Science.gov

Sample records for formal kinetic models

  1. The Thermodynamic Flow-Force Interpretation of Root Nutrient Uptake Kinetics: A Powerful Formalism for Agronomic and Phytoplanktonic Models.

    PubMed

    Le Deunff, Erwan; Tournier, Pierre-Henri; Malagoli, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The ion influx isotherms obtained by measuring unidirectional influx across root membranes with radioactive or stable tracers are mostly interpreted by enzyme-substrate-like modeling. However, recent analyses from ion transporter mutants clearly demonstrate the inadequacy of the conventional interpretation of ion isotherms. Many genetically distinct carriers are involved in the root catalytic function. Parameters Vmax and Km deduced from this interpretation cannot therefore be regarded as microscopic parameters of a single transporter, but are instead macroscopic parameters (V[Formula: see text] and K[Formula: see text], apparent maximum velocity and affinity constant) that depend on weighted activities of multiple transporters along the root. The flow-force interpretation based on the thermodynamic principle of irreversible processes is an alternative macroscopic modeling approach for ion influx isotherms in which macroscopic parameters Lj (overall conductance of the root system for the substrate j) and πj (thermodynamic parameter when Jj = 0) have a straightforward meaning with respect to the biological sample studied. They characterize the efficiency of the entire root catalytic structure without deducing molecular characteristics. Here we present the basic principles of this theory and how its use can be tested and improved by changing root pre- and post-wash procedures before influx measurements in order to come as close as possible to equilibrium conditions. In addition, the constant values of Vm and Km in the Michaelis-Menten (MM) formalism of enzyme-substrate interpretation do not reflect variations in response to temperature, nutrient status or nutrient regimes. The linear formalism of the flow-force approach, which integrates temperature effect on nutrient uptake, could usefully replace MM formalism in the 1-3-dimension models of plants and phytoplankton. This formalism offers a simplification of parametrization to help find more realistic analytical

  2. The Thermodynamic Flow-Force Interpretation of Root Nutrient Uptake Kinetics: A Powerful Formalism for Agronomic and Phytoplanktonic Models

    PubMed Central

    Le Deunff, Erwan; Tournier, Pierre-Henri; Malagoli, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The ion influx isotherms obtained by measuring unidirectional influx across root membranes with radioactive or stable tracers are mostly interpreted by enzyme-substrate-like modeling. However, recent analyses from ion transporter mutants clearly demonstrate the inadequacy of the conventional interpretation of ion isotherms. Many genetically distinct carriers are involved in the root catalytic function. Parameters Vmax and Km deduced from this interpretation cannot therefore be regarded as microscopic parameters of a single transporter, but are instead macroscopic parameters (Vmapp and Kmapp, apparent maximum velocity and affinity constant) that depend on weighted activities of multiple transporters along the root. The flow-force interpretation based on the thermodynamic principle of irreversible processes is an alternative macroscopic modeling approach for ion influx isotherms in which macroscopic parameters Lj (overall conductance of the root system for the substrate j) and πj (thermodynamic parameter when Jj = 0) have a straightforward meaning with respect to the biological sample studied. They characterize the efficiency of the entire root catalytic structure without deducing molecular characteristics. Here we present the basic principles of this theory and how its use can be tested and improved by changing root pre- and post-wash procedures before influx measurements in order to come as close as possible to equilibrium conditions. In addition, the constant values of Vm and Km in the Michaelis-Menten (MM) formalism of enzyme-substrate interpretation do not reflect variations in response to temperature, nutrient status or nutrient regimes. The linear formalism of the flow-force approach, which integrates temperature effect on nutrient uptake, could usefully replace MM formalism in the 1-3-dimension models of plants and phytoplankton. This formalism offers a simplification of parametrization to help find more realistic analytical expressions and numerical

  3. A Formalization of Student Modeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danna, Frederic; Sebillot, Pascale

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on student modeling within an Intelligent Tutoring System. Describes three domain-independent properties that the formalism representing student knowledge and the processes synthesizing this knowledge must possess to build accurate student models for second-language learning. Notes when, how, and where hypothetical reasoning mechanisms…

  4. Feasibility of Single-Input Tracer Kinetic Modeling with Continuous-Time Formalism in Liver 4-Phase Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced CT

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Ho; Ryu, Yasuji; Hayano, Koichi; Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    The modeling of tracer kinetics with use of low-temporal-resolution data is of central importance for patient dose reduction in dynamic contrast-enhanced CT (DCE-CT) study. Tracer kinetic models of the liver vary according to the physiologic assumptions imposed on the model, and they can substantially differ in the ways how the input for blood supply and tissue compartments are modeled. In this study, single-input flow-limited (FL), Tofts-Kety (TK), extended TK (ETK), Hayton-Brady (HB), two compartment exchange (2CX), and adiabatic approximation to the tissue homogeneity (AATH) models were applied to the analysis of liver 4-phase DCE-CT data with fully continuous-time parameter formulation, including the bolus arrival time. The bolus arrival time for the 2CX and AATH models was described by modifying the vascular transport operator theory. Initial results indicate that single-input tracer kinetic modeling is feasible for distinguishing between hepatocellular carcinoma and normal liver parenchyma. PMID:26236779

  5. Formal modeling of virtual machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cremers, A. B.; Hibbard, T. N.

    1978-01-01

    Systematic software design can be based on the development of a 'hierarchy of virtual machines', each representing a 'level of abstraction' of the design process. The reported investigation presents the concept of 'data space' as a formal model for virtual machines. The presented model of a data space combines the notions of data type and mathematical machine to express the close interaction between data and control structures which takes place in a virtual machine. One of the main objectives of the investigation is to show that control-independent data type implementation is only of limited usefulness as an isolated tool of program development, and that the representation of data is generally dictated by the control context of a virtual machine. As a second objective, a better understanding is to be developed of virtual machine state structures than was heretofore provided by the view of the state space as a Cartesian product.

  6. Experiences Using Formal Methods for Requirements Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easterbrook, Steve; Lutz, Robyn; Covington, Rick; Kelly, John; Ampo, Yoko; Hamilton, David

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes three cases studies in the lightweight application of formal methods to requirements modeling for spacecraft fault protection systems. The case studies differ from previously reported applications of formal methods in that formal methods were applied very early in the requirements engineering process, to validate the evolving requirements. The results were fed back into the projects, to improve the informal specifications. For each case study, we describe what methods were applied, how they were applied, how much effort was involved, and what the findings were. In all three cases, the formal modeling provided a cost effective enhancement of the existing verification and validation processes. We conclude that the benefits gained from early modeling of unstable requirements more than outweigh the effort needed to maintain multiple representations.

  7. Formal Models of Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinker, Steven

    1979-01-01

    Research addressing development of mechanistic models capable of acquiring languages on the basis of exposure to linguistic data is reviewed. Research focuses on major issues in developmental psycholinguistics--in particular, nativism and empiricism, the role of semantics and pragmatics, cognitive development, and the importance of simplified…

  8. Kinetic theory of turbulence for parallel propagation revisited: Formal results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Peter H.

    2015-08-01

    In a recent paper, Gaelzer et al. [Phys. Plasmas 22, 032310 (2015)] revisited the second-order nonlinear kinetic theory for turbulence propagating in directions parallel/anti-parallel to the ambient magnetic field. The original work was according to Yoon and Fang [Phys. Plasmas 15, 122312 (2008)], but Gaelzer et al. noted that the terms pertaining to discrete-particle effects in Yoon and Fang's theory did not enjoy proper dimensionality. The purpose of Gaelzer et al. was to restore the dimensional consistency associated with such terms. However, Gaelzer et al. was concerned only with linear wave-particle interaction terms. The present paper completes the analysis by considering the dimensional correction to nonlinear wave-particle interaction terms in the wave kinetic equation.

  9. Kinetic theory of turbulence for parallel propagation revisited: Formal results

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Peter H.

    2015-08-15

    In a recent paper, Gaelzer et al. [Phys. Plasmas 22, 032310 (2015)] revisited the second-order nonlinear kinetic theory for turbulence propagating in directions parallel/anti-parallel to the ambient magnetic field. The original work was according to Yoon and Fang [Phys. Plasmas 15, 122312 (2008)], but Gaelzer et al. noted that the terms pertaining to discrete-particle effects in Yoon and Fang's theory did not enjoy proper dimensionality. The purpose of Gaelzer et al. was to restore the dimensional consistency associated with such terms. However, Gaelzer et al. was concerned only with linear wave-particle interaction terms. The present paper completes the analysis by considering the dimensional correction to nonlinear wave-particle interaction terms in the wave kinetic equation.

  10. Formalizing Linguistic Conventions for Conceptual Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Jörg; Delfmann, Patrick; Herwig, Sebastian; Lis, Łukasz; Stein, Armin

    A precondition for the appropriate analysis of conceptual models is not only their syntactic correctness but also their semantic comparability. Assuring comparability is challenging especially when models are developed by different persons. Empirical studies show that such models can vary heavily, especially in model element naming, even if they express the same issue. In contrast to most ontology-driven approaches proposing the resolution of these differences ex-post, we introduce an approach that avoids naming differences in conceptual models already during modeling. Therefore we formalize naming conventions combining domain thesauri and phrase structures based on a lin-guistic grammar. This allows for guiding modelers automatically during the modeling process using standardized labels for model elements. Our approach is generic, making it applicable for any modeling language.

  11. Multidimensional reactor kinetics modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, D.J.

    1996-11-01

    There is general agreement that for many light water reactor transient calculations, it is-necessary to use a multidimensional neutron kinetics model coupled to a thermal-hydraulics model for satisfactory results. These calculations are needed for a variety of applications for licensing safety analysis, probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), operational support, and training. The latter three applications have always required best-estimate models, but in the past applications for licensing could be satisfied with relatively simple models. By using more sophisticated best-estimate models, the consequences of these calculations are better understood, and the potential for gaining relief from restrictive operating limits increases. Hence, for all of the aforementioned applications, it is important to have the ability to do best-estimate calculations with multidimensional neutron kinetics models. coupled to sophisticated thermal-hydraulic models. Specifically, this paper reviews the status of multidimensional neutron kinetics modeling which would be used in conjunction with thermal-hydraulic models to do core dynamics calculations, either coupled to a complete NSSS representation or in isolation. In addition, the paper makes recommendations as to what should be the state-of-the-art for the next ten years. The review is an update to a previous review of the status as of ten years ago. The general requirements for a core dynamics code and the modeling available for such a code, discussed in that review, are still applicable. The emphasis in the current review is on the neutron kinetics assuming that the necessary thermal-hydraulic capability exists. In addition to discussing the basic neutron kinetics, discussion is given of related modeling (other than thermal- hydraulics). The capabilities and limitations of current computer codes are presented to understand the state-of-the-art and to help clarify the future direction of model development in this area.

  12. On the relationship between kinetic and fluid formalisms for convection in the inner magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yang; Sazykin, Stanislav; Wolf, Richard A.

    2008-08-01

    In the inner magnetosphere, the plasma flows are mostly slow compared to thermal or Alfvén speeds, but the convection is far away from the ideal magnetohydrodynamic regime since the gradient/curvature drifts become significant. Both kinetic (Wolf, 1983) and two-fluid (Peymirat and Fontaine, 1994; Heinemann, 1999) formalisms have been used to describe plasma dynamics, but it is not fully understood how they relate to each other. We explore the relations among kinetic, fluid, and recently developed "average" (Liu, 2006) models in an attempt to find the simplest yet realistic way to describe the convection. First, we prove analytically that the model of (Liu, 2006), when closed with the assumption of a Maxwellian distribution, is equivalent to the fluid model of (Heinemann, 1999). Second, we analyze the transport of both one-dimensional and two-dimensional Gaussian-shaped blob of hot plasma. For the kinetic case, it is known that the time evolution of such a blob is gradual spreading in time. For the fluid case, Heinemann and Wolf (2001a, 2001b) showed that in a one-dimensional idealized case, the blob separates into two drifting at different speeds. We present a fully nonlinear solution of this case, confirming this behavior but demonstrating what appears to be a shocklike steepening of the faster drifting secondary blob. A new, more realistic two-dimensional example using the dipole geometry with a uniform electric field confirms the one-dimensional solutions. Implications for the numerical simulations of magnetospheric dynamics are discussed.

  13. Endorsement of formal leaders: an integrative model.

    PubMed

    Michener, H A; Lawler, E J

    1975-02-01

    This experiment develops an integrative, path-analytic model for the endorsement accorded formal leaders. The model contains four independent variables reflecting aspects of group structure (i.e., group success-failure, the payoff distribution, the degree of support by others members for the leader, and the vulnerability of the leader). Also included are two intervening variables reflecting perceptual processes (attributed competence and attributed fairness), and one dependent variable endorsement). The results indicate that endorsement is greater when the group's success is high, when the payoff distribution is flat rather than hierarchial, and when the leader is not vulnerable to removal from office. Other support had no significant impact on endorsement. Analyses further demonstrate that the effect of success-failure on endorsement is mediated by attributed competence, while the effect of the payoff distributed is mediated by attributed fairness. These results suggest that moral and task evaluations are distinct bases of endorsement. PMID:1123712

  14. LLNL Chemical Kinetics Modeling Group

    SciTech Connect

    Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Mehl, M; Herbinet, O; Curran, H J; Silke, E J

    2008-09-24

    The LLNL chemical kinetics modeling group has been responsible for much progress in the development of chemical kinetic models for practical fuels. The group began its work in the early 1970s, developing chemical kinetic models for methane, ethane, ethanol and halogenated inhibitors. Most recently, it has been developing chemical kinetic models for large n-alkanes, cycloalkanes, hexenes, and large methyl esters. These component models are needed to represent gasoline, diesel, jet, and oil-sand-derived fuels.

  15. A formal model of interpersonal inference

    PubMed Central

    Moutoussis, Michael; Trujillo-Barreto, Nelson J.; El-Deredy, Wael; Dolan, Raymond J.; Friston, Karl J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: We propose that active Bayesian inference—a general framework for decision-making—can equally be applied to interpersonal exchanges. Social cognition, however, entails special challenges. We address these challenges through a novel formulation of a formal model and demonstrate its psychological significance. Method: We review relevant literature, especially with regards to interpersonal representations, formulate a mathematical model and present a simulation study. The model accommodates normative models from utility theory and places them within the broader setting of Bayesian inference. Crucially, we endow people's prior beliefs, into which utilities are absorbed, with preferences of self and others. The simulation illustrates the model's dynamics and furnishes elementary predictions of the theory. Results: (1) Because beliefs about self and others inform both the desirability and plausibility of outcomes, in this framework interpersonal representations become beliefs that have to be actively inferred. This inference, akin to “mentalizing” in the psychological literature, is based upon the outcomes of interpersonal exchanges. (2) We show how some well-known social-psychological phenomena (e.g., self-serving biases) can be explained in terms of active interpersonal inference. (3) Mentalizing naturally entails Bayesian updating of how people value social outcomes. Crucially this includes inference about one's own qualities and preferences. Conclusion: We inaugurate a Bayes optimal framework for modeling intersubject variability in mentalizing during interpersonal exchanges. Here, interpersonal representations are endowed with explicit functional and affective properties. We suggest the active inference framework lends itself to the study of psychiatric conditions where mentalizing is distorted. PMID:24723872

  16. Chemical kinetics modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, C.K.; Pitz, W.J.

    1993-12-01

    This project emphasizes numerical modeling of chemical kinetics of combustion, including applications in both practical combustion systems and in controlled laboratory experiments. Elementary reaction rate parameters are combined into mechanisms which then describe the overall reaction of the fuels being studied. Detailed sensitivity analyses are used to identify those reaction rates and product species distributions to which the results are most sensitive and therefore warrant the greatest attention from other experimental and theoretical research programs. Experimental data from a variety of environments are combined together to validate the reaction mechanisms, including results from laminar flames, shock tubes, flow systems, detonations, and even internal combustion engines.

  17. Modelling Heart Rate Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Zakynthinaki, Maria S.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to formulate a simple and at the same time effective mathematical model of heart rate kinetics in response to movement (exercise). Based on an existing model, a system of two coupled differential equations which give the rate of change of heart rate and the rate of change of exercise intensity is used. The modifications introduced to the existing model are justified and discussed in detail, while models of blood lactate accumulation in respect to time and exercise intensity are also presented. The main modification is that the proposed model has now only one parameter which reflects the overall cardiovascular condition of the individual. The time elapsed after the beginning of the exercise, the intensity of the exercise, as well as blood lactate are also taken into account. Application of the model provides information regarding the individual’s cardiovascular condition and is able to detect possible changes in it, across the data recording periods. To demonstrate examples of successful numerical fit of the model, constant intensity experimental heart rate data sets of two individuals have been selected and numerical optimization was implemented. In addition, numerical simulations provided predictions for various exercise intensities and various cardiovascular condition levels. The proposed model can serve as a powerful tool for a complete means of heart rate analysis, not only in exercise physiology (for efficiently designing training sessions for healthy subjects) but also in the areas of cardiovascular health and rehabilitation (including application in population groups for which direct heart rate recordings at intense exercises are not possible or not allowed, such as elderly or pregnant women). PMID:25876164

  18. Modelling heart rate kinetics.

    PubMed

    Zakynthinaki, Maria S

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to formulate a simple and at the same time effective mathematical model of heart rate kinetics in response to movement (exercise). Based on an existing model, a system of two coupled differential equations which give the rate of change of heart rate and the rate of change of exercise intensity is used. The modifications introduced to the existing model are justified and discussed in detail, while models of blood lactate accumulation in respect to time and exercise intensity are also presented. The main modification is that the proposed model has now only one parameter which reflects the overall cardiovascular condition of the individual. The time elapsed after the beginning of the exercise, the intensity of the exercise, as well as blood lactate are also taken into account. Application of the model provides information regarding the individual's cardiovascular condition and is able to detect possible changes in it, across the data recording periods. To demonstrate examples of successful numerical fit of the model, constant intensity experimental heart rate data sets of two individuals have been selected and numerical optimization was implemented. In addition, numerical simulations provided predictions for various exercise intensities and various cardiovascular condition levels. The proposed model can serve as a powerful tool for a complete means of heart rate analysis, not only in exercise physiology (for efficiently designing training sessions for healthy subjects) but also in the areas of cardiovascular health and rehabilitation (including application in population groups for which direct heart rate recordings at intense exercises are not possible or not allowed, such as elderly or pregnant women). PMID:25876164

  19. Multi-formalism modelling and simulation: application to cardiac modelling

    PubMed Central

    Defontaine, Antoine; Hernández, Alfredo; Carrault, Guy

    2004-01-01

    Cardiovascular modelling has been a major research subject for the last decades. Different cardiac models have been developed at a cellular level as well as at the whole organ level. Most of these models are defined by a comprehensive cellular modelling using continuous formalisms or by a tissue-level modelling often based on discrete formalisms. Nevertheless, both views still suffer from difficulties that reduce their clinical applications: the first approach requires heavy computational resources while the second one is not able to reproduce certain pathologies. This paper presents an original methodology trying to gather advantages from both approaches, by means of an hybrid model mixing discrete and continuous formalisms. This method has been applied to define a hybrid model of cardiac action potential propagation on a 2D grid of endocardial cells, combining cellular automata and a set of cells defined by the Beeler Reuter model. For simulations under physiologic and ischemic conditions, results show that the action potential propagation as well as electrogram reconstructions are consistent with clinical diagnosis. Finally, the interest of the proposed approach is discussed within the frame of cardiac modelling and simulation. PMID:15520534

  20. Formal Specification of the OpenMP Memory Model

    SciTech Connect

    Bronevetsky, G; de Supinski, B

    2006-12-19

    OpenMP [2] is an important API for shared memory programming, combining shared memory's potential for performance with a simple programming interface. Unfortunately, OpenMP lacks a critical tool for demonstrating whether programs are correct: a formal memory model. Instead, the current official definition of the OpenMP memory model (the OpenMP 2.5 specification [2]) is in terms of informal prose. As a result, it is impossible to verify OpenMP applications formally since the prose does not provide a formal consistency model that precisely describes how reads and writes on different threads interact. We expand on our previous work that focused on the formal verification of OpenMP programs through a formal memory model [?]. As in that work, our formalization, which is derived from the existing prose model [2], provides a two-step process to verify whether an observed OpenMP execution is conformant. This paper extends the model to cover the entire specification. In addition to this formalization, our contributions include a discussion of ambiguities in the current prose-based memory model description. Although our formal model may not capture the current informal memory model perfectly, in part due to these ambiguities, our model reflects our understanding of the informal model's intent. We conclude with several examples that may indicate areas of the OpenMP memory model that need further refinement, however it is specified. Our goal is to motivate the OpenMP community to adopt those refinements eventually, ideally through a formal model, in later OpenMP specifications.

  1. Stochastic kinetic mean field model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdélyi, Zoltán; Pasichnyy, Mykola; Bezpalchuk, Volodymyr; Tomán, János J.; Gajdics, Bence; Gusak, Andriy M.

    2016-07-01

    This paper introduces a new model for calculating the change in time of three-dimensional atomic configurations. The model is based on the kinetic mean field (KMF) approach, however we have transformed that model into a stochastic approach by introducing dynamic Langevin noise. The result is a stochastic kinetic mean field model (SKMF) which produces results similar to the lattice kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC). SKMF is, however, far more cost-effective and easier to implement the algorithm (open source program code is provided on

  2. Kinetic models of hydrocarbon generation

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, A.K.; Sweeney, J.J.

    1990-10-25

    We are carrying out an integrated program of laboratory experiments, kinetics modeling, and basin thermal history modeling in order to better understand the natural breakdown of organic matter into oil and gas. Our kinetic models of organic maturation are being used to better understand the coupling of generation, cracking, expulsion, and overpressuring in both the laboratory and geologic setting. Currently we are carrying out chemical experiments and developing more efficient chemical kinetic modeling schemes to obtain a better understanding of expulsion and cracking from lean source rocks and from hydrogen-poor (terrestrial) organic source material. We verify the chemical kinetic models by integrating them with thermal history models of hydrocarbon-producing sediments and comparing predicted and observed characteristics of the hydrocarbon occurrence in a variety of settings. We intend to apply this approach to evaluate the potential for deep gas resources in the Pacific Northwest and in the Louisiana Gulf Coast. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Formalized landscape models for surveying and modelling tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löwner, Marc-Oliver

    2010-05-01

    We present a formalization of main geomorphic landscape models, mainly the concept of slopes, to clarify the needs and potentials of surveying technologies and modelling approaches. Using the Unified Modelling Language (UML) it is implemented as a exchangeable Geography Markup Language (GML3) -based application schema and therefore supports shared measurement campaigns. Today, knowledge in Geomorphology is given synoptically in textbooks in a more or less lyrical way. This knowledge is hard to implement for the use of modelling algorithms or data storage and sharing questions. On the other hand physical based numerical modelling and high resolution surveying technologies enable us to investigate case scenarios within small scales. Bringing together such approaches and organizing our data in an appropriate way will need the formalization of the concepts and knowledge that is archived in the science of geomorphology. The main problem of comparing research results in geomorphology but is that the objects under investigation are composed of 3-dimensional geometries that change in time due to processes of material fluxes, e. g. soil erosion or mass movements. They have internal properties, e. g. soil texture or bulk density, that determine the effectiveness of these processes but are under change as well. The presented application schema is available on the Internet and therefore a first step to enable researchers to share information using an OGC's Web feature service. In this vein comparing modelling results of landscape evolution with results of other scientist's observations is possible. Compared to prevalent data concepts the model presented makes it possible to store information about landforms, their geometry and the characteristics in more detail. It allows to represent the 3D-geometry, the set of material properties and the genesis of a landform by associating processes to a geoobject. Thus, time slices of a geomorphic system can be represented as well as

  4. Experiences Using Lightweight Formal Methods for Requirements Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easterbrook, Steve; Lutz, Robyn; Covington, Rick; Kelly, John; Ampo, Yoko; Hamilton, David

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes three case studies in the lightweight application of formal methods to requirements modeling for spacecraft fault protection systems. The case studies differ from previously reported applications of formal methods in that formal methods were applied very early in the requirements engineering process, to validate the evolving requirements. The results were fed back into the projects, to improve the informal specifications. For each case study, we describe what methods were applied, how they were applied, how much effort was involved, and what the findings were. In all three cases, formal methods enhanced the existing verification and validation processes, by testing key properties of the evolving requirements, and helping to identify weaknesses. We conclude that the benefits gained from early modeling of unstable requirements more than outweigh the effort needed to maintain multiple representations.

  5. An Operator Formalism for Unitary Matrix Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anagnostopoulos, K. N.; Bowick, M. J.; Ishibashi, N.

    We analyze the double scaling limit of unitary matrix models in terms of trigonometric orthogonal polynomials on the circle. In particular we find a compact formulation of the string equation at the kth multicritical point in terms of pseudodifferential operators and a corresponding action principle. We also relate this approach to the mKdV hierarchy which appears in the analysis in terms of conventional orthogonal polynomials on the circle.

  6. Schwinger pair production in space- and time-dependent electric fields: Relating the Wigner formalism to quantum kinetic theory

    SciTech Connect

    Hebenstreit, F.; Alkofer, R.; Gies, H.

    2010-11-15

    The nonperturbative electron-positron pair production (Schwinger effect) is considered for space- and time-dependent electric fields E-vector(x-vector,t). Based on the Dirac-Heisenberg-Wigner formalism, we derive a system of partial differential equations of infinite order for the 16 irreducible components of the Wigner function. In the limit of spatially homogeneous fields the Vlasov equation of quantum kinetic theory is rediscovered. It is shown that the quantum kinetic formalism can be exactly solved in the case of a constant electric field E(t)=E{sub 0} and the Sauter-type electric field E(t)=E{sub 0}sech{sup 2}(t/{tau}). These analytic solutions translate into corresponding expressions within the Dirac-Heisenberg-Wigner formalism and allow to discuss the effect of higher derivatives. We observe that spatial field variations typically exert a strong influence on the components of the Wigner function for large momenta or for late times.

  7. A Kinetic-fluid Model

    SciTech Connect

    First Author = C.Z. Cheng; Jay R. Johnson

    1998-07-10

    A nonlinear kinetic-fluid model for high-beta plasmas with multiple ion species which can be applied to multiscale phenomena is presented. The model embeds important kinetic effects due to finite ion Larmor radius (FLR), wave-particle resonances, magnetic particle trapping, etc. in the framework of simple fluid descriptions. When further restricting to low frequency phenomena with frequencies less than the ion cyclotron frequency the kinetic-fluid model takes a simpler form in which the fluid equations of multiple ion species collapse into single-fluid density and momentum equations and a low frequency generalized Ohm's law. The kinetic effects are introduced via plasma pressure tensors for ions and electrons which are computed from particle distribution functions that are governed by the Vlasov equation or simplified plasma dynamics equations such as the gyrokinetic equation. The ion FLR effects provide a finite parallel electric field, a perpendicular velocity that modifies the ExB drift, and a gyroviscosity tensor, all of which are neglected in the usual one-fluid MHD description. Eigenmode equations are derived which include magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling effects for low frequency waves (e.g., kinetic/inertial Alfven waves and ballooning-mirror instabilities).

  8. Chemical kinetics and combustion modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.A.

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this program is to gain qualitative insight into how pollutants are formed in combustion systems and to develop quantitative mathematical models to predict their formation rates. The approach is an integrated one, combining low-pressure flame experiments, chemical kinetics modeling, theory, and kinetics experiments to gain as clear a picture as possible of the process in question. These efforts are focused on problems involved with the nitrogen chemistry of combustion systems and on the formation of soot and PAH in flames.

  9. Modeling Cyber Conflicts Using an Extended Petri Net Formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Zakrzewska, Anita N; Ferragut, Erik M

    2011-01-01

    When threatened by automated attacks, critical systems that require human-controlled responses have difficulty making optimal responses and adapting protections in real- time and may therefore be overwhelmed. Consequently, experts have called for the development of automatic real-time reaction capabilities. However, a technical gap exists in the modeling and analysis of cyber conflicts to automatically understand the repercussions of responses. There is a need for modeling cyber assets that accounts for concurrent behavior, incomplete information, and payoff functions. Furthermore, we address this need by extending the Petri net formalism to allow real-time cyber conflicts to be modeled in a way that is expressive and concise. This formalism includes transitions controlled by players as well as firing rates attached to transitions. This allows us to model both player actions and factors that are beyond the control of players in real-time. We show that our formalism is able to represent situational aware- ness, concurrent actions, incomplete information and objective functions. These factors make it well-suited to modeling cyber conflicts in a way that allows for useful analysis. MITRE has compiled the Common Attack Pattern Enumera- tion and Classification (CAPEC), an extensive list of cyber attacks at various levels of abstraction. CAPEC includes factors such as attack prerequisites, possible countermeasures, and attack goals. These elements are vital to understanding cyber attacks and to generating the corresponding real-time responses. We demonstrate that the formalism can be used to extract precise models of cyber attacks from CAPEC. Several case studies show that our Petri net formalism is more expressive than other models, such as attack graphs, for modeling cyber conflicts and that it is amenable to exploring cyber strategies.

  10. Improving Project Management Using Formal Models and Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Theodore; Sturken, Ian

    2011-01-01

    This talk discusses the advantages formal modeling and architecture brings to project management. These emerging technologies have both great potential and challenges for improving information available for decision-making. The presentation covers standards, tools and cultural issues needing consideration, and includes lessons learned from projects the presenters have worked on.

