scientific activity
Svetlichny, G.
1987-03-01
Any mathematical formalization of scientific activity allows for imperfections in the methodology that is formalized. These can be of three types, dirty, rotten, and dammed. Restricting mathematical attention to those methods that cannot be construed to be imperfect drastically reduces the class of objects that must be analyzed, and related all other objects to these more regular ones. Examples are drawn from empirical logic.
Multiverse in the Third Quantized Formalism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mir, Faizal
2014-11-01
In this paper we will analyze the third quantization of gravity in path integral formalism. We will use the time-dependent version of Wheeler—DeWitt equation to analyze the multiverse in this formalism. We will propose a mechanism for baryogenesis to occur in the multiverse, without violating the baryon number conservation.
14 CFR 302.404 - Formal complaints.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Formal complaints. 302.404 Section 302.404 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL... business or the ends of justice. (e) Service. A formal complaint, and any amendments thereto, shall...
Formal hardware verification of digital circuits
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Joyce, J.; Seger, C.-J.
1991-01-01
The use of formal methods to verify the correctness of digital circuits is less constrained by the growing complexity of digital circuits than conventional methods based on exhaustive simulation. This paper briefly outlines three main approaches to formal hardware verification: symbolic simulation, state machine analysis, and theorem-proving.
37 CFR 251.41 - Formal hearings.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Procedures of Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels § 251.41 Formal hearings. (a) The formal hearings that... distribution hearings. All parties intending to participate in a hearing of a Copyright Arbitration...
Integrating Formal and Informal Learning at Work
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Svensson, Lennart; Ellstrom, Per-Erik; Aberg, Carina
2004-01-01
A model for workplace learning is presented, which intends to integrate formal and informal learning with the use of e-learning. An important underlying assumption is that the integration of formal and informal learning is necessary in order to create desirable competencies, from both an individual and an organisational perspective. Two case…
37 CFR 251.41 - Formal hearings.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Procedures of Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels § 251.41 Formal hearings. (a) The formal hearings that... distribution hearings. All parties intending to participate in a hearing of a Copyright Arbitration...
An Evaluation of Non-Formal Education in Ecuador. Volume 4: Appendices. Final Report.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Laosa, Luis M.; And Others
As the final volume in a 4-volume evaluation report on the University of Massachusetts Non-Formal Education Project (UMass NFEP) initiated in rural Ecuador in 1973, this volume presents appendices to volumes I-III. Appendix A includes the following items: (1) Community Demographic Profile; (2) Description of Introduction to the Community; (3)…
The General Relativistic Two Body Problem and the Effective One Body Formalism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Damour, Thibault
A new analytical approach to the motion and radiation of (comparable mass) binary systems has been introduced in 1999 under the name of Effective One Body (EOB) formalism. We review the basic elements of this formalism, and discuss some of its recent developments. Several recent comparisons between EOB predictions and Numerical Relativity (NR) simulations have shown the aptitude of the EOB formalism to provide accurate descriptions of the dynamics and radiation of various binary systems (comprising black holes or neutron stars) in regimes that are inaccessible to other analytical approaches (such as the last orbits and the merger of comparable mass black holes). In synergy with NR simulations, post-Newtonian (PN) theory and Gravitational Self-Force (GSF) computations, the EOB formalism is likely to provide an efficient way of computing the very many accurate template waveforms that are needed for Gravitational Wave (GW) data analysis purposes.
Non-formal mechanisms in mathematical cognitive development: The case of arithmetic.
Braithwaite, David W; Goldstone, Robert L; van der Maas, Han L J; Landy, David H
2016-04-01
The idea that cognitive development involves a shift towards abstraction has a long history in psychology. One incarnation of this idea holds that development in the domain of mathematics involves a shift from non-formal mechanisms to formal rules and axioms. Contrary to this view, the present study provides evidence that reliance on non-formal mechanisms may actually increase with age. Participants - Dutch primary school children - evaluated three-term arithmetic expressions in which violation of formally correct order of evaluation led to errors, termed foil errors. Participants solved the problems as part of their regular mathematics practice through an online study platform, and data were collected from over 50,000 children representing approximately 10% of all primary schools in the Netherlands, suggesting that the results have high external validity. Foil errors were more common for problems in which formally lower-priority sub-expressions were spaced close together, and also for problems in which such sub-expressions were relatively easy to calculate. We interpret these effects as resulting from reliance on two non-formal mechanisms, perceptual grouping and opportunistic selection, to determine order of evaluation. Critically, these effects reliably increased with participants' grade level, suggesting that these mechanisms are not phased out but actually become more important over development, even when they cause systematic violations of formal rules. This conclusion presents a challenge for the shift towards abstraction view as a description of cognitive development in arithmetic. Implications of this result for educational practice are discussed. PMID:26795071
Unified formalism for nonautonomous mechanical systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barbero-Liñán, María; Echeverría-Enríquez, Arturo; Diego, David Martín de; Muñoz-Lecanda, Miguel C.; Román-Roy, Narciso
2008-06-01
We present a unified geometric framework for describing both the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms of regular and nonregular time-dependent mechanical systems, which is based on the approach of Skinner and Rusk ["Generalized Hamiltonian dynamics I. Formulation on T*Q⊗TQ," J. Math. Phys. 24, 2589 (1983)]. The dynamical equations of motion and their compatibility and consistency are carefully studied, making clear that all the characteristics of the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian formalisms are recovered in this formulation. As an example, a semidiscretization of the nonlinear wave equation is studied, proving the applicability of the proposed formalism.