  11. Kinetic Modeling of Divertor Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiguro, Seiji; Hasegawa, Hiroki; Pianpanit, Theerasarn

    2015-11-01

    Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulation with the Monte Carlo collisions and the cumulative scattering angle coulomb collision can present kinetic dynamics of divertor plasmas. We are developing two types of PIC codes. The first one is the three dimensional bounded PIC code where three dimensional kinetic dynamics of blob is studied and current flow structures related to sheath formation are unveiled. The second one is the one spatial three velocity space dimensional (1D3V) PIC code with the Monte Carlo collisions where formation of detach plasma is studied. First target of our research is to construct self-consistent full kinetic simulation modeling of the linear divertor simulation experiments. This work is performed with the support and under the auspices of NIFS Collaboration Research program (NIFS15KNSS059, NIFS14KNXN279, and NIFS13KNSS038) and the Research Cooperation Program on Hierarchy and Holism in Natural Science at NINS.

  12. Kinetic Modeling of Biological Systems

    PubMed Central

    Petzold, Linda; Pettigrew, Michel F.

    2010-01-01

    The dynamics of how the constituent components of a natural system interact defines the spatio-temporal response of the system to stimuli. Modeling the kinetics of the processes that represent a biophysical system has long been pursued with the aim of improving our understanding of the studied system. Due to the unique properties of biological systems, in addition to the usual difficulties faced in modeling the dynamics of physical or chemical systems, biological simulations encounter difficulties that result from intrinsic multiscale and stochastic nature of the biological processes. This chapter discusses the implications for simulation of models involving interacting species with very low copy numbers, which often occur in biological systems and give rise to significant relative fluctuations. The conditions necessitating the use of stochastic kinetic simulation methods and the mathematical foundations of the stochastic simulation algorithms are presented. How the well-organized structural hierarchies often seen in biological systems can lead to multiscale problems, and possible ways to address the encountered computational difficulties are discussed. We present the details of the existing kinetic simulation methods, and discuss their strengths and shortcomings. A list of the publicly available kinetic simulation tools and our reflections for future prospects are also provided. PMID:19381542

  13. Induced inflation from a 5D purely kinetic scalar field formalism on warped product spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madriz Aguilar, J. E.

    2008-01-01

    Considering a separable and purely kinetic 5D scalar field we investigate the induction of 4D scalar potentials on a 4D constant foliation on the class of 5D warped product space-times. We obtain a quantum confinement of the inflaton modes given naturally from the model for at least a class of warping factors. We can recover a 4D inflationary scenario where the inflationary potential is geometrically induced from 5D and the effective equation of state in 4D that includes the effect of the inflaton field and the induced matter is Peff≃-ρeff.

  14. Kinetic Modeling of Microbiological Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chongxuan; Fang, Yilin

    2012-08-26

    Kinetic description of microbiological processes is vital for the design and control of microbe-based biotechnologies such as waste water treatment, petroleum oil recovery, and contaminant attenuation and remediation. Various models have been proposed to describe microbiological processes. This editorial article discusses the advantages and limiation of these modeling approaches in cluding tranditional, Monod-type models and derivatives, and recently developed constraint-based approaches. The article also offers the future direction of modeling researches that best suit for petroleum and environmental biotechnologies.

  15. The help of formal models for healthcare security policies.

    PubMed

    Trouessin, G; Barber, B

    1997-01-01

    This article is a personal contribution (i.e., from a strict security expert point of view) towards the help for specification, validation and/or evaluation of reliable, but also secure, healthcare security policies (HSP). The first part is dedicated to show, according to the various aspects of the security policy concept, that healthcare information systems (HIS) offer such a diversity of particularities and potential security needs, that it is necessary for healthcare security policies to be defined as flexible, but also as robust, as possible. Then the formal modelling approach, a wide area of solutions providing both flexibility (by means of modelling) and robustness (by means of formalization), is presented. The most well-known examples of security models are recalled. All of them try to use formal models as a security policy specification/validation tool, but none of them can be helpfully used in the very demanding context of HIS. Lastly, a new approach for the modelling of healthcare security policies, based on modal logic (i.e., epistemic and/or deontic logic) is proposed. It permits to take into account the flexibility (by means of high expressiveness due to modality) and the robustness (by means of high provability due to modelling) needs. PMID:10179775

  16. Formalisms for Electron Exchange Kinetics in Aqueous Solution, and the Role of Ab Initio Techniques in Their Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, M.D.

    1980-01-01

    Formalisms suitable for calculating the rate of electron exchange between transition metal complexes in aqueous solution are reviewed and implemented in conjunction with ab initio quantum chemical calculations which provide crucial off-diagonal Hamiltonian matrix elements as well as other relevant electronic structural data. Rate constants and activation parameters are calculated for the hex-aquo Fe2 +-Fe3+ system, using a simple activated complex theory, a non-adiabatic semi-classical model which includes nuclear tunnelling, and a more detailed quantum mechanical method based on the Golden Rule. Comparisons are made between calculated results and those obtained by extrapolating experimental data to zero ionic strength. All methods yield similar values for the overall rate constant (∾ 0.1 L/(mol-sec)). The experimental activation parameters (δH and δS) are in somewhat better agreement with the semi classical and quantum mechanical results than with those from the simple activated complex theory, thereby providing some indication that non-adiabaticity and nuclear tunnelling may be important in the Fe2+/3+ exchange reaction. It is concluded that a model based on direct metal-metal overlap can account for the observed reaction kinetics provided the reactants are allowed to approach well within the traditional contact distance of 6.9 Å. 6 figures, 7 tables.

  17. Formalization of hydrocarbon conversion scheme of catalytic cracking for mathematical model development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarova, G.; Ivashkina, E.; Ivanchina, E.; Kiseleva, S.; Stebeneva, V.

    2015-11-01

    The issue of improving the energy and resource efficiency of advanced petroleum processing can be solved by the development of adequate mathematical model based on physical and chemical regularities of process reactions with a high predictive potential in the advanced petroleum refining. In this work, the development of formalized hydrocarbon conversion scheme of catalytic cracking was performed using thermodynamic parameters of reaction defined by the Density Functional Theory. The list of reaction was compiled according to the results of feedstock structural-group composition definition, which was done by the n-d-m-method, the Hazelvuda method, qualitative composition of feedstock defined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and individual composition of catalytic cracking gasoline fraction. Formalized hydrocarbon conversion scheme of catalytic cracking will become the basis for the development of the catalytic cracking kinetic model.

  18. Kinetic model of HIV infection

    SciTech Connect

    Zhdanov, V. P.

    2007-10-15

    Recent experiments clarifying the details of exhaustion of CD8 T cells specific to various strains of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are indicative of slow irreversible (on a one-year time scale) deterioration of the immune system. The conventional models of HIV kinetics do not take this effect into account. Removing this shortcoming, we show the likely influence of such changes on the escape of HIV from control of the immune system.

  19. Formal versus heuristic modeling for multitarget Bayes filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahler, Ronald P. S.

    2004-08-01

    The multisensor-multitarget Bayes filter is the foundation for multi-sensor-multitarget detection, tracking, and identification. This paper addresses the question of principled implementation of this filter. Algorithms can always be cobbled together using catch-as-catch-can heuristic techniques. In formal Bayes modeling one instead derives statistically precise, implementation-independent equations from which principle approximations can then be derived. Indeed, this has become the accepted methodology for single-sensor, single-target tracking R&D. In the case of the multitarget filter, however, partisans of a so-called "plain-vanilla Bayesian approach" have disparaged formal Bayes modelling, and have protrayed specific, ad hoc implementations as completely general, "powerful and robust computational methods." In this and a companion paper I expose the speciousness of such claims. This paper reviews the elements of formal Bayes modeling and approximation, describes what they must look like in the multitarget case, and contrasts them with the "plain-vanilla Bayesian approach."

  20. Los Alamos Center for Computer Security formal computer security model

    SciTech Connect

    Dreicer, J.S.; Hunteman, W.J.; Markin, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    This paper provides a brief presentation of the formal computer security model currently being developed at the Los Alamos Department of Energy (DOE) Center for Computer Security (CCS). The need to test and verify DOE computer security policy implementation first motivated this effort. The actual analytical model was a result of the integration of current research in computer security and previous modeling and research experiences. The model is being developed to define a generic view of the computer and network security domains, to provide a theoretical basis for the design of a security model, and to address the limitations of present formal mathematical models for computer security. The fundamental objective of computer security is to prevent the unauthorized and unaccountable access to a system. The inherent vulnerabilities of computer systems result in various threats from unauthorized access. The foundation of the Los Alamos DOE CCS model is a series of functionally dependent probability equations, relations, and expressions. The model is undergoing continued discrimination and evolution. We expect to apply the model to the discipline of the Bell and LaPadula abstract sets of objects and subjects. 6 refs.

  1. A Formal Model for Real-Time Parallel Computation

    SciTech Connect

    Hui, Peter SY; Chikkagoudar, Satish

    2012-12-29

    The imposition of real-time constraints on a parallel computing environment--- specifically high-performance, cluster-computing systems--- introduces a variety of challenges with respect to the formal verification of the system's timing properties. In this paper, we briefly motivate the need for such a system, and we introduce an automaton-based method for performing such formal verification. We define the concept of a consistent parallel timing system: a hybrid system consisting of a set of timed automata (specifically, timed Buechi automata as well as a timed variant of standard finite automata), intended to model the timing properties of a well-behaved real-time parallel system. Finally, we give a brief case study to demonstrate the concepts in the paper: a parallel matrix multiplication kernel which operates within provable upper time bounds. We give the algorithm used, a corresponding consistent parallel timing system, and empirical results showing that the system operates under the specified timing constraints.

  2. Formal representation of 3D structural geological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhangang; Qu, Honggang; Wu, Zixing; Yang, Hongjun; Du, Qunle

    2016-05-01

    The development and widespread application of geological modeling methods has increased demands for the integration and sharing services of three dimensional (3D) geological data. However, theoretical research in the field of geological information sciences is limited despite the widespread use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in geology. In particular, fundamental research on the formal representations and standardized spatial descriptions of 3D structural models is required. This is necessary for accurate understanding and further applications of geological data in 3D space. In this paper, we propose a formal representation method for 3D structural models using the theory of point set topology, which produces a mathematical definition for the major types of geological objects. The spatial relationships between geologic boundaries, structures, and units are explained in detail using the 9-intersection model. Reasonable conditions for describing the topological space of 3D structural models are also provided. The results from this study can be used as potential support for the standardized representation and spatial quality evaluation of 3D structural models, as well as for specific needs related to model-based management, query, and analysis.

  3. Kinetic models of conjugated metabolic cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ershov, Yu. A.

    2016-01-01

    A general method is developed for the quantitative kinetic analysis of conjugated metabolic cycles in the human organism. This method is used as a basis for constructing a kinetic graph and model of the conjugated citric acid and ureapoiesis cycles. The results from a kinetic analysis of the model for these cycles are given.

  4. Modelling reaction kinetics inside cells

    PubMed Central

    Grima, Ramon; Schnell, Santiago

    2009-01-01

    In the past decade, advances in molecular biology such as the development of non-invasive single molecule imaging techniques have given us a window into the intricate biochemical activities that occur inside cells. In this article we review four distinct theoretical and simulation frameworks: (1) non-spatial and deterministic, (2) spatial and deterministic, (3) non-spatial and stochastic and (4) spatial and stochastic. Each framework can be suited to modelling and interpreting intracellular reaction kinetics. By estimating the fundamental length scales, one can roughly determine which models are best suited for the particular reaction pathway under study. We discuss differences in prediction between the four modelling methodologies. In particular we show that taking into account noise and space does not simply add quantitative predictive accuracy but may also lead to qualitatively different physiological predictions, unaccounted for by classical deterministic models. PMID:18793122

  5. Modeling and formal analysis of urban road traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avram, Camelia; Machado, José; Aştilean, Adina

    2013-10-01

    Modern life in cities leads to complex urban traffic road and, sometimes, to go from one point to another, in a city, is a hard and very complex task. The use of assisted systems for helping drivers on their task of reaching the desired destination is being common, mainly systems like GPS location systems or other similar systems. The main gap of those systems is that they are not able to assist drivers when some unexpected changes occur, like accidents, or another unexpected situations. In this context, it would be desirable to have a dynamic system to inform the drivers, about everything that is happening "online". This work is inserted in this context and the work presented here is one part of a bigger project that has, as main goal, to be a dynamic system for assisting drivers under hard conditions of urban road traffic. In this paper is modeled, and formally analyzed, the intersection of four street segments, in order to take some considerations about this subject. This paper presents the model of the considered system, using timed automata formalism. The validation and verification of the road traffic model it is realized using UPPAAL model-checker.

  6. Computational Modeling, Formal Analysis, and Tools for Systems Biology

    PubMed Central

    Bartocci, Ezio; Lió, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    As the amount of biological data in the public domain grows, so does the range of modeling and analysis techniques employed in systems biology. In recent years, a number of theoretical computer science developments have enabled modeling methodology to keep pace. The growing interest in systems biology in executable models and their analysis has necessitated the borrowing of terms and methods from computer science, such as formal analysis, model checking, static analysis, and runtime verification. Here, we discuss the most important and exciting computational methods and tools currently available to systems biologists. We believe that a deeper understanding of the concepts and theory highlighted in this review will produce better software practice, improved investigation of complex biological processes, and even new ideas and better feedback into computer science. PMID:26795950

  7. A Formal Model of Partitioning for Integrated Modular Avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiVito, Ben L.

    1998-01-01

    The aviation industry is gradually moving toward the use of integrated modular avionics (IMA) for civilian transport aircraft. An important concern for IMA is ensuring that applications are safely partitioned so they cannot interfere with one another. We have investigated the problem of ensuring safe partitioning and logical non-interference among separate applications running on a shared Avionics Computer Resource (ACR). This research was performed in the context of ongoing standardization efforts, in particular, the work of RTCA committee SC-182, and the recently completed ARINC 653 application executive (APEX) interface standard. We have developed a formal model of partitioning suitable for evaluating the design of an ACR. The model draws from the mathematical modeling techniques developed by the computer security community. This report presents a formulation of partitioning requirements expressed first using conventional mathematical notation, then formalized using the language of SRI'S Prototype Verification System (PVS). The approach is demonstrated on three candidate designs, each an abstraction of features found in real systems.

  8. Elastic Network Models are Robust to Variations in Formalism.

    PubMed

    Leioatts, Nicholas; Romo, Tod D; Grossfield, Alan

    2012-07-10

    Understanding the functions of biomolecules requires insight not only from structures, but from dynamics as well. Often, the most interesting processes occur on time scales too slow for exploration by conventional molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. For this reason, alternative computational methods such as elastic network models (ENMs) have become increasingly popular. These simple, coarse-grained models represent molecules as beads connected by harmonic springs; the system's motions are solved analytically by normal mode analysis. In the past few years, many different formalisms for performing ENM calculations have emerged, and several have been optimized using all-atom MD simulations. In contrast to other studies, we have compared the various formalisms in a systematic, quantitative way. In this study, we optimize many ENM functional forms using a uniform dataset containing only long (> 1 μs) all-atom MD simulations. Our results show that all models once optimized produce spring constants for immediate neighboring residues that are orders of magnitude stiffer than more distal contacts. In addition, the statistical significance of ENM performance varied with model resolution. We also show that fitting long trajectories does not improve ENM performance due to a problem inherent in all network models tested: they underestimate the relative importance of the most concerted motions. Finally, we characterize ENMs' resilience by tessellating the parameter space to show that broad ranges of parameters produce similar quality predictions. Taken together our data reveals that choice of spring function and parameters are not vital to performance of a network model and that simple parameters can by derived "by hand" when no data is available for fitting, thus illustrating the robustness of these models. PMID:22924033

  9. Spectral method for a kinetic swarming model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamba, Irene M.; Haack, Jeffrey R.; Motsch, Sebastien

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we present the first numerical method for a kinetic description of the Vicsek swarming model. The kinetic model poses a unique challenge, as there is a distribution dependent collision invariant to satisfy when computing the interaction term. We use a spectral representation linked with a discrete constrained optimization to compute these interactions. To test the numerical scheme we investigate the kinetic model at different scales and compare the solution with the microscopic and macroscopic descriptions of the Vicsek model. We observe that the kinetic model captures key features such as vortex formation and traveling waves.

  10. Spectral method for a kinetic swarming model

    SciTech Connect

    Gamba, Irene M.; Haack, Jeffrey R.; Motsch, Sebastien

    2015-04-28

    Here we present the first numerical method for a kinetic description of the Vicsek swarming model. The kinetic model poses a unique challenge, as there is a distribution dependent collision invariant to satisfy when computing the interaction term. We use a spectral representation linked with a discrete constrained optimization to compute these interactions. To test the numerical scheme we investigate the kinetic model at different scales and compare the solution with the microscopic and macroscopic descriptions of the Vicsek model. Lastly, we observe that the kinetic model captures key features such as vortex formation and traveling waves.

  11. Model Search: Formalizing and Automating Constraint Solving in MDE Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleiner, Mathias; Del Fabro, Marcos Didonet; Albert, Patrick

    Model Driven Engineering (MDE) and constraint programming (CP) have been widely used and combined in different applications. However, existing results are either ad-hoc, not fully integrated or manually executed. In this article, we present a formalization and an approach for automating constraint-based solving in a MDE platform. Our approach generalizes existing work by combining known MDE concepts with CP techniques into a single operation called model search. We present the theoretical basis for model search, as well as an automated process that details the involved operations. We validate our approach by comparing two implemented solutions (one based on Alloy/SAT, the other on OPL/CP), and by executing them over an academic use-case.

  12. Chemical kinetic modeling of H{sub 2} applications

    SciTech Connect

    Marinov, N.M.; Westbrook, C.K.; Cloutman, L.D.

    1995-09-01

    Work being carried out at LLNL has concentrated on studies of the role of chemical kinetics in a variety of problems related to hydrogen combustion in practical combustion systems, with an emphasis on vehicle propulsion. Use of hydrogen offers significant advantages over fossil fuels, and computer modeling provides advantages when used in concert with experimental studies. Many numerical {open_quotes}experiments{close_quotes} can be carried out quickly and efficiently, reducing the cost and time of system development, and many new and speculative concepts can be screened to identify those with sufficient promise to pursue experimentally. This project uses chemical kinetic and fluid dynamic computational modeling to examine the combustion characteristics of systems burning hydrogen, either as the only fuel or mixed with natural gas. Oxidation kinetics are combined with pollutant formation kinetics, including formation of oxides of nitrogen but also including air toxics in natural gas combustion. We have refined many of the elementary kinetic reaction steps in the detailed reaction mechanism for hydrogen oxidation. To extend the model to pressures characteristic of internal combustion engines, it was necessary to apply theoretical pressure falloff formalisms for several key steps in the reaction mechanism. We have continued development of simplified reaction mechanisms for hydrogen oxidation, we have implemented those mechanisms into multidimensional computational fluid dynamics models, and we have used models of chemistry and fluid dynamics to address selected application problems. At the present time, we are using computed high pressure flame, and auto-ignition data to further refine the simplified kinetics models that are then to be used in multidimensional fluid mechanics models. Detailed kinetics studies have investigated hydrogen flames and ignition of hydrogen behind shock waves, intended to refine the detailed reactions mechanisms.

  13. Kinetic modelling of mitochondrial translation.

    PubMed

    Korla, Kalyani; Mitra, Chanchal K

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial genome contains 13 protein coding genes, all being part of the oxidative phosphorylation complexes. The process of translation of these protein coding mRNAs in mitochondrial matrix is a good miniature model of translation in cytoplasm. In this work, we have simulated three phases of mitochondrial translation viz. initiation, elongation and termination (including ribosome recycling). The kinetic equations for these phases have been deduced based on the information available in literature. Various factors involved in the process have been included explicitly. Kinetic simulation was done using Octave, open source software. Scripts were written individually for each phase. Initiation begins with mitoribosome, mRNA, fMet-tRNA and initiation factors. The final product of the initiation script, the initiation complex, was introduced as the start point in the successive step, i.e. elongation. Elongation is a particular extensive process where the various aminoacyl-tRNAs already present in the matrix check for matching with the triplet codon in A-site of mitoribosome. This script consists of two parts: one with the time behaviour of the factors involved in the molecular process (using ordinary differential equation solver) and the other including the reading of triplet codon on the mRNA and incorporating the corresponding aminoacyl-tRNA, and then at each step elongating the peptide chain (using loops and conditions). The peptide chain thus formed in the elongation step (in the loops and conditions segment) was released in the termination step. This was followed by mitoribosome recycling where the mitoribosome reached the native state and was ready for the next cycle of translation. PMID:24028553

  14. Appreciating Formal Similarities in the Kinetics of Homogeneous, Heterogeneous, and Enzyme Catalysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Michael T.

    2007-01-01

    Because interest in catalysts is widespread, the kinetics of catalytic reactions have been investigated by widely diverse groups of individuals, including chemists, engineers, and biologists. This has lead to redundancy in theories, particularly with regard to the topics of homogeneous, heterogeneous, and enzyme catalysis. From a pedagogical…

  15. Formal modeling and verification of fractional order linear systems.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunna; Shi, Likun; Guan, Yong; Li, Xiaojuan; Shi, Zhiping

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a formalization of a fractional order linear system in a higher-order logic (HOL) theorem proving system. Based on the formalization of the Grünwald-Letnikov (GL) definition, we formally specify and verify the linear and superposition properties of fractional order systems. The proof provides a rigor and solid underpinnings for verifying concrete fractional order linear control systems. Our implementation in HOL demonstrates the effectiveness of our approach in practical applications. PMID:27126601

  16. The Importance of Formalizing Computational Models of Face Adaptation Aftereffects

    PubMed Central

    Ross, David A.; Palmeri, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Face adaptation is widely used as a means to probe the neural representations that support face recognition. While the theories that relate face adaptation to behavioral aftereffects may seem conceptually simple, our work has shown that testing computational instantiations of these theories can lead to unexpected results. Instantiating a model of face adaptation not only requires specifying how faces are represented and how adaptation shapes those representations but also specifying how decisions are made, translating hidden representational states into observed responses. Considering the high-dimensionality of face representations, the parallel activation of multiple representations, and the non-linearity of activation functions and decision mechanisms, intuitions alone are unlikely to succeed. If the goal is to understand mechanism, not simply to examine the boundaries of a behavioral phenomenon or correlate behavior with brain activity, then formal computational modeling must be a component of theory testing. To illustrate, we highlight our recent computational modeling of face adaptation aftereffects and discuss how models can be used to understand the mechanisms by which faces are recognized. PMID:27378960

  17. Kinetic model for erythrocyte aggregation.

    PubMed

    Bertoluzzo, S M; Bollini, A; Rasia, M; Raynal, A

    1999-01-01

    It is well known that light transmission through blood is the most widely utilized method for the study of erythrocyte aggregation. The curves obtained had been considered empirically as exponential functions. In consequence, the process becomes characterized by an only parameter that varies with all the process factors without discrimination. In the present paper a mathematical model for RBC aggregation process is deduced in accordance with von Smoluchowski's theory about the kinetics of colloidal particles agglomeration. The equation fitted the experimental pattern of the RBC suspension optical transmittance closely and contained two parameters that estimate the most important characteristics of the aggregation process separately, i.e., (1) average size of rouleaux at equilibrium and (2) aggregation rate. The evaluation of the method was assessed by some factors affecting erythrocyte aggregation, such as temperature, plasma dilutions, Dextran 500, Dextran 70 and PVP 360, at different media concentrations, cellular membrane alteration by the alkylating agent TCEA, and decrease of medium osmolarity. Results were interpreted considering the process characteristics estimated by the parameters, and there were also compared with similar studies carried out by other authors with other methods. This analysis allowed us to conclude that the equation proposed is reliable and useful to study erythrocyte aggregation. PMID:10660481

  18. The Archival Photograph and Its Meaning: Formalisms for Modeling Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Allen C.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores ontological principles and their potential applications in the formal description of archival photographs. Current archival descriptive practices are reviewed and the larger question is addressed: do archivists who are engaged in describing photographs need a more formalized system of representation, or do existing encoding…

  19. Detecting Mode Confusion Through Formal Modeling and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Steven P.; Potts, James N.

    1999-01-01

    Aircraft safety has improved steadily over the last few decades. While much of this improvement can be attributed to the introduction of advanced automation in the cockpit, the growing complexity of these systems also increases the potential for the pilots to become confused about what the automation is doing. This phenomenon, often referred to as mode confusion, has been involved in several accidents involving modern aircraft. This report describes an effort by Rockwell Collins and NASA Langley to identify potential sources of mode confusion through two complementary strategies. The first is to create a clear, executable model of the automation, connect it to a simulation of the flight deck, and use this combination to review of the behavior of the automation and the man-machine interface with the designers, pilots, and experts in human factors. The second strategy is to conduct mathematical analyses of the model by translating it into a formal specification suitable for analysis with automated tools. The approach is illustrated by applying it to a hypothetical, but still realistic, example of the mode logic of a Flight Guidance System.

  20. Solvation Phenomena in Dilute Solutions: Formal, Experimental Evidence, and Modeling Implications

    SciTech Connect

    Chialvo, Ariel A

    2013-01-01

    We review the fundamentals underlying a general molecular-based formalism for the microscopic interpretation of the solvation phenomena involving sparingly soluble solutes in compressible media, an approach that hinges around the unambiguous splitting of the species correlation function integrals into short-(finite) and long-ranged (diverging) contributions at infinite dilution, where this condition is taken as the reference system for the derivation of composition expansions. Then, we invoke the formalism (a) to illustrate the well-behaved nature of the solvation contributions to the mechanical partial molecular properties of solutes at infinite dilution, (b) to guide the development of, and provide molecular-based support to, the macroscopic modeling of high-temperature dilute aqueous-electrolyte solutions, (c) to study solvation effects on the kinetic rate constants of reactions in near-critical solvents in an attempt to understand from a microscopic perspective the macroscopic evidence regarding the thermodynamic pressure effects, and (d) to interpret the microscopic mechanism behind synergistic solvation effects involving either co-solutes or co-solvents, and provide a molecular argument on the unsuitability of the van der Waals one-fluid (vdW-1f) mixing rules for the 2 description of weakly attractive solutes in compressible solvents. Finally, we develop thermodynamically consistent perturbation expansions, around the infinite dilution reference, for the species residual properties in binary and ternary mixtures, and discuss the theoretical and modeling implications behind ad hoc first-order truncated expansions.

  1. Beware the tail that wags the dog: informal and formal models in biology

    PubMed Central

    Gunawardena, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Informal models have always been used in biology to guide thinking and devise experiments. In recent years, formal mathematical models have also been widely introduced. It is sometimes suggested that formal models are inherently superior to informal ones and that biology should develop along the lines of physics or economics by replacing the latter with the former. Here I suggest to the contrary that progress in biology requires a better integration of the formal with the informal. PMID:25368417

  2. Viral kinetic modeling: state of the art

    SciTech Connect

    Canini, Laetitia; Perelson, Alan S.

    2014-06-25

    Viral kinetic modeling has led to increased understanding of the within host dynamics of viral infections and the effects of therapy. Here we review recent developments in the modeling of viral infection kinetics with emphasis on two infectious diseases: hepatitis C and influenza. We review how viral kinetic modeling has evolved from simple models of viral infections treated with a drug or drug cocktail with an assumed constant effectiveness to models that incorporate drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, as well as phenomenological models that simply assume drugs have time varying-effectiveness. We also discuss multiscale models that include intracellular events in viral replication, models of drug-resistance, models that include innate and adaptive immune responses and models that incorporate cell-to-cell spread of infection. Overall, viral kinetic modeling has provided new insights into the understanding of the disease progression and the modes of action of several drugs. In conclusion, we expect that viral kinetic modeling will be increasingly used in the coming years to optimize drug regimens in order to improve therapeutic outcomes and treatment tolerability for infectious diseases.

  3. Viral kinetic modeling: state of the art

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Canini, Laetitia; Perelson, Alan S.

    2014-06-25

    Viral kinetic modeling has led to increased understanding of the within host dynamics of viral infections and the effects of therapy. Here we review recent developments in the modeling of viral infection kinetics with emphasis on two infectious diseases: hepatitis C and influenza. We review how viral kinetic modeling has evolved from simple models of viral infections treated with a drug or drug cocktail with an assumed constant effectiveness to models that incorporate drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, as well as phenomenological models that simply assume drugs have time varying-effectiveness. We also discuss multiscale models that include intracellular events in viralmore » replication, models of drug-resistance, models that include innate and adaptive immune responses and models that incorporate cell-to-cell spread of infection. Overall, viral kinetic modeling has provided new insights into the understanding of the disease progression and the modes of action of several drugs. In conclusion, we expect that viral kinetic modeling will be increasingly used in the coming years to optimize drug regimens in order to improve therapeutic outcomes and treatment tolerability for infectious diseases.« less

  4. Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Advanced Transportation Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    PItz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Herbinet, O

    2009-01-20

    Development of detailed chemical kinetic models for advanced petroleum-based and nonpetroleum based fuels is a difficult challenge because of the hundreds to thousands of different components in these fuels and because some of these fuels contain components that have not been considered in the past. It is important to develop detailed chemical kinetic models for these fuels since the models can be put into engine simulation codes used for optimizing engine design for maximum efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions. For example, these chemistry-enabled engine codes can be used to optimize combustion chamber shape and fuel injection timing. They also allow insight into how the composition of advanced petroleum-based and non-petroleum based fuels affect engine performance characteristics. Additionally, chemical kinetic models can be used separately to interpret important in-cylinder experimental data and gain insight into advanced engine combustion processes such as HCCI and lean burn engines. The objectives are: (1) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for components of advanced petroleum-based and non-petroleum based fuels. These fuels models include components from vegetable-oil-derived biodiesel, oil-sand derived fuel, alcohol fuels and other advanced bio-based and alternative fuels. (2) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for mixtures of non-petroleum and petroleum-based components to represent real fuels and lead to efficient reduced combustion models needed for engine modeling codes. (3) Characterize the role of fuel composition on efficiency and pollutant emissions from practical automotive engines.

  5. Algebraic operator approach to gas kinetic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Il'ichov, L. V.

    1997-02-01

    Some general properties of the linear Boltzmann kinetic equation are used to present it in the form ∂ tϕ = - †Âϕ with the operators Âand† possessing some nontrivial algebraic properties. When applied to the Keilson-Storer kinetic model, this method gives an example of quantum ( q-deformed) Lie algebra. This approach provides also a natural generalization of the “kangaroo model”.

  6. Constraint algebra of general relativity from a formal continuum limit of canonical tensor model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasakura, Naoki; Sato, Yuki

    2015-10-01

    Canonical tensor model (CTM for short below) is a rank-three tensor model formulated as a totally constrained system in the canonical formalism. In the classical case, the constraints form a first-class constraint Poisson algebra with structures similar to that of the ADM formalism of general relativity, qualifying CTM as a possible discrete formalism for quantum gravity. In this paper, we show that, in a formal continuum limit, the constraint Poisson algebra of CTM with no cosmological constant exactly reproduces that of the ADM formalism. To this end, we obtain the expression of the metric tensor field in general relativity in terms of one of the dynamical rank-three tensors in CTM, and determine the correspondence between the constraints of CTM and those of the ADM formalism. On the other hand, the cosmological constant term of CTM seems to induce non-local dynamics, and is inconsistent with an assumption about locality of the continuum limit.

  7. Dynamics and kinetics of model biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirigian, Stephen

    In this work we study three systems of biological interest: the translocation of a heterogeneously charged polymer through an infinitely thin pore, the wrapped of a rigid particle by a soft vesicle and the modification of the dynamical properties of a gel due to the presence of rigid inclusions. We study the kinetics of translocation for a heterogeneously charged polyelectrolyte through an infinitely narrow pore using the Fokker-Planck formalism to compute mean first passage times, the probability of successful translocation, and the mean successful translocation time for a diblock copolymer. We find, in contrast to the homopolymer result, that details of the boundary conditions lead to qualitatively different behavior. Under experimentally relevant conditions for a diblock copolymer we find that there is a threshold length of the charged block, beyond which the probability of successful translocation is independent of charge fraction. Additionally, we find that mean successful translocation time exhibits non-monotonic behavior with increasing length of the charged fraction; there is an optimum length of the charged block where the mean successful translocation time is slowest and there can be a substantial range of charge fraction where it is slower than a minimally charged chain. For a fixed total charge on the chain, we find that finer distributions of the charge along the chain leads to a significant reduction in mean translocation time compared to the diblock distribution. Endocytosis is modeled using a simple geometrical model from the literature. We map the process of wrapping a rigid spherical bead onto a one-dimensional stochastic process described by the Fokker-Planck equation to compute uptake rates as a function of membrane properties and system geometry. We find that simple geometrical considerations pick an optimal particle size for uptake and a corresponding maximal uptake rate, which can be controlled by altering the material properties of the

  8. Nilpotent and absolutely anticommuting symmetries in the Freedman-Townsend model: Augmented superfield formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, A.; Krishna, S.; Malik, R. P.

    2014-12-01

    We derive the off-shell nilpotent and absolutely anticommuting Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) and anti-BRST symmetry transformations, corresponding to the (1-form) Yang-Mills (YM) and (2-form) tensorial gauge symmetries of the four (3+1)-dimensional (4D) Freedman-Townsend (FT) model, by exploiting the augmented version of Bonora-Tonin's (BT) superfield approach to BRST formalism where the 4D flat Minkowskian theory is generalized onto the (4, 2)-dimensional supermanifold. One of the novel observations is the fact that we are theoretically compelled to go beyond the horizontality condition (HC) to invoke an additional set of gauge-invariant restrictions (GIRs) for the derivation of the full set of proper (anti-)BRST symmetries. To obtain the (anti-)BRST symmetry transformations, corresponding to the tensorial (2-form) gauge symmetries within the framework of augmented version of BT-superfield approach, we are logically forced to modify the FT-model to incorporate an auxiliary 1-form field and the kinetic term for the antisymmetric (2-form) gauge field. This is also a new observation in our present investigation. We point out some of the key differences between the modified FT-model and Lahiri-model (LM) of the dynamical non-Abelian 2-form gauge theories. We also briefly mention a few similarities.

  9. Modelling couplings between reaction, fluid flow and deformation: Kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malvoisin, Benjamin; Podladchikov, Yury Y.; Connolly, James A. D.

    2016-04-01

    Mineral assemblages out of equilibrium are commonly found in metamorphic rocks testifying of the critical role of kinetics for metamorphic reactions. As experimentally determined reaction rates in fluid-saturated systems generally indicate complete reaction in less than several years, i.e. several orders of magnitude faster than field-based estimates, metamorphic reaction kinetics are generally thought to be controlled by transport rather than by processes at the mineral surface. However, some geological processes like earthquakes or slow-slip events have shorter characteristic timescales, and transport processes can be intimately related to mineral surface processes. Therefore, it is important to take into account the kinetics of mineral surface processes for modelling fluid/rock interactions. Here, a model coupling reaction, fluid flow and deformation was improved by introducing a delay in the achievement of equilibrium. The classical formalism for dissolution/precipitation reactions was used to consider the influence of the distance from equilibrium and of temperature on the reaction rate, and a dependence on porosity was introduced to model evolution of reacting surface area during reaction. The fitting of experimental data for three reactions typically occurring in metamorphic systems (serpentine dehydration, muscovite dehydration and calcite decarbonation) indicates a systematic faster kinetics close from equilibrium on the dehydration side than on the hydration side. This effect is amplified through the porosity term in the reaction rate since porosity is formed during dehydration. Numerical modelling indicates that this difference in reaction rate close from equilibrium plays a key role in microtextures formation. The developed model can be used in a wide variety of geological systems where couplings between reaction, deformation and fluid flow have to be considered.

  10. Magnetic-sublevel atomic kinetics modeling for line polarization spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Hakel, P.; Mancini, R. C.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the mechanism of polarized X-ray line emission in plasmas, its connection to plasma anisotropy, and introduce an atomic kinetics model and code (POLAR) based on the population kinetics of magnetic sublevels. POLAR represents a multi-level, multi-process approach to the problem of polarized spectra in plasmas, and hence it is well suited for plasma applications where cascade effects and alignment transfer can become important. Polarization degrees of X-ray spectral lines computed with POLAR were successfully benchmarked against calculations done with other formalisms, and experimental results obtained at the EBIT facility of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. We also investigated the polarization of He-like Si X-ray satellite lines as spectral signatures of anisotropy in the electron distribution function. A comprehensive modeling study was performed taking into account hydrodynamics and electron kinetics. We find that two satellite lines connecting singlet states develop a noticeable polarization while the triplet lines remain unpolarized. These results suggest a scenario where triplet lines could be used as a reference while the singlets could be used as polarized markers of plasma anisotropy.

  11. Modeling the Medium: Effects of Formal Properties of Children's Television Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huston-Stein, Aletha; Wright, John C.

    This paper discusses research on the effects of formal features of television programs on children's attention, comprehension, and social behavior. Formal features are defined as visual and auditory events which are not primarily a part of the content or message. Three models of the influences of form and content are discussed: (1) the…

  12. Model-Independent Bounds on Kinetic Mixing

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hook, Anson; Izaguirre, Eder; Wacker, Jay G.

    2011-01-01

    New Abelimore » an vector bosons can kinetically mix with the hypercharge gauge boson of the Standard Model. This letter computes the model-independent limits on vector bosons with masses from 1 GeV to 1 TeV. The limits arise from the numerous e + e − experiments that have been performed in this energy range and bound the kinetic mixing by ϵ ≲ 0.03 for most of the mass range studied, regardless of any additional interactions that the new vector boson may have.« less

  13. Model Independent Bounds on Kinetic Mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Hook, Anson; Izaguirre, Eder; Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC

    2011-08-22

    New Abelian vector bosons can kinetically mix with the hypercharge gauge boson of the Standard Model. This letter computes the model independent limits on vector bosons with masses from 1 GeV to 1 TeV. The limits arise from the numerous e{sup +}e{sup -} experiments that have been performed in this energy range and bound the kinetic mixing by {epsilon} {approx}< 0.03 for most of the mass range studied, regardless of any additional interactions that the new vector boson may have.

  14. Kinetic Analysis of Protein Folding Lattice Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hu; Zhou, Xin; Liaw, Chih Young; Koh, Chan Ghee

    Based on two-dimensional square lattice models of proteins, the relation between folding time and temperature is studied by Monte Carlo simulation. The results can be represented by a kinetic model with three states — random coil, molten globule, and native state. The folding process is composed of nonspecific collapse and final searching for the native state. At high temperature, it is easy to escape from local traps in the folding process. With decreasing temperature, because of the trapping in local traps, the final searching speed decreases. Then the folding shows chevron rollover. Through the analysis of the fitted parameters of the kinetic model, it is found that the main difference between the energy landscapes of the HP model and the Go model is that the number of local minima of the Go model is less than that of the HP model.

  15. Formalization model of expert knowledge about a technical index level of engineering products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharova, A. A.; Ostanin, V. V.

    2015-09-01

    The authors set a timely problem that concerns development of decision making models, which allow formalizing expert subjective ideas about technical index level of engineering products. The authors proposed a formalization model of expert knowledge about technical index level of engineering products on the basis of fuzzy sets. The model has a method of membership-function construction for linguistic variable terms on the basis of exponential functions.

  16. KINETICS MODEL AND OZONE ISOPLETH PLOTTING PACKAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Kinetics Model and Ozone Isopleth Plotting Package (OZIPP) computer program can be used to simulate ozone formation in urban atmospheres. OZIPP calculates maximum one-hour average ozone concentrations given a set of input assumptions about initial precursor concentrations, li...

  17. Deterministic Modelling of BAK Activation Kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grills, C.; Chacko, A.; Crawford, N.; Johnston, P. G.; Fennell, D. A.; O'Rourke, S. F. C.

    2009-08-01

    The molecular mechanism underlying mitochondrial BAK activation during apoptosis remains highly controversial. Two seemingly conflicting models have been proposed. In the activation model, BAK requires so-called activating BH3 only proteins (aBH3) to initiate its conformation change. In the other, displacement from inhibitory pro-survival BCL-2 proteins (PBPs) and monomerization of BAK by PBP restricted dissociator BH3-only proteins (dBH3) is sufficient. To better understand the kinetic implications of these models and reconcile these conflicting but highly evidence-based models, we have employed dynamical systems analysis to explore the kinetics underlying BAK activation as a non-linear reaction system. Our findings accommodate both pure agonism and dissociation as mutually exclusive mechanisms capable of initiating BAK activation. In addition we find our work supports a modelling based approach for predicting resistance to therapeutically relevant small molecules BH3 mimetics.

  18. Determination of formal kinetic constants of thermal decomposition of aqueous hydrogen peroxide solution in a mixture of magnetic powder, based on experimental thermogram, obtained in adiabatic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaripov, Jamshed; Borisov, Boris; Bondarchuk, Sergey

    2014-08-01

    Process of thermal decomposition of hydrogen peroxide aqueous solution with the addition of magnetic powder in the form of toner for printers and lanthanum manganite were considered. Obtained resulting from an experiment in the Dewar container conducted thermogram analyzed using mass balance equations and heat. Formal kinetic parameters determined, and conclude that the magnetic powder in the mixture does not have catalytic properties. The described technique is recommended as a rapid analysis of the kinetics of the various reactions to substances having predefined thermal and thermodynamic properties.

  19. Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Hydrogen Combustion Limits

    SciTech Connect

    Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2008-04-02

    A detailed chemical kinetic model is used to explore the flammability and detonability of hydrogen mixtures. In the case of flammability, a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for hydrogen is coupled to the CHEMKIN Premix code to compute premixed, laminar flame speeds. The detailed chemical kinetic model reproduces flame speeds in the literature over a range of equivalence ratios, pressures and reactant temperatures. A series of calculation were performed to assess the key parameters determining the flammability of hydrogen mixtures. Increased reactant temperature was found to greatly increase the flame speed and the flammability of the mixture. The effect of added diluents was assessed. Addition of water and carbon dioxide were found to reduce the flame speed and thus the flammability of a hydrogen mixture approximately equally well and much more than the addition of nitrogen. The detailed chemical kinetic model was used to explore the detonability of hydrogen mixtures. A Zeldovich-von Neumann-Doring (ZND) detonation model coupled with detailed chemical kinetics was used to model the detonation. The effectiveness on different diluents was assessed in reducing the detonability of a hydrogen mixture. Carbon dioxide was found to be most effective in reducing the detonability followed by water and nitrogen. The chemical action of chemical inhibitors on reducing the flammability of hydrogen mixtures is discussed. Bromine and organophosphorus inhibitors act through catalytic cycles that recombine H and OH radicals in the flame. The reduction in H and OH radicals reduces chain branching in the flame through the H + O{sub 2} = OH + O chain branching reaction. The reduction in chain branching and radical production reduces the flame speed and thus the flammability of the hydrogen mixture.

  20. Kinetics model development of cocoa bean fermentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Gunawan, Agus Yodi; Muliyadini, Winny

    2015-12-01

    Although Indonesia is one of the biggest cocoa beans producers in the world, Indonesian cocoa beans are oftenly of low quality and thereby frequently priced low in the world market. In order to improve the quality, adequate post-harvest cocoa processing techniques are required. Fermentation is the vital stage in series of cocoa beans post harvest processing which could improve the quality of cocoa beans, in particular taste, aroma, and colours. During the fermentation process, combination of microbes grow producing metabolites that serve as the precursors for cocoa beans flavour. Microbial composition and thereby their activities will affect the fermentation performance and influence the properties of cocoa beans. The correlation could be reviewed using a kinetic model that includes unstructured microbial growth, substrate utilization and metabolic product formation. The developed kinetic model could be further used to design cocoa bean fermentation process to meet the expected quality. Further the development of kinetic model of cocoa bean fermentation also serve as a good case study of mixed culture solid state fermentation, that has rarely been studied. This paper presents the development of a kinetic model for solid-state cocoa beans fermentation using an empirical approach. Series of lab scale cocoa bean fermentations, either natural fermentations without starter addition or fermentations with mixed yeast and lactic acid bacteria starter addition, were used for model parameters estimation. The results showed that cocoa beans fermentation can be modelled mathematically and the best model included substrate utilization, microbial growth, metabolites production and its transport. Although the developed model still can not explain the dynamics in microbial population, this model can sufficiently explained the observed changes in sugar concentration as well as metabolic products in the cocoa bean pulp.

  1. Modeling Inhomogeneous DNA Replication Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier, Michel G.; Norio, Paolo; Bechhoefer, John

    2012-01-01

    In eukaryotic organisms, DNA replication is initiated at a series of chromosomal locations called origins, where replication forks are assembled proceeding bidirectionally to replicate the genome. The distribution and firing rate of these origins, in conjunction with the velocity at which forks progress, dictate the program of the replication process. Previous attempts at modeling DNA replication in eukaryotes have focused on cases where the firing rate and the velocity of replication forks are homogeneous, or uniform, across the genome. However, it is now known that there are large variations in origin activity along the genome and variations in fork velocities can also take place. Here, we generalize previous approaches to modeling replication, to allow for arbitrary spatial variation of initiation rates and fork velocities. We derive rate equations for left- and right-moving forks and for replication probability over time that can be solved numerically to obtain the mean-field replication program. This method accurately reproduces the results of DNA replication simulation. We also successfully adapted our approach to the inverse problem of fitting measurements of DNA replication performed on single DNA molecules. Since such measurements are performed on specified portion of the genome, the examined DNA molecules may be replicated by forks that originate either within the studied molecule or outside of it. This problem was solved by using an effective flux of incoming replication forks at the model boundaries to represent the origin activity outside the studied region. Using this approach, we show that reliable inferences can be made about the replication of specific portions of the genome even if the amount of data that can be obtained from single-molecule experiments is generally limited. PMID:22412853

  2. Computational model for Halorhodopsin photocurrent kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravo, Jaime; Stefanescu, Roxana; Talathi, Sachin

    2013-03-01

    Optogenetics is a rapidly developing novel optical stimulation technique that employs light activated ion channels to excite (using channelrhodopsin (ChR)) or suppress (using halorhodopsin (HR)) impulse activity in neurons with high temporal and spatial resolution. This technique holds enormous potential to externally control activity states in neuronal networks. The channel kinetics of ChR and HR are well understood and amenable for mathematical modeling. Significant progress has been made in recent years to develop models for ChR channel kinetics. To date however, there is no model to mimic photocurrents produced by HR. Here, we report the first model developed for HR photocurrents based on a four-state model of the HR photocurrent kinetics. The model provides an excellent fit (root-mean-square error of 3.1862x10-4, to an empirical profile of experimentally measured HR photocurrents. In combination, mathematical models for ChR and HR photocurrents can provide effective means to design test light based control systems to regulate neural activity, which in turn may have implications for the development of novel light based stimulation paradigms for brain disease control. I would like to thank the University of Florida and the Physics Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program, funded through NSF DMR-1156737. This research was also supported through start-up funds provided to Dr. Sachin Talathi

  3. Urea kinetic modeling: comparing the options.

    PubMed

    Hoenich, N A; Keir, M J; Hildreth, K; Woffindin, C; Goodall, R; Vanholder, R; Ward, M K

    1993-09-01

    In this study 6 commercially produced kinetic modeling packages utilizing a variable volume, single pool urea model, as well as formulae to determine the delivery of therapy, have been compared by applying to each the same set of rigorously collected data for a group of 12 patients. Comparison of the kinetically derived parameters (urea generation rate [G], urea distribution volume [V], delivery of therapy [Kt/V], and normalized protein catabolic rate [nPCR]) showed that the values obtained for both G and V differed between packages owing to the numerical methods and the clearance used in the solution of the differential equations. Although a broad agreement between the values established for Kt/V and nPCR was noted, the 95% limits of agreement indicated that it would be prudent to exercise caution when comparing results established by different modeling packages. PMID:8240076

  4. Chemical kinetics models for semiconductor processing

    SciTech Connect

    Coltrin, M.E.; Creighton, J.R.; Meeks, E.; Grcar, J.F.; Houf, W.G.; Kee, R.J.

    1997-12-31

    Chemical reactions in the gas-phase and on surfaces are important in the deposition and etching of materials for microelectronic applications. A general software framework for describing homogeneous and heterogeneous reaction kinetics utilizing the Chemkin suite of codes is presented. Experimental, theoretical and modeling approaches to developing chemical reaction mechanisms are discussed. A number of TCAD application modules for simulating the chemically reacting flow in deposition and etching reactors have been developed and are also described.

  5. Properties of a Formal Method to Model Emergence in Swarm-Based Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouff, Christopher; Vanderbilt, Amy; Truszkowski, Walt; Rash, James; Hinchey, Mike

    2004-01-01

    Future space missions will require cooperation between multiple satellites and/or rovers. Developers are proposing intelligent autonomous swarms for these missions, but swarm-based systems are difficult or impossible to test with current techniques. This viewgraph presentation examines the use of formal methods in testing swarm-based systems. The potential usefulness of formal methods in modeling the ANTS asteroid encounter mission is also examined.

  6. A kinetic model for chemical neurotransmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez-Santiago, Guillermo; Martinez-Valencia, Alejandro; Fernandez de Miguel, Francisco

    Recent experimental observations in presynaptic terminals at the neuromuscular junction indicate that there are stereotyped patterns of cooperativeness in the fusion of adjacent vesicles. That is, a vesicle in hemifusion process appears on the side of a fused vesicle and which is followed by another vesicle in a priming state while the next one is in a docking state. In this talk we present a kinetic model for this morphological pattern in which each vesicle state previous to the exocytosis is represented by a kinetic state. This chain states kinetic model can be analyzed by means of a Master equation whose solution is simulated with the stochastic Gillespie algorithm. With this approach we have reproduced the responses to the basal release in the absence of stimulation evoked by the electrical activity and the phenomena of facilitation and depression of neuromuscular synapses. This model offers new perspectives to understand the underlying phenomena in chemical neurotransmission based on molecular interactions that result in the cooperativity between vesicles during neurotransmitter release. DGAPA Grants IN118410 and IN200914 and Conacyt Grant 130031.

  7. A Formal Approach to Empirical Dynamic Model Optimization and Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crespo, Luis G; Morelli, Eugene A.; Kenny, Sean P.; Giesy, Daniel P.

    2014-01-01

    A framework was developed for the optimization and validation of empirical dynamic models subject to an arbitrary set of validation criteria. The validation requirements imposed upon the model, which may involve several sets of input-output data and arbitrary specifications in time and frequency domains, are used to determine if model predictions are within admissible error limits. The parameters of the empirical model are estimated by finding the parameter realization for which the smallest of the margins of requirement compliance is as large as possible. The uncertainty in the value of this estimate is characterized by studying the set of model parameters yielding predictions that comply with all the requirements. Strategies are presented for bounding this set, studying its dependence on admissible prediction error set by the analyst, and evaluating the sensitivity of the model predictions to parameter variations. This information is instrumental in characterizing uncertainty models used for evaluating the dynamic model at operating conditions differing from those used for its identification and validation. A practical example based on the short period dynamics of the F-16 is used for illustration.

  8. Building a Formal Model of a Human-Interactive System: Insights into the Integration of Formal Methods and Human Factors Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolton, Matthew L.; Bass, Ellen J.

    2009-01-01

    Both the human factors engineering (HFE) and formal methods communities are concerned with finding and eliminating problems with safety-critical systems. This work discusses a modeling effort that leveraged methods from both fields to use model checking with HFE practices to perform formal verification of a human-interactive system. Despite the use of a seemingly simple target system, a patient controlled analgesia pump, the initial model proved to be difficult for the model checker to verify in a reasonable amount of time. This resulted in a number of model revisions that affected the HFE architectural, representativeness, and understandability goals of the effort. If formal methods are to meet the needs of the HFE community, additional modeling tools and technological developments are necessary.

  9. Compartmental model of leucine kinetics in humans.

    PubMed

    Cobelli, C; Saccomani, M P; Tessari, P; Biolo, G; Luzi, L; Matthews, D E

    1991-10-01

    The complexity of amino acid and protein metabolism has limited the development of comprehensive, accurate whole body kinetic models. For leucine, simplified approaches are in use to measure in vivo leucine fluxes, but their domain of validity is uncertain. We propose here a comprehensive compartmental model of the kinetics of leucine and alpha-ketoisocaproate (KIC) in humans. Data from a multiple-tracer administration were generated with a two-stage (I and II) experiment. Six normal subjects were studied. In experiment I, labeled leucine and KIC were simultaneously injected into plasma. Four plasma leucine and KIC tracer concentration curves and label in the expired CO2 were measured. In experiment II, labeled bicarbonate was injected into plasma, and labeled CO2 in the expired air was measured. Radioactive (L-[1-14C]leucine, [4,5-3H]KIC, [14C]bicarbonate) and stable isotope (L-[1-13C]leucine, [5,5,5-2H3]KIC, [13C]bicarbonate) tracers were employed. The input format was a bolus (impulse) dose in the radioactive case and a constant infusion in the stable isotope case. A number of physiologically based, linear time-invariant compartmental models were proposed and tested against the data. The model finally chosen for leucine-KIC kinetics has 10 compartments: 4 for leucine, 3 for KIC, and 3 for bicarbonate. The model is a priori uniquely identifiable, and its parameters were estimated with precision from the five curves of experiment I. The separate assessment of bicarbonate kinetics (experiment II) was shown to be unnecessary. The model defines masses and fluxes of leucine in the organism, in particular its intracellular appearance from protein breakdown, its oxidation, and its incorporation into proteins. An important feature of the model is its ability to estimate leucine oxidation by resolving the bicarbonate model in each individual subject. Finally, the model allows the assessment of the domain of validity of the simpler commonly used models. PMID:1928344

  10. A Model for Effective Professional Development of Formal Science Educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleacher, L.; Jones, A. P.; Farrell, W. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Lunar Workshops for Educators (LWE) series was developed by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) education team in 2010 to provide professional development on lunar science and exploration concepts for grades 6-9 science teachers. Over 300 educators have been trained to date. The LWE model incorporates best practices from pedagogical research of science education, thoughtful integration of scientists and engineer subject matter experts for both content presentations and informal networking with educators, access to NASA-unique facilities, hands-on and data-rich activities aligned with education standards, exposure to the practice of science, tools for addressing common misconceptions, follow-up with participants, and extensive evaluation. Evaluation of the LWE model via pre- and post-assessments, daily workshop surveys, and follow-up surveys at 6-month and 1-year intervals indicate that the LWE are extremely effective in increasing educators' content knowledge, confidence in incorporating content into the classroom, understanding of the practice of science, and ability to address common student misconceptions. In order to address the efficacy of the LWE model for other science content areas, the Dynamic Response of Environments at Asteroids, the Moon, and moons of Mars (DREAM2) education team, funded by NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute, developed and ran a pilot workshop called Dream2Explore at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in June, 2015. Dream2Explore utilized the LWE model, but incorporated content related to the science and exploration of asteroids and the moons of Mars. Evaluation results indicate that the LWE model was effectively used for educator professional development on non-lunar content. We will present more detail on the LWE model, evaluation results from the Dream2Explore pilot workshop, and suggestions for the application of the model with other science content for robust educator professional development.

  11. A Model for Effective Professional Development of Formal Science Educators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleacher, L. V.; Jones, A. J. P.; Farrell, W. M.

    2015-01-01

    The Lunar Workshops for Educators (LWE) series was developed by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) education team in 2010 to provide professional development on lunar science and exploration concepts for grades 6-9 science teachers. Over 300 educators have been trained to date. The LWE model incorporates best practices from pedagogical research of science education, thoughtful integration of scientists and engineer subject matter experts for both content presentations and informal networking with educators, access to NASA-unique facilities, hands-on and data-rich activities aligned with education standards, exposure to the practice of science, tools for addressing common misconceptions, follow-up with participants, and extensive evaluation. Evaluation of the LWE model via pre- and post-assessments, daily workshop surveys, and follow-up surveys at 6-month and 1-year intervals indicate that the LWE are extremely effective in increasing educators' content knowledge, confidence in incorporating content into the classroom, understanding of the practice of science, and ability to address common student misconceptions. In order to address the efficacy of the LWE model for other science content areas, the Dynamic Response of Environments at Asteroids, the Moon, and moons of Mars (DREAM2) education team, funded by NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute, developed and ran a pilot workshop called Dream2Explore at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in June, 2015. Dream2Explore utilized the LWE model, but incorporated content related to the science and exploration of asteroids and the moons of Mars. Evaluation results indicate that the LWE model was effectively used for educator professional development on non-lunar content. We will present more detail on the LWE model, evaluation results from the Dream2Explore pilot workshop, and suggestions for the application of the model with other science content for robust educator professional development.

  12. Colored noise and memory effects on formal spiking neuron models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, L. A.; Vilela, R. D.

    2015-06-01

    Simplified neuronal models capture the essence of the electrical activity of a generic neuron, besides being more interesting from the computational point of view when compared to higher-dimensional models such as the Hodgkin-Huxley one. In this work, we propose a generalized resonate-and-fire model described by a generalized Langevin equation that takes into account memory effects and colored noise. We perform a comprehensive numerical analysis to study the dynamics and the point process statistics of the proposed model, highlighting interesting new features such as (i) nonmonotonic behavior (emergence of peak structures, enhanced by the choice of colored noise characteristic time scale) of the coefficient of variation (CV) as a function of memory characteristic time scale, (ii) colored noise-induced shift in the CV, and (iii) emergence and suppression of multimodality in the interspike interval (ISI) distribution due to memory-induced subthreshold oscillations. Moreover, in the noise-induced spike regime, we study how memory and colored noise affect the coherence resonance (CR) phenomenon. We found that for sufficiently long memory, not only is CR suppressed but also the minimum of the CV-versus-noise intensity curve that characterizes the presence of CR may be replaced by a maximum. The aforementioned features allow to interpret the interplay between memory and colored noise as an effective control mechanism to neuronal variability. Since both variability and nontrivial temporal patterns in the ISI distribution are ubiquitous in biological cells, we hope the present model can be useful in modeling real aspects of neurons.

  13. A formal definition of data flow graph models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavi, Krishna M.; Buckles, Bill P.; Bhat, U. Narayan

    1986-01-01

    In this paper, a new model for parallel computations and parallel computer systems that is based on data flow principles is presented. Uninterpreted data flow graphs can be used to model computer systems including data driven and parallel processors. A data flow graph is defined to be a bipartite graph with actors and links as the two vertex classes. Actors can be considered similar to transitions in Petri nets, and links similar to places. The nondeterministic nature of uninterpreted data flow graphs necessitates the derivation of liveness conditions.