From Livingstone to SMV: Formal Verification for Autonomous Spacecrafts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pecheur, Charles; Simmons, Reid
2000-01-01
To fulfill the needs of its deep space exploration program, NASA is actively supporting research and development in autonomy software. However, the reliable and cost-effective development and validation of autonomy systems poses a tough challenge. Traditional scenario-based testing methods fall short because of the combinatorial explosion of possible situations to be analyzed, and formal verification techniques typically require a tedious, manual modelling by formal method experts. This paper presents the application of formal verification techniques in the development of autonomous controllers based on Livingstone, a model-based health-monitoring system that can detect and diagnose anomalies and suggest possible recovery actions. We present a translator that converts the models used by Livingstone into specifications that can be verified with the SMV model checker. The translation frees the Livingstone developer from the tedious conversion of his design to SMV, and isolates him from the technical details of the SMV program. We describe different aspects of the translation and briefly discuss its application to several NASA domains.
Formal Requirements-Based Programming for Complex Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rash, James L.; Hinchey, Michael G.; Rouff, Christopher A.; Gracanin, Denis
2005-01-01
Computer science as a field has not yet produced a general method to mechanically transform complex computer system requirements into a provably equivalent implementation. Such a method would be one major step towards dealing with complexity in computing, yet it remains the elusive holy grail of system development. Currently available tools and methods that start with a formal model of a system and mechanically produce a provably equivalent implementation are valuable but not sufficient. The gap that such tools and methods leave unfilled is that the formal models cannot be proven to be equivalent to the system requirements as originated by the customer For the classes of complex systems whose behavior can be described as a finite (but significant) set of scenarios, we offer a method for mechanically transforming requirements (expressed in restricted natural language, or appropriate graphical notations) into a provably equivalent formal model that can be used as the basis for code generation and other transformations. While other techniques are available, this method is unique in offering full mathematical tractability while using notations and techniques that are well known and well trusted. We illustrate the application of the method to an example procedure from the Hubble Robotic Servicing Mission currently under study and preliminary formulation at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
Properties of a Formal Method for Prediction of Emergent Behaviors in Swarm-based Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rouff, Christopher; Vanderbilt, Amy; Hinchey, Mike; Truszkowski, Walt; Rash, James
2004-01-01
Autonomous intelligent swarms of satellites are being proposed for NASA missions that have complex behaviors and interactions. The emergent properties of swarms make these missions powerful, but at the same time more difficult to design and assure that proper behaviors will emerge. This paper gives the results of research into formal methods techniques for verification and validation of NASA swarm-based missions. Multiple formal methods were evaluated to determine their effectiveness in modeling and assuring the behavior of swarms of spacecraft. The NASA ANTS mission was used as an example of swarm intelligence for which to apply the formal methods. This paper will give the evaluation of these formal methods and give partial specifications of the ANTS mission using four selected methods. We then give an evaluation of the methods and the needed properties of a formal method for effective specification and prediction of emergent behavior in swarm-based systems.
A Formal Methods Approach to the Analysis of Mode Confusion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Butler, Ricky W.; Miller, Steven P.; Potts, James N.; Carreno, Victor A.
2004-01-01
The goal of the new NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) is to reduce the civil aviation fatal accident rate by 80% in ten years and 90% in twenty years. This program is being driven by the accident data with a focus on the most recent history. Pilot error is the most commonly cited cause for fatal accidents (up to 70%) and obviously must be given major consideration in this program. While the greatest source of pilot error is the loss of situation awareness , mode confusion is increasingly becoming a major contributor as well. The January 30, 1995 issue of Aviation Week lists 184 incidents and accidents involving mode awareness including the Bangalore A320 crash 2/14/90, the Strasbourg A320 crash 1/20/92, the Mulhouse-Habsheim A320 crash 6/26/88, and the Toulouse A330 crash 6/30/94. These incidents and accidents reveal that pilots sometimes become confused about what the cockpit automation is doing. Consequently, human factors research is an obvious investment area. However, even a cursory look at the accident data reveals that the mode confusion problem is much deeper than just training deficiencies and a lack of human-oriented design. This is readily acknowledged by human factors experts. It seems that further progress in human factors must come through a deeper scrutiny of the internals of the automation. It is in this arena that formal methods can contribute. Formal methods refers to the use of techniques from logic and discrete mathematics in the specification, design, and verification of computer systems, both hardware and software. The fundamental goal of formal methods is to capture requirements, designs and implementations in a mathematically based model that can be analyzed in a rigorous manner. Research in formal methods is aimed at automating this analysis as much as possible. By capturing the internal behavior of a flight deck in a rigorous and detailed formal model, the dark corners of a design can be analyzed. This paper will explore how formal
Closed terminologies in description logics
Weida, R.A. |
1996-12-31
We introduce a predictive concept recognition methodology for description logics based on a new closed terminology assumption. During knowledge engineering, our system adopts the standard open terminology assumption as it automatically classifies concept descriptions into a taxonomy via subsumption inferences. However, for applications like configuration, the terminology becomes fixed during problem solving. Then, closed terminology reasoning is more appropriate. In our interactive configuration application, a user incrementally specifies an individual computer system in collaboration with a configuration engine. Choices can be made in any order and at any level of abstraction. We distinguish between abstract and concrete concepts to formally define when an individual`s description may be considered finished. We also take advantage of the closed terminology assumption, together with the terminology`s subsumption-based organization, to efficiently track the types of systems and components consistent with current choices, infer additional constraints on current choices, and appropriately guide future choices. Thus, we can help focus the efforts of both user and configuration engine.