  14. Cluster kinetics model for mixtures of glassformers.

    PubMed

    Brenskelle, Lisa A; McCoy, Benjamin J

    2007-10-14

    For glassformers we propose a binary mixture relation for parameters in a cluster kinetics model previously shown to represent pure compound data for viscosity and dielectric relaxation as functions of either temperature or pressure. The model parameters are based on activation energies and activation volumes for cluster association-dissociation processes. With the mixture parameters, we calculated dielectric relaxation times and compared the results to experimental values for binary mixtures. Mixtures of sorbitol and glycerol (seven compositions), sorbitol and xylitol (three compositions), and polychloroepihydrin and polyvinylmethylether (three compositions) were studied. PMID:17935407

  15. Cluster kinetics model for mixtures of glassformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenskelle, Lisa A.; McCoy, Benjamin J.

    2007-10-01

    For glassformers we propose a binary mixture relation for parameters in a cluster kinetics model previously shown to represent pure compound data for viscosity and dielectric relaxation as functions of either temperature or pressure. The model parameters are based on activation energies and activation volumes for cluster association-dissociation processes. With the mixture parameters, we calculated dielectric relaxation times and compared the results to experimental values for binary mixtures. Mixtures of sorbitol and glycerol (seven compositions), sorbitol and xylitol (three compositions), and polychloroepihydrin and polyvinylmethylether (three compositions) were studied.

  16. Aggregation kinetics in a model colloidal suspension

    SciTech Connect

    Bastea, S

    2005-08-08

    The authors present molecular dynamics simulations of aggregation kinetics in a colloidal suspension modeled as a highly asymmetric binary mixture. Starting from a configuration with largely uncorrelated colloidal particles the system relaxes by coagulation-fragmentation dynamics to a structured state of low-dimensionality clusters with an exponential size distribution. The results show that short range repulsive interactions alone can give rise to so-called cluster phases. For the present model and probably other, more common colloids, the observed clusters appear to be equilibrium phase fluctuations induced by the entropic inter-colloidal attractions.

  17. Formalism Challenges of the Cougaar Model Driven Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohner, Shawn A.; George, Boby; Gracanin, Denis; Hinchey, Michael G.

    2004-01-01

    The Cognitive Agent Architecture (Cougaar) is one of the most sophisticated distributed agent architectures developed today. As part of its research and evolution, Cougaar is being studied for application to large, logistics-based applications for the Department of Defense (DoD). Anticipiting future complex applications of Cougaar, we are investigating the Model Driven Architecture (MDA) approach to understand how effective it would be for increasing productivity in Cougar-based development efforts. Recognizing the sophistication of the Cougaar development environment and the limitations of transformation technologies for agents, we have systematically developed an approach that combines component assembly in the large and transformation in the small. This paper describes some of the key elements that went into the Cougaar Model Driven Architecture approach and the characteristics that drove the approach.

  18. Two Formal Gas Models For Multi-Agent Sweeping and Obstacle Avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerr, Wesley; Spears, Diana; Spears, William; Thayer, David

    2004-01-01

    The task addressed here is a dynamic search through a bounded region, while avoiding multiple large obstacles, such as buildings. In the case of limited sensors and communication, maintaining spatial coverage - especially after passing the obstacles - is a challenging problem. Here, we investigate two physics-based approaches to solving this task with multiple simulated mobile robots, one based on artificial forces and the other based on the kinetic theory of gases. The desired behavior is achieved with both methods, and a comparison is made between them. Because both approaches are physics-based, formal assurances about the multi-robot behavior are straightforward, and are included in the paper.

  19. Chemical kinetics and modeling of planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yung, Yuk L.

    1990-01-01

    A unified overview is presented for chemical kinetics and chemical modeling in planetary atmospheres. The recent major advances in the understanding of the chemistry of the terrestrial atmosphere make the study of planets more interesting and relevant. A deeper understanding suggests that the important chemical cycles have a universal character that connects the different planets and ultimately link together the origin and evolution of the solar system. The completeness (or incompleteness) of the data base for chemical kinetics in planetary atmospheres will always be judged by comparison with that for the terrestrial atmosphere. In the latter case, the chemistry of H, O, N, and Cl species is well understood. S chemistry is poorly understood. In the atmospheres of Jovian planets and Titan, the C-H chemistry of simple species (containing 2 or less C atoms) is fairly well understood. The chemistry of higher hydrocarbons and the C-N, P-N chemistry is much less understood. In the atmosphere of Venus, the dominant chemistry is that of chlorine and sulfur, and very little is known about C1-S coupled chemistry. A new frontier for chemical kinetics both in the Earth and planetary atmospheres is the study of heterogeneous reactions. The formation of the ozone hole on Earth, the ubiquitous photochemical haze on Venus and in the Jovian planets and Titan all testify to the importance of heterogeneous reactions. It remains a challenge to connect the gas phase chemistry to the production of aerosols.

  20. Modelling charge transfer reactions with the frozen density embedding formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Pavanello, Michele; Neugebauer, Johannes

    2011-12-21

    The frozen density embedding (FDE) subsystem formulation of density-functional theory is a useful tool for studying charge transfer reactions. In this work charge-localized, diabatic states are generated directly with FDE and used to calculate electronic couplings of hole transfer reactions in two {pi}-stacked nucleobase dimers of B-DNA: 5{sup '}-GG-3{sup '} and 5{sup '}-GT-3{sup '}. The calculations rely on two assumptions: the two-state model, and a small differential overlap between donor and acceptor subsystem densities. The resulting electronic couplings agree well with benchmark values for those exchange-correlation functionals that contain a high percentage of exact exchange. Instead, when semilocal GGA functionals are used the electronic couplings are grossly overestimated.

  1. Formal specification and analysis of intelligent agents for model-based medicine usage management.

    PubMed

    Hoogendoorn, Mark; Klein, Michel C A; Memon, Zulfiqar A; Treur, Jan

    2013-06-01

    A model-based agent system model for medicine usage management is presented and formally analysed. The model incorporates an intelligent ambient agent model that has an explicit representation of a dynamical system model to estimate the medicine level in the patient's body by simulation, is able to analyse whether the patient intends to take the medicine too early or too late, and can take measures to prevent this. PMID:23566391

  2. Brittle failure kinetics model for concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Silling, S.A.

    1997-03-01

    A new constitutive model is proposed for the modeling of penetration and large stress waves in concrete. Rate effects are incorporated explicitly into the damage evolution law, hence the term brittle failure kinetics. The damage variable parameterizes a family of Mohr-Coulomb strength curves. The model, which has been implemented in the CTH code, has been shown to reproduce some distinctive phenomena that occur in penetration of concrete targets. Among these are the sharp spike in deceleration of a rigid penetrator immediately after impact. Another is the size scale effect, which leads to a nonlinear scaling of penetration depth with penetrator size. This paper discusses the theory of the model and some results of an extensive validation effort.

  3. A Formal Cognitive Model of the Go/No-Go Discrimination Task: Evaluation and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yechiam, Eldad; Goodnight, Jackson; Bates, John E.; Busemeyer, Jerome R.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Newman, Joseph P.

    2006-01-01

    This article proposes and tests a formal cognitive model for the go/no-go discrimination task. In this task, the performer chooses whether to respond to stimuli and receives rewards for responding to certain stimuli and punishments for responding to others. Three cognitive models were evaluated on the basis of data from a longitudinal study…

  4. Reasoning with Conditionals: A Test of Formal Models of Four Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberauer, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    The four dominant theories of reasoning from conditionals are translated into formal models: The theory of mental models (Johnson-Laird, P. N., & Byrne, R. M. J. (2002). Conditionals: a theory of meaning, pragmatics, and inference. "Psychological Review," 109, 646-678), the suppositional theory (Evans, J. S. B. T., & Over, D. E. (2004). "If."…

  5. Directly executable formal models of middleware for MANET and Cloud Networking and Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pashchenko, D. V.; Sadeq Jaafar, Mustafa; Zinkin, S. A.; Trokoz, D. A.; Pashchenko, T. U.; Sinev, M. P.

    2016-04-01

    The article considers some “directly executable” formal models that are suitable for the specification of computing and networking in the cloud environment and other networks which are similar to wireless networks MANET. These models can be easily programmed and implemented on computer networks.

  6. Formal analogy between the Dirac equation in its Majorana form and the discrete-velocity version of the Boltzmann kinetic equation.

    PubMed

    Fillion-Gourdeau, F; Herrmann, H J; Mendoza, M; Palpacelli, S; Succi, S

    2013-10-18

    We point out a formal analogy between the Dirac equation in Majorana form and the discrete-velocity version of the Boltzmann kinetic equation. By a systematic analysis based on the theory of operator splitting, this analogy is shown to turn into a concrete and efficient computational method, providing a unified treatment of relativistic and nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. This might have potentially far-reaching implications for both classical and quantum computing, because it shows that, by splitting time along the three spatial directions, quantum information (Dirac-Majorana wave function) propagates in space-time as a classical statistical process (Boltzmann distribution). PMID:24182245

  7. Wealth redistribution in conservative linear kinetic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toscani, G.

    2009-10-01

    We introduce and discuss kinetic models for wealth distribution which include both taxation and uniform redistribution. The evolution of the continuous density of wealth obeys a linear Boltzmann equation where the background density represents the action of an external subject on the taxation mechanism. The case in which the mean wealth is conserved is analyzed in full details, by recovering the analytical form of the steady states. These states are probability distributions of convergent random series of a special structure, called perpetuities. Among others, Gibbs distribution appears as steady state in case of total taxation and uniform redistribution.

  8. The kinetic regime of the Vicsek model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chepizhko, A. A.; Kulinskii, V. L.

    2009-12-01

    We consider the dynamics of the system of self-propelling particles modeled via the Vicsek algorithm in continuum time limit. It is shown that the alignment process for the velocities can be subdivided into two regimes: "fast" kinetic and "slow" hydrodynamic ones. In fast kinetic regime the alignment of the particle velocity to the local neighborhood takes place with characteristic relaxation time. So, that the bigger regions arise with the velocity alignment. These regions align their velocities thus giving rise to hydrodynamic regime of the dynamics. We propose the mean-field-like approach in which we take into account the correlations between density and velocity. The comparison of the theoretical predictions with the numerical simulations is given. The relation between Vicsek model in the zero velocity limit and the Kuramoto model is stated. The mean-field approach accounting for the dynamic change of the neighborhood is proposed. The nature of the discontinuity of the dependence of the order parameter in case of vectorial noise revealed in Gregorie and Chaite, Phys. Rev. Lett., 92, 025702 (2004) is discussed and the explanation of it is proposed.

  9. A model integration approach linking signalling and gene-regulatory logic with kinetic metabolic models.

    PubMed

    Ryll, A; Bucher, J; Bonin, A; Bongard, S; Gonçalves, E; Saez-Rodriguez, J; Niklas, J; Klamt, S

    2014-10-01

    Systems biology has to increasingly cope with large- and multi-scale biological systems. Many successful in silico representations and simulations of various cellular modules proved mathematical modelling to be an important tool in gaining a solid understanding of biological phenomena. However, models spanning different functional layers (e.g. metabolism, signalling and gene regulation) are still scarce. Consequently, model integration methods capable of fusing different types of biological networks and various model formalisms become a key methodology to increase the scope of cellular processes covered by mathematical models. Here we propose a new integration approach to couple logical models of signalling or/and gene-regulatory networks with kinetic models of metabolic processes. The procedure ends up with an integrated dynamic model of both layers relying on differential equations. The feasibility of the approach is shown in an illustrative case study integrating a kinetic model of central metabolic pathways in hepatocytes with a Boolean logical network depicting the hormonally induced signal transduction and gene regulation events involved. In silico simulations demonstrate the integrated model to qualitatively describe the physiological switch-like behaviour of hepatocytes in response to nutritionally regulated changes in extracellular glucagon and insulin levels. A simulated failure mode scenario addressing insulin resistance furthermore illustrates the pharmacological potential of a model covering interactions between signalling, gene regulation and metabolism. PMID:25063553

  10. A Kinetic Model of Active Extensile Bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Daniel; Chakraborty, Bulbul; Baskaran, Aparna

    Recent experiments in active filament networks reveal interesting rheological properties (Dan Chen: APS March Meeting 2015 D49.00001). This system consumes ATP to produce an extensile motion in bundles of microtubules. This extension then leads to self generated stresses and spontaneous flows. We propose a minimal model where the activity is modeled by self-extending bundles that are part of a cross linked network. This network can reorganize itself through buckling of extending filaments and merging events that alter the topology of the network. We numerically simulate this minimal kinetic model and examine the emergent rheological properties and determine how stresses are generated by the extensile activity. We will present results that focus on the effects of confinement and network connectivity of the bundles on stress fluctuations and response of an active gel.

  11. On Kinetics Modeling of Vibrational Energy Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilmore, John O.; Sharma, Surendra P.; Cavolowsky, John A. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Two models of vibrational energy exchange are compared at equilibrium to the elementary vibrational exchange reaction for a binary mixture. The first model, non-linear in the species vibrational energies, was derived by Schwartz, Slawsky, and Herzfeld (SSH) by considering the detailed kinetics of vibrational energy levels. This model recovers the result demanded at equilibrium by the elementary reaction. The second model is more recent, and is gaining use in certain areas of computational fluid dynamics. This model, linear in the species vibrational energies, is shown not to recover the required equilibrium result. Further, this more recent model is inconsistent with its suggested rate constants in that those rate constants were inferred from measurements by using the SSH model to reduce the data. The non-linear versus linear nature of these two models can lead to significant differences in vibrational energy coupling. Use of the contemporary model may lead to significant misconceptions, especially when integrated in computer codes considering multiple energy coupling mechanisms.

  12. Kinetic model solves visbreaker constraint control problem

    SciTech Connect

    Iscovici, R.S. )

    1994-05-01

    A kinetic model of the visbreaking process was developed and used in an advanced control algorithm implemented in a distributed control system (DCS). During development, model predictions were checked against unit history data and compared to the actual unit performance with respect to fuel oil stability vs. cracking conversion. In the first stage, the algorithm was used in open-loop supervisory control. In the second stage the advanced control loop was closed and the visbreaking units was run automatically. The visbreaker control, based on process kinetics, is simple enough to be developed and implemented in a DCS, eliminating need for higher-power computers at the information system (IS) level, and reducing to a minimum data transfer from them to the process regulatory control level based on the DCS. The advanced control application led to profits estimated at $4.5 million annually, more than expected. The visbreaker advanced control showed how process engineering knowledge used in powerful and versatile DCSs could increase profit, shorten pay-out time and ease the workload on unit operators.

  13. Basis of a formal language for facilitating communication among climate modelers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Elía, Ramón

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this work is to present the basis for a formal language that aims to express in a concise way some fundamental beliefs held within the climate research community. The expression of this set of beliefs takes the form of relations, conjectures or propositions that describe characteristics of different aspects of climate modeling. Examples are constructed using topics that are much discussed within the climate modeling community. The article first introduces, as elements of this formal language, models considered a priori (the model as a code or algorithm) or a posteriori (the model as output), and then presents different relations between these elements. The most important relation is that of dominance, which helps to define the superiority of one model over another based on which model a rational agent will choose. Various kinds of dominance are considered. Also presented in a formal language are propositions and conjectures relating to model development, model calibration and climate change ensemble projections, each of which are held with diverse levels of acceptance within the climate modeling community. In addition, the relevance of defining elements—models—whose existence is improbable, such as bug-free model versions, is discussed. Although the potential value of this language is shown, there remains a need to improve the definitions presented here, as some of them remain unsatisfying. Still, we believe that this attempt may help us not only communicate more clearly but also to better distinguish different schools of thought that currently exist within the community.

  14. Detailed Kinetic Modeling of Gasoline Surrogate Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Mehl, M; Curran, H J; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2009-03-09

    Real fuels are complex mixtures of thousands of hydrocarbon compounds including linear and branched paraffins, naphthenes, olefins and aromatics. It is generally agreed that their behavior can be effectively reproduced by simpler fuel surrogates containing a limited number of components. In this work, a recently revised version of the kinetic model by the authors is used to analyze the combustion behavior of several components relevant to gasoline surrogate formulation. Particular attention is devoted to linear and branched saturated hydrocarbons (PRF mixtures), olefins (1-hexene) and aromatics (toluene). Model predictions for pure components, binary mixtures and multi-component gasoline surrogates are compared with recent experimental information collected in rapid compression machine, shock tube and jet stirred reactors covering a wide range of conditions pertinent to internal combustion engines. Simulation results are discussed focusing attention on the mixing effects of the fuel components.

  15. Canonical formalism for a 2n-dimensional model with topological mass generation

    SciTech Connect

    Deguchi, Shinichi

    2008-12-15

    The four-dimensional model with topological mass generation that was found by Dvali, Jackiw, and Pi has recently been generalized to any even number of dimensions (2n dimensions) in a nontrivial manner in which a Stueckelberg-type mass term is introduced [S. Deguchi and S. Hayakawa, Phys. Rev. D 77, 045003 (2008)]. The present paper deals with a self-contained model, called here a modified hybrid model, proposed in this 2n-dimensional generalization and considers the canonical formalism for this model. For the sake of convenience, the canonical formalism itself is studied for a model equivalent to the modified hybrid model by following the recipe for treating constrained Hamiltonian systems. This formalism is applied to the canonical quantization of the equivalent model in order to clarify observable and unobservable particles in the model. The equivalent model (with a gauge-fixing term) is converted to the modified hybrid model (with a corresponding gauge-fixing term) in a Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin-invariant manner. Thereby it is shown that the Chern-Pontryagin density behaves as an observable massive particle (or field). The topological mass generation is thus verified at the quantum-theoretical level.

  16. A formalism to generate probability distributions for performance-assessment modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, P.G.

    1990-12-31

    A formalism is presented for generating probability distributions of parameters used in performance-assessment modeling. The formalism is used when data are either sparse or nonexistent. The appropriate distribution is a function of the known or estimated constraints and is chosen to maximize a quantity known as Shannon`s informational entropy. The formalism is applied to a parameter used in performance-assessment modeling. The functional form of the model that defines the parameter, data from the actual field site, and natural analog data are analyzed to estimate the constraints. A beta probability distribution of the example parameter is generated after finding four constraints. As an example of how the formalism is applied to the site characterization studies of Yucca Mountain, the distribution is generated for an input parameter in a performance-assessment model currently used to estimate compliance with disposal of high-level radioactive waste in geologic repositories, 10 CFR 60.113(a)(2), commonly known as the ground water travel time criterion. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  17. On the Formal Componential Structure of the Transformational-Generative Model of Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brew, P. J.

    1970-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship that exists between the syntactic and phonological components of the transformational-generative model insofar as their formal structures are concerned. It is demonstrated that the number and importance of the structural similarities between the syntax and the phonology make it necessary to provide for them in…

  18. Open Learning and Formal Credentialing in Higher Education: Curriculum Models and Institutional Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reushle, Shirley, Ed.; Antonio, Amy, Ed.; Keppell, Mike, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    The discipline of education is a multi-faceted system that must constantly integrate new strategies and procedures to ensure successful learning experiences. Enhancements in education provide learners with greater opportunities for growth and advancement. "Open Learning and Formal Credentialing in Higher Education: Curriculum Models and…

  19. Probabilistic formalism and hierarchy of models for polydispersed turbulent two-phase flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peirano, Eric; Minier, Jean-Pierre

    2002-04-01

    This paper deals with a probabilistic approach to polydispersed turbulent two-phase flows following the suggestions of Pozorski and Minier [Phys. Rev. E 59, 855 (1999)]. A general probabilistic formalism is presented in the form of a two-point Lagrangian PDF (probability density function). A new feature of the present approach is that both phases, the fluid as well as the particles, are included in the PDF description. It is demonstrated how the formalism can be used to show that there exists a hierarchy between the classical approaches such as the Eulerian and Lagrangian methods. It is also shown that the Eulerian and Lagrangian models can be obtained in a systematic way from the PDF formalism. Connections with previous papers are discussed.

  20. Monochloramination of resorcinol: mechanism and kinetic modeling.

    PubMed

    Cimetiere, Nicolas; Dossier-Berne, Florence; De Laat, Joseph

    2009-12-15

    The kinetics of monochloramination of resorcinol, 4-chlororesorcinol, and 4,6-dichlororesorcinol have been investigated over the pH range of 5-12, at 23 +/- 2 degrees C. Monochloramine solutions were prepared with ammonia-to-chlorine ratios (N/Cl) ranging from 1.08 to 31 mol/mol. Under conditions that minimize free chlorine reactions (N/Cl > 2 mol/mol), the apparent second-order rate constants of monochloramination of resorcinol compounds show a maximum at pH values between 8.6 and 10.2. The intrinsic second-order rate constants for the reaction of monochloramine with the acid-base forms of the dihydroxybenzenes (Ar(OH)(2), Ar(OH)O(-), and Ar(O(-))(2)) were calculated from the apparent second-order rate constants. The stoichiometric coefficients for the formation of 4-chlororesorcinol by monochloramination of resorcinol and 4,6-dichlororesorcinol by monochloramination of 4-chlororesorcinol were found to be equal to 0.66 +/- 0.05 and 0.25 +/- 0.02 mol/mol, respectively at pH 8.6. A kinetic model that incorporates reactions of free chlorine and monochloramine with the different acid-base forms of resorcinol compounds simulated well the initial rates of degradation of resorcinol compounds and was useful to evaluate the contribution of free chlorine reactions to the overall rates of degradation of resorcinol at low N/Cl ratios. PMID:20000532

  1. State Event Models for the Formal Analysis of Human-Machine Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Combefis, Sebastien; Giannakopoulou, Dimitra; Pecheur, Charles

    2014-01-01

    The work described in this paper was motivated by our experience with applying a framework for formal analysis of human-machine interactions (HMI) to a realistic model of an autopilot. The framework is built around a formally defined conformance relation called "fullcontrol" between an actual system and the mental model according to which the system is operated. Systems are well-designed if they can be described by relatively simple, full-control, mental models for their human operators. For this reason, our framework supports automated generation of minimal full-control mental models for HMI systems, where both the system and the mental models are described as labelled transition systems (LTS). The autopilot that we analysed has been developed in the NASA Ames HMI prototyping tool ADEPT. In this paper, we describe how we extended the models that our HMI analysis framework handles to allow adequate representation of ADEPT models. We then provide a property-preserving reduction from these extended models to LTSs, to enable application of our LTS-based formal analysis algorithms. Finally, we briefly discuss the analyses we were able to perform on the autopilot model with our extended framework.

  2. On the adequacy of current empirical evaluations of formal models of categorization.

    PubMed

    Wills, Andy J; Pothos, Emmanuel M

    2012-01-01

    Categorization is one of the fundamental building blocks of cognition, and the study of categorization is notable for the extent to which formal modeling has been a central and influential component of research. However, the field has seen a proliferation of noncomplementary models with little consensus on the relative adequacy of these accounts. Progress in assessing the relative adequacy of formal categorization models has, to date, been limited because (a) formal model comparisons are narrow in the number of models and phenomena considered and (b) models do not often clearly define their explanatory scope. Progress is further hampered by the practice of fitting models with arbitrarily variable parameters to each data set independently. Reviewing examples of good practice in the literature, we conclude that model comparisons are most fruitful when relative adequacy is assessed by comparing well-defined models on the basis of the number and proportion of irreversible, ordinal, penetrable successes (principles of minimal flexibility, breadth, good-enough precision, maximal simplicity, and psychological focus). PMID:22061692

  3. Evaluation of a Guideline by Formal Modelling of Cruise Control System in Event-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeganefard, Sanaz; Butler, Michael; Rezazadeh, Abdolbaghi

    2010-01-01

    Recently a set of guidelines, or cookbook, has been developed for modelling and refinement of control problems in Event-B. The Event-B formal method is used for system-level modelling by defining states of a system and events which act on these states. It also supports refinement of models. This cookbook is intended to systematize the process of modelling and refining a control problem system by distinguishing environment, controller and command phenomena. Our main objective in this paper is to investigate and evaluate the usefulness and effectiveness of this cookbook by following it throughout the formal modelling of cruise control system found in cars. The outcomes are identifying the benefits of the cookbook and also giving guidance to its future users.

  4. Equifinality of formal (DREAM) and informal (GLUE) bayesian approaches in hydrologic modeling?

    SciTech Connect

    Vrugt, Jasper A; Robinson, Bruce A; Ter Braak, Cajo J F; Gupta, Hoshin V

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, a strong debate has emerged in the hydrologic literature regarding what constitutes an appropriate framework for uncertainty estimation. Particularly, there is strong disagreement whether an uncertainty framework should have its roots within a proper statistical (Bayesian) context, or whether such a framework should be based on a different philosophy and implement informal measures and weaker inference to summarize parameter and predictive distributions. In this paper, we compare a formal Bayesian approach using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) with generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) for assessing uncertainty in conceptual watershed modeling. Our formal Bayesian approach is implemented using the recently developed differential evolution adaptive metropolis (DREAM) MCMC scheme with a likelihood function that explicitly considers model structural, input and parameter uncertainty. Our results demonstrate that DREAM and GLUE can generate very similar estimates of total streamflow uncertainty. This suggests that formal and informal Bayesian approaches have more common ground than the hydrologic literature and ongoing debate might suggest. The main advantage of formal approaches is, however, that they attempt to disentangle the effect of forcing, parameter and model structural error on total predictive uncertainty. This is key to improving hydrologic theory and to better understand and predict the flow of water through catchments.

  5. Qualitative Dynamical Modelling Can Formally Explain Mesoderm Specification and Predict Novel Developmental Phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Mbodj, Abibatou; Gustafson, E Hilary; Ciglar, Lucia; Junion, Guillaume; Gonzalez, Aitor; Girardot, Charles; Perrin, Laurent; Furlong, Eileen E M; Thieffry, Denis

    2016-09-01

    Given the complexity of developmental networks, it is often difficult to predict the effect of genetic perturbations, even within coding genes. Regulatory factors generally have pleiotropic effects, exhibit partially redundant roles, and regulate highly interconnected pathways with ample cross-talk. Here, we delineate a logical model encompassing 48 components and 82 regulatory interactions involved in mesoderm specification during Drosophila development, thereby providing a formal integration of all available genetic information from the literature. The four main tissues derived from mesoderm correspond to alternative stable states. We demonstrate that the model can predict known mutant phenotypes and use it to systematically predict the effects of over 300 new, often non-intuitive, loss- and gain-of-function mutations, and combinations thereof. We further validated several novel predictions experimentally, thereby demonstrating the robustness of model. Logical modelling can thus contribute to formally explain and predict regulatory outcomes underlying cell fate decisions. PMID:27599298

  6. Aerosol kinetic code "AERFORM": Model, validation and simulation results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gainullin, K. G.; Golubev, A. I.; Petrov, A. M.; Piskunov, V. N.

    2016-06-01

    The aerosol kinetic code "AERFORM" is modified to simulate droplet and ice particle formation in mixed clouds. The splitting method is used to calculate condensation and coagulation simultaneously. The method is calibrated with analytic solutions of kinetic equations. Condensation kinetic model is based on cloud particle growth equation, mass and heat balance equations. The coagulation kinetic model includes Brownian, turbulent and precipitation effects. The real values are used for condensation and coagulation growth of water droplets and ice particles. The model and the simulation results for two full-scale cloud experiments are presented. The simulation model and code may be used autonomously or as an element of another code.

  7. Kinetic Modeling of Esterification of Ethylene Glycol with Acetic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, Vishnu P.; Maity, Sunil K.; Mukherjee, Rudra Palash; Bantraj, Kandi

    2010-10-26

    The reaction kinetics of the esterification of ethylene glycol with acetic acid in the presence of cation exchange resin has been studied and kinetic models based on empirical and Langmuir approach has been developed. The Langmuir based model involving eight kinetic parameters fits experimental data much better compared to empirical model involving four kinetic parameters. The effect of temperature and catalyst loading on the reaction system has been analyzed. Further, the activation energy and frequency factor of the rate constants for Langmuir based model has been estimated.

  8. Kinetic Modeling of Esterification of Ethylene Glycol with Acetic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Vishnu P.; Mukherjee, Rudra Palash; Bantraj, Kandi; Maity, Sunil K.

    2010-10-01

    The reaction kinetics of the esterification of ethylene glycol with acetic acid in the presence of cation exchange resin has been studied and kinetic models based on empirical and Langmuir approach has been developed. The Langmuir based model involving eight kinetic parameters fits experimental data much better compared to empirical model involving four kinetic parameters. The effect of temperature and catalyst loading on the reaction system has been analyzed. Further, the activation energy and frequency factor of the rate constants for Langmuir based model has been estimated.

  9. Kinetic modelling of vinyl ester resin polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Dhulipala, R.; Kreig. G.; Hawley, M.C.

    1993-12-31

    The study of kinetics offers a substantional incentive in the endeavor to manufacture polymer matrix composites at high speeds. The study enables one to optimize the curing cycle based on the specific curing characteristics of the resin and also makes it possible to simulate the curing process. This paper reports the results of the modelling of the thermal curing of the vinyl ester resin. The parameters for the proposed model have been calculated based on conversion-vs-data generated at various temperatures and Benzoyl peroxide (initiator) concentrations. The extent of cure of the resin mixture was determined using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. In this model the termination rate constant is considered to drop with extent of cure until a limiting value is reached. The limiting value is a consequence of the active chain ends possessing a degree of mobility due to the propagation reaction even though the translational motion of the growing for radicals in increasingly restricted with conversion. Good agreements is observed between the model predictions and the experimental data.