Teaching Astronomy in non-formal education: stars workshop
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hernán-Obispo, M.; Crespo-Chacón, I.; Gálvez, M. C.; López-Santiago, J.
One of the fields in which teaching Astronomy is more demanded is non-formal education. The Stars Workshop we present in this contribution consisted on an introduction to Astronomy and observation methods. The main objectives were: to know the main components of the Universe, their characteristics and the scales of size and time existing between them; to understand the movement of the different celestial objects; to know the different observational techniques; to value the different historical explanations about the Earth and the position of Humanity in the Universe. This Stars Workshop was a collaboration with the Escuela de Tiempo Libre Jumavi, which is a school dedicated to the training and non-formal education in the leisure field.
On the Formal Verification of Conflict Detection Algorithms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Munoz, Cesar; Butler, Ricky W.; Carreno, Victor A.; Dowek, Gilles
2001-01-01
Safety assessment of new air traffic management systems is a main issue for civil aviation authorities. Standard techniques such as testing and simulation have serious limitations in new systems that are significantly more autonomous than the older ones. In this paper, we present an innovative approach, based on formal verification, for establishing the correctness of conflict detection systems. Fundamental to our approach is the concept of trajectory, which is a continuous path in the x-y plane constrained by physical laws and operational requirements. From the Model of trajectories, we extract, and formally prove, high level properties that can serve as a framework to analyze conflict scenarios. We use the Airborne Information for Lateral Spacing (AILS) alerting algorithm as a case study of our approach.
Formal Methods for Automated Diagnosis of Autosub 6000
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ernits, Juhan; Dearden, Richard; Pebody, Miles
2009-01-01
This is a progress report on applying formal methods in the context of building an automated diagnosis and recovery system for Autosub 6000, an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV). The diagnosis task involves building abstract models of the control system of the AUV. The diagnosis engine is based on Livingstone 2, a model-based diagnoser originally built for aerospace applications. Large parts of the diagnosis model can be built without concrete knowledge about each mission, but actual mission scripts and configuration parameters that carry important information for diagnosis are changed for every mission. Thus we use formal methods for generating the mission control part of the diagnosis model automatically from the mission script and perform a number of invariant checks to validate the configuration. After the diagnosis model is augmented with the generated mission control component model, it needs to be validated using verification techniques.
Application of Lightweight Formal Methods to Software Security
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gilliam, David P.; Powell, John D.; Bishop, Matt
2005-01-01
Formal specification and verification of security has proven a challenging task. There is no single method that has proven feasible. Instead, an integrated approach which combines several formal techniques can increase the confidence in the verification of software security properties. Such an approach which species security properties in a library that can be reused by 2 instruments and their methodologies developed for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are described herein The Flexible Modeling Framework (FMF) is a model based verijkation instrument that uses Promela and the SPIN model checker. The Property Based Tester (PBT) uses TASPEC and a Text Execution Monitor (TEM). They are used to reduce vulnerabilities and unwanted exposures in software during the development and maintenance life cycles.
Experiences Using Formal Methods for Requirements Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Easterbrook, Steve; Lutz, Robyn; Covington, Rick; Kelly, John; Ampo, Yoko; Hamilton, David
1996-01-01
This paper describes three cases studies in the lightweight application of formal methods to requirements modeling for spacecraft fault protection systems. The case studies differ from previously reported applications of formal methods in that formal methods were applied very early in the requirements engineering process, to validate the evolving requirements. The results were fed back into the projects, to improve the informal specifications. For each case study, we describe what methods were applied, how they were applied, how much effort was involved, and what the findings were. In all three cases, the formal modeling provided a cost effective enhancement of the existing verification and validation processes. We conclude that the benefits gained from early modeling of unstable requirements more than outweigh the effort needed to maintain multiple representations.
Further Examination of Formal Operational Reasoning Abilities.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roberge, James J.; Flexer, Barbara K.
1979-01-01
Three paper-and-pencil formal operations tests were administered to groups of eighth graders and adults. These measures provided scores that indicated each subject's level of reasoning for three second-order operations: combinations, proportionality, and propositional logic. (JMB)
Open systems & non-formal education
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wheeler, Gerald F.
1988-10-01
Professor Dib created an important structure that can be used to attach the many and various activities that fall in the category of this title. While I plan to use his structure, I will be emphasizing a different component of his spectrum and promoting a different need. Professor Dib suggested a critical need to move our teaching styles away from formal modes to non-formal modes of delivery. I suggest an equally critical need in the area of informal education. And, I will propose aways to move us toward the same goal, non-formal activities. I believe we need to find ways to use the many informal education activities that occur almost automatically in our societies to move our potential learners to richer non-formal endeavors. Both needs are real; both activities are valid.