  10. Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Biofuel Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarathy, Subram Maniam

    Bioalcohols, such as bioethanol and biobutanol, are suitable replacements for gasoline, while biodiesel can replace petroleum diesel. Improving biofuel engine performance requires understanding its fundamental combustion properties and the pathways of combustion. This study's contribution is experimentally validated chemical kinetic combustion mechanisms for biobutanol and biodiesel. Fundamental combustion data and chemical kinetic mechanisms are presented and discussed to improve our understanding of biofuel combustion. The net environmental impact of biobutanol (i.e., n-butanol) has not been studied extensively, so this study first assesses the sustainability of n-butanol derived from corn. The results indicate that technical advances in fuel production are required before commercializing biobutanol. The primary contribution of this research is new experimental data and a novel chemical kinetic mechanism for n-butanol combustion. The results indicate that under the given experimental conditions, n-butanol is consumed primarily via abstraction of hydrogen atoms to produce fuel radical molecules, which subsequently decompose to smaller hydrocarbon and oxygenated species. The hydroxyl moiety in n-butanol results in the direct production of the oxygenated species such as butanal, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde. The formation of these compounds sequesters carbon from forming soot precursors, but they may introduce other adverse environmental and health effects. Biodiesel is a mixture of long chain fatty acid methyl esters derived from fats and oils. This research study presents high quality experimental data for one large fatty acid methyl ester, methyl decanoate, and models its combustion using an improved skeletal mechanism. The results indicate that methyl decanoate is consumed via abstraction of hydrogen atoms to produce fuel radicals, which ultimately lead to the production of alkenes. The ester moiety in methyl decanoate leads to the formation of low molecular

  11. Percolation in a kinetic opinion exchange model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Anjan Kumar

    2012-02-01

    We study the percolation transition of the geometrical clusters in the square-lattice LCCC model [a kinetic opinion exchange model introduced by Lallouache, Chakrabarti, Chakraborti, and Chakrabarti, Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.82.056112 82, 056112 (2010)] with the change in conviction and influencing parameter. The cluster is comprised of the adjacent sites having an opinion value greater than or equal to a prefixed threshold value of opinion (Ω). The transition point is different from that obtained for the transition of the order parameter (average opinion value) found by Lallouache Although the transition point varies with the change in the threshold value of the opinion, the critical exponents for the percolation transition obtained from the data collapses of the maximum cluster size, the cluster size distribution, and the Binder cumulant remain the same. The exponents are also independent of the values of conviction and influencing parameters, indicating the robustness of this transition. The exponents do not match any other known percolation exponents (e.g., the static Ising, dynamic Ising, and standard percolation). This means that the LCCC model belongs to a separate universality class.

  12. Kinetic modelling of krypton fluoride laser systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jancaitis, K.S.

    1983-11-01

    A kinetic model has been developed for the KrF* rare gas halide laser system, specifically for electron-beam pumped mixtures of krypton, fluorine, and either helium or argon. The excitation produced in the laser gas by the e-beam was calculated numerically using an algorithm checked by comparing the predicted ionization yields in the pure rare gases with their experimental values. The excitation of the laser media by multi-kilovolt x-rays was also modeled and shown to be similar to that produced by high energy electrons. A system of equations describing the transfer of the initial gas excitation into the laser upper level was assembled using reaction rate constants from both experiment and theory. A one-dimensional treatment of the interaction of the laser radiation with the gas was formulated which considered spontaneous and stimulated emission and absorption. The predictions of this model were in good agreement with the fluorescence signals and gain and absorption measured experimentally.

  13. Reflected kinetics model for nuclear space reactor kinetics and control scoping calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Washington, K.E.

    1986-05-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a model that offers an alternative to the point kinetics (PK) modelling approach in the analysis of space reactor kinetics and control studies. Modelling effort will focus on the explicit treatment of control drums as reactivity input devices so that the transition to automatic control can be smoothly done. The proposed model is developed for the specific integration of automatic control and the solution of the servo mechanism problem. The integration of the kinetics model with an automatic controller will provide a useful tool for performing space reactor scoping studies for different designs and configurations. Such a tool should prove to be invaluable in the design phase of a space nuclear system from the point of view of kinetics and control limitations.

  14. Fully implicit kinetic modelling of collisional plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Mousseau, V.A.

    1996-05-01

    This dissertation describes a numerical technique, Matrix-Free Newton Krylov, for solving a simplified Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equation. This method is both deterministic and fully implicit, and may not have been a viable option before current developments in numerical methods. Results are presented that indicate the efficiency of the Matrix-Free Newton Krylov method for these fully-coupled, nonlinear integro-differential equations. The use and requirement for advanced differencing is also shown. To this end, implementations of Chang-Cooper differencing and flux limited Quadratic Upstream Interpolation for Convective Kinematics (QUICK) are presented. Results are given for a fully kinetic ion-electron problem with a self consistent electric field calculated from the ion and electron distribution functions. This numerical method, including advanced differencing, provides accurate solutions, which quickly converge on workstation class machines. It is demonstrated that efficient steady-state solutions can be achieved to the non-linear integro-differential equation, obtaining quadratic convergence, without incurring the large memory requirements of an integral operator. Model problems are presented which simulate plasma impinging on a plate with both high and low neutral particle recycling typical of a divertor in a Tokamak device. These model problems demonstrate the performance of the new solution method.

  15. Kinetic modeling of cell metabolism for microbial production.

    PubMed

    Costa, Rafael S; Hartmann, Andras; Vinga, Susana

    2016-02-10

    Kinetic models of cellular metabolism are important tools for the rational design of metabolic engineering strategies and to explain properties of complex biological systems. The recent developments in high-throughput experimental data are leading to new computational approaches for building kinetic models of metabolism. Herein, we briefly survey the available databases, standards and software tools that can be applied for kinetic models of metabolism. In addition, we give an overview about recently developed ordinary differential equations (ODE)-based kinetic models of metabolism and some of the main applications of such models are illustrated in guiding metabolic engineering design. Finally, we review the kinetic modeling approaches of large-scale networks that are emerging, discussing their main advantages, challenges and limitations. PMID:26724578

  16. Exact results in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics: Formalism and applications in chemical kinetics and single-molecule free energy estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adib, Artur B.

    In the last two decades or so, a collection of results in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics that departs from the traditional near-equilibrium framework introduced by Lars Onsager in 1931 has been derived, yielding new fundamental insights into far-from-equilibrium processes in general. Apart from offering a more quantitative statement of the second law of thermodynamics, some of these results---typified by the so-called "Jarzynski equality"---have also offered novel means of estimating equilibrium quantities from nonequilibrium processes, such as free energy differences from single-molecule "pulling" experiments. This thesis contributes to such efforts by offering three novel results in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics: (a) The entropic analog of the Jarzynski equality; (b) A methodology for estimating free energies from "clamp-and-release" nonequilibrium processes; and (c) A directly measurable symmetry relation in chemical kinetics similar to (but more general than) chemical detailed balance. These results share in common the feature of remaining valid outside Onsager's near-equilibrium regime, and bear direct applicability in protein folding kinetics as well as in single-molecule free energy estimation.

  17. Formal Implementation of a Performance Evaluation Model for the Face Recognition System

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Yong-Nyuo; Kim, Jason; Lee, Yong-Jun; Shin, Woochang; Choi, Jin-Young

    2008-01-01

    Due to usability features, practical applications, and its lack of intrusiveness, face recognition technology, based on information, derived from individuals' facial features, has been attracting considerable attention recently. Reported recognition rates of commercialized face recognition systems cannot be admitted as official recognition rates, as they are based on assumptions that are beneficial to the specific system and face database. Therefore, performance evaluation methods and tools are necessary to objectively measure the accuracy and performance of any face recognition system. In this paper, we propose and formalize a performance evaluation model for the biometric recognition system, implementing an evaluation tool for face recognition systems based on the proposed model. Furthermore, we performed evaluations objectively by providing guidelines for the design and implementation of a performance evaluation system, formalizing the performance test process. PMID:18317524

  18. F-Nets and Software Cabling: Deriving a Formal Model and Language for Portable Parallel Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiNucci, David C.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Parallel programming is still being based upon antiquated sequence-based definitions of the terms "algorithm" and "computation", resulting in programs which are architecture dependent and difficult to design and analyze. By focusing on obstacles inherent in existing practice, a more portable model is derived here, which is then formalized into a model called Soviets which utilizes a combination of imperative and functional styles. This formalization suggests more general notions of algorithm and computation, as well as insights into the meaning of structured programming in a parallel setting. To illustrate how these principles can be applied, a very-high-level graphical architecture-independent parallel language, called Software Cabling, is described, with many of the features normally expected from today's computer languages (e.g. data abstraction, data parallelism, and object-based programming constructs).

  19. Formal modeling of Gene Ontology annotation predictions based on factor graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spetale, Flavio; Murillo, Javier; Tapia, Elizabeth; Arce, Débora; Ponce, Sergio; Bulacio, Pilar

    2016-04-01

    Gene Ontology (GO) is a hierarchical vocabulary for gene product annotation. Its synergy with machine learning classification methods has been widely used for the prediction of protein functions. Current classification methods rely on heuristic solutions to check the consistency with some aspects of the underlying GO structure. In this work we formalize the GO is-a relationship through predicate logic. Moreover, an ontology model based on Forney Factor Graph (FFG) is shown on a general fragment of Cellular Component GO.

  20. A perturbative formalism for electronic transitions through conical intersections in a fully quadratic vibronic model

    SciTech Connect

    Endicott, Julia S.; Joubert-Doriol, Loïc; Izmaylov, Artur F.

    2014-07-21

    We consider a fully quadratic vibronic model Hamiltonian for studying photoinduced electronic transitions through conical intersections. Using a second order perturbative approximation for diabatic couplings, we derive an analytical expression for the time evolution of electronic populations at a given temperature. This formalism extends upon a previously developed perturbative technique for a linear vibronic coupling Hamiltonian. The advantage of the quadratic model Hamiltonian is that it allows one to use separate quadratic representations for potential energy surfaces of different electronic states and a more flexible representation of interstate couplings. We explore features introduced by the quadratic Hamiltonian in a series of 2D models, and then apply our formalism to the 2,6-bis(methylene) adamantyl cation and its dimethyl derivative. The Hamiltonian parameters for the molecular systems have been obtained from electronic structure calculations followed by a diabatization procedure. The evolution of electronic populations in the molecular systems using the perturbative formalism shows a good agreement with that from variational quantum dynamics.

  1. Los Alamos CCS (Center for Computer Security) formal computer security model

    SciTech Connect

    Dreicer, J.S.; Hunteman, W.J. )

    1989-01-01

    This paper provides a brief presentation of the formal computer security model currently being developed at the Los Alamos Department of Energy (DOE) Center for Computer Security (CCS). The initial motivation for this effort was the need to provide a method by which DOE computer security policy implementation could be tested and verified. The actual analytical model was a result of the integration of current research in computer security and previous modeling and research experiences. The model is being developed to define a generic view of the computer and network security domains, to provide a theoretical basis for the design of a security model, and to address the limitations of present models. Formal mathematical models for computer security have been designed and developed in conjunction with attempts to build secure computer systems since the early 70's. The foundation of the Los Alamos DOE CCS model is a series of functionally dependent probability equations, relations, and expressions. The mathematical basis appears to be justified and is undergoing continued discrimination and evolution. We expect to apply the model to the discipline of the Bell-Lapadula abstract sets of objects and subjects. 5 refs.

  2. Chemical kinetic modeling of exhaust hydrocarbon oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, K.C.; Hochgreb, S.; Norris, M.B. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1995-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the oxidation of unburned hydrocarbons from spark ignition engines were made based on full-chemistry, zero-dimensional models and compared with experiments for engine-out hydrocarbons and exhaust port oxidation. Simple correlations can be drawn between calculated results for hydrocarbon oxidation half-lives in plug or stirred reactors and measured hydrocarbon emissions. the extent of reaction through the exhaust port was simulated using calculated temperature histories for each burned gas mass element leaving the cylinder, coupled to detailed chemical kinetic rate equations. The results show that, for the fuels considered, the extent of oxidation of the remaining unburned fuel measured through the exhaust can be bracketed by the calculated results for the well-mixed (average) and core (adiabatically expanded) temperatures in the exhaust. Most of the oxidation is shown to occur at the very early exhaust times. For the paraffins considered, comparisons of simulations and experiments suggest that fuel oxidation is partially controlled by the mixing of cold gases at the initial stages of exhaust, where temperatures are high and the cold unburned mixture emerges from the wall layers into the exhaust jet. These conclusions are supported by the relatively small measured dependence on fuel type of the extent of oxidation in the exhaust, and by the resulting ratio of fuel to nonfuel hydrocarbons in the exhaust port exit.

  3. Modeling and formal representation of geospatial knowledge for the Geospatial Semantic Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hong; Gong, Jianya

    2008-12-01

    GML can only achieve geospatial interoperation at syntactic level. However, it is necessary to resolve difference of spatial cognition in the first place in most occasions, so ontology was introduced to describe geospatial information and services. But it is obviously difficult and improper to let users to find, match and compose services, especially in some occasions there are complicated business logics. Currently, with the gradual introduction of Semantic Web technology (e.g., OWL, SWRL), the focus of the interoperation of geospatial information has shifted from syntactic level to Semantic and even automatic, intelligent level. In this way, Geospatial Semantic Web (GSM) can be put forward as an augmentation to the Semantic Web that additionally includes geospatial abstractions as well as related reasoning, representation and query mechanisms. To advance the implementation of GSM, we first attempt to construct the mechanism of modeling and formal representation of geospatial knowledge, which are also two mostly foundational phases in knowledge engineering (KE). Our attitude in this paper is quite pragmatical: we argue that geospatial context is a formal model of the discriminate environment characters of geospatial knowledge, and the derivation, understanding and using of geospatial knowledge are located in geospatial context. Therefore, first, we put forward a primitive hierarchy of geospatial knowledge referencing first order logic, formal ontologies, rules and GML. Second, a metamodel of geospatial context is proposed and we use the modeling methods and representation languages of formal ontologies to process geospatial context. Thirdly, we extend Web Process Service (WPS) to be compatible with local DLL for geoprocessing and possess inference capability based on OWL.

  4. Enskog-like kinetic models for vehicular traffic

    SciTech Connect

    Klar, A.; Wegener, R.

    1997-04-01

    In the present paper a general criticism of kinetic equations for vehicular traffic is given. The necessity of introducing an Enskog-type correction into these equations is shown. An Enskog-like kinetic traffic flow equation is presented and fluid dynamic equations are derived. This derivation yields new coefficients for the standard fluid dynamic equations of vehicular traffic. Numerical simulations for inhomogeneous traffic flow situations are shown together with a comparison between kinetic and fluid dynamics models.

  5. A formally verified algorithm for interactive consistency under a hybrid fault model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lincoln, Patrick; Rushby, John

    1993-01-01

    Consistent distribution of single-source data to replicated computing channels is a fundamental problem in fault-tolerant system design. The 'Oral Messages' (OM) algorithm solves this problem of Interactive Consistency (Byzantine Agreement) assuming that all faults are worst-cass. Thambidurai and Park introduced a 'hybrid' fault model that distinguished three fault modes: asymmetric (Byzantine), symmetric, and benign; they also exhibited, along with an informal 'proof of correctness', a modified version of OM. Unfortunately, their algorithm is flawed. The discipline of mechanically checked formal verification eventually enabled us to develop a correct algorithm for Interactive Consistency under the hybrid fault model. This algorithm withstands $a$ asymmetric, $s$ symmetric, and $b$ benign faults simultaneously, using $m+1$ rounds, provided $n is greater than 2a + 2s + b + m$, and $m\\geg a$. We present this algorithm, discuss its subtle points, and describe its formal specification and verification in PVS. We argue that formal verification systems such as PVS are now sufficiently effective that their application to fault-tolerance algorithms should be considered routine.

  6. A generalized kinetic model for heterogeneous gas-solid reactions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhijie; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A

    2012-08-21

    We present a generalized kinetic model for gas-solid heterogeneous reactions taking place at the interface between two phases. The model studies the reaction kinetics by taking into account the reactions at the interface, as well as the transport process within the product layer. The standard unreacted shrinking core model relies on the assumption of quasi-static diffusion that results in a steady-state concentration profile of gas reactant in the product layer. By relaxing this assumption and resolving the entire problem, general solutions can be obtained for reaction kinetics, including the reaction front velocity and the conversion (volume fraction of reacted solid). The unreacted shrinking core model is shown to be accurate and in agreement with the generalized model for slow reaction (or fast diffusion), low concentration of gas reactant, and small solid size. Otherwise, a generalized kinetic model should be used. PMID:22920132

  7. A generalized kinetic model for heterogeneous gas-solid reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhijie; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2012-08-01

    We present a generalized kinetic model for gas-solid heterogeneous reactions taking place at the interface between two phases. The model studies the reaction kinetics by taking into account the reactions at the interface, as well as the transport process within the product layer. The standard unreacted shrinking core model relies on the assumption of quasi-static diffusion that results in a steady-state concentration profile of gas reactant in the product layer. By relaxing this assumption and resolving the entire problem, general solutions can be obtained for reaction kinetics, including the reaction front velocity and the conversion (volume fraction of reacted solid). The unreacted shrinking core model is shown to be accurate and in agreement with the generalized model for slow reaction (or fast diffusion), low concentration of gas reactant, and small solid size. Otherwise, a generalized kinetic model should be used.

  8. Digital image watermarking: its formal model, fundamental properties and possible attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyeem, Hussain; Boles, Wageeh; Boyd, Colin

    2014-12-01

    While formal definitions and security proofs are well established in some fields like cryptography and steganography, they are not as evident in digital watermarking research. A systematic development of watermarking schemes is desirable, but at present, their development is usually informal, ad hoc, and omits the complete realization of application scenarios. This practice not only hinders the choice and use of a suitable scheme for a watermarking application, but also leads to debate about the state-of-the-art for different watermarking applications. With a view to the systematic development of watermarking schemes, we present a formal generic model for digital image watermarking. Considering possible inputs, outputs, and component functions, the initial construction of a basic watermarking model is developed further to incorporate the use of keys. On the basis of our proposed model, fundamental watermarking properties are defined and their importance exemplified for different image applications. We also define a set of possible attacks using our model showing different winning scenarios depending on the adversary capabilities. It is envisaged that with a proper consideration of watermarking properties and adversary actions in different image applications, use of the proposed model would allow a unified treatment of all practically meaningful variants of watermarking schemes.

  9. Formalization, implementation, and modeling of institutional controllers for distributed robotic systems.

    PubMed

    Pereira, José N; Silva, Porfírio; Lima, Pedro U; Martinoli, Alcherio

    2014-01-01

    The work described is part of a long term program of introducing institutional robotics, a novel framework for the coordination of robot teams that stems from institutional economics concepts. Under the framework, institutions are cumulative sets of persistent artificial modifications made to the environment or to the internal mechanisms of a subset of agents, thought to be functional for the collective order. In this article we introduce a formal model of institutional controllers based on Petri nets. We define executable Petri nets-an extension of Petri nets that takes into account robot actions and sensing-to design, program, and execute institutional controllers. We use a generalized stochastic Petri net view of the robot team controlled by the institutional controllers to model and analyze the stochastic performance of the resulting distributed robotic system. The ability of our formalism to replicate results obtained using other approaches is assessed through realistic simulations of up to 40 e-puck robots. In particular, we model a robot swarm and its institutional controller with the goal of maintaining wireless connectivity, and successfully compare our model predictions and simulation results with previously reported results, obtained by using finite state automaton models and controllers. PMID:23373975

  10. A formal model of asynchronous communication and its use in mechanically verifying a biphase mark protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. Strother

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we present a formal model of asynchronous communication as a function in the Boyer-Moore logic. The function transforms the signal stream generated by one processor into the signal stream consumed by an independently clocked processor. This transformation 'blurs' edges and 'dilates' time due to differences in the phases and rates of the two clocks and the communications delay. The model can be used quantitatively to derive concrete performance bounds on asynchronous communications at ISO protocol level 1 (physical level). We develop part of the reusable formal theory that permits the convenient application of the model. We use the theory to show that a biphase mark protocol can be used to send messages of arbitrary length between two asynchronous processors. We study two versions of the protocol, a conventional one which uses cells of size 32 cycles and an unconventional one which uses cells of size 18. We conjecture that the protocol can be proved to work under our model for smaller cell sizes and more divergent clock rates but the proofs would be harder.

  11. A master equation formalism for macroscopic modeling of asynchronous irregular activity states.

    PubMed

    El Boustani, Sami; Destexhe, Alain

    2009-01-01

    Many efforts have been devoted to modeling asynchronous irregular (AI) activity states, which resemble the complex activity states seen in the cerebral cortex of awake animals. Most of models have considered balanced networks of excitatory and inhibitory spiking neurons in which AI states are sustained through recurrent sparse connectivity, with or without external input. In this letter we propose a mesoscopic description of such AI states. Using master equation formalism, we derive a second-order mean-field set of ordinary differential equations describing the temporal evolution of randomly connected balanced networks. This formalism takes into account finite size effects and is applicable to any neuron model as long as its transfer function can be characterized. We compare the predictions of this approach with numerical simulations for different network configurations and parameter spaces. Considering the randomly connected network as a unit, this approach could be used to build large-scale networks of such connected units, with an aim to model activity states constrained by macroscopic measurements, such as voltage-sensitive dye imaging. PMID:19210171

  12. SBML qualitative models: a model representation format and infrastructure to foster interactions between qualitative modelling formalisms and tools

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Qualitative frameworks, especially those based on the logical discrete formalism, are increasingly used to model regulatory and signalling networks. A major advantage of these frameworks is that they do not require precise quantitative data, and that they are well-suited for studies of large networks. While numerous groups have developed specific computational tools that provide original methods to analyse qualitative models, a standard format to exchange qualitative models has been missing. Results We present the Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) Qualitative Models Package (“qual”), an extension of the SBML Level 3 standard designed for computer representation of qualitative models of biological networks. We demonstrate the interoperability of models via SBML qual through the analysis of a specific signalling network by three independent software tools. Furthermore, the collective effort to define the SBML qual format paved the way for the development of LogicalModel, an open-source model library, which will facilitate the adoption of the format as well as the collaborative development of algorithms to analyse qualitative models. Conclusions SBML qual allows the exchange of qualitative models among a number of complementary software tools. SBML qual has the potential to promote collaborative work on the development of novel computational approaches, as well as on the specification and the analysis of comprehensive qualitative models of regulatory and signalling networks. PMID:24321545

  13. First-order formalism for flat branes in generalized N-field models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazeia, D.; Lobão, A. S., Jr.; Losano, L.; Menezes, R.

    2013-08-01

    This work deals with braneworld scenarios obtained from N real scalar fields, whose dynamics is generalized to include higher-order power in the derivative of the fields. For the scalar fields being driven by nonstandard dynamics, we show how a first-order formalism can be obtained for a flat brane in the presence of several fields. We then illustrate our findings, investigating distinct potentials with one and two fields, and obtaining stable standard and compact solutions in the braneworld theory. In particular, we have found different models describing the very same warp factor.

  14. Formal Modeling and Analysis of a Preliminary Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS)Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrreno, Victor A.; Gottliebsen, Hanne; Butler, Ricky; Kalvala, Sara

    2004-01-01

    New concepts for automating air traffic management functions at small non-towered airports raise serious safety issues associated with the software implementations and their underlying key algorithms. The criticality of such software systems necessitates that strong guarantees of the safety be developed for them. In this paper we present a formal method for modeling and verifying such systems using the PVS theorem proving system. The method is demonstrated on a preliminary concept of operation for the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) project at NASA Langley.

  15. A Formal Algorithm for Verifying the Validity of Clustering Results Based on Model Checking

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shaobin; Cheng, Yuan; Lang, Dapeng; Chi, Ronghua; Liu, Guofeng

    2014-01-01

    The limitations in general methods to evaluate clustering will remain difficult to overcome if verifying the clustering validity continues to be based on clustering results and evaluation index values. This study focuses on a clustering process to analyze crisp clustering validity. First, we define the properties that must be satisfied by valid clustering processes and model clustering processes based on program graphs and transition systems. We then recast the analysis of clustering validity as the problem of verifying whether the model of clustering processes satisfies the specified properties with model checking. That is, we try to build a bridge between clustering and model checking. Experiments on several datasets indicate the effectiveness and suitability of our algorithms. Compared with traditional evaluation indices, our formal method can not only indicate whether the clustering results are valid but, in the case the results are invalid, can also detect the objects that have led to the invalidity. PMID:24608823

  16. Developing Quality Indicators and Auditing Protocols from Formal Guideline Models: Knowledge Representation and Transformations

    PubMed Central

    Advani, Aneel; Goldstein, Mary; Shahar, Yuval; Musen, Mark A.

    2003-01-01

    Automated quality assessment of clinician actions and patient outcomes is a central problem in guideline- or standards-based medical care. In this paper we describe a model representation and algorithm for deriving structured quality indicators and auditing protocols from formalized specifications of guidelines used in decision support systems. We apply the model and algorithm to the assessment of physician concordance with a guideline knowledge model for hypertension used in a decision-support system. The properties of our solution include the ability to derive automatically (1) context-specific and (2) case-mix-adjusted quality indicators that (3) can model global or local levels of detail about the guideline (4) parameterized by defining the reliability of each indicator or element of the guideline. PMID:14728124

  17. Biomass torrefaction: modeling of volatile and solid product evolution kinetics.

    PubMed

    Bates, Richard B; Ghoniem, Ahmed F

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this work is the development of a kinetics model for the evolution of the volatile and solid product composition during torrefaction conditions between 200 and 300°C. Coupled to an existing two step solid mass loss kinetics mechanism, this model describes the volatile release kinetics in terms of a set of identifiable chemical components, permitting the solid product composition to be estimated by mass conservation. Results show that most of the volatiles released during the first stage include highly oxygenated species such as water, acetic acid, and carbon dioxide, while volatiles released during the second step are composed primarily of lactic acid, methanol, and acetic acid. This kinetics model will be used in the development of a model to describe reaction energy balance and heat release dynamics. PMID:23026268

  18. An integral representation of functions in gas-kinetic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perepelitsa, Misha

    2016-08-01

    Motivated by the theory of kinetic models in gas dynamics, we obtain an integral representation of lower semicontinuous functions on {{{R}}^d,} {d≥1}. We use the representation to study the problem of compactness of a family of the solutions of the discrete time BGK model for the compressible Euler equations. We determine sufficient conditions for strong compactness of moments of kinetic densities, in terms of the measures from their integral representations.

  19. HCCI in a CFR engine: experiments and detailed kinetic modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Flowers, D; Aceves, S; Smith, R; Torres, J; Girard, J; Dibble, R

    1999-11-05

    Single cylinder engine experiments and chemical kinetic modeling have been performed to study the effect of variations in fuel, equivalence ratio, and intake charge temperature on the start of combustion and the heat release rate. Neat propane and a fuel blend of 15% dimethyl-ether in methane have been studied. The results demonstrate the role of these parameters on the start of combustion, efficiency, imep, and emissions. Single zone kinetic modeling results show the trends consistent with the experimental results.

  20. Prediction of Kinetic Isotope Effects for Various Hydride Transfer Reactions Using a New Kinetic Model.

    PubMed

    Shen, Guang-Bin; Xia, Ke; Li, Xiu-Tao; Li, Jun-Ling; Fu, Yan-Hua; Yuan, Lin; Zhu, Xiao-Qing

    2016-03-24

    In this work, kinetic isotope effect (KIEself) values of 68 hydride self-exchange reactions, XH(D) + X(+) → X(+) + XH(D), in acetonitrile at 298 K were determined using a new experimental method. KIE values of 4556 hydride cross transfer reactions, XH(D) + Y(+) → X(+) + YH(D), in acetonitrile were estimated from the 68 determined KIEself values of hydride self-exchange reactions using a new KIE relation formula derived from Zhu's kinetic equation and the reliability of the estimations was verified using different experimental methods. A new KIE kinetic model to explain and predict KIE values was developed according to Zhu's kinetic model using two different Morse free energy curves instead of one Morse free energy curve in the traditional KIE theories to describe the free energy changes of X-H bond and X-D bond dissociation in chemical reactions. The most significant contribution of this paper to KIE theory is to build a new KIE kinetic model, which can be used to not only uniformly explain the various (normal, enormous and inverse) KIE values but also safely prodict KIE values of various chemical reactions. PMID:26938149

  1. A formal model for measuring the effect of technological change on telecentre usage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizi, Azizi; Ahmad, Faudziah; Yusop, Nor Iadah; Aji, Zahurin Mat

    2016-08-01

    Technological change (TC), in general refers to continuous invention, innovation and diffusion of technology. In relation to telecentre, TC is seen as the driving force of the centre's operation. However, in recent years, telecentre's usage and operation is declining slowly and this leads to the question about the continued relevance of these centres as well as calls for evidence of impacts to justify further resources and program improvements. The paper aims to present the simulation results on an agent-based model that was developed to show the impact of TC on telecentre's usage. The model was constructed in four phases, Abstraction, Formalization, Simulation and Evaluation. Results showed that the computational model was able to show the effective usage of telecentre in different types of scenarios.