Formal specification of human-computer interfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Auernheimer, Brent
1990-01-01
A high-level formal specification of a human computer interface is described. Previous work is reviewed and the ASLAN specification language is described. Top-level specifications written in ASLAN for a library and a multiwindow interface are discussed.
Importance of Reversibility in the Quantum Formalism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
David, François
2011-10-01
In this Letter I stress the role of causal reversibility (time symmetry), together with causality and locality, in the justification of the quantum formalism. First, in the algebraic quantum formalism, I show that the assumption of reversibility implies that the observables of a quantum theory form an abstract real C⋆ algebra, and can be represented as an algebra of operators on a real Hilbert space. Second, in the quantum logic formalism, I emphasize which axioms for the lattice of propositions (the existence of an orthocomplementation and the covering property) derive from reversibility. A new argument based on locality and Soler’s theorem is used to derive the representation as projectors on a regular Hilbert space from the general quantum logic formalism. In both cases it is recalled that the restriction to complex algebras and Hilbert spaces comes from the constraints of locality and separability.
The Intersituational Generality of Formal Thought
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stone, Mary Ann; Ausubel, David P.
1969-01-01
Shows that, contrary to Piagetian Theory, formal thought in a variety of subject matters is not possible until sufficient requisite concrete background experience in each content area involved has been attained. (MH)
Why Engineers Should Consider Formal Methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holloway, C. Michael
1997-01-01
This paper presents a logical analysis of a typical argument favoring the use of formal methods for software development, and suggests an alternative argument that is simpler and stronger than the typical one.
Transitions from Formal Education to the Workplace
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Olson, Joann S.
2014-01-01
This chapter frames the transition to adulthood in the context of the moving from formal educational settings to the often less-structured learning that occurs in workplace settings. Although schooling may end, learning continues.
General formalism for singly thermostated Hamiltonian dynamics.
Ramshaw, John D
2015-11-01
A general formalism is developed for constructing modified Hamiltonian dynamical systems which preserve a canonical equilibrium distribution by adding a time evolution equation for a single additional thermostat variable. When such systems are ergodic, canonical ensemble averages can be computed as dynamical time averages over a single trajectory. Systems of this type were unknown until their recent discovery by Hoover and colleagues. The present formalism should facilitate the discovery, construction, and classification of other such systems by encompassing a wide class of them within a single unified framework. This formalism includes both canonical and generalized Hamiltonian systems in a state space of arbitrary dimensionality (either even or odd) and therefore encompasses both few- and many-particle systems. Particular attention is devoted to the physical motivation and interpretation of the formalism, which largely determine its structure. An analogy to stochastic thermostats and fluctuation-dissipation theorems is briefly discussed. PMID:26651677
Design for validation, based on formal methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Butler, Ricky W.
1990-01-01
Validation of ultra-reliable systems decomposes into two subproblems: (1) quantification of probability of system failure due to physical failure; (2) establishing that Design Errors are not present. Methods of design, testing, and analysis of ultra-reliable software are discussed. It is concluded that a design-for-validation based on formal methods is needed for the digital flight control systems problem, and also that formal methods will play a major role in the development of future high reliability digital systems.
Methodological Imperfection and Formalizations of Scientific Activity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Svetlichny, George
1987-03-01
Any mathematical formalization of scientific activity allows for imperfections in the methodology that is formalized. These can be of three types, “dirty,” “rotten,” and “dammed.” Restricting mathematical attention to those methods that cannot be construed to be imperfect drastically reduces the class of objects that must be analyzed, and relates all other objects to these more regular ones. Examples are drawn from empirical logic.
A Survey of Formal Methods for Intelligent Swarms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Truszkowski, Walt; Rash, James; Hinchey, Mike; Rouff, Chrustopher A.
2004-01-01
cutting edge in system correctness, and requires higher levels of assurance than other (traditional) missions that use a single or small number of spacecraft that are deterministic in nature and have near continuous communication access. One of the highest possible levels of assurance comes from the application of formal methods. Formal methods are mathematics-based tools and techniques for specifying and verifying (software and hardware) systems. They are particularly useful for specifying complex parallel systems, such as exemplified by the ANTS mission, where the entire system is difficult for a single person to fully understand, a problem that is multiplied with multiple developers. Once written, a formal specification can be used to prove properties of a system (e.g., the underlying system will go from one state to another or not into a specific state) and check for particular types of errors (e.g., race or livelock conditions). A formal specification can also be used as input to a model checker for further validation. This report gives the results of a survey of formal methods techniques for verification and validation of space missions that use swarm technology. Multiple formal methods were evaluated to determine their effectiveness in modeling and assuring the behavior of swarms of spacecraft using the ANTS mission as an example system. This report is the first result of the project to determine formal approaches that are promising for formally specifying swarm-based systems. From this survey, the most promising approaches were selected and are discussed relative to their possible application to the ANTS mission. Future work will include the application of an integrated approach, based on the selected approaches identified in this report, to the formal specification of the ANTS mission.
Report on the formal specification and partial verification of the VIPER microprocessor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brock, Bishop; Hunt, Warren A., Jr.
1991-01-01
The formal specification and partial verification of the VIPER microprocessor is reviewed. The VIPER microprocessor was designed by RSRE, Malvern, England, for safety critical computing applications (e.g., aircraft, reactor control, medical instruments, armaments). The VIPER was carefully specified and partially verified in an attempt to provide a microprocessor with completely predictable operating characteristics. The specification of VIPER is divided into several levels of abstraction, from a gate-level description up to an instruction execution model. Although the consistency between certain levels was demonstrated with mechanically-assisted mathematical proof, the formal verification of VIPER was never completed.
Classical and quantum-mechanical axioms with the higher time derivative formalism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamalov, Timur
2013-06-01
A Newtonian mechanics model is essentially the model of a point body in an inertial reference frame. How to describe extended bodies in non-inertial (vibration) reference frames with the random initial conditions? One of the most generalized ways of descriptions (known as the higher derivatives formalism) consists in taking into account the infinite number of the higher temporal derivatives of the coordinates in the Lagrange function. Such formalism describing physical objects in the infinite dimensions space does not contradict to the quantum mechanics and infinite dimensions Hilbert space.
Properties of a Formal Method to Model Emergence in Swarm-Based Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rouff, Christopher; Vanderbilt, Amy; Truszkowski, Walt; Rash, James; Hinchey, Mike
2004-01-01
Future space missions will require cooperation between multiple satellites and/or rovers. Developers are proposing intelligent autonomous swarms for these missions, but swarm-based systems are difficult or impossible to test with current techniques. This viewgraph presentation examines the use of formal methods in testing swarm-based systems. The potential usefulness of formal methods in modeling the ANTS asteroid encounter mission is also examined.
A 3+1 formalism for quantum electrodynamical corrections to Maxwell equations in general relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pétri, J.
2015-08-01
Magnetized neutron stars constitute a special class of compact objects harbouring gravitational fields that deviate strongly from the Newtonian weak field limit. Moreover, strong electromagnetic fields anchored into the star give rise to non-linear corrections to Maxwell equations described by quantum electrodynamics (QED). Electromagnetic fields close to or above the critical value of BQ = 4.4 × 109 T are probably present in some pulsars and for most of the magnetars. To account properly for emission emanating from the neutron star surface like for instance thermal radiation and its polarization properties, it is important to include general relativistic (GR) effects simultaneously with non-linear electrodynamics. This can be achieved through a 3+1 formalism known in general relativity and that incorporates QED perturbations to Maxwell equations. Starting from the lowest order corrections to the Lagrangian for the electromagnetic field, as given for instance by Born-Infeld or Euler-Heisenberg theory, we derive the non-linear Maxwell equations in general relativity including quantum vacuum effects. We also derive a prescription for the force-free limit and show that these equations can be solved with classical finite volume methods for hyperbolic conservation laws. It is therefore straightforward to include general relativity and QED in the description of neutron star magnetospheres by using standard classical numerical techniques borrowed from Maxwell and Newton theory. As an application, we show that spin-down luminosity corrections associated with QED effects are negligible with respect to GR corrections.
Interval Predictor Models with a Formal Characterization of Uncertainty and Reliability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crespo, Luis G.; Giesy, Daniel P.; Kenny, Sean P.
2014-01-01
This paper develops techniques for constructing empirical predictor models based on observations. By contrast to standard models, which yield a single predicted output at each value of the model's inputs, Interval Predictors Models (IPM) yield an interval into which the unobserved output is predicted to fall. The IPMs proposed prescribe the output as an interval valued function of the model's inputs, render a formal description of both the uncertainty in the model's parameters and of the spread in the predicted output. Uncertainty is prescribed as a hyper-rectangular set in the space of model's parameters. The propagation of this set through the empirical model yields a range of outputs of minimal spread containing all (or, depending on the formulation, most) of the observations. Optimization-based strategies for calculating IPMs and eliminating the effects of outliers are proposed. Outliers are identified by evaluating the extent by which they degrade the tightness of the prediction. This evaluation can be carried out while the IPM is calculated. When the data satisfies mild stochastic assumptions, and the optimization program used for calculating the IPM is convex (or, when its solution coincides with the solution to an auxiliary convex program), the model's reliability (that is, the probability that a future observation would be within the predicted range of outputs) can be bounded rigorously by a non-asymptotic formula.
Tucher, Nico; Eisenlohr, Johannes; Gebrewold, Habtamu; Kiefel, Peter; Höhn, Oliver; Hauser, Hubert; Goldschmidt, Jan Christoph; Bläsi, Benedikt
2016-07-11
The OPTOS formalism is a matrix-based approach to determine the optical properties of textured optical sheets. It is extended within this work to enable the modelling of systems with an arbitrary number of textured, plane-parallel interfaces. A matrix-based system description is derived that accounts for the optical reflection and transmission interaction between all textured interfaces. Using OPTOS, we calculate reflectance and absorptance of complete photovoltaic module stacks, which consist of encapsulated silicon solar cells featuring textures that operate in different optical regimes. As exemplary systems, solar cells with and without module encapsulation are shown to exhibit a considerable absorptance gain if the random pyramid front side texture is combined with a diffractive rear side grating. A variation of the sunlight's angle of incidence reveals that the grating gain is almost not affected for incoming polar angles up to 60°. Considering as well the good agreement with alternative simulation techniques, OPTOS is demonstrated to be a versatile and efficient method for the optical analysis of photovoltaic modules. PMID:27410896
Quantum interference within the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism
Chou, Chia-Chun; Sanz, Angel S.; Miret-Artes, Salvador; Wyatt, Robert E.