  2. Detailed Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Cyclohexane Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Silke, E J; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Ribaucour, M

    2006-11-10

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed and used to study the oxidation of cyclohexane at both low and high temperatures. Reaction rate constant rules are developed for the low temperature combustion of cyclohexane. These rules can be used for in chemical kinetic mechanisms for other cycloalkanes. Since cyclohexane produces only one type of cyclohexyl radical, much of the low temperature chemistry of cyclohexane is described in terms of one potential energy diagram showing the reaction of cyclohexyl radical + O{sub 2} through five, six and seven membered ring transition states. The direct elimination of cyclohexene and HO{sub 2} from RO{sub 2} is included in the treatment using a modified rate constant of Cavallotti et al. Published and unpublished data from the Lille rapid compression machine, as well as jet-stirred reactor data are used to validate the mechanism. The effect of heat loss is included in the simulations, an improvement on previous studies on cyclohexane. Calculations indicated that the production of 1,2-epoxycyclohexane observed in the experiments can not be simulated based on the current understanding of low temperature chemistry. Possible 'alternative' H-atom isomerizations leading to different products from the parent O{sub 2}QOOH radical were included in the low temperature chemical kinetic mechanism and were found to play a significant role.

  3. Information cascade, Kirman's ant colony model, and kinetic Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisakado, Masato; Mori, Shintaro

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a voting model in which voters can obtain information from a finite number of previous voters. There exist three groups of voters: (i) digital herders and independent voters, (ii) analog herders and independent voters, and (iii) tanh-type herders. In our previous paper Hisakado and Mori (2011), we used the mean field approximation for case (i). In that study, if the reference number r is above three, phase transition occurs and the solution converges to one of the equilibria. However, the conclusion is different from mean field approximation. In this paper, we show that the solution oscillates between the two states. A good (bad) equilibrium is where a majority of r select the correct (wrong) candidate. In this paper, we show that there is no phase transition when r is finite. If the annealing schedule is adequately slow from finite r to infinite r, the voting rate converges only to the good equilibrium. In case (ii), the state of reference votes is equivalent to that of Kirman's ant colony model, and it follows beta binomial distribution. In case (iii), we show that the model is equivalent to the finite-size kinetic Ising model. If the voters are rational, a simple herding experiment of information cascade is conducted. Information cascade results from the quenching of the kinetic Ising model. As case (i) is the limit of case (iii) when tanh function becomes a step function, the phase transition can be observed in infinite size limit. We can confirm that there is no phase transition when the reference number r is finite.

  4. Elimination kinetic model for organic chemicals in earthworms.

    PubMed

    Dimitrova, N; Dimitrov, S; Georgieva, D; Van Gestel, C A M; Hankard, P; Spurgeon, D; Li, H; Mekenyan, O

    2010-08-15

    Mechanistic understanding of bioaccumulation in different organisms and environments should take into account the influence of organism and chemical depending factors on the uptake and elimination kinetics of chemicals. Lipophilicity, metabolism, sorption (bioavailability) and biodegradation of chemicals are among the important factors that may significantly affect the bioaccumulation process in soil organisms. This study attempts to model elimination kinetics of organic chemicals in earthworms by accounting for the effects of both chemical and biological properties, including metabolism. The modeling approach that has been developed is based on the concept for simulating metabolism used in the BCF base-line model developed for predicting bioaccumulation in fish. Metabolism was explicitly accounted for by making use of the TIMES engine for simulation of metabolism and a set of principal transformations. Kinetic characteristics of transformations were estimated on the basis of observed kinetics data for the elimination of organic chemicals from earthworms. PMID:20185163

  5. Formal Modeling of Multi-Agent Systems using the Pi-Calculus and Epistemic Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rorie, Toinette; Esterline, Albert

    1998-01-01

    Multi-agent systems have become important recently in computer science, especially in artificial intelligence (AI). We allow a broad sense of agent, but require at least that an agent has some measure of autonomy and interacts with other agents via some kind of agent communication language. We are concerned in this paper with formal modeling of multi-agent systems, with emphasis on communication. We propose for this purpose to use the pi-calculus, an extension of the process algebra CCS. Although the literature on the pi-calculus refers to agents, the term is used there in the sense of a process in general. It is our contention, however, that viewing agents in the AI sense as agents in the pi-calculus sense affords significant formal insight. One formalism that has been applied to agents in the AI sense is epistemic logic, the logic of knowledge. The success of epistemic logic in computer science in general has come in large part from its ability to handle concepts of knowledge that apply to groups. We maintain that the pi-calculus affords a natural yet rigorous means by which groups that are significant to epistemic logic may be identified, encapsulated, structured into hierarchies, and restructured in a principled way. This paper is organized as follows: Section 2 introduces the pi-calculus; Section 3 takes a scenario from the classical paper on agent-oriented programming [Sh93] and translates it into a very simple subset of the n-calculus; Section 4 then shows how more sophisticated features of the pi-calculus may bc brought into play; Section 5 discusses how the pi-calculus may be used to define groups for epistemic logic; and Section 6 is the conclusion.

  6. Interval Predictor Models with a Formal Characterization of Uncertainty and Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crespo, Luis G.; Giesy, Daniel P.; Kenny, Sean P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops techniques for constructing empirical predictor models based on observations. By contrast to standard models, which yield a single predicted output at each value of the model's inputs, Interval Predictors Models (IPM) yield an interval into which the unobserved output is predicted to fall. The IPMs proposed prescribe the output as an interval valued function of the model's inputs, render a formal description of both the uncertainty in the model's parameters and of the spread in the predicted output. Uncertainty is prescribed as a hyper-rectangular set in the space of model's parameters. The propagation of this set through the empirical model yields a range of outputs of minimal spread containing all (or, depending on the formulation, most) of the observations. Optimization-based strategies for calculating IPMs and eliminating the effects of outliers are proposed. Outliers are identified by evaluating the extent by which they degrade the tightness of the prediction. This evaluation can be carried out while the IPM is calculated. When the data satisfies mild stochastic assumptions, and the optimization program used for calculating the IPM is convex (or, when its solution coincides with the solution to an auxiliary convex program), the model's reliability (that is, the probability that a future observation would be within the predicted range of outputs) can be bounded rigorously by a non-asymptotic formula.

  7. Weighed scalar averaging in LTB dust models: part II. A formalism of exact perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sussman, Roberto A.

    2013-03-01

    We examine the exact perturbations that arise from the q-average formalism that was applied in the preceding article (part I) to Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) models. By introducing an initial value parametrization, we show that all LTB scalars that take an FLRW ‘look-alike’ form (frequently used in the literature dealing with LTB models) follow as q-averages of covariant scalars that are common to FLRW models. These q-scalars determine for every averaging domain a unique FLRW background state through Darmois matching conditions at the domain boundary, though the definition of this background does not require an actual matching with an FLRW region (Swiss cheese-type models). Local perturbations describe the deviation from the FLRW background state through the local gradients of covariant scalars at the boundary of every comoving domain, while non-local perturbations do so in terms of the intuitive notion of a ‘contrast’ of local scalars with respect to FLRW reference values that emerge from q-averages assigned to the whole domain or the whole time slice in the asymptotic limit. We derive fluid flow evolution equations that completely determine the dynamics of the models in terms of the q-scalars and both types of perturbations. A rigorous formalism of exact spherical nonlinear perturbations is defined over the FLRW background state associated with the q-scalars, recovering the standard results of linear perturbation theory in the appropriate limit. We examine the notion of the amplitude and illustrate the differences between local and non-local perturbations by qualitative diagrams and through an example of a cosmic density void that follows from the numeric solution of the evolution equations.

  8. Chemical Kinetic Models for HCCI and Diesel Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Mehl, M; Sarathy, S M

    2010-11-15

    Predictive engine simulation models are needed to make rapid progress towards DOE's goals of increasing combustion engine efficiency and reducing pollutant emissions. These engine simulation models require chemical kinetic submodels to allow the prediction of the effect of fuel composition on engine performance and emissions. Chemical kinetic models for conventional and next-generation transportation fuels need to be developed so that engine simulation tools can predict fuel effects. The objectives are to: (1) Develop detailed chemical kinetic models for fuel components used in surrogate fuels for diesel and HCCI engines; (2) Develop surrogate fuel models to represent real fuels and model low temperature combustion strategies in HCCI and diesel engines that lead to low emissions and high efficiency; and (3) Characterize the role of fuel composition on low temperature combustion modes of advanced combustion engines.

  9. Models of atoms in plasmas based on common formalism for bound and free electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blenski, T.; Piron, R.; Caizergues, C.; Cichocki, B.

    2013-12-01

    Atom-in-plasma models: Thomas-Fermi (TF) and INFERNO, AJCI and VAAQP, that use the same formalism for all electrons are briefly described and analyzed from the point of view of their thermodynamic consistence. While the TF and VAAQP models may be derived from variational principle and respect the virial theorem, it appears that two earlier quantum extensions of the quasi-classical TF model, INFERNO and AJCI, are not fully variational. The problems of the two latter approaches are analyzed from the point of view of the VAAQP model. However all quantum models seem to give unrealistic description of atoms in plasma at low temperature and high plasma densities. These difficulties are connected with the Wigner-Seitz cavity approach to non-central ions that is present in all considered models. Comparison of some equation-of-state data from TF, INFERNO and VAAQP models are shown on a chosen example. We report also on the status of our research on the frequency-dependent linear-response theory of atoms in plasma. A new Ehrenfest-type sum rule, originally proposed in the quantum VAAQP model, was proven in the case of the response of the TF atom with the Bloch hydrodynamics (TFB) and checked by numerical example. The TFB case allows one to have a direct insight into the rather involved mathematics of the self-consistent linear response calculations in situations when both the central atom and its plasma vicinity are perturbed by an electric field.

  10. Hybrid fluid/kinetic model for parallel heat conduction

    SciTech Connect

    Callen, J.D.; Hegna, C.C.; Held, E.D.

    1998-12-31

    It is argued that in order to use fluid-like equations to model low frequency ({omega} < {nu}) phenomena such as neoclassical tearing modes in low collisionality ({nu} < {omega}{sub b}) tokamak plasmas, a Chapman-Enskog-like approach is most appropriate for developing an equation for the kinetic distortion (F) of the distribution function whose velocity-space moments lead to the needed fluid moment closure relations. Further, parallel heat conduction in a long collision mean free path regime can be described through a combination of a reduced phase space Chapman-Enskog-like approach for the kinetics and a multiple-time-scale analysis for the fluid and kinetic equations.

  11. Phase-field Model for Interstitial Loop Growth Kinetics and Thermodynamic and Kinetic Models of Irradiated Fe-Cr Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2011-06-15

    Microstructure evolution kinetics in irradiated materials has strongly spatial correlation. For example, void and second phases prefer to nucleate and grow at pre-existing defects such as dislocations, grain boundaries, and cracks. Inhomogeneous microstructure evolution results in inhomogeneity of microstructure and thermo-mechanical properties. Therefore, the simulation capability for predicting three dimensional (3-D) microstructure evolution kinetics and its subsequent impact on material properties and performance is crucial for scientific design of advanced nuclear materials and optimal operation conditions in order to reduce uncertainty in operational and safety margins. Very recently the meso-scale phase-field (PF) method has been used to predict gas bubble evolution, void swelling, void lattice formation and void migration in irradiated materials,. Although most results of phase-field simulations are qualitative due to the lake of accurate thermodynamic and kinetic properties of defects, possible missing of important kinetic properties and processes, and the capability of current codes and computers for large time and length scale modeling, the simulations demonstrate that PF method is a promising simulation tool for predicting 3-D heterogeneous microstructure and property evolution, and providing microstructure evolution kinetics for higher scale level simulations of microstructure and property evolution such as mean field methods. This report consists of two parts. In part I, we will present a new phase-field model for predicting interstitial loop growth kinetics in irradiated materials. The effect of defect (vacancy/interstitial) generation, diffusion and recombination, sink strength, long-range elastic interaction, inhomogeneous and anisotropic mobility on microstructure evolution kinetics is taken into account in the model. The model is used to study the effect of elastic interaction on interstitial loop growth kinetics, the interstitial flux, and sink

  12. Kinetic Modelling of Macroscopic Properties Changes during Crosslinked Polybutadiene Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audouin, Ludmila; Coquillat, Marie; Colin, Xavier; Verdu, Jacques; Nevière, Robert

    2008-08-01

    The thermal oxidation of additive free hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) isocyanate crosslinked rubber bulk samples has been studied at 80, 100 and 120 °C in air. The oxidation kinetics has been monitored by gravimetry and thickness distribution of oxidation products was determined by FTIR mapping. Changes of elastic shear modulus G' during oxidation were followed during oxidation at the same temperatures. The kinetic model established previously for HTPB has been adapted for bulk sample oxidation using previously determined set of kinetic parameters. Oxygen diffusion control of oxidation has been introduced into the model. The mass changes kinetic curves and oxidation products profiles were simulated and adequate fit was obtained. Using the rubber elasticity theory the elastic modulus changes were simulated taking into account the elastically active chains concentration changes due to chain scission and crosslinking reactions. The reasonable fit of G' as a function of oxidation time experimental curves was obtained.

  13. Breakdown parameter for kinetic modeling of multiscale gas flows.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jianping; Dongari, Nishanth; Reese, Jason M; Zhang, Yonghao

    2014-06-01

    Multiscale methods built purely on the kinetic theory of gases provide information about the molecular velocity distribution function. It is therefore both important and feasible to establish new breakdown parameters for assessing the appropriateness of a fluid description at the continuum level by utilizing kinetic information rather than macroscopic flow quantities alone. We propose a new kinetic criterion to indirectly assess the errors introduced by a continuum-level description of the gas flow. The analysis, which includes numerical demonstrations, focuses on the validity of the Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations and corresponding kinetic models and reveals that the new criterion can consistently indicate the validity of continuum-level modeling in both low-speed and high-speed flows at different Knudsen numbers. PMID:25019910

  14. Kinetic exchange models: From molecular physics to social science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patriarca, Marco; Chakraborti, Anirban

    2013-08-01

    We discuss several multi-agent models that have their origin in the kinetic exchange theory of statistical mechanics and have been recently applied to a variety of problems in the social sciences. This class of models can be easily adapted for simulations in areas other than physics, such as the modeling of income and wealth distributions in economics and opinion dynamics in sociology.

  15. EFFECTS OF PHOTOCHEMICAL KINETIC MECHANISMS ON OXIDANT MODEL PREDICTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The comparative effects of kinetic mechanisms on oxidant model predictions have been tested using two different mechanisms (the Carbon-Bond Mechanism II (CBM-II) and the Demerjian Photochemical Box Model (DPBM) mechanism) in three air quality models (the OZIPM/EKMA, the Urban Air...

  16. Detailed Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Hydrazine Decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meagher, Nancy E.; Bates, Kami R.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this research project is to develop and validate a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for gas-phase hydrazine decomposition. Hydrazine is used extensively in aerospace propulsion, and although liquid hydrazine is not considered detonable, many fuel handling systems create multiphase mixtures of fuels and fuel vapors during their operation. Therefore, a thorough knowledge of the decomposition chemistry of hydrazine under a variety of conditions can be of value in assessing potential operational hazards in hydrazine fuel systems. To gain such knowledge, a reasonable starting point is the development and validation of a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for gas-phase hydrazine decomposition. A reasonably complete mechanism was published in 1996, however, many of the elementary steps included had outdated rate expressions and a thorough investigation of the behavior of the mechanism under a variety of conditions was not presented. The current work has included substantial revision of the previously published mechanism, along with a more extensive examination of the decomposition behavior of hydrazine. An attempt to validate the mechanism against the limited experimental data available has been made and was moderately successful. Further computational and experimental research into the chemistry of this fuel needs to be completed.

  17. Kinetic model for the collisionless sheath of a collisional plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xian-Zhu; Guo, Zehua

    2016-08-01

    Collisional plasmas typically have mean-free-path still much greater than the Debye length, so the sheath is mostly collisionless. Once the plasma density, temperature, and flow are specified at the sheath entrance, the profile variation of electron and ion density, temperature, flow speed, and conductive heat fluxes inside the sheath is set by collisionless dynamics, and can be predicted by an analytical kinetic model distribution. These predictions are contrasted here with direct kinetic simulations, showing good agreement.

  18. The Nonlinear Magnetosphere: Expressions in MHD and in Kinetic Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesse, Michael; Birn, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Like most plasma systems, the magnetosphere of the Earth is governed by nonlinear dynamic evolution equations. The impact of nonlinearities ranges from large scales, where overall dynamics features are exhibiting nonlinear behavior, to small scale, kinetic, processes, where nonlinear behavior governs, among others, energy conversion and dissipation. In this talk we present a select set of examples of such behavior, with a specific emphasis on how nonlinear effects manifest themselves in MHD and in kinetic models of magnetospheric plasma dynamics.

  19. Kinetic model of continuous-wave flow chemical lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Z.; X., E.

    1982-02-01

    A kinetic approach to modeling the gain in a chemical wave continuous laser when the lasing frequency is coincident with the center of the line shape is presented. Governing equations are defined for the relaxing behavior of an initially nonequilibrium distribution toward the local equilibrium Boltzmann-Maxwellian distribution. A new gain is introduced which is related to the thermal motion of the molecules and cold-reaction and premixed CW models are discussed. Coincidence of the lasing frequency with the line shape is demonstrated to result in a radiative intensity within the homogeneous broadening limit. The rate model predictions are compared with those of the kinetic model. It is found that when the broadening parameter is less than 0.2 the kinetic model more accurately describes the behavior of the CW chemical laser.

  20. Toward a formalized account of attitudes: The Causal Attitude Network (CAN) model.

    PubMed

    Dalege, Jonas; Borsboom, Denny; van Harreveld, Frenk; van den Berg, Helma; Conner, Mark; van der Maas, Han L J

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces the Causal Attitude Network (CAN) model, which conceptualizes attitudes as networks consisting of evaluative reactions and interactions between these reactions. Relevant evaluative reactions include beliefs, feelings, and behaviors toward the attitude object. Interactions between these reactions arise through direct causal influences (e.g., the belief that snakes are dangerous causes fear of snakes) and mechanisms that support evaluative consistency between related contents of evaluative reactions (e.g., people tend to align their belief that snakes are useful with their belief that snakes help maintain ecological balance). In the CAN model, the structure of attitude networks conforms to a small-world structure: evaluative reactions that are similar to each other form tight clusters, which are connected by a sparser set of "shortcuts" between them. We argue that the CAN model provides a realistic formalized measurement model of attitudes and therefore fills a crucial gap in the attitude literature. Furthermore, the CAN model provides testable predictions for the structure of attitudes and how they develop, remain stable, and change over time. Attitude strength is conceptualized in terms of the connectivity of attitude networks and we show that this provides a parsimonious account of the differences between strong and weak attitudes. We discuss the CAN model in relation to possible extensions, implication for the assessment of attitudes, and possibilities for further study. PMID:26479706

  1. The effects of the theoretical formalism and data selection on mantle models derived from waveform tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mégnin, Charles; Romanowicz, Barbara

    1999-08-01

    Most global tomographic models to date are derived using a combination of surface wave (or normal-mode) data and body wave traveltime data. The traveltime approach limits the number of phases available for inversion by requiring them to be isolated on the seismogram. This may ultimately result in limiting the resolution of 3-D structure, at least in some depth ranges in the mantle. In a previous study, we successfully derived a degree 12 whole-mantle SH-velocity tomographic model (SAW12D) using exclusively waveform data. In that inversion, a normal-mode formalism suitable for body waveforms, the non-linear asymptotic coupling theory (NACT), was combined with a body wave windowing scheme, referred to as the `individual wavepacket' (IW) technique, which allows one to assign individual weights to different body wave energy packets. We here compare the relative merits of this choice of theoretical formalism and windowing scheme at different depth ranges in the mantle. Choosing as the reference a model obtained using 7500 transverse-component body wave and 8000 surface wave seismograms and the NACT and IW approaches, we discuss the relative performance of the path average approximation (PAVA), a zeroth-order theoretical approximation appropriate for single-mode surface waves, relative to NACT, and compare the IW windowing scheme with a more standard `full window' (FW) approach, in which a single time window is considered from the first body wave arrival to the fundamental-mode surface waves. The combination PAVA/FW is often used in global tomography to supplement the traveltime data. We show that although the quality of the image derived under the PAVA/FW formalism is very similar to that derived under NACT/IW in the first 300 km of the upper mantle, where the resolution is dominated by surface waves, it deteriorates at greater depths. Images of the lower mantle are shown to be strongly sensitive to the theoretical formalism. In contrast, the resolution of structure

  2. On the Molecular Modeling of Dilute Ternary Systems in Compressible Media. Formal Results and thermodynamic Pitfalls

    SciTech Connect

    Chialvo, Ariel A; Chialvo, Sebastian; Simonson, J Michael {Mike}

    2009-01-01

    Truncated series expansions for the species partial molar fugacity coefficients in ternary dilute systems are derived for the systematic study of mixed solutes in highly compressible media. Then, explicit molecularbased expressions for the expansion coefficients are drawn in terms of direct and total correlation function integrals associated with the actual microstructure of the reference infinite dilute system. Finally, these selfconsistent formal expressions are used (a) to derive the corresponding expressions for special systems, (b) to highlight, and discuss with examples from the literature, some frequent pitfalls in the molecular modeling of these mixtures leading to serious thermodynamic inconsistencies, and (c) to illustrate how the proposed expressions reduce exactly, in the zero-density limit, to those for the partial molar properties of mixtures obeying the 1st-order truncated virial equation of state.

  3. Kinetic modeling of the Townsend breakdown in argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macheret, S. O.; Shneider, M. N.

    2013-10-01

    Kinetic modeling of the Townsend breakdown in argon was performed in the "forward-back" approximation. The kinetic model was found to adequately describe the left branch of the Paschen curve, and the important role of ionization by fast ions and atoms near the cathode, as well as the increase in secondary emission coefficient in strong electric fields described in the literature, was confirmed. The modeling also showed that the electron energy distribution function develops a beam of high-energy electrons and that the runaway effect, i.e., the monotonic increase of the mean electron energy with the distance from the cathode, occurs at the left branch of the Paschen curve.

  4. A coke oven model including thermal decomposition kinetics of tar

    SciTech Connect

    Munekane, Fuminori; Yamaguchi, Yukio; Tanioka, Seiichi

    1997-12-31

    A new one-dimensional coke oven model has been developed for simulating the amount and the characteristics of by-products such as tar and gas as well as coke. This model consists of both heat transfer and chemical kinetics including thermal decomposition of coal and tar. The chemical kinetics constants are obtained by estimation based on the results of experiments conducted to investigate the thermal decomposition of both coal and tar. The calculation results using the new model are in good agreement with experimental ones.

  5. Hard-sphere kinetic models for inert and reactive mixtures.

    PubMed

    Polewczak, Jacek

    2016-10-19

    I consider stochastic variants of a simple reacting sphere (SRS) kinetic model (Xystris and Dahler 1978 J. Chem. Phys. 68 387-401, Qin and Dahler 1995 J. Chem. Phys. 103 725-50, Dahler and Qin 2003 J. Chem. Phys. 118 8396-404) for dense reacting mixtures. In contrast to the line-of-center models of chemical reactive models, in the SRS kinetic model, the microscopic reversibility (detailed balance) can be easily shown to be satisfied, and thus all mathematical aspects of the model can be fully justified. In the SRS model, the molecules behave as if they were single mass points with two internal states. Collisions may alter the internal states of the molecules, and this occurs when the kinetic energy associated with the reactive motion exceeds the activation energy. Reactive and non-reactive collision events are considered to be hard sphere-like. I consider a four component mixture A, B, A (*), B (*), in which the chemical reactions are of the type [Formula: see text], with A (*) and B (*) being distinct species from A and B. This work extends the joined works with George Stell to the kinetic models of dense inert and reactive mixtures. The idea of introducing smearing-type effect in the collisional process results in a new class of stochastic kinetic models for both inert and reactive mixtures. In this paper the important new mathematical properties of such systems of kinetic equations are proven. The new results for stochastic revised Enskog system for inert mixtures are also provided. PMID:27545341

  6. Kinetic Modeling of the Moon-Solar Wind Plasma Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatemi, S.; Poppe, A. R.; Halekas, J. S.; Delory, G. T.; Holmstrom, M.; Farrell, W. M.

    2016-05-01

    We use a three-dimensional self-consistent hybrid model of plasma (kinetic ions, fluid electrons) to study solar wind plasma interaction with the Moon. We have studied lunar wake, interaction with crustal fields, and lunar interior with our model.

  7. Computer-Aided Construction of Chemical Kinetic Models

    SciTech Connect

    Green, William H.

    2014-12-31

    The combustion chemistry of even simple fuels can be extremely complex, involving hundreds or thousands of kinetically significant species. The most reasonable way to deal with this complexity is to use a computer not only to numerically solve the kinetic model, but also to construct the kinetic model in the first place. Because these large models contain so many numerical parameters (e.g. rate coefficients, thermochemistry) one never has sufficient data to uniquely determine them all experimentally. Instead one must work in “predictive” mode, using theoretical rather than experimental values for many of the numbers in the model, and as appropriate refining the most sensitive numbers through experiments. Predictive chemical kinetics is exactly what is needed for computer-aided design of combustion systems based on proposed alternative fuels, particularly for early assessment of the value and viability of proposed new fuels before those fuels are commercially available. This project was aimed at making accurate predictive chemical kinetics practical; this is a challenging goal which requires a range of science advances. The project spanned a wide range from quantum chemical calculations on individual molecules and elementary-step reactions, through the development of improved rate/thermo calculation procedures, the creation of algorithms and software for constructing and solving kinetic simulations, the invention of methods for model-reduction while maintaining error control, and finally comparisons with experiment. Many of the parameters in the models were derived from quantum chemistry calculations, and the models were compared with experimental data measured in our lab or in collaboration with others.

  8. Annotation of rule-based models with formal semantics to enable creation, analysis, reuse and visualization

    PubMed Central

    Misirli, Goksel; Cavaliere, Matteo; Waites, William; Pocock, Matthew; Madsen, Curtis; Gilfellon, Owen; Honorato-Zimmer, Ricardo; Zuliani, Paolo; Danos, Vincent; Wipat, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Biological systems are complex and challenging to model and therefore model reuse is highly desirable. To promote model reuse, models should include both information about the specifics of simulations and the underlying biology in the form of metadata. The availability of computationally tractable metadata is especially important for the effective automated interpretation and processing of models. Metadata are typically represented as machine-readable annotations which enhance programmatic access to information about models. Rule-based languages have emerged as a modelling framework to represent the complexity of biological systems. Annotation approaches have been widely used for reaction-based formalisms such as SBML. However, rule-based languages still lack a rich annotation framework to add semantic information, such as machine-readable descriptions, to the components of a model. Results: We present an annotation framework and guidelines for annotating rule-based models, encoded in the commonly used Kappa and BioNetGen languages. We adapt widely adopted annotation approaches to rule-based models. We initially propose a syntax to store machine-readable annotations and describe a mapping between rule-based modelling entities, such as agents and rules, and their annotations. We then describe an ontology to both annotate these models and capture the information contained therein, and demonstrate annotating these models using examples. Finally, we present a proof of concept tool for extracting annotations from a model that can be queried and analyzed in a uniform way. The uniform representation of the annotations can be used to facilitate the creation, analysis, reuse and visualization of rule-based models. Although examples are given, using specific implementations the proposed techniques can be applied to rule-based models in general. Availability and implementation: The annotation ontology for rule-based models can be found at http

  9. Incorporation of memory effects in coarse-grained modeling via the Mori-Zwanzig formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhen; Bian, Xin; Karniadakis, George Em; Li, Xiantao

    2015-12-28

    The Mori-Zwanzig formalism for coarse-graining a complex dynamical system typically introduces memory effects. The Markovian assumption of delta-correlated fluctuating forces is often employed to simplify the formulation of coarse-grained (CG) models and numerical implementations. However, when the time scales of a system are not clearly separated, the memory effects become strong and the Markovian assumption becomes inaccurate. To this end, we incorporate memory effects into CG modeling by preserving non-Markovian interactions between CG variables, and the memory kernel is evaluated directly from microscopic dynamics. For a specific example, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of star polymer melts are performed while the corresponding CG system is defined by grouping many bonded atoms into single clusters. Then, the effective interactions between CG clusters as well as the memory kernel are obtained from the MD simulations. The constructed CG force field with a memory kernel leads to a non-Markovian dissipative particle dynamics (NM-DPD). Quantitative comparisons between the CG models with Markovian and non-Markovian approximations indicate that including the memory effects using NM-DPD yields similar results as the Markovian-based DPD if the system has clear time scale separation. However, for systems with small separation of time scales, NM-DPD can reproduce correct short-time properties that are related to how the system responds to high-frequency disturbances, which cannot be captured by the Markovian-based DPD model.