2010-10-15
Quantum interference is investigated within the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. As shown in a previous work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102 (2009) 250401], complex quantum trajectories display helical wrapping around stagnation tubes and hyperbolic deflection near vortical tubes, these structures being prominent features of quantum caves in space-time Argand plots. Here, we further analyze the divergence and vorticity of the quantum momentum function along streamlines near poles, showing the intricacy of the complex dynamics. Nevertheless, despite this behavior, we show that the appearance of the well-known interference features (on the real axis) can be easily understood in terms of the rotation of the nodal line in the complex plane. This offers a unified description of interference as well as an elegant and practical method to compute the lifetime for interference features, defined in terms of the average wrapping time, i.e., considering such features as a resonant process.
Formal versus heuristic modeling for multitarget Bayes filtering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahler, Ronald P. S.
2004-08-01
The multisensor-multitarget Bayes filter is the foundation for multi-sensor-multitarget detection, tracking, and identification. This paper addresses the question of principled implementation of this filter. Algorithms can always be cobbled together using catch-as-catch-can heuristic techniques. In formal Bayes modeling one instead derives statistically precise, implementation-independent equations from which principle approximations can then be derived. Indeed, this has become the accepted methodology for single-sensor, single-target tracking R&D. In the case of the multitarget filter, however, partisans of a so-called "plain-vanilla Bayesian approach" have disparaged formal Bayes modelling, and have protrayed specific, ad hoc implementations as completely general, "powerful and robust computational methods." In this and a companion paper I expose the speciousness of such claims. This paper reviews the elements of formal Bayes modeling and approximation, describes what they must look like in the multitarget case, and contrasts them with the "plain-vanilla Bayesian approach."
Formal Methods Case Studies for DO-333
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cofer, Darren; Miller, Steven P.
2014-01-01
RTCA DO-333, Formal Methods Supplement to DO-178C and DO-278A provides guidance for software developers wishing to use formal methods in the certification of airborne systems and air traffic management systems. The supplement identifies the modifications and additions to DO-178C and DO-278A objectives, activities, and software life cycle data that should be addressed when formal methods are used as part of the software development process. This report presents three case studies describing the use of different classes of formal methods to satisfy certification objectives for a common avionics example - a dual-channel Flight Guidance System. The three case studies illustrate the use of theorem proving, model checking, and abstract interpretation. The material presented is not intended to represent a complete certification effort. Rather, the purpose is to illustrate how formal methods can be used in a realistic avionics software development project, with a focus on the evidence produced that could be used to satisfy the verification objectives found in Section 6 of DO-178C.
An Integrated Environment for Efficient Formal Design and Verification
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1998-01-01
The general goal of this project was to improve the practicality of formal methods by combining techniques from model checking and theorem proving. At the time the project was proposed, the model checking and theorem proving communities were applying different tools to similar problems, but there was not much cross-fertilization. This project involved a group from SRI that had substantial experience in the development and application of theorem-proving technology, and a group at Stanford that specialized in model checking techniques. Now, over five years after the proposal was submitted, there are many research groups working on combining theorem-proving and model checking techniques, and much more communication between the model checking and theorem proving research communities. This project contributed significantly to this research trend. The research work under this project covered a variety of topics: new theory and algorithms; prototype tools; verification methodology; and applications to problems in particular domains.
Formal representation of 3D structural geological models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhangang; Qu, Honggang; Wu, Zixing; Yang, Hongjun; Du, Qunle
2016-05-01
The development and widespread application of geological modeling methods has increased demands for the integration and sharing services of three dimensional (3D) geological data. However, theoretical research in the field of geological information sciences is limited despite the widespread use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in geology. In particular, fundamental research on the formal representations and standardized spatial descriptions of 3D structural models is required. This is necessary for accurate understanding and further applications of geological data in 3D space. In this paper, we propose a formal representation method for 3D structural models using the theory of point set topology, which produces a mathematical definition for the major types of geological objects. The spatial relationships between geologic boundaries, structures, and units are explained in detail using the 9-intersection model. Reasonable conditions for describing the topological space of 3D structural models are also provided. The results from this study can be used as potential support for the standardized representation and spatial quality evaluation of 3D structural models, as well as for specific needs related to model-based management, query, and analysis.
Nonequilibrium many-body steady states via Keldysh formalism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maghrebi, Mohammad F.; Gorshkov, Alexey V.
2016-01-01
Many-body systems with both coherent dynamics and dissipation constitute a rich class of models which are nevertheless much less explored than their dissipationless counterparts. The advent of numerous experimental platforms that simulate such dynamics poses an immediate challenge to systematically understand and classify these models. In particular, nontrivial many-body states emerge as steady states under nonequilibrium dynamics. While these states and their phase transitions have been studied extensively with mean-field theory, the validity of the mean-field approximation has not been systematically investigated. In this paper, we employ a field-theoretic approach based on the Keldysh formalism to study nonequilibrium phases and phase transitions in a variety of models. In all cases, a complete description via the Keldysh formalism indicates a partial or complete failure of the mean-field analysis. Furthermore, we find that an effective temperature emerges as a result of dissipation, and the universal behavior including the dynamics near the steady state is generically described by a thermodynamic universality class.
Developing Formal Correctness Properties from Natural Language Requirements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nikora, Allen P.
2006-01-01
This viewgraph presentation reviews the rationale of the program to transform natural language specifications into formal notation.Specifically, automate generation of Linear Temporal Logic (LTL)correctness properties from natural language temporal specifications. There are several reasons for this approach (1) Model-based techniques becoming more widely accepted, (2) Analytical verification techniques (e.g., model checking, theorem proving) significantly more effective at detecting types of specification design errors (e.g., race conditions, deadlock) than manual inspection, (3) Many requirements still written in natural language, which results in a high learning curve for specification languages, associated tools and increased schedule and budget pressure on projects reduce training opportunities for engineers, and (4) Formulation of correctness properties for system models can be a difficult problem. This has relevance to NASA in that it would simplify development of formal correctness properties, lead to more widespread use of model-based specification, design techniques, assist in earlier identification of defects and reduce residual defect content for space mission software systems. The presentation also discusses: potential applications, accomplishments and/or technological transfer potential and the next steps.
Formalization Studies in Functional Size Measurement: How Do They Help?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ozkan, Baris; Demirors, Onur
Functional size has been favored as a software characteristic that can be measured early and independent of language, tools, techniques and technology; hence has many uses in software project management. It has been about three decades since Albrecht introduced the concept of functional size. However, Functional Size Measurement (FSM) has not been a common practice in the software community. The problems with FSM method structures and practices have been discussed to be the major factors to explain this situation. In this paper, we make a review of formalization proposals to the problems in Functional Size Measurement (FSM). We analyze the works included in the papers and we explore the extent of their contributions.
Formal Verification for a Next-Generation Space Shuttle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nelson, Stacy D.; Pecheur, Charles; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
This paper discusses the verification and validation (V&2) of advanced software used for integrated vehicle health monitoring (IVHM), in the context of NASA's next-generation space shuttle. We survey the current VBCV practice and standards used in selected NASA projects, review applicable formal verification techniques, and discuss their integration info existing development practice and standards. We also describe two verification tools, JMPL2SMV and Livingstone PathFinder, that can be used to thoroughly verify diagnosis applications that use model-based reasoning, such as the Livingstone system.
A Survey of Logic Formalisms to Support Mishap Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, Chris; Holloway, C. M.
2003-01-01
Mishap investigations provide important information about adverse events and near miss incidents. They are intended to help avoid any recurrence of previous failures. Over time, they can also yield statistical information about incident frequencies that helps to detect patterns of failure and can validate risk assessments. However, the increasing complexity of many safety critical systems is posing new challenges for mishap analysis. Similarly, the recognition that many failures have complex, systemic causes has helped to widen the scope of many mishap investigations. These two factors have combined to pose new challenges for the analysis of adverse events. A new generation of formal and semi-formal techniques have been proposed to help investigators address these problems. We introduce the term mishap logics to collectively describe these notations that might be applied to support the analysis of mishaps. The proponents of these notations have argued that they can be used to formally prove that certain events created the necessary and sufficient causes for a mishap to occur. These proofs can be used to reduce the bias that is often perceived to effect the interpretation of adverse events. Others have argued that one cannot use logic formalisms to prove causes in the same way that one might prove propositions or theorems. Such mechanisms cannot accurately capture the wealth of inductive, deductive and statistical forms of inference that investigators must use in their analysis of adverse events. This paper provides an overview of these mishap logics. It also identifies several additional classes of logic that might also be used to support mishap analysis.
Towards Formal Verification of a Separation Microkernel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Butterfield, Andrew; Sanan, David; Hinchey, Mike
2013-08-01
The best approach to verifying an IMA separation kernel is to use a (fixed) time-space partitioning kernel with a multiple independent levels of separation (MILS) architecture. We describe an activity that explores the cost and feasibility of doing a formal verification of such a kernel to the Common Criteria (CC) levels mandated by the Separation Kernel Protection Profile (SKPP). We are developing a Reference Specification of such a kernel, and are using higher-order logic (HOL) to construct formal models of this specification and key separation properties. We then plan to do a dry run of part of a formal proof of those properties using the Isabelle/HOL theorem prover.
First order formalism for quantum gravity
Gleiser, M.; Holman, R.; Neto, N.P.
1987-05-01
We develop a first order formalism for the quantization of gravity. We take as canonical variables both the induced metric and the extrinsic curvature of the (d - 1) -dimensional hypersurfaces obtained by the foliation of the d - dimensional spacetime. After solving the constraint algebra we use the Dirac formalism to quantize the theory and obtain a new representation for the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, defined in the functional space of the extrinsic curvature. We also show how to obtain several different representations of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation by considering actions differing by a total divergence. In particular, the intrinsic and extrinsic time approaches appear in a natural way, as do equivalent representations obtained by functional Fourier transforms of appropriate variables. We conclude with some remarks about the construction of the Hilbert space within the first order formalism. 10 refs.
Formalizing Darwinism and inclusive fitness theory.