  10. Incorporation of memory effects in coarse-grained modeling via the Mori-Zwanzig formalism.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Bian, Xin; Li, Xiantao; Karniadakis, George Em

    2015-12-28

    The Mori-Zwanzig formalism for coarse-graining a complex dynamical system typically introduces memory effects. The Markovian assumption of delta-correlated fluctuating forces is often employed to simplify the formulation of coarse-grained (CG) models and numerical implementations. However, when the time scales of a system are not clearly separated, the memory effects become strong and the Markovian assumption becomes inaccurate. To this end, we incorporate memory effects into CG modeling by preserving non-Markovian interactions between CG variables, and the memory kernel is evaluated directly from microscopic dynamics. For a specific example, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of star polymer melts are performed while the corresponding CG system is defined by grouping many bonded atoms into single clusters. Then, the effective interactions between CG clusters as well as the memory kernel are obtained from the MD simulations. The constructed CG force field with a memory kernel leads to a non-Markovian dissipative particle dynamics (NM-DPD). Quantitative comparisons between the CG models with Markovian and non-Markovian approximations indicate that including the memory effects using NM-DPD yields similar results as the Markovian-based DPD if the system has clear time scale separation. However, for systems with small separation of time scales, NM-DPD can reproduce correct short-time properties that are related to how the system responds to high-frequency disturbances, which cannot be captured by the Markovian-based DPD model. PMID:26723613

  11. Incorporation of memory effects in coarse-grained modeling via the Mori-Zwanzig formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhen; Bian, Xin; Li, Xiantao; Karniadakis, George Em

    2015-12-01

    The Mori-Zwanzig formalism for coarse-graining a complex dynamical system typically introduces memory effects. The Markovian assumption of delta-correlated fluctuating forces is often employed to simplify the formulation of coarse-grained (CG) models and numerical implementations. However, when the time scales of a system are not clearly separated, the memory effects become strong and the Markovian assumption becomes inaccurate. To this end, we incorporate memory effects into CG modeling by preserving non-Markovian interactions between CG variables, and the memory kernel is evaluated directly from microscopic dynamics. For a specific example, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of star polymer melts are performed while the corresponding CG system is defined by grouping many bonded atoms into single clusters. Then, the effective interactions between CG clusters as well as the memory kernel are obtained from the MD simulations. The constructed CG force field with a memory kernel leads to a non-Markovian dissipative particle dynamics (NM-DPD). Quantitative comparisons between the CG models with Markovian and non-Markovian approximations indicate that including the memory effects using NM-DPD yields similar results as the Markovian-based DPD if the system has clear time scale separation. However, for systems with small separation of time scales, NM-DPD can reproduce correct short-time properties that are related to how the system responds to high-frequency disturbances, which cannot be captured by the Markovian-based DPD model.

  12. Simulations of plasma sheaths using continuum kinetic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Bhuvana; Hakim, Ammar

    2015-11-01

    Understanding plasma sheath physics is important for the performance of devices such as Hall thrusters due to the effect of energetic particles on electrode erosion. Plasma sheath physics is studied using kinetic and multi-fluid models with relevance to secondary electron emissions and plasma-surface interactions. Continuum kinetic models are developed to directly solve the Vlasov-Poisson equation using the discontinuous Galerkin method for each of the ion and electron species. A steady-state sheath is simulated by including a simple model for a neutral fluid. Multi-fluid simulations for the plasma sheath are also performed using the discontinuous Galerkin method to solve a complete set of fluid equations for each of the ion and electron species. The kinetic plasma sheath is compared to a multi-fluid plasma sheath. Supported by Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

  13. Model reduction for chemical kinetics: An optimization approach

    SciTech Connect

    Petzold, L.; Zhu, W.

    1999-04-01

    The kinetics of a detailed chemically reacting system can potentially be very complex. Although the chemist may be interested in only a few species, the reaction model almost always involves a much larger number of species. Some of those species are radicals, which are very reactive species and can be important intermediaries in the reaction scheme. A large number of elementary reactions can occur among the species; some of these reactions are fast and some are slow. The aim of simplified kinetics modeling is to derive the simplest reaction system which retains the essential features of the full system. An optimization-based method for reduction of the number of species and reactions in chemical kinetics model is described. Numerical results for several reaction mechanisms illustrate the potential of this approach.

  14. Kinetic modelling for zinc (II) ions biosorption onto Luffa cylindrica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oboh, I.; Aluyor, E.; Audu, T.

    2015-03-01

    The biosorption of Zinc (II) ions onto a biomaterial - Luffa cylindrica has been studied. This biomaterial was characterized by elemental analysis, surface area, pore size distribution, scanning electron microscopy, and the biomaterial before and after sorption, was characterized by Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectrometer. The kinetic nonlinear models fitted were Pseudo-first order, Pseudo-second order and Intra-particle diffusion. A comparison of non-linear regression method in selecting the kinetic model was made. Four error functions, namely coefficient of determination (R2), hybrid fractional error function (HYBRID), average relative error (ARE), and sum of the errors squared (ERRSQ), were used to predict the parameters of the kinetic models. The strength of this study is that a biomaterial with wide distribution particularly in the tropical world and which occurs as waste material could be put into effective utilization as a biosorbent to address a crucial environmental problem.

  15. Kinetic modelling for zinc (II) ions biosorption onto Luffa cylindrica

    SciTech Connect

    Oboh, I.; Aluyor, E.; Audu, T.

    2015-03-30

    The biosorption of Zinc (II) ions onto a biomaterial - Luffa cylindrica has been studied. This biomaterial was characterized by elemental analysis, surface area, pore size distribution, scanning electron microscopy, and the biomaterial before and after sorption, was characterized by Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectrometer. The kinetic nonlinear models fitted were Pseudo-first order, Pseudo-second order and Intra-particle diffusion. A comparison of non-linear regression method in selecting the kinetic model was made. Four error functions, namely coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}), hybrid fractional error function (HYBRID), average relative error (ARE), and sum of the errors squared (ERRSQ), were used to predict the parameters of the kinetic models. The strength of this study is that a biomaterial with wide distribution particularly in the tropical world and which occurs as waste material could be put into effective utilization as a biosorbent to address a crucial environmental problem.

  16. Microscopic kinetic model for polymer crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Wenbing

    2011-03-01

    Linear crystal growth rates characterize the net result of competition between growth and melting at the liquid-solid interfaces. The rate equation for polymer crystal growth can be derived with a barrier term for crystal growth and with a driving force term of excess lamellar thickness, provided that growth and melting share the same rate-determining steps at the growth front. Such an ansatz can be verified by the kinetic symmetry between growth and melting around the melting point of lamellar crystals, as made in our recent dynamic Monte Carlo simulations. The profile of the growth/melting front appears as wedge-shaped, with the free energy barrier for intramolecular secondary crystal nucleation at its top, and with the driving force gained via instant thickening at its bottom. Such a scenario explains unique phenomena on polymer crystal growth, such as chain folding, regime transitions, molecular segregation of polydisperse polymers, self-poisoning with integer-number chain-folding of short chains, and colligative growth rates of binary mixtures of two chain lengths. Financial support from NNSFC No. 20825415 and NBRPC No. 2011CB606100 is acknowledged.

  17. A Detailed Chemical Kinetic Model for TNT

    SciTech Connect

    Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2005-01-13

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for 2,4,6-tri-nitrotoluene (TNT) has been developed to explore problems of explosive performance and soot formation during the destruction of munitions. The TNT mechanism treats only gas-phase reactions. Reactions for the decomposition of TNT and for the consumption of intermediate products formed from TNT are assembled based on information from the literature and on current understanding of aromatic chemistry. Thermodynamic properties of intermediate and radical species are estimated by group additivity. Reaction paths are developed based on similar paths for aromatic hydrocarbons. Reaction-rate constant expressions are estimated from the literature and from analogous reactions where the rate constants are available. The detailed reaction mechanism for TNT is added to existing reaction mechanisms for RDX and for hydrocarbons. Computed results show the effect of oxygen concentration on the amount of soot precursors that are formed in the combustion of RDX and TNT mixtures in N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} mixtures.

  18. Kinetic model for dilute traffic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balouchi, Ashkan; Browne, Dana A.

    The flow of traffic represents a many-particle non-equilibrium problem with important practical consequences. Traffic behavior has been studied using a variety of approaches, including fluid dynamics models, Boltzmann equation, and recently cellular automata (CA). The CA model for traffic flow that Nagel and Schreckenberg (NS) introduced can successfully mimic many of the known features of the traffic flow. We show that in the dilute limit of the NS model, where vehicles exhibit free flow, cars show significant nearest neighbor correlation primarily via a short-range repulsion. introduce an approximate analytic model to describe this dilute limit. We show that the distribution of the distance between consecutive vehicles obeys a drift-diffusion equation. We compared this model with direct simulations. The steady state solution and relaxation of this model agrees well with direct simulations. We explore how this model breaks down as the transition to jams occurs.

  19. Model formalism of liquid /sup 3/He-B at equilibrium

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, L.; Goldstein, J.C.

    1980-04-01

    The approximate formal treatment of the nuclear spin system of normal liquid /sup 3/He given some time ago is extended to the ordered /sup 3/He phase. The formalism leads to the prediction of normal thermal behavior of /sup 3/He-B at lower pressures and at temperatures approaching its phase-boundary temperatures. In contrast to the disordered normal liquid phase, which is thermally anomalous, the entropy of the /sup 3/He-B decreases on isothermal compression, or its isobaric volume expansion coefficient is positive. The equilibrium thermal behavior of ordered /sup 3/He-B is thus qualitatively different from that of disordered liquid /sup 3/He. Experimental control of these aspects of the liquid /sup 3/He phase transformation is lacking at the present time. Both early and new /sup 3/He-B paramagnetic susceptibility data, extended recently over a wide reduced-temperature range, disclose a fundamental competition between the spontaneous ordering mechanism responsible for the existence of /sup 3/He-B and the specific ordering process imposed upon this phase on application of an external constant and uniform magnetic field. As a consequence, magnetized /sup 3/He-B will be shown to increase its entropy on isothermal magnetization and to cool on adiabatic magnetization. The magnetocaloric effect is, however, only moderate. The competition of the ordering process leads to the delay or possibly even to the suppression of the formation of the ordered phase, a state of affairs foreseen in our earlier work. At low or moderate magnetic field strengths, the zero-field phase-boundary temperatures are shown to shift toward lower temperatures while, simultaneously, the order of the phase change decreases, from second order, in the absence of the field, to first order. Although of model-theoretic character, involving limitations of various types, the rich physical content of /sup 3/He-B at equilibrium clearly emerges in the present work.

  20. Pyrolysis of Sawdust, Rice Husk and Sugarcane Bagasse: Kinetic Modeling and Estimation of Kinetic Parameters using Different Optimization Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khonde, Ruta Dhanram; Chaurasia, Ashish Subhash

    2015-04-01

    The present study provides the kinetic model to describe the pyrolysis of sawdust, rice-husk and sugarcane bagasse as biomass. The kinetic scheme used for modelling of primary pyrolysis consisting of the two parallel reactions giving gaseous volatiles and solid char. Estimation of kinetic parameters for pyrolysis process has been carried out for temperature range of 773-1,173 K. As there are serious issues regarding non-convergence of some of the methods or solutions converging to local-optima, the proposed kinetic model is optimized to predict the best values of kinetic parameters for the system using three approaches—Two-dimensional surface fitting non-linear regression technique, MS-Excel Solver Tool and COMSOL software. The model predictions are in agreement with experimental data over a wide range of pyrolysis conditions. The estimated value of kinetic parameters are compared with earlier researchers and found to be matching well.

  1. A generalized Born formalism for heterogeneous dielectric environments: Application to the implicit modeling of biological membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanizaki, Seiichiro; Feig, Michael

    2005-03-01

    Reliable computer simulations of complex biological environments such as integral membrane proteins with explicit water and lipid molecules remain a challenging task. We propose a modification of the standard generalized Born theory of homogeneous solvent for modeling the heterogeneous dielectric environments such as lipid/water interfaces. Our model allows the representation of biological membranes in the form of multiple layered dielectric regions with dielectric constants that are different from the solute cavity. The proposed new formalism is shown to predict the electrostatic component of solvation free energy with a relative error of 0.17% compared to exact finite-difference solutions of the Poisson equation for a transmembrane helix test system. Molecular dynamics simulations of melittin and bacteriorhodopsin are carried out and performed over 10ns and 7ns of simulation time, respectively. The center of melittin along the membrane normal in these stable simulations is in excellent agreement with the relevant experimental data. Simulations of bacteriorhodopsin started from the experimental structure remained stable and in close agreement with experiment. We also examined the free energy profiles of water and amino acid side chain analogs upon membrane insertion. The results with our implicit membrane model agree well with the experimental transfer free energy data from cyclohexane to water as well as explicit solvent simulations of water and selected side chain analogs.

  2. A Formal Framework for Modelling the Developmental Course of Competence and Performance in the Distance, Speed, and Time Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Dietrich; Kickmeier-Rust, Michael D.; Matsuda, Fumiko

    2008-01-01

    The developmental course in the distance-speed-time domain is still a matter of debate. Traditional stage models are contested by theories of continuous development and adaptive thinking. In the present work, we introduce a formal framework for modelling the developmental course in this domain, grounding on Competence-based Knowledge Space Theory.…

  3. An efficient chemical kinetics solver using high dimensional model representation

    SciTech Connect

    Shorter, J.A.; Ip, P.C.; Rabitz, H.A.

    1999-09-09

    A high dimensional model representation (HDMR) technique is introduced to capture the input-output behavior of chemical kinetic models. The HDMR expresses the output chemical species concentrations as a rapidly convergent hierarchical correlated function expansion in the input variables. In this paper, the input variables are taken as the species concentrations at time t{sub i} and the output is the concentrations at time t{sub i} + {delta}, where {delta} can be much larger than conventional integration time steps. A specially designed set of model runs is performed to determine the correlated functions making up the HDMR. The resultant HDMR can be used to (1) identify the key input variables acting independently or cooperatively on the output, and (2) create a high speed fully equivalent operational model (FEOM) serving to replace the original kinetic model and its differential equation solver. A demonstration of the HDMR technique is presented for stratospheric chemical kinetics. The FEOM proved to give accurate and stable chemical concentrations out to long times of many years. In addition, the FEOM was found to be orders of magnitude faster than a conventional stiff equation solver. This computational acceleration should have significance in many chemical kinetic applications.

  4. Kinetics of steel slag leaching: Batch tests and modeling.

    PubMed

    De Windt, Laurent; Chaurand, Perrine; Rose, Jerome

    2011-02-01

    Reusing steel slag as an aggregate for road construction requires to characterize the leaching kinetics and metal releases. In this study, basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steel slag were subjected to batch leaching tests at liquid to solid ratios (L/S) of 10 and 100 over 30 days; the leachate chemistry being regularly sampled in time. A geochemical model of the steel slag is developed and validated from experimental data, particularly the evolution with leaching of mineralogical composition of the slag and trace element speciation. Kinetics is necessary for modeling the primary phase leaching, whereas a simple thermodynamic equilibrium approach can be used for secondary phase precipitation. The proposed model simulates the kinetically-controlled dissolution (hydrolysis) of primary phases, the precipitation of secondary phases (C-S-H, hydroxide and spinel), the pH and redox conditions, and the progressive release of major elements as well as the metals Cr and V. Modeling indicates that the dilution effect of the L/S ratio is often coupled to solubility-controlled processes, which are sensitive to both the pH and the redox potential. A sensitivity analysis of kinetic uncertainties on the modeling of element releases is performed. PMID:20646922

  5. Towards a principled way of making kinetic models from data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Presse, Steve

    2012-02-01

    Kinetic model extraction from noisy data is the basic route to mechanistic insight in biology. I will show how the tools of Maximum Caliber (the dynamical analog of Maximum Entropy) can be used to infer -and not fit- models in a way which is driven by the structure and limitations of the data. For instance, the typical output of an experiment in systems biology is the stochastic expression of one reporter gene. Master equations used to model the regulatory process underlying the stochastic gene expression require knowledge of a circuit topology and rates. However rates and topology are often fit as these are rarely all independently determinable from the limited data. Our goal is to build a kinetic model from the data available with no adjustable parameter using the tools of Maximum Caliber. We apply our method to infer the statistics of rare stochastic switching events in the genetic toggle switch from fluctuations on shorter measurable timescales. In addition, we discuss how these tools can be used to infer kinetic models from real single molecule data drawn from anomalous folding kinetics of phosphoglycerate kinase and RNA hairpin zipping-unzipping time traces.

  6. Kinetic theory and models of the global heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izmodenov, Vladislav

    2016-07-01

    Current state of art in the kinetic-MHD modeling of the solar/stellar wind interaction with the local interstellar medium (LISM) will be reviewed. New model results will be presented as well as compared with currently available observations from both Voyagers and Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX). Differences between model and observations will be discussed. Especial discussion will be on the recently suggested (by M. Opher and J. Drake) two-jet structure of the heliosphere.

  7. Gyrofluid turbulence models with kinetic effects

    SciTech Connect

    Dorland, W.; Hammett, G.W.

    1992-12-01

    Nonlinear gyrofluid equations are derived by taking moments of the nonlinear, electrostatic gyrokinetic equation. The principal model presented includes evolution equations for the guiding center n, u[parallel], T[parallel], and T[perpendicular] along with an equation expressing the quasineutrality constraint. Additional evolution equations for higher moments are derived which may be used if greater accuracy is desired. The moment hierarchy is closed with a Landau-damping model which is equivalent to a multi-pole approximation to the plasma dispersion function, extended to include finite Larmor radius effects. In particular, new dissipative, nonlinear terms are found which model the perpendicular phase-mixing of the distribution function along contours of constant electrostatic potential. These FLR phase-mixing'' terms introduce a hyperviscosity-like damping [proportional to] k[sub [perpendicular

  8. Kinetic model of particle-inhibited grain growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Gary Scott

    The effects of second phase particles on matrix grain growth kinetics were investigated using Al2O3-SiC as a model system. In particular, the validity of the conclusion drawn from a previous kinetic analysis that the kinetics of particle-inhibited grain growth in Al2 O3-SiC samples with an intermediate volume fraction of second phase could be well quantified by a modified-Zener model was investigated. A critical analysis of assumptions made during the previous kinetic analysis revealed oversimplifications which affect the validity of the conclusion. Specifically, the degree of interaction between particles and grain boundaries was assumed to be independent of the mean second phase particle size and size distribution. In contrast, current measurements indicate that the degree of interaction in Al2O3-SiC is dependent on these parameters. An improved kinetic model for particle-inhibited grain growth in Al 2O3-SiC was developed using a modified-Zener approach. The comparison of model predictions with experimental grain growth data indicated that significant discrepancies (as much as 4--5 orders of magnitude) existed. Based on this, it was concluded that particles had a much more significant effect on grain growth kinetics than that caused by a simple reduction of the boundary driving force due to the removal of boundary area. Consequently, it was also concluded that the conclusion drawn from the earlier kinetic analysis regarding the validity of a modified-Zener model was incorrect. Discrepancies between model and experiment were found to be the result of a significant decrease in experimental growth rate constant not predicted by the model. Possible physical mechanisms for such a decrease were investigated. The investigation of a small amount of SiO2 on grain growth in Al2O3 indicated that the decrease was not the result of a decrease in grain boundary mobility due to impurity contamination by particles. By process of elimination and based on previous observations

  9. Spin Kinetic Models of Plasmas - Semiclassical and Quantum Mechanical Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Brodin, Gert; Marklund, Mattias; Zamanian, Jens

    2009-11-10

    In this work a recently published semiclassical spin kinetic model, generalizing those of previous authors are discussed. Some previously described properties are reviewed, and a new example illustrating the theory is presented. The generalization to a fully quantum mechanical description is discussed, and the main features of such a theory is outlined. Finally, the main conclusions are presented.

  10. Kinetic modeling of kraft delignification of Eucalyptus globulus

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, A.; Rodriguez, F.; Gilarranz, M.A.; Moreno, D.; Garcia-Ochoa, F.

    1997-10-01

    A kinetic model for the kraft pulping delignification of Eucalyptus globulus is proposed. This model is discriminated among some kinetic expressions often used in the literature, and the kinetic parameters are determined by fitting of experimental results. A total of 25 isothermal experiments at liquor-to-wood ratios of 50 and 5 L/kg have been carried out. Initial, bulk, and residual delignification stages have been observed during the lignin removal, the transitions being, referring to the lignin initial content, about 82 and 3%. Carbohydrate removal and effective alkali-metal and hydrosulfide consumption have been related with the lignin removal by means of effective stoichiometric coefficients for each stage, coefficients also being calculated by fitting of the experimental data. The kinetic model chosen has been used to simulate typical kraft pulping experiments carried out at nonisothermal conditions, using a temperature ramp. The model yields simulated values close to those obtained experimentally for the wood studied and also ably reproduces the trends of the literature data.

  11. Paradigms of Complexity in Modelling of Fluid and Kinetic Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamond, P. H.

    2006-10-01

    The need to discuss and compare a wide variety of models of fluid and kinetic processes is motivated by the astonishing wide variety of complex physical phenomena which occur in plasmas in nature. Such phenomena include, but are not limited to: turbulence, turbulent transport and mixing, reconnection and structure formation. In this talk, I will review how various fluid and kinetic models come to grips with the essential physics of these phenomena. For example, I will discuss how the idea of a turbulent cascade and the concept of an ``eddy'' are realized quite differently in fluid and Vlasov models. Attention will be placed primarily on physical processes, the physics content of various models, and the consequences of choices in model construction, rather than on the intrinsic mathematical structure of the theories. Examples will be chosen from fusion, laboratory, space and astrophysical plasmas.

  12. Towards cleaner combustion engines through groundbreaking detailed chemical kinetic models

    PubMed Central

    Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique; Blurock, Edward; Bounaceur, Roda; Fournet, René; Glaude, Pierre-Alexandre; Herbinet, Olivier; Sirjean, Baptiste; Warth, V.

    2013-01-01

    In the context of limiting the environmental impact of transportation, this paper reviews new directions which are being followed in the development of more predictive and more accurate detailed chemical kinetic models for the combustion of fuels. In the first part, the performance of current models, especially in terms of the prediction of pollutant formation, is evaluated. In the next parts, recent methods and ways to improve these models are described. An emphasis is given on the development of detailed models based on elementary reactions, on the production of the related thermochemical and kinetic parameters, and on the experimental techniques available to produce the data necessary to evaluate model predictions under well defined conditions. PMID:21597604

  13. Second-order kinetic Kohn-Sham lattice model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solórzano, S.; Mendoza, M.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we introduce a semi-implicit second-order correction scheme to the kinetic Kohn-Sham lattice model. This approach is validated by performing realistic exchange-correlation energy calculations of atoms and dimers of the first two rows of the Periodic Table, finding good agreement with the expected values. Additionally, we simulate the ethane molecule, where we recover the bond lengths and compare the results with standard methods. Finally, we discuss the current applicability of pseudopotentials within the lattice kinetic Kohn-Sham approach.

  14. A formal hybrid modeling scheme for handling discontinuities in physical system models

    SciTech Connect

    Mosterman, P.J.; Biswas, G.

    1996-12-31

    Physical systems are by nature continuous, but often exhibit nonlinearities that make behavior generation complex and hard to analyze. Complexity is often reduced by linearizing model constraints and by abstracting the time scale for behavior generation. In either case, the physical components are modeled to operate in multiple modes, with abrupt changes between modes. This paper discusses a hybrid modeling methodology and analysis algorithms that combine continuous energy flow modeling and localized discrete signal flow modeling to generate complex, multi-mode behavior in a consistent and correct manner. Energy phase space analysis is employed to demonstrate the correctness of the algorithm, and the reachability of a continuous mode.

  15. Gyrofluid turbulence models with kinetic effects

    SciTech Connect

    Dorland, W.; Hammett, G.W.

    1992-12-01

    Nonlinear gyrofluid equations are derived by taking moments of the nonlinear, electrostatic gyrokinetic equation. The principal model presented includes evolution equations for the guiding center n, u{parallel}, T{parallel}, and T{perpendicular} along with an equation expressing the quasineutrality constraint. Additional evolution equations for higher moments are derived which may be used if greater accuracy is desired. The moment hierarchy is closed with a Landau-damping model which is equivalent to a multi-pole approximation to the plasma dispersion function, extended to include finite Larmor radius effects. In particular, new dissipative, nonlinear terms are found which model the perpendicular phase-mixing of the distribution function along contours of constant electrostatic potential. These ``FLR phase-mixing`` terms introduce a hyperviscosity-like damping {proportional_to} k{sub {perpendicular}}{sup 2}{vert_bar}{Phi}{sub {rvec k}}{rvec k} {times}{rvec k}{prime}{vert_bar} which should provide a physics-based damping mechanism at high k{perpendicular}{rho} which is potentially as important as the usual polarization drift nonlinearity. The moments are taken in guiding center space to pick up the correct nonlinear FLR terms and the gyroaveraging of the shear. The equations are solved with a nonlinear, three dimensional initial value code. Linear results are presented, showing excellent agreement with linear gyrokinetic theory.

  16. Modeling the Kinetics of Open Self-Assembly.

    PubMed

    Verdier, Timothée; Foret, Lionel; Castelnovo, Martin

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we explore theoretically the kinetics of molecular self-assembly in the presence of constant monomer flux as an input, and a maximal size. The proposed model is supposed to reproduce the dynamics of viral self-assembly for enveloped virus. It turns out that the kinetics of open self-assembly is rather quantitatively different from the kinetics of similar closed assembly. In particular, our results show that the convergence toward the stationary state is reached through assembly waves. Interestingly, we show that the production of complete clusters is much more efficient in the presence of a constant input flux, rather than providing all monomers at the beginning of the self-assembly. PMID:27295398

  17. Non isothermal model free kinetics for pyrolysis of rice straw.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Garima; Bhaskar, Thallada

    2014-10-01

    The kinetics of thermal decomposition of rice straw was studied by thermogravimetry. Non-isothermal thermogravimetric data of rice straw decomposition in nitrogen atmosphere at six different heating rates of 5-40 °C/min was used for evaluating kinetics using several model free kinetic methods. The results showed that the decomposition process exhibited two zones of constant apparent activation energies. The values ranged from 142 to 170 kJ/mol (E(avg) = 155.787 kJ/mol), and 170 to 270 kJ/mol (E(avg) = 236.743 kJ/mol) in the conversion range of 5-60% and 61-90% respectively. These values were used to determine the reaction mechanism of process using master plots and compensation parameters. The results show that the reaction mechanism of whole process can be kinetically characterized by two successive reactions, a diffusion reaction followed by a third order rate equation. The kinetic results were validated using isothermal predictions. The results derived are useful for development and optimization of biomass thermochemical conversion systems. PMID:25105267

  18. A spatially resolved surface kinetic model for forsterite dissolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher, Kate; Johnson, Natalie C.; Jackson, Ariel; Lammers, Laura N.; Torchinsky, Abe B.; Weaver, Karrie L.; Bird, Dennis K.; Brown, Gordon E.

    2016-02-01

    The development of complex alteration layers on silicate mineral surfaces undergoing dissolution is a widely observed phenomenon. Given the complexity of these layers, most kinetic models used to predict rates of mineral-fluid interactions do not explicitly consider their formation. As a result, the relationship between the development of the altered layers and the final dissolution rate is poorly understood. To improve our understanding of the relationship between the alteration layer and the dissolution rate, we developed a spatially resolved surface kinetic model for olivine dissolution and applied it to a series of closed-system experiments consisting of three-phases (water (±NaCl), olivine, and supercritical CO2) at conditions relevant to in situ mineral carbonation (i.e. 60 °C, 100 bar CO2). We also measured the corresponding δ26/24Mg of the dissolved Mg during early stages of dissolution. Analysis of the solid reaction products indicates the formation of Mg-depleted layers on the olivine surface as quickly as 2 days after the experiment was started and before the bulk solution reached saturation with respect to amorphous silica. The δ26/24Mg of the dissolved Mg decreased by approximately 0.4‰ in the first stages of the experiment and then approached the value of the initial olivine (-0.35‰) as the steady-state dissolution rate was approached. We attribute the preferential release of 24Mg to a kinetic effect associated with the formation of a Mg-depleted layer that develops as protons exchange for Mg2+. We used experimental data to calibrate a surface kinetic model for olivine dissolution that includes crystalline olivine, a distinct "active layer" from which Mg can be preferentially removed, and secondary amorphous silica precipitation. By coupling the spatial arrangement of ions with the kinetics, this model is able to reproduce both the early and steady-state long-term dissolution rates, and the kinetic isotope fractionation. In the early stages of

  19. Formal Models of the Network Co-occurrence Underlying Mental Operations.

    PubMed

    Bzdok, Danilo; Varoquaux, Gaël; Grisel, Olivier; Eickenberg, Michael; Poupon, Cyril; Thirion, Bertrand

    2016-06-01

    Systems neuroscience has identified a set of canonical large-scale networks in humans. These have predominantly been characterized by resting-state analyses of the task-unconstrained, mind-wandering brain. Their explicit relationship to defined task performance is largely unknown and remains challenging. The present work contributes a multivariate statistical learning approach that can extract the major brain networks and quantify their configuration during various psychological tasks. The method is validated in two extensive datasets (n = 500 and n = 81) by model-based generation of synthetic activity maps from recombination of shared network topographies. To study a use case, we formally revisited the poorly understood difference between neural activity underlying idling versus goal-directed behavior. We demonstrate that task-specific neural activity patterns can be explained by plausible combinations of resting-state networks. The possibility of decomposing a mental task into the relative contributions of major brain networks, the "network co-occurrence architecture" of a given task, opens an alternative access to the neural substrates of human cognition. PMID:27310288

  20. Formal Models of the Network Co-occurrence Underlying Mental Operations

    PubMed Central

    Bzdok, Danilo; Varoquaux, Gaël; Grisel, Olivier; Eickenberg, Michael; Poupon, Cyril; Thirion, Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    Systems neuroscience has identified a set of canonical large-scale networks in humans. These have predominantly been characterized by resting-state analyses of the task-unconstrained, mind-wandering brain. Their explicit relationship to defined task performance is largely unknown and remains challenging. The present work contributes a multivariate statistical learning approach that can extract the major brain networks and quantify their configuration during various psychological tasks. The method is validated in two extensive datasets (n = 500 and n = 81) by model-based generation of synthetic activity maps from recombination of shared network topographies. To study a use case, we formally revisited the poorly understood difference between neural activity underlying idling versus goal-directed behavior. We demonstrate that task-specific neural activity patterns can be explained by plausible combinations of resting-state networks. The possibility of decomposing a mental task into the relative contributions of major brain networks, the "network co-occurrence architecture" of a given task, opens an alternative access to the neural substrates of human cognition. PMID:27310288

  1. Chemistry Resolved Kinetic Flow Modeling of TATB Based Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Vitello, P A; Fried, L E; Howard, W M; Levesque, G; Souers, P C

    2011-07-21

    Detonation waves in insensitive, TATB based explosives are believed to have multi-time scale regimes. The initial burn rate of such explosives has a sub-microsecond time scale. However, significant late-time slow release in energy is believed to occur due to diffusion limited growth of carbon. In the intermediate time scale concentrations of product species likely change from being in equilibrium to being kinetic rate controlled. They use the thermo-chemical code CHEETAH linked to an ALE hydrodynamics code to model detonations. They term their model chemistry resolved kinetic flow as CHEETAH tracks the time dependent concentrations of individual species in the detonation wave and calculates EOS values based on the concentrations. A HE-validation suite of model simulations compared to experiments at ambient, hot, and cold temperatures has been developed. They present here a new rate model and comparison with experimental data.