Grafen, Alan
2009-11-12
Inclusive fitness maximization is a basic building block for biological contributions to any theory of the evolution of society. There is a view in mathematical population genetics that nothing is caused to be maximized in the process of natural selection, but this is explained as arising from a misunderstanding about the meaning of fitness maximization. Current theoretical work on inclusive fitness is discussed, with emphasis on the author's 'formal Darwinism project'. Generally, favourable conclusions are drawn about the validity of assuming fitness maximization, but the need for continuing work is emphasized, along with the possibility that substantive exceptions may be uncovered. The formal Darwinism project aims more ambitiously to represent in a formal mathematical framework the central point of Darwin's Origin of Species, that the mechanical processes of inheritance and reproduction can give rise to the appearance of design, and it is a fitting ambition in Darwin's bicentenary year to capture his most profound discovery in the lingua franca of science. PMID:19805422
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gutiérrez-Santiuste, Elba; Gámiz-Sánchez, Vanesa-M.; Gutiérrez-Pérez, Jose
2015-01-01
The study presents a comparative analysis of two virtual learning formats: one non-formal through a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) and the other formal through b-learning. We compare the communication barriers and the satisfaction perceived by the students (N = 249) by developing a qualitative analysis using semi-structured questionnaires and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
de Lange, Thomas
2011-01-01
This article examines how a classroom procedure known as PGE (Plan/Go-through/Evaluate) group work aims at integrating formal and non-formal media experiences and practices into classroom-based media learning. The study displays, on the one hand, how PGE group work emerged and was institutionally embedded in a media course. On the other hand, the…
Combining Formal, Non-Formal and Informal Learning for Workforce Skill Development
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Misko, Josie
2008-01-01
This literature review, undertaken for Australian Industry Group, shows how multiple variations and combinations of formal, informal and non-formal learning, accompanied by various government incentives and organisational initiatives (including job redesign, cross-skilling, multi-skilling, diversified career pathways, action learning projects,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cameron, Roslyn; Harrison, Jennifer L.
2012-01-01
Definitions, differences and relationships between formal, non-formal and informal learning have long been contentious. There has been a significant change in language and reference from adult education to what amounts to forms of learning categorised by their modes of facilitation. Nonetheless, there is currently a renewed interest in the…
The Comparative Functionality of Formal and Non-Formal Education for Women: Final Report.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Derryck, Vivian Lowery
This final report describes a five-phase study to ascertain whether formal or non-formal education has the greater functionality to accelerate women's integration into development activities. Part 1 (two chapters), introduction and background, defines the problem, sets parameters of the study, and provides definitions of education terms. Part 2…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tignanelli, H.
Se comentan en esta comunicación, las principales contribuciones realizadas en el campo de la educación en astronomía en los niveles primario, secundario y terciario, como punto de partida para la discusión de la actual inserción de los contenidos astronómicos en los nuevos contenidos curriculares de la EGB - Educación General Básica- y Polimodal, de la Reforma Educativa. En particular, se discuten los alcances de la educación formal y no formal, su importancia para la capacitación de profesores y maestros, y perspectivas a futuro.
Extending the ADM formalism to Weyl geometry
Barreto, A. B.; Almeida, T. S.; Romero, C.
2015-03-26
In order to treat quantum cosmology in the framework of Weyl spacetimes we take the first step of extending the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner formalism to Weyl geometry. We then obtain an expression of the curvature tensor in terms of spatial quantities by splitting spacetime in (3+l)-dimensional form. We next write the Lagrangian of the gravitation field based in Weyl-type gravity theory. We extend the general relativistic formalism in such a way that it can be applied to investigate the quantum cosmology of models whose spacetimes are endowed with a Weyl geometrical structure.
Curci-Ferrari-type condition in Hamiltonian formalism: A free spinning relativistic particle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shukla, A.; Bhanja, T.; Malik, R. P.
2013-03-01
The Curci-Ferrari (CF)-type restriction emerges in the description of a free spinning relativistic particle within the framework of the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) formalism when the off-shell nilpotent and absolutely anticommuting (anti-)BRST symmetry transformations for this system are derived from the application of the horizontality condition (HC) and its supersymmetric generalization (SUSY-HC) within the framework of the superfield formalism. We show that the above CF condition, which turns out to be the secondary constraint of our present theory, remains time-evolution invariant within the framework of Hamiltonian formalism. This time-evolution invariance i) physically justifies the imposition of the (anti-)BRST invariant CF-type condition on this system, and ii) mathematically implies the linear independence of BRST and anti-BRST symmetries of our present theory.
Belova, Irina; Kulkarni, Nagraj S; Sohn, Yong Ho; Murch, Prof. Graeme
2013-01-01
In this paper, a new development of the classic Onsager phenomenological formalism is derived using relations based on linear response theory. The development concerns the correct description of the fluxes of the atomic isotopes. The resulting expressions in the laboratory frame are surprisingly simple and consist of terms coming from the standard interdiffusion expressions and from Fick s first law where the tracer diffusion coefficient is involved thus providing a better understanding of the relationship between the two approaches - Fick s first law and the Onsager phenomenological formalism. From an experimental application perspective, the new development is applied to the binary alloy case. The formalism provides the means to obtain the interdiffusion coefficient and tracer diffusion coefficients simultaneously from analysis of the interdiffusion concentration profiles in a single experiment.