  2. A Structural, Kinetic Model of Soft Tissue Thermomechanics☆

    PubMed Central

    Stylianopoulos, Triantafyllos; Aksan, Alptekin; Barocas, Victor H.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract A structure-based kinetic model was developed to predict the thermomechanical response of collagenous soft tissues. The collagen fibril was represented as an ensemble of molecular arrays with cross-links connecting the collagen molecules within the same array. A two-state kinetic model for protein folding was employed to represent the native and the denatured states of the collagen molecule. The Monte Carlo method was used to determine the state of the collagen molecule when subjected to thermal and mechanical loads. The model predictions were compared to existing experimental data for New Zealand white rabbit patellar tendons. The model predictions for one-dimensional tissue shrinkage and the corresponding mechanical property degradation agreed well with the experimental data, showing that the gross tissue behavior is dictated by molecular-level phenomena. PMID:17890379

  3. Enhanced NLTE Atomic Kinetics Modeling Capabilities in HYDRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Mehul V.; Scott, Howard A.; Marinak, Michael M.

    2014-10-01

    In radiation hydrodynamics modeling of ICF targets, an NLTE treatment of atomic kinetics is necessary for modeling high-Z hohlraum wall materials, high-Z dopants mixed in the central gas hotspot, and is potentially needed for accurate modeling of outer layers of the capsule ablator. Over the past several years, the NLTE DCA atomic physics capabilities in the 3D ICF radiation hydrodynamics code HYDRA have been significantly enhanced. The underlying atomic models have been improved, additional kinetics options including the ability to run DCA in cells with dynamic mixing of species has been added, and the computational costs have been significantly reduced using OpenMP threading. To illustrate the improved capabilities, we will show higher fidelity results from simulations of ICF hohlraum energetics, laser irradiated sphere experiments, and ICF capsule implosions. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  4. Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Combustion of Automotive Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Silke, E J

    2006-11-10

    The objectives of this report are to: (1) Develop detailed chemical kinetic reaction models for components of fuels, including olefins and cycloalkanes used in diesel, spark-ignition and HCCI engines; (2) Develop surrogate mixtures of hydrocarbon components to represent real fuels and lead to efficient reduced combustion models; and (3) Characterize the role of fuel composition on production of emissions from practical automotive engines.

  5. A Social Partnership Model to Promote Educators' Development in Mauritius through Formal and Informal Capacity-Building Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santally, Mohammad Issack; Cooshna-Naik, Dorothy; Conruyt, Noel; Wing, Caroline Koa

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a social partnership model based on the living lab concept to promote the professional development of educators through formal and informal capacity-building initiatives. The aim is to have a broader impact on society through community outreach educational initiatives. A Living Lab is an environment for user-centered…

  6. Kinetic modelling of molecular hydrogen transport in microporous carbon materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Hankel, M.; Zhang, H.; Nguyen, T. X.; Bhatia, S. K.; Gray, S. K.; Smith, S. C.

    2011-01-01

    The proposal of kinetic molecular sieving of hydrogen isotopes is explored by employing statistical rate theory methods to describe the kinetics of molecular hydrogen transport in model microporous carbon structures. A Lennard-Jones atom-atom interaction potential is utilized for the description of the interactions between H{sub 2}/D{sub 2} and the carbon framework, while the requisite partition functions describing the thermal flux of molecules through the transition state are calculated quantum mechanically in view of the low temperatures involved in the proposed kinetic molecular sieving application. Predicted kinetic isotope effects for initial passage from the gas phase into the first pore mouth are consistent with expectations from previous modeling studies, namely, that at sufficiently low temperatures and for sufficiently narrow pore mouths D{sub 2} transport is dramatically favored over H{sub 2}. However, in contrast to expectations from previous modeling, the absence of any potential barrier along the minimum energy pathway from the gas phase into the first pore mouth yields a negative temperature dependence in the predicted absolute rate coefficients - implying a negative activation energy. In pursuit of the effective activation barrier, we find that the minimum potential in the cavity is significantly higher than in the pore mouth for nanotube-shaped models, throwing into question the common assumption that passage through the pore mouths should be the rate-determining step. Our results suggest a new mechanism that, depending on the size and shape of the cavity, the thermal activation barrier may lie in the cavity rather than at the pore mouth. As a consequence, design strategies for achieving quantum-mediated kinetic molecular sieving of H{sub 2}/D{sub 2} in a microporous membrane will need, at the very least, to take careful account of cavity shape and size in addition to pore-mouth size in order to ensure that the selective step, namely passage

  7. Nonlinear kinetic modeling of stimulated Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benisti, Didier

    2011-10-01

    Despite its importance for many applications, such as or Raman amplification or inertial confinement fusion, deriving a nonlinear estimate of Raman reflectivity in a plasma has remained quite a challenge for decades. This is mainly due to the nonlinear modification of the electron distribution function induced by the plasma wave (EPW), which, in turn, modifies the propagation of this wave. In this paper is derived an envelope equation for the EPW valid in 3D and which accounts for the nonlinear change of its collisionless (Landau-like) damping rate, group velocity, coupling to the electromagnetic drive, frequency and wave number. Our theoretical predictions for each of these terms are carefully compared against results from Vlasov simulations of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), as well as with other theories. Moreover, our envelope model shows to be as accurate as a Vlasov code in predicting Raman threshold in 1D. Making comparisons with experimental results nevertheless requires including transverse dimensions and letting Raman start from noise. To this end, we performed a completely new derivation of the electrostatic fluctuations in a plasma, which accounts nonlinear effects. Moreover, based on our Multi-D simulations of Raman scattering with our envelope code BRAMA, we discuss the effect on SRS of wave front bowing, transverse detrapping and of a completely new defocussing effect due to the local change in the direction of the EPW group velocity induced by the nonlinear decrease of Landau damping.

  8. Kinetic Model Development for Lignin Pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.; Robichaud, D.; Nimlos, M.

    2012-01-01

    Lignin pyrolysis poses a significant barrier to the formation of liquid fuel products from biomass. Lignin pyrolyzes at higher temperatures than other biomass components (e.g. cellulose and hemi-cellulose) and tends to form radicals species that lead to cross-linking and ultimately char formation. A first step in the advancement of biomass-to-fuel technology is to discover the underlying mechanisms that lead to the breakdown of lignin at lower temperatures into more stable and usable products. We have investigated the thermochemistry of the various inter-linkage units found in lignin (B-O4, a-O4, B-B, B-O5, etc) using electronic structure calculations at the M06-2x/6-311++G(d,p) on a series of dimer model compounds. In addition to bond homolysis reactions, a variety of concerted elimination pathways are under investigation that tend to produce closed-shell stable products. Such a bottom-up approach could aid in the targeted development of catalysts that produce more desirable products under less severe reactor conditions.

  9. Elementary solutions of coupled model equations in the kinetic theory of gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kriese, J. T.; Siewert, C. E.; Chang, T. S.

    1974-01-01

    The method of elementary solutions is employed to solve two coupled integrodifferential equations sufficient for determining temperature-density effects in a linearized BGK model in the kinetic theory of gases. Full-range completeness and orthogonality theorems are proved for the developed normal modes and the infinite-medium Green's function is constructed as an illustration of the full-range formalism. The appropriate homogeneous matrix Riemann problem is discussed, and half-range completeness and orthogonality theorems are proved for a certain subset of the normal modes. The required existence and uniqueness theorems relevant to the H matrix, basic to the half-range analysis, are proved, and an accurate and efficient computational method is discussed. The half-space temperature-slip problem is solved analytically, and a highly accurate value of the temperature-slip coefficient is reported.

  10. Kinetic model of the Buyers’ market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhykharsky, Alexander V.

    2013-09-01

    In this work the following results are received. The closed mathematical apparatus describing the process of interaction of the Buyers’ market with retail Shop is created. The “statistical analogy” between the vacuum electrostatic diode and the Buyers’ market co-operating with retail Shop is considered. On the basis of the spent analysis the closed mathematical apparatus describing process of interaction of the Buyers’ market with retail Shop is created. The analytical expressions connecting a stream of Buyers, come to Shop, and a stream of the gain of Shop, with parameters of the Buyers’ market are received. For check of adequacy of the received model it is solved of some real “market” problems. On the basis of the spent researches principles of construction of Information-analytical Systems of new type which provide direct measurements of parameters of the Buyers’ market are developed. Actually these Systems are devices for measurement of parameters of this market. In this work it is shown that by means of the device developed for measurement of parameters of the Buyers’ market, creation of a new science-“demandodynamics” the Buyers’ market, is possible. Here the term “demandodynamics the Buyers’ market” is accepted by analogy to the term “thermodynamics” in physics. (In this work it is shown that for the Buyers’ market concept “demand” is similar to concept “temperature” in physics.) The construction methodology “demandodynamics” the Buyers’ market is defined and is shown that within the limits of this science working out of a technique of a direct control by a condition of the Buyers’ market is possible.

  11. Kinetic models for historical processes of fast invasion and aggression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aristov, Vladimir V.; Ilyin, Oleg V.

    2015-04-01

    In the last few decades many investigations have been devoted to theoretical models in new areas concerning description of different biological, sociological, and historical processes. In the present paper we suggest a model of the Nazi Germany invasion of Poland, France, and the USSR based on kinetic theory. We simulate this process with the Cauchy boundary problem for two-element kinetic equations. The solution of the problem is given in the form of a traveling wave. The propagation velocity of a front line depends on the quotient between initial forces concentrations. Moreover it is obtained that the general solution of the model can be expressed in terms of quadratures and elementary functions. Finally it is shown that the front-line velocities agree with the historical data.

  12. A chemical kinetic modeling study of chlorinated hydrocarbon combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Pitz, W.J.; Westbrook, C.K.

    1990-09-05

    The combustion of chloroethane is modeled as a stirred reactor so that we can study critical emission characteristics of the reactor as a function of residence time. We examine important operating conditions such as pressure, temperature, and equivalence ratio and their influence on destructive efficiency of chloroethane. The model uses a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism that we have developed previously for C{sub 3} hydrocarbons. We have added to this mechanism the chemical kinetic mechanism for C{sub 2} chlorinated hydrocarbons developed by Senkan and coworkers. In the modeling calculations, sensitivity coefficients are determined to find which reaction-rate constants have the largest effect on destructive efficiency. 24 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Kinetic model of DNA replication in eukaryotic organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechhoefer, John; Herrick, John; Bensimon, Aaron

    2001-03-01

    We introduce an analogy between DNA replication in eukaryotic organisms and crystal growth in one dimension. Drawing on models of crystallization kinetics developed in the 1930s to describe the freezing of metals, we formulate a kinetic model of DNA replication that quantitatively describes recent results on DNA replication in the in vitro system of Xenopus laevis prior to the mid-blastula transition. It allows one, for the first time, to determine the parameters governing the DNA replication program in a eukaryote on a genome-wide basis. In particular, we have determined the frequency of origin activation in time and space during the cell cycle. Although we focus on a specific stage of development, this model can easily be adapted to describe replication in many other organisms, including budding yeast.

  14. Chemistry resolved kinetic flow modeling of TATB based explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitello, Peter; Fried, Laurence E.; William, Howard; Levesque, George; Souers, P. Clark

    2012-03-01

    Detonation waves in insensitive, TATB-based explosives are believed to have multiple time scale regimes. The initial burn rate of such explosives has a sub-microsecond time scale. However, significant late-time slow release in energy is believed to occur due to diffusion limited growth of carbon. In the intermediate time scale concentrations of product species likely change from being in equilibrium to being kinetic rate controlled. We use the thermo-chemical code CHEETAH linked to an ALE hydrodynamics code to model detonations. We term our model chemistry resolved kinetic flow, since CHEETAH tracks the time dependent concentrations of individual species in the detonation wave and calculates EOS values based on the concentrations. We present here two variants of our new rate model and comparison with hot, ambient, and cold experimental data for PBX 9502.

  15. Reproducing Phenomenology of Peroxidation Kinetics via Model Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruslanov, Anatole D.; Bashylau, Anton V.

    2010-06-01

    We studied mathematical modeling of lipid peroxidation using a biochemical model system of iron (II)-ascorbate-dependent lipid peroxidation of rat hepatocyte mitochondrial fractions. We found that antioxidants extracted from plants demonstrate a high intensity of peroxidation inhibition. We simplified the system of differential equations that describes the kinetics of the mathematical model to a first order equation, which can be solved analytically. Moreover, we endeavor to algorithmically and heuristically recreate the processes and construct an environment that closely resembles the corresponding natural system. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to theoretically predict both the kinetics of oxidation and the intensity of inhibition without resorting to analytical and biochemical research, which is important for cost-effective discovery and development of medical agents with antioxidant action from the medicinal plants.

  16. Kinetic modeling of Nernst effect in magnetized hohlraums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joglekar, A. S.; Ridgers, C. P.; Kingham, R. J.; Thomas, A. G. R.

    2016-04-01

    We present nanosecond time-scale Vlasov-Fokker-Planck-Maxwell modeling of magnetized plasma transport and dynamics in a hohlraum with an applied external magnetic field, under conditions similar to recent experiments. Self-consistent modeling of the kinetic electron momentum equation allows for a complete treatment of the heat flow equation and Ohm's law, including Nernst advection of magnetic fields. In addition to showing the prevalence of nonlocal behavior, we demonstrate that effects such as anomalous heat flow are induced by inverse bremsstrahlung heating. We show magnetic field amplification up to a factor of 3 from Nernst compression into the hohlraum wall. The magnetic field is also expelled towards the hohlraum axis due to Nernst advection faster than frozen-in flux would suggest. Nonlocality contributes to the heat flow towards the hohlraum axis and results in an augmented Nernst advection mechanism that is included self-consistently through kinetic modeling.

  17. Kinetic models for historical processes of fast invasion and aggression.

    PubMed

    Aristov, Vladimir V; Ilyin, Oleg V

    2015-04-01

    In the last few decades many investigations have been devoted to theoretical models in new areas concerning description of different biological, sociological, and historical processes. In the present paper we suggest a model of the Nazi Germany invasion of Poland, France, and the USSR based on kinetic theory. We simulate this process with the Cauchy boundary problem for two-element kinetic equations. The solution of the problem is given in the form of a traveling wave. The propagation velocity of a front line depends on the quotient between initial forces concentrations. Moreover it is obtained that the general solution of the model can be expressed in terms of quadratures and elementary functions. Finally it is shown that the front-line velocities agree with the historical data. PMID:25974546

  18. A kinetic-MHD model for low frequency phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, C.Z.

    1991-07-01

    A hybrid kinetic-MHD model for describing low-frequency phenomena in high beta anisotropic plasmas that consist of two components: a low energy core component and an energetic component with low density. The kinetic-MHD model treats the low energy core component by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) description, the energetic component by kinetic approach such as the gyrokinetic equation, and the coupling between the dynamics of these two components through plasma pressure in the momentum equation. The kinetic-MHD model optimizes both the physics contents and the theoretical efforts in studying low frequency MHD waves and transport phenomena in general magnetic field geometries, and can be easily modified to include the core plasma kinetic effects if necessary. It is applicable to any magnetized collisionless plasma system where the parallel electric field effects are negligibly small. In the linearized limit two coupled eigenmode equations for describing the coupling between the transverse Alfven type and the compressional Alfven type waves are derived. The eigenmode equations are identical to those derived from the full gyrokinetic equation in the low frequency limit and were previously analyzed both analytically nd numerically to obtain the eigenmode structure of the drift mirror instability which explains successfully the multi-satellite observation of antisymmetric field-aligned structure of the compressional magnetic field of Pc 5 waves in the magnetospheric ring current plasma. Finally, a quadratic form is derived to demonstrate the stability of the low-frequency transverse and compressional Alfven type instabilities in terms of the pressure anisotropy parameter {tau} and the magnetic field curvature-pressure gradient parameter. A procedure for determining the stability of a marginally stable MHD wave due to wave-particle resonances is also presented.

  19. Kinetic modelling of laccase mediated delignification of Lantana camara.

    PubMed

    Gujjala, Lohit K S; Bandyopadhyay, Tapas K; Banerjee, Rintu

    2016-07-01

    Enzymatic delignification is seen as a green step in biofuels production owing to its specificity towards lignin and its proper understanding requires a kinetic study to decipher intricate details of the process such as thermodynamic parameters viz., activation energy, entropy change and enthalpy change. A system of two coupled kinetic models has been constructed to model laccase mediated delignification of Lantana camara. From the simulated output, activation energy was predicted to be 45.56 and 56.06 kJ/mol, entropy change was observed to be 1.08 × 10(2) and 1.05 × 10(2)cal/mol-K and enthalpy change was determined to be 3.33 × 10(4) and 3.20 × 10(4)cal/mol, respectively from Tessier's and Michaelis Menten model. While comparing the prediction efficiency, it was noticed that Tessier's model gave better performance. Sensitivity analysis was also conducted and it was observed that the model was most sensitive towards temperature dependent kinetic constants. PMID:27082268

  20. Kinetic Modeling of Oxidative Coagulation for Arsenic Removal

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jin-Wook; Kramer, Timothy A.

    2004-03-31

    A model of oxidative coagulation consisting of Fenton's reagent (Fe(II)/H2O2 at pH 7.0) was established. The optimum condition was found when the mole ratio of As(III):H2O2:Fe(II)=1:15:20. In this optimum condition, all of Fe(II) was converted to HFO (am-Fe(OH)3) and precipitated to be used as the oxidized arsenic(V) adsorbent and particle coagulant. Two sorption models consisting of a surface complexation model and a kinetic model were developed and coupled. Using the coupled sorption model, the kinetics of HFO surface charge/potential during As(V) sorption was calculated. Further, during arsenic sorption, the colloid stability kinetics resulting from the perikinetic coagulation mechanism was calculated by considering interparticle forces. Colloid surface potential was decreased from 60 mv to 12 mv in proportion to the amount of arsenic adsorbed onto HFO and this surface potential directly affected the colloid stability (collision efficiency).

  1. A review of the kinetic statistical strength model

    SciTech Connect

    Attia, A.V.

    1996-03-11

    This is a review of the Kinetic-Statistical Strength (KSS) model described in the report ``Models of Material Strength, Fracture and Failure`` by V. Kuropatenko and V. Bychenkov. The models for metals subjected to high strain rates (explosions) are focussed on. Model implementation appears possible in a hydrocode. Applying the model to the shock response of metals will require a data source for the Weibull parameter {alpha}{sub u}, short of measuing the strength of specimens of various sizes. Model validation will require more detail on the experiments successfully calculated by SPRUT. Evaluation of the KSS model is needed against other existing rate-dependent models for metals such as the Steinberg-Lund or MTS model on other shock experiments.

  2. Progress in Chemical Kinetic Modeling for Surrogate Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Herbinet, O; Silke, E J

    2008-06-06

    Gasoline, diesel, and other alternative transportation fuels contain hundreds to thousands of compounds. It is currently not possible to represent all these compounds in detailed chemical kinetic models. Instead, these fuels are represented by surrogate fuel models which contain a limited number of representative compounds. We have been extending the list of compounds for detailed chemical models that are available for use in fuel surrogate models. Detailed models for components with larger and more complicated fuel molecular structures are now available. These advancements are allowing a more accurate representation of practical and alternative fuels. We have developed detailed chemical kinetic models for fuels with higher molecular weight fuel molecules such as n-hexadecane (C16). Also, we can consider more complicated fuel molecular structures like cyclic alkanes and aromatics that are found in practical fuels. For alternative fuels, the capability to model large biodiesel fuels that have ester structures is becoming available. These newly addressed cyclic and ester structures in fuels profoundly affect the reaction rate of the fuel predicted by the model. Finally, these surrogate fuel models contain large numbers of species and reactions and must be reduced for use in multi-dimensional models for spark-ignition, HCCI and diesel engines.

  3. Calculating and Understanding: Formal Models and Causal Explanations in Science, Common Reasoning and Physics Teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besson, Ugo

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the different types of reasoning and physical explanation used in science, common thought, and physics teaching. It then reflects on the learning difficulties connected with these various approaches, and suggests some possible didactic strategies. Although causal reasoning occurs very frequently in common thought and daily life, it has long been the subject of debate and criticism among philosophers and scientists. In this paper, I begin by providing a description of some general tendencies of common reasoning that have been identified by didactic research. Thereafter, I briefly discuss the role of causality in science, as well as some different types of explanation employed in the field of physics. I then present some results of a study examining the causal reasoning used by students in solid and fluid mechanics. The differences found between the types of reasoning typical of common thought and those usually proposed during instruction can create learning difficulties and impede student motivation. Many students do not seem satisfied by the mere application of formal laws and functional relations. Instead, they express the need for a causal explanation, a mechanism that allows them to understand how a state of affairs has come about. I discuss few didactic strategies aimed at overcoming these problems, and describe, in general terms, two examples of mechanics teaching sequences which were developed and tested in different contexts. The paper ends with a reflection on the possible role to be played in physics learning by intuitive and imaginative thought, and the use of simple explanatory models based on physical analogies and causal mechanisms.

  4. Kinetic models of gene expression including non-coding RNAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, Vladimir P.

    2011-03-01

    In cells, genes are transcribed into mRNAs, and the latter are translated into proteins. Due to the feedbacks between these processes, the kinetics of gene expression may be complex even in the simplest genetic networks. The corresponding models have already been reviewed in the literature. A new avenue in this field is related to the recognition that the conventional scenario of gene expression is fully applicable only to prokaryotes whose genomes consist of tightly packed protein-coding sequences. In eukaryotic cells, in contrast, such sequences are relatively rare, and the rest of the genome includes numerous transcript units representing non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). During the past decade, it has become clear that such RNAs play a crucial role in gene expression and accordingly influence a multitude of cellular processes both in the normal state and during diseases. The numerous biological functions of ncRNAs are based primarily on their abilities to silence genes via pairing with a target mRNA and subsequently preventing its translation or facilitating degradation of the mRNA-ncRNA complex. Many other abilities of ncRNAs have been discovered as well. Our review is focused on the available kinetic models describing the mRNA, ncRNA and protein interplay. In particular, we systematically present the simplest models without kinetic feedbacks, models containing feedbacks and predicting bistability and oscillations in simple genetic networks, and models describing the effect of ncRNAs on complex genetic networks. Mathematically, the presentation is based primarily on temporal mean-field kinetic equations. The stochastic and spatio-temporal effects are also briefly discussed.

  5. Development of Detailed Kinetic Models for Fischer-Tropsch Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, C K; Pitz, W J; Carstensen, H; Dean, A M

    2008-10-28

    Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuels can be synthesized from a syngas stream generated by the gasification of biomass. As such they have the potential to be a renewable hydrocarbon fuel with many desirable properties. However, both the chemical and physical properties are somewhat different from the petroleum-based hydrocarbons that they might replace, and it is important to account for such differences when considering using them as replacements for conventional fuels in devices such as diesel engines and gas turbines. FT fuels generally contain iso-alkanes with one or two substituted methyl groups to meet the pour-point specifications. Although models have been developed for smaller branched alkanes such as isooctane, additional efforts are required to properly capture the kinetics of the larger branched alkanes. Recently, Westbrook et al. developed a chemical kinetic model that can be used to represent the entire series of n-alkanes from C{sub 1} to C{sub 16} (Figure 1). In the current work, the model is extended to treat 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane (HMN), a large iso-alkane. The same reaction rate rules used in the iso-octane mechanism were incorporated in the HMN mechanism. Both high and low temperature chemistry was included so that the chemical kinetic model would be applicable to advanced internal combustion engines using low temperature combustion strategies. The chemical kinetic model consists of 1114 species and 4468 reactions. Concurrently with this effort, work is underway to improve the details of specific reaction classes in the mechanism, guided by high-level electronic structure calculations. Attention is focused upon development of accurate rate rules for abstraction of the tertiary hydrogens present in branched alkanes and properly accounting for the pressure dependence of the ?-scission, isomerization, and R + O{sub 2} reactions.

  6. Polar Coordinate Lattice Boltzmann Kinetic Modeling of Detonation Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chuan-Dong; Xu, Ai-Guo; Zhang, Guang-Cai; Li, Ying-Jun

    2014-11-01

    A novel polar coordinate lattice Boltzmann kinetic model for detonation phenomena is presented and applied to investigate typical implosion and explosion processes. In this model, the change of discrete distribution function due to local chemical reaction is dynamically coupled into the modified lattice Boltzmann equation which could recover the Navier—Stokes equations, including contribution of chemical reaction, via the Chapman—Enskog expansion. For the numerical investigations, the main focuses are the nonequilibrium behaviors in these processes. The system at the disc center is always in its thermodynamic equilibrium in the highly symmetric case. The internal kinetic energies in different degrees of freedom around the detonation front do not coincide. The dependence of the reaction rate on the pressure, influences of the shock strength and reaction rate on the departure amplitude of the system from its local thermodynamic equilibrium are probed.

  7. Kinetic model of metabolic network for xiamenmycin biosynthetic optimisation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Min-juan; Chen, Yong-cong; Xu, Jun; Ao, Ping; Zhu, Xiao-mei

    2016-02-01

    Xiamenmycins, a series of prenylated benzopyran compounds with anti-fibrotic bioactivities, were isolated from a mangrove-derived Streptomyces xiamenensis. To fulfil the requirements of pharmaceutical investigations, a high production of xiamenmycin is needed. In this study, the authors present a kinetic metabolic model to evaluate fluxes in an engineered Streptomyces lividans with xiamenmycin-oriented genetic modification based on generic enzymatic rate equations and stability constraints. Lyapunov function was used for a viability optimisation. From their kinetic model, the flux distributions for the engineered S. lividans fed on glucose and glycerol as carbon sources were calculated. They found that if the bacterium can utilise glucose simultaneously with glycerol, xiamenmycin production can be enhanced by 40% theoretically, while maintaining the same growth rate. Glycerol may increase the flux for phosphoenolpyruvate synthesis without interfering citric acid cycle. They therefore believe this study demonstrates a possible new direction for bioengineering of S. lividans. PMID:26816395

  8. Urban multitarget tracking via gas-kinetic dynamics models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahler, Ronald

    2013-05-01

    Multitarget tracking in urban environments presents a major theoretical and practical challenge. A recently suggested approach is that of modeling traffic dynamics using the fluid-kinetic methods of traffic-flow theory (TFT). I propose use of the newer, more general, gas-kinetic (GK) approach to TFT. In GK, traffic flow is modeled as a one- or two-dimensional constrained gas. The paper demonstrates the following. (1) The foundational concept in GK--the "phase-space density"--is the same thing as the probability hypothesis density (PHD) of multitarget tracking theory. (2) The theoretically best-that-one-can do approach to TFT-based tracking is a PHD filter. (3) Better performance can be obtained by augmenting this PHD filter as a cardinalized PHD (CPHD) filter. A simple example is presented to illustrate how PHD/CPHD filters can be integrated with conventional macroscopic, mesoscopic, and microscopic TFT.

  9. Kinetic modelling of pressure filtration of ceramic powder suspensions

    SciTech Connect

    Correia, L.A.; Salomoni, A.; Hey, A.W.

    1995-09-01

    A kinetic model developed for radial pressure filtration is described and used to study the casting behaviour of an Alumina (Al6SG) and a Zirconia (TZ3Ys) slip stabilized with Dolapix CE64. For the Zirconia slip no influence of pressure and curvature is found. The casting behaviour of the Alumina slip seems to be influenced by both the pressure and the curvature of the filtrating surface.

  10. Kinetic models for socio-economic dynamics of speculative markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldarella, Dario; Pareschi, Lorenzo

    2012-02-01

    In this paper we introduce a simple model for a financial market characterized by a single stock or good and an interplay between two different trader populations, chartists and fundamentalists, which determine the price dynamics of the stock. The model has been inspired by the microscopic Lux-Marchesi model (Lux and Marchesi (2000, 1999) [3,25]). The introduction of kinetic equations permits to study the asymptotic behavior of the investments and the price distributions and to characterize the regimes of lognormal behavior and the formation of power law tails.